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Sample records for beetle dendroctonus valens

  1. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

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    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  2. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to four bark beetle pheromones.

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    Zhang, Longwa; Clarke, Stephen R; Sun, Jianghua

    2009-04-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), has caused extensive mortality of Pinus tabuliformis Carrière in north central China. The electrophysiological and behavioral activities of the four bark beetle pheromones, frontalin, exo-brevicomin, trans-verbenol, and cis-verbenol, singly or in combination with host-produced kairomones, were tested on red turpentine beetles. Both sexes showed a consistent electrophysiological response to the four test compounds. In Y-tube olfactometer bioassays, walking red turpentine beetles selected the host compound (+)-3-carene over any of the test compounds, but significantly higher numbers chose each tested pheromone over a blank control. The four compounds, tested singly or in combination, were not attractive to red turpentine beetles in field trapping studies in 2006 and 2007 and also did not significantly increase trap catch when combined with (+)-3-carene. Frontalin, alone or in combination with exo-brevicomin and trans-verbenol, significantly reduced the attractiveness of (+)-3-carene in 2006 but not in 2007. The possible roles of the pheromones in host and mate finding and selection are discussed.

  3. Comparison of orthologous cytochrome P450 genes relative expression patterns in the bark beetles Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) during host colonization.

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    Obregón-Molina, G; Cesar-Ayala, A K; López, M F; Cano-Ramírez, C; Zúñiga, G

    2015-12-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are important components of coniferous forests. During host colonization, they must overcome the chemical defences of their host trees, which are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP or P450) enzymes to compounds that are readily excreted. In this study, we report the relative expression (quantitative real-time PCR) of four orthologous cytochrome P450 genes (CYP6BW5, CYP6DG1, CYP6DJ2 and CYP9Z20) in Dendroctonus rhizophagus and Dendroctonus valens forced to attack host trees at 8 and 24 h following forced attack and in four stages during natural colonization [solitary females boring the bark (T1); both male and female members of couples before oviposition (T2); both male and female members of couples during oviposition (T3), and solitary females inside the gallery containing eggs (T4)]. For both species gene expression was different compared with that observed in insects exposed to single monoterpenes in the laboratory, and the expression patterns were significantly different amongst species, sex, gut region and exposure time or natural colonization stage. The induction of genes (CYP6BW5v1, CYP6DJ2v1 and CYP9Z20v1 from D. rhizophagus, as well as CYP6DG1v3 from D. valens) correlated with colonization stage as well as with the increase in oxygenated monoterpenes in the gut of both species throughout the colonization of the host. Our results point to different functions of these orthologous genes in both species. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Contributions by Host Trees and Insect Activity to Bacterial Communities in Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Galleries, and Their High Overlap With Other Microbial Assemblages of Bark Beetles.

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    Mason, Charles J; Hanshew, Alissa S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-04-01

    Bark beetles are associated with a diversity of symbiotic microbiota that can mediate interactions with their host plants. Dendroctonus valens LeConte is a widely distributed bark beetle in North and Central America, and initiates solitary attacks on several species of Pinus in the Great Lakes region. In this study, we aimed to further characterize the bacterial community associated with D. valens feeding galleries using next-generation sequencing, and the possible contributions of both tree-resident and insect-associated bacteria to these consortia. We found that D. valens galleries harbor a diversity of microbial associates. Many of these associates were classified into a few taxonomic groups, of which Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant class. Of the Gammaproteobacteria detected, many formed clades with 16S-rRNA sequences of bacteria previously associated with D. valens Many of the bacteria sequences detected in the galleries were similar to bacteria that function in detoxification, kairomone metabolism, and nitrogen fixation and cycling. The abundance of bacteria in galleries were 7× and 44× higher than in the surrounding uninfested tissues, and that were not attacked by D. valens, respectively. This suggests that the bacteria present in beetle galleries are largely introduced by D. valens and proliferate in this environment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gao, B.; Wen, X.; Guan, H.; Knížek, M.; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2005), 155-160 ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * outbreak * forest pest Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  6. Verbenone interrupts attraction to host volatiles and reduces attack on Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) by Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the People's Republic of China

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    Jianghua Sun; Nancy Gillette; Zhengwan Miao; Zhongning Zhang Le Kang; Donald R. Owen; John D Stein

    2003-01-01

    The introduced red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is one of the most economically important forest pests in the People's Republic of China, having killed more than 6 million pines in recent years. There is an urgent need to develop effective behavioral chemicals to monitor and control D. valens in the People...

  7. The response of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Temnochila chlorodia (Coleoptera: Trogossitidae) to Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) pheromone components and verbenone

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    Christopher J. Fettig; Stepehen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Robert R. Borys

    2007-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a common bark beetle species found throughout much of North America and China. In 2004, we observed that California fivespined ips, Ips paraconfusus Lanier, 1970 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), attack densities in logging debris were inversely related to D...

  8. Sexual variation of bacterial microbiota of Dendroctonus valens guts and frass in relation to verbenone production.

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    Xu, Letian; Lu, Min; Xu, Dandan; Chen, Li; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-12-01

    Gut microbiota are widely involved in insect biology, and many factors can influence the microbiota in guts and frass. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and the mass-attacking behavior is regulated by several semiochemicals, including verbenone, a multifunctional pheromone. The beetle harbors a variety of bacteria in its guts and frass and some of them are capable of verbenone production. D. valens is characterized by monogamy and female-initiated attacking behavior. Whether the bacterial communities fluctuate according to sex, and whether the variation influences the verbenone production, remains to be determined. In this study, the bacterial microbiota in D. valens guts and frass were analyzed, and verbenone production by their crude bacterial suspensions was compared in vitro. Bacterial diversity in female frass is more abundant compared to male frass, and the percentages and total amounts of main genera like Lactococcus and Pseudomonas in female frass are significantly higher than those in male frass. The verbenone produced by the female frass suspension is significantly higher than male frass. This study presents a comprehensive comparison of bacterial communities in guts and frass between both sexes of D. valens, highlighting the potential significance of female frass microbiota in verbenone production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sound-Triggered Production of Antiaggregation Pheromone Limits Overcrowding of Dendroctonus valens Attacking Pine Trees.

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    Liu, Zhudong; Xin, Yucui; Xu, Bingbing; Raffa, Kenneth F; Sun, Jianghua

    2017-01-01

    For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees. We found that exo-brevicomin was produced by both female and male D. valens, and that this pheromone functioned as an antiaggregating signal. Moreover, beetles feeding in pairs or in masses were more likely than were beetles feeding alone to produce exo-brevicomin, suggesting a potential role of sound by neighboring beetles in stimulating exo-brevicomin production. Sound playback showed that an agreement sound was produced by both sexes when exposed to the aggregation pheromone frontalin and attracts males, and an aggressive sound was produced only by males behaving territorially. These signals triggered the release of exo-brevicomin by both females and males, indicating an interplay of chemical and sonic communication. This study demonstrates that the bark beetle D. valens uses sounds to regulate the production of an antiaggregation pheromone, which may provide new approaches to pest management of this invasive species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Effect of Oxygen on Verbenone Conversion From cis-Verbenol by Gut Facultative Anaerobes of Dendroctonus valens

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    Qingjie Cao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction from North America, Dendroctonus valens LeConte has become a destructive forest pest in China. Although gut aerobic bacteria have been investigated and some are implicated in beetle pheromone production, little is known about the abundance and significance of facultative anaerobic bacteria in beetle gut, especially with regards to effects of oxygen on their role in pheromone production. In this study, we isolated and identified gut bacteria of D. valens adults in an anaerobic environment, and further compared their ability to convert cis-verbenol into verbenone (a multi-functional pheromone of D. valens under different O2 concentrations. Pantoea conspicua, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Staphylococcus warneri were the most frequently isolated species among the total of 10 species identified from beetle gut in anaerobic conditions. Among all isolated species, nine were capable of cis-verbenol to verbenone conversion, and the conversion efficiency increased with increased oxygen concentration. This O2-mediated conversion of cis-verbenol to verbenone suggests that gut facultative anaerobes of D. valens might play an important role in the frass, where there is higher exposure to oxygen, hence the higher verbenone production. This claim is further supported by distinctly differential oxygen concentrations between gut and frass of D. valens females.

  11. Pine Defensive Monoterpene α-Pinene Influences the Feeding Behavior of Dendroctonus valens and Its Gut Bacterial Community Structure

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    Letian Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to plant defense chemicals has negative effects on insect feeding activity and modifies insect gut microbial community composition. Dendroctonus valens is a very destructive forest pest in China, and harbors a large diversity and abundance of gut microorganisms. Host pine defensive chemicals can protect the pines from attack by the holobiont. In this study, boring length of D. valens feeding on 0 mg/g α-pinene and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media for 6 and 48 h were recorded, and their gut bacterial communities were analyzed in parallel. Nine milligram per gram α-pinene concentration significantly inhibited boring length of D. valens and altered its gut microbial community structure after 6 h. The inhibition of boring length from 9 mg/g α-pinene in diets ceased after 48 h. No significant differences of the bacterial communities were observed between the beetles in 0 and 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 48 h. Our results showed that the inhibition of the feeding behavior of D. valens and the disturbance to its gut bacterial communities in 9 mg/g α-pinene concentration in phloem media after 6 h were eliminated after 48 h. The resilience of gut bacterial community of D. valens may help the beetle catabolize pine defense chemical.

  12. Response to host volatiles by native and introduced populations of Dendroctonus valens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in North America and China.  Journal of Chemical Ecology 33: 131-146.

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    N. Erbilgin; S.R. Mori; J.H. Sun; J.D. Stein; D.R. Owen; L.D. Merrill; R. Campos Bolande; os; K.F. Raffa; T. Mendez Montiel; D.L. Wood; N.E.  Gillette

    2007-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) have specialized feeding habits, and commonly colonize only one or a few closely related host genera in their geographical ranges. The red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, has a broad geographic distribution in North America and exploits volatile cues from a wide variety of pines...

  13. Areas of potential suitability and survival of Dendroctonus valens in China under extreme climate warming scenario.

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    He, S Y; Ge, X Z; Wang, T; Wen, J B; Zong, S X

    2015-08-01

    The areas in China with climates suitable for the potential distribution of the pest species red turpentine beetle (RTB) Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were predicted by CLIMEX based on historical climate data and future climate data with warming estimated. The model used a historical climate data set (1971-2000) and a simulated climate data set (2010-2039) provided by the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change (TYN SC 2.0). Based on the historical climate data, a wide area was available in China with a suitable climate for the beetle in which every province might contain suitable habitats for this pest, particularly all of the southern provinces. The northern limit of the distribution of the beetle was predicted to reach Yakeshi and Elunchun in Inner Mongolia, and the western boundary would reach to Keerkezi in Xinjiang Province. Based on a global-warming scenario, the area with a potential climate suited to RTB in the next 30 years (2010-2039) may extend further to the northeast. The northern limit of the distribution could reach most parts of south Heilongjiang Province, whereas the western limit would remain unchanged. Combined with the tendency for RTB to spread, the variation in suitable habitats within the scenario of extreme climate warming and the multiple geographical elements of China led us to assume that, within the next 30 years, RTB would spread towards the northeast, northwest, and central regions of China and could be a potentially serious problem for the forests of China.

  14. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

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    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Phoretic symbionts of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

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    Javier E. Mercado; Richard W. Hofstetter; Danielle M. Reboletti; Jose F. Negron

    2014-01-01

    During its life cycle, the tree-killing mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins interacts with phoretic organisms such as mites, nematodes, fungi, and bacteria. The types of associations these organisms establish with the mountain pine beetle (MPB) vary from mutualistic to antagonistic. The most studied of these interactions are those between beetle and...

  16. Fungal associates of the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae.

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    Six, Diana L; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Duong, Tuan A; Carroll, Allan L; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Bark beetles are well known vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi including species of Ophiostoma, Grosmannia and Ceratocystis. In this study, the most common ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the lodgepole pine beetle, Dendroctonus murrayanae, were characterized. Pre-emergent and post-attack adult beetles were collected from lodgepole pines at four sites in British Columbia, Canada. Fungi were isolated from these beetles and identified using a combination of morphology and DNA sequence comparisons of five gene regions. In all four populations, Grosmannia aurea was the most common associate (74-100% of all beetles) followed closely by Ophiostoma abietinum (29-75%). Other fungi isolated, in order of their relative prevalence with individual beetles were an undescribed Leptographium sp. (0-13%), Ophiostoma ips (0-15%), Ophiostoma piliferum (0-11%), a Pesotum sp. (0-11%) and Ophiostoma floccosum (0-1%). Comparisons of the DNA sequences of Leptographium strains isolated in this study, with ex-type isolates of G. aurea, Grosmannia robusta, Leptographium longiclavatum, and Leptographium terebrantis, as well as with sequences from GenBank, revealed a novel lineage within the Grosmannia clavigera complex. This lineage included some of the D. murrayane isolates as well as several isolates from previous studies referred to as L. terebrantis. However, the monophyly of this lineage is not well supported and a more comprehensive study will be needed to resolve its taxonomic status as one or more novel taxa.

  17. Potential for biological control of native North American Dendroctonus beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

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    M.C. Miller; John C. Moser; M. McGregor; J.C. Gregoire; M. Baisier; D.L. Dahlsten; R.A. Werner

    1987-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus inflict serious damage in North American coniferous forests. Biological control, which has never been seriously attempted with bark beetles in the United States, should be reconsidered in light of results disclosed here. Impact of indigenous associates is discussed, as well as previous, unsuccessful attempts to...

  18. Phenology and density-dependent dispersal predict patterns of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) impact

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    James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz

    2014-01-01

    For species with irruptive population behavior, dispersal is an important component of outbreak dynamics. We developed and parameterized a mechanistic model describing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) population demographics and dispersal across a landscape. Model components include temperature-dependent phenology, host tree colonization...

  19. Disruption Of Secondary Attraction Of The Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis, By Pheromones Of Two Sympatric Spcies

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    Therese M. Poland; J. H. Borden

    1998-01-01

    Capture of spruce beetles, Dendroctonus rufipennis, in multiple-funnel traps baited with frontalin and -pinene was reduced by up to 42% in the presence of synthetic (+)-exo- and (+)-endo-brevicomin, aggregation pheromones of the sympatric species Dryocoetes affaber. (+)-endo-...

  20. cis-Verbenol: An aggregation pheromone for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

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    Daniel R. Miller; Jean P. Lafontaine

    1991-01-01

    cis-Verbenol increased catches of mail mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, to multiple-funnel traps baited with myrcene and exo-brevicomin. Cis-Verbenol had no effect on the response of males to traps baited with myrcene, exo-brevicomin and trans-verbenol. In contrast, cis-verbenol increased catches of female D. ...

  1. Determining the vulnerability of Mexican pine forests to bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    Y. Salinas-Moreno; A. Ager; C.F. Vargas; J.L. Hayes; G. Zuniga

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus are natural inhabitants of forests; under particular conditions some species of this genus can cause large-scale tree mortality. However, only in recent decades has priority been given to the comprehensive study of these insects in Mexico. Mexico possesses high ecological diversity in Dendroctonus-...

  2. Surveying the endomicrobiome and ectomicrobiome of bark beetles: The case of Dendroctonus simplex.

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    Durand, Audrey-Anne; Bergeron, Amélie; Constant, Philippe; Buffet, Jean-Philippe; Déziel, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2015-11-26

    Many bark beetles belonging to the Dendroctonus genus carry bacterial and fungal microbiota, forming a symbiotic complex that helps the insect to colonize the subcortical environment of the host tree. However, the biodiversity of those bacteria at the surface of the cuticle or inside the body parts of bark beetles is not well established. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiome associated with the eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The ecto- and endomicrobiome and the subcortical galleries were investigated. Several bacterial genera were identified, among which Pseudomonas, Serratia and Yersinia are associated with the surface of the beetle cuticle, and genera belonging to Enterobacteriaceae and Gammaproteobacteria with the interior of the insect body. The index of dissimilarity indicates that the bacterial microbiome associated with each environment constitutes exclusive groups. These results suggest the presence of distinct bacterial microbiota on the surface of the cuticle and the interior of D. simplex body. Additionally, the bacterial diversity identified in the galleries is substantially different from the ectomicrobiome, which could indicate a selection by the insect. This study reports for the first time the identification of the eastern larch beetle microbiome.

  3. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

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    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We...

