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Sample records for beetle dendroctonus valens

  1. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

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    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  2. Monoterpene Variation Mediated Attack Preference Evolution of the Bark Beetle Dendroctonus valens

    OpenAIRE

    Zhudong Liu; Bo Wang; Bingbing Xu; Jianghua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in t...

  3. Effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of red turpentine beetle larvae, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang-Hong Shi; Bo Wang; Stephen R.Clarke; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2012-01-01

    Dendroctonus-fungus symbioses are often considered as the ideal model systems to study the development and maintenance ofectosymbioses,and diverse interactions,including antagonism,commensalism and mutualism,have been documented between these organisms.The red turpentine beetle,Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera:Curculionidae:Scolytinae) is a pine-killing invasive beetle in northern China.Fungi species Ophiostoma minus,Leptographium sinoprocerum,L.terebrantis and L.procerum were associated with this bark beetle.Antagonistic interactions between D.valens and its associated fungi,such as O.minus and L.sinoprocerum,have been demonstrated,but the underlying causes of this phenomenon are unknown.Here,we first found the two tested fungi species retarded the net weight gain of D.valens larvae after completing 3-day feeding on their media.Furthermore,we provide direct evidence indicating the effect of associated fungi on the immunocompetence of D.valens larvae to explain the documented antagonism.Our results showed that the activity of phenoloxidase and total phenoloxidase in D.valens larvae were significantly upregulated by two strains of associated fungi,O.minus and L.sinoprocerum as compared with the controls.The phenoloxidase ratio increased significantly in the larvae which had fed for 3 days on media inoculated with O.minus.Because insect immune defenses are costly to be deployed,these results could be explored as one of the underlying mechanisms of the documented antagonism.

  4. Colonization patterns of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the Luliang Mountains, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhudong Liu; Longwa Zhang; Zhanghong Shi; Bo Wang; Wan Qiang Tao; Jiang-hua Sun

    2008-01-01

    The alien red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is one of the most economically destructive forest pests in China, having killed more than 6 million pines in recent years. There is a need to understand the basic biology and ecology of the beetle in order to develop an effective monitoring and management strategy. In this study, the effects of hillside exposure (south- and north-facing), host-tree locations according to relief (valley, mid-slope, and ridge-top) and tree diameters on RTB colonization were investigated in one valley (3 sites). The results showed that (i) RTB clearly preferred colonizing pines growing on south-facing hillsides, especially in the valley; (ii) RTB preferred to colonize the pines growing at the valley rather than pines growing at mid-slope or on ridge-top; (iii) RTB preferred to colonize trees with large diameter over small and medium-sized pines; (iv) the attack density of RTBs (measured by pitch tubes/pine) was obviously higher on larger trees standing in the valley than other trees standing at other places. We conclude from RTB colonization patterns, that RTB prefers to attack large trees in the valley, which may be useful in developing a pest-management strategy.

  5. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Bingbing; Sun, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

  6. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhudong Liu

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

  7. Genetic diversity and biogeography of red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens in its native and invasive regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wen Cai; Xin-Yue Cheng; Ru-Mei Xu; Dong-Hong Duan; Lawrence R. Kirkendall

    2008-01-01

    Sequences of 479 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene were applied to detect population genetic diversity and structure of Dendroctonus valens populations. By comparing the genetic diversity between native and invasive populations, it was shown that the genetic diversity of Chinese populations was obviously lower than that of native populations with both indices of haplotype diversity and Nei's genetic diversity, suggesting genetic bottleneck occurred in the invasive process of D. valens, and was then followed by a relatively quick population buildup. According to phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes, we suggested that the origin of the Chinese population was from California, USA. Phylogenetic and network analysis of native populations of D. valens revealed strong genetic structure at two distinct spatial and temporal scales in North America. The main cause resulting in current biogeographic pattern was supposedly due to recycled glacial events. Meanwhile, a cryptic species might exist in the Mexican and Guatemalan populations.

  8. Gut-Associated Bacteria of Dendroctonus valens and their Involvement in Verbenone Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Letian; Lou, Qiaozhe; Cheng, Chihang; Lu, Min; Sun, Jianghua

    2015-11-01

    Bark beetles are the most important mortality agent in coniferous forests, and pheromones play important roles in their management. Dendroctonus valens LeConte was introduced from North America to China and has killed millions of healthy pines there. Trapping with semiochemicals and pheromones was deployed in D. valens management in the last decade, but little is known about the ability of gut bacteria to produce the pheromone. In this study, we analyzed the volatiles in D. valens guts and frass after antibiotic treatment versus control. Then, we isolated and identified the bacteria in D. valens guts and frass, examined verbenone (a multifunctional pheromone of D. valens) production by 16 gut bacterial isolates from the precursor cis-verbenol at three concentrations, and further compared the cytotoxicities between the cis-verbenol and verbenone to the bacterial isolates. cis-Verbenol was not detected in the frass in the control group, but it was in the antibiotic treatment. The amount of verbenone was significantly suppressed in D. valens guts after antibiotic treatment versus control. Thirteen out of 16 gut bacterial isolates were capable of cis-verbenol to verbenone conversion, and cis-verbenol had stronger cytotoxicities than verbenone to all tested gut bacterial isolates. The bacterial species capable of verbenone production largely exists in D. valens guts and frass, suggesting that gut-associated bacteria may help the bark beetle produce the pheromone verbenone in guts and frass. The bacteria may benefit from the conversion due to the reduced cytotoxicity from the precursor to the beetle pheromone.

  9. Sound-Triggered Production of Antiaggregation Pheromone Limits Overcrowding of Dendroctonus valens Attacking Pine Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Xin, Yucui; Xu, Bingbing; Raffa, Kenneth F; Sun, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees. We found that exo-brevicomin was produced by both female and male D. valens, and that this pheromone functioned as an antiaggregating signal. Moreover, beetles feeding in pairs or in masses were more likely than were beetles feeding alone to produce exo-brevicomin, suggesting a potential role of sound by neighboring beetles in stimulating exo-brevicomin production. Sound playback showed that an agreement sound was produced by both sexes when exposed to the aggregation pheromone frontalin and attracts males, and an aggressive sound was produced only by males behaving territorially. These signals triggered the release of exo-brevicomin by both females and males, indicating an interplay of chemical and sonic communication. This study demonstrates that the bark beetle D. valens uses sounds to regulate the production of an antiaggregation pheromone, which may provide new approaches to pest management of this invasive species.

  10. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

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    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  11. 一种红脂大小蠹天敌切头郭公虫Clerus sp.生物学初探%Biological study of the decapitator checkered beetle Clerus sp.,a natural enemy of the invasive bark beetle Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海河; 董刚毅; 徐冰冰; 刘柱东

    2013-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte,native to North America,is one of the most destructive invasive forest pests in China,having killed more than 6 million pine trees since its first outbreak in 1999.Most research has focused on the chemical communication of this species and relatively little is known about its natural enemies.In this paper we investigate the potential of using the decapitator checkered beetle (Clerus spp.) to control the red turpentine beetle.Field trapping showed that Clerus sp.is attracted to a lure (3-carene) extracted from D.valens and that some D.valens bark beetles were decapitated.Moreover,decapitator beetles took flight out about one week after the flight of D.valens and its numbers were correlated with those of D.valens.Laboratory experiments showed that decapitator beetles weigh about 15.5 mg on average and that its predatory capability was significantly correlated with its body weight.Decapitators survived,on average,38 d and the longest-lived survived 53 d,and could prey on an average of three D.valens adults per 10 days (range 1 to 8 individuals).Olfactory assays showed that decapitator beetles were attracted to a lure for D.valens and that the D.valens aggregation pheromone frontalin did not increase the attractiveness of the lure.These results show the potential of using Clerus sp.to biologically control the invasive bark beetle D.valens in China.%红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte,原产于北美,于20世纪80年代随木材贸易传入我国山西,是一种危害油松、白皮松、华山松等松科植物的毁灭性入侵害虫.本文对红脂大小蠹天敌切头郭公甲虫Clerus sp.的基本生物学特征进行了初步探讨.野外诱捕发现,红脂大小蠹诱剂3-蒈烯能诱捕到切头郭公甲虫Clerus sp.,并观察到此郭公甲虫紧抱红脂大小蠹的捕食行为及红脂大小蠹头部被切下的残骸.诱捕动态监测表明切头郭公甲虫与红脂大小蠹的发生在时间和

  12. Pest risk analysis of red turpentine beetle(Dendroctonus valens)%森林有害生物红脂大小蠹的危险性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玉双; 杨安龙; 何嫩江

    2000-01-01

    该文参照国际上有害生物危险性分析(Pest Risk Analysis,简写PRA)方法,从有害生物的国内分布状况、潜在的危害性、寄主植物的经济重要性、传播扩散的可能性以及危险性的管理难度等几个方面进行定性和定量分析,对红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens的危险性做出综合评价.评价结果表明红脂大小蠹在我国属于高度危险的森林有害生物.

  13. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X

    2015-08-01

    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  14. Yeast diversity associated with invasive Dendroctonus valens killing Pinus tabuliformis in China using culturing and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiao-Zhe; Lu, Min; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Bark beetle-associated yeasts are much less studied than filamentous fungi, yet they are also considered to play important roles in beetle nutrition, detoxification, and chemical communication. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, an invasive bark beetle introduced from North America, became one of the most destructive pests in China, having killed more than 10 million Pinus tabuliformis as well as other pine species. No investigation of yeasts associated with this bark beetle in its invaded ranges has been conducted so far. The aim of this study was to assess the diversity of yeast communities in different microhabitats and during different developmental stages of Den. valens in China using culturing and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches and to compare the yeast flora between China and the USA. The yeast identity was confirmed by sequencing the D1/D2 domain of LSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA). In total, 21 species (13 ascomycetes and eight basidiomycetes) were detected by culturing method, and 12 species (11 ascomycetes and one basidiomycetes) were detected by molecular methods from China. The most frequent five species in China were Candida piceae (Ogataea clade), Cyberlindnera americana, Candida oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade), Candida nitratophila (Ogataea clade) and an undescribed Saccharomycopsis sp., detected by both methods. Seven species were exclusively detected by DGGE. Ca. oregonensis (Metschnikowia clade) was the most frequently detected species by DGGE method. Eight species (all were ascomycetes) from the USA were isolated; seven of those were also found in China. We found significant differences in yeast total abundance as well as community composition between different developmental stages and significant differences between the surface and the gut. The frass yeast community was more similar to that of Den. valens surface or larvae than to the community of the gut or adults. Possible functions of the yeast associates are

  15. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  16. Differentiation of CO Ⅰ gene of the exotic red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens%外来入侵种红脂大小蠹COⅠ基因分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚剑; 温劲松; 张龙娃; 李云飞; 陈雪娇; 余晓峰

    2010-01-01

    红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte为近年来危害最为严重的外来入侵生物.本研究利用特异引物扩增出红脂大小蠹CO Ⅰ基因序列(GenBank登录号:GQ495096-GQ495128),在160个位点中发现3个该种与大小蠹属其他种不同的特异位点;比较不同地理种群的红脂大小蠹,发现中国种群间遗传分化不明显,说明入侵种的瓶颈效应,而遗传变异是入侵种与环境长期互作的结果;基于CO Ⅰ基因序列比对的研究发现,入侵中国的红脂大小蠹与该虫原发生地北美洲部分种群具有同源性.

  17. 拟双角斯氏线虫侵染红脂大小蠹幼虫的研究%INFECTIVITY OF ENTOMOPATHGENIC NEMATODE STEINERNEMA CERATOPHORUM TO BARK BEETLE DENDROCTONUS VALENS LARVAE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简恒; 杨秀芬; 刘峥; 杨怀文; 苗振旺

    2002-01-01

    @@ 红脂大小蠹又名强大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte) 主要危害30a以上或胸径10cm以上的健康油松.成虫一般在树干基部至1m左右处入侵,入侵后先向上蛀食一段韧皮部,然后向下取食,危害可达根部40cm.每头雌成虫可产卵110余粒,幼虫孵化后继续蛀食韧皮部,形成共同虫道.虫道环树干一周切断形成层,造成树木死亡.该虫具有繁殖快、成灾快、传播快、致死快的"四快"特点,其危害严重性不亚于松材线虫.

  18. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects.

  19. Pest risk assessment of Dendroctonus valens, Hyphantria cunea and Apriona swainsoni in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haijun; LUO Youqing; WEN Junbao; ZHANG Zhiming; FENG Jihua; TAO Wanqiang

    2006-01-01

    According to the international methods of pest risk analysis and urban forestry characteristics in Beijing,a quantitative risk assessment system in Beijing for three primary non-indigenous pests was proposed.This system was used to analyze three major non-indigenous species,Dendroctonus valens,Hyphantria cunea,and Apriona swainsoni.The results show that the risks of these three pests in the Beijing area were 2.46,2.30,and 2.02,which were all highly risky.Based on the result and extensive risk communications,combined with the management experience of the Beijing Forest Protection Station,the authors proposed some effective control measures to prevent the invasion of the three pests into Beijing.

  20. The cold-hardiness of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) and Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera, Rhizophagidae)%红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens(Coleoptera,Scolytidae)和大唼蜡甲 Rhizophagus grandis(Coleoptera,Rhizophagidae)的耐寒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建兴; 杨忠岐; Jean-Claude Gregoire

    2009-01-01

    Dendroctonus valens LeConte(Red turpentine beetle,RTB) was recently found in outbreak in China.Its elder instars and mature larvae mainly over-winter under the roots of the pine stumps and standing trees in China.The cold tolerant capabilities of the pest was estimated in the laboratory by SU-per-cooling points (SCP) and short-term lower lethal temperatures (LLT).The results show that the lowest mean super-cooling point of the RTB over-wintering larvae is-11.98 ± 2.55℃ and it is a species of tolerant-freezing insect.The SCP of RTB is significantly different between different geographical populations,the elder stage larvae have lower cold-hardiness than younger ones,but no significantly different between the larvae in early winter and later winter.The RTB larvae could spend its life in winter below the atmospheric temperie temperature which being lower more than-23.5℃ at least.In contrast,Rhizophagus grandis Gyll.,as a predator of Dendroctonus micans,was introduced to China against RTB since 2001.The mean SCP of Rhizophagus grandis larva is-l8.05 ±2.76℃ which being lower temperature more than ones of any stage of RTB.%红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Red turpentine beetle,RTB)是近年来在中国爆发的入侵生物,在我国主要以老熟幼虫在油松伐桩和立木的根部越冬.室内测定昆虫的过冷却点(SCP)和短时间致死低温(LLT)是评价昆虫耐寒能力的重要方法.实验结果显示,红脂大小蠹越冬幼虫的平均过冷却点为一11.98±2.55℃,是一种耐冰冻的昆虫.红脂大小蠹的过冷却点在不同地理分布区的种群问有明显差异,老熟幼虫的过冷却点明显低于低龄幼虫,在越冬前和越冬后的幼虫问没有明显差异.红脂大小蠹幼虫在冬季至少町以忍受-23.5℃的大气温度安全越冬.从2001年开始引入我国的云杉大小蠹的捕食者大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis cyll.)幼虫的过冷却点为-18.05±2.76℃,低于红脂大小蠹所有虫态

  1. Bark Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Ryan S.; McAvoy, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are one of the most destructive forest pests in the world. They are different than the larger longhorned and roundheaded/metallic woodboring beetles commonly infesting the inner wood of trees. The largest bark beetle, the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens), reaches only 8.3 mm in length. Because of their tiny size, bark beetles are not effective tree killers as individuals.

  2. Trapping effect and sex pheromone prescription of Dendroctonus valens, Leconte%红脂大小蠹信息素配方研究及诱杀效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉永; 吴国礼; 刘伟国; 苗振旺

    2003-01-01

    2002年5月、6月,在关帝林区西葫芦林场、三道川林场分别进行了红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens,Leconte)信息素配方、诱杀时间及诱杀效果试验.结果表明:5月中旬到6月中旬为最佳诱杀时期;使用β-蒎烯:α-蒎烯:3-蒈烯为1:1:1配方的信息素进行大面积诱杀,林木被害率下降64.4%,平均侵入孔数下降59.2%;红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens,Leconte)信息素成份以β-蒎烯:α-蒎烯:3-蒈烯为1:1:3或全部是3-蒈烯的两种配方为最佳配方;使用信息素诱杀红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens,Leconte)平均每667 m2投资5.5元,省工省时防效好,可大面积推广应用.

  3. 红脂大小蠹后肠挥发性物质的鉴定、触角电位和室内趋向实验%Identification and electroantennal olfactory and behavioral tests of hindgut-produced volatiles of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte( Coleoptera:Scolytidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 方宇凌; 孙江华; 张钟宁

    2004-01-01

    对外来松树害虫红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte的信息化学物质进行了研究.通过GC-MS测定,鉴定出红脂大小蠹后肠挥发性物质中,除了含有松树挥发性物质α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯、3-蒈烯、月桂烯和柠檬烯外,还含有马鞭草烯醇和马鞭草烯酮;利用触角电位技术,对马鞭草烯醇、马鞭草烯酮以及在林间引诱效果最好的3-(+)-蒈烯进行了触角电生理测试;利用Y-型双向选择嗅觉仪对这些物质进行了室内趋向实验.实验结果表明:1 μg的马鞭草烯醇、马鞭草烯酮和3-(+)-蒈烯引起雌雄触角的电位反应分别达416 μV/470 μV、597 μV/630 μV和926 μV/1 099 μV.浓度为1 μL/mL的马鞭草烯酮引起红脂大小蠢的正趋向反应,而在100 μL/mL浓度下引起红脂大小蠹的负趋向反应;在1 μL/mL的浓度下,3-(+)-蒈烯引起了红脂大小蠹正趋向反应,而马鞭草烯醇则对红脂大小蠹具有驱避作用,说明这些物质在红脂大小蠹搜寻寄主和调节虫口密度方面起着重要作用.

  4. 红脂大小蠹发生规律研究%Occurrence Regularity of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宝山; 刘随存; 赵小梅; 孙永明; 马峰; 徐庭祥

    2001-01-01

    红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens)1998年7月在山西省阳城县阳陵林场首次发现,为害并可致死健康油松、华山松,是国内新纪录种.该虫在晋城地区一年发生2代,以成虫、蛹、幼虫在树干基部和主、侧根皮层的取食坑道内越冬.成虫3月中旬开始活动,4月下旬开始侵入寄主,5月上中旬为越冬代成虫扬飞、侵入和产卵盛期,8月中下旬为第一代成虫扬飞、侵入和产卵盛期,10月下旬第二代成虫开始羽化.在温度、湿度和寄主等因子的共同影响下,其发育不太整齐,有世代重叠现象.

  5. 我国红脂大小蠹生物学与防治研究概况%Progresses on Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 陈安良; 郝双红; 张兴

    2004-01-01

    红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens)是近年严重危害我国北方油松林的森林害虫.本文总结了5 a来我国红脂大小蠹的生物学和防治方法研究进展,建议在防治红脂大小蠹时,应加强检疫工作,防止扩散,加强天敌利用工作,大力发展信息素防治法,同时积极研究新的化学防治方法.

  6. 红脂大小蠹诱捕效果影响因素分析%Influencing Factors of the Effect of Trapping Dendroctonus valens LeConte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭保平

    2012-01-01

    The influencing factors of trapping Dendroctonus valens LeConte have been analyzed by use of placing the traps in different positions in Pinus koraiensis pure forest. The results showed that with increase in distance from the forest edge, the trapping effect became worse. For inside forest, outside forest and forest edge, the trapping effect in forest edge was the best. With the inetreasing of canopy density, the trapping quantity decreased. The traps should be placed in forest edge or the place with small canopy density for controlling Dendroctonus valens LeConte by use of traps.%采用在红松纯林不同位置放置诱捕器的方法,分析了影响红脂大小蠹诱捕的因素。结果表明:距林缘距离越大,诱捕效果越差;对于林内、林外和林缘来说,林缘诱捕效果最好;随着郁闭度的增大,诱捕数量减少。因此,在用诱捕器防治红脂大小蠹时,应将诱捕器放置在林缘或者郁闭度较小的地方。

  7. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  8. 红脂大小蠹发生危害及其防治%Occurrence and control of Dendroctonus valens LeConte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光生; 王俊华; 韩惠娟; 王建平

    2003-01-01

    @@ 红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens Leconte),属鞘翅目,小蠹科,大小蠹属,是油松林毁灭性害虫之一.1998年山西省暴发危害,受灾面积约200万hm2,吕梁地区受害面积11万hm2.为了科学、有效地防治此虫保护森林,于2000~2002年在交城县会立乡关帝山林区定点对此虫生物学特性,及其与物候关系进行了调查研究.

  9. The experimentation of pharmic prevention and cure on Dendroctonus valens%红脂大小蠹药物防治试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙启洋; 姚印随; 吕松江; 张文清

    2005-01-01

    本文采用塑料布密闭熏杀、毒签插孔和虫孔注药三种方法分别对红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens Leconte新侵入活立木和伐桩进行了防治试验.结果表明,每株投放3~5片磷化铝进行密闭熏杀、新侵入活立木和伐桩进行毒签插孔、甲胺磷10倍液进行虫孔注药防治,杀虫效果均较理想;毒签插孔、虫孔注药防治费用明显低于塑料布密闭熏杀.

  10. 陕西红脂大小蠹天敌种类调查%The investigation of natural enemies of Dendroctonus valens in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培新; 贺虹; 李健康; 邢建宏; 李孟楼

    2007-01-01

    对陕西红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte危害区的天敌种类调查表明,寄生于红脂大小蠹的病原真菌共有5种,其中幼虫期有头孢霉Cephalosporium sp.、球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana和拟卵孢霉Ovulariopsis sp.,成虫期有球孢白僵菌Beauveria bassiana、枝顶孢霉Acremonium sp.、头孢霉Cephalosporium sp.、木霉Trichoderma sp.4种,其中以球孢白僵菌和枝顶孢霉Acremonium sp.的致病能力最为显著.捕食性天敌昆虫主要有西岳蛇蛉Agulla xiyue Yang et Chou、日本弓背蚁Camponotus japionicus Mayr、中华红林蚁Formica sinensis Wheeler、蚁形郭公甲Thanasimus formicarius(L.)及纤细阎甲Platysoma attenuata(LeConte),它们对红脂大小蠹均有较明显的控制作用.寄生性天敌主要有1种寄生蝇和1种茧蜂.

  11. Study on the Biological Characteristic of Dendroctonus valens in Zezhou of Shanxi%泽州县红脂大小蠹生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李东霞

    2009-01-01

    ;红脂大小蠢(Dendroctonus valens)是我国重要的外来入侵生物,属国家检疫性害虫之一.红脂大小蠢在山西省泽州县分布于伊候山林场、巴公镇、大阳镇,寄主植物有油松、白皮松、华山松.该虫在泽州县1 a发生1代,以成虫和幼虫以及少量的蛹在树干基部或根部的皮层内越冬;采取性诱、化学防治、伐除虫害木、检疫、生物防治、营林等技术进行了防治,防治效果达80%以上,虫株率可控制在1‰以下.

  12. Harm and Control of the Dendroctonus valens in Malan Forestry Farm%马栏林场红脂大小蠹危害与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文龙; 刘高潮

    2014-01-01

    采用定点观测和标准样地调查方法,研究了马栏林区红脂大小蠢(Dendroctonus valens LeConte)生物学特性和危害规律.红脂大小蠢在子午岭南段的马栏林区1a发生1代,以成虫越冬.主要为害胸径10~30 cm的油松,海拔1 300~1 600 m油松林被害严重,林地不同部位之间受害程度沟谷底部、山脊>林缘>林内;山顶>半阳坡>阴坡.采用树干塑料密封薄膜磷化铝熏蒸、树干注射40%氧化乐果乳油、40%敌敌畏乳油都可达到85%以上防治效果.

  13. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-03-03

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  14. 塑料裙干基密闭熏蒸法防治红脂大小蠹试验%Basal airtight fumigation in plastic skirts against Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗振旺; 郭保平; 张晓波; 王晓俪; 赵明梅; 芦学林

    2002-01-01

    红脂大小蠹 Dendroctonus valens LeConte 是危害油松的国内新纪录种.在红脂大小蠹主要侵入部位,树干距地面50cm的主干上用0.06mm厚度的塑料布围成塑料裙,内置56%的磷化铝片剂(3.2g/片),每株3~4片进行密闭熏杀防治红脂大小蠹,效果可达93.6%以上.

  15. 北京地区红脂大小蠹空间分布型与抽样技术研究%The spatial distribution pattern and sampling technique of Dendroctonus valens in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘杰; 王涛; 宗世祥; 温俊宝; 骆有庆

    2010-01-01

    对北京地区红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte空间分布型进行了研究.结果表明红脂大小蠹成聚集分布,其聚集原因是由红脂大小蠹本身的聚集行为或聚集行为与环境的异质性共同作用引起.同时,应用Iwao统计方法,提出了最适理论抽样数和最佳序贯抽样模型.

  16. Study on Attractant Effect of Different Traps on Dendroctonus valens%不同诱捕器对红脂大小蠹引诱效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永明; 樊慧萍; 苗俊玲

    2004-01-01

    选用十字型诱捕器、漏斗型诱捕器、狭槽型诱捕器、粘虫胶型诱捕器,采用随机区组的研究方法,在林间对红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens Leconte)进行了引诱效果的研究.结果表明,十字型诱捕器对红脂大小蠹的引诱效果最好,漏斗型诱捕器和狭槽型诱捕器次之,但与十字型诱捕器诱捕量的差异不显著,粘虫胶型诱捕器引诱效果极差,建议在生产中推广使用十字型诱捕器.

  17. Direction of interaction between mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and resource-sharing wood-boring beetles depends on plant parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsch, Jennifer G; Najar, Ahmed; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-09-01

    Plant pathogens can have cascading consequences on insect herbivores, though whether they alter competition among resource-sharing insect herbivores is unknown. We experimentally tested whether the infection of a plant pathogen, the parasitic plant dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), on jack pine (Pinus banksiana) altered the competitive interactions among two groups of beetles sharing the same resources: wood-boring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). We were particularly interested in identifying potential mechanisms governing the direction of interactions (from competition to facilitation) between the two beetle groups. At the lowest and highest disease severity, wood-boring beetles increased their consumption rate relative to feeding levels at moderate severity. The performance (brood production and feeding) of mountain pine beetle was negatively associated with wood-boring beetle feeding and disease severity when they were reared separately. However, when both wood-boring beetles and high severity of plant pathogen infection occurred together, mountain pine beetle escaped from competition and improved its performance (increased brood production and feeding). Species-specific responses to changes in tree defense compounds and quality of resources (available phloem) were likely mechanisms driving this change of interactions between the two beetle groups. This is the first study demonstrating that a parasitic plant can be an important force in mediating competition among resource-sharing subcortical insect herbivores.

  18. Menzbieria chalcographi, a new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2012-09-01

    This study concerns a new neogregarine parasitic in the great spruce bark beetle Dendroctonus micans (Kugelann) (Curculionidae, Scolytinae). The rate of infection was high, reaching 27.3%. There was no difference in the rate of infection of male and female beetles. The life-cycle stages of the pathogen were described by light and electron microscopy. Each gametocyst of the neogregarine included 8-16 actinocephalid oocysts measuring 11.19 ± 0.42 × 4.99 ± 0.25 μm. The described pathogen has the typical characteristics of members of the genus Menzbieria within the order Neogregarinida and it was identified as Menzbieria chalcographi. This is the first record of an infection of D. micans by M. chalcographi. Possibly, this pathogen could be useful for the biological control of this destructive bark beetle.

  19. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  20. STUDIES ON THE MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND BIONOMICS OF DENDROCTONUS VALENS LECONTE%红脂大小蠹形态学特征及生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张历燕; 陈庆昌; 张小波

    2002-01-01

    红脂大小蠹又名强大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte),为国内新纪录种,是油松(Pinus tabulaeformis Carr.)的毁灭性害虫,可导致几十年生的油松在较短期内死亡.越冬虫态以成虫和老熟幼虫为主,占77.5%,2~3龄幼虫为辅,占21.7 %,少数以蛹越冬,占0.8%.其生活史以成虫越冬的1a 1代,以老熟幼虫越冬的需跨年度才能完成1个世代发育,以小幼虫越冬的需3a完成2代或2a完成1代.在种群密度较低时,危害生长衰弱的过火木、新伐倒木及新的伐桩,种群密度大时,能迅速入侵胸径≥10cm、树龄在20a生以上的健康木.在郁闭度较低的油松林分中,红脂大小蠹的危害明显高于郁闭度高的林分.

  1. 马栏林区红脂大小蠹及天敌昆虫诱捕效果研究%Trapping Effects of Dendroctonus valens and Its Natural Enemies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中社; 赵俊侠; 乔宽

    2015-01-01

    对陕西省旬邑县马栏林场8个林区小班红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens)进行诱捕及数据分析,对每个诱捕器内红脂大小蠹的平均变化数进行了数学模拟回归,并建立了数学模型.结果表明,红脂大小蠹成虫及天敌昆虫的发生均呈“S”变化,其最高日出虫时期在6月上旬.“S”形变化曲线具体分为缓慢增加期(3月下旬-4月下旬)、快速增加期(5月上旬-5月下旬)、快速减少期(6月上旬-6月下旬)和缓慢减少期(7月上旬-7月下旬)4个阶段;红脂大小蠹雌虫总数以及日出虫数均高于雄虫,且高峰期早出现2d左右.成虫总数也高于天敌昆虫数量,高峰期早出现2d.

  2. Influence of Slope and Aspect on Dendroctonus valens LeConte Occurrence%坡向与坡度对红脂大小蠹发生的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高浩洁

    2012-01-01

    The influence of slope and aspect on Dendroctonus valens LeConte occurrence were studied. The results showed that, in terms of aspect, the top peak of slope suffered heaviest damage with the damage rate reaching 40. 89%. Regarding slope, the damage rate reached 17.79% and 14. 98% respectively on gentle slope and steep slope, indicating gentle slope suffers less damage than steep slope.%对红脂大小蠹的发生与坡度及坡向的关系进行了研究。结果表明,对于不同坡向来说,山顶受害程度最重,被害率达到了40.89%;而对于不同坡度来说,红脂大小蠹的危害差异显著,缓坡和陡坡的被害率分别达到了17.79%和14.98%,缓坡危害程度大于陡坡。

  3. 大小蠹植物引诱剂对红脂大小蠹诱引效果试验%Inducing Experiment of Attractants to Dendroctonus valens LeConte

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗振旺; 赵明梅; 芦学林

    2002-01-01

    2000年至2001年,在山西省榆次区庆城林场应用加拿大生产的大小蠹类植物引诱荆对红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte)成虫发生期进行了监测,并开展了大量诱杀试验。结果表明,该引诱剂对红脂大小蠹成虫有较强的引诱作用,60个诱捕器在成虫扬飞期共诱到大小蠹成虫7119头。应用诱捕器后,林地红脂大小蠹被害率下降54.5%,平均侵入孔数下降58.7%。可用于红脂大小蠹的监测和防治。

  4. Influence of Starvation on the Structure of Gut-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of starvation on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi. A total of 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs0.03 clusters belonging to nine genera were identified. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles of bacterial PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from the guts of starved male and female adults revealed that the bacterial community diversity increased after starvation. The dominant genus Citrobacter decreased significantly, whereas the genus Serratia increased in both starved female and starved male adults. The most predominant bacterial genus in D. armandi adults was Citrobacter, except for starved male adults, in which Serratia was the most abundant genus (27%. Our findings reveal that starvation affects gut bacterial dynamics in D. armandi, as has been observed in other insect species.

  5. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  6. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  7. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  8. The great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans Kug.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lithuania: occurrence, phenology, morphology and communities of associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, A; Lynikienė, J; Marčiulynas, A; Gedminas, A; Povilaitienė, A

    2016-11-22

    We studied the occurrence, morphology and phenology of Dendroctonus micans in Lithuania and the fungi associated with the beetle at different developmental stages. The occurrence of D. micans was assessed in 19 seed orchards (at least 40 years old) of Picea abies (L. Karst.) situated in different parts of the country. Bark beetle phenology was studied in two sites: a seed orchard of P. abies and a plantation of Picea pungens (Engelm.). D. micans morphology was assessed under the dissection microscope using individuals at different developmental stages that were sampled during phenology observations. Communities of fungi associated with D. micans were studied using both fungal culturing methods and direct high-throughput sequencing from D. micans. Results showed that the incidence D. micans was relatively rare and D. micans was mainly detected in central and eastern Lithuania. The life cycle included the following stages: adult, egg, I-V developmental stage larvae and pupa. However, development of D. micans was quicker and its nests larger under the bark of P. pungens than of P. abies, indicating the effect of the host species. Fungal culturing and direct high-throughput sequencing revealed that D. micans associated fungi communities were species rich and dominated by yeasts from a class Saccharomycetes. In total, 319 fungal taxa were sequenced, among which Peterozyma toletana (37.5% of all fungal sequences), Yamadazyma scolyti (30.0%) and Kuraishia capsulate (17.7%) were the most common. Plant pathogens and blue stain fungi were also detected suggesting their potentially negative effects to both tree health and timber quality.

  9. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junning Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  10. 油松萜烯成分变化与红脂大小蠹的反应特性%The variance in monoterpene composition of Pinus tabuliformis and their effect on the electrophsiological and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙娃; 刘柱东; 姚剑

    2009-01-01

    采用顶空采样方法,比较健康油松、人工损伤油松以及抗性油松在单萜烯成分组成上的差异.GC.MS分析表明,在自然状况下,油松树干释放的萜烯类成分很少,以α-蒎烯占绝对优势(>97%);人工损伤后,油松萜烯类成分明显增多,除α-蒎烯为主要成分外,还包括β-蒎烯、月桂烯、柠檬烯、萜品油烯、β-水芹烯、长叶烯等;而抗性油松萜烯类成分更为复杂.对3类油松主要单萜类成分的相对含量方差分析表明,α-蒎烯的相对含量呈显著降低;3-蒈烯在损伤寄主中相对含量最高,在抗性寄主中相对含量与自然状态下没有差异.柠檬烯、莰烯、萜品油烯在抗性寄主中相对比率显著增加.而β-蒎烯、月桂烯、β-水芹烯相对含量在3个处理中变化不大.在此基础上,比较红脂大小蠢Dendroctonus valens LeConte对油松主要单萜类成分的触角电位及嗅觉行为反应.结果表明.室内触角电位、嗅觉试验与先前林间试验结果相一致,即红脂大小蠹对(+).3.蒈烯表现出最强的电生理和行为反应.对R-(+)-α-蒎烯和S-(-)-α-蒎烯研究发现,红脂大小蠹对α-蒎烯2个对映体的触角电位、嗅觉行为无显著不同.结合油松单萜类含量变化特点与红脂大小蠹行为反应,认为3-蒈烯相对含量上升可能作为易感寄主特点;而柠檬烯、莰烯、萜品油烯相对比率增加则代表了抗性或者非适合寄主的特征.