  4. Acetophenone superior to verbenone for reducing attraction of western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis to its aggregation pheromone

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    Nadir Erbilgin; Nancy E. Gillette; Donald R. Owen; Sylvia R. Mori; Andrew S. Nelson; Fabian C.C. Uzoh; David L. Wood

    2008-01-01

    The western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is one of the most damaging insect pests of ponderosa pines Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. & C. Lawson in Western U.S.A. We compared the effect of verbenone, a well known bark beetle anti-aggregation pheromone, with that...

  5. Enantiospecific responses of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) and its clerid predator, Thanasimus dubius, to a-pinene.

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    Jenny C. Staeben; Brian Sullivan; John T. Nowak; Kamal J.K. Gandhi

    2015-01-01

    Multi-trophic interactions between pine bark beetles, their host trees, and predators are mediated in part by volatile terpenes in host tree oleoresin that can influence aggregation and/or host finding by both prey and predator species. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, mass-attacks pine trees in response to its aggregation pheromone combined...

  6. Flight periodicity of the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in Colorado, U.S.A

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    Jose F. Negron; Willis C. Schaupp; Lee Pederson

    2011-01-01

    There are about 500 species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the United States (Wood 1982). A number of them are important disturbance agents in forested ecosystems, occasionally creating large tracts of dead trees. One eruptive species is the Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, which utilizes Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga...

  7. Geographic variation in bacterial communities associated with the red turpentine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

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    Aaron S. Adams; Sandye M. Adams; Cameron R. Currie; Nancy E. Gillette; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial communities are known to play important roles in insect life histories, yet their consistency or variation across populations is poorly understood. Bacteria associated with the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens LeConte from eight populations, ranging from Wisconsin to Oregon, were evaluated and compared. We used the culture-independent technique of denaturing...

  8. Isolation and characterization of 16 microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

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    C. S. Davis; K. E. Mock; B. J. Bentz; S. M. Bromilow; N. V. Bartell; B. W. Murray; A. D. Roe; J. E. K. Cooke

    2009-01-01

    We isolated 16 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and developed conditions for amplifying these markers in four multiplex reactions. Three to 14 alleles were detected per locus across two sampled populations. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.902 and from 0.100 to 0.830, respectively...

  9. Stand characteristics and downed woody debris accumulations associated with a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in Colorado

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    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Jose F. Negron; Sheryl L. Costello; Charles C. Rhoades; Daniel R. West; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2009-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.)-dominated ecosystems in north-central Colorado are undergoing rapid and drastic changes associated with overstory tree mortality from a currentmountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak. To characterize stand characteristics and downed woody debris loads during...

  10. The current status of the distribution range of the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in northern Mexico

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    O. Valerio-Mendoza; F. Armendariz-Toledano; G. Cuellar-Rodriguez; Jose F. Negron; G. Zuniga

    2017-01-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric...

  11. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi)

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    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities presen...

  12. Seasonal shifts in accumulation of glycerol biosynthetic gene transcripts in mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, larvae

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    Jordie D. Fraser

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter mortality is a major factor regulating population size of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Glycerol is the major cryoprotectant in this freeze intolerant insect. We report findings from a gene expression study on an overwintering mountain pine beetle population over the course of 35 weeks. mRNA transcript levels suggest glycerol production in the mountain pine beetle occurs through glycogenolytic, gluconeogenic and potentially glyceroneogenic pathways, but not from metabolism of lipids. A two-week lag period between fall glycogen phosphorylase transcript and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase transcript up-regulation suggests that gluconeogenesis serves as a secondary glycerol-production process, subsequent to exhaustion of the primary glycogenolytic source. These results provide a first look at the details of seasonal gene expression related to the production of glycerol in the mountain pine beetle.

  13. Area-wide application of verbenone-releasing flakes reduces mortality of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis caused by the mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Constance J. Mehmel; Sylvia R. Mori; Jeffrey N. Webster; Nadir Erbilgin; David L. Wood

    2012-01-01

    DISRUPT Micro-Flake Verbenone Bark Beetle Anti-Aggregant flakes (Hercon Environmental, Inc., Emigsville, Pennsylvania) were applied in two large-scale tests to assess their efficacy for protecting whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis Engelm. from attack by mountain pine beetle Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) (MPB). At two locations, five...

  14. The resin composition of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) attacked by the roundheaded pine beetle (Dendroctonus adjunctus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (P-53)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melissa J. Fischer; Kristen M. Waring; Richard W. Hofstetter; Thomas E. Kolb

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus is an aggressive bark beetle species that attacks several species of pine throughout its range from southern Utah and Colorado south to Guatemala. A current outbreak of D. adjunctus provided a unique opportunity to study the relationship between this beetle and pine resin chemistry in northern Arizona. We compared the resin composition of trees...

  15. Variable responses by southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, to the pheromone component endo-Brevicomin: influence of enantiomeric composition, release rate, and proximity to infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Sullivan; Mark Dulusky; Kenji Mori; Cavell Brownie

    2011-01-01

    The male-produced bicyclic acetal endo-brevicomin is a component of the pheromone blend that mediates colonization of host pines by the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Efforts to identify its behavioral function have been complicated by contrasting reports that it either enhances or reduces attraction of flying beetles. Our studies failed to support the...

  16. Revealing the gut bacteriome of Dendroctonus bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae): diversity, core members and co-evolutionary patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-10-24

    Dendroctonus bark beetles comprise 20 taxonomically recognized species, which are one of the most destructive pine forest pests in North and Central America, and Eurasia. The aims of this study were to characterize the gut bacterial diversity, to determine the core bacteriome and to explore the ecological association between these bacteria and bark beetles. A total of five bacterial phyla were identified in the gut of 13 Dendroctonus species; Proteobacteria was the most abundant, followed by Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. The α-diversity was low as demonstrated in previous studies and significant differences in β-diversity were observed. The core bacteriome was composed of Enterobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Raoultella, and Serratia. The tanglegram between bacteria and bark beetles suggests that members of bacterial community are acquired from the environment, possibly from the host tree. These findings improve the knowledge about the bacterial community composition, and provide the bases to study the metabolic functions of these bacteria, as well as their interaction with these bark beetles.

  17. Differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, on Pinus palustris and Pinus taeda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, N.A.; Whited, B.M.; Slone, D.H.; Martinson, S.J.; Ayres, M.P.

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of host use by herbivore pests can have serious consequences for natural and managed ecosystems but are often poorly understood. Here, we provide the first quantification of large differential impacts of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, on loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., and longleaf pine, Pinus palustris P. Mill., and evaluate putative mechanisms for the disparity. Spatially extensive survey data from recent epidemics indicate that, per square kilometre, stands of loblolly versus longleaf pine in four forests (380-1273 km2) sustained 3-18 times more local infestations and 3-116 times more tree mortality. Differences were not attributable to size or age structure of pine stands. Using pheromone-baited traps, we found no differences in the abundance of dispersing D. frontalis or its predator Thanasimus dubius Fabricius between loblolly and longleaf stands. Trapping triggered numerous attacks on trees, but the pine species did not differ in the probability of attack initiation or in the surface area of bark attacked by growing aggregations. We found no evidence for postaggregation mechanisms of discrimination or differential success on the two hosts, suggesting that early colonizers discriminate between host species before a pheromone plume is present. ?? 2007 NRC.

  18. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

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    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  19. Pheromone-Mediated Mate Location and Discrimination by Two Syntopic Sibling Species of Dendroctonus Bark Beetles in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño-Domínguez, Alicia; Sullivan, Brian T; López-Urbina, José H; Macías-Sámano, Jorge E

    2015-08-01

    Where their geographic and host ranges overlap, sibling species of tree-killing bark beetles may simultaneously attack and reproduce on the same hosts. However, sustainability of these potentially mutually beneficial associations demands effective prezygotic reproductive isolation mechanisms between the interacting species. The pine bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is syntopic in the Central American region with a recently described sibling species, Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, but mechanisms for their reproductive isolation are uncertain. We investigated whether semiochemicals mediate species discrimination by mate-seeking males of both species. In olfactometer bioassays, walking males of both species strongly preferred odors from gallery entrances of conspecific females. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isolated 16 olfactory stimulants for males in these odors, but only two, ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin (both from D. mesoamericanus females), differed in quantity in female-associated odors between the species. In olfactometer bioassays, with 10, 1, or 0.1 female entrance equivalents of synthetic semiochemicals, the combination of ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin inhibited responses of male D. frontalis and enhanced responses of male D. mesoamericanus to two compounds associated with female entrances of both species (the pheromone component frontalin and host odor α-pinene). We conclude that ipsdienol and endo-brevicomin, pheromone components produced by females of just one of the two species (D. mesoamericanus), mediate interspecific mate discrimination by males of both species and provide an apparently symmetrical reproductive isolation mechanism.

  20. Trapping Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae) with pheromone baited multiple-funnel traps does not reduce Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; N. Sturdevant; M.J. Rinella

    2010-01-01

    Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) (DFB) causes considerable mortality to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) in western North American forests. We evaluated the use of semiochemical-baited multiple-funnel traps for the protection of small, high-value stands of trees, such as those occurring...

  1. A Synopsis of the Taxonomic Revisions in the Genus Ceratocystis Including a Review of Blue-Staining Species Associated with Dendroctonus Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelma J. Perry

    1991-01-01

    Taxonomic revisions in both the teleomorphic (sexual) and anamorphic (asexual) forms of the genus Ceratocystis Ellis & Halstead are chronicled in this review. Recognized species associated with Dendroctonus Erichson bark beetles are summarized, and several species that have been published as recombinations, species that were...

  2. The Current Status of the Distribution Range of the Western Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis (Curculionidae: Solytinae) in Northern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio-Mendoza, O; Armendáriz-Toledano, F; Cuéllar-Rodríguez, G; Negrón, José F; Zúñiga, G

    2017-09-01

    The distribution range of the western pine beetle Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is supported only by scattered records in the northern parts of Mexico, suggesting that its populations may be marginal and rare in this region. In this study, we review the geographical distribution of D. brevicomis in northern Mexico and perform a geometric morphometric analysis of seminal rod shape to evaluate its reliability for identifying this species with respect to other members of the Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex. Our results provide 30 new records, with 26 distributed in the Sierra Madre Occidental and 4 in the Sierra Madre Oriental. These records extend the known distribution range of D. brevicomis to Durango and Tamaulipas states in northern Mexico. Furthermore, we find high geographic variation in size and shape of the seminal rod, with conspicous differences among individuals from different geographical regions, namely west and east of the Great Basin and between mountain systems in Mexico. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  3. Influence of Starvation on the Structure of Gut-Associated Bacterial Communities in the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

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    Xia Hu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of starvation on the structure of the gut bacterial community in the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi. A total of 14 operational taxonomic units (OTUs0.03 clusters belonging to nine genera were identified. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE profiles of bacterial PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments from the guts of starved male and female adults revealed that the bacterial community diversity increased after starvation. The dominant genus Citrobacter decreased significantly, whereas the genus Serratia increased in both starved female and starved male adults. The most predominant bacterial genus in D. armandi adults was Citrobacter, except for starved male adults, in which Serratia was the most abundant genus (27%. Our findings reveal that starvation affects gut bacterial dynamics in D. armandi, as has been observed in other insect species.

  4. Cryptic postzygotic isolation in an eruptive species of bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)

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    Ryan R. Bracewell; Michael E. Pfrender; Karen E. Mock; Barbara J. Bentz

    2011-01-01

    Studies of postzygotic isolation often involve well-differentiated taxa that show a consistent level of incompatibility, thereby limiting our understanding of the initial stages and development of reproductive barriers. Dendroctonus ponderosae provides an informative system because recent evidence suggests that distant populations produce hybrids with reproductive...

  5. Phylogeography of the bark beetle Dendroctonus mexicanus Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel A. Anducho-Reyes; Anthony I. Cognato; Jane L. Hayes; Gerardo. Zuniga

    2008-01-01

    Dendroctonus mexicanus is polyphagous within the Pinus genus and has a wide geographical distribution in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the pattern of genetic variation across the range of this species to explore its demographic history and its phylogeographic pattern. Analysis of the mtDNA sequences of 173 individuals from...

  6. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  7. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  8. Susceptibility of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa (Dougl. Ex Laws.), to mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, attack in uneven-aged stands in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Kurt Allen; Blaine Cook; John R. Withrow

    2008-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins can cause extensive tree mortality in ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forests in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Most studies that have examined stand susceptibility to mountain pine beetle have been conducted in even-aged stands. Land managers...

  9. Cross-attraction between an exotic and a native pine bark beetle: a novel invasion mechanism?

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    Min Lu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aside from the ecological impacts, invasive species fascinate ecologists because of the unique opportunities that invasives offer in the study of community ecology. Some hypotheses have been proposed to illustrate the mechanisms that allow exotics to become invasive. However, positive interactions between exotic and native insects are rarely utilized to explain invasiveness of pests.Here, we present information on a recently formed association between a native and an exotic bark beetle on their shared host, Pinus tabuliformis, in China. In field examinations, we found that 35-40% of P. tabuliformis attacked by an exotic bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, were also attacked by a native pine bark beetle, Hylastes parallelus. In the laboratory, we found that the antennal and walking responses of H. parallelus to host- and beetle-produced compounds were similar to those of the exotic D. valens in China. In addition, D. valens was attracted to volatiles produced by the native H. parallelus.We report, for the first time, facilitation between an exotic and a native bark beetle seems to involve overlap in the use of host attractants and pheromones, which is cross-attraction. The concept of this interspecific facilitation could be explored as a novel invasive mechanism which helps explain invasiveness of not only exotic bark beetles but also other introduced pests in principle. The results reported here also have particularly important implications for risk assessments and management strategies for invasive species.

  10. The great spruce bark beetle (Dendroctonus micans Kug.) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Lithuania: occurrence, phenology, morphology and communities of associated fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menkis, A; Lynikienė, J; Marčiulynas, A; Gedminas, A; Povilaitienė, A

    2017-08-01

    We studied the occurrence, morphology and phenology of Dendroctonus micans in Lithuania and the fungi associated with the beetle at different developmental stages. The occurrence of D. micans was assessed in 19 seed orchards (at least 40 years old) of Picea abies (L. Karst.) situated in different parts of the country. Bark beetle phenology was studied in two sites: a seed orchard of P. abies and a plantation of Picea pungens (Engelm.). D. micans morphology was assessed under the dissection microscope using individuals at different developmental stages that were sampled during phenology observations. Communities of fungi associated with D. micans were studied using both fungal culturing methods and direct high-throughput sequencing from D. micans. Results showed that the incidence D. micans was relatively rare and D. micans was mainly detected in central and eastern Lithuania. The life cycle included the following stages: adult, egg, I-V developmental stage larvae and pupa. However, development of D. micans was quicker and its nests larger under the bark of P. pungens than of P. abies, indicating the effect of the host species. Fungal culturing and direct high-throughput sequencing revealed that D. micans associated fungi communities were species rich and dominated by yeasts from a class Saccharomycetes. In total, 319 fungal taxa were sequenced, among which Peterozyma toletana (37.5% of all fungal sequences), Yamadazyma scolyti (30.0%) and Kuraishia capsulate (17.7%) were the most common. Plant pathogens and blue stain fungi were also detected suggesting their potentially negative effects to both tree health and timber quality.

  11. Differences in the structure of the gut bacteria communities in development stages of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Hui; Ma, Junning

    2013-10-18

    The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  12. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

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    Junning Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  13. The legacy of attack: implications of high phloem resin monoterpene levels in lodgepole pines following mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E L; Huber, D P W; Carroll, A L

    2012-04-01

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is the most serious pest of pines (Pinus) in western North America. Host pines protect themselves from attack by producing a complex mixture of terpenes in their resin. We sampled lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta variety latifolia) phloem resin at four widely separated locations in the interior of British Columbia, Canada, both just before (beginning of July) and substantially after (end of August) the mountain pine beetle dispersal period. The sampled trees then were observed the next spring for evidence of survival, and the levels of seven resin monoterpenes were compared between July and August samples. Trees that did not survive consistently had significantly higher phloem resin monoterpene levels at the end of August compared with levels in July. Trees that did survive mainly did not exhibit a significant difference between the two sample dates. The accumulation of copious defense-related secondary metabolites in the resin of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine has important implications for describing the environmental niche that the beetle offspring survive in as well as that of parasitoids, predators, and other associates.