  11. Cross-attraction between an exotic and a native pine bark beetle: a novel invasion mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aside from the ecological impacts, invasive species fascinate ecologists because of the unique opportunities that invasives offer in the study of community ecology. Some hypotheses have been proposed to illustrate the mechanisms that allow exotics to become invasive. However, positive interactions between exotic and native insects are rarely utilized to explain invasiveness of pests. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present information on a recently formed association between a native and an exotic bark beetle on their shared host, Pinus tabuliformis, in China. In field examinations, we found that 35-40% of P. tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes parallelus. In the laboratory, we found that the antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to host- and beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of the exotic D. valens in China. In addition, D. valens was attracted to volatiles produced by the native H. parallelus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, which is cross-attraction. The concept of this interspecific facilitation could be explored as a novel invasive mechanism which helps explain invasiveness of not only exotic bark beetles but also other introduced pests in principle. The results reported here also have particularly important implications for risk assessments and management strategies for invasive species.

  12. Large shift in symbiont assemblage in the invasive red turpentine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taerum, Stephen J; Duong, Tuan A; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Gillette, Nancy; Sun, Jiang-Hua; Owen, Donald R; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Changes in symbiont assemblages can affect the success and impact of invasive species, and may provide knowledge regarding the invasion histories of their vectors. Bark beetle symbioses are ideal systems to study changes in symbiont assemblages resulting from invasions. The red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) is a bark beetle species that recently invaded China from its native range in North America. It is associated with ophiostomatalean fungi in both locations, although the fungi have previously been well-surveyed only in China. We surveyed the ophiostomatalean fungi associated with D. valens in eastern and western North America, and identified the fungal species using multi-gene phylogenies. From the 307 collected isolates (147 in eastern North America and 160 in western North America), we identified 20 species: 11 in eastern North America and 13 in western North America. Four species were shared between eastern North America and western North America, one species (Ophiostoma floccosum) was shared between western North America and China, and three species (Grosmannia koreana, Leptographium procerum, and Ophiostoma abietinum) were shared between eastern North America and China. Ophiostoma floccosum and O. abietinum have worldwide distributions, and were rarely isolated from D. valens. However, G. koreana and L. procerum are primarily limited to Asia and North America respectively. Leptographium procerum, which is thought to be native to North America, represented >45% of the symbionts of D. valens in eastern North America and China, suggesting D. valens may have been introduced to China from eastern North America. These results are surprising, as previous population genetics studies on D. valens based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene have suggested that the insect was introduced into China from western North America.

  13. Large shift in symbiont assemblage in the invasive red turpentine beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Taerum

    Full Text Available Changes in symbiont assemblages can affect the success and impact of invasive species, and may provide knowledge regarding the invasion histories of their vectors. Bark beetle symbioses are ideal systems to study changes in symbiont assemblages resulting from invasions. The red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens is a bark beetle species that recently invaded China from its native range in North America. It is associated with ophiostomatalean fungi in both locations, although the fungi have previously been well-surveyed only in China. We surveyed the ophiostomatalean fungi associated with D. valens in eastern and western North America, and identified the fungal species using multi-gene phylogenies. From the 307 collected isolates (147 in eastern North America and 160 in western North America, we identified 20 species: 11 in eastern North America and 13 in western North America. Four species were shared between eastern North America and western North America, one species (Ophiostoma floccosum was shared between western North America and China, and three species (Grosmannia koreana, Leptographium procerum, and Ophiostoma abietinum were shared between eastern North America and China. Ophiostoma floccosum and O. abietinum have worldwide distributions, and were rarely isolated from D. valens. However, G. koreana and L. procerum are primarily limited to Asia and North America respectively. Leptographium procerum, which is thought to be native to North America, represented >45% of the symbionts of D. valens in eastern North America and China, suggesting D. valens may have been introduced to China from eastern North America. These results are surprising, as previous population genetics studies on D. valens based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene have suggested that the insect was introduced into China from western North America.

  14. THE SYNOPSIS ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF DENDROCTONUS VALENS LECONTE%强大小蠹的简要形态学特征和生物学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷惠芬

    2000-01-01

    @@ 强大小蠹D.valens Leconte,俗名红脂大小蠹Red Turpentine Bark Beetle是重要的松树害虫,它对树种的选择不严格,能危害多种松树,为了便于识别,特将其形态学特征和生物学特征加以阐述.

  15. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  16. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  17. Influence Analysis of Climate Change on Dendroctonus valens LeConte's Survival%气候变化对红脂大小蠹生存的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦春英; 赵桂香; 李峥; 薄燕清

    2011-01-01

    为了深入探讨和认识红脂大小蠹暴发的深层原因,笔者以其危害严重的山西省吕梁山、中条山和太行山为例,选取适当的代表站点,利用1957-2005年降水、气温、湿度、日照、风等气象资料、相关红脂大小蠹观测资料以及生态环境质量资料,采用气候诊断分析方法,对气候变化以及生态环境质量改变对红脂大小蠹生存环境、生活习性、危害的影响进行综合分析.结果表明:(1)迁徙地气候特点与原产地气候特点极其相似,为该虫的生存繁殖提供了最基本的生态条件.(2)气候变化导致出现适宜于红脂大小蠹发生的气候条件,是红脂大小蠹暴发的重要原因.(3)生态环境质量的下降是导致红脂大小蠹发生的环境原因之一.因此,应积极应对和减缓气候变化,提高和改善生态环境质量,以遏制外来入侵有害生物的泛滥.%In order to explore deeper reason about Dendrkctomus valens LeConte' s outbreaking, the Lvliang, Zhongtiao and Taihang mountain in Shanxi province, appropriate representative sites were chosen, using rain, temperature, humidity, light and wind data from 1957 to 2005, observation data of Dendrkctomus valens LeConte, and quality data of ecological environment, the influence of climate changes on Dendrkctomus valens LeConte were analyzed by climate diagnosis. All showed that: (1) In migration, there were similar climate characteristics with its origin, which provided the most basic survival condition for Dendrkctomus valens LeConte. (2) It was the most important reason for Dendrkctomus valens LeConte' s outbreak which were appropriate climate condition caused by climate changes. (3) Quality down of ecological environment was one of important reason for Dendrkctomus valens LeConte. To contain hazardous biological invasion spreading, people should actively face and mitigate climate change, and improve ecological environment quality.

  18. 红脂大小蠹对油松的危害及越冬前后干、根部分布调查%Damage of Dendroctonus valens on Pinus tabulaeformis and its distribution on trunk and root before and after overwintering period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建功; 赵明梅; 张长明; 郭保平; 李建中; 牛璇; 李丽峰; 芦学林

    2002-01-01

    红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens Leconte大面积为害油松,造成健康油松大量死亡,在我国尚属首次.选用定点观察和线路踏查相结合的方法,从1999年到2001年5月,对该虫为害油松进行了详细调查.胸径10cm以上的油松受害较重,且胸径越粗受害越重.最细3cm的油松也受害,有虫株率5%~11%,最高达40%,受害株死亡率3.6%,最高达38%.以成虫侵入干基70cm段集中为害,高达180cm.侵入孔流出凝脂.在干部越冬的成虫和幼虫,越冬后死亡.该虫也为害根部,在根部同样可以产卵并发育为成虫,能正常越冬,成为新的扩散虫源.

  19. CYP345E2, an antenna-specific cytochrome P450 from the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, catalyses the oxidation of pine host monoterpene volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Dullat, Harpreet K; Ohnishi, Toshiyuki; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-12-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. This beetle responds to pheromones and host volatiles in order to mass attack and thus overcome the terpenoid chemical defences of its host. The ability of MPB antennae to rapidly process odorants is necessary to avoid odorant receptor saturation and thus the enzymes responsible for odorant clearance are an important aspect of host colonization. An antenna-specific cytochrome P450, DponCYP345E2, is the most highly expressed transcript in adult MPB antenna. In in vitro assays with recombinant enzyme, DponCYP345E2 used several pine host monoterpenes as substrates, including (+)-(3)-carene, (+)-β-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, (+)-limonene, (-)-limonene, (-)-camphene, (+)-α-pinene, (-)-α-pinene, and terpinolene. The substrates were epoxidized or hydroxylated, depending upon the substrate. To complement DponCYP345E2, we also functionally characterized the NADPH-dependent cytochrome P450 reductase and the cytochrome b5 from MPB. DponCYP345E2 is the first cytochrome P450 to be functionally characterized in insect olfaction and in MPB.

  20. Advances in red turpentine bark beetle,Dendroctonus valens LeConte%入侵害虫红脂大小蠹的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚剑; 张龙娃; 余晓峰

    2008-01-01

    红脂大小蠹是我国近年来重要的入侵害虫.对红脂大小蠹的研究进展进行综述,提出加强检验检疫技术研究,防止扩散;加大信息素、天敌等生物因子的应用和科学育林等林业管理措施.

  1. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  2. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  3. Perceptions of ecological risk associated with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestations in Banff and Kootenay National Parks of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Bonita L; Watson, David O T; Witson, David O T

    2008-02-01

    Western Canada is experiencing an unprecedented outbreak of the mountain pine beetle (MPB). The MPB has the potential to impact some of Canada's national parks by affecting park ecosystems and the visitor experience. Controls have been initiated in some parks to lessen the impacts and to prevent the beetle from spreading beyond park boundaries. We examine the perception of ecological risk associated with MPB in two of Canada's national parks, the factors affecting perceptions of risk, and the influence of risk judgments on support for controlling MPB outbreaks in national parks. Data were collected using two studies of park visitors: a mail survey in 2003 and an onsite survey in 2005. The MPB was rated as posing a greater risk to the health and productivity of park ecosystems than anthropogenic hazards and other natural disturbance agents. Visitors who were familiar with MPB rated the ecological and visitor experience impacts as negative, unacceptable, and eliciting negative emotion. Knowledge and residency were the most consistent predictors of risk judgments. Of knowledge, risk, and demographic variables, only sex and risk to ecosystem domains influenced support for controlling the MPB in national parks. Implications for managing MPB in national parks, visitor education, and ecological integrity are discussed.

  4. Saccharide-mediated antagonistic effects of bark beetle fungal associates on larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lu, Min; Cheng, Chihang; Salcedo, Christian; Sun, Jianghua

    2013-02-23

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive of pine forest pests and they form close symbiotic relationships with ophiostomatoid fungi. Although some fungi are considered to be mutualistic symbionts of bark beetles with respect to the supply of nutrients, detrimental effects of fungal symbionts on larval growth have also been frequently reported. The mechanisms of such antagonistic effects are hypothesized to be a decrease in nutritional resources caused by competition for saccharides by the fungi. Here, we provide experimental evidence that three beetle-associated fungi modify the nutritional content of an artificial phloem diet, leading to a detrimental effect on the growth of Dendroctonus valens larvae. When larvae were fed a diet of pine phloem in agar medium colonized with any of these fungi, feeding activity was not affected but weight significantly decreased. Additional analysis showed that fungi depleted the fructose and glucose concentrations in the phloem media. Furthermore, these detrimental effects were neutralized by supplementing the media with fructose or glucose, suggesting that fungi may affect larval growth by modifying diet saccharide contents. These data indicate that fungus-induced nutritional changes in bark beetle diet can affect larval growth, and that the mechanism involves fungus-induced saccharide depletion from the larval diet.

  5. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Miller, Andy

    2008-02-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation bands (low: 1,600-1,736 m; middle: 2,058-2,230 m; high: 2,505-2,651 m) for 3 yr (2004-2006) using pheromone-baited Lindgren funnel traps. Trap contents were collected weekly from March to December. We also studied temperature differences among the elevation bands and what role this may play in beetle flight behavior. Bark beetles, regardless of species, showed no consistent elevational trend in abundance among the three bands. The higher abundances of Ips lecontei Swaine, I. calligraphus ponderosae Swaine, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman, and D. brevicomis LeConte at low and middle elevations offset the greater abundance of I. knausi Swaine, D. adjunctus Blandford, D. approximatus Dietz, and D. valens LeConte at high elevations. I. pini (Say) and I. latidens LeConte were found in similar numbers across the three bands. Flight periodicity of several species varied among elevation bands. In general, the flight period shortened as elevation increased; flight initiated later and terminated earlier in the year. The timing, number, and magnitude of peaks in flight activity also varied among the elevation bands. These results suggest that abundance and flight seasonality of several bark beetles are related to elevation and the associated temperature differences. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to bark beetle management and population dynamics.

  6. 微流控芯片技术用于三种小蠹COⅠ-COⅡ区的PCR-RFLP分析%Analysis of PCR-RFLP data on the COⅠ-COⅡ gene of three bark beetle species (Coleoptera : Scolytidae) by microfluidics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙霞; 李惠萍; 裴雁曦

    2012-01-01

    PCR-RFLP was used to amplify and analyze the COⅠ -COⅡ genes in the mtDNA of Dendroctonus valens LeConte, Hylurgops longipilis Reiher and Ips acuminatus Gyllenhal. Specific restriction enzymes were screened by comparison of restriction recognition sites. The amplified gene fragments could be analyzed quickly by microfluidics following enzyme digestion. The results indicate that this technique can accurately and rapidly identify these three beetle species.%本研究运用PCR-RFLP对红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens LeConte、长毛干小蠹Hylurgops longipilis Reiher 和六齿小蠹Ips acuminatus Gyllenhal mtDNA的COⅠ-COⅡ基因进行扩增.通过酶切位点的分析比较,筛选特异性的内切酶,结合微流控芯片技术对酶切产物进行快速检测.建立3种小蠹的准确、快速区分鉴定方法.

  7. Simulation of mountain pine beetle (dendroctonus ponderosae hopkins) spread and control in British Columbia. Information report No. BC-X-329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a method of predicting the spread of the mountain pine beetle through the use of a simulation model and explains the assumptions underlying the method. Control by selective harvesting of attacked stands, use of pheromones, and various single-tree treatments are evaluated through a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters; area of attack was the indicator variable for the sensitivity analysis.

  8. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  9. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. 红脂大小蠹的捕食性天敌——大唼蜡甲发育和温度的关系研究%Study on the Relationship between Growth and Environmental Temperature of Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae), An Important Predator of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏建荣; 丁保福; 唐艳龙; 赵建兴; 杨忠岐

    2010-01-01

    @@ 大唼蜡甲(Rhizophagus grandis Gyllenhal) 属鞘翅目唼蜡甲科(Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae),是云杉大小蠹(Dendroctonus micans Kugelann)(鞘翅目:小蠹科)(Coleoptera:Scolytidae)的主要捕食性天敌,其成虫和幼虫均可捕食云杉大小蠹的卵、幼虫和蛹,在自然调节这种重要害虫的种群数量上发挥着重要作用[1-2].云杉大小蠹原分布于前苏联,我国黑龙江、辽宁、青海、甘肃、四川省也有分布,从上世纪初逐渐向西、向南扩散至欧洲的法国、英国,现分布于欧亚大陆的几乎所有的云杉(Picea spp.)的针叶林中.其天敌大唼腊甲随后也跟随云杉大小蠹的扩散而逐步迁移,但自然传播的速度很慢,种群数量较低,在云杉大小蠹新传入区很难达到自然控制的程度.为此,欧洲一些国家开展了大唼腊甲的引进、人工繁殖和释放防治云杉大小蠹的研究.如早在1963年格鲁吉亚就研究利用其防治云杉大小蠹[3].上世纪中后期,云杉大小蠹在欧洲大发生,严重危害挪威云杉(Picea abies (L.) Karst.).为了防治这种重要的蛀干害虫,比利时从上世纪50年代起就开展了利用大唼腊甲生物防治云杉大小蠹的研究.1978年,英国和法国等国家先后从比利时引进大唼蜡甲,取得了良好的控制效果[4-5].随后美国也引进大唼腊甲防治黑脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus terebrans Olivier)[6].

  11. Ophiostoma ips asociado al insecto descortezador (Dendroctonus adjunctus ) del pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii )

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    In the pino de las alturas (Pinus hartwegii Lindl) it has been reported the presence of the bark beetle Dendroctonus adjunctus associated with the genus Ophiostoma spp., which causes the blue-stain of the wood. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the Ophiostoma species associated with the bark beetle D. adjunctus in P. hartwegii. Galleries and insects were collected in the Zoquiapan Experimental Forest Station (ZEFS), of the Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, in Zoquiap...

  12. 华山松大小蠹带菌部位及贮菌器结构研究%THE MYCANGIUM POSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE BARK BEETLE DENDROCTONUS ARMANDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈辉; 袁锋

    2000-01-01

    研究了秦岭林区华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi)带菌部位及贮菌器结构,结果表明:华山松大小蠹成虫具有前胸背板体壁凹陷和刺毛构成的贮菌器,用于携带和传播真菌,其所携带真菌种类以穿孔细帚霉Leptographium terebrantis和小线嘴壳Ophiostoma minus为主,以真菌孢子为唯一携带方式,并在成虫入侵健康寄主华山松时将携带真菌孢子接种于华山松木质部.华山松大小蠹消化道内不具有含菌细胞和特化的带菌结构,消化道内存在的真菌也没有菌丝发育形成的附着孢或吸盘结构,使真菌不能被有效地贮存或携带于华山松大小蠹成虫消化道内,从而达到对真菌的有效传播和导致华山松大小蠹与真菌共生的联系.

  13. Valens i grønlandsk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    omdanner til passiv sætning ved tilføjelse af affikset ¬–neqar (tilføjes alle verbaltyper); til kvasi-passiv ved tilføjelse af affikset –tit (tilføjes kun når subjektet er agent); eller til antipassiv ved tilføjelse af affikserne –ti/-si/-i, -nip, -ller, -up(poq). Alle verber (intransitive eller transitive......) kan forøge valens ved at tilføje et nyt subjekt ved at tilføje transitiverende affikser som ex. –tit ’forårsager’ og –qqu ’beordrer, bede om’. Der er ca. 10 af denne slags affikser. Ved denne Valens kan også øges ved at tilføje et nyt objekt til verbet ved at tilføje transitiverende affikser ex. -figi...... det valensforøgende affiks -tit, som i a) er transitiv, hvor agent er subjekt og i b) dobbelttransitiv, hvor agent er degraderet til adverbialled i allativ. a) Inuup tujuuloq takuaa ’Inuk ser trøjen’ Verbum: takuaa – transitiv indikativ 3.sg. – 3.sg. Subjekt: Inuup – relativ. Sg. – agent Direkte...

  14. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Semiochemical Lures in Chiapas, Mexico: Possible Roles of Pheromones During Joint Host Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Domínguez, Alicia; Sullivan, Brian T; López-Urbina, José H; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E

    2016-04-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, a recently described sibling species. We hypothesized that cross-species pheromone responses by host-seeking beetles might mediate joint mass attack, bole partitioning, and reproductive isolation between the species. Previous studies had indicated that D. frontalis females produce frontalin and that female D. mesoamericanus produce frontalin, endo-brevicomin, and ipsdienol (males of both species produce endo-brevicomin and possibly ipsdienol). In field trapping trials in the Mexican state of Chiapas, D. frontalis was attracted to the lure combination of turpentine and racemic frontalin; racemic endo-brevicomin enhanced this response. In a single test, D. mesoamericanus was attracted in low numbers to the combination of turpentine, racemic frontalin, and racemic endo-brevicomin after the addition of racemic ipsdienol; in contrast, racemic ipsdienol reduced responses of D. frontalis. Inhibition of D. frontalis was generated in both sexes by (+)- and racemic ipsdienol, but by (−)-ipsdienol only in females. Logs infested with D. mesoamericanus females (the pioneer sex in Dendroctonus) attracted both species in greater numbers than either D. frontalis female-infested or uninfested logs. Our data imply that D. frontalis may be more attracted to pioneer attacks of D. mesoamericanus females, and that this could be owing to the presence of endo-brevicomin in the latter. Possible intra- and inter-specific functions of semiochemicals investigated in our experiments are discussed.

  15. 红脂大小蠹、华山松大小蠹和云杉大小蠹形态学比较%On External Structure of Dendroctonus valens、D. armandi and D. micans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕淑杰; 谢寿安; 张军灵; 李大寨

    2002-01-01

    对陕西省渭南地区的红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens)、秦巴林区的华山松大小蠹 (D. armandi)和祁连山林区的云杉大小蠹(D. micans)的形态学进行了比较研究,结果表明,3种大小蠹在形态特征、危害症状等方面有显著差异.

  16. Identification and Quarantine for 3 Species Dendroctonus Erichson in China%浅析我国分布的3种大小蠹的识别与检疫管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中虹

    2011-01-01

    对红脂大小蠹、华山松大小蠹和云杉大小蠹的形态特征、为害寄主以及危害症状进行了比较分析,提出了检疫管理措施,为进境口岸针对性检疫和保护我国的林木资源提供参考。%This paper compares the morphological characteristics and harm characteristics of Dendroctonus valens,D, armandi and D. micans. Combined with the practical situation of port inspection and quarantine, the paper proposes thequarantine measures against the three species Dendroctonus Erichson.

  17. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  18. MCH pheromone for preventing Douglas-fir beetle infestation in windthrown trees

    OpenAIRE

    McGregor, M. D.; Furniss, M. M.; Oaks, R. D.; Gibson, K.E.; Meyer, H E

    1984-01-01

    A granular controlled-release formulation (98 percent inert, 2 percent 3-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one) was applied May 11-13, 1982, at 4.48 kg/ha to 76.9 ha of uninfested windthrown Douglas-fir by helicopter with a modified aerial spreader of 1.13 m³ capacity. Granules measured on treated plots averaged 2.04-2.69 kg/ha, sufficient to reduce Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) infestation 96.4 percent by late June. The same MCH treatment reduced spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) ...

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.; Bentz, Barbara J.; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined...

  20. Prevention and Control of Dendroctonus valens%管涔林区防治红脂大小蠹初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许巧玲

    2002-01-01

    @@ 管涔林区位于晋西北地区、黄河中游,全区森林面积3.25万hm2,其中油松林1 733hm2.1999年9月,发现红脂大小蠹侵害油松林,面且侵染面积已经达到1367hm2,经进一步深入调查,虫口密度每株为70头~80头,有虫株率2%~3%,根据红脂大小蠹防治技术方案认定为轻度感染.我们对红脂大小蠹进行了观察研究,并开展了有效的防治工作,现将防治情况介绍如下.

  1. Integrated Management on Dendroctonus Valens Leconte%红脂大小蠹的综合防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马雨亭

    2002-01-01

    红脂大小蠹是近年来为害油松的国内新纪录种.1999年开始在娄烦、古交等地大面积发生,面积达1.17万hm2,为害空前猖獗.介绍了红脂大小蠹在太原市的发生与防治情况,并提出了加强营林措施,采用植物引诱剂,砍伐清理受害的枯死木和濒死木,化学防治,饵木法防治,利用天敌控制等综合防治措施.

  2. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  3. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel R; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  4. Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with...

  5. Dendroctonus armandi (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cytochrome P450s display tissue specificity and responses to host terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Ma, Mingyuan; Gao, Guanqun; Chen, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive allelochemicals of their host trees both to detoxify them and convert them into components of their pheromone systems which were catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) and occur in different tissues of the insect. We study P450 genes in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi), and some bio-information analysis was done for the full-length deduced amino acid sequences. The tissue specificity of these P450 genes was determined in three tissues (antenna, gut and reproductive organs). Differential expression of the P450 genes was observed between sexes, and within these significant differences exposed to stimuli (α-pinene (1:1 racemic mix), (S)-(-)-α-pinene, (S)-(-)-β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (±)-limonene and turpentine oil) at 24h. Increased expression of P450 genes suggested that they play a role in the detoxification of monoterpenes released by the host trees. The different transcript accumulation patterns of these bark beetle P450 genes provided insight into ecological interactions of D. armandi with its host pine.

  6. Impacts of silvicultural thinning treatments on beetle trap captures and tree attacks during low bark beetle populations in ponderosa pine forests of northern Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord, M L; Hofstetter, R W; Wagner, M R

    2010-10-01

    Our research used a combination of passive traps, funnel traps with lures, baited trees, and surveys of long-term thinning plots to assess the impacts of different levels of stand basal area (BA) on bark beetle tree attack and on trap captures of Ips spp., Dendroctonus spp., and their predators. The study occurred at two sites in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests, from 2004 to 2007 during low bark beetle populations. Residual stand BA ranged from 9.0 to 37.0 m2/ha. More predators and bark beetles were collected in passive traps in stands of lower BA than in stands of higher BA; however, significance varied by species and site, and total number of beetles collected was low. Height of the clear panel passive traps affected trap catches for some species at some sites and years. When pheromone lures were used with funnel traps [Ips pini (Say) lure: lanierone, +03/-97 ipsdienol], we found no significant difference in trap catches among basal area treatments for bark beetles and their predators. Similarly, when trees were baited (Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte lure: myrcene, exo-brevicomin and frontalin), we found no significant difference for days to first bark beetle attack. Surveys of long-term thinning treatments found evidence of bark beetle attacks only in unthinned plots (approximately 37 m2/ha basal area). We discuss our results in terms of management implications for bark beetle trapping and control.

  7. Modeling Phloem Temperatures Relative to Mountain Pine Beetle Phenology

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Matthew Jared

    2011-01-01

    We explore a variety of methods to estimate phloem temperatures from ambient air temperatures suitable for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. A model's ability to induce the same phenology generated from observed phloem temperatures measures its effectiveness rather than a simple reconstruction of phloem temperatures. From a model's phenology results we are able to ascertain whether the model produces a similar amount of developmental energy exhibited by observed phloem temper...

  8. Study on the biological characteristic of Dendroctonus valensle%强大小蠹生物学特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗振旺; 周维民; 霍履远; 王晓丽; 范俊秀; 赵明梅

    2001-01-01

    强大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte)是近年来发现为害油松的国内新纪录种,1998年在山西省阳城、沁水等县首次发现,此后在全省各地暴发成灾.该虫在榆次市、太岳山林区一年发生一代,主要以老熟幼虫和成虫在树干基部或根部的皮层内越冬,也有少数以2龄~3龄幼虫或蛹越冬.越冬成虫于5月中下旬大量出孔扬飞,6月上旬为产卵盛期,6月中旬为孵化盛期,8月中旬为化蛹盛期,9月上旬为子代成虫羽化盛期.越冬老熟幼虫于7月中旬大量化蛹,7月下旬为羽化盛期,8月上中旬为产卵盛期,8月中旬为卵孵化盛期,发育不整齐,有世代重叠现象.

  9. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and wildfires

  10. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Members of γ-Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented species and accounted for 73.6% of all the cellulolytic bacteria. The majority of cellulolytic bacteria in D. armandi larva gut were identified as Serratia and accounted for 49.5%, followed by Pseudomonas, which accounted for 22%. In addition, members of Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were found in the D. armandi larva gut. Brevundimonas kwangchunensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Methylobacterium populi and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana were reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Information generated from the present study might contribute towards understanding the relationship between bark beetle and its gut flora.

  11. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  12. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate.

  13. Progress scored in forest pest studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Teaming up with co-workers from State Forestry Administration (SFA), researchers of the CAS Institute of Zoology (IOZ)have scored encouraging progress in their studies of pheromones-based technology against the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens LeConte).

  14. Anatomical characteristics in xylem tissue of Pinus armandi infected by the bark beetle Dendroctonus armandi(Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and its associated blue-stain fungus Ceratocystis polonica%华山松大小蠹及其伴生蓝变真菌对华山松木质部危害的解剖学特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寿安; 吕淑杰; Axel SHOPF2; 丁彦; 侯秋实; 李彩棉

    2008-01-01

    为揭示华山松大小蠹和伴生蓝变真菌引起秦岭华山松枯萎的机制,选择秦岭北坡沣峪林场境35年树龄的健康华山松Pinus armandi为研究对象,对接种华山松大小蠹Dendroctonus armandi及与其伴生的蓝变真菌Ceratocystis polonica引起的寄主树木木质部形态变化进行了解剖观察.结果表明:接种致病性蓝变真菌C.polonica 1周后的4株华山松的木质部组织内,蓝变区域显著增加.4~6周后蓝变区域不再增加;而在接种无菌琼脂的2株对照华山松的木质部组织内,没有检测到蓝变区域.研究结果提示蓝变真菌C.polonica,是致死秦岭华山松的重要病原菌,该伴生菌随华山松大小蠹入侵健康寄主华山松木质部组织,在木质部定居并分解木质部,堵塞树脂道,致使寄主华山松树脂代谢和水分代谢紊乱.该研究结果表明,虽然华山松大小蠹长期以来被认为是致死华山松的毁灭性小蠹虫,但是其共生蓝变真菌C.polonnica对成熟华山松的致害作用不应该被忽视.

  15. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  16. Dermestid Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Coats, Katherine; Roe, Alan H.

    2008-01-01

    Dermestid beetles are in the family Dermestidae and order Coleoptera. These beetles are sometimes called larder beetles or carpet beetles. Adults range from 1 to 12 mm in length and have variable body coloration. In general, they are hairy, dark-colored, elongated, and have clubbed antennae. The larvae are light brown and can be up to 13 mm long. Many larvae have spines, called setae, on the back of the abdomen that are helpful with identification. Dermestid larvae and adults have chewing mou...

  17. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production.

  18. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  19. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  20. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  1. Carrying out project management and controlling plague of red turpentine beetle%实施工程治理控制红脂大小蠹虫灾--对红脂大小蠹暴发成因及治理对策的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李计顺; 常国彬; 宋玉双; 王艺伟; 常宝山

    2001-01-01

    该文从害虫、寄主、环境和人类活动四个方面论述了红脂大小蠹Dendroctonus valens Leconte的暴发成因,建议从营林措施、监测检疫和生物防治等方面完善我国红脂大小蠹工程治理的基本思路.同时对国家级红脂大小蠹治理工程的进展情况作了简要介绍.

  2. A Brief Damage Report on Dendroctonus valens in Zhong Tiao Forest Area%中条林区红脂大小蠹危害调查初报

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天录

    2001-01-01

    @@ 红脂大小蠹属鞘翅目大小蠹科,自1998年9月在晋城市首次捕捉到成虫以来,通过数次大规模调查,发现全省多数地市都有该虫分布,尤以中条山东部和太岳山危害最重,全省发生面积达20万hm2.该虫以危害油松和华山松为主,直接威胁着山西林业的发展,已成为山西主要造林树种一油松正常生长的主要障碍.我们于1999年下半年开始,对中条林区的红脂大小蠹危害进行了全面详细的调查,现将结果整理初报如下:

  3. 虫孔注药法防治红脂大小蠹试验%Study on preventing Dendroctonus valens with the injection method from hole ofinsect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范俊秀; 曲晓晨; 刘建光

    2001-01-01

    针对红脂大小蠹主要在距地面50cm以下的主干上侵入的特点,采用20%高渗甲胺磷乳油、40%氧化乐果乳油、80%敌敌畏乳油5倍稀释液在主干上用注射器进行虫孔注药(每孔注药5ml),成虫防治效果可达90%以上,初孵幼虫防治效果可达80%以上.

  4. Study on Application Effects of Repellent on the Response of Dendroctonus valens%红脂大小蠹驱避剂应用技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙永明

    2006-01-01

    对bubblecaps和punches两种释放速率的红脂大小蠹驱避剂,分别采用间隔5,10 m和10,20 m的间隔距离,在太岳林局龙泉林场进行了野外试验,结果表明:punches驱避剂间距离20 m处理能最佳增加红脂大小蠹诱捕量;同时无论punches还是bubblecaps驱避剂在5 m和10 m距离间对增加红脂大小蠹诱捕量都有一定效果.使用驱避剂对植物性信息素引诱其他昆虫种群无影响.

  5. A Research Report of Dendroctonus valens in Taiyue Forest Zone%太岳林区红脂大小蠹调查报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆昌; 张世忠

    2001-01-01

    @@ 从1998年至2000年底,太岳林区红脂大小蠹发生面积1.45万hm2,其中轻微发生1.2万hm2,中度发生0.17万hm2,严重发生0.08万hm2,发生率为36.2%;平均有虫株率31%,最高80%以上,单株被害虫孔最高可达42个,健康油松被害死亡率达5%,约37万余株(已采伐清理),濒死木树干千苍百孔,松脂流溢,危害十分惊人.

  6. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sarah J; Veblen, Thomas T; Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1) how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2) how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height), not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  7. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  8. Mountain pine beetle attack associated with low levels of 4-allylanisole in ponderosa pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerick, Jay J; Snyder, Aaron I; Bower, Nathan W; Snyder, Marc A

    2008-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is the most important insect pest in southern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Tree mortality is hastened by the various fungal pathogens that are symbiotic with the beetles. The phenylpropanoid 4-allylanisole is an antifungal and semiochemical for some pine beetle species. We analyzed 4-allylanisole and monoterpene profiles in the xylem oleoresin from a total of 107 trees at six sites from two chemotypes of ponderosa pine found in Colorado and New Mexico using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Although monoterpene profiles were essentially the same in attacked and nonattacked trees, significantly lower levels of 4-allylanisole were found in attacked trees compared with trees that showed no evidence of attack for both chemotypes.

  9. Efficacy of verbenone for protecting ponderosa pine stands from western pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Borys, Robert R; Dabney, Christopher P; Hamud, Shakeeb M; Nelson, Lori J; Seybold, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. Currently, techniques for managing D. brevicomis infestations are limited. Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo [3.1.1] hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregation pheromone of several Dendroctonus spp., including D. brevicomis, and it has been registered as a biopesticide for control of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. We evaluated the efficacy of a 5-g verbenone pouch [82%-(-); 50 mg/d] applied at 125 Ulha for protecting P. ponderosa stands (2 ha) from D. brevicomis attack over a 3-yr period. No significant differences in levels of D. brevicomis-caused tree mortality or the percentage of unsuccessfully attacked trees were found between verbenone-treated and untreated plots during each year or cumulatively over the 3-yr period. Laboratory analyses of release rates and chemical composition of volatiles emanating from verbenone pouches after field exposure found no deterioration of the active ingredient or physical malfunction of the release device. The mean release rate of pouches from all locations and exposure periods was 44.5 mg/d. In a trapping bioassay, the range of inhibition of the 5-g verbenone pouch was determined to be statistically constant 2 m from the release device. We discuss the implications of these and other results to the development of verbenone as a semiochemical-based tool for management of D. brevicomis infestations in P. ponderosa stands.

  10. The complex symbiotic relationships of bark beetles with microorganisms: a potential practical approach for biological control in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Valentin; Déziel, Eric; Lavallée, Robert; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article.

  11. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change.

  12. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  13. Water beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, G. N.; Nelson, B H; O'Connor, Á.

    2009-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Based on ca 37,000 records for Ireland, 244 taxa of beetle are evaluated for their conservation status using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) regional criteria. Of the wetland species, eight are considered to be regionally extinct, eight critically endangered, eleven endangered, twenty two vulnerable, twenty four near threatened, and the rest at lower risk, of least concern or data‐deficient. Ninety‐three taxa are mapped. The importance of h...

  14. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  15. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  16. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  17. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  18. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  19. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  20. Recent bark beetle outbreaks have little impact on streamflow in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slinski, Kimberly M.; Hogue, Terri S.; Porter, Aaron T.; McCray, John E.

    2016-07-01

    In the Western United States (US), the current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected more than five million hectares since its start in 1996, including headwater catchments that supply water to much of the Western US. There is widespread concern that the hydrologic consequences of the extensive pine tree die-off will impact water supply across the Western US. While forest disturbance studies have shown that streamflow increases in response to tree harvest, the actual effect of bark beetle infestations on water supply remains widely debated. The current study evaluates watershed-level response following bark beetle outbreak for 33 watersheds in seven western states. Streamflow records were investigated to assess whether the timing and amount of stream discharge during bark beetle outbreak and early recovery periods were significantly different to pre-outbreak conditions. Results show no significant modification in peak flows or average daily streamflow following bark beetle infestation, and that climate variability may be a stronger driver of streamflow patterns and snowmelt timing than chronic forest disturbance.

  1. 粗点大小蠹的检疫鉴定%Quarantine ldentification of Dendroctonus punctatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李健; 陆苗; 张呈伟; 李艳华; 杨光; 梁小松; 吴新华

    2014-01-01

    大小蠹属害虫是进出口木材、货物的木质包装中最易携带的害虫之一,是各国口岸检疫的重要目标。对截获的大小蠢做出快速准确的鉴定,是降低危险性大小蠢入侵我国的一个重要的方法。该文研究对象为隶属于大小蠹属中的粗点大小蠹,对其分类地位、生物学特性、鉴定特征以及传入风险等进行了详细的介绍,为粗点大小蠹的检验检疫鉴定提供参考。%Dendroctonus spp. is one of the most portable pests in imported and ex-ported timber and wooden packages, and it is an important object of the port quarantine. Making rapid and accurate identification of Dendroctonus spp. is an im-portant method to reduce the invasion risk of Dendroctonus spp. for China. ln this paper, Dendroctonus punctatus, which belongs to the Dendroctonus spp., is intro-duced in detail from the aspects of taxonomic status, biological characteristics, mor-phological characteristics and the invasion risk, providing reference for the identifica-tion of Dendroctonus punctatus in inspection and quarantine.

  2. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  3. Flight Period of Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in its Recently Expanded Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiker, K P; Van Hezewijk, B H

    2016-12-01

    The ability to predict key phenological events, such as the timing of flight periods, is useful for the monitoring and management of insect pests. We used empirical data to describe the flight period of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, in its recently expanded range east of the Rocky Mountains in Canada and developed a degree-day model based on the number of trapped beetles. Data were collected over four degrees of latitude and six years. The main flight period, when the middle 70% of the total number of beetles were caught, started during the second or third week of July, lasted 26 d, and peaked within 2 wk of starting. The best model accounted for 89% of the variation in the data. Mountain pine beetle's flight tended to start later and be more contracted at higher latitudes. The synchrony of mountain pine beetle's flight period in the expanded range appears to be comparable to the limited reports from the historic range, although it may start earlier. This suggests that conditions in the new range are suitable for a coordinated dispersal flight, which is critical for the beetle's strategy of overwhelming tree defenses by attacking en masse. Forest managers can use the model to support operational decisions, e.g., when to impose hauling restrictions to reduce the risk of spread through the transport of infested material, or the time frame for control programs. Understanding the flight period may also improve our ability to assess the response of mountain pine beetle to novel and changing climates in the future.

  4. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  5. Chemical similarity between historical and novel host plants promotes range and host expansion of the mountain pine beetle in a naïve host ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbilgin, Nadir; Ma, Cary; Whitehouse, Caroline; Shan, Bin; Najar, Ahmed; Evenden, Maya

    2014-02-01

    Host plant secondary chemistry can have cascading impacts on host and range expansion of herbivorous insect populations. We investigated the role of host secondary compounds on pheromone production by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) and beetle attraction in response to a historical (lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and a novel (jack pine, Pinus banksiana) hosts, as pheromones regulate the host colonization process. Beetles emit the same pheromones from both hosts, but more trans-verbenol, the primary aggregation pheromone, was emitted by female beetles on the novel host. The phloem of the novel host contains more α-pinene, a secondary compound that is the precursor for trans-verbenol production in beetle, than the historical host. Beetle-induced emission of 3-carene, another secondary compound found in both hosts, was also higher from the novel host. Field tests showed that the addition of 3-carene to the pheromone mixture mimicking the aggregation pheromones produced from the two host species increased beetle capture. We conclude that chemical similarity between historical and novel hosts has facilitated host expansion of MPB in jack pine forests through the exploitation of common host secondary compounds for pheromone production and aggregation on the hosts. Furthermore, broods emerging from the novel host were larger in terms of body size.

  6. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  7. Biological evaluation of the prototype standing tree debarking system (STDS) used for direct control of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. FRDA report No. 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, H.S.; Safranyik, L.; Moulson, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The standing tree debarking system (STDS) consists of a tree-climbing delimber/debarker machine and a hand-held debarking machine. The tree-climbing machine is powered by a chain saw engine which, through a hydraulic system, operates a delimbing saw on ascent and a debarker on descent. The hand-held machine consists of a debarking head that replaces the cutter on a gasoline-powered brush saw. Prototypes of the STDS have been developed for mechanical removal of bark from standing lodgepole pine trees that have been attacked by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This paper presents results of work conducted to ascertain the potential effectiveness of the STDS (the degree of bark disruption required to prevent mountain pine beetle from producing increased numbers of new beetles in infested trees of various size), the degree of bark disruption by the STDS, and brood survival in patches of bark remaining after STDS treatment.

  8. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  9. Semiochemical Diversity in Practice: Antiattractant Semiochemicals Reduce Bark Beetle Attacks on Standing Trees—A First Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Schlyter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduction of tree mortality caused by bark beetle attacks is not only important for forestry, but also essential for the preservation of biodiversity and forest carbon sinks in the face of climate change. While bark beetle mass trapping (a “pull” approach is implemented in practice, few studies exist to estimate its effect. The more complex “push-pull” tactic has, in contrast, been repeatedly tested during the last decade. I analysed published data from 32 experiments in 9 papers published during 2000–2011 on Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae, to test if there was an overall effect of antiattractant semiochemicals, that is, if treatments reduced the number of attacks on standing trees at the habitat or stand scale. This meta-analysis showed a substantial overall effect size (treatment-control means divided by their SD of −0.96, with some heterogeneity but little evidence of publication bias. There was no effect of beetle species or publication year. Heterogeneity resulted from different designs and beetle population levels (as year of study. The conventional “% Reduction” measure correlated well with effect size (2=0.7. Recommendations include more precise reporting of responses (avoiding dichotomous data, more unified experimental designs, and further meta-analyses that include “grey literature” and more beetle species.

  10. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jeanne A; Pitt, Caitlin; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Yuen, Macaire M S; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg; Huber, Dezene P W

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  11. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  12. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  13. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  14. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  15. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  16. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment.

  17. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Gu, Hui-Wen, E-mail: gruyclewee@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan Province (China); Li, Chuan-Hua; Ye, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; He, Du-Gui; Yao, Fei-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup Θ} [C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}(s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol{sup −1} by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA.

  18. Western Pine Beetle Populations in Arizona and California Differ in the Composition of Their Aggregation Pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Hofstetter, Richard W; Sullivan, Brian T; Grady, Amanda M; Brownie, Cavell

    2016-05-01

    We compared pheromone production and response for populations of western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, from sites in northern Arizona and northern California. Volatiles were collected from individuals of both sexes that had mined as a pair in a Pinus ponderosa log for 1 d, and they were subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry. Principal component analysis of quantities of Dendroctonus pheromone components indicated strong site-associated clustering of blend composition for females but not males. Much of the clustering in females evidently was due to differences in the production of endo- and exo-brevicomin, which occurred in average ratios of 0.1:1 and 19:1 for populations in the California and Arizona sites, respectively. In the California site, exo- was better than endo-brevicomin in enhancing trap catches of both sexes to lures containing the host-tree odor α-pinene and the male-produced aggregation pheromone component frontalin. In an identical test in the Arizona site, endo- was a better adjuvant than exo-brevicomin for male attraction, whereas females did not show a significant preference. At neither location were the isomers antagonistic to one another in activity. Thus, one aggregation pheromone has apparently diverged between these populations, concurrent with published evidence that D. brevicomis on either side of the Great Basin are genetically distinct and are possibly different species. Furthermore, production of and response to the isomers of brevicomin by flying Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann in the Arizona site were similar to those of sympatric D. brevicomis. This interspecific signal overlap is likely sustainable since joint species mass-attacks may assist both species in overcoming host defenses, thereby increasing host availability.

  19. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  20. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A.; Runyon, Justin B.; Jenkins, Michael J.; Giunta, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species. PMID:26332317

  1. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  2. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis A Gray

    Full Text Available The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp. are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  3. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  4. The Test on Preventing the Dendroctonus Valens Leconte (DVL) by Using the Host Plant Attractant%用寄主植物引诱剂防治红脂大小蠹的试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛宛绳

    2006-01-01

    红脂大小蠹是危害油松的树干基和根部的一种害虫,近几年在山西省发生虫害面积较大,给林业生产造成重大经济损失.本次试验是在成虫飞扬盛期,用寄主植物引诱剂引诱捕杀成虫,结果表明该方法能很好地控制第二年的虫口密度,取得了事半功倍的效果.

  5. Study on the relationship between the harm generation and cutting of the Dendroctonus valens Le Conte%红脂大小蠹发生危害与采伐关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 姚印随; 李书吉; 张艳星

    2005-01-01

    红脂大小蠹发生危害与松树采伐有密切关系,新鲜伐桩对红脂大小蠹有较强的引诱作用.利用这一特性,可更加准确地掌握害虫的发生发展趋势,对指导针对该虫的监测预报和综合治理也具有重要意义.

  6. Ecology of root-feeding beetles and their associated fungi on longleaf pine in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzot, James W; Matusick, George; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2010-04-01

    Root-feeding beetles, particularly of the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae and Molytinae, are known to be effective vectors of Ophiostomatoid fungi. Infestation by these insects and subsequent infection by the Ophiostomatoid fungi may play an important role in accelerating symptom progression in pine declines. To examine the relationship between beetles and fungi in longleaf pine stands, root-feeding curculionids were collected in pitfall traps baited with ethanol and turpentine for 62 wk, and Ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from their body surfaces. The most abundant root-feeding beetles captured were Hylastes tenuis, H. salebrosus, Pachylobius picivorus, Hylobius pales, and Dendroctonus terebrans. The number of insects captured peaked in spring and fall, although peaks for different insect taxa did not coincide. The most frequently isolated fungi were Grosmannia huntii, Leptographium procerum, L. terebrantis, and L. serpens. Other Ophiostomatoid fungi recovered included Ophiostoma spp. and Pesotum spp. Insect infestation data suggest that Hylastes spp. share an ecological niche, as do Hb. pales and P. picivorus, because the ratios of their fungal symbionts were similar. The fungi associated with D. terebrans suggest that it did not share habitat with the other principle vectors.

  7. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions.

  8. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  9. Novel forest decline triggered by multiple interactions among climate, an introduced pathogen and bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen M; Daniels, Lori D

    2016-11-05

    Novel forest decline is increasing due to global environmental change, yet the causal factors and their interactions remain poorly understood. Using tree ring analyses, we show how climate and multiple biotic factors caused the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in 16 stands in the southern Canadian Rockies. In our study area, 72% of whitebark pines were dead and 18% had partially dead crowns. Tree mortality peaked in the 1970s; however, the annual basal area increment of disturbed trees began to decline significantly in the late 1940s. Growth decline persisted up to 30 years before trees died from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Ips spp. bark beetles or non-native blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). Climate-growth relations varied over time and differed among the healthy and disturbed subpopulations of whitebark pine. Prior to the 1940s, cool temperatures limited the growth of all subpopulations. Growth of live, healthy trees became limited by drought during the cool phase (1947 -1976) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and then reverted to positive correlations with temperature during the subsequent warm PDO phase. In the 1940s, the climate-growth relations of the disturbed subpopulations diverged from the live, healthy trees with trees ultimately killed by mountain pine beetle diverging the most. We propose that multiple factors interacted over several decades to cause unprecedented rates of whitebark pine mortality. Climatic variation during the cool PDO phase caused drought stress that may have predisposed trees to blister rust. Subsequent decline in snowpack and warming temperatures likely incited further climatic stress and with blister rust reduced tree resistance to bark beetles. Ultimately, bark beetles and blister rust contributed to tree death. Our findings suggest the complexity of whitebark pine decline and the importance of considering multiway drought-disease-insect interactions over various timescales when

  10. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

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    Richard R. Schneider

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  11. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  12. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  13. Efficacy of "Verbenone Plus" for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fettig, Christopher J; McKelvey, Stephen R; Dabney, Christopher P; Huber, Dezene P W; Lait, Cameron G; Fowler, Donald L; Borden, John H

    2012-10-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component semiochemcial blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (-)-verbenone] that inhibits the response of D. brevicomis to attractant-baited traps, and examine the efficacy of Verbenone Plus for protecting individual trees and forest stands from D. brevicomis infestations in British Columbia and California. In all experiments, semiochemicals were stapled around the bole of treated trees at approximately equal to 2 m in height. (-)-Verbenone alone had no effect on the density of total attacks and successful attacks by D. brevicomis on attractant-baited P. ponderosa, but significantly increased the percentage of pitchouts (unsuccessful D. brevicomis attacks). Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the density of D. brevicomis total attacks and D. brevicomis successful attacks on individual trees. A significantly higher percentage of pitchouts occurred on Verbenone Plus-treated trees. The application of Verbenone Plus to attractant-baited P. ponderosa significantly reduced levels of tree mortality. In stand protection studies, Verbenone Plus significantly reduced the percentage of trees mass attacked by D. brevicomis in one study, but in a second study no significant treatment effect was observed. Future research should concentrate on determining optimal release rates and spacings of release devices in stand protection studies, and expansion of Verbenone Plus into other systems where verbenone alone has not provided adequate levels of tree protection.

  14. Spatial genetic structure of a symbiotic beetle-fungal system: toward multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M A James

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can identify shared features that are important to gene flow and can elucidate co-evolutionary relationships. We assessed concordance in spatial genetic variation between the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae and one of its fungal symbionts, Grosmanniaclavigera, in western Canada using neutral genetic markers. We examined how spatial heterogeneity affects genetic variation within beetles and fungi and developed a novel integrated landscape genetics approach to assess reciprocal genetic influences between species using constrained ordination. We also compared landscape genetic models built using Euclidean distances based on allele frequencies to traditional pair-wise Fst. Both beetles and fungi exhibited moderate levels of genetic structure over the total study area, low levels of structure in the south, and more pronounced fungal structure in the north. Beetle genetic variation was associated with geographic location while that of the fungus was not. Pinevolume and climate explained beetle genetic variation in the northern region of recent outbreak expansion. Reciprocal genetic relationships were only detectedin the south where there has been alonger history of beetle infestations. The Euclidean distance and Fst-based analyses resulted in similar models in the north and over the entire study area, but differences between methods in the south suggest that genetic distances measures should be selected based on ecological and evolutionary contexts. The integrated landscape genetics framework we present is powerful, general, and can be applied to other systems to quantify the biotic and abiotic determinants of spatial genetic variation within and among taxa.

  15. The Beetle comparator implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Beuzekom, M G

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of the comparator thresholds on a Beetle 1.1 chip show large variations. The width of the threshold distribution is several tenths of a MIP signal for a 300 µm silicon detector, which is more than can be corrected for by individual threshold settings. Monte Carlo simulations of the production-process parameters have been performed to track the cause of this large offset spread. The main cause of the offset variation is the spread in the threshold voltage of the MOSFETs. Since this cannot easily be solved by a change in the design of the comparator as such, the solution is to increase the range of the individual threshold settings while maintaining the same resolution. This implies an increase in the number of bits for the individual thresholds. The note describes measurements and simulations for the Beetle versions 1.1 and 1.2, and the changes in the design for the Beetle 1.3.

  16. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

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    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  17. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  18. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  19. Popular knowledge: impacts and methods for controlling Achatina fulica in Valença – RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Durço

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to check the incidence of the African snail Achatina fulica in the Cambota neighborhood, Valença, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and investigate control strategies adopted by the population. Epidemiological questionnaires applied to 105 inhabitants evaluated the existence of their contact to the animal, the risk of infection by parasites, due to hygiene behaviors, and the control methods adopted. The presence of mollusks was reported in 52.5% of visited households. Out of these, 51.4% had rodents. Collected mollusks were analyzed with regard to the presence of nematodes. In the households with a positive result for the presence of A. fulica, direct contact to the mollusks was reported (21.9% by handling (often inappropriate or intake. All respondents said to use some technique for food hygiene and 67.6% said to know angiostrongyliasis. All respondents said to practice extermination of mollusks, 28.5% of them by breaking the shell. Despite the high incidence of A. fulica, larvae of Angiostrongylus sp. or other nematodes of medico-veterinary importance weren’t found in the analyzed specimens.

  20. Intra-Annual Variation in Responses by Flying Southern Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to Pheromone Component endo-Brevicomin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brian T; Brownie, Cavell; Barrett, JoAnne P

    2016-08-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endo-brevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component spacing, and proximity of beetle infestations. Anecdotal observations have further suggested that the effects of endo-brevicomin vary during the year. We investigated this possibility under nonoutbreak conditions in southwestern Mississippi where for two-and-a-half years we monitored traps baited with frontalin and the host odor alpha-pinene either (a) alone, or with an endo-brevicomin release device either (b) located directly on the trap, or (c) displaced 6 m away. The endo-brevicomin devices in our tests increased D. frontalis catches during all times of year, and 6 m displacement of the endo-brevicomin release device from the trap did not significantly alter responses except during the spring flight peak when displacement increased catches. Our data suggest that flying D. frontalis have a stronger tendency to avoid the immediate proximity of a release point of endo-brevicomin during their springtime dispersal flight when catches are greatest. Catches of Thanasimus dubius (F.) (Coleoptera: Cleridae), a major predator of D. frontalis, were not altered by endo-brevicomin, and ratios of D. frontalis to T. dubius changed over the course of the year. We discuss the possible effects of intra-annual variation in D. frontalis response to endo-brevicomin both on beetle attack behavior and use of endo-brevicomin as a lure adjuvant in D. frontalis population monitoring.

  1. Evaluating Predators and Competitors in Wisconsin Red Pine Forests for Attraction to Mountain Pine Beetle Pheromones for Anticipatory Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Krause, Adam; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-08-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an irruptive tree-killing species native to pine forests of western North America. Two potential pathways of spread to eastern forests have recently been identified. First, warming temperatures have driven range expansion from British Columbia into Albertan jack pine forests that are contiguous with the Great Lakes region. Second, high temperatures and drought have fostered largescale outbreaks within the historical range, creating economic incentives to salvage killed timber by transporting logs to midwestern markets, which risks accidental introduction. We evaluated the extent to which local predators and competitors that exploit bark beetle semiochemicals would respond to D. ponderosae in Wisconsin. We emulated D. ponderosae attack by deploying lures containing synthetic aggregation pheromones with and without host tree compounds and blank control traps in six red pine plantations over 2 yr. Predator populations were high in these stands, as evidenced by catches in positive control traps, baited with pheromones of local bark beetles and were deployed distant from behavioral choice plots. Only one predator, Thanasimus dubius F. (Coleoptera: Cleridae) was attracted to D. ponderosae's aggregation pheromones relative to blank controls, and its attraction was relatively weak. The most common bark beetles attracted to these pheromones were lower stem and root colonizers, which likely would facilitate rather than compete with D. ponderosae. There was some, but weak, attraction of potentially competing Ips species. Other factors that might influence natural enemy impacts on D. ponderosae in midwestern forests, such as phenological synchrony and exploitation of male-produced pheromones, are discussed.

  2. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  3. Os encantos do arquivo e os trabalhos do historiador: reflexões a partir da coleção Marquês de Valença

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    Eide Sandra Azev\\u00EAdo Abr\\u00EAu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article reflections will be developed about issues concerning to the relations between subject and object of historical knowledge, from the reading experience and cataloging the documents of Coleção Marquês de Valença, of Museu Paulista. Through exploration of versions of Estevão Ribeiro de Rezende's biography made by his son Estevão Ribeiro de Souza Rezende, elements are presented in order to think about different options of historical narrative, and its implications on the relation established by the historian with the sources, men of the past and readers of his own time.

  4. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  5. Commercial thinning of mature lodgepole pine to reduce susceptibility to mountain pine beetle. FRDA report No. 224, and FERIC special report No. SR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents results of a study conducted to examine the effect of commercial thinning and fertilizing of lodgepole pine on attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa Hopk.). At three study sites in the Cranbrook and Invermere Forest Districts of British Columbia, the researchers compared three harvesting treatments to an uncut control: a clearcut and commercial thins leaving trees at about 4- or 5-meter spacings. Equipment used included conventional hand-falling plus line skidders and crawler tractors, or mechanical systems including a feller-buncher, grapple-skidder, and excavator-mounted processor. The report documents the productivity and costs of the commercial thinning and clearcut harvesting operations, and compares the productivity of the equipment and practices used during the harvesting phase on each treatment. It also examines the operational feasibility of commercial thinning.

  6. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  7. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  8. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  9. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  10. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  11. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  12. Mapping Mountain Pine Beetle Mortality through Growth Trend Analysis of Time-Series Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances are key processes in the carbon cycle of forests and other ecosystems. In recent decades, mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreaks have become more frequent and extensive in western North America. Remote sensing has the ability to fill the data gaps of long-term infestation monitoring, but the elimination of observational noise and attributing changes quantitatively are two main challenges in its effective application. Here, we present a forest growth trend analysis method that integrates Landsat temporal trajectories and decision tree techniques to derive annual forest disturbance maps over an 11-year period. The temporal trajectory component successfully captures the disturbance events as represented by spectral segments, whereas decision tree modeling efficiently recognizes and attributes events based upon the characteristics of the segments. Validated against a point set sampled across a gradient of MPB mortality, 86.74% to 94.00% overall accuracy was achieved with small variability in accuracy among years. In contrast, the overall accuracies of single-date classifications ranged from 37.20% to 75.20% and only become comparable with our approach when the training sample size was increased at least four-fold. This demonstrates that the advantages of this time series work flow exist in its small training sample size requirement. The easily understandable, interpretable and modifiable characteristics of our approach suggest that it could be applicable to other ecoregions.

  13. Assessing the effects of changing climate on mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.A.; Bentz, B.J. [Forest Service, Logan, UT (United States). Intermountain Research Station; Bolstad, P.V. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Perkins, D.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources

    1995-12-31

    In general terms, global climate warming will result in exacerbated insect pest problems. This is not to say, however, that the effects of every current pest species will increase under global warming. Projections regarding a particular pest species need to be made on a case-by-case basis. For example, mountain pine beetle (MPB) populations (Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins), would benefit from global warming due to reduced winter mortality. Conversely, global warming may interfere with the maintaining of an appropriate seasonality for this non-diapausing species. Addressing such species response to modification of a basic ecological driving variable such as climate is a complex issue. Difficulty in dealing with this issue is further compounded by the fact that direct evidence is lacking and system level experimental manipulation is prohibitively expensive. The authors first describe in general terms the climatic adapted ecology of MPB and a computer model designed to represent important aspects of that ecology. Next they describe the important habitat component of mountain weather on MPB population performance and a landscape-level approach to modeling this critical driving variable. Finally, they describe a research application that uses these models to evaluate the potential of MPB outbreaks as an indication of forest health in high-elevation pine forests.

  14. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: the mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Audrey; Powell, James A; Bentz, Barbara J; Six, Diana L

    2015-03-07

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of all three partners are driven by temperature, and their idiosyncratic responses affect interactions at important life stage junctures. One critical phase for MPB-fungus symbiosis occurs just before dispersal of teneral (new) adult beetles, when fungi are acquired and transported in specialized structures (mycangia). Before dispersal, fungi must capture sufficient spatial resources within the tree to ensure contact with teneral adults and get packed into mycangia. Mycangial packing occurs at an unknown time during teneral feeding. We adapt thermal models predicting fungal growth and beetle development to predict overlap between the competing fungi and MPB teneral adult feeding windows and emergence. We consider a spectrum of mycangial packing strategies and describe them in terms of explicit functions with unknown parameters. Rates of growth are fixed by laboratory data, the unknown parameters describing various packing strategies, as well as the degree to which mycangial growth is slowed in woody tissues as compared to agar, are determined by maximum likelihood and two years of field observations. At the field location used, the most likely fungus acquisition strategy for MPB was packing mycangia just prior to emergence. Estimated model parameters suggested large differences in the relative growth rates of the two fungi in trees at the study site, with the most likely model estimating that G. clavigera grew approximately twenty-five times faster than O. montium under the bark, which is completely unexpected in comparison with observed fungal growth on agar.

  15. Rapid Induction of Multiple Terpenoid Groups by Ponderosa Pine in Response to Bark Beetle-Associated Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken; Trowbridge, Amy; Mason, Charles J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) is a major and widely distributed component of conifer biomes in western North America and provides substantial ecological and economic benefits. This tree is exposed to several tree-killing bark beetle-microbial complexes, including the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the phytopathogenic fungus Grosmannia clavigera that it vectors, which are among the most important. Induced responses play a crucial role in conifer defenses, yet these have not been reported in ponderosa pine. We compared concentrations of terpenes and a phenylpropanoid, two phytochemical classes with strong effects against bark beetles and their symbionts, in constitutive phloem tissue and in tissue following mechanical wounding or simulated D. ponderosae attack (mechanical wounding plus inoculation with G. clavigera). We also tested whether potential induced responses were localized or systemic. Ponderosa pines showed pronounced induced defenses to inoculation, increasing their total phloem concentrations of monoterpenes 22.3-fold, sesquiterpenes 56.7-fold, and diterpenes 34.8-fold within 17 days. In contrast, responses to mechanical wounding alone were only 5.2, 11.3, and 7.7-fold, respectively. Likewise, the phenylpropanoid estragole (4-allyanisole) rose to 19.1-fold constitutive levels after simulated attack but only 4.4-fold after mechanical wounding. Overall, we found no evidence of systemic induction after 17 days, which spans most of this herbivore's narrow peak attack period, as significant quantitative and compositional changes within and between terpenoid groups were localized to the wound site. Implications to the less frequent exploitation of ponderosa than lodgepole pine by D. ponderosae, and potential advantages of rapid localized over long-term systemic responses in this system, are discussed.

  16. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  17. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  18. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  19. Raising Beetles in a Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with a harmless, inexpensive, clean, odorless, and easy-to-care-for insect-rearing project for the classroom. The following topics are included: (1) instructions for the care and feeding of the beetle larvae; (2) student activities for observing larval characteristics and behavior…

  20. [Blister beetle dermatitis: Dermatitis linearis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterle, R; Faulde, M; Erkens, K

    2015-05-01

    Several families of beetles cause toxic reactions on exposed human skin. Cantharidin provokes nearly asymptomatic vesicles and blisters, while pederin leads to itching and burning erythema with vesicles and small pustules, later crusts. Paederi are attracted by fluorescent light especially after rain showers and cause outbreaks in regions with moderate climate. Clinical findings and patient history lead to the diagnosis: dermatitis linearis.

  1. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  2. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  3. Oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, D S; Christmas, T I; Greig, D E

    1990-05-01

    Blister beetle dermatosis is a distinctive vesiculobullous eruption that occurs after contact with three major groups of beetles (Order: Coleoptera). It is caused by a vesicant chemical contained in the body fluids of the beetles. The smallest and least known family is the Oedemeridae. Although there are few references in the medical literature, blister beetle dermatosis caused by oedemerids may be more common and widespread than currently recognized. The best known family is the Meloidae with numerous species worldwide causing blistering. The vesicant chemical in both Oedemeridae and Meloidae is cantharidin. The third group of blister beetles includes species of the genus Paederus (Family: Staphylinidae). The clinicopathologic picture differs because this genus contains a different vesicant agent, pederin. The clinicopathologic features of oedemerid blister beetle dermatosis are described. The world medical and relevant entomologic literature is reviewed.

  4. From the turtle to the beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Romagosa Carrasquer, Bernat

    2016-01-01

    Beetle Blocks is a visual, blocks-based programming language/environment for 3D design and fabrication, implemented on top of Berkeley Snap! and the ThreeJS 3D graphics library. Beetle Blocks programs move a graphical beetle around a 3D world, where it can place 3D shapes, extrude its path as a tube and generate geometry in other ways. The resulting 3D geometry can be exported as a 3D-printable file. Beetle Blocks also aims to offer a cloud system and social platform meant to provide the comm...

  5. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brink, D J [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Berg, N G van der [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Prinsloo, L C [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa); Hodgkinson, I J [Department of Physics, University of Otago, Dunedin (New Zealand)

    2007-04-07

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  6. Unusual coloration in scarabaeid beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, D. J.; van der Berg, N. G.; Prinsloo, L. C.; Hodgkinson, I. J.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the reflection of circularly polarized light from the exocuticle of the scarabaeid beetle Gymnopleurus virens. Reflection spectra are deeply modulated, exhibiting a number of relatively narrow well-defined peaks, which differ from previously studied specimens. By comparing model calculations and electron microscopy work with the recorded spectra, we can propose the presence of specific structural defects responsible for the unusual spectra.

  7. Tree-ring isotopes reveal drought sensitivity in trees killed by spruce beetle outbreaks in south-central Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csank, Adam Z; Miller, Amy E; Sherriff, Rosemary L; Berg, Edward E; Welker, Jeffrey M

    2016-10-01

    Increasing temperatures have resulted in reduced growth and increased tree mortality across large areas of western North American forests. We use tree-ring isotope chronologies (δ(13) C and δ(18) O) from live and dead trees from four locations in south-central Alaska, USA, to test whether white spruce trees killed by recent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) outbreaks showed evidence of drought stress prior to death. Trees that were killed were more sensitive to spring/summer temperature and/or precipitation than trees that survived. At two of our sites, we found greater correlations between the δ(13) C and δ(18) O chronologies and spring/summer temperatures in dead trees than in live trees, suggesting that trees that are more sensitive to temperature-induced drought stress are more likely to be killed. At one site, the difference between δ(13) C in live and dead trees was related to winter/spring precipitation, with dead trees showing stronger correlations between δ(13) C and precipitation, again suggesting increased water stress in dead trees. At all sites where δ(18) O was measured, δ(18) O chronologies showed the greatest difference in climate response between live and dead groups, with δ(18) O in live trees correlating more strongly with late winter precipitation than dead trees. Our results indicate that sites where trees are already sensitive to warm or dry early growing-season conditions experienced the most beetle-kill, which has important implications for forecasting future mortality events in Alaska.

  8. Net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and evapotranspiration response of a high elevation Rocky Mountain (Wyoming, USA) forest to a bark beetle epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Ewers, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Bark beetle epidemics have caused major disturbance in the forests of western North America where significant tree mortality alters the balance of ecosystem photosynthesis, carbon balance, and water exchange. In this study we investigate the change in the growing-season light-response of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide (NEE) and evapotranspiration (ET) in a high elevation Rocky Mountain forest over the three years preceding and three years following a bark beetle outbreak. The GLEES AmeriFlux site (southeastern Wyoming, USA) is located in a high elevation subalpine forest dominated by Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and recently experienced an epidemic of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis). The peak beetle outbreak occurred in 2008, and has impacted 35% of the stems and 90% of the basal area of Engelmann spruce, which accounts for 30% of the trees and 70% of the basal area of the forest. Two semi-empirical light response curves for eddy-covariance carbon flux were compared, with a logistic sigmoid performing better because of residual bias than a rectangular hyperbola (Michaelis-Menten) at estimating the quantum yield of photosynthesis. In the first two years after the peak beetle outbreak the original quantum yield of 0.015 mol mol-1 was reduced by 25%. By the third year it was reduced by a half, which was composed of declines of 45% in the ecosystem's responses to diffuse radiation and 60% to direct radiation. The light-saturated rate of photosynthesis decreased by 10% in the first two years post outbreak, and fell by 40% in the third year. After the peak outbreak, the cumulative NEE over the growing season was reduced by over a half from a sink of 185 gC m-2 to 80 gC m-2, and by the third year it was reduced to near zero, or carbon neutral. The change in the ET response to light was similar in all years after the peak outbreak where the slope of the response curve was decreased by 25%. This led to a

  9. 华山松大小蠹化学信息物质%Semiochemicals of Dendroctonus armandi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寿安; 丁彦

    2010-01-01

    在常温下(25℃)解剖华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li)的雌、雄虫,以正己烷为溶剂提取华山松大小蠹的后肠和粪便挥发物,并进行GC-MS分析.结果表明:在室温状态下,雌虫后肠挥发物中含有23种物质,主要为萜酸类、萜烯类、雌雄甾类、醇类和醛类等;雄虫后肠中有25种,以有机酸(树脂型萜酸居多)、酯类化合物和萜烯类化合物为其主要成分;粪便中有33种,树脂型的萜酸最多.华山松大小蠹的化学活性物质以萜类化合物为主.