  14. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Erin L; Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L; Lindgren, B Staffan; Huber, Dezene P W

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle's historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels - a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle - were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to persist in

  15. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the chemosensory gene families in the tree killing bark beetles, Ips typographus and Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin N; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Keeling, Christopher I; Bengtsson, Jonas M; Yuen, Macaire M S; Li, Maria; Hillbur, Ylva; Bohlmann, Jörg; Hansson, Bill S; Schlyter, Fredrik

    2013-03-21

    The European spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, and the North American mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are severe pests of coniferous forests. Both bark beetle species utilize aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass-attacks on host trees, while odorants from host and non-host trees modulate the pheromone response. Thus, the bark beetle olfactory sense is of utmost importance for fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfactory detection has been lacking in bark beetles and is limited in Coleoptera. We assembled antennal transcriptomes from next-generation sequencing of I. typographus and D. ponderosae to identify members of the major chemosensory multi-gene families. Gene ontology (GO) annotation indicated that the relative abundance of transcripts associated with specific GO terms was highly similar in the two species. Transcripts with terms related to olfactory function were found in both species. Focusing on the chemosensory gene families, we identified 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 6 chemosensory proteins (CSP), 3 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 43 odorant receptors (OR), 6 gustatory receptors (GR), and 7 ionotropic receptors (IR) in I. typographus; and 31 putative OBPs, 11 CSPs, 3 SNMPs, 49 ORs, 2 GRs, and 15 IRs in D. ponderosae. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, the cerambycid beetle, Megacyllene caryae, and the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. The most notable result was found among the ORs, for which large bark beetle-specific expansions were found. However, some clades contained receptors from all four beetle species, indicating a degree of conservation among some coleopteran OR lineages. Putative GRs for carbon dioxide and orthologues for the conserved antennal IRs were included in the identified receptor sets. The protein families important for chemoreception have now been identified in

  16. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae in Canada

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    Wayne Knee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Scolytinae are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari, including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes. Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahae sp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae. This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese, P. leahae sp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé, comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI was amplified from P. leahae sp. n.

  17. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles (Scolytinae) are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari), including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes). Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae) species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahae sp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae). This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius , and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese), P. leahae sp. n. , and P. strenzkei (Travé), comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified from P. leahae sp. n.

  18. A new Paraleius species (Acari, Oribatida, Scheloribatidae) associated with bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Bark beetles (Scolytinae) are hosts to a broad diversity of mites (Acari), including several genera of Oribatida (Sarcoptiformes). Of these, Paraleius (Scheloribatidae) species are the most frequently collected oribatid mites associated with bark beetles. A new species was discovered while surveying the acarofauna of bark beetles in Eastern Canada and is described as Paraleius leahae sp. n. (Oribatida, Scheloribatidae). This species was collected from two host beetle species, Hylastes porculus Erickson and Dendroctonus valens LeConte, in Ontario, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The genus Paraleius is rediagnosed, Metaleius is considered a synonym of Paraleius, and the proposed synonymy of Paraleius with Siculobata is rejected. The three known species are Paraleius leontonycha (Berlese), P. leahae sp. n., and P. strenzkei (Travé), comb. n. The barcode region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) was amplified from P. leahae sp. n. PMID:28769635

  19. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  20. Mattesia weiseri sp. nov., a new neogregarine (Apicomplexa: Lipotrophidae) pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Mustafa; Radek, Renate

    2015-08-01

    A new neogregarine pathogen of the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is described based on light microscopy and ultrastructural characteristics. The pathogen infects the fat body and the hemolymph of the beetle. The infection was nonsynchronous so that different developmental stages could be observed simultaneously in the hemolymph. All life stages from sporozoite to oocyst of the pathogen including micronuclear and macronuclear merozoites were detected. The sporozoites measured about 8.7 × 1.9 μm and trophozoites, 11.9 × 3.3 μm. Micronuclear merozoites seen in the hemolymph were motile, elongate, slightly broader at the anterior pole, and measured 18.4 × 2.0 μm. Macronuclear merozoites had a size of ca. 16.4 × 2.3 μm. Gametogamy results in the formation of two paired oocysts within a gametocyst. The lemon-shaped oocyst measured 10.9 × 6.1 μm and had a very thick wall (375-450 nm). All morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of the life cycle stages indicate that the described neogregarine in D. micans is clearly different from known Mattesia species infecting bark beetles, and from any other described Mattesia spp. Therefore, we create a new species, Mattesia weiseri sp. nov.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity in a cyclical forest pest, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis, is differentiated into east and west groups in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrey, Natalie M; Schrey, Aaron W; Heist, Edward J; Reeve, John D

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an economically important pest species throughout the southeastern United States, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Previous research identified population structure among widely distant locations, yet failed to detect population structure among national forests in the state of Mississippi. This study uses microsatellite variation throughout the southeastern United States to compare the southern pine beetle's pattern of population structure to phylogeographic patterns in the region, and to provide information about dispersal. Bayesian clustering identified east and west genetic groups spanning multiple states. The east group had lower heterozygosity, possibly indicating greater habitat fragmentation or a more recent colonization. Significant genetic differentiation (θ(ST) = 0.01, p groups. The observed population structure matches a previously identified phylogeographic pattern, division of groups along the Appalachian Mountain/Apalachicola River axis. Our results indicate that the species likely occurs as a large, stable metapopulation with considerable gene flow among subpopulations. Also, the relatively low magnitude of genetic differentiation among samples suggests that southern pine beetles may respond similarly to management across their range.

  2. Isolation and expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the antennae and gut of pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) following exposure to host monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; López, María Fernanda; Cesar-Ayala, Ana K; Pineda-Martínez, Verónica; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2013-05-10

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive monoterpenes of their host trees both to detoxify them and convert them into components of their pheromone system. This oxidation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and occurs in different tissues of the insect, including the gut (i.e., the site where the beetle's pheromones are produced and accumulated) and the antennae (i.e., the olfactory organs used for perception of airborne defensive monoterpenes as well as other host-associated compounds and pheromones). We identified ten new CYP genes in the pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus in either antennae or gut tissue after stimulation with the vapors of major host monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene. Five genes belong to the CYP4 family, four to the CYP6 family and one to the CYP9 family. Differential expression of almost all of the CYP genes was observed between sexes, and within these significant differences among time, stimuli, anatomical region, and their interactions were found upon exposure to host monoterpenes. Increased expression of cytochrome P450 genes suggests that they play a role in the detoxification of monoterpenes released by this insect's host trees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in soil fungal community structure driven by a decline in ectomycorrhizal fungi following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Taylor, D Lee; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Cooke, Janice E K; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2017-01-01

    Western North American landscapes are rapidly being transformed by forest die-off caused by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), with implications for plant and soil communities. The mechanisms that drive changes in soil community structure, particularly for the highly prevalent ectomycorrhizal fungi in pine forests, are complex and intertwined. Critical to enhancing understanding will be disentangling the relative importance of host tree mortality from changes in soil chemistry following tree death. Here, we used a recent bark beetle outbreak in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada to test whether the effects of tree mortality altered the richness and composition of belowground fungal communities, including ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. We also determined the effects of environmental factors (i.e. soil nutrients, moisture, and phenolics) and geographical distance, both of which can influence the richness and composition of soil fungi. The richness of both groups of soil fungi declined and the overall composition was altered by beetle-induced tree mortality. Soil nutrients, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community structure of soil fungi; however, the relative importance of these factors differed between ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungi. The independent effects of tree mortality, soil phenolics and geographical distance influenced the community composition of ectomycorrhizal fungi, while the community composition of saprotrophic fungi was weakly but significantly correlated with the geographical distance of plots. Taken together, our results indicate that both deterministic and stochastic processes structure soil fungal communities following landscape-scale insect outbreaks and reflect the independent roles tree mortality, soil chemistry and geographical distance play in regulating the community composition of soil fungi. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  4. Proteomics indicators of the rapidly shifting physiology from whole mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, adults during early host colonization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Pitt

    Full Text Available We developed proteome profiles for host colonizing mountain pine beetle adults, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. Adult insects were fed in pairs on fresh host lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud, phloem tissue. The proteomes of fed individuals were monitored using iTRAQ and compared to those of starved beetles, revealing 757 and 739 expressed proteins in females and males, respectively, for which quantitative information was obtained. Overall functional category distributions were similar for males and females, with the majority of proteins falling under carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, citric acid cycle, structure (cuticle, muscle, cytoskeleton, and protein and amino acid metabolism. Females had 23 proteins with levels that changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones and enzymes required for vitellogenesis. In males, levels of 29 proteins changed significantly with feeding (p<0.05, FDR<0.20, including chaperones as well as motor proteins. Only two proteins, both chaperones, exhibited a significant change in both females and males with feeding. Proteins with differential accumulation patterns in females exhibited higher fold changes with feeding than did those in males. This difference may be due to major and rapid physiological changes occurring in females upon finding a host tree during the physiological shift from dispersal to reproduction. The significant accumulation of chaperone proteins, a cytochrome P450, and a glutathione S-transferase, indicate secondary metabolite-induced stress physiology related to chemical detoxification during early host colonization. The females' activation of vitellogenin only after encountering a host indicates deliberate partitioning of resources and a balancing of the needs of dispersal and reproduction.

  5. Genetic variation of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, chemical and physical defenses that affect mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, attack and tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Daniel S; Yanchuk, Alvin D; Huber, Dezene P W; Wallin, Kimberly F

    2011-09-01

    Plant secondary chemistry is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and while large intraspecific variation in secondary chemistry has been reported frequently, the levels of genetic variation of many secondary metabolites in forest trees in the context of potential resistance against pests have been rarely investigated. We examined the effect of tree genotype and environment/site on the variation in defensive secondary chemistry of lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta var. latifolia, against the fungus, Grosmannia clavigera (formerly known as Ophiostoma clavigerum), associated with the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Terpenoids were analyzed in phloem samples from 887, 20-yr-old trees originating from 45 half-sibling families planted at two sites. Samples were collected both pre- and post-inoculation with G. clavigera. Significant variation in constitutive and induced terpenoid compounds was attributed to differences among families. The response to the challenge inoculation with G. clavigera was strong for some individual compounds, but primarily for monoterpenoids. Environment (site) also had a significant effect on the accumulation of some compounds, whereas for others, no significant environmental effect occurred. However, for a few compounds significant family x environment interactions were found. These results suggest that P. c. latifolia secondary chemistry is under strong genetic control, but the effects depend on the individual compounds and whether or not they are expressed constitutively or following induction.

  6. Mountain Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene D. Amman; Mark D. McGregor; Robert E. Jr. Dolph

    1989-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a member of a group of beetles known as bark beetles: Except when adults emerge and attack new trees, the mountain pine beetle completes its life cycle under the bark. The beetle attacks and kills lodgepole, ponderosa, sugar, and western white pines. Outbreaks frequently develop in lodgepole pine stands that...

  7. Is Prey Specificity Constrained by Geography? Semiochemically Mediated Oviposition in Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Monotomidae) with Its Specific Prey, Dendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), and with Exotic Dendroctonus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2017-08-01

    Examples of totally specific predators are rare, and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus grandis is found only in the galleries of its prey, the bark beetle Dendroctonus micans. The specificity of R. grandis relies on kairomones which female predators use to adjust their oviposition to the number of prey larvae available in a gallery. Yet these chemical signals are still largely unknown. The North American D. punctatus and D. valens, which are not sympatric with R. grandis but have a similar ecology as D. micans, could also elicit predator oviposition, which would suggest that specificity in this predator-prey system is constrained by geography. In order to further identify these determinants of specificity, we used artificial oviposition boxes to compare the oviposition level of R. grandis in the presence of larvae of each of the three prey species. We jointly used sequential dynamic headspace extractions and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to investigate oviposition stimuli associated with each prey species and potential oviposition inhibitors emitted by the predator. We further assessed potential stimuli with the analysis of emissions from D. micans larvae reared alone. Overall, we identified and quantified 67 compounds, mostly terpenes. Several robust candidate stimulants or inhibitors of R. grandis' oviposition were identified. The three prey species elicited similar oviposition levels in R. grandis, which suggests that this predator could form new associations outside of its native range.

  8. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) across their life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones-Roblero, Carlos Iván; Hernández-García, Juan Alfredo; Gonzalez-Escobedo, Roman; Soto-Robles, L Viridiana; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  9. Structure and dynamics of the gut bacterial microbiota of the bark beetle, Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae across their life stages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Briones-Roblero

    Full Text Available Bark beetles play an important role as agents of natural renovation and regeneration in coniferous forests. Several studies have documented the metabolic capacity of bacteria associated with the gut, body surface, and oral secretions of these insects; however, little is known about how the bacterial community structure changes during the life cycle of the beetles. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of the bacterial community of the gut of the bark beetle D. rhizophagus during the insect's life cycle using 454 pyrosequencing. A total of 4 bacterial phyla, 7 classes, 15 families and 23 genera were identified. The α-diversity was low, as demonstrated in previous studies. The dominant bacterial taxa belonged to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae families. This low α-diversity can be attributed to the presence of defensive chemical compounds in conifers or due to different morpho-physiological factors in the gut of these insects acting as strong selective factors. Members of the genera Rahnella, Serratia, Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium were found at all life stages, and the first three genera, particularly Rahnella, were predominant suggesting the presence of a core microbiome in the gut. Significant differences in β-diversity were observed, mainly due to bacterial taxa present at low frequencies and only in certain life stages. The predictive functional profiling indicated metabolic pathways related to metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates, and membrane transport as the most significant in the community. These differences in the community structure might be due to several selective factors, such as gut compartmentalization, physicochemical conditions, and microbial interactions.

  10. Laboratory and Field Evaluation of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for Population Management of Spruce Beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), in Felled Trees and Factors Limiting Pathogen Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Mann, Andrew J; Malesky, Danielle; Jankowski, Egan; Bradley, Clifford

    2018-03-24

    An isolate of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) was tested for its ability to reduce survival and reproduction of spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Scolytinae), under laboratory and field conditions. Conidial suspension applied directly to adults or to filter papers that adults contacted had a median survival time of 3-4 d in laboratory assays and beetles died more rapidly when exposed to conidial suspension than when treated with surfactant solution only. In the field, conidial suspension was applied to the surface of felled and pheromone-baited Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees using a backpack sprayer. Mortality of colonizing parent beetles (F0), reproduction (abundance of F1 offspring in logs), and emergence of F1 beetles from logs was compared between treated and nontreated logs. Application of spore suspension increased mortality of F0 adults by 36% on average. Total F1 reproduction was reduced by 17% and emergence from logs was reduced by 13% in treated logs, but considerable variability in reproduction and emergence was observed. Viable spores were re-isolated from treated logs up to 90 d after application, indicating that spores are capable of long-term persistence on the tree bole microhabitat. Subsequent in vitro tests revealed that temperatures below 15°C and exposure to spruce monoterpenes likely limit performance of B. bassiana under field conditions, but exposure to low-intensity light or interactions with spruce beetle symbiotic fungi were not strongly inhibitory. It is concluded that matching environmental tolerances of biocontrol fungi to field conditions can likely improve their usefulness for control of spruce beetle in windthrown trees.

  11. A Review of Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann Systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony I. Cognato

    2011-01-01

    The systematic history of the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, is reviewed. Morphological, biological, karyological, and molecular data clearly define and diagnose the species limits of D. frontalis. More complete phylogenetic analysis and characterization of population genetic variation will further clarify the evolutionary history of the D....

  12. Red turpentine beetle: innocuous native becomes invasive tree killer in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghua; Lu, Min; Gillette, Nancy E; Wingfield, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a secondary pest of pines in its native range in North and Central America. Outbreaks and tree mortality attributed to RTB alone are rare in its native range. RTB was introduced into China in the early 1980s and spread rapidly from Shanxi Province to four adjacent provinces; it has infested over 500,000 ha of pine forest and has caused extensive tree mortality since 1999. We provide a historical background on RTB outbreaks, explanations for its invasive success, management options, and economic impacts of RTB in China. Genetic variation in RTB fungal associates, interactions between RTB and its associated fungi, behavioral differences in Chinese RTB, and other factors favoring RTB outbreaks are considered in an effort to explain the invasiveness of RTB in China. The promise of semiochemicals as a management tool is also discussed.

  13. Jeffrey Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1971-01-01

    The Jeffrey pine beetle (Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopk.), one of the bark beetles that kill trees by mining between the bark and the wood, is the principal insect enemy of Jeffrey pine. The beetle is of economic importance chiefly in California, where most of the Jeffrey pine grows, and is most destructive in old-growth stands in the timber-producing areas of northeastern...