  10. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    burial; cone opening; Dendroctonus ponderosae; ground-foraging vertebrates; mountain pine beetle; natural regeneration; Pinus contorta var. latifolia; Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine; seed banks; serotiny (canopy seed storage); Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

  11. An innovative aerial assessment of Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem mountain pine beetle-caused whitebark pine mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, William W; Logan, Jesse A; Kern, Wilson R

    2013-03-01

    An innovative aerial survey method called the Landscape Assessment System (LAS) was used to assess mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae)-caused mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) across the species distribution in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE; 894 774 ha). This large-scale implementation of the LAS method consisted of 8673 km of flight lines, along which 4653 geo-tagged, oblique aerial photos were captured at the catchment level (a subset of 12-digit USGS hydrologic units) and geographic information system (GIS) processed. The Mountain Pine Beetle-caused Mortality Rating System, a landscape-scale classification system designed specifically to measure the cumulative effects of recent and older MPB attacks on whitebark pine, was used to classify mortality with a rating from 0 to 6 based on the amount of red (recent attack) and gray (old attack) trees visible. The approach achieved a photo inventory of 79% of the GYE whitebark pine distribution. For the remaining 21%, mortality levels were estimated based on an interpolated surface. Results that combine the photo-inventoried and interpolated mortality indicate that nearly half (46%) of the GYE whitebark pine distribution showed severe mortality (3-4 or 5.3-5.4 rating), 36% showed moderate mortality (2-2.9 rating), 13% showed low mortality (1-1.9 rating), and 5% showed trace levels of mortality (0-0.9). These results reveal that the proliferation of MPB in the subalpine zone of the GYE due to climate warming has led to whitebark pine mortality that is more severe and widespread than indicated from either previous modeling research or USDA Forest Service Aerial Detection surveys. Sixteen of the 22 major mountain ranges of the GYE have experienced widespread moderate-to-severe mortality. The majority of catchments in the other six mountain ranges show low-to-moderate mortality. Refugia from MPB outbreaks, at least for now, also exist and correspond to locations that have colder

  12. 外来入侵林业害虫强大小蠹的侵袭以及相关信息化学物质%An ivasive alien species-Dendroctonus valens: damages in forestry in China and its semiochemicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫争亮; 孙江华; 张钟宁

    2003-01-01

    强大小蠹是入侵我国并造成很大危害的鞘翅目棘胫小蠹科大小蠹属树皮低干森林害虫.它能侵害多种针叶树和松树,能被寄主挥发物和其它小蠹虫的外激素所引诱.该文综述了强大小蠹的侵袭习性以及寄主挥发物、其它小蠹虫的外激素对强大小蠹的引诱和驱避作用.

  13. Preliminary analysis of the incidence of Dendroctonus valens LeCconte in the forest area of Huanglong Mountain and the control suggestions%黄龙山林区红脂大小蠹发生原因初析及防治意见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海东; 李玉侠; 党太合

    2004-01-01

    红脂大小蠹是20世纪末以来,在黄龙山林区油松林内发现并产生严重危害的一种危险性害虫,被称为"不冒烟的森林火灾".阐述了红脂大小蠹的发生原因,并对防治工作提出了初步意见.

  14. 不同小蠹类与天牛类引诱剂联用对蛀干甲虫的林间诱捕效果%Field efficacy of combinations of attractants for bark beetles and longicorn beetles in trapping wood-boring beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义平; 郭瑞; 邓建宇; 张真

    2013-01-01

    Monochamus alternatus Hope is the primary vector for spreading pine wilt disease.Use of attractants in the control of M.alternatus population is effective and pollution-free.In this study,the field test was conducted to evaluate the attractiveness of M.alternatus attractant combined with six kinds of bark beetle attractants to M.alternatus adults.The results showed that there was no significant difference among the combinations of each of bark beetle attractants for Tomicus minor Hartig (3-carene-10-ol),Ips typographus Linnaeus (2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol),Scolytus multistriatus Marsham (4-methyl-3-heptanol),and T.piniperda Linnaeus (verbenol) with M.alternatus attractant (P < 0.05).The combinations of attractants for either Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (exo-brevicomin) or D.pseudotsugae (1-methylcyclohex-2-en-l-ol) with M.alternatus attractant were less attractive to M.alternatus.Compared with M.alternatus attractant used only,the combination of either D.brevicomis or D.pseudotsugae with M.alternatus attractant was also less attractive as indicated by the species and number of wood-boring beetle individuals captured.%松墨天牛Monochamus alternatus Hope是传播松材线虫病的主要媒介,引诱剂是抑制松墨天牛种群数量的无公害调控有效方式之一.本研究通过在中国浙江富阳的林间试验测定了6种小蠹类引诱剂与1种天牛引诱剂不同组合联用对松墨天牛成虫以及其他蛀干害虫的诱捕效果.结果表明:横坑切梢小蠹Tomicus minor引诱剂3-carene-10-ol、云杉八齿小蠹Ips typoyraphus引诱剂2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol、欧洲榆小蠹Scolytus multistriatus引诱剂4-methyl-3-heptanol和纵坑切梢小蠹T.piniperda引诱剂verbenol分别与松墨天牛引诱剂联用后,对松墨天牛的引诱效果无显著性差异(P<0.05).西部松大小蠹Dendroctonus brevicomis引诱剂exo-brevicomin或黄杉大小蠹D.pseudotsugae引诱剂1-methylcyclohex-2-en-l-ol与松墨天牛引诱剂联用后对松墨

  15. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  16. Polarisation vision: beetles see circularly polarised light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2010-07-27

    It has long been known that the iridescent cuticle of many scarab beetles reflects circularly polarised light. It now turns out that scarabs can also see this light, potentially using it as a covert visual signal.

  17. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  18. APPROACHES TO ENGINEER STABILITY OF BEETLE LUCIFERASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I. Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  19. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  20. Longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Chhattisgarh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Majumder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of longhorned beetles of Chhattisgarh state has been attempted for the first time resulting in the enumeration of 10 species belonging to 8 genera and 6 tribes under 2 subfamilies. The descriptions of these species and distribution in Chhattisgarh and India are provided. Being economically important, the present account on longhorned beetles is important as it might help the state forest authorities to adopt control measures to minimize damage caused by these insects.

  1. New longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent data (Ilić, 2005 indicate the presence of 245 longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in Serbia. Not included in the mentioned publication, the following five species should be added to the list: Cortodera discolor Fairmaire, 1866; Stenopterus similatus Holzschuh 1979; Chlorophorus aegyptiacus (Fabricius, 1775; Agapanthia osmanlis (Reiche, 1858; Agapanthia maculicornis (Gyllenhal, 1817 (Pil and Stojanović in press. A total number of 250 species are presently known for the Serbian longhorn beetle fauna.

  2. 落叶松大小蠹在中国适生性分析%Analysis of suitability for Dendroctonus simplex Leconte in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王齐; 王志明; 郭建波; 魏春艳; 洪泽源

    2010-01-01

    运用CLIMEX软件和ArcGIS软件,对落叶松大小蠹Dendroctonus simplex Leconte在中国的适生区进行了预测.结果表明:落叶松大小蠹在我国有很高的适生性,适生范围涉及30个省、市、区,其中黑龙江、吉林、内蒙古、新疆东部、西藏中部和青海为高度适生区.

  3. Pesquisa de anticorpos para arbovírus no soro de residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia Research of antibodies to arbovirus in the serum of residentes of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tavares-Neto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo sorológico para verificação da presença de anticorpos para arbovírus em 288 indivíduos, residentes no povoado de Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. Foram observados anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação e neutralizantes em 3.8% da amostra com a seguinte distribuição para flavivírus: Ilhéus (6, St. Louis (2, febre amarela (3, Rocio (1. Em um indivíduo, com residência anterior na Região Norte foram detectados anticorpos para Mayaro. Em 75 indivíduos testados aleatoriamente não foram observados anticorpos neutralizantes para o vesiculovírus Piry. Em outros 28 indivíduos, também selecionados ao acaso, anticorpos fixadores de complemento não foram detectados para os vírus dos grupos Changuinola, Phlebotomus e não grupados BE AR 408005 e BE AR 421710. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de estudos complementares para esclarecer a transmissão do vírus na área.A serological survey for research on antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 288 residents to the rural zone of the village of Corte de Pedra, Valença, Bahia. It was observed that 3.8% of the sample population presented HI and N antibodies against Flaviviruses (Ilhéus 6. St, Louis 2, Yellow fever 3 and Rocio 1. One person, who had previously lived in the Amazon region, had antibodies to Mayaro. The authors were unable to detect either N antibodies for Piry virus in a random sample of 75 persons or CF antibodies against viruses of the Changuinola and Phlebotomus groups and ungrouped BE AR 408005 and BE AR 421710 in another random sample of 28 individuals. Complementary studies should be conducted in order to define the transmission of the different viruses in the area.

  4. BeetleBase: the model organism database for Tribolium castaneum

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liangjiang; Wang, Suzhi; Li, Yonghua; Paradesi, Martin S. R.; Brown, Susan J

    2006-01-01

    BeetleBase () is an integrated resource for the Tribolium research community. The red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) is an important model organism for genetics, developmental biology, toxicology and comparative genomics, the genome of which has recently been sequenced. BeetleBase is constructed to integrate the genomic sequence data with information about genes, mutants, genetic markers, expressed sequence tags and publications. BeetleBase uses the Chado data model and software component...

  5. Aquatic beetle species and their distributions in Xinjiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ling; JIA Feng-long; Tursun Dilbar; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2009-01-01

    The species of aquatic beetles and their distributions in lotic and lentic habitats were investigated during July to August of 2005 and 2006 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. A total of 66 species belonging to 7 beetle families (Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Helophoridae, Noteridae, Hydraenidae, Hydrophilidae) are recorded, of which 16 are new records of aquatic beetles for China.

  6. A suitability analysis of Dendroctonus ponderosae in China%中欧山松大小蠹在中国的适生性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜宇; 姚剑; 李生贵; 马平; 蒋小龙

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is one of the most important pests causing considerable economic losses of Pinus in America.Based on global distribution of D.ponderosae and global climate data, its potential suitable distribution in China was predicted by using BIOCLIM ecological niche modeling and ArcGIS.The results indicated that the optimum establishment areas were most areas of northern and northeastern China and parts of southwestern China.The predicted potential distribution of D.ponderosae in China was illustrated by ArcGIS.%中欧山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)是严重危害松类针叶树种的蛀干害虫.本文基于气象数据,利用BIOCLIM生态位模型对中欧山松大小蠹在我国的适生区进行了分析,结果显示该小蠹能广泛分布在华北、东北的大部分地区和西南的部分地区,提供了ArcGIS适生区预测分布图.

  7. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  8. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E.; Huckaby, Laurie S.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances are increasing globally due to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate. This study determines whether a disturbance that affects the physiology of individual trees can be used to predict the response of the ecosystem by weighing two competing hypothesis at annual time scales: (a) changes in ecosystem fluxes are proportional to observable patterns of mortality or (b) to explain ecosystem fluxes the physiology of dying trees must also be incorporated. We evaluate these hypotheses by analyzing 6 years of eddy covariance flux data collected throughout the progression of a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in a Wyoming Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest and testing for changes in canopy conductance (gc), evapotranspiration (ET), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. We predict from these hypotheses that (a) gc, ET, and NEE all diminish (decrease in absolute magnitude) as trees die or (b) that (1) gc and ET decline as trees are attacked (hydraulic failure from beetle-associated blue-stain fungi) and (2) NEE diminishes both as trees are attacked (restricted gas exchange) and when they die. Ecosystem fluxes declined as the outbreak progressed and the epidemic was best described as two phases: (I) hydraulic failure caused restricted gc, ET (28 ± 4% decline, Bayesian posterior mean ± standard deviation), and gas exchange (NEE diminished 13 ± 6%) and (II) trees died (NEE diminished 51 ± 3% with minimal further change in ET to 36 ± 4%). These results support hypothesis b and suggest that model predictions of ecosystem fluxes following massive disturbances must be modified to account for changes in tree physiological controls and not simply observed mortality.

  9. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  10. Prevalência de ametropias e oftalmopatias no quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Souza Couto Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias na população do Quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 92 indivíduos de uma população de 102 pessoas da comunidade Quilombola em São José da Serra. Todos foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica completa, incluindo anamnese, ectoscopia ocular, medida da acuidade visual, teste de estereopsia, reflexo vermelho, cobertura monocular, Hirschberg, refração objetiva, subjetiva, biomicroscopia, tonometria de aplanação de GoldmannR, tonometria de sopro e fundoscopia direta ou binocular indireta usando lente de 20D. RESULTADOS: Foram examinados cerca de 90,19% da população quilombola, sendo 61,95% do sexo feminino e 38,04% do sexo masculino. A idade variou de 6 meses a 89 anos. Foram encontrados ametropias com necessidade de correção óptica em 23,91% dos indivíduos sendo mais frequente a presbiopia associada à hipermetropia, miopia e/ou astigmatismo com prevalência de 59,09% dos indivíduos examinados, seguido da presbiopia isolada em 22,72%, do astigmatismo hipermetrópico em 13,63% e do astigmatismo miópico em 4,54% dos examinados. Em relação às oftalmopatias encontraram-se catarata senil em 7,61%, ambliopia refracional em 6,52%, atrofia do epitélio pigmentar da retina e atrofia peripapilar em 2,17%, glaucoma em 1,09%, pterígio em 1,09%, retinocoroidite por toxoplasmose em 1,09% e hipopigmentação retiniana (albinismo ocular em 1,09%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência das ametropias e doenças oculares no Quilombo São José da Serra foi de 23,9%(22/92 e 20,6%(19/92, respectivamente.

  11. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  12. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  13. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  14. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  15. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis spec

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  17. Cuticle formation and pigmentation in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Mi Young; Muthukrishnan, Subbaratnam; Kramer, Karl J; Arakane, Yasuyuki

    2016-10-01

    Adult beetles (Coleoptera) are covered primarily by a hard exoskeleton or cuticle. For example, the beetle elytron is a cuticle-rich highly modified forewing structure that shields the underlying hindwing and dorsal body surface from a variety of harmful environmental factors by acting as an armor plate. The elytron comes in a variety of colors and shapes depending on the coleopteran species. As in many other insect species, the cuticular tanning pathway begins with tyrosine and is responsible for production of a variety of melanin-like and other types of pigments. Tanning metabolism involves quinones and quinone methides, which also act as protein cross-linking agents for cuticle sclerotization. Electron microscopic analyses of rigid cuticles of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, have revealed not only numerous horizontal chitin-protein laminae but also vertically oriented columnar structures called pore canal fibers. This structural architecture together with tyrosine metabolism for cuticle tanning is likely to contribute to the rigidity and coloration of the beetle exoskeleton.

  18. Isolation of pristionchus nematodes from beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Robbie; Schlager, Benjamin; Sommer, Ralf J

    2008-10-01

    INTRODUCTIONIn this procedure, nematodes disembark from a beetle carcass and feed on Escherichia coli OP50. The nematodes are then monitored for a few days and identified using simple morphological characteristics. This method is rapid, easy, and biased for Pristionchus species.

  19. Tenebrionid Beetles of the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcuzzi, Giorgio

    1962-01-01

    The present paper deals with the results of my investigations regarding the tenebrionid beetles of the Antilles, north of Trinidad. For this work, use has been made of the magnificent collections assembled by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK, of a number of specimens gathered by Dr. H. J. MAC GILLAVRY as

  20. Tiger beetle's pursuit of prey depends on distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noest, Robert; Wang, Jane

    2015-03-01

    Tiger beetles are fast predators capable of chasing prey under closed-loop visual guidance. We investigated their control system using high-speed digital recordings of beetles chasing a moving prey dummy in a laboratory arena. Analysis reveals that the beetle uses a proportional control law in which the angular position of the prey relative to the beetle's body axis drives the beetle's angular velocity with a delay of about 28 ms. The system gain is shown to depend on the beetle-prey distance in a pattern indicating three hunting phases over the observed distance domain. We show that to explain this behavior the tiger beetle must be capable of visually determining the distance to its target and using that to adapt the gain in its proportional control law. We will end with a discussion on the possible methods for distance detection by the tiger beetle and focus on two of them. Motion parallax, using the natural head sway induced by the walking gait of the tiger beetle, is shown to have insufficient distance range. However elevation in the field of vision, using the angle with respect to the horizon at which a target is observed, has a much larger distance range and is a prime candidate for the mechanism of visual distance detection in the tiger beetle.

  1. Wildfires, mountain pine beetle and large-scale climate in Northern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Fauria, M.; Johnson, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    Research on the interactions between biosphere and atmosphere and ocean/atmosphere dynamics, concretely on the coupling between ecological processes and large-scale climate, is presented in two studies in Northern North America: the occurrence of large lightning wildfires and the forest area affected by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB). In both cases, large-scale climatic patterns such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Arctic Oscillation (AO) operate as low and low and high frequency frameworks, respectively, that control the occurrence, duration and spatial correlation over large areas of key local weather variables which affect specific ecological processes. Warm PDO phases tend to produce persistent (more than 10 days long) positive mid-troposphere anomalies (blocking highs) over western Canada and Alaska. Likewise, positive (negative) AO configurations increase the frequency of blocking highs at mid (high) latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Under these conditions, lack of precipitation and prevailing warm air meridional flow rapidly dry fuel over large areas and increase fire hazard. The spatiotemporal patterns of occurrence of large lightning wildfire in Canada and Alaska for 1959-1999 were largely explained by the action and possible interaction of AO and PDO, the AO being more influential over Eastern Canada, the PDO over Western Canada and Alaska. Changes in the dynamics of the PDO are linked to the occurrence of cold winter temperatures in British Columbia (BC), Western Canada. Reduced frequency of cold events during warm PDO winters is consistent with a northward-displaced polar jet stream inhibiting the outflow of cold Arctic air over BC. Likewise, the AO influences the occurrence of winter cold spells in the area. PDO, and to a lesser degree AO, were strongly related to MPB synchrony in BC during 1959-2002, operating through the control of the frequency of extreme cold winter temperatures that affect MPB larvae

  2. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  3. Monkey and dung beetle activities influence soil seed bank structure

    OpenAIRE

    Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François; Jouard, Sylvie; Gomez, Doris

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In Neotropical forests, dung beetles act as efficient secondary dispersers of seeds that are dispersed primarily by red howler monkeys. Here, we investigated the origins of soil seed bank variability in relation to monkey and dung beetle activity, to assess the impact of dung beetles on seed fate, and their adaptability to resource availability. This question is important to better understand the process of tree regeneration, and is especially timely in the current con...

  4. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment.

  5. Explaining the saproxylic beetle diversity of a protected Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Micó, Estefanía; García López, Alejandra; Brustel, Hervé; Padilla, Ascension; Galante, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Saproxylic beetle diversity is high at the Cabañeros National Park (central Spain), where woodland habitats exhibit remarkable heterogeneity. Our aim was to explain the diversity of saproxylic beetles, focusing on species turnover among mature woodland types. We surveyed five woodland types that represented the heterogeneity of the park’s woodland habitats. Beetles were collected using window traps over a period of 20 months. The Jaccard Similarity Index was used as indirect value of beta div...

  6. Colorado potato beetle toxins revisited: evidence the beetle does not sequester host plant glycoalkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armer, Christine A

    2004-04-01

    The Colorado potato beetle feeds only on glycoalkaloid-laden solanaceous plants, appears to be toxic to predators, and has aposematic coloration, suggesting the beetle may sequester alkaloids from its host plants. This study tested 4th instars and adults, as well as isolated hemolymph and excrement, to determine if the beetles sequester, metabolize, or excrete alkaloids ingested from their host plants. HPLC analysis showed: that neither the larvae nor the adults sequestered either solanine or chaconine from potato foliage; that any alkaloids in the beetles were at concentrations well below 1 ppm; and that alkaloids were found in the excrement of larvae at approximately the same concentrations as in foliage. Analysis of alkaloids in the remains of fed-upon leaflet halves plus excreta during 24 hr feeding by 4th instars, as compared to alkaloids in the uneaten halves of the leaflets, showed that equal amounts of alkaloids were excreted as were ingested. The aposematic coloration probably warns of a previously-identified toxic dipeptide instead of a plant-derived alkaloid, as the Colorado potato beetle appears to excrete, rather than sequester or metabolize, the alkaloids from its host plants.

  7. iBeetle-Base: a database for RNAi phenotypes in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dönitz, Jürgen; Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Grossmann, Daniela; Gerischer, Lizzy; Tech, Maike; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The iBeetle-Base (http://ibeetle-base.uni-goettingen.de) makes available annotations of RNAi phenotypes, which were gathered in a large scale RNAi screen in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (iBeetle screen). In addition, it provides access to sequence information and links for all Tribolium castaneum genes. The iBeetle-Base contains the annotations of phenotypes of several thousands of genes knocked down during embryonic and metamorphic epidermis and muscle development in addition to phenotypes linked to oogenesis and stink gland biology. The phenotypes are described according to the EQM (entity, quality, modifier) system using controlled vocabularies and the Tribolium morphological ontology (TrOn). Furthermore, images linked to the respective annotations are provided. The data are searchable either for specific phenotypes using a complex 'search for morphological defects' or a 'quick search' for gene names and IDs. The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has become an important model system for insect functional genetics and is a representative of the most species rich taxon, the Coleoptera, which comprise several devastating pests. It is used for studying insect typical development, the evolution of development and for research on metabolism and pest control. Besides Drosophila, Tribolium is the first insect model organism where large scale unbiased screens have been performed.

  8. Allozyme gene diversities in some leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafsur, E S

    1999-08-01

    Gene diversity at allozyme loci was investigated in the bean leaf beetle, Ceratoma trifurcata Forster; the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola (Muller); the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta Fabricus; the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte; the southern corn rootworm, also called the spotted cucumber beetle, D. undecimpunctata howardi Baker; the northern corn rootworm, D. barberi Smith and Lawrence; and the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). Six of these species are economically important pests of crops and display adaptive traits that may correlate with genetic diversity. Gene diversity H(E) in bean leaf beetles was 17.7 +/- 4.0% among 32 loci. In western corn rootworms, H(E) = 4.8 +/- 2.0% among 36 loci, and in spotted cucumber beetles, H(E) = 11.9 +/- 2.7% among 39 loci. Diversity among 27 loci was 10.5 +/- 4.3% in the Colorado potato beetle. The data were compared with gene diversity estimates from other leaf beetle species in which heterozygosities varied from 0.3 to 21% and no correlation was detected among heterozygosities, geographic ranges, or population densities. Distributions of single-locus heterozygosities were consistent with selective neutrality of alleles.

  9. Lehr's fields of campaniform sensilla in beetles (Coleoptera): functional morphology. III. Modification of elytral mobility or shape in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid; Gorb, Stanislav; Radchenko, Vladimir; Gladun, Dmytro

    2015-03-01

    Some flying beetles have peculiar functional properties of their elytra, if compared with the vast majority of beetles. A "typical" beetle covers its pterothorax and the abdomen from above with closed elytra and links closed elytra together along the sutural edges. In the open state during flight, the sutural edges diverge much more than by 90°. Several beetles of unrelated taxa spread wings through lateral incisions on the elytra and turn the elytron during opening about 10-12° (Cetoniini, Scarabaeus, Gymnopleurus) or elevate their elytra without partition (Sisyphus, Tragocerus). The number of campaniform sensilla in their elytral sensory field is diminished in comparison with beetles of closely related taxa lacking that incision. Elytra are very short in rove beetles and in long-horn beetles Necydalini. The abundance of sensilla in brachyelytrous long-horn beetles Necydalini does not decrease in comparison with macroelytrous Cerambycinae. Strong reduction of the sensory field was found in brachyelytrous Staphylinidae. Lastly, there are beetles lacking the linkage of the elytra down the sutural edge (stenoelytry). Effects of stenoelytry were also not uniform: Oedemera and flying Meloidae have the normal amount of sensilla with respect to their body size, whereas the sensory field in the stenoelytrous Eulosia bombyliformis is 5-6 times less than in chafers of the same size but with normally linking broad elytra.

  10. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format.

  11. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera) of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh; TIRGARI, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids ar...

  12. Tenebrio beetles use magnetic inclination compass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vácha, Martin; Drštková, Dana; Půžová, Tereza

    2008-08-01

    Animals that guide directions of their locomotion or their migration routes by the lines of the geomagnetic field use either polarity or inclination compasses to determine the field polarity (the north or south direction). Distinguishing the two compass types is a guideline for estimation of the molecular principle of reception and has been achieved for a number of animal groups, with the exception of insects. A standard diagnostic method to distinguish a compass type is based on reversing the vertical component of the geomagnetic field, which leads to the opposite reactions of animals with two different compass types. In the present study, adults of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor were tested by means of a two-step laboratory test of magnetoreception. Beetles that were initially trained to memorize the magnetic position of the light source preferred, during the subsequent test, this same direction, pursuant geomagnetic cues only. In the following step, the vertical component was reversed between the training and the test. The beetles significantly turned their preferred direction by 180°. Our results brought until then unknown original findings that insects, represented here by the T. molitor species, use—in contrast to another previously researched Arthropod, spiny lobster—the inclination compass.

  13. Endocrine control of exaggerated traits in rhinoceros beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile hormone (JH) is a key insect growth regulator involved in modulating phenotypically plastic traits in insects such as caste determination in eusocial species, wing polymorphisms in aphids, and mandible size in stag beetle. Male stag beetles have sexually-dimorphic, condition-dependent expre...

  14. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  15. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  16. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle. A

  17. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  18. Callosobruchus maculatus: A Seed Beetle with a Future in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockery, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Recommends the use of seed beetles for studying animal behavior and provides suggestions for practical and project assignments. Sources for obtaining the beetles and a list of the equipment needed for their study and maintenance are provided. Answers to common concerns are addressed. (DDR)

  19. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  20. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin...... and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open...... and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  1. Microorganisms in the gut of beetles: evidence from molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Suh, Sung-Oui; Blackwell, Meredith

    2003-11-01

    We have regularly cultured yeasts from the gut of certain beetles in our ongoing research. In this study cloned PCR products amplified from the gut contents of certain mushroom-feeding and wood-ingesting beetles in four families (Erotylidae, Tenebrionidae, Ciidae, and Passalidae) were sequenced and compared with culture results. Cultural techniques detected some yeasts present in the gut of the beetles, including a Pichia stipitis-like yeast associated with wood-ingesting passalid beetles. Clone sequences similar to several ascomycete yeasts and Malassezia restricta, a fastidious basidiomycetous yeast requiring special growth media, however, were not detected by culturing. Unexpectedly, phylogenetic analysis of additional clone sequences discovered from passalid beetles showed similarity to members of the Parabasalia, protists known from other wood-ingesting insects, termites, and wood roaches. Examination of all gut regions of living passalids, however, failed to reveal parabasalids, and it is possible that they were parasites in the gut tissue present in low numbers.

  2. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Biological Character of Dendroctonus armandi%华山松大小蠹生物学特性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴旺; 张紫晋; 杨伟; 杨春平; 李峰

    2014-01-01

    通过林间和室内观察相结合的方法,研究了四川省南江县华山松大小蠢Dendroctonus armandi的生活史和生活习性.试验结果表明,华山松大小蠹在南江县1 a发生1代或2a发生3代,主要以幼虫在树干韧皮部越冬,极少数以成虫和卵越冬.越冬幼虫化蛹始见于3月下旬,4月~5月为化蛹盛期,成虫于4月中下旬开始扬飞,5月~6月为盛期.成虫产卵期始于4月下旬,7月新一代成虫开始出孔扬飞,部分幼虫直接进入越冬阶段.

  4. Breaking out and Revelation of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Canada%加拿大高山陆均松大小蠹的爆发与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁一萍

    2006-01-01

    高山陆均松大小蠹(Dendroctonus ponderosae)在加拿大不列颠哥伦比亚省爆发,严重地危害主要树种之一的小干松(pinus contorta).高山陆均松大小蠹的爆发过程经历了局部危害、爆发阶段、失控阶段,对环境破坏,并产生巨大经济损失,对社会的影响也极为严重.目前的防治措施主要是火烧、诱杀、卫生伐、化学防治、抢救性采伐.高山陆均松大小蠹的爆发,给人带来启示:全球气候变化对林业的影响不容忽视;树种结构单一化严重阻碍森林的可持续利用;政策的滞后同样带来危害性.

  5. Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Caldwell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in sequestering carbon and offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but changing disturbance regimes may compromise the capability of forests to store carbon. In the Southern Rocky Mountains, a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB has caused levels of tree mortality that are unprecedented in recorded history. To evaluate the long-term impacts of both this insect outbreak and another characteristic disturbance in these forests, high-severity wildfire, we simulated potential changes in species composition and carbon stocks using the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS. Simulations were completed for 3 scenarios (no disturbance, actual MPB infestation, and modeled wildfire using field data collected in 2010 at 97 plots in the lodgepole pine-dominated forests of eastern Grand County, Colorado, which were heavily impacted by MPB after 2002. Results of the simulations showed that (1 lodgepole pine remained dominant over time in all scenarios, with basal area recovering to pre-disturbance levels 70–80 yr after disturbance; (2 wildfire caused a greater magnitude of change than did MPB in both patterns of succession and distribution of carbon among biomass pools; (3 levels of standing-live carbon returned to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 vs. 50 yr following MPB vs. wildfire disturbance, respectively, but took 120 vs. 150 yr to converge with conditions in the undisturbed scenario. Lodgepole pine forests appear to be relatively resilient to both of the disturbances we modeled, although changes in climate, future disturbance regimes, and other factors may significantly affect future rates of regeneration and ecosystem response.

  6. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  7. Phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) reveals a Gondwanan origin of Darwin's stag beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Il; Farrell, Brian D

    2015-05-01

    Stag beetles (family Lucanidae Latreille, 1804) are one of the earliest branching lineages of scarab beetles that are characterized by the striking development of the male mandibles. Despite stag beetles' popularity among traditional taxonomists and amateur collectors, there has been almost no study of lucanid relationships and evolution. Entomologists, including Jeannel (1942), have long recognized resemblance between the austral stag beetles of the tribes Chiasognathini, Colophonini, Lamprimini, Pholidotini, Rhyssonotini, and Streptocerini, but this hypothesis of their close relationship across the continents has never been tested. To gain further insight into lucanid phylogeny and biogeography, we reconstructed the first molecular phylogeny of world stag beetles using DNA sequences from mitochondrial 16S rDNA, nuclear 18S and 28S rDNA, and the nuclear protein-coding (NPC) gene wingless for 93 lucanid species representing all extant subfamilies and 24 out of the 27 tribes, together with 14 representative samples of other early branching scarabaeoid families and two staphyliniform beetle families as outgroups. Both Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood inference (MLI) strongly supported the monophyly of Lucanidae sensu lato that includes Diphyllostomatidae. Within Lucanidae sensu stricto, the subfamilies Lucaninae and Lampriminae appeared monophyletic under both methods of phylogenetic inferences; however, Aesalinae and Syndesinae were found to be polyphyletic. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on five fossil data estimated the origin of crown group Lucanidae as circa 160 million years ago (MYA). Divergence between the Neotropical and Australasian groups of the Chiasognathini was estimated to be circa 47MYA, with the South African Colophonini branching off from the ancient Chiasognathini lineage around 87MYA. Another Gondwanan relationship was recovered between the Australasian Eucarteria and the Neotropical Casignetus, which diverged circa 58MYA. Lastly

  8. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  9. Fortifying the forest: thinning and burning increase resistance to a bark beetle outbreak and promote forest resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Sharon M; Baker, Stephen; Sala, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Fire frequency in low-elevation coniferous forests in western North America has greatly declined since the late 1800s. In many areas, this has increased tree density and the proportion of shade-tolerant species, reduced resource availability, and increased forest susceptibility to forest insect pests and high-severity wildfire. In response, treatments are often implemented with the goal of increasing ecosystem resilience by increasing resistance to disturbance. We capitalized on an existing replicated study of fire and stand density treatments in a ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)-Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forest in western Montana, USA, that experienced a naturally occurring mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak 5 yr after implementation of fuels treatments. We explored whether treatment effects on tree-level defense and stand structure affected resistance to MPB. Mortality from MPB was highest in the denser, untreated control and burn-only treatments, with approximately 50% and 39%, respectively, of ponderosa pine killed during the outbreak, compared to almost no mortality in the thin-only and thin-burn treatments. Thinning treatments, with or without fire, dramatically increased tree growth and resin ducts relative to control and burn-only treatments. Prescribed burning did not increase resin ducts but did cause changes in resin chemistry that may have affected MPB communication and lowered attack success. While ponderosa pine remained dominant in the thin and thin-burn treatments after the outbreak, the high pine mortality in the control and burn-only treatment caused a shift in species dominance to Douglas-fir. The high Douglas-fir component in the control and burn-only treatments due to 20th century fire exclusion, coupled with high pine mortality from MPB, has likely reduced resilience of this forest beyond the ability to return to a ponderosa pine-dominated system in the absence of further fire or mechanical treatment. Our

  10. Flexible Wing Kinematics of a Free-Flying Beetle (Rhinoceros Beetle Trypoxylus Dichotomus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Doyoung Byun; Hoon Choel Park; Minjun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Detailed 3-Dimensional (3D) wing kinematics was experimentally presented in free flight of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings.The kinematic parameters such as the wing tip trajectory,angle of attack and camber deformation were obtained from a 3D reconstruction technique that involves the use of two synchronized high-speed cameras to digitize various points marked on the wings.Our data showed outstanding characteristics of deformation and flexibility of the beetle's hind wing compared with other measured insects,especially in the chordwise and spanwise directions during flapping motion.The hind wing produced 16% maximum positive camber deformation during the downstroke.It also experienced twisted shape showing large variation of the angle of attack from the root to the tip during the upstroke.

  11. 华山松大小蠹不同龄期幼虫酯酶同工酶的比较研究%Study on Esterase Isoenzymes of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae in Different Growth Periods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢寿安; 吕淑杰; 袁锋; 刘紫英

    2002-01-01

    利用聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi)不同龄期幼虫的酯酶同工酶进行了分析测试.结果表明华山松大小蠹不同龄期幼虫的酯酶同工酶具有个体间的差异,其差异主要表现在酶带带数、迁移率、酶带染色深浅、酶带宽窄等方面.

  12. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  13. A survey of carrion beetles on Seier National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Seier National Wildlife Refuge personnel conducted an inventory of flora and fauna found on the Refuge in 2011. The federally endangered American burying beetle...

  14. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  15. Untwisting the polarization properties of light reflected by scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Luke T.; Finlayson, Ewan D.; Vukusic, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The spectral and angle-dependent optical properties of two scarab beetle species belonging to the genus Chrysina are presented. The species display broadband reflectivity and selectively reflect left-circularly polarized light. We use electron microscopy to detail the left-handed, twisted lamellar structure present in these biological systems and imaging scatterometry to characterize their bidirectional reflectance distribution function. We show that the broadband nature of the beetles' reflectance originates due to the range of pitch dimensions found in the structure.

  16. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. ...

  17. Medically important beetles (insecta: coleoptera of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Nikbakhtzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on coleopteran species that are responsible for the emergence of recent cases of dermatological manifestations in Iran. To the best of our knowledge, five species of the family Meloidae and nine species of the genus Paederus are by far the only beetles recognized as medically important in Iran. The staphylinids consists of Paederus ilsae, P. iliensis, P. fuscipes, P. kalalovae, P. balcanicus, P. lenkoranus, P. littoralis, P. carpathicus, P. nigricornis, while the meloids are Mylabris impressa, M. guerini, Muzimes iranicus, Alosimus smyrnensis and Epicauta sharpi. Most cases of linear dermatitis in this country occur in areas bordering the Caspian Sea. This problem is caused by beetles of the genus Paederus which are present as adults from mid-April to October with particularly high incidences from May to August. Fars (in southern Iran ranks second in number of cases of insect-induced dermatitis. The third major region in which this type of dermatitis has been recorded is Hamedan Province, in the west of the country. Meloid dermatitis showed its highest severity in 2001, when a considerable number of patients sought medical help in Toyserkan and Nahavand counties. New cases of skin blistering were reported along the Persian Gulf coast and the agent was identified as Epicauta sharpi (Coleoptera: Meloidae. In all these regions, it was observed that recorded cases of lesions coincided precisely with the yearly peaks of the beetles. Paederus fuscipes and P. kalalovae are the predominant species along the Caspian Sea shore. It appears that P. fuscipes is homogeneously distributed throughout the Caspian Sea region while the distribution of the other species is more irregular. Paederus fuscipes is probably the major agent that causes linear dermatitis in northern Iran. Whereas this disease is a rural difficulty in the south, mainly in villages or small towns, it is an urban problem in northern provinces along the Caspian Sea shore

  18. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J.; Byrne, Marcus J.; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-01-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  19. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Donald C. Weber; Rowley, Daniel L.; Greenstone, Matthew H.; Athanas, Michael M.

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laborator...

  20. Sex chromosome rearrangements in Polyphaga beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutrillaux, A M; Dutrillaux, B

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a parachute sex chromosome bivalent (Xyp) at metaphase I of male meiosis is a well-known characteristic of Coleoptera, present in almost all families of this order and assumed to represent their ancestral sex chromosome formula. Sex chromosomes appear to be manifold more frequently involved in inter-chromosomal rearrangements than the average of the nine autosomal pairs usually forming their karyotype. This leads to various formulae such as neo-sex, multiple sex and perhaps unique sex chromosomes. These rearrangements alter the intimate association between sex chromosomes and nucleolar proteins, which are usual components of the Xyp. Different situations, selected in a series of 125 mitotic and meiotic cytogenetic studies of Polyphaga beetle species, are reported and discussed, with the aim to improve our knowledge on the mechanisms of sex chromosome rearrangements, the relationships with nucleoli and the consequences on dosage compensation and chromosome segregation.

  1. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  2. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  3. Status Report for South Dakota Refuges: American Burying Beetle Searches, 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo describes the efforts made throughout South Dakota attempting to locate American Burying Beetles. No beetles were found, but plans for a 1996 involve a...

  4. 2004 American Burying Beetle Annual Report - Pond Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Survey efforts for the endangered American Burying Beetle at Pond Creek NWR in 2004 are reported from 14 sampling locations on the refuge. American buring beetle was...

  5. Biology, Behavior, and Management of Ambrosia Beetles Attacking Ornamental Nursery Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetles are being increasingly recognized as significant pests of field-grown ornamental nursery stock. Two species are especially problematic in ornamental nurseries, namely the black stem borer, Xylosandrus germanus, and the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Ambrosia b...

  6. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  7. Salmonella recovery from broilers and litter following gavage with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles and larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transmission of Salmonella to broiler chicks with Salmonella colonized darkling beetles or larvae was evaluated by sampling litter and ceca during growout. In two trials, 1 or 2 day-of-hatch broiler chicks (in a pen of 40) were gavaged with either 4 darkling beetles, 4 beetle larvae, or 0.1 mL pept...

  8. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  9. Olfaction in the Colorado beetle at the onset of host plant selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Long-range olfactory orientation of the adult Colorado beetle was studied in a low- speed wind tunnel. The odour of fully grown potato plants elicits an upwind locomotory response in Colorado beetles (odour-conditioned positive anemotaxis), and increases the beetles' speed of locomotion (direct chem

  10. Coarse woody material has value as habitat for saproxylic beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.M.; Spence, J.R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept of Renewable Resources; Langor, D.W. [Canadian Forest Service, Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Biomass harvesting practices are expected to alter the abundance and natural range of variation in coarse woody material (CWM), which in turn may change soil productivity as well as the hydrological balance and structure of tree stands and habitats needed to ensure forest biodiversity. Ecosystem sustainability should be a main criterion for the development of biomass energy production schemes. Studies in northern Europe indicate that the hyperdiverse saproxylic fauna is sensitive to changes in CWM. Saproxylic beetles are dependent on decaying wood, and play an important role in forest nutrient cycling. Approximately 11 per cent of European saproxylic beetles are at risk of regional extirpation. This study sampled saproxylic beetle species from CWM in mature trembling aspen stands in Alberta. Over 150 species were collected, including 4 species new to science. The study showed that the beetles use numerous CWM habitats and exhibit high habitat specificity. A diversity of CWM substrates are needed to maintain saproxylic beetle habitats. Further research is needed to minimize the loss of species and their ecosystem functions.

  11. Defense by foot adhesion in a beetle (Hemisphaerota cyanea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-06-01

    Departments of * Neurobiology and Behavior and Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 Contributed by Thomas Eisner, April 12, 2000 The beetle Hemisphaerota cyanea (Chrysomelidae; Cassidinae) responds to disturbance by activating a tarsal adhesion mechanism by which it secures a hold on the substrate. Its tarsi are oversized and collectively bear some 60,000 adhesive bristles, each with two terminal pads. While walking, the beetle commits but a small fraction of the bristles to contact with the substrate. But when assaulted, it presses its tarsi flatly down, thereby touching ground with all or nearly all of the bristles. Once so adhered, it can withstand pulling forces of up to 0.8 g (≈60 times its body mass) for 2 min, and of higher magnitudes, up to >3 g, for shorter periods. Adhesion is secured by a liquid, most probably an oil. By adhering, the beetle is able to thwart attacking ants, given that it is able to cling more persistently than the ant persists in its assault. One predator, the reduviid Arilus cristatus, is able to feed on the beetle, possibly because by injecting venom it prevents the beetle from maintaining its tarsal hold.

  12. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  13. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  14. Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacke, Marie; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; Scholtz, Clarke H; Warrant, Eric J

    2013-02-18

    When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.

  15. Observation and modeling of polarized light from scarab beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrey, Sam; de Silva, Lakshman; Hodgkinson, Ian; Leader, John

    2007-08-01

    The light reflected from scarab beetles illuminated with unpolarized white light is analyzed ellipsometrically and displayed as the sum of an elliptically polarized spectrum Ip and an unpolarized spectrum Iu. A chirped stack of chiral resonators, each with a characteristic Bragg wavelength and partial realignment of birefringent material to a fixed axis, is proposed as a model for simulation of both reflection and polarization spectra. Possible mechanisms that effectively eliminate impedance mismatch at the air-elytron interface and allow some beetles to exhibit nearly perfect circularly polarized reflections are discussed. Results are presented for three representative beetles, Ischiosopha bifasciata, which is shown to be a narrowband left-circular polarizer; Chrysophora chrysochlora, a broadband left-circular polarizer; and Chrysina woodi, an elliptical polarizer. The methods that are developed are applicable to the more general problem of synthesis of reflectors with prescribed reflection and polarization spectra.

  16. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI; Zhendong; Stanislav; N.; Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  17. Multivariate intralocus sexual conflict in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David; Berg, Elena C; Widegren, William; Arnqvist, Göran; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2014-12-01

    Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) is pervasive because males and females experience differences in selection but share much of the same genome. Traits with integrated genetic architecture should be reservoirs of sexually antagonistic genetic variation for fitness, but explorations of multivariate IaSC are scarce. Previously, we showed that upward artificial selection on male life span decreased male fitness but increased female fitness compared with downward selection in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. Here, we use these selection lines to investigate sex-specific evolution of four functionally integrated traits (metabolic rate, locomotor activity, body mass, and life span) that collectively define a sexually dimorphic life-history syndrome in many species. Male-limited selection for short life span led to correlated evolution in females toward a more male-like multivariate phenotype. Conversely, males selected for long life span became more female-like, implying that IaSC results from genetic integration of this suite of traits. However, while life span, metabolism, and body mass showed correlated evolution in the sexes, activity did not evolve in males but, surprisingly, did so in females. This led to sexual monomorphism in locomotor activity in short-life lines associated with detrimental effects in females. Our results thus support the general tenet that widespread pleiotropy generates IaSC despite sex-specific genetic architecture.

  18. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters...

  19. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  20. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular...... aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating...

  1. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buotte, Polly C; Hicke, Jeffrey A; Preisler, Haiganoush K; Abatzoglou, John T; Raffa, Kenneth F; Logan, Jesse A

    2016-12-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle are not well understood, yet are important considerations in whether to list whitebark pine as a threatened or endangered species. We sought to increase the understanding of climate influences on mountain pine beetle outbreaks in whitebark pine forests, which are less well understood than in lodgepole pine, by quantifying climate-beetle relationships, analyzing climate influences during the recent outbreak, and estimating the suitability of future climate for beetle outbreaks. We developed a statistical model of the probability of whitebark pine mortality in the GYE that included temperature effects on beetle development and survival, precipitation effects on host tree condition, beetle population size, and stand characteristics. Estimated probability of whitebark pine mortality increased with higher winter minimum temperature, indicating greater beetle winter survival; higher fall temperature, indicating synchronous beetle emergence; lower two-year summer precipitation, indicating increased potential for host tree stress; increasing beetle populations; stand age; and increasing percent composition of whitebark pine within a stand. The recent outbreak occurred during a period of higher-than-normal regional winter temperatures, suitable fall temperatures, and low summer precipitation. In contrast to lodgepole pine systems, area with mortality was linked to precipitation variability even at high beetle populations. Projections from climate models indicate future climate conditions will likely provide favorable conditions for beetle outbreaks within nearly all current whitebark pine habitat in the GYE by

  2. 进境原木上截获的落叶松大小蠹及其扩散风险浅析%Dendroctonus simplex from the imported log and the risk analysis of its spread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茂灿; 叶剑雄; 徐清元

    2007-01-01

    2006年,莆田口岸先后几次从美国阿拉斯加进口原木中截获到一种大小蠹,经鉴定复核,确定为落叶松大小蠹(Dendroctonus simplex Leconte).该种在国内未见分布和相关研究报道.本文详细描述了落叶松大小蠹的形态特征、地理分布、寄主植物、生物学特性及危害等,并对其检疫重要性进行了分析.

  3. Prediction on potential distributions of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann in China using CLIMEX and GIS%基于CLIMEX和GIS的南松大小蠹在中国的适生性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚剑; 杜宇; 马平; 李生贵; 蒋小龙; 陈雪娇; 张萍; 李云飞

    2011-01-01

    南松大小蠹Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann是美洲地区危害松杉类针叶树种的蛀干害虫.本文采用CLIMEX模型与ArcGIS分析相结合的预测方法,通过确定南松大小蠹的CLIMEX气候适应性参数,分析了南松大小蠹在我国的适生范围,并利用南松大小蠹的最低致死温度对适生范围进行限制.结果表明南松大小蠢在我国可能适宜其定殖的地区范围较广,其中在山东、河南、陕西、安徽中北部、山西南部、湖北中北部、四川部分地区和云南部分地区非常适合该小蠹的生存.%Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann is one of the most economically important pests of Pinus plantations in America. Based on the biology of D. frontalis and climate data, potential suitable habitat for D. frontalis in China was predicted using CLIMEX and ArcGIS. The results show that D. frontalis has a wide potential distribution in China.Predicted optimum areas for establishment were most of north and southwestern China, including Shandong, Henan,Shanxi, Anhui, Shanxi, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan.

  4. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denell, Robin; Gibbs, Richard; Muzny, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to inte...

  5. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  6. New longhorn beetles (Coleopterta: Cerambycidae from Serbia and Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nataša

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific analysis of longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae collected on the mountain Fruška Gora from 2000 to 2004 has shown the presence of six new species for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro. In addition to these four species were new for the fauna of Serbia.

  7. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  8. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano;

    2013-01-01

    . Detection probability and population size estimates were drawn from each of these four capture methods. There were strong differences in detection probability among methods. Despite using pheromone and beetle manipulation, capture histories were not affected by trap-happiness or trap-shyness. Population...

  9. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  10. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  11. Use of larder beetles (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) to deflesh human jaws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charabidze, D; Colard, T; Becart, A; Hedouin, V

    2014-01-01

    We describe new experimental data for the defleshing of human bones using larder beetles (Dermestes haemorrhoidalis) (Küster, 1852). Although the ability of larder beetles to feed on vertebrate remains has been, and still is, used by taxidermists to deflesh skulls and bones, this method has never been documented from a quantitative perspective and has over time become ignored in most forensic anthropology or odontology laboratories. To promote the rational and efficient use of this method, we performed experiments to estimate the quantity of food consumed by larvae. From the 2nd instar to nymphosis, each larva consumed a mean of 0.13±0.03 g of dry beef muscle. We then used 100±50 D. haemorrhoidalis adults and 100±50 larvae to deflesh human maxillae and mandibles sampled within a forensic context (victim identification). Each sample was weighed and photographed before, during and after the experiment. According to our experiments, 20-25 days were sufficient to completely deflesh all of the samples. We concluded that a small number of larder beetles can be used to efficiently deflesh human jaws. According to this result, the use of larder beetles appears to be an inexpensive, simple and efficient way to clean mandibles and maxillae. Furthermore, this method is DNA-safe (compared to usual maceration techniques) and thus allows the samples to be used for subsequent DNA and drug analyses.

  12. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  13. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  14. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are naturally more eye-catching…

  15. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  16. [Co-adaptation between mites (Arachnida: Klinckowstroemiidae) and Passalidae beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Guzmán, Gabriel A; Francke, Oscar F; Pérez, Tila M; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae establish an association with beetles of the family Passalidae known as phoresy. In order to obtain information about this association, we analyzed the relationship between mites of the family Klinckowstroemiidae and beetles of the family Passalidae, as adult mites have been exclusively collected from host beetles. We examined 1 150 beetles collected in seven states of the Mexican Republic, and found 19 species of klinckowstroemiid mites associated with 168 passalids, that belong to 28 different species in 15 genera. Host specificity between species of both groups does not exist, as one species of passalid beetle can have several different symbionts; conversely, a given mite species can associate with passalid beetles of different species and even of different genera. This way, Odontotaenius zodiacus has been found associated with mites of seven species of the genus Klinckowstroemia. Besides, Klinckowstroemia valdezi is associated with five species of passalids. Furthermore, two and even three different species of mites have been found on one host beetle (synhospitality). The lack of congruence between the phylogenies of the mites and that of the beetles indicates that a process of co-adaptation by colonization is going on, because the association is due to the resources that passalid beetles can offer to the mites, like transportation, food and refuge. Since these resources are not host-specific, the klinckowstroemiid mites can climb onto virtually any species of passalid beetles occurring on the same habitat.

  17. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; de Faria, Maurício Lopes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  18. Interactions between imidacloprid and Metarhizium brunneum on adult Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Calum W; Ugine, Todd A; Hajek, Ann E

    2010-11-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a longhorned beetle species native to Asia, has been introduced into several North American and European cities. Currently eradication and preventive measures are limited to identifying and destroying infested trees and protecting uninfested trees with trunk or soil-injections of the systemic insecticide imidacloprid. Because entomopathogenic fungi like Metarhizium brunneum Petch have been identified as virulent against these beetles we conducted several tests to determine the compatibility of the two agents in combination. Radial hyphal growth and the sporulation capacity of M. brunneum on Sabouraud dextrose agar with yeast were not significantly affected by the presence of imidacloprid. In a 2×3 factorial experiment investigating interactions between exposure to imidacloprid and M. brunneum we observed no effect of imidacloprid alone on beetle survival when beetles were given a single dose of 10 or 100 ppm compared to control insects. We observed a significant effect of exposure to M. brunneum, and a significant interaction between imidacloprid and M. brunneum representing a synergistic effect of dual treatment. Beetles exposed to the fungus alone lived significantly longer compared to insects treated with a single dose of 100 ppm imidacloprid (9.5 vs. 6.5d). Consumption of striped maple twigs by beetles exposed to imidacloprid, across concentrations, was reduced 48% compared to control insects, where as consumption by M. brunneum-exposed beetles was reduced by 16% over the first 6-days of the test period. Beetles fed 100 ppm imidacloprid consumed 32% less over the first 3d compared to beetles not exposed to imidacloprid and thereafter consumed as much as beetles not fed 100 ppm imidacloprid. M. brunneum-exposed beetles consumed significantly less food than control insects throughout the test period, and beetles treated with imidacloprid produced significantly fewer conidia compared to beetles

  19. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Kin-Ming Tsui

    Full Text Available Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  20. Population structure of mountain pine beetle symbiont Leptographium longiclavatum and the implication on the multipartite beetle-fungi relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Clement Kin-Ming; Farfan, Lina; Roe, Amanda D; Rice, Adrianne V; Cooke, Janice E K; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C

    2014-01-01

    Over 18 million ha of forests have been destroyed in the past decade in Canada by the mountain pine beetle (MPB) and its fungal symbionts. Understanding their population dynamics is critical to improving modeling of beetle epidemics and providing potential clues to predict population expansion. Leptographium longiclavatum and Grosmannia clavigera are fungal symbionts of MPB that aid the beetle to colonize and kill their pine hosts. We investigated the genetic structure and demographic expansion of L. longiclavatum in populations established within the historic distribution range and in the newly colonized regions. We identified three genetic clusters/populations that coincide with independent geographic locations. The genetic profiles of the recently established populations in northern British Columbia (BC) and Alberta suggest that they originated from central and southern BC. Approximate Bayesian Computation supports the scenario that this recent expansion represents an admixture of individuals originating from BC and the Rocky Mountains. Highly significant correlations were found among genetic distance matrices of L. longiclavatum, G. clavigera, and MPB. This highlights the concordance of demographic processes in these interacting organisms sharing a highly specialized niche and supports the hypothesis of long-term multipartite beetle-fungus co-evolutionary history and mutualistic relationships.

  1. Small beetle, large-scale drivers: how regional and landscape factors affect outbreaks of the European spruce bark beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Rupert; Müller, Jörg; Hothorn, Torsten; Bässler, Claus; Heurich, Marco; Kautz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Summary 1. Unprecedented bark beetle outbreaks have been observed for a variety of forest ecosystems recently, and damage is expected to further intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Central Europe, the response of ecosystem management to increasing infestation risk has hitherto focused largely on the stand level, while the contingency of outbreak dynamics on large-scale drivers remains poorly understood. 2. To investigate how factors beyond the local scale contribute to the infestation risk from Ips typographus (Col., Scol.), we analysed drivers across seven orders of magnitude in scale (from 103 to 1010 m2) over a 23-year period, focusing on the Bavarian Forest National Park. Time-discrete hazard modelling was used to account for local factors and temporal dependencies. Subsequently, beta regression was applied to determine the influence of regional and landscape factors, the latter characterized by means of graph theory. 3. We found that in addition to stand variables, large-scale drivers also strongly influenced bark beetle infestation risk. Outbreak waves were closely related to landscape-scale connectedness of both host and beetle populations as well as to regional bark beetle infestation levels. Furthermore, regional summer drought was identified as an important trigger for infestation pulses. Large-scale synchrony and connectivity are thus key drivers of the recently observed bark beetle outbreak in the area. 4. Synthesis and applications. Our multiscale analysis provides evidence that the risk for biotic disturbances is highly dependent on drivers beyond the control of traditional stand-scale management. This finding highlights the importance of fostering the ability to cope with and recover from disturbance. It furthermore suggests that a stronger consideration of landscape and regional processes is needed to address changing disturbance regimes in ecosystem management. PMID:27041769

  2. Outbreaks of three leaf beetles species in Salix plantations; Insektsskadegoerelse i Salixodlingar - bladbaggar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Solveig; Eklund, Karin; Bjoerkman, Christer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    1999-07-01

    Several species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have caused economic damage in coppiced willow plantations in Britain. In Sweden we have observed outbreaks of three species; Phratora vulgatissima, Galerucella lineola and Lochmaea caprea. One feature of leaf beetles is that both adults and larvae feed on plants. The adults make holes in willow leaves when feeding whereas larvae skeletonize the leaves by eating on the leaf underside. Willows attacked by high densities of P. vulgatissima may show a yield loss of up to 40%. Leaf beetles have a large reproduction capacity. Each female can lay 10-20 eggs per day for several weeks. Without natural control the beetles would be very common in plantations. The egg and the first larval stages seem to be the most vulnerable to predation. With more knowledge about the biology of leaf beetle enemies it will perhaps be possible to use natural biological control programs as a method for managing these beetles.

  3. Interpatch movement of the red milkweed beetle, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus: individual responses to patch size and isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Stephen F

    1996-03-01

    Individual movement patterns and the effects of host plant patch size and isolation on patch occupancy were examined for red milkweed beetles, Tetraopes tetraophthalmus, residing in a heterogeneous landscape. Male beetles were found to move both more often and farther between host plant patches than female beetles, and this difference affected the patterns of patch occupancy observed. Overall, unoccupied milkweed patches were smaller and more isolated than patches occupied by beetles. Patches uninhabited by females tended to be more isolated, but not necessarily smaller, than patches with female beetles, indicating that females may be affected more by patch isolation than patch size. Presence of male beetles on patches showed a stronger response to patch size than to patch isolation. Differences in movement between males and females illustrate the need for demographically based dispersal data. Comparisons of Tetraopes interpatch movement patterns between landscapes composed of patches of different size revealed that landscapes with overall smaller patches may have greater rates of interpatch movement.

  4. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due......The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  5. Tiger Beetles' (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) pupal stage: current state of knowledge and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M

    2017-01-26

    The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.

  6. Checklist of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Clark, Shawn M; Toledo-Hernández, Victor Hugo; Corona-López, Angélica María; Jones, Robert W

    2016-03-07

    We record 116 genera and 366 species of Chrysomelidae from the state of Morelos, Mexico. This represents an increase of 9.3% in the species richness of these beetles for the state. Also, Morelos is currently the third most diverse state in leaf beetles within Mexico, with 16.78% of total species recorded for the country. The most diverse genera were Calligrapha, Disonycha, Blepharida, Leptinotarsa, Cryptocephalus, Systena, Alagoasa, Diabrotica and Pachybrachis, each with more than eight species. Most of these genera contain large, showy beetles. When the chrysomelid fauna is more fully understood, some of the genera of tiny beetles will likely prove to be more diverse.

  7. Investigation of the Beetle.1.1 chip in the X7 testbeam

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Bulten, H J; Jans, E; Ketel, T; Klous, S; Snoek, H; Verkooijen, H

    2003-01-01

    Two Beetle1.1 chips, bonded to a Hamamatsu PR01 VELO Phi-detector, have been tested for the first time in a testbeam. The main goal was to measure the signal to noise ratio of the Beetle1.1 connected to a prototype VELO Phi-detector. Furthermore we investigated the general behaviour of the Beetle1.1 to adapt the design of the chip if desirable. This note presents the measured S/N numbers as well as some features and characteristics (e.g. rise time, spillover) of the Beetle1.1 chip.

  8. Polarizing properties and structure of the cuticle of scarab beetles from the Chrysina genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández del Río, Lía; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The optical properties of several scarab beetles have been previously studied but few attempts have been made to compare beetles in the same genus. To determine whether there is any relation between specimens of the same genus, we have studied and classified seven species from the Chrysina genus. The polarization properties were analyzed with Mueller-matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry and the structural characteristics with optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Most of the Chrysina beetles are green colored or have a metallic look (gold or silver). The results show that the green-colored beetles polarize reflected light mainly at off-specular angles. The gold-colored beetles polarize light left-handed near circular at specular reflection. The structure of the exoskeleton is a stack of layers that form a cusplike structure in the green beetles whereas the layers are parallel to the surface in the case of the gold-colored beetles. The beetle C. gloriosa is green with gold-colored stripes along the elytras and exhibits both types of effects. The results indicate that Chrysina beetles can be classified according to these two major polarization properties.

  9. Ethanol injection of ornamental trees facilitates testing insecticide efficacy against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Oliver, Jason B; Schultz, Peter B; Ranger, Christopher M; Youssef, Nadeer N

    2013-02-01

    Exotic ambrosia beetles are damaging pests in ornamental tree nurseries in North America. The species Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) are especially problematic. Management of these pests relies on preventive treatments of insecticides. However, field tests of recommended materials on nursery trees have been limited because of unreliable attacks by ambrosia beetles on experimental trees. Ethanol-injection of trees was used to induce colonization by ambrosia beetles to evaluate insecticides and botanical formulations for preventing attacks by ambrosia beetles. Experiments were conducted in Ohio, Tennessee, and Virginia. Experimental trees injected with ethanol had more attacks by ambrosia beetles than uninjected control trees in all but one experiment. Xylosandrus crassiusculus and X. germanus colonized trees injected with ethanol. In most experiments, attack rates declined 8 d after ethanol-injection. Ethanol-injection induced sufficient pressure from ambrosia beetles to evaluate the efficacy of insecticides for preventing attacks. Trunk sprays of permethrin suppressed cumulative total attacks by ambrosia beetles in most tests. Trunk sprays of the botanical formulations Armorex and Veggie Pharm suppressed cumulative total attacks in Ohio. Armorex, Armorex + Permethrin, and Veggie Pharm + Permethrin suppressed attacks in Tennessee. The bifenthrin product Onyx suppressed establishment of X. germanus in one Ohio experiment, and cumulative total ambrosia beetle attacks in Virginia. Substrate drenches and trunk sprays of neonicotinoids, or trunk sprays of anthranilic diamides or tolfenpyrad were not effective. Ethanol-injection is effective for inducing attacks and ensuring pressure by ambrosia beetles for testing insecticide efficacy on ornamental trees.

  10. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini.

  11. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  12. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  13. Structural origin of circularly polarized iridescence in jeweled beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crne, Matija; Sharma, Vivek; Park, Jung O.; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2010-03-01

    The iridescent metallic green beetle, Chrysina gloriosa, selectively reflects left circularly polarized light. The exoskeleton is decorated by hexagonal cells (˜10 micron) that coexist with pentagons and heptagons. We find that the fraction of hexagons decreases with an increase in curvature. In bright field microscopy, each cell contains a bright yellow core, placed in a greenish cell with yellowish border, but the core disappears in the dark field. Using confocal microscopy, we observe that these cells consist of nearly concentric, nested arcs that lie on surface of a shallow cone. We infer that the patterns are structurally and optically analogous to the focal conic domains formed spontaneously on the free surface of a cholesteric liquid crystal. The microstructure provides the bases for the morphogenesis as well as key insights for emulating the intricate optical response the exoskeleton of scarab beetles.

  14. The 3D lightweight structural characteristics of the beetle forewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Tuo, Wanyong; Guo, Zhensheng; Yan, Lili

    2017-02-01

    The present paper renewedly expounds upon the characteristics of the 3D lightweight structure of beetle forewings and notes that two biomimetic structures (models) that have appeared in recent years do not comply with these characteristics based on a comparison of the structures of the biological prototypes. The first model features transverse tubules based on observations of circular holes in cross-sectional figures of the Cybister forewing. The second is a biomimetic spherical cavity model with hollow trabeculae that reportedly exhibits superior mechanical properties because its structures are most similar to the biological prototype. Finally, a false biomimetic proposition that the mechanical properties of biomimetic structures with "fiber winding" patterns are superior to those of structures constructed of pure "epoxy" is also noted. Hopefully, the present study can serve to improve the state of research on biomimetic applications of beetle forewing structures.

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium_castane...um_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon.../icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  16. Studies of the Beetle 1.2 Pipeline Homogeneity

    CERN Document Server

    Agari, M; Blouw, J; Schmelling, M; Hofmann, W; Schwingenheuer, B; Pugatch, V; Volyanskyy, D; Jiménez-Otero, S; Tran, M T; Voss, H; Bernhard, R P; Köstner, S; Lehner, F; Lois, C; Needham, M; Steinkamp, O; Straumann, U; Vollhardt, A

    2003-01-01

    The pipeline homogeneity in general and the behaviour of the edge channels of the Beetle 1.2 readout chip [1] were studied with data taken during the Silicon Tracker test beam period in May 2003. A contribution of roughly 10\\% from pipeline inhomogeneities to the strip noise was observed. All channels including the first and the last one were found to be fully functional.

  17. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  18. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  19. A checklist of stag beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Lucanidae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele

    2014-11-26

    An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.

  20. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  1. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A.; Zhao, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These results indicate

  2. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Nicole A; Zhao, Anthony; Munshi-South, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae) provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC) and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC) to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970's. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970's were not detected in 2015. These results indicate that

  3. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  4. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  5. Stellar performance: mechanisms underlying Milky Way orientation in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, James J; El Jundi, Basil; Smolka, Jochen; Khaldy, Lana; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Byrne, Marcus J; Dacke, Marie

    2017-04-05

    Nocturnal dung beetles (Scarabaeus satyrus) are currently the only animals that have been demonstrated to use the Milky Way for reliable orientation. In this study, we tested the capacity of S. satyrus to orient under a range of artificial celestial cues, and compared the properties of these cues with images of the Milky Way simulated for a beetle's visual system. We find that the mechanism that permits accurate stellar orientation under the Milky Way is based on an intensity comparison between different regions of the Milky Way. We determined the beetles' contrast sensitivity for this task in behavioural experiments in the laboratory, and found that the resulting threshold of 13% is sufficient to detect the contrast between the southern and northern arms of the Milky Way under natural conditions. This mechanism should be effective under extremely dim conditions and on nights when the Milky Way forms a near symmetrical band that crosses the zenith. These findings are discussed in the context of studies of stellar orientation in migratory birds and itinerant seals.This article is part of the themed issue 'Vision in dim light'.

  6. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  7. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...... (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales). Two individuals of Anotylus rugosus were found to have a dual infection of Zoophthora philonthi and Beauveria bassiana...

  9. Natural flightless morphs of the ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata improve biological control of aphids on single plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, S.T.E.; Middendorp, C.W.; Luijten, C.A.; Schelt, van J.; Brakefield, P.M.; Jong, de P.W.

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of using ladybird beetles for biological control of insect pests such as aphids is that the adult beetles tend to fly away from the host plants. Therefore, flightless ladybirds might improve biocontrol. There are several artificial ways to obtain flightless beetles, but it may be prefe

  10. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  11. Prey preference and host suitability of the predatory and parasitoid carabid beetle, Lebia grandis, for several species of Leptinotarsa beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Donald C; Rowley, Daniel L; Greenstone, Matthew H; Athanas, Michael M

    2006-01-01

    Lebia grandis (Coleoptera: Carabidae), recorded as a parasitoid only on Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is capable of parasitizing the false potato beetle, L. juncta, and also L. haldemani. Historical records show that L. decemlineata, while the only recorded host, was not present in much of the original range of L. grandis, and may not have been its host prior to its expansion into eastern North America, where L. juncta is endemic. Our laboratory comparisons suggest that L. juncta, the presumptive original host, best supports the development of the parasitoid larval L. grandis, based on 43.6% successful emergence of the adult carabid parasitoid, compared to 11.5% from the two other Leptinotarsa species. L. grandis adults accept eggs and larvae of all 3 Leptinotarsa species as adult food. Naive, newly-emerged adults show no preference when presented the 3 species of third-instar larvae, which they consume at a mean rate of 3.3 per day, a rate which does not differ significantly by sex, larval host, or weight at emergence. When presented with equal amounts by weight of the 3 species of Leptinotarsa eggs, such adults consume the equivalent of 23.0 L. decemlineata eggs per day, with consumption of L. juncta eggs 67% higher by weight than L. decemlineata consumption. Insight into the biotic and abiotic limitations on L. grandis should aid in determining its potential for suppression of Colorado potato beetle by biological control in diverse agroecosystems.

  12. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  13. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  14. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  15. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  16. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...

  17. Factors influencing bark beetle outbreaks after forest fires on the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, María J; Ayres, Matthew P

    2011-10-01

    Fires are among the most globally important disturbances in forest ecosystems. Forest fires can be followed by bark beetle outbreaks. Therefore, the dynamic interactions between bark beetle outbreaks and fire appear to be of general importance in coniferous forests throughout the world. We tested three hypotheses of how forest fires in pine ecosystems (Pinus pinaster Alton and P. radiata D. Don) in Spain could alter the population dynamics of bark beetles and influence the probability of further disturbance from beetle outbreaks: fire could affect the antiherbivore resin defenses of trees, change their nutritional suitability, or affect top-down controls on herbivore populations. P. radiata defenses decreased immediately after fire, but trees with little crown damage soon recovered with defenses higher than before. Fire either reduced or did not affect nutritional quality of phloem and either reduced or had no effect on the abundance, diversity, and relative biomass of natural enemies. After fire, bark beetle abundance increased via rapid aggregation of reproductive adults on scorched trees. However, our results indicate that for populations to increase to an outbreak situation, colonizing beetles must initiate attacks before tree resin defenses recover, host trees must retain enough undamaged phloem to facilitate larval development, and natural enemies should be sufficiently rare to permit high beetle recruitment into the next generation. Coincidence of these circumstances may promote the possibility of beetle populations escaping to outbreak levels.