  14. Laboratory assays of select candidate insecticides for control of Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins Pesticide Management Science 67: 548−555

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Fettig; C.J. Hayes; S.R. McKelvey; S.R. Mori

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosaeHopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is the most destructive bark beetle in western North America. Dendroctonus ponderosae can be prevented from successfully colonizing and killing individual trees by ground-based sprays of insecticides applied directly to...

  15. Isolation and expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the antennae and gut of pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) following exposure to host monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudia Cano-Ramirez; Maria Fernanda Lopez; Ana K. Cesar-Ayala; Veronica Pineda-Martinez; Brian T. Sullivan; Gerardo. and Zuniga

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive monoterpenes of their host trees both to detoxify them and convert them into components of their pheromone system. This oxidation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and occurs in different tissues of the insect, including the gut (i.e., the site where the beetle's pheromones are produced and accumulated) and the antennae (i....

  16. Valens i grønlandsk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    ) kan forøge valens ved at tilføje et nyt subjekt ved at tilføje transitiverende affikser som ex. –tit ’forårsager’ og –qqu ’beordrer, bede om’. Der er ca. 10 af denne slags affikser. Ved denne Valens kan også øges ved at tilføje et nyt objekt til verbet ved at tilføje transitiverende affikser ex. -figi...

  17. Southern Pine Bark Beetle Guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Evan Nebeker

    2011-01-01

    Dendroctonus frontalis (southern pine beetle), D. terebrans (black turpentine beetle), Ips avulsus (small southern pine engraver or four-spined engraver), I. grandicollis (five-spined engraver), and I. calligraphus (six-spined engraver) comprise the southern pine bark beetle guild. Often they are found sharing the same hosts in the Southeastern United States. They...

  18. Incorporating carbon storage into the optimal management of forest insect pests: a case study of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M; Lutz, David A; Howarth, Richard B

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  19. Strong indirect interactions of Tarsonemus mites (Acarina: Tarsonemidae) and Dendroctonus frontalis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria J. Lombardero; Matthew P. Ayres; Richard W. Hofstetter; John C. Moser; Kier D. Lepzig

    2003-01-01

    Phoretic mites of bark beetles are classic examples of commensal ectosymbionts. However, many such mites appear to have mutualisms with fungi that could themselves interact with beetles. We tested for indirect effects of phoretic mites on Dendroctonus frontalis, which auacks and kills pine trees in North America. Tarsonemus mites...

  20. Where Have All the Beetles Gone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2002-01-01

    Without a doubt, bark beetles are the most destructive insect pests of Southern pines. Among these, the Southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, isi the most notable and most noticed. During outbreak years, this small, but very aggresive, beetle can cause catastrophic losses.

  1. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  2. What is the password? Female bark beetles (Scolytinae) grant males access to their galleries based on courtship song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Amanda A; Yack, Jayne E

    2015-06-01

    Acoustic signals are commonly used by insects in the context of mating, and signals can vary depending on the stage of interaction between a male and female. While calling songs have been studied extensively, particularly in the Orthoptera, much less is known about courtship songs. One outstanding question is how potential mates are differentiated by their courtship signal characteristics. We examined acoustic courtship signals in a new system, bark beetles (Scolytinae). In the red turpentine beetle (Dendroctonus valens) males produce chirp trains upon approaching the entrance of a female's gallery. We tested the hypotheses that acoustic signals are honest indicators of male condition and that females choose males based on signal characteristics. Males generated two distinct chirp types (simple and interrupted), and variability in their prevalence correlated with an indicator of male quality, body size, with larger males producing significantly more interrupted chirps. Females showed a significant preference for males who produced interrupted chirps, suggesting that females distinguish between males on the basis of their chirp performances. We suggest that interrupted chirps during courtship advertise a male's size and/or motor skills, and function as the proverbial 'passwords' that allow him entry to a female's gallery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Attraction of bark beetle predator, Thanasimus undatulus (Coleoptera: Cleridae), to pheromones of the spruce beetle and two secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therese M. Poland; John H. Borden

    1997-01-01

    The bark beetle predator Thanasimus undatulus Say was captured in statistically significant numbers (total catch = 470, 713, and 137) in three field experiments using multiple-funnel traps baited with various combinations of pheromones for the spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby, and the secondary bark beetles ...

  4. Effects of bark beetle attack on canopy fuel flammability and crown fire potential in lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Martin E. Alexander; Michael J. Jenkins

    2015-01-01

    Large wildland fires in conifer forests typically involve some degree of crowning, with their initiation and propagation dependent upon several characteristics of the canopy fuels. Recent outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia E ngelm.) forests and spruce beetle (Dendroctonus...

  5. Genetic architecture of differences in fitness traits among geographically separated Dendroctonus ponderosae populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; Mike Pfrender; Ryan Bracewell; Karen Mock

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is widely distributed across western North America spanning 25 degrees latitude and more than 2,500 m elevation. In a common garden experiment, Bentz and others (2001) observed that MPB populations from a southern location required significantly...

  6. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Progar; D.C. Blackford; D.R. Cluck; S. Costello; L.B. Dunning; T. Eager; C.L. Jorgensen; A.S. Munson; B. Steed; M.J. Rinella

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: CurcuIionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of...

  7. Dendroctonus brevicomis responses in behavioral assays: Implication to development of a semiochemical-based tool for tree protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Currently, techniques for managing western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infestations are limited to tree removals (thinning) that reduce stand density and presumably host susceptibility, and/or the use of insecticides to protect individual trees. There continues to be significant interest in...

  8. Efficacy of SPLAT® Verb for protecting individual Pinus contorta, Pinus ponderosa, and Pinus lambertiana from mortality attributed to Dendroctonus ponderosae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Fettig; Brytten Steed; Beverly Bulaon; Leif Mortenson; Robert Progar; Clifford Bradley; Steven Munson; Agenor Mafra-Neto

    2016-01-01

    Verbenone (4,6,6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1]hept-3-en-2-one) is an antiaggregant of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), the most notable forest insect pest in western North America. Several formulations are registered for tree protection, but efficacy is often inconsistent. We evaluated the...

  9. Symbiosis and competition: complex interactions among beetles, fungi, and mites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J.C. Moser; F.J. Lombardero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayres

    2001-01-01

    Symbioses among bark beetles and their fungal and mite associates involve complex, multi-level interactions. Dendroctonus frontalis attacks and kills southern pines, introducing fungi into the tree. Ophiostoma minus may initially aid beetles in killing trees, but later this "bluestain" fungus becomes an antagonist,...

  10. Mountain pine beetle infestations in relation to lodgepole pine diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter E. Cole; Gene D. Amman

    1969-01-01

    Tree losses resulting from infestation by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) were measured in two stands of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) where the beetle population had previously been epidemic. Measurement data showed that larger diameter trees were infested and killed first. Tree losses...

  11. Management of Western North American Bark Beetles with Semiochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, Steven J; Bentz, Barbara J; Fettig, Christopher J; Lundquist, John E; Progar, Robert A; Gillette, Nancy E

    2018-01-07

    We summarize the status of semiochemical-based management of the major bark beetle species in western North America. The conifer forests of this region have a long history of profound impacts by phloem-feeding bark beetles, and species such as the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and the spruce beetle (D. rufipennis) have recently undergone epic outbreaks linked to changing climate. At the same time, great strides are being made in the application of semiochemicals to the integrated pest management of bark beetles. In this review, we synthesize and interpret these recent advances in applied chemical ecology of bark beetles for scientists and land managers.

  12. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, M.; Bentz, B. J.; Bewick, S.; Lenhart, S. M.; Liebhold, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 407, OCT 21 (2016), s. 25-37 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bistability * bark beetle * Dendroctonus ponderosae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.113, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022519316301928

  13. Evaluating the impact of invasive species in forest landscapes: the southern pine beetle and the hemlock woolly adelgid

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Waldron; Robert N. Coulson; David M. Cairns; Charles W. Lafon; Maria D. Tchakerian; Weimin Xi; Kier Klepzig; Andrew. Birt

    2010-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmerman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) (SPB), is an indigenous invasive species that infests and causes mortality to pines (Pinus spp.) throughout the Southern United States. The hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Homoptera:...

  14. Efficacy of “Verbenone Plus” for protecting ponderosa pine trees and stands from Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack in British Columbia and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber; Cameron C. Lait; Donald L Fowler; John H. Borden

    2012-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, mortality in much of western North America. We review several years of research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component...

  15. Responses of Dendroctonus brevicomis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in behavioral assays: Implications to development of a semiochemical-based tool for tree protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Stephen R. McKelvey; Christopher P. Dabney; Dezene P.W. Huber

    2012-01-01

    Currently, techniques for managing western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), infestations are limited to tree removals (thinning) that reduce stand density and presumably host susceptibility, and/or the use of insecticides to protect individual trees. There continues to be significant interest in...

  16. Emergence of Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, and Scolytinae (Coleoptera) from mountain pine beetle-killed and fire-killed ponderosa pines in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheryl L. Costello; William R. Jacobi; Jose F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Buprestidae) and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infest ponderosa pines, Pinus ponderosa P. Lawson and C. Lawson, killed by mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and fire. No data is available comparing wood borer and bark beetle densities or species guilds associated with MPB-killed or fire-...

  17. Evaluation of traps used to monitor southern pine beetle aerial populations and sex ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Cronin; Jane L. Hayes; Peter. Turchin

    2000-01-01

    Various kinds of traps have been employed to monitor and forecast population trends of the southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann; Coleoptera: Scolytidae), but their accuracy in assessing pine-beetle abundance and sex ratio in the field has not been evaluated directly.In trus study, we...

  18. Observations on the mite Schizosthetus lyriformis (Acari: Parasitidae) preying on bark beetle eggs and larve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; J. C. Moser; R. McGuire

    2009-01-01

    Many species of mite that live exclusively in decaying wood and subcortical environments have intricate relationships with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (e.g., in the genus Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus) (Lindquist, 1969; Moser, 1975; Hirschmann and Wisniewski, 1983; Karg, 1993). These mites depend on bark beetles or other subcorticolous insects...

  19. Antagonisms, mutualisms and commensalisms affect outbreak dynamics of the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; James T. Cronin; Kier D. Klepzig; John C. Moser; Matthew P. Ayres

    2005-01-01

    Feedback from community interactions involving mutualisms are a rarely explored mechanism for generating complex population dynamics. We examined the effects of two linked mutualisms on the population dynamics of a beetle that exhibits outbreak dynamics. One mutualism involves an obligate association between the bark beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  20. Diesel fuel oil for increasing mountain pine beetle mortality in felled logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. A. Mata; J. M. Schmid; D. A. Leatherman

    2002-01-01

    Diesel fuel oil was applied to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested bolts of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Lawson) in early June. Just prior to the fuel oil application and 6 weeks later, 0.5 ft2 bark samples were removed from each bolt and the numbers of live beetles counted....

  1. Nitrogen cycling following mountain pine beetle disturbance in lodgepole pine forests of Greater Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob M. Griffin; Monica G. Turner; Martin Simard

    2011-01-01

    Widespread bark beetle outbreaks are currently affecting multiple conifer forest types throughout western North America, yet many ecosystem-level consequences of this disturbance are poorly understood. We quantified the effect of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on nitrogen (N) cycling through litter, soil, and vegetation in...

  2. The mountain pine beetle and whitebark pine waltz: Has the music changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2007-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) (MPB), is a bark beetle native to western North American forests, spanning wide latitudinal and elevational gradients. MPB infest and reproduce within the phloem of most Pinus species from northern Baja California in Mexico to central British Columbia in...

  3. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C

    2013-04-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D

  4. Mountain Pine Beetle Fecundity and Offspring Size Differ Among Lodgepole Pine and Whitebark Pine Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) is a treeline species in the central Rocky Mountains. Its occupation of high elevations previously protected whitebark pine from long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks. The mountain pine beetle, however, is currently reaching outbreaks of record magnitude in high-elevation whitebark pine. We used a factorial laboratory experiment to compare mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) life history characteristics between a typical host, ...

  5. Applied chemical ecology of the mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Nancy Gillette; Christopher J. Fettig; Kathryn Hrinkevich

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a primary agent of forest disturbance in western North America. Episodic outbreaks occur at the convergence of favorable forest age and size class structure and climate patterns. Recent outbreaks have exceeded the historic range of variability of D. ponderosae-caused tree mortality affecting ecosystem goods and...

  6. The role of multimodal signals in species recognition between tree-killing bark beetles in a narrow sympatric zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepa S. Pureswaran; Richard W. Hofstetter; Brian Sullivan; Kristen A. Potter

    2016-01-01

    When related species coexist, selection pressure should favor evolution of species recognition mechanisms to prevent interspecific pairing and wasteful reproductive encounters. We investigated the potential role of pheromone and acoustic signals in species recognition between two species of tree-killing bark beetles, the southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis...

  7. Evaluation of funnel traps for estimating tree mortality and associated population phase of spruce beetle in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Barbara J. Bentz; A. Steven Munson; James C. Vandygriff; David L. Turner

    2006-01-01

    Although funnel traps are routinely used to manage bark beetles, little is known regarding the relationship between trap captures of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) and mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) within a 10 ha block of the trap. Using recursive partitioning tree analyses, rules...

  8. Evaluation of multiple funnel traps and stand characteristics for estimating western pine beetle-caused tree mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.J. Hayes; C.J. Fettig; L.D. Merrill

    2009-01-01

    The western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a major cause of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., mortality in much of western North America. This study was designed to quantify relationships between western pine beetle trap catches [including those of its...

  9. The effect of salvage logging on surface fuel loads and fuel moisture in beetle-infested lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Hood; Kellen N. Nelson; Charles C. Rhoades; Daniel B. Tinker

    2017-01-01

    Widespread tree mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks has prompted forest management activities to reduce crown fire hazard in the Rocky Mountain region. However, little is known about how beetle-related salvage logging and biomass utilization options affect woody surface fuel loads and fuel moisture dynamics. We compared...

  10. Estimating aboveground tree biomass for beetle-killed lodgepole pine in the Rocky Mountains of northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodam Chung; Paul Evangelista; Nathaniel Anderson; Anthony Vorster; Hee Han; Krishna Poudel; Robert Sturtevant

    2017-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic has affected millions of hectares of conifer forests in the Rocky Mountains. Land managers are interested in using biomass from beetle-killed trees for bioenergy and biobased products, but they lack adequate information to accurately estimate biomass in stands with heavy mortality. We...

  11. Mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine: mortality and fire implications (Project INT-F-07-03)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer G. Klutsch; Daniel R. West; Mike A Battaglia; Sheryl L. Costello; José F. Negrón; Charles C. Rhoades; John Popp; Rick Caissie

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has infested over 2 million acres of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forest since an outbreak began approximately in 2000 in north central Colorado. The tree mortality from mountain pine beetle outbreaks has the potential to alter stand composition and stand...

  12. Probability of infestation and extent of mortality models for mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Jennifer G. Klutsch

    2017-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant agent of tree mortality in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) forests throughout western North America. A large outbreak of mountain pine beetle caused extensive tree mortality in north-central Colorado beginning in the late 1990s. We use data from a network of plots established in...

  13. Mountain pine beetles use volatile cues to locate host limber pine and avoid non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis A. Gray; Justin B. Runyon; Michael J. Jenkins; Andrew D. Giunta

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not...

  14. Intra-annual variation in responses by flying southern pine beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) to pheromone component endo-brevicomin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Cavell Brownie; JoAnne P. Barrett

    2016-01-01

    The southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is attracted to an aggregation pheromone that includes the multifunctional pheromone component endobrevicomin. The effect of endo-brevicomin on attractive lures varies from strong enhancement to reduction of beetle attraction depending upon release rate, lure component...

  15. Impacts of beetle-induced forest mortality on carbon, water and nutrient cycling in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elise Pendall; Brent Ewers; Urszula Norton; Paul Brooks; W. J. Massman; Holly Barnard; David Reed; Tim Aston; John Frank

    2010-01-01

    Conifer forests across western North America are undergoing a widespread mortality event mediated by an epidemic outbreak of bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus and their associated bluestain fungi (Ophiostoma spp.). As of late 2009, beetles have impacted over 600,000 hectares in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming (US Forest Service aerial survey estimates),...

  16. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Agne; David C. Shaw; Travis J. Woolley; Mónica E. Queijeiro-Bolaños; Mai-He. Li

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes....

  17. Volatile and within-needle terpene changes to Douglas-fir trees associated with Douglas-fir beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Giunta; Justin Runyon; M. J. Jenkins; M. Teich

    2016-01-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with...

  18. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  19. Interaction of an invasive bark beetle with a native forest pathogen: Potential effect of dwarf mistletoe on range expansion of mountain pine beetle in jack pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Klutsch; Nadir Erbilgin

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades, climate change has facilitated shifts in species ranges that have the potential to significantly affect ecosystem dynamics and resilience. Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is expanding east from British Columbia, where it has killed millions of pine trees, primarily lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta...

  20. Why Mountain Pine Beetle Exacerbates a Principal-agent Relationship: Exploring Strategic Policy Responses to Beetle Attack in a Mixed Species Forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogle, T.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2012-01-01

    The management of public forestland is often carried out by private forest companies, in which case the landowner needs to exercise care in dealing with catastrophic natural disturbance. We use the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, 1902) damage in British Columbia to explore how

  1. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. West; Elisa J. Bernklau; Louis B. Bjostad; William R. Jacobi

    2016-01-01

    Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB). We asked two questions: (1) do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin) and (2) the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpen...

  2. Genetic and phenotypic resistance in lodgepole pine to attack by mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin Yanchuk; Kimberly Wallin

    2007-01-01

    The recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in British Columbia provided an opportunity to examine genetic variation of differential attack and resistance in a 20-year old lodgepole pine open-pollinated (OP) family trial. Approximately 2,500 individuals from 180 OP parent-tree collections (~14 trees per parent), from...

  3. Distribution of bark beetle attacks after whitebark pine restoration treatments: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen M. Waring; Diana L. Six

    2005-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.), an important component of high elevation ecosystems in the western United States and Canada, is declining due to fire exclusion, white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch.), and mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). This study was...

  4. Chemical ecology of bark beetles in regard to search and selection of host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), especially pests in the genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Scolytus, Trypodendron, Tomicus, and Pityogenes of the Northern hemisphere are reviewed regarding aspects of their chemical ecology during host finding and selection. Most of the species covered here feed on con...

  5. Bark beetle-induced tree mortality alters stand energy budgets due to water budget changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Reed; Brent E. Ewers; Elise Pendall; John Frank; Robert Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Insect outbreaks are major disturbances that affect a land area similar to that of forest fires across North America. The recent mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak and its associated blue stain fungi (Grosmannia clavigera) are impacting water partitioning processes of forests in the Rocky Mountain region as the spatially heterogeneous...

  6. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  7. Seasonal dynamics of mites and fungi and their interaction with southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; Keir D. Klepzig; John C. Moser; Matthew P. Ayres

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated whether Dendroctonus fiontalis Zimmermann populations were influenced by nontrophic interactions involving commensal mites, their mutualistic bluestain fungus Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc.) H. and P. Sydow, and beetle-mutualistic mycangial fungi. We tested for effects of delayed, nonlinear, or positive feedback from O. minus and mites on

  8. How to Distinguish Attacks by the Black Turpentine Beetle and Dioryctria Amatella on Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl W. Fatzinger; Gary L. DeBarr

    1969-01-01

    Trunk attacks by the black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Oh.), and the larvae of Dioryctria amatella (Hulst) on the southern pines results in a copious flow of pitch. This external pitch mass or pitch tube exhibits characteristics that can be used as symptoms to distinguish between attacks by these two insects.

  9. Logistic regression for southern pine beetle outbreaks with spatial and temporal autocorrelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gumpertz; C.-T. Wu; John M. Pye

    2000-01-01

    Regional outbreaks of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.) show marked spatial and temporal patterns. While these patterns are of interest in themselves, we focus on statistical methods for estimating the effects of underlying environmental factors in the presence of spatial and temporal autocorrelation. The most comprehensive available information on...

  10. Evaluation of general-use insecticides for preventing host colonization by New Jersey southern pine beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; W.K. Oldland; J.R. Meeker; J. Dunn

    2015-01-01

    Four general-use insecticides (Astro, Onyx, Dominion Tree & Shrub, and Xytect 2F) were evaluated for their effectiveness at preventing attacks by the southern pine beetle (SPB) (Dendroctonus frontalis) and the small southern pine engraver (Ips avulsus) using a previously developed small-bolt method. Evaluations were conducted between 58 and 126 days post treatment...

  11. Spectral evidence of early-stage spruce beetle infestation in Engelmann spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianna C. Foster; Jonathan A. Walter; Herman H. Shugart; Jason Sibold; Jose Negron

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreaks cause widespread mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii (Parry ex Engelm)) within the subalpine forests of the western United States. Early detection of infestations could allow forest managers to mitigate outbreaks or anticipate a response to tree mortality and the potential effects on ecosystem...

  12. Mountain pine beetle attack alters the chemistry and flammability of lodgepole pine foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley G. Page; Michael J. Jenkins; Justin B. Runyon

    2012-01-01

    During periods with epidemic mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) forests, large amounts of tree foliage are thought to undergo changes in moisture content and chemistry brought about by tree decline and death. However, many of the presumed changes have yet to be...

  13. Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine for the production of submicron lignocellulose fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid Hoeger; Rolland Gleisner; Jose Negron; Orlando J. Rojas; J. Y. Zhu

    2014-01-01

    The elevated levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North American forests create forest management challenges. This investigation introduces the production of submicron or nanometer lignocellulose fibrils for value-added materials from the widely available resource represented by dead pines after...

  14. Is lodgepole pine mortality due to mountain pine beetle linked to the North American Monsoon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara A. Goeking; Greg C. Liknes

    2012-01-01

    Regional precipitation patterns may have influenced the spatial variability of tree mortality during the recent mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) (MPB) outbreak in the western United States. Data from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program show that the outbreak was especially severe in the state of Colorado where over 10 million lodgepole pines (...

  15. Effects of salvage logging on fire risks after bark beetle outbreaks in Colorado lodgepole pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryon J. Collins; Chuck C. Rhoades; Michael A. Battaglia; Robert M. Hubbard

    2012-01-01

    Most mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forests in the central and southern Rocky Mountains originated after stand-replacing wildfires or logging (Brown 1975, Lotan and Perry 1983, Romme 1982). In recent years, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks have created a widespread, synchronous disturbance (i.e.,...

  16. Southern pine beetle regional outbreaks modeled on landscape, climate and infestation history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian J. Duehl; Frank H. Koch; Fred P. Hain

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis, SPB) is the major insect pest of pine species in the southeastern United States. It attains outbreak population levels sufficient to mass attack host pines across the landscape at scales ranging from a single forest stand to interstate epidemics. This county level analysis selected and examined the best climatic and...

  17. Environment and ontogeny modify loblolly pine response to induced acute water deficits and bark beetle attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Lorio; Frederick M. Stephen; Timothy D. Paine

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of tree resistance on within-tree population dynamics of southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm. (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., as affected by prevailing water regimes, acute water deficits imposed by applying dry-ice (solid CO2) collars to tree boles, and by the seasonal ontogeny of...

  18. Price and Welfare Effects of Catastrophic Forest Damage from Southern Pine Beetle Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes

    1991-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) epidemics are periodically responsible for catastrophic levels of mortality to southern yellow pine forests. Traditional forest damage appraisal techniques developed for site specific economic analysis are theoretically weak since they do not consider aggregate impacts across ecosystems and related markets. Because the...

  19. Description of Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. (Nemata: Rhabditida) from Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauchan, G.; Hsu, C.-Y.; Yuceer, C.

    2010-01-01

    A new Parasitorhabditis species with males and females was discovered from the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis and its galleries in loblolly pine, Pinus taeda, growing in Mississippi. Females of the new species have a cupola-shaped tail with a small spike; males possess a 2 + (3+2) + 3 ray pattern on the tail fan with ray 10 reaching the margin, and a distinctive stomatal tooth. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. has some similarities to P. hylurgi Massey, 1974 from Hylurgops pinifex in New York, USA, P. terebranus Massey, 1974 from D. terebrans (Olivier, 1795) in Texas USA, P. ligniperdae Fuchs, 1915 from Hylergops ligniperda (Fabricius, 1787) and P. dendroctoni Rühm, 1956 from D. micans (Kugelann, 1794) in Europe, P. ateri Fuchs, 1915 isolated from the beetle Hylastes ater (Paykull, 1800) in Germany, and P. malii Devdariani and Kakulia,1970 from Scolytus mali (Bechstein, 1805) within the republic of Georgia. Morphometrics for 44 species of Parasitorhabditis are provided to update older keys. Parasitorhabditis frontali n. sp. was initially grown on Malt Extract (ME) agar with its own microbial contaminants that included a bacterium and fungus. The nematode also grew and reproduced after slices of ME agar with nematodes and microbial contaminants were transferred to water agar. It was killed by E. coli on NGM agar plates commonly used to raise other Rhabditida. Drawings of diagnostic anatomy and low-temperature SEM images of bodies, heads, and tails are provided for cultured specimens from pine beetle frass. PMID:22736836

  20. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  1. Use of acoustics to deter bark beetles from entering tree material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflitto, Nicholas C; Hofstetter, Richard W

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic technology is a potential tool to protect wood materials and eventually live trees from colonization by bark beetles. Bark beetles such as the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis, western pine beetle D. brevicomis and pine engraver Ips pini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) use chemical and acoustic cues to communicate and to locate potential mates and host trees. In this study, the efficacy of sound treatments on D. frontalis, D. brevicomis and I. pini entry into tree materials was tested. Acoustic treatments significantly influenced whether beetles entered pine logs in the laboratory. Playback of artificial sounds reduced D. brevicomis entry into logs, and playback of stress call sounds reduced D. frontalis entry into logs. Sound treatments had no effect on I. pini entry into logs. The reduction in bark beetle entry into logs using particular acoustic treatments indicates that sound could be used as a viable management tool. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberger, Derek W.; Venette, Robert C.; Maddox, Mitchell P.; Aukema, Brian H.

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in nort...

  3. Mountain pine beetle voltinism and life history characteristics across latitudinal and elevational gradients in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara Bentz; James Vandygriff; Camille Jensen; Tom Coleman; Patricia Maloney; Sheri Smith; Amanda Grady; Greta Schen-Langenheim

    2014-01-01

    Substantial genetic variation in development time is known to exist among mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) populations across the western United States. The effect of this variation on geographic patterns in voltinism (generation time) and thermal requirements to produce specific voltinism pathways have not been investigated. The influence of...

  4. Defense traits in the long-lived Great Basin bristlecone pine and resistance to the native herbivore mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Sharon A. Hood; Matt Hansen; Jim Vandygriff; Karen E. Mock

    2016-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) is a significant mortality agent of Pinus, and climate-driven range expansion is occurring. Pinus defenses in recently invaded areas, including high elevations, are predicted to be lower than in areas with longer term MPB presence. MPB was recently observed in high-elevation forests of the Great Basin (GB)...

  5. Influence of elevation on bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) community structure and flight periodicity in ponderosa pine forests of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly K. Williams; Joel D. McMillin; Tom E. DeGomez; Karen M. Clancy; Andy Miller

    2008-01-01

    We examined abundance and flight periodicity of five Ips and six Dendroctonus species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) among three different elevation bands in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex. Lawson) forests of northcentral Arizona. Bark beetle populations were monitored at 10 sites in each of three elevation...

  6. Disturbance from southern pine beetle, suppression, and wildfire affects vegetation composition in central Louisiana: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.W. Coleman; Alton Martin; J.R. Meeker

    2010-01-01

    We assessed plant composition and forest succession following tree mortality from infestation of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis), associated suppression, and wildfire in two forest types, pine (Pinus spp.) with mixed hardwood and longleaf pine (P. palustris). In this case study, vegetation was...

  7. Short-term effects of fuel reduction treatments on soil mycorrhizal inoculum potential in beetle-killed stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron D. Stottlemyer; G. Geoff Wang; Thomas A. Waldrop; Christina E. Wells; Mac A. Callaham

    2013-01-01

    Heavy fuel loads were created by southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Ehrh.) outbreak throughout the southeastern Piedmont during the early 2000s. Prescribed burning and mechanical mulching (mastication) were used to reduce fuel loading, but many ecological impacts are unknown. Successful forest regeneration depends on ectomycorrhizal (ECM)...

  8. Changes in downed and dead woody material following a spruce beetle outbreak on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethany. Schulz

    2003-01-01

    The forests of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, underwent a major spruce beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) outbreak in the 1990s. A repeated inventory of forest resources was designed to assess the effects of the resulting widespread mortality of spruce trees, the dominant component of the Kenai forests. Downed woody materials, fuel heights, and...

  9. Tree response and mountain pine beetle attack preference, reproduction, and emergence timing in mixed whitebark and lodgepole pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Celia Boone; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is an important disturbance agent in Pinus ecosystems of western North America, historically causing significant tree mortality. Most recorded outbreaks have occurred in mid elevation lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). In warm years, tree mortality also occurs at higher elevations in mixed species stands.

  10. Evaluation of mountain beetle-infested lodgepole pine for cellulosic ethanol production by sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    X. Luo; R. Gleisner; S. Tian; J. Negron; W. Zhu; E. Horn; X. J. Pan; J. Y. Zhu

    2010-01-01

    The potentials of deteriorated mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae)-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees for cellulosic ethanol production were evaluated using the sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) process. The trees were harvested from two sites in the United States Arapaho-Roosevelt National Forest, Colorado....

  11. Tree regeneration and future stand development after bark beetle infestation and harvesting in Colorado lodgepole pine stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Robert M. Hubbard; Michael A. Battaglia

    2011-01-01

    In the southern Rocky Mountains, current mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreaks and associated harvesting have set millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) forest onto new stand development trajectories. Information about immediate, post-disturbance tree regeneration will provide insight on...

  12. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: The mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey Addison; James A. Powell; Barbara J. Bentz; Diana L. Six

    2015-01-01

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of...

  13. SBexpert users guide (version 2.0): a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds; Edward H. Holsten

    1997-01-01

    SBexpert version 2.0 is a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kby.)) management developed for use in Microsoft (MS) Windows with the KnowledgePro Windows development language. Version 2.0 is a significant enhancement of version 1.0. The SBexpert users guide provides detailed instructions on the use of...

  14. SBexpert users guide (version 1.0): a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith M. Reynolds; Edward H. Holsten; Richard A. Werner

    1994-01-01

    SBexpert version 1.0 is a knowledge-based decision-support system for spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rutipennis (Kby.)) management developed for use in Microsoft Windows with the KnowledgePro Windows development language. The SBexpert users guide provides detailed instructions on the use of all SBexpert features. SBexpert has four main topics (...

  15. Assessing the threat posed by indigenous exotics: A case study of two North American bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Dodds; D. W. Gilmore; S. J. Seybold

    2010-01-01

    The Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins, was detected in 2001 in northern Minnesota outside its natural range and the range of its native hosts, Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco, and western larch, Larix occidentalis Nutt. Consecutive years of...

  16. Seasonal Phenology and Life-History of Dendroctonus simplex (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Great Lakes Region of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Fraser R; Aukema, Brian H

    2016-08-01

    The eastern larch beetle, Dendroctonus simplex LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is distributed throughout the North American boreal forest sympatric with its primary host, the eastern larch or tamarack, Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch. Outbreaks of eastern larch beetles are typically small and associated with stressed tamaracks. Since 2000, however, an outbreak has killed >90,000 ha of tamarack in Minnesota and surrounding Great Lakes region. Identifying the causes of this epidemic is challenging due to knowledge gaps regarding the insect's biology. We present field data from 2011 to 2014 on degree days associated with spring emergence, dispersal, host colonization, and re-emergence from colonized hosts by mature adult beetles, as well as degree days associated with larval development, and prewinter emergence by adult progeny at study sites in northern Minnesota. After initial host colonization in early spring we found that a second brood was established in early summer by re-emerging parents. In 2012, a third brood was established. Across study years, first broods developed to adults by late summer, with many beetles relocating to the base of the host tree to overwinter. Second broods often reached adulthood and initiated prewinter emergence. The third brood of 2012 overwintered as adults, pupae, and late-instars, resuming development the following spring. Each spring, emergence of adult beetles from all broods established the previous year was highly synchronous. Knowledge of the biology of eastern larch beetles along the southern margin of their range aids in understanding how population dynamics may change with a changing climate. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Do novel genotypes drive the success of an invasive bark beetle–fungus complex? Implications for potential reinvasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min Lu; Michael J. Wingfield; Nancy Gillette; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    Novel genotypes often arise during biological invasions, but their role in invasion success has rarely been elucidated. Here we examined the population genetics and behavior of the fungus, Leptographium procerum, vectored by a highly invasive bark beetle, Dendroctonus valens, to determine whether genetic changes in the fungus...