  18. Effectiveness of hand removal for small-scale management of Japanese beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V; Cumming, Ryan M

    2014-02-01

    Hand removal is often recommended as a method for small-scale control of Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman). In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of daily hand removal for controlling damage by Japanese beetles on grape plants. We also investigated whether the timing of the removal (at 0800, 1400, or 1900 hours, or at all 3 periods) influenced the effectiveness of the technique. We found that hand removal significantly lowered the number of beetles on, and consequently the damage to, grape plants relative to nonremoval controls. Of the single removal treatments, removal of beetles at 1900 hours was most effective, with results similar to removing beetles three times per day. The majority of beetles removed from plants during the experiment were female, a pattern that matches our understanding of aggregation formation behavior in the species, and which may serve to enhance the benefits of hand removal. Hand removal seems to work by decreasing the number of feeding beetles, which in turn reduces the release of aggregation kairomones from the plant, and subsequently decreases the attractiveness of the plant to future beetles.

  19. Genetics and characteristics of a pigmentation defective laboratory strain of the lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles in the family Coccinellidae, commonly known as ladybugs, lady beetles, or ladybirds, are easily identifiable and popular beneficial insects. The species complex Coleomegilla maculata is commonly found in North American agroecosystems and widespread on the North American continent. It is impo...

  20. Genetic differentiation between resistance phenotypes in the phytophagous flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de P.W.; Breuker, C.J.; Vos, de H.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Oku, K.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Nielsen, J.K.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is genetically polymorphic for resistance against the defences of one of its host plants, Barbarea vulgaris R.Br. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae). Whereas resistant flea beetles are able to use B. vulgaris as well as other cruciferous pl

  1. Biological Aspects for Forecasting of the Cabbage Stem Flea Beetle, Psylliodes chrysocephala L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle

    Summary The cabbage stem flea beetle (CSFB), Psylliodes chrysocephala L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest in winter oilseed rape (WOSR) Brassica napus L. with variation in abundance and damage between years. The adult beetles invade fields at the time of crop emergence and cause...

  2. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  3. Hilltopping on termitaries by the Indochinese tiger beetle, Heptodonta analis (Cincindelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WILLIAMH.SCHAEDLA

    2005-01-01

    Spot surveys conducted during the early part of the monsoon season in northeastern Thailand indicated territorial hilltopping on termitaries by the tiger beetle,Heptodonta analis. Such behavior has not been reported for this genus. Unlike other tiger beetles, H. analis may take advantage of termitaries adventitiously, without specializing on them.

  4. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process.

  5. Southern pine beetle: Olfactory receptor and behavior discrimination of enantiomers of the attractant pheromone frontalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, T.L.; Berisford, C.W.; Blum, M.S.; Dickens, J.C.; Hedden, R.L.; Mori, K.; Richerson, J.V.; Vite, J.P.; West, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    In a laboratory and field bioassays, the response of Dendroctonus frontalis was significantly greater to the mixture of (1S,55R)-(-)-frontalin and alpha-pinene than to (1R,5S)-(+)-frontalin and alpha-pinene. Electrophysiologrical studies revealed that antennal olfactory receptor cells were significantly more responsive to (1S,5R)-(-)-frontalin than to 1R,5S)-(+) -frontalin. Both enanitiomers stimulated the same olfactory cells which suggests that each cell possesses at least two types of enanitomer-specific acceptors.

  6. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, David; Willoughby, Anna; Davis, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae), which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted) beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065) for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104) won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88) won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033), not highest (p = 0.266), nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034). Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  7. Fighting while parasitized: can nematode infections affect the outcome of staged combat in beetles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vasquez

    Full Text Available The effects of non-lethal parasites may be felt most strongly when hosts engage in intense, energy-demanding behaviors. One such behavior is fighting with conspecifics, which is common among territorial animals, including many beetle species. We examined the effects of parasites on the fighting ability of a saproxylic beetle, the horned passalus (Odontotaenius disjunctus, Family: Passalidae, which is host to a non-lethal nematode, Chondronema passali. We pitted pairs of randomly-chosen (but equally-weighted beetles against each other in a small arena and determined the winner and aggression level of fights. Then we examined beetles for the presence, and severity of nematode infections. There was a non-significant tendency (p = 0.065 for the frequency of wins, losses and draws to differ between beetles with and without C. passali; non-parasitized individuals (n = 104 won 47% of their fights while those with the parasite (n = 88 won 34%, a 13% difference in wins. The number of nematodes in a beetle affected the outcome of fights between infected and uninfected individuals in an unexpected fashion: fighting ability was lowest in beetles with the lowest (p = 0.033, not highest (p = 0.266, nematode burdens. Within-fight aggression was highest when both beetles were uninfected and lowest when both were infected (p = 0.034. Collectively, these results suggest the nematode parasite, C. passali, is associated with a modest reduction in fighting ability in horned passalus beetles, consistent with the idea that parasitized beetles have lower energy available for fighting. This study adds to a small but growing body of evidence showing how parasites negatively influence fighting behavior in animals.

  8. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization.

  9. Distribution and Optimal Sampling Model of Larval Dendroctonus armandi%华山松大小蠹幼虫分布状态及最佳抽样模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利敏; 陈锐; 何杰

    2008-01-01

    在陕西省留坝县的华山松(Pinus armandi)林区,对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus arman-di)种群密度、分布状态和抽样模型进行了研究.结果表明:华山松大小蠹幼虫密度在华山松树干1~10 m高度范围内各不相等;危害致死华山松成年树的华山松大小蠹种群密度为23.2~52.8头·dm-2,平均37.4头·dm-2;平均值与树干4 m高处样方虫数均值接近;华山松大小蠹幼虫在树干上集中分布于树干7~8 m高处.

  10. Effect of larval growth conditions on adult body mass and long-distance flight endurance in a wood-boring beetle: Do smaller beetles fly better?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stav; Soroker, Victoria; Ribak, Gal

    2017-02-22

    The tropical fig borer, Batocera rufomaculata De Geer, is a large beetle that is a pest on a number of fruit trees, including fig and mango. Adults feed on the leaves and twigs and females lay their eggs under the bark of the tree. The larvae bore into the tree trunk, causing substantial damage that may lead to the collapse and death of the host tree. We studied how larval development under inferior feeding conditions (experienced during development in dying trees) affects flight endurance in the adult insect. We grew larvae either in their natural host or on sawdust enriched with stale fig tree twigs. Flight endurance of the adults was measured using a custom-built flight-mill. Beetles emerging from the natural host were significantly larger but flew shorter distances than beetles reared on less favourable substrates. There was no difference in the allometric slope of wing area with body mass between the beetles groups; however flight muscle mass scaled with total body mass with an exponent significantly lower than 1.0. Hence, smaller beetles had proportionally larger flight muscles. These findings suggest that beetles that developed smaller as a result from poor nutritional conditions in deteriorating hosts, are better equipped to fly longer distances in search of a new host tree.

  11. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  12. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  13. Occurrence of the hermit beetle (Osmoderma eremita), in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonsson, Kjell; Hedin, Jonas; Jansson, Niklas; Nilsson, Sven; Ranius, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    We have compiled data on the occurrence of a threatened beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Sweden. The species inhabits tree hollows with wood mould. The data were compiled from field surveys conducted in 1993-2003, using pitfall traps at 401 localities and using wood mould sampling at 104 localities. We have also gone through published data and all larger Swedish museums and registered old records. O. eremita was recorded at about 30% of the field surveys. In Sweden, oak is by far the most import...

  14. 红脂大小蠹发生与营林技术和林分因子关系的研究%Study on Relationship of Occurrence of Red Turpentine Beetle with Forest Stand Factors and Production Technology of Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原永谦; 徐小军

    2011-01-01

    笔者在山西省红脂大小蠹(Dendroctonus valens LeConte)发生地区做了连续调查,结果表明:油松抚育间伐林红脂大小蠹危害重于对照林;割脂与未割脂油松林红脂大小蠹危害差异显著(P=0.001),割脂油松林红脂大小蠹危害重于未割脂油松林;过火与未过火油松林红脂大小蠹危害差异显著(P=0.014),过火油松林红脂大小蠹危害重于未过火油松林;油松混交林与油松纯林红脂大小蠹危害无显著差异(P=0.828),混交林不能减轻红脂大小蠹对油松的危害;不同郁闭度下对应的平均有虫株率不完全相同(P〈0.000 1),郁闭度为0.3,0.4的林分受害最为严重;阴坡与阳坡油松林红脂大小蠹危害差异显著(P=0.000 1),阳坡油松林红脂大小蠹危害重于阴坡油松林。%The author investigates the damage degree of Red Turpentine Beetle(RTB)to Pinus tabulaeformis in Shanxi Province,and analyzes these comparisons between thinned and non-thinned forest,tapped and non-tapped forest,burned and non-burned forest,mixed forest and pure forest,forest with different rate of coverage,sunny slope forest and shady slope forest.The results show that RTB made a greater harm to thinned forest;the difference between tapped and non-tapped forest was significant(P=0.001),RTB had higher harm on the tapped forest;the harm was bigger on the forest burned than on the contrast;the RTB harm difference between mixed forest and pure forest was not significant(P=0.828),mixed forest cannot reduce the damage;the average rates of forest pest are incomplete same in forest with different rate of coverage(P0.0001),those of coverage rate of 0.3,0.4 have the most serious disaster of forest pest;the variation between sunny slope forest and shady slope forest was remarkable(P=0.000 1);the RTB harm was heavier on the sunny slope forest than on the shady slope forest.

  15. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans.

  16. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  17. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  18. Functional value of elytra under various stresses in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M.; Hu, Alan W.; Sitvarin, Michael I.; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Coleoptera (beetles) is a massively successful order of insects, distinguished by their evolutionarily modified forewings called elytra. These structures are often presumed to have been a major driving force for the successful radiation of this taxon, by providing beetles with protection against a variety of harsh environmental factors. However, few studies have directly demonstrated the functional significance of the elytra against diverse environmental challenges. Here, we sought to empirically test the function of the elytra using Tribolium castaneum (the red flour beetle) as a model. We tested four categories of stress on the beetles: physical damage to hindwings, predation, desiccation, and cold shock. We found that, in all categories, the presence of elytra conferred a significant advantage compared to those beetles with their elytra experimentally removed. This work provides compelling quantitative evidence supporting the importance of beetle forewings in tolerating a variety of environmental stresses, and gives insight into how the evolution of elytra have facilitated the remarkable success of beetle radiation. PMID:27708390

  19. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  20. Longevity and viability of Taenia solium eggs in the digestive system of the beetle Ammophorus rubripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis Antonio; Lopez-Urbina, Maria Teresa; Garcia, Hector Hugo; Gonzalez, Armando Emiliano

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the capacity of Ammophorus rubripes beetles to carry Taenia solium eggs, in terms of duration and viability of eggs in their digestive system. One hundred beetles were distributed into five polyethylene boxes, and then they were infected with T. solium eggs. Gravid proglottids of T. solium were crushed and then mixed with cattle feces. One gram of this mixture was placed in each box for 24 hours, after which each group of beetles was transferred into a new clean box. Then, five beetles were dissected every three days. Time was strongly associated with viability (r=0.89; PTaenia solium eggs were present in the beetle's digestive system for up to 39 days (13th sampling day out of 20), gradually reducing in numbers and viability, which was 0 on day 36 post-infection. Egg viability was around 40% up to day 24 post-infection, with a median number of eggs of 11 per beetle at this time. Dung beetles may potentially contribute towards dispersing T. solium eggs in endemic areas.

  1. Indirect closing of elytra by the prothorax in beetles (Coleoptera): general observations and exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsevich, Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Voluntary movements of the prothorax and the elytra in tethered flying beetles and manually induced movements of these parts in fresh dead beetles were recorded in 30 species representing 14 families. Participation of prothoracic elevation in the closing of the elytra was demonstrated in three ways. (i) The elevation was always simultaneous with elytral closing, in contrast to depression and elytral opening; a rare exception occurred in Lucanus cervus, whose elytra sometimes started to close before the cessation of wing strokes and the elevation of the prothorax. (ii) The manipulated elevation always induced closing of the spread elytra; the mechanical interaction between the hind edge of the pronotum and the roots of the elytra is a universal mechanism of closing the elytra in beetles. (iii) The prevention of pronoto-elytral contact in live beetles by the excision of the hind edge of the pronotum in front of the root prevented elytral closing after normal flight. Exceptions to this rule included some beetles that were able to close their elytra after such an excision: tiger beetles and diving beetles (seldomly) and rose chafers (always). This ability in Adephaga may be explained by attachments of the muscle actuating the 4th axillary plate, which differ from the attachments in Polyphaga. Cetoniinae open their elytra only by a small amount. It is proposed that their small direct adductors in combination with the elasticity of the sclerites are enough to achieve elytral closing without additional help from the prothorax.

  2. Attractiveness of native mammal's feces of different trophic guilds to dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Juliano A; Hernández, Malva I M

    2014-01-01

    Mammal feces are the primary food and nesting resource for the majority of dung beetle species, and larval development depends on the quantity and quality of that resource. Physiological necessities, competitive interactions, and resource sharing are common and suggest that dung beetles may show preferences for feces of greater nutritional quality, which may in turn impact beetle assemblages and community structure. This study investigated whether attractiveness of dung beetles to different resource (feces) types varies depending on mammal trophic guild and associated nutritional content. This study was conducted in Atlantic Forest fragments in the Parque Estadual da Serra do Tabuleiro, Santa Catarina, Brazil. To evaluate attractiveness, the feces of the carnivore Puma concolor, the omnivores Cerdocyon thous and Sapajus nigritus, and the herbivore Tapirus terrestris were utilized as bait. Dung was collected from zoo animals fed a standard diet. Sampling was performed in triplicate in five areas in the summer of 2013. Four pitfall traps were established in each area, and each trap was baited with one type of mammal feces. Food preference of the species was analyzed by calculating Rodgers' index for cafeteria-type experiments. In total, 426 individuals from 17 species were collected. Rodgers' index showed that omnivorous mammal feces (C. thous) were most attractive to all dung beetle species, although it is known that dung beetles are commonly opportunistic with respect to search for and allocation of food resources. These results suggest that mammal loss could alter competitive interactions between dung beetles.

  3. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  4. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  5. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-07-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O{sub 3} level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O{sub 3} levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species.

  6. Bacterial gut symbionts contribute to seed digestion in an omnivorous beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Lundgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect prey and seeds, but the contributions of microbes to diet diversification in this and similar groups of facultative granivores are largely unknown. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and terminal restriction fragment (tRF length polymorphism analyses of these genes, we examined the bacterial communities within the guts of facultatively granivorous, adult Harpalus pensylvanicus (Carabidae, fed one of five dietary treatments: 1 an untreated Field population, 2 Seeds with antibiotics (seeds were from Chenopodium album, 3 Seeds without antibiotics, 4 Prey with antibiotics (prey were Acheta domesticus eggs, and 5 Prey without antibiotics. The number of seeds and prey consumed by each beetle were recorded following treatment. Harpalus pensylvanicus possessed a fairly simple gut community of approximately 3-4 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU per beetle that were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, and Mollicutes. Bacterial communities of the host varied among the diet and antibiotic treatments. The field population and beetles fed seeds without antibiotics had the closest matching bacterial communities, and the communities in the beetles fed antibiotics were more closely related to each other than to those of the beetles that did not receive antibiotics. Antibiotics reduced and altered the bacterial communities found in the beetle guts. Moreover, beetles fed antibiotics ate fewer seeds, and those beetles that harbored the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis consumed more seeds on average than those lacking this symbiont. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the relationships

  7. 华山松大小蠹成虫粪便挥发性物质分析%Volatile Compounds in the Frass of Adult Chinese White Pine Beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴绍平; 陈辉; 吴琼

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds from phloem of healthy Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Franch) and fresh frass of Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li) were extracted by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show that the most substances were sesquitertenes, followed by monoterpenes, no diterpenes were detected in frass and phloem. There was significant difference both in constituents and contents between beetle adult frass and trees phloem. The content of monoterpene was much more but the sesquitertene was less in frass of Chinese white pine beetle than those in phloem of healthy Chinese white pine. Fifteen substances such as 6 ,6-dimethyl- bicyclo[3. 1. 1] hept-2-ene-2-carboxaldehyde, 1, 3 , 3-trimethyl-bicyclo[2. 2. l]heptan-2-ol, 2 ,3-dimethyl-tricycle [2. 2. 1. 0(2,6)] heptane-3-methanol, and so on were detected only in adult D. armandi frass, of which eight substances such as 4 ,6 ,6-trimethyl-(lS)-bicycle[3. 1. l]hept-3-en-2-one, 1,3, 3- trimethyl-bicycle[2. 2. l]heptan-2-one, pallyl-anisole were only detected in female frass and 3,7-dimeth-yl-1, 6~octadien-3-ol, 2 , 2 , 3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentene-l-acetaldehyde, butylated hydroxytoluene in male frass, which provided theoretical basis to the host selection of adults D. armandi to Chinese white pine and secretion of D. armandi pheromone.%采用固相微萃取(SPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术,对华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi Tsai et Li)成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中的挥发性物质进行了分析.结果表明,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫新鲜粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质以倍半萜类物质最多,其次是单萜类物质,而未见有二萜类物质,华山松大小蠹雌雄成虫粪便和华山松韧皮部中挥发性物质在成分和含量上都有较大差别,粪便中单萜类物质含量明显高于韧皮部,而倍半萜含量则低于韧皮部.此外,6,6-二甲基-2-

  8. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosius, Tierney R; Higley, Leon G

    2013-01-01

    How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat), but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana's susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  9. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney R. Brosius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat, but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana’s susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  10. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an Savanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy......-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity...

  11. Target-site resistance to pyrethroids in European populations of pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauen, Ralf; Zimmer, Christoph T; Andrews, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases was implicated in the resistance of several pollen beetle populations from different European regions. Here, we have also investigated the possible occurrence of a target-site mechanism caused by modification of the pollen beetle para-type voltage-gated sodium channel gene. We....... No super-kdr mutations (e.g. M918T) known to cause resistance to pyrethroids were detected. The implications of these results for resistance management strategies of pollen beetle populations in oilseed rape crops are discussed....

  12. [Histological structure of tripartite mushroom bodies in ground beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera: Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to members of the suborder Polyphaga; ground beetles have been found to possess tripartite mushroom bodies, which are poorly developed in members of basal taxa and maximally elaborated in evolutionarily advanced groups. Nevertheless, they do not reach the developmental stage, which has been previously found in particular families of beetles. It has been pointed out that anew formation of the Kenyon cells occurs during at least the first months of adult life, and inactive neuroblasts are found even in one-year-old beetles. It has been suggested that there is a relation between the Kenyon cell number and development of the centers of Kenyon cell new-formation.

  13. Build-up of lead in the bodies of beetles living in an environment contaminated by automotive exhaust gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhulidov, A.V.; Yemets, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    Lead in automobile exhaust gases gets deposited on and builds up in roadside soils, grasses, plants, trees, shrubs, mosses, and the bodies of birds and mammals. Insects, and particularly beetles, have not been studied in this respect. This gap is now filled by investigating the build-up of lead in the bodies of the beetles inhabiting these milieux. To this end, insects of 12 species were gathered from forested areas in neighborhood of a heavily traveled highway, along with samples of soil and vegetation. The lead content in all these samples was determined in the form of the colloidal ash of a sulfur compound. For comparison, beetles of 5 species gathered in the same area during 1930 to 1939 were also analyzed. The build-up of lead in the beetles was markedly higher than in the soil and vegetation samples. The lead content of the beetles varied depending on species: the soil-infesting beetles (Carabidae) contained much more lead in their bodies than the plant infesting beetles such as the Scarabeidae, the Buprestidae, and the Cerambycidae. Compared with the beetles collected during 1930 to 1939, the beetles collected in 1975 in the Voronezh Natural Preserve (through which the highway runs) display a much higher lead content. The build-up of lead in beetle bodies can be used as an index of environmental pollution to monitor the state of roadside ecosystems. This is particularly important for natural preserves on which, in general, heavy motor vehicle traffic is not justified.

  14. Evaluation of cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant to facilitate cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) management with foliar insecticides in melons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-08-01

    The bitter plant-derived compounds cucurbitacins are known to stimulate feeding of adult cucumber beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). A cucurbitacin-based gustatory stimulant applied as a flowable bait combined with either spinosad or carbaryl was compared with foliar sprays of spinosad and carbaryl for controlling two cucumber beetle species (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim and Acalymma trivittatum Mannerheim) in honeydew melons (Cucumis melo L.). Field studies were conducted on the University of California-Davis plant pathology farm in 2008 and 2009. Beetle densities after applications and fruit damage from beetle feeding were compared among treatments. In addition, beetle survival was compared within field cages placed over the treated foliage infested with beetles. Using all three measures of efficacy, we determined that the addition of cucurbitacin bait had no effect on the level of cucumber beetle control with carbaryl in either 2008 or 2009. In both years, spinosad did not significantly reduce cucumber beetle densities in either field cages or field plots and did not reduce fruit damage relative to the untreated control. The addition of the bait to spinosad did not improve its efficacy. A laboratory bioassay of the spinosad formulation used in the field showed it had significant lethal effects on adults of both cucumber beetle species. Results indicated that the bait formulation used did not improve cucumber beetle control but may benefit from the addition of floral attractants or using a different type of cucurbitacin.

  15. Biosynthesis of the defensive alkaloid cicindeloine in Stenus solutus beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierling, Andreas; Dettner, Konrad; Schmidt, Jürgen; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2012-08-01

    To protect themselves from predation and microorganismic infestation, rove beetles of the genus Stenus produce and store bioactive alkaloids like stenusine, 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine, and cicindeloine in their pygidial glands. The biosynthesis of stenusine and 3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine was previously investigated in Stenus bimaculatus and Stenus similis, respectively. Both molecules follow the same biosynthetic pathway, where the N-heterocyclic ring is derived from l-lysine and the side chain from l-isoleucine. The different alkaloids are finally obtained by slight modifications of shared precursor molecules. The piperideine alkaloid cicindeloine occurs as a main compound additionally to ( E)-3-(2-methyl-1-butenyl)pyridine and traces of stenusine in the pygidial gland secretion of Stenus cicindeloides and Stenus solutus. Feeding of S. solutus beetles with [D,15N]-labeled amino acids followed by GC/MS analysis techniques showed that cicindeloine is synthesized via the identical pathway and precursor molecules as the other two defensive alkaloids.

  16. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenau, Torben A.; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-08-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods that are suitable for more complex double curved geometry. One approach is to use alternating layers of 2 different polymers applied by dipping and another is applying cholesteric liquid crystals in paint. However, none of them can yet make the desired metal-looking free-form surfaces.

  17. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, Marten; Vergnon, Remi; van Nes, Egbert H.; Cuppen, Jan G. M.; Peeters, Edwin T. H. M.; Leijs, Remko; Nilsson, Anders N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world’s 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10–20%) are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect. PMID:26447476

  18. Specialized adaptations for springtail predation in Mesozoic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Cai, Chen-Yang; Huang, Di-Ying; Li, Li-Zhen

    2017-12-01

    Insects exhibit a variety of morphological specializations specific to particular behaviors, and these permit the reconstruction of palaeobiological traits. Despite the critical importance of predator-prey strategies in insect evolution, the appearance of particular aspects of predation are often difficult to determine from the fossil record of hexapods. Here we report the discovery of highly specialized, mid-Cretaceous ant-like stone beetles (Staphylinidae: Scydmaeninae) displaying morphological modifications unknown among living scydmaenids and associated with predation on springtails (Collembola), a widespread and abundant group of significantly greater geological age. Cascomastigus monstrabilis gen. et sp. nov. exhibits an extremely large body size, elongate clubbed maxillary palpi, toothed mandibles, and more importantly, slender and highly modified antennae that functioned as an antennal setal trap. Such an antennal modification is analogous to that of the modern ground beetle genus Loricera (Carabidae: Loricerinae), a group possessing a specialized antennal setal trap exclusively for the capture of springtails. The presence of an identical antennal setal trap in C. monstrabilis demonstrates a unique and dramatic form of obligate predation among the late Mesozoic insects.

  19. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  20. Effects of nitrogen application on beetle communities in tea plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Bo Chen; Zhi-Juan Wei; Zhao-Hua Zeng; Li-Lin Chen; Hui-Tao Chen; Min-Sheng You

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to grassland and forest ecosystems, little is known about insect response to nitrogen deposition in agricultural ecosystems. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of short-term (1-2 years) nitrogen application (0, 172.5, 345.0, 690.0, families, 89 species of beetles, was obtained from a tea plantation in Wuyishan, China. Among them, herbivores, predators and detritivores had 52, 29, and eight species, respectively. Species richness, effective diversity and abundance (measured as the number of individuals and insect biomass) of the beetle community were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, nitrogen application changed the species distribution and weakly increased the evenness of species distribution, while this did not significantly change the species evenness. Species richness and abundance of herbivores and predators were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, there were some variations in trophic responses to nitrogen. Species richness and abundance of detritivores increased with increasing nitrogen application.

  1. Malpighian tubule development in the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Benedict; Denholm, Barry

    2014-11-01

    Malpighian tubules (MpTs) are the major organ for excretion and osmoregulation in most insects. MpT development is characterised for Drosophila melanogaster, but not other species. We therefore do not know the extent to which the MpT developmental programme is conserved across insects. To redress this we provide a comprehensive description of MpT development in the beetle Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), a species separated from Drosophila by >315 million years. We identify similarities with Drosophila MpT development including: 1) the onset of morphological development, beginning when tubules bud from the gut and proliferate to increase organ size. 2) the tubule is shaped by convergent-extension movements and oriented cell divisions. 3) differentiated tip cells activate EGF-signalling in distal MpT cells through the ligand Spitz. 4) MpTs contain two main cell types - principal and stellate cells, differing in morphology and gene expression. We also describe development of the beetle cryptonephridial system, an adaptation for water conservation, which represents a major modification of the MpT ground plan characterised by intimate association between MpTs and rectum. This work establishes a new model to compare MpT development across insects, and provides a framework to help understand how an evolutionary novelty - the cryptonephridial system - arose during organ evolution.

  2. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-10-13

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting.

  3. Intraguild predation and successful invasion by introduced ladybird beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, William E; Clevenger, Garrett M; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2004-08-01

    Introductions of two ladybird beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) species, Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis, into North America for aphid biocontrol have been followed by declines in native species. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) between larvae of these two exotic species and larvae of the two most abundant native coccinellids in eastern Washington State, C. transversoguttata and Hippodamia convergens. In pairings between the two native species in laboratory microcosms containing pea ( Pisum sativum) plants, neither native had a clear advantage over the other in IGP. When the natives were paired with either Harmonia axyridis or C. septempunctata, the natives were more frequently the victims than perpetrators of IGP. In contrast, in pairings between the exotic species, neither had an IGP advantage, although overall rates of IGP between these two species were very high. Adding alternative prey (aphids) to microcosms did not alter the frequency and patterns of relative IGP among the coccinellid species. In observations of encounters between larvae, the introduced H. axyridis frequently survived multiple encounters with the native C. transversoguttata, whereas the native rarely survived a single encounter with H. axyridis. Our results suggest that larvae of the native species face increased IGP following invasion by C. septempunctata and H. axyridis, which may be contributing to the speed with which these exotic ladybird beetles displace the natives following invasion.

  4. Predation of Ladybird Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae by Amphibians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Sloggett

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies of predation of ladybird beetles (Coccinellidae have focused on a limited number of predator taxa, such as birds and ants, while other potential predators have received limited attention. I here consider amphibians as predators of ladybirds. Published amphibian gut analyses show that ladybirds are quite often eaten by frogs and toads (Anura, with recorded frequencies reaching up to 15% of dietary items. Salamanders (Caudata eat ladybirds less frequently, probably as their habits less often bring them into contact with the beetles. Amphibians do not appear to be deleteriously affected by the potentially toxic alkaloids that ladybirds possess. Amphibians, especially frogs and toads, use primarily prey movement as a release cue to attack their food; it is thus likely that their ability to discriminate against ladybirds and other chemically defended prey is limited. Because of this poor discriminatory power, amphibians have apparently evolved non-specific resistance to prey defensive chemicals, including ladybird alkaloids. Although amphibian-related ladybird mortality is limited, in certain habitats it could outweigh mortality from more frequently studied predators, notably birds. The gut analyses from the herpetological literature used in this study, suggest that in studying predation of insects, entomologists should consider specialized literature on other animal groups.

  5. 华山松大小蠹对几种寄主挥发物组分的EAG和行为反应%Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus armandi(Coleoptera:Ipidae)to host plant volatiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹琳; 杨伟; 杨佐忠; 陈小平; 杨春平; 李强; 李锋; 陈春茂

    2011-01-01

    为筛选适宜配制华山松大小蠹(Dendroctonus armandi)引诱剂的有效化学成分,用触角电位仪和Y型嗅觉仪测定了华山松大小蠹雌、雄虫对华山松挥发物主要成分的触角电生理(EAG)和行为反应.结果表明:在0.01、0.1、1、10、100 μg 5种刺激剂量下,7种化合物在特定浓度下均有明确的EAG反应;雌、雄虫对月桂烯、(+)-3-蒈烯、β-石竹烯3种化合物及雄虫对(+)-α-蒎烯、柠檬烯的EAG相对电位的最大值均出现在10μg刺激条件下;在10 μg刺激剂量条件下,雌虫对(+)-α-蒎烯、β-蒎烯和(+)-3-蒈烯有明显的正趋向反应,正趋向率均高于72%且显著高于雄成虫对3种挥发物的正趋向率;在1 μg刺激下,只有雄虫对(+)-3-蒈烯有一定正趋向反应;而在100μg条件下,(-)-α-蒎烯对雌、雄虫均有一定驱避作用.该研究结果可为开发华山松大小蠹林间引诱剂提供借鉴.%In order to screen attractive chemicals for trapping male and female Dendroctonus armandi, electroantennography and Y-tube olfactometer were used to test the electroantennographic ( EAG) and behavioral responses of D. armandi adults to the main components of the volatiles from Pinus armandii. At the dosages 0. 01, 0. 1, 1, 10, and 100 μg, seven test chemicals at their proper dosages all induced clear EAG responses. At the dosage 10 μg, myrcene, (+) -3- carene, and β-caryophyllene all elicited the highest EAG values to both the female and the male D. armandi adults, and (+) -α-pinene and limonene elicited the highest EAG values to the male D. armandi adults. Also at the dosage 10 μg, ( +) -α-pinene, β-pinene , and ( +) -3 -carene induced an obvious correct taxis response of the females, with the correct response percentages of the females being significantly higher ( >72% ) than those of the males. At the dosage 1 μg, only (+) -3-carene was attractive to the males. At the dosage 100 μg, ( -) -α-pinene had definite repellent

  6. Evaluation on control effect of parasitoids on Dendroctonus armandi population%寄生性天敌对华山松大小蠹种群控制作用评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菊; 谢寿安; 吕淑杰; 丁彦; 巩雪峰; 徐生福

    2009-01-01

    对秦岭林区优势先锋虫种华山松大小蠹 Dendroctonus armandi 寄生蜂种群的林问分布规律进行了研究.在标准地调查基础上,选择华山松大小蠹虫害木作为解析木,分期分批采集华山松大小蠹幼虫和蛹进行室内饲养.结果表明:秦岭林区华山松大小蠹有寄生蜂7种.在河谷地带华山松林中寄生蜂种类最多,7种寄生蜂都有分布,总寄生率最高(37.5%~42.5%),其它依次为竹子华山松林、鹿蹄草华山松林、苔草华山松林、山坡下部华山松林;华山松虫害木树干不同部位寄生蜂种群组成和总寄生率不同,华山松大小蠹寄生蜂种群在华山松虫害木树干上的垂直分布与华山松大小蠹种群相吻合,说明华山松大小蠹种群和寄生蜂种群长期以来建立了相互制约而又相互依存的密切关系.

  7. Beetle forewings: Epitome of the optimal design for lightweight composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinxiang; Wu, Gang

    2013-01-16

    Based on studies of the forewings of two beetles, Allomyrina dichotoma and Prosopocoilus inclinatus, this paper reviews and identifies the potential benefits of studying the structure of the beetle forewing and the associated development of lightweight biomimetic composite materials. The forewings of both beetle species consist of an integrated border frame structure and a large center part with distributed trabecular supports in the hollow core. The forewings of the male A. dichotoma are constructed to reflect a lightweight honeycomb design. However, the forewings of P. inclinatus are a durable structure. The biological significance of these structures is also discussed. This work proposes an integrated honeycomb structure inspired by the beetle forewing. A series of biological models are also proposed for lightweight integrated honeycomb structures and durable sandwich structures with a trabecular core, which are intended to establish a new direction in the development of biomimetic composite materials.

  8. Cantharidin biosynthesis in a blister beetle: inhibition by 6-fluoromevalonate causes chemical disarmament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, J E; Doom, J P; McCormick, J P

    1986-07-15

    Biosynthesis of cantharidin in a blister beetle, Lytta polita, is effectively inhibited by 6-fluoromevalonate. Inhibition is attributed specifically to the fluorine substituent. Biochemical inhibition has not been demonstrated previously for an arthropod's defensive substance.

  9. Immunocytochemical studies on peptidergic neurons in the Colorado potato beetle and some other insect species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes the distribution, numbers, and morphology of peptidergic neurons and neurosecretory cells in the Colorado potato beetle, as detected with immunocytochemistry with antisera to various regulatory peptides from vertebrates, as well as to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRF

  10. Reproductive isolation between populations from Northern and Central Europe of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fatouros, N.E.; Hilker, M.; Gross, J.