  18. Beneficial Insects: Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Erin W.; Patterson, Ron

    2007-01-01

    There are many beneficial beetles in Utah besides lady beetles or ladybugs. Beetles can significantly reduce common insect and weed problems and in some cases eliminate the need for chemical control. Examples of beneficial beetles include: ground beetles, rove beetles, tiger beetles and tortoise beetles. Many of these beetles are native to Utah, while others have been purposely introduced to help control damage from exotic insect and weed pests.

  19. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  1. Verbenone Plus reduces levels of tree mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle infestations in whitebark pine, a tree species of concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; Beverly M. Bulaon; Christopher P. Dabney; Christopher J. Hayes; Stepehen R. McKelvey

    2012-01-01

    In western North America, recent outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, have been severe, long-lasting and well-documented. We review previous research that led to the identification of Verbenone Plus, a novel four-component semiochemical blend [acetophenone, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol + (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (–)-verbenone]...

  2. 3-Methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one for area and individual tree protection against spruce beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) attack in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; A. Steven Munson; Darren C. Blackford; Andrew D. Graves; Tom W. Coleman; L. Scott. Baggett

    2017-01-01

    We tested 3-methylcyclohex-2-en-1-one (MCH) and an Acer kairomone blend (AKB) as repellent semiochemicals for area and single tree protection to prevent spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) attacks at locations in Utah and New Mexico. In the area protection study, we compared host infestation rates of MCH applications at three densities (20, 40, and 80 g MCH...

  3. Documentation and user guides for SPBLOB: a computer simulation model of the join population dynamics for loblolly pine and the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Bishir; James Roberds; Brian Strom; Xiaohai Wan

    2009-01-01

    SPLOB is a computer simulation model for the interaction between loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.), the economically most important forest crop in the United States, and the southern pine beetle (SPB: Dendroctonus frontalis Zimm.), the major insect pest for this species. The model simulates loblolly pine stands from time of planting...

  4. Post-harvest seedling recruitment following mountain pine beetle infestation of Colorado lodgepole pine stands: A comparison using historic survey records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byron J. Collins; Charles C. Rhoades; Jeffrey Underhill; Robert M. Hubbard

    2010-01-01

    The extent and severity of overstory lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm. ex Wats.) mortality from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has created management concerns associated with forest regeneration, wildfire risk, human safety, and scenic, wildlife, and watershed resources in western North America. Owing to the unprecedented...

  5. Assessing the impact of a mountain pine beetle infestation on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests in Colorado using the Forest Inventory and Analysis Annual forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annual inventory system began in Colorado in 2002, which coincided with the onset of a major mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic. The mortality event, coupled with 11 years of annual inventory data, provided an opportunity to assess the usefulness of the FIA annual inventory system for quantifying the effects...

  6. Using a GIS-based spot growth model and visual simulator to evaluate the effects of silvicultural treatments on southern pine beetle-infested stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao-Ying Chou; Roy L. Hedden; Bo Song; Thomas M. Williams

    2013-01-01

    Many models are available for simulating the probability of southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann) (SPB) infestation and outbreak dynamics. However, only a few models focused on the potential spatial SPB growth. Although the integrated pest management systems are currently adopted, SPB management is still challenging because of...

  7. A General Class of Test Statistics for Van Valen's Red Queen Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, Jelani; Huffer, Fred W; Parker, William C

    2014-09-01

    Van Valen's Red Queen hypothesis states that within a homogeneous taxonomic group the age is statistically independent of the rate of extinction. The case of the Red Queen hypothesis being addressed here is when the homogeneous taxonomic group is a group of similar species. Since Van Valen's work, various statistical approaches have been used to address the relationship between taxon age and the rate of extinction. We propose a general class of test statistics that can be used to test for the effect of age on the rate of extinction. These test statistics allow for a varying background rate of extinction and attempt to remove the effects of other covariates when assessing the effect of age on extinction. No model is assumed for the covariate effects. Instead we control for covariate effects by pairing or grouping together similar species. Simulations are used to compare the power of the statistics. We apply the test statistics to data on Foram extinctions and find that age has a positive effect on the rate of extinction. A derivation of the null distribution of one of the test statistics is provided in the supplementary material.

  8. Identification, Expression Patterns, and Functional Characterization of Chemosensory Proteins in Dendroctonus armandi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhumei; Dai, Lulu; Chu, Honglong; Fu, Danyang; Sun, Yaya; Chen, Hui

    2018-01-01

    The Chinese white pine beetle, Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coniferous forests in China. Thus, there is considerable interest in developing eco-friendly pest-control methods, with the use of semiochemicals as a distinct possibility. Olfaction is extremely important for fitness of D. armandi because it is the primary mechanism through which the insect locates hosts and mates. Thus, here we characterized nine full-length genes encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) from D. armandi . The genes were ubiquitously and multiply expressed across different developmental stages and adult tissues, indicating various roles in developmental metamorphosis, olfaction, and gustation. Ligand-binding assays implied that DarmCSP2 may be the carrier of D. armandi pheromones and various plant host volatiles. These volatiles were identified through RNA interference of DarmCSP2 as: (+)-α-pinene, (+)-β-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, (+)-camphene, (+)-3-carene, and myrcene. The systematic chemosensory functional analysis of DarmCSP2 in this study clarified the molecular mechanisms underlying D. armandi olfaction and provided a theoretical foundation for eco-friendly pest control.

  9. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (forests will alter fire severity, a result that has important implications for management and policy decisions.

  10. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  11. Modeling the Impacts of Two Bark Beetle Species Under a Warming Climate in the Southwestern USA: Ecological and Economic Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Kristen M.; Reboletti, Danielle M.; Mork, Lauren A.; Huang, Ching-Hsun; Hofstetter, Richard W.; Garcia, Amanda M.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Davis, T. Seth

    2009-10-01

    Predicted climate warming is expected to have profound effects on bark beetle population dynamics in the southwestern United States. Temperature-mediated effects may include increases in developmental rates, generations per year, and changes in habitat suitability. As a result, the impacts of Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mexicanus on forest resources are likely subject to amplification. To assess the implications of such change, we evaluated the generations per year of these species under three climate scenarios using a degree-day development model. We also assessed economic impacts of increased beetle outbreaks in terms of the costs of application of preventative silvicultural treatments and potential economic revenues forgone. Across the southwestern USA, the potential number of beetle generations per year ranged from 1-3+ under historical climate, an increase of 2-4+ under the minimal warming scenario and 3-5+ under the greatest warming scenario. Economic benefits of applying basal area reduction treatments to reduce forest susceptibility to beetle outbreaks ranged from 7.75/ha (NM) to 95.69/ha (AZ) under historical conditions, and 47.96/ha (NM) to 174.58/ha (AZ) under simulated severe drought conditions. Basal area reduction treatments that reduce forest susceptibility to beetle outbreak result in higher net present values than no action scenarios. Coupled with other deleterious consequences associated with beetle outbreaks, such as increased wildfires, the results suggest that forest thinning treatments play a useful role in a period of climate warming.

  12. Efficacy of two systemic insecticides injected into loblolly pine for protection against southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosman, Donald M; Clarke, Stephen R; Upton, William W

    2009-06-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of systemic insecticides emamectin benzoate and fipronil for preventing mortality of individual loblolly pines, Pinus taeda L., as a result of attacks by southern pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) for two consecutive years in Mississippi (2005-2006) and Alabama (2006-2007). Trees were injected once in the spring of 2005 (Mississippi) or 2006 (Alabama) and then were baited with species-specific bark beetle lures several weeks later. The southern pine beetle, Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, was the target species but was changed to Ips spp. in Mississippi (but not Alabama) the second year because of few southern pine beetle attacks on baited trees. Single injections of emamectin benzoate were effective in reducing tree mortality caused by bark beetles compared with untreated checks. Although less effective overall, fipronil also significantly reduced tree mortality from southern pine beetle compared with the checks during the second year in Alabama. Tree mortality continued well after the lures had been removed. Evaluations of bolts taken from experimental trees killed in 2006 indicated that emamectin benzoate effectively prevented parent bark beetle gallery construction and that fipronil significantly reduced lengths of galleries constructed by adult beetles, brood development, and emergence, compared with checks. In contrast, neither insecticide treatment prevented the bark beetles from inoculating blue stain fungi, Ophiostoma spp., into treated trees.

  13. Negative feedbacks on bark beetle outbreaks: widespread and severe spruce beetle infestation restricts subsequent infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Hart

    Full Text Available Understanding disturbance interactions and their ecological consequences remains a major challenge for research on the response of forests to a changing climate. When, where, and how one disturbance may alter the severity, extent, or occurrence probability of a subsequent disturbance is encapsulated by the concept of linked disturbances. Here, we evaluated 1 how climate and forest habitat variables, including disturbance history, interact to drive 2000s spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis infestation of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii across the Southern Rocky Mountains; and 2 how previous spruce beetle infestation affects subsequent infestation across the Flat Tops Wilderness in northwestern Colorado, which experienced a severe landscape-scale spruce beetle infestation in the 1940s. We hypothesized that drought and warm temperatures would promote infestation, whereas small diameter and non-host trees, which may reflect past disturbance by spruce beetles, would inhibit infestation. Across the Southern Rocky Mountains, we found that climate and forest structure interacted to drive the 2000s infestation. Within the Flat Tops study area we found that stands infested in the 1940s were composed of higher proportions of small diameter and non-host trees ca. 60 years later. In this area, the 2000s infestation was constrained by a paucity of large diameter host trees (> 23 cm at diameter breast height, not climate. This suggests that there has not been sufficient time for trees to grow large enough to become susceptible to infestation. Concordantly, we found no overlap between areas affected by the 1940s infestation and the current infestation. These results show a severe spruce beetle infestation, which results in the depletion of susceptible hosts, can create a landscape template reducing the potential for future infestations.

  14. Diapause and overwintering of two spruce bark beetle species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, E. Matthew; Schopf, Axel; Ragland, Gregory J.; Stauffer, Christian; Bentz, Barbara J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Diapause, a strategy to endure unfavourable conditions (e.g. cold winters) is commonly found in ectothermic organisms and is characterized by an arrest of development and reproduction, a reduction of metabolic rate, and an increased resistance to adversity. Diapause, in addition to adaptations for surviving low winter temperatures, significantly influences phenology, voltinism and ultimately population growth. We review the literature on diapause and overwintering behaviour of two bark beetle species that affect spruce‐dominated forests in the northern hemisphere, and describe and compare how these strategies can influence population dynamics. The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) is the most important forest pest of Norway spruce in Europe. It enters an adult reproductive diapause that might be either facultative or obligate. Obligate diapausing beetles are considered strictly univoltine, entering this dormancy type regardless of environmental cues. Facultative diapausing individuals enter diapause induced by photoperiod, modified by temperature, thus being potentially multivoltine. The spruce beetle Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) infests all spruce species in its natural range in North America. A facultative prepupal diapause is averted by relatively warm temperatures, resulting in a univoltine life cycle, whereas cool temperatures induce prepupal diapause leading to a semivoltine cycle. An adult obligate diapause in D. rufipennis could limit bi‐ or multivoltinism. We discuss and compare the influence of diapause and overwinter survival on voltinism and population dynamics of these two species in a changing climate and provide an outlook on future research. PMID:28979060

  15. Sapwood Stored Resources Decline in Whitebark and Lodgepole Pines Attacked by Mountain Pine Beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahr, Eleanor C; Sala, Anna

    2016-12-01

    Recent outbreaks of forest insects have been directly linked to climate change-induced warming and drought, but effects of tree stored resources on insects have received less attention. We asked whether tree stored resources changed following mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack and whether they affected beetle development. We compared initial concentrations of stored resources in the sapwood of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelmann) and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex. Louden) with resource concentrations one year later, in trees that were naturally attacked by beetles and trees that remained unattacked. Beetles did not select host trees based on sapwood resources-there were no consistent a priori differences between attacked versus unattacked trees-but concentrations of nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC), lipids, and phosphorus declined in attacked trees, relative to initial concentrations and unattacked trees. Whitebark pine experienced greater resource declines than lodgepole pine; however, sapwood resources were not correlated with beetle success in either species. Experimental manipulation confirmed that the negative effect of beetles on sapwood and phloem NSC was not due to girdling. Instead, changes in sapwood resources were related to the percentage of sapwood with fungal blue-stain. Overall, mountain pine beetle attack affected sapwood resources, but sapwood resources did not contribute directly to beetle success; instead, sapwood resources may support colonization by beetle-vectored fungi that potentially accelerate tree mortality. Closer attention to stored resource dynamics will improve our understanding of the interaction between mountain pine beetles, fungi, and host trees, an issue that is relevant to our understanding of insect range expansion under climate change. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  16. The complex symbiotic relationships of bark beetles with microorganisms: a potential practical approach for biological control in forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Valentin; Déziel, Eric; Lavallée, Robert; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2012-07-01

    Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Gu, Hui-Wen, E-mail: gruyclewee@hnu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan Province (China); Li, Chuan-Hua; Ye, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; He, Du-Gui; Yao, Fei-Hong [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China); Li, Qiang-Guo, E-mail: liqiangguo@163.com [Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Xiangnan Rare-Precious Metals Compounds and Applications, Department of Chemistry and Life Science, Xiangnan University, Chenzhou 423000, Hunan Province (China)

    2014-01-10

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be Δ{sub f}H{sub m}{sup Θ} [C{sub 22}H{sub 24}N{sub 4}O{sub 5}(s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol{sup −1} by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA.

  18. Synthesis, thermodynamic properties and BSA interaction of a new Valen Shiff base derived from o-vanillin and trimethoprim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xu; Jiang, Jian-Hong; Xiao, Sheng-Xiong; Gu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chuan-Hua; Ye, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; He, Du-Gui; Yao, Fei-Hong; Li, Qiang-Guo

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the synthetic Shiff base and BSA at four different temperatures has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Highlights: • A new single Valen Shiff base was synthesized and characterized. • The thermodynamics properties of the Shiff base were investigated by microcalorimetry. • The interaction between the Shiff base and BSA has been investigated using fluorescence quenching method. - Abstract: A new Valen Shiff base (C 22 H 24 N 4 O 5 ) was synthesized using equivalent moles of o-vanillin and trimethoprim. At 298.15 K, the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the new compound was estimated to be Δ f H m Θ [C 22 H 24 N 4 O 5 (s), 298.15 K] = −(696.92 ± 1.67) kJ mol −1 by microcalorimetry. In particular, the interaction between the Shiff base and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been investigated. It was proved that the fluorescence quenching of BSA by Shiff base is a result of the formation of a Shiff base-BSA complex. Quenching constants were determined using the Sterns–Volmer equation to provide a measurement of the binding site between Shiff base and BSA. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS of the system at different temperatures were calculated. What is more, the distance r between donor (Trp. 213) and acceptor (Shiff base) was obtained. Finally, synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy data has suggested the association between Shiff base and BSA changed the molecular conformation of BSA

  19. The effect of water limitation on volatile emission, tree defense response, and brood success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in two pine hosts, lodgepole and jack pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inka eLusebrink

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavigera and measured through monoterpene emission from tree boles and concentration of defensive compounds in phloem, needles, and necrotic tissues. Lodgepole pine generally emitted higher amounts of monoterpenes than jack pine; particularly from fungal-inoculated trees. Compared to non-inoculated trees, fungal inoculation increased monoterpene emission in both species, whereas water treatment had no effect on monoterpene emission. The phloem of both pine species contains (--α-pinene, the precursor of the beetle’s aggregation pheromone, however lodgepole pine contains two times as much as jack pine. The concentration of defensive compounds was 70-fold greater in the lesion tissue in jack pine, but only 10-fold in lodgepole pine compared to healthy phloem tissue in each species, respectively. Water-deficit treatment inhibited an increase of L-limonene as response to fungal inoculation in lodgepole pine phloem. The amount of myrcene in jack pine phloem was higher in water-deficit trees compared to ambient trees. Beetles reared in jack pine were not affected by either water or biological treatment, whereas beetles reared in lodgepole pine benefited from fungal inoculation by producing larger and heavier female offspring. Female beetles that emerged from jack pine bolts contained more fat than those that emerged from lodgepole pine, even though lodgepole pine phloem had a higher nitrogen content than jack pine phloem. These results suggest that jack pine chemistry

  20. Polygamy and an absence of fine-scale structure in Dendroctonus ponderosae (Hopk.) (Coleoptera: Curcilionidae) confirmed using molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janes, J K; Roe, A D; Rice, A V; Gorrell, J C; Coltman, D W; Langor, D W; Sperling, F A H

    2016-01-01

    An understanding of mating systems and fine-scale spatial genetic structure is required to effectively manage forest pest species such as Dendroctonus ponderosae (mountain pine beetle). Here we used genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms to assess the fine-scale genetic structure and mating system of D. ponderosae collected from a single stand in Alberta, Canada. Fine-scale spatial genetic structure was absent within the stand and the majority of genetic variation was best explained at the individual level. Relatedness estimates support previous reports of pre-emergence mating. Parentage assignment tests indicate that a polygamous mating system better explains the relationships among individuals within a gallery than the previously reported female monogamous/male polygynous system. Furthermore, there is some evidence to suggest that females may exploit the galleries of other females, at least under epidemic conditions. Our results suggest that current management models are likely to be effective across large geographic areas based on the absence of fine-scale genetic structure.

  1. Active feedback control of kink modes in tokamaks: 3D VALEN modeling and HBT-EP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of active feedback control as a robust technique for the suppression of the wall stabilized external kink or resistive wall mode (RWM) in tokamaks has been achieved through a combination of modeling and experiments. Results from the 3D feedback modeling code VALEN, which serves as the primary analysis and feedback control design tool for RWM studies on the HBT-EP and DIII-D experiments, are in good agreement with observations. VALEN modeling of proposed advanced control system designs on HBT-EP, DIII-D, NSTX, and FIRE are predicted to approach the ideal wall beta limit in agreement with design principles based on simple single mode analytic theory of RWM feedback control. Benchmark experiments on HBT-EP have shown suppression of plasma disruption at rational edge q values using active feedback control in agreement with model predictions. In addition, the observation in HBT-EP of the plasma amplification of static resonant magnetic fields in plasmas marginally stable to the RWM is in agreement with theory. (author)

  2. Ethanol and (-)-alpha-Pinene: attractant kairomones for bark and ambrosia beetles in the southeastern US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel R; Rabaglia, Robert J

    2009-04-01

    In 2002-2004, we examined the flight responses of 49 species of native and exotic bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae) to traps baited with ethanol and/or (-)-alpha-pinene in the southeastern US. Eight field trials were conducted in mature pine stands in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Funnel traps baited with ethanol lures (release rate, about 0.6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to ten species of ambrosia beetles (Ambrosiodmus tachygraphus, Anisandrus sayi, Dryoxylon onoharaensum, Monarthrum mali, Xyleborinus saxesenii, Xyleborus affinis, Xyleborus ferrugineus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, and Xylosandrus germanus) and two species of bark beetles (Cryptocarenus heveae and Hypothenemus sp.). Traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene lures (release rate, 2-6 g/day at 25-28 degrees C) were attractive to five bark beetle species (Dendroctonus terebrans, Hylastes porculus, Hylastes salebrosus, Hylastes tenuis, and Ips grandicollis) and one platypodid ambrosia beetle species (Myoplatypus flavicornis). Ethanol enhanced responses of some species (Xyleborus pubescens, H. porculus, H. salebrosus, H. tenuis, and Pityophthorus cariniceps) to traps baited with (-)-alpha-pinene in some locations. (-)-alpha-Pinene interrupted the response of some ambrosia beetle species to traps baited with ethanol, but only the response of D. onoharaensum was interrupted consistently at most locations. Of 23 species of ambrosia beetles captured in our field trials, nine were exotic and accounted for 70-97% of total catches of ambrosia beetles. Our results provide support for the continued use of separate traps baited with ethanol alone and ethanol with (-)-alpha-pinene to detect and monitor common bark and ambrosia beetles from the southeastern region of the US.

  3. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  4. Spatial and temporal dynamics of bark beetles in Chinese white pine in Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Tang, M

    2007-10-01

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of bark beetles in single tree trunks of Pinus armandi were studied in Qinling Mountains, Shaanxi Province, China. Ten species of engraver bark beetles attacked from healthy to withered Chinese white pines, but seven species were commonly detected every year in Qinling forest ecosystem. Dendroctonus armandi and Hylurgops longipilis were common species at the lower of trunks, and Ips acuminatus, Polygraphus sinensis, and Pityogenes japonicus primary distributed in the middle of trunks, whereas population densities of Cryphalus lipingensis and C. chinlingensis centralized at the upper trunks and branches of Chinese white pines. On the time series, D. armandi, as a dominant species in Chinese white pines of Qinling forest ecosystem, mainly attacked healthy and weakened trees and cooperated with blue stain fungus that resulted in the declining abruptly resistance and triggered the secondary bark beetles to attack the infected or withered host trees. Attacking and colonizing phenology of bark beetles in Qinling forest ecosystem are caused by complex interactions among spatial and trophic competition and cooperation and exhibit particular spatial and temporal patterns. Our results support the view that competition and cooperation within bark beetles are a critical factor to influence bark beetles spatial and temporal distribution, and stability of bark beetles' ecosystem, D. armandi, I. acuminatus, P. japonicus, P. sinensis, C. lipingensis, C. chinlingensis, and H. longipilis in Chinese white pine of Qinling forest ecosystem.

  5. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  6. Attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for Dendroctonus jeffreyi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Strom; Smith S.L.; Brownie C.

    2013-01-01

    Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dedroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey...

  7. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  8. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  9. Effects of mountain pine beetle-killed forests on source water contributions to streamflow in headwater streams of the Colorado Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Christine E.; Stednick, John D.

    2017-09-01

    Natural or human-influenced disturbances are important to the health and diversity of forests, which in turn, are important to the water quantity and quality exported from a catchment. However, human-induced disturbances (prescribed fire and harvesting) have been decreasing, and natural disturbances (fires and insects) have been increasing in frequency and severity. One such natural disturbance is the mountain pine beetle (MPB), ( Dendroctonus ponderosae) an endemic species. A recent epidemic resulted in the mortality of millions of hectares of lodgepole pine ( Pinus contorta) forests in Colorado, USA. Beetle-induced tree mortality brings about changes to the hydrologic cycle, including decreased transpiration and interception with the loss of canopy cover. This study examined the effect of the mountain pine beetle kill on source water contributions to streamflow in snowmeltdominated headwater catchments using stable isotopes (2H and 18O) as tracers. Study catchments with varying level of beetle-killed forest area (6% to 97%) were sampled for groundwater, surface water, and precipitation. Streams were sampled to assess whether beetle-killed forests have altered source water contributions to streamflow. Groundwater contributions increased with increasing beetle-killed forest area ( p = 0.008). Both rain and snow contributions were negatively correlated with beetle-killed forest area ( p = 0.035 and p = 0.011, respectively). As the beetle-killed forest area increases, so does fractional groundwater contribution to streamflow.

  10. Linking Stream Nitrate to Forest Response and Recovery after Severe Bark Beetle Infestation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, C.; Hubbard, R. M.; Elder, K.

    2013-12-01

    Biogeochemical responses and ecosystem recovery from bark beetle outbreaks are influenced by pre-disturbance forest structure and composition and catchment conditions. Over the past decade, the mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) has killed mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees at the Fraser Experimental Forest and throughout the Colorado Rockies. Here we compare stream nitrogen (N) concentrations during the outbreak with data from the previous two decades in four research catchments with distinct forest management history, stand age structure and watershed characteristics. In two old growth forest catchments, stream nitrate concentrations were significantly higher during the infestation in the snowmelt and base flow seasons. The beetle infestation elevated nitrate export 43 and 74% in these two catchments though the amounts of N released in streamwater (0.04 and 0.15 kg N ha-1) were beetle infestation in two catchments comprised of a mixture of second-growth (30-60 year old) and old-growth (250-350 year old) forest stands where the density of residual live trees was higher on average. Mortality of overstory trees from bark beetles has stimulated the growth of understory and overstory trees with likely consequences for nutrient demand and retention in recovering forests.

  11. Nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics of lodgepole pine dying from mountain pine beetle attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Erin; Rogers, Bruce J; Hodgkinson, Robert; Landhäusser, Simon M

    2016-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks are an important cause of tree death, but the process by which trees die remains poorly understood. The effect of beetle attack on whole-tree nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) dynamics is particularly unclear, despite the potential role of carbohydrates in plant defense and survival. We monitored NSC dynamics of all organs in attacked and protected lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta) during a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in British Columbia, starting before beetle flight in June 2011 through October 2012, when most attacked trees had died. Following attack, NSC concentrations were first reduced in the attacked region of the bole. The first NSC reduction in a distant organ appeared in the needles at the end of 2011, while branch and root NSC did not decline until much later in 2012. Attacked trees that were still alive in October 2012 had less beetle damage, which was negatively correlated with initial bark sugar concentrations in the attack region. The NSC dynamics of dying trees indicate that trees were killed by a loss of water conduction and not girdling. Further, our results identify locally reduced carbohydrate availability as an important mechanism by which stressors like drought may increase tree susceptibility to biotic attack. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Efficacy of two insecticides for protecting loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) from subcortical beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Cerambycidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jordan L; Hanula, James L; Horn, Scott; Audley, Jackson P; Gandhi, Kamal J K

    2012-07-01

    Tests were conducted on two insecticides (carbaryl and bifenthrin) for excluding subcortical beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Cerambycidae) from loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.). Two trap designs (single- and double-pane windows) and two trapping heights (1.5 and 4 m) were also evaluated for maximizing beetle catches. In July 2009, 15 loblolly pine trees were double girdled and were either left unsprayed or sprayed with carbaryl or bifenthrin. A total of 28 473 bark beetles were caught in window traps, including Ips avulsus Eichoff, I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), I. calligraphus (Germar) and Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier). Both insecticides significantly reduced colonization of the trees by bark and woodboring beetles by 300-400%, with no differences in efficacy observed between the two insecticides. About 59% more I. avulsus were caught in double- than in single-pane window traps, with no differences for any other species. Traps at 4 m caught more I. avulsus and I. grandicollis (290 and 153% respectively), while traps at 1.5 m caught more D. terebrans (215%). Either bifenthrin or carbaryl can be used to exclude subcortical beetles from loblolly pine trees. Trapping data reflect known vertical partitioning on the bole by these insects. Double-pane traps were slightly more effective than single-pane traps in catching subcortical beetles. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Fungal Volatiles Can Act as Carbon Sources and Semiochemicals to Mediate Interspecific Interactions Among Bark Beetle-Associated Fungal Symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Cale

    Full Text Available Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae has killed millions of hectares of pine forests in western North America. Beetle success is dependent upon a community of symbiotic fungi comprised of Grosmannia clavigera, Ophiostoma montium, and Leptographium longiclavatum. Factors regulating the dynamics of this community during pine infection are largely unknown. However, fungal volatile organic compounds (FVOCs help shape fungal interactions in model and agricultural systems and thus may be important drivers of interactions among bark beetle-associated fungi. We investigated whether FVOCs can mediate interspecific interactions among mountain pine beetle's fungal symbionts by affecting fungal growth and reproduction. Headspace volatiles were collected and identified to determine species-specific volatile profiles. Interspecific effects of volatiles on fungal growth and conidia production were assessed by pairing physically-separated fungal cultures grown either on a carbon-poor or -rich substrate, inside a shared-headspace environment. Fungal VOC profiles differed by species and influenced the growth and/or conidia production of the other species. Further, our results showed that FVOCs can be used as carbon sources for fungi developing on carbon-poor substrates. This is the first report demonstrating that FVOCs can drive interactions among bark beetle fungal symbionts, and thus are important factors in beetle attack success.

  14. Defence syndromes in lodgepole - whitebark pine ecosystems relate to degree of historical exposure to mountain pine beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Kenneth F; Mason, Charles J; Bonello, Pierluigi; Cook, Stephen; Erbilgin, Nadir; Keefover-Ring, Ken; Klutsch, Jennifer G; Villari, Caterina; Townsend, Philip A

    2017-09-01

    Warming climate is allowing tree-killing bark beetles to expand their ranges and access naïve and semi-naïve conifers. Conifers respond to attack using complex mixtures of chemical defences that can impede beetle success, but beetles exploit some compounds for host location and communication. Outcomes of changing relationships will depend on concentrations and compositions of multiple host compounds, which are largely unknown. We analysed constitutive and induced chemistries of Dendroctonus ponderosae's primary historical host, Pinus contorta, and Pinus albicaulis, a high-elevation species whose encounters with this beetle are transitioning from intermittent to continuous. We quantified multiple classes of terpenes, phenolics, carbohydrates and minerals. Pinus contorta had higher constitutive allocation to, and generally stronger inducibility of, compounds that resist these beetle-fungal complexes. Pinus albicaulis contained higher proportions of specific monoterpenes that enhance pheromone communication, and lower induction of pheromone inhibitors. Induced P. contorta increased insecticidal and fungicidal compounds simultaneously, whereas P. albicaulis responses against these agents were inverse. Induced terpene accumulation was accompanied by decreased non-structural carbohydrates, primarily sugars, in P. contorta, but not P. albicaulis, which contained primarily starches. These results show some host species with continuous exposure to bark beetles have more thoroughly integrated defence syndromes than less-continuously exposed host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  16. Population densities and tree diameter effects associated with verbenone treatments to reduce mountain pine beetle-caused mortality of lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progar, R A; Blackford, D C; Cluck, D R; Costello, S; Dunning, L B; Eager, T; Jorgensen, C L; Munson, A S; Steed, B; Rinella, M J

    2013-02-01

    Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is among the primary causes of mature lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta variety latifolia mortality. Verbenone is the only antiaggregant semiochemical commercially available for reducing mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine. The success of verbenone treatments has varied greatly in previous studies because of differences in study duration, beetle population size, tree size, or other factors. To determine the ability of verbenone to protect lodgepole pine over long-term mountain pine beetle outbreaks, we applied verbenone treatments annually for 3 to 7 yr at five western United States sites. At one site, an outbreak did not develop; at two sites, verbenone reduced lodgepole pine mortality in medium and large diameter at breast height trees, and at the remaining two sites verbenone was ineffective at reducing beetle infestation. Verbenone reduced mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine trees in treated areas when populations built gradually or when outbreaks in surrounding untreated forests were of moderate severity. Verbenone did not protect trees when mountain pine beetle populations rapidly increase.

  17. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  19. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Lerch

    Full Text Available Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae, but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug. and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  20. Active feedback control of kink modes in tokamaks: 3D VALEN modeling and HBT-EP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, D.A.; Bialek, J.; Boozer, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of active feedback control as a robust technique for the suppression of the wall stabilized external kink or resistive wall mode (RWM) in tokamaks has been achieved through a combination of modeling and experiments. Results from the application and benchmarking of the 3D feedback modeling code VALEN as the primary analysis and feedback design tool on the HBT-EP and DIII-D experiments are in good agreement with observations, and modeling of proposed advanced control system designs on HBT-EP, DIII-D, NSTX, FIRE, and ITER are predicted to approach the ideal wall beta limit in agreement with design principles based on the simple single mode analytic theory of RWM feedback control. Benchmark experiments on HBT-EP have shown suppression of disruptions at rational edge q values using active 'smart shell' feedback control, the initiation of the first test of directly coupled coils designed to operate up to the ideal wall limit on RWM behavior, as well as observation of the plasma amplification of static resonant magnetic fields in plasmas marginally stable to the RWM in agreement with theory. (author)

  1. Response of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) to two optical isomers of verbenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Diaz-Nunez; Guillermo Sanchez-Martinez; Nancy E. Gillette

    2006-01-01

    Given the need for diminishing the use of pesticides in natural environments, in this research we investigated the efficacy of two optical isomers of verbenone (4, 6, 6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1] hepto-3-en-e-1) as controls of the attack of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).Two experiments were established in the...

  2. Effects of gallery density and species ratio on the fitness and fecundity of two sympatric bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T S; Hofstetter, R W

    2009-06-01

    Interspecific interactions among tree-killing bark beetle species may have ecologically important consequences on beetle population dynamics. Using two tree-killing beetle species (Dendroctonus brevicomis and D. frontalis), we performed observational and experimental studies to verify cross-attraction and co-colonization under field conditions in northern Arizona and test the effects of gallery density and species ratio on response variables of average gallery length, offspring size (progeny fitness), and offspring production per centimeter gallery (fecundity). Our results show that both D. frontalis and D. brevicomis aggregate to pheromones synthesized de novo by D. brevicomis under field conditions and that galleries of both D. brevicomis and D. frontalis occurred together in the same region of a single host tree with significant frequency. In experimental manipulations of species ratios, the presence of conspecific beetles in the gallery environment strongly mediated fecundity, but D. frontalis was the only species that suffered negative impacts from the presence of heterospecific beetles in the gallery environment. Interactions did not result in any apparent fitness effects for progeny of either species, which suggests that multispecies aggregations and co-colonization may be a dominant ecological strategy in the region and result in niche sharing.