    2006-01-01

    Allopatric populations of the leaf beetle Chrysomela lapponica are known to feed upon either willow (Salicaceae) or birch (Betulaceae). This study aimed to elucidate the differentiation process of these allopatric populations. We investigated whether these allopatric populations specialized on diffe

  11. Diversity of forensic rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) associated with decaying pig carcass in a forest biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric

    2013-07-01

    Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.

  12. Contrasting diets reveal the metabolic plasticity of the tree-killing beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood-feeding insects encounter challenging diets with low quantities of protein, recalcitrant sources of carbohydrates, and high levels of defensive compounds. These insects have multiple, complementary mechanisms to contend with these digestive challenges. The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora g...

  13. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F; Hughes, David T; Luetje, Charles W; Millar, Jocelyn G; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M; Robertson, Hugh M

    2012-07-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine compovnents, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol; and McOr5 is sensitive to 2-phenylethanol. McOr3 and McOr20 are also sensitive to structurally-related chemicals that are pheromones of other cerambycid beetles, suggesting that orthologous receptors may be present across many cerambycid species. These Ors are the first to be functionally characterized from any species of beetle and lay the groundwork for understanding the evolution of pheromones within the Cerambycidae.

  14. Biannual monitoring of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility in Danish pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Caroline; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    The pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus F.) is a serious pest in the northern countries in oilseed rape. To determine the present level of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid susceptibility of Danish pollen beetle populations, standardized methods recommended by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee......) were used. Pollen beetle populations were collected from 47 locations of Denmark with the help of the consultants and the farmers of the various regions in 2014. Further six populations were tested from Sweden and one from Germany. In the following year 2015, the monitoring continued to find out......, if the resistance level which was determined in 2014 was stable in selected regions. Therefore pollen beetle populations from 14 locations in Denmark and five locations in Germany have been tested. For all tests the standardised methods for pyrethroids, the Adult-vial-test No. 11 and the Adult-vials-test No. 21...

  15. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  16. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle1.2-MA0 chip.

  17. Occurrence of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Fang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. C. (Z. parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas W. wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.

  18. Studies of MaPMTs with beetle-chip read-out

    CERN Document Server

    Muheim, F

    2005-01-01

    We have evaluated the 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier (MaPMT) with 8-stage dynodes for the LHCb RICH detectors. With a Beetle 1.2 chip to read-out the MaPMT, we have demonstrated that the MaPMT performance is as expected using particle beams and LED light sources. We have also measured the pulse shape from 12-stage dynode MaPMTs, read out with the Beetle 1.2-MA0 chip.

  19. Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Show Different Invasion Patterns in the USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Rassati

    Full Text Available Non-native bark and ambrosia beetles represent a threat to forests worldwide. Their invasion patterns are, however, still unclear. Here we investigated first, if the spread of non-native bark and ambrosia beetles is a gradual or a discontinuous process; second, which are the main correlates of their community structure; third, whether those correlates correspond to those of native species. We used data on species distribution of non-native and native scolytines in the continental 48 USA states. These data were analyzed through a beta-diversity index, partitioned into species richness differences and species replacement, using Mantel correlograms and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS ordination for identifying spatial patterns, and regression on distance matrices to test the association of climate (temperature, rainfall, forest (cover area, composition, geographical (distance, and human-related (import variables with β-diversity components. For both non-native bark and ambrosia beetles, β-diversity was mainly composed of species richness difference than species replacement. For non-native bark beetles, a discontinuous invasion process composed of long distance jumps or multiple introduction events was apparent. Species richness differences were primarily correlated with differences in import values while temperature was the main correlate of species replacement. For non-native ambrosia beetles, a more continuous invasion process was apparent, with the pool of non-native species arriving in the coastal areas that tended to be filtered as they spread to interior portions of the continental USA. Species richness differences were mainly correlated with differences in rainfall among states, while rainfall and temperature were the main correlates of species replacement. Our study suggests that the different ecology of bark and ambrosia beetles influences their invasion process in new environments. The lower dependency that bark beetles have

  20. Sustainable control of taro beetles via scoliid wasps\\ud and Metarhizium anisopliae

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Taro Scarab beetles (Papuana uninodis, Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) inflict severe damage on important root crops and plants such as Taro or Cocoyam, yam, sweet potatoes, oil palm and coffee tea plants across Africa and Asia resulting in economic hardship and starvation in some nations. Scoliid wasps and Metarhizium anisopliae fungus - bio-control agents; are shown to be able to control the population of Scarab beetle adults and larvae using a newly created simulation model based on non-linear o...

  1. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  2. Climate and host plant availability impact the future distribution of the bean leaf beetle (Cerotoma trifurcata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzitis, Emily A; Minigan, Jordan N; Hallett, Rebecca H; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-09-01

    The bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, has become a major pest of soybean throughout its North American range. With a changing climate, there is the potential for this pest to further expand its distribution and become an increasingly severe pest in certain regions. To examine this possibility, we developed bioclimatic envelope models for both the bean leaf beetle, and its most important agronomic host plant, soybean (Glycine max). These two models were combined to examine the potential future pest status of the beetle using climate change projections from multiple general circulation models (GCMs) and climate change scenarios. Despite the broad tolerances of soybean, incorporation of host plant availability substantially decreased the suitable and favourable areas for the bean leaf beetle as compared to an evaluation based solely on the climate envelope of the beetle, demonstrating the importance of incorporating biotic interactions in these predictions. The use of multiple GCM-scenario combinations also revealed differences in predictions depending on the choice of GCM, with scenario choice having less of an impact. While the Norwegian model predicted little northward expansion of the beetle from its current northern range limit of southern Ontario and overall decreases in suitable and favourable areas over time, the Canadian and Russian models predict that much of Ontario and Quebec will become suitable for the beetle in the future, as well as Manitoba under the Russian model. The Russian model also predicts expansion of the suitable and favourable areas for the beetle over time. Two predictions that do not depend on our choice of GCM include a decrease in suitability of the Mississippi Delta region and continued favourability of the southeastern United States.

  3. Evaluation of damage, food attractants and population dynamics of strawberry sap beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Fornari,Rodrigo A; Machota Junior,Ruben; Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; Pastori,Patrik Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The strawberry sap beetle [Lobiopa insularis (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)] is one of the most important pests of strawberry crops. This study aimed to determine the relationship between strawberry fruit maturation stages and the feeding of sap beetle in laboratory and to evaluate food attractants and population dynamics of this species during the crop season. To evaluate the feeding preference of strawberry fruits 'Camarosa' at different maturation stages [green (G), semi-ripe (SM) a...

  4. Enhancing floral diversity to increase the robustness of grassland beetle assemblages to environmental change

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, B. A.; Bullock, J.M.; Nowakowski, M.(Dept. de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Cra. 1E No. 18A-10, Santafe de Bogota, Colombia); Orr, R; Tallowin, J. R. B.; Pywell, R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Intensive grassland management has produced floristically species poor swards supporting a limited invertebrate fauna. Low cost seed mixtures can be used to increase floristic diversity and so diversify the food resource of phytophagous invertebrate. We quantify trophic links between plants and phytophagous beetles in grasslands established using three seed mixtures. Using food webs, we model secondary extinctions from the beetle communities caused by the loss of host-plants. Plant species we...

  5. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelia M. Stojanova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are presented.

  6. A New Seed Beetle Species to the Bulgarian Fauna: Bruchidius siliquastri, Delobel (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Anelia M. Stojanova; Zoltán György; Zoltán László

    2011-01-01

    A seed beetle Bruchidius siliquastri DELOBEL, 2007 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) was reared from ripe pods of Cercis siliquastrum (Fabaceae) in Bulgaria and this is the first record of the species to the Bulgarian fauna. New host plants of the bruchid species were established on the basis of material collected in Hungary: Cercis occidentalis, Cercis chinensis and Cercis griffithii. A rich hymenopteran complex associated with the seed beetle was reared and comments on it are prese...

  7. Applying imidacloprid via a precision banding system to control striped cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinski, J; Darr, M; Ozkan, E; Precheur, R

    2009-12-01

    The striped cucumber beetle, Acalymma vittatum (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a key pest of cucurbit crops throughout its range. A novel precision band applicator was designed to inject a solid stream of imidacloprid solution in-furrow directly over the seed during planting to reduce beetle leaf feeding on pumpkin, zucchini, and cucumber crops. In 2004 and 2005, bioassays at the cotyledon through fifth leaf were conducted on striped cucumber beetles using seedling leaf tissue grown from seeds treated using both continuous and precision banded in-furrow imidacloprid solution applications. In 2004, 80% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 70% of the bioassay trials showed no significant difference in mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments. In 2005, 79% of bioassay trials had treatments with beetle mortality significantly higher than the check, whereas 100% of the bioassays showed no significant difference in beetle mortality between continuous in-furrow and precision banded treatments at the same insecticide rate. The environmental savings of precision banded treatments compared with continuous in-furrow treatment reduced imidacloprid up to 84.5% on a per hectare basis for all cucurbits tested in 2004 and 2005, translating into an economic savings up to $215/ha. In separate bioassay trials conducted in 2005 on pumpkin, where insecticide band length and injection volume were manipulated independently, several treatments had significantly higher beetle mortality than the check. There was a trend of increased beetle mortality in treatments using shorter band lengths combined with higher insecticide solution volumes.

  8. Spatial and environmental correlates of species richness and turnover patterns in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Freijeiro,Andrea; Baselga, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite some general concordant patterns (i.e. the latitudinal richness gradient), species richness and composition of different European beetle taxa varies in different ways according to their dispersal and ecological traits. Here, the patterns of variation in species richness, composition and spatial turnover are analysed in European cryptocephaline and chrysomeline leaf beetles, assessing their environmental and spatial correlates. The underlying rationale to use environmental and...

  9. Two genera of Aulacoscelinae beetles reflexively bleed azoxyglycosides found in their host cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Alberto; Ledezma, Julieta; Cubilla-Rios, Luis; Bede, Jacqueline C; Windsor, Donald M

    2011-07-01

    Aulacoscelinae beetles have an ancient relationship with cycads (Cycadophyta: Zamiaceae), which contain highly toxic azoxyglycoside (AZG) compounds. How these "primitive" leaf beetles deal with such host-derived compounds remains largely unknown. Collections were made of adult Aulacoscelis appendiculata from Zamia cf. elegantissima in Panama, A. vogti from Dioon edule in Mexico, and Janbechynea paradoxa from Zamia boliviana in Bolivia. Total AZG levels were quantified in both cycad leaves and adult beetles by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). On average, cycad leaves contained between 0.5-0.8% AZG (frozen weight, FW), while adult beetles feeding on the same leaves contained even higher levels of the compounds (average 0.9-1.5% FW). High AZG levels were isolated from reflex bleeding secreted at the leg joints when beetles were disturbed. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy identified two AZGs, cycasin and macrozamin, in the reflex bleeding; this is the first account of potentially plant-derived compounds in secretions of the Aulacoscelinae. These data as well as the basal phylogenetic position of the Aulacoscelinae suggest that sequestration of plant secondary metabolites appeared early in leaf beetle evolution.

  10. Tamarisk biocontrol using tamarisk beetles: Potential consequences for riparian birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Eben H.; Theimer, Tad C.; Sogge, Mark K.

    2011-01-01

    The tamarisk beetle (Diorhabda spp.), a non-native biocontrol agent, has been introduced to eradicate tamarisk (Tamarix spp.), a genus of non-native tree that has become a dominant component of riparian woodlands in the southwestern United States. Tamarisk beetles have the potential to spread widely and defoliate large expanses of tamarisk habitat, but the effects of such a widespread loss of riparian vegetation on birds remains unknown. We reviewed literature on the effects of other defoliating insects on birds to investigate the potential for tamarisk beetles to affect birds positively or negatively by changing food abundance and vegetation structure. We then combined data on the temporal patterns of tamarisk defoliation by beetles with nest productivity of a well-studied riparian obligate, the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus), to simulate the potential demographic consequences of beetle defoliation on breeding riparian birds in both the short and long term. Our results highlight that the effects of tamarisk biocontrol on birds will likely vary by species and population, depending upon its sensitivity to seasonal defoliation by beetles and net loss of riparian habitat due to tamarisk mortality. Species with restricted distributions that include areas dominated by tamarisk may be negatively affected both in the short and long term. The rate of regeneration and/or restoration of native cottonwoods (Populus spp.) and willows (Salix spp.) relative to the rate of tamarisk loss will be critical in determining the long-term effect of this large-scale ecological experiment.

  11. Specialized proteinine rove beetles shed light on insect-fungal associations in the Cretaceous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenyang; Newton, Alfred F; Thayer, Margaret K; Leschen, Richard A B; Huang, Diying

    2016-12-28

    Insects and fungi have a long history of association in shared habitats. Fungus-feeding, or mycophagy, is remarkably widespread in beetles (Coleoptera) and appears to be a primitive feeding habit that preceded feeding on plant tissues. Numerous Mesozoic beetles belonging to extant fungus-associated families are known, but direct fossil evidence elucidating mycophagy in insects has remained elusive. Here, we report a remarkable genus and species, Vetuproteinus cretaceus gen. et sp. nov., belonging to a new tribe (Vetuproteinini trib. nov.) of the extant rove beetle subfamily Proteininae (Staphylinidae) in Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. The mouthparts of this beetle have a markedly enlarged protruding galea bearing an apparent spore brush, a specialized structure we infer was used to scrape spores off surfaces and direct them into the mouth, as in multiple modern spore-feeding beetles. Considering the long evolutionary history of Fungi, the Mid-Cretaceous beetles likely fed on ancient Basidiomycota and/or Ascomycota fungi or spore-producing organisms such as slime moulds (Myxomycetes). The discovery of the first Mesozoic proteinine illustrates the antiquity of the subfamily, and suggests that ancestral Proteininae were already diverse and widespread in Pangaea before the supercontinent broke up.

  12. Linking functional group richness and ecosystem functions of dung beetles: an experimental quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milotić, Tanja; Quidé, Stijn; Van Loo, Thomas; Hoffmann, Maurice

    2017-01-01

    Dung beetles form an insect group that fulfils important functions in terrestrial ecosystems throughout the world. These include nutrient cycling through dung removal, soil bioturbation, plant growth, secondary seed dispersal and parasite control. We conducted field experiments at two sites in the northern hemisphere temperate region in which dung removal and secondary seed dispersal were assessed. Dung beetles were classified in three functional groups, depending on their size and dung manipulation method: dwellers, large and small tunnelers. Other soil inhabiting fauna were included as a fourth functional group. Dung removal and seed dispersal by each individual functional group and combinations thereof were estimated in exclusion experiments using different dung types. Dwellers were the most diverse and abundant group, but tunnelers were dominant in terms of biomass. All dung beetle functional groups had a clear preference for fresh dung. The ecosystem services in dung removal and secondary seed dispersal provided by dung beetles were significant and differed between functional groups. Although in absolute numbers more dwellers were found, large tunnelers were disproportionally important for dung burial and seed removal. In the absence of dung beetles, other soil inhabiting fauna, such as earthworms, partly took over the dung decomposing role of dung beetles while most dung was processed when all native functional groups were present. Our results, therefore, emphasize the need to conserve functionally complete dung ecosystems to maintain full ecosystem functioning.

  13. A comparison of dung beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) attraction to native and exotic mammal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Sean D; Hoback, W Wyatt

    2012-04-01

    Although the preference of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) for specific types and conditions of dung has been given substantial attention, little has been done to investigate the potential effects of exotic mammal introduction for game farms or rewilding projects. We used pitfall traps baited with various native and exotic herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore dung to evaluate dung beetle preference in the Great Plains of North America. Additionally, we analyzed of the nutrient quality of each dung type. In total, 9,089 dung beetles from 15 species were captured in 2 yr of sampling. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean dung beetle capture among omnivore, herbivore, and carnivore dung, as well as differences in individual species preference for dung type. Omnivore dung was the most attractive with chimpanzee and human dung having the highest mean capture (291.1 ± 27.6 and 287.5 ± 28.5 respectively). Carrion also was highly attractive with a mean of 231.9 ± 20.6 beetles per trap (N = 8). Our results suggest definitive local preference of carrion in Phanaeus vindex Macleay and Onthophagus hecate (Panzer), while the congener, O. pennsylvanicus (Harold), was rarely captured in carrion and highly preferred omnivore dung. Preference for a specific bait type does not appear to be correlated with dung quality, mammalian diet, or origin of mammal. Results suggest niche segregation by dung type among dung beetle species.

  14. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  15. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase.

  16. Predaceous diving beetle, Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) larvae avoid cannibalism by recognizing prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoda, Toshio

    2012-09-01

    Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism.

  17. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal.

  18. Carrion beetles succession in three different habitats in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaly, Ashraf Mohamed Ali

    2017-02-01

    A main objective of the study is the establishment of a forensic entomological database for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Decomposition processes and beetle succession were analysed on rabbit carcasses in three different habitats (agricultural, desert and urban) in the period from May to July 2014. Due to the effects of the high temperature at the study sites, carrion reached the dry stage within 12 days in the agricultural habitat, and 6 days in the desert and urban habitats. A total of 125 beetles belonging to eight species and five families were collected during the decaying process, with their abundances increasing from the fresh to decay stages. The prevailing species belonged to the families of Dermestidae and Histeridae. It was not possible to confirm any definitive relationship between the occurrence of a single species and a particular stage of decomposition. The beetle communities were also not distinctively different between desert and urban habitats, but a distinct community was evident in the agriculture habitat. In addition, there were distinct beetle communities between the decay stage and the other stages. The dry stage recorded the lowest number of beetles. This study indicated that, the habitat type had an effect on the decay process and the abundance rate of the beetles.

  19. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  20. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  1. Trends in detoxification enzymes and heavy metal accumulation in ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) inhabiting a gradient of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, David; Jepson, Paul; Laskowski, Ryszard

    2002-05-01

    Non-specfic carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase activity was measured in the ground beetle, Pterosthicus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), from five sites along a gradient of heavy metal pollution. A previous study determined that beetles from the two most polluted sites (site codes OLK2 and OLK3) were more susceptible to additional stressors compared with beetles from the reference site (Stone et al., Environ. Pollut. 113, 239-244 2001), suggesting the possibility of physiological impairment. Metal body burdens in ground beetles from five sites along the gradient ranged from 79 to 201 microg/g Zn, 0.174 to 8.66 microg/g Pb and 1.14 to 10.8 microg/g Cd, whereas Cu seemed to be efficiently regulated regardless of metal levels in the soil. Beetle mid- and hindguts were homogenized and the soluble fraction containing glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CaE) was assayed using kinetic analyses. Significantly higher levels of GST were found only in female beetles from the most polluted sites (OLK2 and OLK3; P=0.049, P<0.001, respectively) compared with the reference site (OLK7). In addition, OLK3 females had significantly higher levels of CaE compared with the reference beetles (P=0.01). Male beetles did not differ in enzyme activity along the metal gradient. Overall, obvious trends in detoxification enzymes were not detected in ground beetles in association with metal body burdens.

  2. Structural color change in longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Dong, B Q; Liu, X H; Zheng, Y M; Zi, J

    2009-08-31

    The elytra of longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae show iridescent golden coloration which stems from long and flat scales imbricated densely on the elytral surface. The scales are able to change coloration from golden in the dry state to red in the wet state with water absorption. Structural characterizations revealed that the iridescent coloration of scales originates from a multilayer in the scale interior. Measurements on both water contact angle and chemical composition indicated that scales are hydrophilic. The change in scale coloration to red in the wet state is due to both the swelling of the multilayer period and water infiltration. The unraveled structural color change and its strategy may not only help us get insight into the biological functionality of structural coloration but also inspire the designs of artificial photonic devices.

  3. Mimicking unfolding motion of a beetle hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Azhar; PARK Hoon C; HWANG Do Y; BYUN Doyoung; GOO Nam S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research aiming to realize an artificial hind wing that can mimic the wing unfolding motion of Allomyrina dichotoma, an insect in coleopteran order. Based on the understanding of working principles of beetle wing folding/unfolding mechanisms, the hind wing unfolding motion is mimicked by a combination of creative ideas and state-of-art artificial muscle actuator. In this work, we devise two types of artificial wings and the successfully demonstrate that they can be unfolded by actuation of shape memory alloy wires to provide actuation force at the wing base and along the leading edge vein. The folding/unfolding mechanisms may provide an insight for portable nano/micro air vehicles with morphing wings.

  4. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  5. Bergamot versus beetle: evidence for intraspecific chemical specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefover-Ring, Ken

    2015-11-16

    A large proportion of phytophagous insects show host plant specificity (monophagy or oligophagy), often determined by host secondary chemistry. Yet, even specialists can be negatively affected by host chemistry at high levels or with novel compounds, which may manifest itself if their host species is chemically variable. This study tested for reciprocal effects of a specialist tortoise beetle (Physonota unipunctata) feeding on a host plant (Monarda fistulosa) with two monoterpene chemotypes [thymol (T) and carvacrol (C)] using a controlled field experiment where larvae fed on caged plants of both chemotypes, haphazardly collected natural plants with and without beetle damage, and growth chamber experiments where larvae that hatched and briefly fed on one chemotype were reared on either chemotype. In the field experiment, plant chemotype did not affect larval weight or length, but did influence larval survival with almost 8.3 % more surviving on T plants. Herbivores reduced seed head area (86.5 % decrease), stem mass (41.2 %) and stem height (21.1 %) of caged plants, but this was independent of host chemotype. Natural plants experienced similar reductions in these variables (74.0, 41.4 and 8.7 %) and T chemotypes were more frequently damaged. In the growth chamber, larval relative growth rate (RGR) differed for both feeding history and year. Larvae from T natal plants reared on T hosts grew at almost twice the rate of those from C and reared on T. Larvae from either T or C natal plants reared on C plants showed intermediate growth rates. Additional analyses revealed natal plant chemotype as the most important factor, with the RGR of larvae from T natal plants almost one-third higher than that of those from C natal plants. These cumulative results demonstrate intraspecific variation in plant resistance that may lead to herbivore specialization on distinct host chemistry, which has implications for the evolutionary trajectory of both the insect and plant species.

  6. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  7. The impact of bark beetle infestation on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in Western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the Western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene concentration data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in Western North America.

    Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (following a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in SOA concentrations when following a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in Western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and

  8. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  9. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

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    MM. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung.

  10. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

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    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  11. Concept of an Active Amplification Mechanism in the Infrared Organ of Pyrophilous Melanophila Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erik S.; Schmitz, Anke; Schmitz, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila possess a pair of metathoracic infrared (IR) organs. These organs are used for forest fire detection because Melanophila larvae can only develop in fire killed trees. Several reports in the literature and a modeling of a historic oil tank fire suggest that beetles may be able to detect large fires by means of their IR organs from distances of more than 100 km. In contrast, the highest sensitivity of the IR organs, so far determined by behavioral and physiological experiments, allows a detection of large fires from distances up to 12 km only. Sensitivity thresholds, however, have always been determined in non-flying beetles. Therefore, the complete micromechanical environment of the IR organs in flying beetles has not been taken into consideration. Because the so-called photomechanic sensilla housed in the IR organs respond bimodally to mechanical as well as to IR stimuli, it is proposed that flying beetles make use of muscular energy coupled out of the flight motor to considerably increase the sensitivity of their IR sensilla during intermittent search flight sequences. In a search flight the beetle performs signal scanning with wing beat frequency while the inputs of the IR organs on both body sides are compared. By this procedure the detection of weak IR signals could be possible even if the signals are hidden in the thermal noise. If this proposed mechanism really exists in Melanophila beetles, their IR organs could even compete with cooled IR quantum detectors. The theoretical concept of an active amplification mechanism in a photon receptor innervated by highly sensitive mechanoreceptors is presented in this article. PMID:26733883

  12. Unintended effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba on lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Laurène; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Weed resistance to glyphosate and development of new GM crops tolerant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is expected to lead to increased use of these herbicides in cropland. The lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata is an important beneficial insect in cropland that is commonly used as an indicator species in safety evaluations of pesticides. Here, we examined the lethal and non-lethal effects of 2,4-D and dicamba active ingredients and commercial formulations to this lady beetle species, and tested for synergistic effects of the herbicides. Second instars of lady beetles were exposed to an experimental treatment, and their mortality, development, weight, sex ratio, fecundity, and mobility was evaluated. Using similar methods, a dose-response study was conducted on 2,4-D with and without dicamba. The commercial formulation of 2,4-D was highly lethal to lady beetle larvae; the LC90 of this herbicide was 13 % of the label rate. In this case, the "inactive" ingredients were a key driver of the toxicity. Dicamba active ingredient significantly increased lady beetle mortality and reduced their body weight. The commercial formulations of both herbicides reduced the proportion of males in the lady beetle population. The herbicides when used together did not act synergistically in their toxicity toward lady beetles versus when the chemistries were used independently. Our work shows that herbicide formulations can cause both lethal and sublethal effects on non-target, beneficial insects, and these effects are sometimes driven by the "inactive" ingredients. The field-level implications of shifts in weed management practices on insect management programs should receive further attention.

  13. Use of a Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measuring the Material Properties of Beetle Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailie Jin; Nam Seo Goo; Sung-Choong Woo; Hoon Cheol Park

    2009-01-01

    Beetle wings are very specialized flight organs consisting of the veins and membranes. Therefore it is necessary from a bionic view to investigate the material properties of a beetle wing experimentally. In the present study, we have used a Digital lmage Correlation (DIC) technique to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing membrane. Specimens were prepared by carefully cutting a beetle hind wing into 3.0 mm by 7.0 mm segments (the gage length was 5 mm). We used a scanning electron microscope for a precise measurement of the thickness of the beetle wing membrane. The specimen was attached to a designed fixture to induce a uniform displacement by means of a micromanipulator. We used an ARAMISTM system based on the digital image correlation technique to measure the corresponding displacement of a specimen. The thickness of the beetle wing varied at different points of the membrane. The elastic modulus differed in relation to the membrane arrangement showing a structural anisotropy; the elastic modulus in the chordwise direction is approximately 2.65 GPa, which is three times larger than the elastic modulus in the spanwise direction of 0.84 GPa. As a result, the digital image correlation-based ARAMIS system was suc-cessfully used to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing. In addition to membrane's elastic modulus, we considered the Poisson's ratio of the membrane and measured the elastic modulus of a vein using an Instron universal tensile machine. The result reveals the Poisson's ratio is nearly zero and the elastic modulus of a vein is about 11 GPa.

  14. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  15. Concept of an active amplification mechanism in the infrared organ of pyrophilous Melanophila beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik S Schneider

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jewel beetles of the genus Melanophila possess a pair of metathoracic infrared (IR organs. These organs are used for forest fire detection because Melanophila larvae can only develop in fire killed trees. Several reports in the literature and a modeling of a historic oil tank fire suggest that beetles may be able to detect large fires by means of their IR organs from distances of more than 100 km. In contrast, the highest sensitivity of the IR organs, so far determined by behavioral and physiological experiments, allows a detection of large fires from distances up to 12 km only. Sensitivity thresholds, however, have always been determined in non-flying beetles. Therefore, the complete micromechanical environment of the IR organs in flying beetles has not been taken into consideration. Because the so-called photomechanic sensilla housed in the IR organs respond bimodally to mechanical as well as to IR stimuli, it is proposed that flying beetles make use of muscular energy coupled out of the flight motor to considerably increase the sensitivity of their IR sensilla during intermittent search flight sequences. In a search flight the beetle performs signal scanning with wing beat frequency while the inputs of the IR organs on both body sides are compared. By this procedure the detection of weak IR signals could be possible even if the signals are hidden in the thermal noise. If this proposed mechanism really exists in Melanophila beetles, their IR organs could even compete with cooled IR quantum detectors. The theoretical concept of an active amplification mechanism in a photon receptor innervated by highly sensitive mechanoreceptors is presented in this article.

  16. Evidence for a Phe-Gly-Leu-amide-like allatostatin in the beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Karen L; Chan, Kuen Kuen; Stay, Barbara

    2010-03-01

    The allatostatins (ASTs) with Phe-Gly-Leu-amide C-terminal sequence are multifunctional neuropeptides discovered as inhibitors of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis by corpora allata (CA) of cockroaches. Although these ASTs inhibit JH synthesis only in cockroaches, crickets, termites and locusts, isolation of peptides or of cDNA/genomic DNA or analysis of genomes indicates their occurrence in many orders of insects with the exception of coleopterans. The gene for these ASTs has not been found in the genome of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Family Tenebrionidae). Yet, in view of widespread occurrence of these peptides in insects, crustaceans and nematodes, they would be expected to occur in beetles. This study provides evidence for the presence of FGLa-like ASTs in the tenebrionid beetle, Tenebrio molitor, and scarabid beetle, Popillia japonica. Extract of brain from both beetles inhibited JH synthesis by cockroach CA dose dependently and reversibly. 20 brain equivalents of T. molitor and P. japonica extracts inhibited JH synthesis 64+/-5 and 65+/-0.6% respectively. Antibody against cockroach allatostatin (Diploptera punctata AST-7) used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reacted with brain extract of these beetles. Antibody against D. punctata AST-5 localized FGLa-like ASTs in the brain and subesophageal ganglion of T. molitor and P. japonica. In addition, pretreatment of T. molitor brain extract with anti-D. punctata AST-5 reduced the inhibition of JH synthesis and pretreatment of anti-D. punctata AST-5 with D. punctata AST-5 diminished the immunoreactivity of the antibody. Thus we predict that FGLa-like allatostatins will be found in beetles.

  17. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Megan P.; Reed, Sasha C.; Cleveland, Cory C.

    2013-01-01

    Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP) (Pinus albicaulis) ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N) within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  18. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  19. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  20. Monitoring the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera:Nitidulidae), with baited flight traps: effect of distance from bee hives and shade on the numbers of beetles captured

    Science.gov (United States)

    The small hive beetle is a native of Africa where it is considered a minor pest of honey bees, and until recently it was thought to be limited to that continent. However, it was detected in Florida in 1998, and by 2004, it had spread to 30 states. It now poses a major threat to the beekeeping indu...

  1. Frequent, Low-Intensity Fire Increases Tree Defense To Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, S.; Sala, A.

    2013-12-01

    Wildfire and bark beetles are the two largest disturbance agents in North American conifer forests and have interacted for millennia to drive forest composition, structure, and ecological processes. Recent widespread mortality in western coniferous forests due to bark beetle outbreaks have been attributed in part to increasing temperatures and drought associated with global climate change. In fire-dependent forests, fire exclusion has also led to uncharacteristically dense forests which are also thought to be more susceptible to bark beetle outbreaks due to increased drought stress in individual trees. These mortality events have spurred strong interest in the interaction of fire and bark beetles in driving forest dynamics under a changing climate. However, a fact that has not received adequate attention is whether fire exclusion in fire-dependent forests decreases allocation to tree defense, thereby making contemporary forests more prone to bark beetle outbreaks, regardless of climate and stand structure. Fire is known to increase constitutive resin production in many tree species, yet the impact of frequent fire on expression of better defended tree phenotypes has never been examined. We hypothesized that frequent, low-intensity fire increases tree resistance to bark beetle attack through systemic induced resistance. Using a combination of sampling in natural stands for which we had long-term fire history data and an experimental block design of four thinning and burning treatments, we examined the influence of fire and water stress on tree defense to determine if frequent fire increases tree defense and the degree to which water stress modulates this response. We used axial resin ducts as the measure of defense, as this is where resin is both stored and manufactured in Pinaceae. Resin duct production and density has also been shown to be a better indicator of mortality from bark beetle attacks than tree growth. Resin duct density increased after fire at all

  2. Performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip reading out a Micron PR03 R measuring sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, J; Eckstein, D; Palacios, J P

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip bonded to a Micron PR03 measuring prototype VELO sensor has been studied using test beam data collected by the VELO group. Results concerning the peak signal, signal to noise ratio, signal remainder 25 ns after peaking time, and a scan of the undershoot region for different bias settings of the Beetle are presented.

  3. Checklist of tortoise beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae) from Colombia with new data and description of a new species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Lech; Świętojańska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new tortoise beetle species, Cyrtonota abrili, is described from the Antioquia and Caldas departments in Colombia. New faunistic data are provided for 87 species, including 16 new additions to the country’s fauna. A checklist of the known 238 species of tortoise beetles recorded from Colombia is given. PMID:26448702

  4. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object

  5. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus (Nematoda: Diplogastridae) is associated with the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Matthias; Mayer, Werner E; Hong, Ray L; Kienle, Simone; Minasaki, Ryuji; Sommer, Ralf J

    2007-09-01

    Pristionchus pacificus has been developed as a nematode satellite organism in evolutionary developmental biology. Detailed studies of vulva development revealed multiple differences in genetic and molecular control in P. pacificus compared to the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To place evolutionary developmental biology in a comprehensive evolutionary context, such studies have to be complemented with ecology. In recent field studies in western Europe and eastern North America we found 11 Pristionchus species that are closely associated with scarab beetles and the Colorado potato beetle. However, P. pacificus was not commonly found in association with scarab beetles in these studies. Here, we describe the results of a similar survey of scarab beetles in Japan. Pristionchus pacificus was the most common Pristionchus species on scarab beetles in Japan, with 40 out of 43 (93%) isolates. The other Pristionchus isolates represent three novel species, which we refer to as Pristionchus sp. 11, Pristionchus sp. 14, and Pristionchus sp. 15. Thirty-seven of the established P. pacificus strains were found on the oriental beetle Exomala orientalis. Laboratory studies with the sex pheromone (Z)-7-tetradecen-2-one of the oriental beetle revealed that P. pacificus shows strong olfactory attraction to the beetle's sex pheromone, which provides a potential mechanism for the recognition and interaction of P. pacificus and E. orientalis. Together, this study identifies P. pacificus as the most common Pristionchus nematode in field studies in Japan, identifies E. orientalis as an important host species, and provides the basis for the ecology of P. pacificus.

  6. The impacts of feeding in a resistant tree on the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) and its gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB; Anoplophora glabripennis) is an invasive, wood-boring beetle capable of thriving in the heartwood of a broad range of angiospermous trees. Here, it faces a number of nutritional and digestive challenges, including the presence of highly recalcitrant lignocellulose a...

  7. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  8. Description and phylogeny of a new microsporidium from the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1766 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...

  9. Sex Determination in the Chinese Rose Beetle, Adoretus sinicus, and overview of Adoretus species of biosecurity concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae: Adoretini), is a broadly polyphagous scarab beetle that is economically important and causes damage to a wide variety of host plants including agricultural crops and ornamentals in Southeast Asia, China, the ...

  10. Effects of starvation and mating status on the activity of the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oku, K.; Vermeer, K.M.C.A.; Verbaarschot, P.; Jong, de P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Flea beetles are characterized by their tendency to jump. They can also fly. First, the effects of starvation on flight activity in the flea beetle, Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were determined. After starving P. nemorum for five days a greater number of individuals of both sex

  11. Pleiotropic effects associated with an allele enabling the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum to use Barbarea vulgaris as a host plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuker, C.J.; Jong, de P.W.; Victoir, K.; Vrieling, K.; Brakefield, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Danish region of Kværkeby, a mutation in an, as yet, unknown single autosomal gene has resulted in a dominant resistance (R-) allele in the flea beetle Phyllotreta nemorum L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticinae). It enables the beetle to overcome the defences of Barbarea vulgaris ssp. arcua

  12. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  13. Characterization and host range of the symbiotic fungus Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov., vectored by the invasive ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A novel symbiotic Fusarium euwallaceae fungus that serves as a specific nutritional source for the invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) is farmed in the galleries of host plants. This beetle-fungus complex, which has invaded Israel and California, is clo...

  14. Invasive Asian Fusarium – Euwallacea ambrosia beetle mutualists pose a serious threat to forests, urban landscapes and the avocado industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several species of the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cultivate Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) species in their galleries as a source of food. Like all other scolytine beetles in the tribe Xyleborini, Euwallacea are thought to be obligate mutualists with their fung...

  15. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  16. The value of trophic interactions for ecosystem function: dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Hannah M; Bardgett, Richard D; Louzada, Julio; Barlow, Jos

    2016-12-14

    Anthropogenic activities are causing species extinctions, raising concerns about the consequences of changing biological communities for ecosystem functioning. To address this, we investigated how dung beetle communities influence seed burial and seedling recruitment in the Brazilian Amazon. First, we conducted a burial and retrieval experiment using seed mimics. We found that dung beetle biomass had a stronger positive effect on the burial of large than small beads, suggesting that anthropogenic reductions in large-bodied beetles will have the greatest effect on the secondary dispersal of large-seeded plant species. Second, we established mesocosm experiments in which dung beetle communities buried Myrciaria dubia seeds to examine plant emergence and survival. Contrary to expectations, we found that beetle diversity and biomass negatively influenced seedling emergence, but positively affected the survival of seedlings that emerged. Finally, we conducted germination trials to establish the optimum burial depth of experimental seeds, revealing a negative relationship between burial depth and seedling emergence success. Our results provide novel evidence that seed burial by dung beetles may be detrimental for the emergence of some seed species. However, we also detected positive impacts of beetle activity on seedling recruitment, which are probably because of their influence on soil properties. Overall, this study provides new evidence that anthropogenic impacts on dung beetle communities could influence the structure of tropical forests; in particular, their capacity to regenerate and continue to provide valuable functions and services.

  17. 甲壳虫是怎么得到颜色的%How Beetle Got Her Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Long ago in the Amazon rain forest Beetle was just plain brown.In this same forest there lived a rat that used to tease other small animals and insects that lived there.Best of all she liked to torment the beetle.Rat had a gang of other small animals who followed her,and laughed at her mean jokes.

  18. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  19. Behavior of Paussus favieri (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Paussini: A Myrmecophilous Beetle Associated with Pheidole pallidula (Hymenoptera, Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Maurizi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several specimens of the myrmecophilous beetle Paussus favieri were reared in ant nests of Pheidole pallidula. Their interactions were recorded and all behaviors observed are described. Duration and frequency of five behaviors of P. favieri were analyzed with ANOVA and post hoc Tukey tests; these comprised rewarding, antennal shaking, antennation, escape, and “no contact”. Significant differences both in duration and in frequency among behaviors were detected. The main result is that the rewarding behavior, during which the beetle provides attractive substances to the host, is performed significantly more frequently than all others. This result strongly supports the hypothesis that the chemicals provided by the beetles and licked by the ants are of great importance for the acceptance and the full integration of P. favieri in the ant society. This result also suggests that, contrary to previous findings and interpretations, the myrmecophilous strategy of P. favieri is very similar to the symphilous strategy described for P. turcicus. The occasional interactions of some beetle specimens with the P. pallidula queen were recorded, illustrated, and discussed, indicating the possibility of a more complex strategy of P. favieri involving a chemical mimicry with the queen. In addition, the courtship performed by the beetle is described for the first time, together with a peculiar “cleaning” behavior, which we hypothesize functions to spread antennal chemicals over the body surfaces.

  20. Keratin decomposition by trogid beetles: evidence from a feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shinji; Ikeda, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and feathers. Although beetles of the family Trogidae are considered keratin feeders, their ecological function has rarely been explored. Here, we investigated the keratin-decomposition function of trogid beetles in heron-breeding colonies where keratin was frequently supplied as feathers. Three trogid species were collected from the colonies and observed feeding on heron feathers under laboratory conditions. We also measured the nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) stable isotope ratios of two trogid species that were maintained on a constant diet (feathers from one heron individual) during 70 days under laboratory conditions. We compared the isotopic signatures of the trogids with the feathers to investigate isotopic shifts from the feathers to the consumers for δ15N and δ13C. We used mixing models (MixSIR and SIAR) to estimate the main diets of individual field-collected trogid beetles. The analysis indicated that heron feathers were more important as food for trogid beetles than were soft tissues under field conditions. Together, the feeding experiment and stable isotope analysis provided strong evidence of keratin decomposition by trogid beetles.

  1. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

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    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  2. CLINICAL STUDY OF 100 CASES OF BEETLE DERMATITIS IN RURAL POPULATION OF GURGAON

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    Vinita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paederus dermatitis (blister beetle dermatitis (BBD is a geographic seasonal vesiculobullous disorder caused when beetles of the genus Paederus are crushed on the skin, releasing the vesicant pederin. Though blister beetle dermatitis is a clinical diagnosis, at times it becomes difficult to identify it. AIM: To study the clinical profile and factors associated with Paederus Dermatitis/ blister beetle dermatitis (BBD in patients attending the out-patient department of dermatology of SGT Hospital, Budhera, Gurgaon. METHODS: 100 clinically diagnosed cases of beetle dermatitis were included in the study. The patients were evaluated by means of a standard pro forma which included detailed history and thorough clinical examination. RESULTS: A total of 100 cases were examined of which 67% were males and 33% females. Maximum cases reported in the month of April (25%. 32% patients had more than one lesion with involvement of multiple sites. Face (34.5% was found to be most commonly involved site. Most of the patients presented with vesicles and bullae on erythematous background arranged in linear fashion. Constitutional symptoms were rarely seen in only 7% of the patients. No mucosal or systemic involvement was found. CONCLUSION: Despite its frequency, the disease is rarely described in medical literature, probably because the correct diagnosis is not made. It is important for the rural population in particular to be aware of this condition and to take adequate measures for its prevention especially during harvesting and rainy season

  3. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V; Chikatunov, Vladimir I

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided.

  4. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

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    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. METHODOLOGY: A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  5. Bark Beetles as Significant Forest Disturbances: Estimating Susceptibility Based On Stand Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, J. A.; Jenkins, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    In the western United States, bark beetle outbreaks affect millions of hectares of forests. These disturbances have multiple effects on ecosystems, including modifications to biogeochemical cycles, interactions with fire, and changes in land cover type and species composition. In recent years, extensive outbreaks have occurred in multiple forest ecosystems in the West, thought to be caused by climate variability and stand structure. In this study, we focus on epidemics of mountain pine beetle. We used USDA Forest Service inventories and a model to estimate lodgepole pine susceptibility to mountain pine beetle attack in the West. The model considers stand age, stem density, and percentage of large lodgepole pine to estimate stand susceptibility. Over 150,000 trees in 4454 plots across the western United States were used to compute susceptibility at the plot scale as well as map susceptibility at the county scale. We found that regional susceptibility was high (estimated potential of losses of 34% of stand basal area) for 2.8 Mha, or 46%, of lodgepole pine forests. The highest susceptibility occurred in the Rocky Mountains, with lower susceptibility in coastal states. This study reveals that a substantial fraction of lodgepole pine forest could be subjected to bark beetle outbreaks under current climate conditions. Because climate and weather affect beetle populations, projected future warming will influence outbreak regimes. Thus, forest ecosystems in the West may experience more frequent, extensive, and/or severe disturbances than in recent decades due to current stand structure, and these disturbances may be intensified under climate change.

  6. Parapatric genetic introgression and phenotypic assimilation: testing conditions for introgression between Hercules beetles (Dynastes, Dynastinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jen-Pan

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence and consequences of genetic introgression between species have been intensively debated. I used Hercules beetles as examples to test for conditions that may be associated with the occurrence of introgression. RADseq data were used to reconstruct the species tree and history of introgression between Hercules beetles. Image data from museum specimens were used to investigate the phenotypic similarity of two adaptive traits between species from two distinct climatic realms (Nearctic vs. Neotropical). Genetic introgression was identified between Hercules beetles living in geographic proximity (parapatric). Phylogenetic relatedness and phenotypic similarity did not predict nor preclude genetic introgression between species. Phenotypic assimilation in body coloration was evident between distantly related Hercules beetles codistributed in Central America, where directional introgression was also statistically supported from the putative donor to receiver lineages. The number of introgressed loci was significantly higher between species with than without phenotypic similarity. I discuss the implications of recent studies on adaptive genetic introgression by providing supporting evidence from the Hercules beetle system.

  7. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference.

  8. Seasonal Flight Activity of the Sugarcane Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in North Carolina Using Black Light Traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billeisen, T L; Brandenburg, R L

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal flight activity, adult beetle sex count, and egg production were examined in sugarcane beetles Euetheola rugiceps (LeConte) caught in light traps in North Carolina from the fall of 2009 through the summer of 2014. A regression model using variable environmental conditions as predictive parameters was developed to examine the impact of these conditions on flight activity. Depending on flight trap location and sampling years, beetles exhibited an inconsistent flight pattern, with the majority of adults flying in the spring (April-June) and intermittently in the fall (September-October). Our model indicated that larger numbers of adults collected from traps coincided with an increase in average soil temperature. Sugarcane beetles also exhibit a synchronous emergence during both periods of flight activity. Eggs were detected in females collected from light traps every week throughout the entire sampling period. The majority of females produced 7-12 eggs, with most egg production occurring between 15 May and 1 August. The findings of this research provide adult sugarcane beetle emergence and flight behavior information necessary to determine optimal pesticide application timing.

  9. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

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    Renata Calixto Campos

    Full Text Available Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h, a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  10. Contrasting diversity dynamics of phoretic mites and beetles associated with vertebrate carrion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Weaver, Haylee J; Manning, Adrian D

    2014-05-01

    Carrion is an ephemeral and nutrient-rich resource that attracts a diverse array of arthropods as it decomposes. Carrion-associated mites often disperse between animal carcasses using phoresy, the transport of one species by another. Yet few studies have contrasted the dynamics of mite assemblages with other insect taxa present at carrion. We examined and compared the changes in abundance, species richness and composition of mite and beetle assemblages sampled at kangaroo carcasses in a grassy eucalypt woodland at four different times over a 6-month period. We found that the majority of mites were phoretic, with the mesostigmatid genera Uroseius (Uropodidae), Macrocheles (Macrochelidae) and Parasitus (Parasitidae) the most abundant taxa (excluding astigmatid mites). Abundance and richness patterns of mites and beetles were very different, with mites reaching peak abundance and richness at weeks 6 and 12, and beetles at weeks 1 and 6. Both mites and beetles showed clear successional patterns via changes in species presence and relative abundance. Our study shows that mesostigmatid mite assemblages have a delay in peak abundance and richness relative to beetle assemblages. This suggests that differences in dispersal and reproductive traits of arthropods may contribute to the contrasting diversity dynamics of carrion arthropod communities, and further highlights the role of carrion as a driver of diversity and heterogeneity in ecosystems.

  11. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

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    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  12. Copro-necrophagous beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) diversity in an agroecosystem in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes Novelo, Enrique; Delfín-González, Hugo; Angel Morón, Miguel

    2007-03-01

    Scarabaeinae are sensitive to structural habitat changes caused by disturbance. We compared copronecrophagous beetle (Scarabaeinae) community structure in three differently managed zones within an agroeco-system of the northern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We placed dung and carrion traps once a month from June 2004 through May 2005. The beetle community included 17 species from the genera Canthon, Canthidium, Deltochilum, Pseudocanthon, Malagoniella, Onthophagus, Phanaeus, Copris, Uroxys, Sisyphus and Ateuchus. The secondary vegetation had a higher beetle diversity than the other two zones. Species richness was highest in the Brosimum alicastrum plantation. The pasture had the lowest species diversity and richness, but exhibited the highest abundance of Scarabaeinae in the dry season. The two zones with extensive tree cover were the most diverse. Roller beetles were dominant over burrower species and small-sized species outnumbered large species. Our data show two important issues: beetle species in the pasture extended their activity to the beginning of the dry season, while abundances dropped in the other, unirrigated zones; and the possibility that the Scarabaeinae living in neotropical forests are opportunistic saprophages and have specialized habits for resources other than dung. The B. alicastrum plantation is beneficial to the entire ranch production system because it functions as a dispersion and development area for stenotopic species limited to tree cover.

  13. Alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia

    2014-07-01

    Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study

  14. Preferential host switching and codivergence shaped radiation of bark beetle symbionts, nematodes of Micoletzkya (Nematoda: Diplogastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susoy, V; Herrmann, M

    2014-05-01

    Host-symbiont systems are of particular interest to evolutionary biology because they allow testable inferences of diversification processes while also providing both a historical basis and an ecological context for studies of adaptation. Our investigations of bark beetle symbionts, predatory nematodes of the genus Micoletzkya, have revealed remarkable diversity of the group along with a high level of host specificity. Cophylogenetic analyses suggest that evolution of the nematodes was largely influenced by the evolutionary history of beetles. The diversification of the symbionts, however, could not be attributed to parallel divergence alone; our results indicate that adaptive radiation of the nematodes was shaped by preferential host shifts among closely related beetles along with codivergence. Whereas ecological and geographic isolation have played a major role in the diversification of Micoletzkya at shallow phylogenetic depths, adaptations towards related hosts have played a role in shaping cophylogenetic structure at a larger evolutionary scale.

  15. How unique is the tiger beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae of the Balkan Peninsula?

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    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The tiger beetle fauna of the Balkan Peninsula is one of the richest in Europe and includes 19 species or 41% of the European tiger beetle fauna. Assembled by their biogeographical origins, the Balkan tiger beetle species fall into 14 different groups that include, Mediterranean, Middle Oriental, Central Asiatic, Euro-Siberian, South and East European, Pannonian-Sarmatian, West Palaearctic, Turano-European and Afrotropico Indo-Mediterranean species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and the Pontian Steppe are the Balkan biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Balkan Highlands has the lowest Cicindelidae diversity. Most species are restricted to single habitat types in lowland areas of the Balkan Peninsula and only Calomera aulica aulica and Calomera littoralis nemoralis occur in respectively 3 and 4 different types of habitat. About 60% of all Balkan Cicindelidae species are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity.

  16. Development of red-shifted mutants derived from luciferase of Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Yamada, Toshimichi; Nasu, Yusuke; Ito, Mashiho; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-10-01

    Luciferase, a bioluminescent protein, has been used as an analytical tool to visualize intracellular phenomena. Luciferase with red light emission is particularly useful for bioluminescence imaging because of its high transmittance in mammalian tissues. However, the luminescence intensity of existing luciferases with their emission over 600 nm is insufficient for imaging studies because of their weak intensities. We developed mutants of Emerald luciferase (Eluc) from Brazilian click beetle (Pyrearinus termitilluminans), which emits the strongest bioluminescence among beetle luciferases. We successively introduced four amino acid mutations into the luciferase based on a predicted structure of Eluc using homology modeling. Results showed that quadruple mutations R214K/H241K/S246H/H347A into the beetle luciferase emit luminescence with emission maximum at 626 nm, 88-nm red-shift from the wild-type luciferase. This mutant luciferase is anticipated for application in in vivo multicolor imaging in living samples.

  17. Variations in energy content of some carabid beetles in eastern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, J.C. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington); Randolph, P.A.; Barlow, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Five species of adult carabid beetles were collected weekly from meadow and deciduous forest habitats in eastern Canada during the snow-free part of the year and analyzed for relative abundance, weight, and caloric equivalent. Although the same species were collected in both habitats, the deciduous forest had a greater relative abundance. Within a species the individual dry weights of male and female beetles without ova are not different, but with increasing numbers of ova some reproductive females are twice as heavy as males. Significant differences in caloric equivalents (cal/ash-free g dry wt) were found between species and between gravid females and males or non-gravid females within a species. Abundances, weights of individuals, and caloric equivalents all contribute to variations in energy content. However, comparisons of several estimates of total beetle energy content using data with varying levels of resolution suggest that detailed calorific analysis may not be necessary for population level studies.

  18. No increase in fluctuating asymmetry in ground beetles (Carabidae) as urbanisation progresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L; Batki, Marton

    2014-01-01

    the usefulness of FA in morphological traits as an indicator of environmental quality, we studied the effect of urbanisation on FA in ground beetles (Carabidae) near a Danish city. First, we performed a critical examina- tion whether morphological character traits suggested in the literature displayed true...... fluctuating asymmetry in three common predatory ground beetles, Carabus nemoralis, Nebria brevicollis and Pterostichus melanarius. Eight metrical (length of the second and third antennal segments, elytral length, length of the first tarsus segment, length of the first and second tibiae, length of the proximal...... traits along an urbanisation gradient (forest - suburban forest - forest fragments in urban park) to test whether environmental stress created by urbanisation is reflected in FA. Ground beetles common along a Danish urbanisation gradient did not seem to indicate differences in habitat quality...

  19. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  20. On the laboratory rearing of green dock leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dagmar Voigt; Naoe Hosoda; Jan Schuppert; Stanislav Gorb

    2011-01-01

    Leaf beetles Gastrophysa viridula have attracted recently increased research interest from various points of view, since they are: (i) pest insects in rhubarb crops; (ii) potential biocontrol agents of dock plants Rumex spp. in grasslands; and (iii) a model species in ecological studies on insect population dynamics, biochemistry, behavior, biomechanics and biomimetics. The continuous rearing of beetles at standardized conditions may help to unify the fitness state of different individuals, allowing a better comparison of experimental results. The present communication suggests a modular space- and time-saving rearing method of G. viridula in stackable faunariums under laboratory conditions, which has been successfully established and continuously used over the last 5 years. Several developmental stages were kept in separate boxes, and multiple generations were kept simultaneously, depending on the required number of beetles.

  1. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  2. A System for Harvesting Eggs from the Pink-Spotted Lady Beetle

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    Margaret L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink-spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Adult beetles placed in square, transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on the materials provided. We harvested eggs from these substrates in quantities sufficient for either destructive sampling or synchronous development of larvae. We evaluated effects of crowding inside cages; effects of a chemical attractant on oviposition behavior; egg cannibalism. Females preferred a textured surface rather than a smooth, waxy one for laying eggs. Crowding inhibited oviposition of beetles. Presence of a chemical attractant (methyl salicylate did not significantly improve oviposition. This paper describes an inexpensive system for harvesting eggs from C. maculata. Refinement of this system should improve oviposition and reduce cannibalism.

  3. Gold bugs and beyond: a review of iridescence and structural colour mechanisms in beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seago, Ainsley E; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D

    2009-04-01

    Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as 'living jewels', in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles.

  4. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

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    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  5. Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

    2000-02-01

    The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle.

  6. Efficacy of Different Insecticides in Controlling Pollen Beetle (Meligethes aeneus F. in Rapeseed Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Milovanović

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since pollen beetle, M. aeneus, is usually controlled by insecticides, the efficacy of several compounds with different modes of action against adult beetles was studied in a threeyear field study. The selected insecticides were: three pyrethroids (lambda-cyhalothrin, alpha-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, an oganophosphate (pirimiphos-methyl, a combination of an organophosphate and a pyrethroid (chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin and a neonicotinoid (thiacloprid. The insecticides were applied at label rates to winter rapeseed crops at the moment of visible but still closed flower buds (BBCH 55-57. In all experiments, the efficacy of pyrethroids and the organophosphate ranged from 90-100%, while the efficacy of the neonicotinoid was 85-95%. Therefore, they can be recommended for control of pollen beetle in Serbia.

  7. Previous encapsulation response enhances within individual protection against fungal parasite in the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, Indrikis; Daukste, Janina; Kivleniece, Inese; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2013-12-01

    Immune defenses of insects show either broad reactions or specificity and durability of induced protection against attacking parasites and pathogens. In this study, we tested whether encapsulation response against nylon monofilament increases between two attempts of activation of immune system in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor, and whether previous exposure to nylon monofilament may also increase protection against an entomopathogenic fungus. We found that survival of beetles subjected to immune activation by nylon implant and subsequent fungal exposure a week later was significantly higher than survival of beetles which had been subjected to fungal infection only. This result suggests that previous immune activation by the nylon implant may be considered as broad spectrum "immune priming" which helps to fight not only the same intruder but also other parasites.

  8. Nutrient richness of wood mould in tree hollows with the Scarabaeid beetle Osmoderma eremita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson, N.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Trunk hollows with wood mould habour a rich invertebrate fauna with many threatened species, and it has been suggested that the beetle Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea is a keystone species in this community. We estimated the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in wood mould and compared the coarse fraction which constitutes frass of O. eremita with the finer fraction of wood mould, and found that the nutrient richness was higher in frass. O. eremita larvae have a fermentation chamber that harbours nitrogen fixing bacteria. As the levels of absorbable nitrogen are a limiting factor in insect growth, an increase in nutrient richness is one of several possible explanations why the species richness of saproxylic beetles is higher in hollow oaks where O. eremita is present in relation to similar trees where the beetle is absent

  9. Changes in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Pozsgai; Nick A. Littlewood

    2011-01-01

    A growing body ofevidence shows that climate change can alter the phenology of plants and animals.In this study long-term data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) were analyzed to investigate whether there has been a change in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus (Fabricius,1775).Pitfall trap data were available from 12 ECN sites across the United Kingdom,most of which have been in operation for more than 15 years.Weather and vegetation datasets were also utilized.Pitfall trap lines were categorized to eight vegetation types.Trend analysis over time was carried out first using all the available dates of capture events,then the datasets grouped by vegetation type and site.Shifts in high-activity periods were also analyzed.P.madidus appearance dates advanced significantly at seven sites and in five vegetation types.Peak activity advanced at two sites.At one site the timing of activity became significantly later.The last day of activity did not change significantly,supporting the theory that the cessation of the activity period is more likely to be controlled by photoperiod than temperature.The relationships between phenological variables and climatic factors were also investigated.However,no significant correlations were detected.These results demonstrate that between 1992 and 2008,phenology ofP madidus at seven sites from the eight analyzed has changed.Global warming may be driving these changes and future work will investigate underlying processes.

  10. The Beetle Reference Manual chip version 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, D; Schmelling, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the electrical specifications, operating conditions and port definitions of the readout chip Beetle 1.2. The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and fulfils the requirements of the silicon vertex detector (VELO, VETO), the silicon tracker and the RICH detector in case of multi-anode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. The pulse shape can be chosen such that it complies with LHCb specifications: a peaking time of 25 ns with a remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns of less than 30%. A comparator per channel with configurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought off chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analog pipeline. This ring buffer has a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervals and an integrated derandomising buffer of 16 stages. For analog readout d...

  11. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E.; Johnston, J. Spencer

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the ‘C-value paradox’. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4–5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution. PMID:26354938

  12. Bacterial Infection Increases Reproductive Investment in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavey, Catherine E.; Silva, Farley W. S.; Cotter, Sheena C.

    2015-01-01

    The Nicrophorus genus lives and breeds in a microbe rich environment. As such, it would be expected that strategies should be in place to counter potentially negative effects of the microbes common to this environment. In this study, we show the response of Nicrophorus vespilloides to the common soil bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Phenoloxidase (PO) levels are not upregulated in response to the challenge and the bacteria are observed to multiply within the haemolymph of the host. Despite the growth of B. subtilis, survival is not affected, either in virgin or in breeding beetles. Some limit on bacterial growth in the haemolymph does seem to be occurring, suggesting mechanisms of resistance, in addition to tolerance mechanisms. Despite limited detrimental effects on the individual, the challenge by Bacillus subtilis appears to act as a cue to increase reproductive investment. The challenge may indicate a suite of negative environmental conditions that could compromise future breeding opportunities. This could act as a cue to increase parental investment in the current bout. PMID:26529021

  13. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen LU; Qiao WANG; Mingyi TIAN; Jin XU; Jian LV; Aizhi QIN

    2013-01-01

    Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle,Glenea cantor (F.)(Coleoptera:Cerambycidae),were investigated.Upon encounter,a male approached a female,mounted her,grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi,and attempted to mate.Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h.Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success,the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait,the bursa copulatrix length,and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length.Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate,suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition.Under a female-biased sex ratio,more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers,suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice.Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating.During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert,and as a result,males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success.

  14. A Beetle Flight Muscle Displays Leg Muscle Microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Vo Doan, Tat Thang; Ishiwata, Shin'ichi; Sato, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Madoka

    2016-09-20

    In contrast to major flight muscles in the Mecynorrhina torquata beetle, the third axillary (3Ax) muscle is a minor flight muscle that uniquely displays a powerful mechanical function despite its considerably small volume, ∼1/50 that of a major flight muscle. The 3Ax muscle contracts relatively slowly, and in flight strongly pulls the beating wing to attenuate the stroke amplitude. This attenuation leads to left-right turning in flight or wing folding to cease flying. What enables this small muscle to be so powerful? To explore this question, we examined the microstructure of the 3Ax muscle using synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and immunoblotting analysis. We found that the 3Ax muscle has long (∼5 μm) myofilaments and that the ratio of thick (myosin) filaments to thin (actin) filaments is 1:5 or 1:6. These characteristics are not observed in the major flight muscles, which have shorter myofilaments (∼3.5 μm) with a smaller ratio (1:3), and instead are more typical of a leg muscle. Furthermore, the flight-muscle-specific troponin isoform, TnH, is not expressed in the 3Ax muscle. Since such a microstructure is suitable for generating large tension, the 3Ax muscle is appropriately designed to pull the wing strongly despite its small volume.

  15. Mating behavior and sexual selection in a polygamous beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen LU, Qiao WANG, Mingyi TIAN, Jin XU, Jian LV, Aizhi QIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mating behavior and sexual selection in relation to morphometric traits in a polygamous beetle, Glenea cantor (F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, were investigated. Upon encounter, a male approached a female, mounted her, grasped her terminal abdomen with his hind tarsi, and attempted to mate. Successful mating lasted about 3.5 h. Although all traits measured in females and half of traits in males were significantly correlated with mating success, the primary selection on virgin females was the genital trait, the bursa copulatrix length, and that on males was the body length and hind tarsal length. Longer bursa copulatrix accommodated a larger ejaculate, suggesting that this female trait benefits the male that first mates with the female in terms of increasing ejaculate size to beat subsequent males in sperm competition. Under a female-biased sex ratio, more than 20% of matings failed within 20s after the male genitalia had been inserted into hers, suggesting that males assess genital features of the female before insemination and undertake cryptic male mate choice. Larger males were more capable of grasping females and achieving mating. During the premating struggle the male almost always used his hind tarsi to lift the female terminal abdomen to the position for his genitalia to insert, and as a result, males with longer hind tarsi achieved higher mating success [Current Zoology 59 (2 : 257-264, 2013]. 

  16. Phylogeny of the Gondwanan beetle family Ulodidae (Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschen, Richard A B; Escalona, Hermes E; Elgueta, Mario

    2016-07-18

    Ulodidae is a small family of saproxylic and fungus feeding beetles restricted to New Zealand, Australia, Chile and New Caledonia. The phylogeny of this family is presented for the first time, based on a cladistic analysis of 53 adult characters from 16 ulodid genera, rooted with Parahelops Waterhouse (Promecheilidae). The topology shows Arthopus Sharp at the base of the tree and confirms the placement of Meryx Latreille as a member of Ulodidae and closely related to the Chilean genus Trachyderas Philippi & Philippi. The extinct New Zealand genus Waitomophylax Leschen & Rhode was placed among a clade consisting of Brouniphylax Strand, Exohadrus Broun, and Pteroderes Germain. Two new genera and two new species are described: Ulobostrichus gen. n. (type species: Ulobostrichus monteithi sp. n.) and Ulocyphaleus gen. n. (type species: Cyphaleus valdivianus Philippi & Philippi, 1864, now U. valdivianus (Philippi & Philippi) n. comb.; U. laetus sp. n.). Dipsaconia pyritosa Pascoe is designated as the type species of Dipsaconia Pascoe and a lectotype was designated for C. valdivianus. A fully illustrated key to the genera and a checklist of the 16 genera and 42 species is included. Based on the phylogeny, the following characters are derived in the family: tuberculate body surface and the presence of scales and /or encrustations. The presence of pore-fields in the abdominal cuticle has evolved at least three times in Meryx Latreille (Australia), Syrphetodes Pascoe (New Zealand) and Trachyderastes Kaszab (New Caledonia).

  17. Oenocyte development in the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kevin A; Gutzwiller, Lisa M; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori; Gebelein, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Oenocytes are a specialized cell type required for lipid processing, pheromone secretion, and developmental signaling. Their development has been well characterized in Drosophila melanogaster, but it remains unknown whether the developmental program is conserved in other insect species. In this study, we compare and contrast the specification and development of larval oenocytes between Drosophila and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. First, we identify several useful reagents to label larval oenocytes, including both a Tribolium GFP enhancer trap line and a simple flurophore-conjugated streptavidin staining method that recognizes oenocytes across insect species. Second, we use these tools to describe oenocyte development in Tribolium embryos, and our findings provide evidence for conserved roles of MAP kinase signaling as well as the Spalt, Engrailed, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4, and ventral veins lacking factors in producing abdominal-specific oenocyte cells. However, Tribolium embryos produce four times as many oenocytes per abdominal segment as Drosophila, and unlike in Drosophila, these cells rapidly downregulate the expression of the Spalt transcription factor. Thus, these results provide new insight into the molecular pathways regulating oenocyte specification across insect species.

  18. Friction force reduction triggers feet grooming behaviour in beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoda, Naoe; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2011-06-01

    In insects, cleaning (grooming) of tarsal attachment devices is essential for maintaining their adhesive ability, necessary for walking on a complex terrain of plant surfaces. How insects obtain information on the degree of contamination of their feet has remained, until recently, unclear. We carried out friction force measurements on walking beetles Gastrophysa viridula (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) and counted grooming occurrence on stiff polymer substrata with different degrees of nanoroughness (root mean square: 28-288 nm). Since nanoscopically, rough surfaces strongly reduced friction and adhesion without contaminating feet, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that friction force between tarsal attachment pads and the substrate provides an insect with information on the degree of contamination of its attachment structures. We have shown that foot grooming occurrence correlates not only with the degree of contamination but also with the decrease of friction force. This result indicates that insects obtain information about the degree of contamination, not statically but rather dynamically and, presumably, use mechanoreceptors monitoring either tensile/compressive forces in the cuticle or tensile forces between leg segments.

  19. Genome size correlates with reproductive fitness in seed beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnqvist, Göran; Sayadi, Ahmed; Immonen, Elina; Hotzy, Cosima; Rankin, Daniel; Tuda, Midori; Hjelmen, Carl E; Johnston, J Spencer

    2015-09-22

    The ultimate cause of genome size (GS) evolution in eukaryotes remains a major and unresolved puzzle in evolutionary biology. Large-scale comparative studies have failed to find consistent correlations between GS and organismal properties, resulting in the 'C-value paradox'. Current hypotheses for the evolution of GS are based either on the balance between mutational events and drift or on natural selection acting upon standing genetic variation in GS. It is, however, currently very difficult to evaluate the role of selection because within-species studies that relate variation in life-history traits to variation in GS are very rare. Here, we report phylogenetic comparative analyses of GS evolution in seed beetles at two distinct taxonomic scales, which combines replicated estimation of GS with experimental assays of life-history traits and reproductive fitness. GS showed rapid and bidirectional evolution across species, but did not show correlated evolution with any of several indices of the relative importance of genetic drift. Within a single species, GS varied by 4-5% across populations and showed positive correlated evolution with independent estimates of male and female reproductive fitness. Collectively, the phylogenetic pattern of GS diversification across and within species in conjunction with the pattern of correlated evolution between GS and fitness provide novel support for the tenet that natural selection plays a key role in shaping GS evolution.

  20. Detection of seed DNA in regurgitates of granivorous carabid beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinger, C; Sint, D; Baier, F; Schmid, C; Mayer, R; Traugott, M

    2015-12-01

    Granivory can play a pivotal role in influencing regeneration, colonization as well as abundance and distribution of plants. Due to their high abundance, nutrient content and longevity, seeds are an important food source for many animals. Among insects, carabid beetles consume substantial numbers of seeds and are thought to be responsible for a significant amount of seed loss. However, the processes that govern which seeds are eaten and are therefore prevented from entering the seedbank are poorly understood. Here, we assess if DNA-based diet analysis allows tracking the consumption of seeds by carabids. Adult individuals of Harpalus rufipes were fed with seeds of Taraxacum officinale and Lolium perenne allowing them to digest for up to 3 days. Regurgitates were tested for the DNA of ingested seeds at eight different time points post-feeding using general and species-specific plant primers. The detection of seed DNA decreased with digestion time for both seed species, albeit in a species-specific manner. Significant differences in overall DNA detection rates were found with the general plant primers but not with the species-specific primers. This can have implications for the interpretation of trophic data derived from next-generation sequencing, which is based on the application of general primers. Our findings demonstrate that seed predation by carabids can be tracked, molecularly, on a species-specific level, providing a new way to unravel the mechanisms underlying in-field diet choice in granivores.