  3. Disentangling detoxification: gene expression analysis of feeding mountain pine beetle illuminates molecular-level host chemical defense detoxification mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A Robert

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a native species of bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae that caused unprecedented damage to the pine forests of British Columbia and other parts of western North America and is currently expanding its range into the boreal forests of central and eastern Canada and the USA. We conducted a large-scale gene expression analysis (RNA-seq of mountain pine beetle male and female adults either starved or fed in male-female pairs for 24 hours on lodgepole pine host tree tissues. Our aim was to uncover transcripts involved in coniferophagous mountain pine beetle detoxification systems during early host colonization. Transcripts of members from several gene families significantly increased in insects fed on host tissue including: cytochromes P450, glucosyl transferases and glutathione S-transferases, esterases, and one ABC transporter. Other significantly increasing transcripts with potential roles in detoxification of host defenses included alcohol dehydrogenases and a group of unexpected transcripts whose products may play an, as yet, undiscovered role in host colonization by mountain pine beetle.

  4. Successful Colonization of Lodgepole Pine Trees by Mountain Pine Beetle Increased Monoterpene Production and Exhausted Carbohydrate Reserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marla; Hussain, Altaf; Cale, Jonathan A; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2018-02-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests have experienced severe mortality from mountain pine beetle (MPB) (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in western North America for the last several years. Although the mechanisms by which beetles kill host trees are unclear, they are likely linked to pine defense monoterpenes that are synthesized from carbohydrate reserves. However, how carbohydrates and monoterpenes interact in response to MPB colonization is unknown. Understanding this relationship could help to elucidate how pines succumb to bark beetle attack. We compared concentrations of individual and total monoterpenes and carbohydrates in the phloem of healthy pine trees with those naturally colonized by MPB. Trees attacked by MPB had nearly 300% more monoterpenes and 40% less carbohydrates. Total monoterpene concentrations were most strongly associated with the concentration of sugars in the phloem. These results suggest that bark beetle colonization likely depletes carbohydrate reserves by increasing the production of carbon-rich monoterpenes, and other carbon-based secondary compounds. Bark beetle attacks also reduce water transport causing the disruption of carbon transport between tree foliage and roots, which restricts carbon assimilation. Reduction in carbohydrate reserves likely contributes to tree mortality.

  5. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  6. Effects of Bark Beetle Infestation on Secondary Organic Aerosol Precursors in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff Hartz, K. E.; Amin, H.; Dodson, C.; Atkins, P. T.; Hallar, G.

    2009-12-01

    Bark beetles are a potentially destructive force in forest ecosytems; however, it is not known how insect attacks affect the atmosphere. Other insects, such as the weevil (Strophosoma melanogrammum) attacks on spruce trees in Denmark, have a significant local effect on monoterpene emissions. In fact, a single weevil induced a three-fold increase in monoterpene emission, and the response lasted for several weeks. Mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) have infested the forests in the vicinity of Storm Peak Laboratory near Steamboat Springs, Colorado. Emissions were sampled from the headspace of bark at the trunk and from the tree branches in the canopy from bark beetle infested and healthy lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) trees. The emissions were collected onto scent traps, containing 110 mg of Porapak Q sorbent, using PAS-500 micro air samplers set to a 0.4 mL/min flow rate for two hours. After collection, the scent traps were spiked with a recovery standard, perdeutrated decane, and extracted with 1.5 mL hexanes (in three portions). The analytes in the extracts were separated and detected using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The analytes were identified and quantified using calibration curves from authentic standards, and when authentic standards were not available, the NIST mass spectra library and Adams retention time indices were used. The samples from lodgepole pine trees suggest an enhancement in the 3-carene, beta-phellandrene, and estragole (methyl chavicol) emissions upon bark beetle infestation. The samples from the Engelmann spruce trees suggest an enhancement in the 1,4-cineole, p-cymene, and beta-phellandrene emissions upon bark beetle infestation. A shift in the type and the quantity of VOC emissions due to bark beetle infestation may lead increases in SOA from these forests, since potent SOA precursors are produced.

  7. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  8. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia) Wood with Portland Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Sorin A; Hartley, Ian D; Reid, Matthew E; Thring, Ronald W

    2010-12-17

    The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa) killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5-24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX). CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  9. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, W A; Dymond, C C; Stinson, G; Rampley, G J; Neilson, E T; Carroll, A L; Ebata, T; Safranyik, L

    2008-04-24

    The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) is a native insect of the pine forests of western North America, and its populations periodically erupt into large-scale outbreaks. During outbreaks, the resulting widespread tree mortality reduces forest carbon uptake and increases future emissions from the decay of killed trees. The impacts of insects on forest carbon dynamics, however, are generally ignored in large-scale modelling analyses. The current outbreak in British Columbia, Canada, is an order of magnitude larger in area and severity than all previous recorded outbreaks. Here we estimate that the cumulative impact of the beetle outbreak in the affected region during 2000-2020 will be 270 megatonnes (Mt) carbon (or 36 g carbon m(-2) yr(-1) on average over 374,000 km2 of forest). This impact converted the forest from a small net carbon sink to a large net carbon source both during and immediately after the outbreak. In the worst year, the impacts resulting from the beetle outbreak in British Columbia were equivalent to approximately 75% of the average annual direct forest fire emissions from all of Canada during 1959-1999. The resulting reduction in net primary production was of similar magnitude to increases observed during the 1980s and 1990s as a result of global change. Climate change has contributed to the unprecedented extent and severity of this outbreak. Insect outbreaks such as this represent an important mechanism by which climate change may undermine the ability of northern forests to take up and store atmospheric carbon, and such impacts should be accounted for in large-scale modelling analyses.

  10. Molecular evidence of facultative intraguild predation by Monochamus titillator larvae (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on members of the southern pine beetle guild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Erich N.; Husseneder, Claudia; Allison, Jeremy D.

    2012-11-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild (SPBG) is arguably the most destructive group of forest insects in the southeastern USA. This guild contains five species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): Dendroctonus frontalis, Dendroctonus terebrans, Ips avulsus, Ips calligraphus, and Ips grandicollis. A diverse community of illicit receivers is attracted to pheromones emitted by the SPBG, including the woodborers Monochamus carolinensis and Monochamus titillator (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). These woodborers have been traditionally classified as resource competitors; however, laboratory assays suggest that larval M. carolinensis may be facultative intraguild predators of SPBG larvae. This study used polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based molecular gut content analyses to characterize subcortical interactions between M. titillator and members of the SPBG. The half-lives of SPBG DNA were estimated in the laboratory prior to examining these interactions in the field. A total of 271 field-collected M. titillator larvae were analyzed and 26 (9.6 %) tested positive for DNA of members of the SPBG. Of these larvae, 25 (96.2 %) tested positive for I. grandicollis and one (3.8 %) for I. calligraphus. Failure to detect D. terebrans and D. frontalis was likely due to their absence in the field. I. avulsus was present, but primers developed using adult tissues failed to amplify larval tissue. Results from this study support the hypothesis that larval Monochamus spp. are facultative intraguild predators of bark beetle larvae. Additionally, this study demonstrates the capabilities of PCR in elucidating the interactions of cryptic forest insects and provides a tool to better understand mechanisms driving southern pine beetle guild population fluctuations.

  11. Evaluation of funnel traps for characterizing the bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) communities in ponderosa pine forests of north-central Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Christopher J; DeGomez, Tom E; Clancy, Karen M; Williams, Kelly K; McMillin, Joel D; Anhold, John A

    2008-08-01

    Lindgren funnel traps baited with aggregation pheromones are widely used to monitor and manage populations of economically important bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). This study was designed to advance our understanding of how funnel trap catches assess bark beetle communities and relative abundance of individual species. In the second year (2005) of a 3-yr study of the bark beetle community structure in north-central Arizona pine (Pinus spp.) forests, we collected data on stand structure, site conditions, and local bark beetle-induced tree mortality at each trap site. We also collected samples of bark from infested (brood) trees near trap sites to identify and determine the population density of bark beetles that were attacking ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson, in the area surrounding the traps. Multiple regression models indicated that the number of Dendroctonus and Ips beetles captured in 2005 was inversely related to elevation of the trap site, and positively associated with the amount of ponderosa pine in the stand surrounding the site. Traps located closer to brood trees also captured more beetles. The relationship between trap catches and host tree mortality was weak and inconsistent in forest stands surrounding the funnel traps, suggesting that trap catches do not provide a good estimate of local beetle-induced tree mortality. However, pheromone-baited funnel trap data and data from gallery identification in bark samples produced statistically similar relative abundance profiles for the five species of bark beetles that we examined, indicating that funnel trap data provided a good assessment of species presence and relative abundance.

  12. Os encantos do arquivo e os trabalhos do historiador: reflexões a partir da coleção Marquês de Valença

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    Eide Sandra Azev\\u00EAdo Abr\\u00EAu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article reflections will be developed about issues concerning to the relations between subject and object of historical knowledge, from the reading experience and cataloging the documents of Coleção Marquês de Valença, of Museu Paulista. Through exploration of versions of Estevão Ribeiro de Rezende's biography made by his son Estevão Ribeiro de Souza Rezende, elements are presented in order to think about different options of historical narrative, and its implications on the relation established by the historian with the sources, men of the past and readers of his own time.

  13. Prevalência de ametropias e oftalmopatias no quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ

    OpenAIRE

    Couto Jr., Abelardo Souza; Oliveira, Daniel Almeida de; Cardoso, Ioury Alcidia Guimarães; Amaral, Joana Mello; Medrado, Marcelo de Oliveira; Gobetti, Thiago Capilla; Rios, Artur Guedes; Calafiori, Ícaro Guilherme Donadi Ferreira; Queiroz, Phellipe Proence Pereira de; Amorim, Sandro Pereira Vasconcelos; Marques, André Rocha Costa; Portes, Arlindo José Freire

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias na população do Quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 92 indivíduos de uma população de 102 pessoas da comunidade Quilombola em São José da Serra. Todos foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica completa, incluindo anamnese, ectoscopia ocular, medida da acuidade visual, teste de estereopsia, reflexo vermelho, cobertura monocular, Hirschberg, refração objetiva, subjetiva, biomicroscopia, tonometri...

  14. Colonization behaviors of mountain pine beetle on novel hosts: Implications for range expansion into northeastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Derek W; Venette, Robert C; Maddox, Mitchell P; Aukema, Brian H

    2017-01-01

    As climates change, thermal limits may no longer constrain some native herbivores within their historical ranges. The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a tree-killing bark beetle native to western North America that is currently expanding its range. Continued eastward expansion through the newly invaded and novel jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) trees of the Canadian boreal forest could result in exposure of several species of novel potential host pines common in northeastern North America to this oligophagous herbivore. Due to the tightly co-evolved relationship between mountain pine beetle and western pine hosts, in which the insect utilizes the defensive chemistry of the host to stimulate mass attacks, we hypothesized that lack of co-evolutionary association would affect the host attraction and acceptance behaviors of this insect among novel hosts, particularly those with little known historical association with an aggressive stem-infesting insect. We studied how beetle behavior differed among the various stages of colonization on newly cut logs of four novel potential pine host species; jack, red (P. resinosa Ait.), eastern white (P. strobus L.) and Scots (P. sylvestris L.) pines, as well as two historical hosts, ponderosa (P. ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws. var. scopulorum Engelm.) and lodgepole (P. contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm.) pines. Overall, we found that beetle colonization behaviors at each stage in the colonization process differ between pine hosts, likely due to differing chemical and physical bark traits. Pines without co-evolved constitutive defenses against mountain pine beetle exhibited reduced amounts of defensive monoterpenoid chemicals; however, such patterns also reduced beetle attraction and colonization. Neither chemical nor physical defenses fully defended trees against the various stages of host procurement that can result in tree colonization and death.

  15. Mountain Pine Beetles Use Volatile Cues to Locate Host Limber Pine and Avoid Non-Host Great Basin Bristlecone Pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Curtis A; Runyon, Justin B; Jenkins, Michael J; Giunta, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    The tree-killing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is an important disturbance agent of western North American forests and recent outbreaks have affected tens of millions of hectares of trees. Most western North American pines (Pinus spp.) are hosts and are successfully attacked by mountain pine beetles whereas a handful of pine species are not suitable hosts and are rarely attacked. How pioneering females locate host trees is not well understood, with prevailing theory involving random landings and/or visual cues. Here we show that female mountain pine beetles orient toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from host limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) and away from VOCs of non-host Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva Bailey) in a Y-tube olfactometer. When presented with VOCs of both trees, females overwhelmingly choose limber pine over Great Basin bristlecone pine. Analysis of VOCs collected from co-occurring limber and Great Basin bristlecone pine trees revealed only a few quantitative differences. Noticeable differences included the monoterpenes 3-carene and D-limonene which were produced in greater amounts by host limber pine. We found no evidence that 3-carene is important for beetles when selecting trees, it was not attractive alone and its addition to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs did not alter female selection. However, addition of D-limonene to Great Basin bristlecone pine VOCs disrupted the ability of beetles to distinguish between tree species. When presented alone, D-limonene did not affect behavior, suggesting that the response is mediated by multiple compounds. A better understanding of host selection by mountain pine beetles could improve strategies for managing this important forest insect. Moreover, elucidating how Great Basin bristlecone pine escapes attack by mountain pine beetles could provide insight into mechanisms underlying the incredible longevity of this tree species.

  16. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  17. Novel forest decline triggered by multiple interactions among climate, an introduced pathogen and bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carmen M; Daniels, Lori D

    2017-05-01

    Novel forest decline is increasing due to global environmental change, yet the causal factors and their interactions remain poorly understood. Using tree ring analyses, we show how climate and multiple biotic factors caused the decline of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) in 16 stands in the southern Canadian Rockies. In our study area, 72% of whitebark pines were dead and 18% had partially dead crowns. Tree mortality peaked in the 1970s; however, the annual basal area increment of disturbed trees began to decline significantly in the late 1940s. Growth decline persisted up to 30 years before trees died from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), Ips spp. bark beetles or non-native blister rust pathogen (Cronartium ribicola). Climate-growth relations varied over time and differed among the healthy and disturbed subpopulations of whitebark pine. Prior to the 1940s, cool temperatures limited the growth of all subpopulations. Growth of live, healthy trees became limited by drought during the cool phase (1947 -1976) of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and then reverted to positive correlations with temperature during the subsequent warm PDO phase. In the 1940s, the climate-growth relations of the disturbed subpopulations diverged from the live, healthy trees with trees ultimately killed by mountain pine beetle diverging the most. We propose that multiple factors interacted over several decades to cause unprecedented rates of whitebark pine mortality. Climatic variation during the cool PDO phase caused drought stress that may have predisposed trees to blister rust. Subsequent decline in snowpack and warming temperatures likely incited further climatic stress and with blister rust reduced tree resistance to bark beetles. Ultimately, bark beetles and blister rust contributed to tree death. Our findings suggest the complexity of whitebark pine decline and the importance of considering multiway drought-disease-insect interactions over various timescales when

  18. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Christopher J; Clancy, Karen M; Degomez, Tom E; McMillin, Joel D; Woolbright, Scott A; Keim, Paul; Wagner, David M

    2008-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these species will facilitate analysis of their dispersal patterns and improve management strategies. Here, we use fluorescently labeled amplified fragment length polymorphism (fAFLP) analysis to resolve genetic variation among and within sampling locations in northcentral Arizona of Ips pini (Say), Dendroctonus brevicomis LeConte, and D. frontalis Zimmermann. We generated genetic fingerprints for >500 beetle specimens and analyzed genetic diversity. For all species, gene flow estimates among sampling locations were high, and significant population subdivision was not discernible across a large portion of ponderosa pine forests in Arizona. However, a weak relationship was detected with I. pini population structure and elevation. Because of the lack of genetic differentiation detected throughout the large study area, our findings suggest these insects are capable of long distance dispersal and exhibit a high degree of gene flow across a broad region. We conclude that our results are consistent with strong dispersal patterns and large population sizes of all three species.

  19. Diversity and decay ability of basidiomycetes isolated from lodgepole pines killed by the mountain pine beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, E; Kim, J-J; Lim, Y W; Au-Yeung, T T; Yang, C Y H; Breuil, C

    2011-01-01

    When lodgepole pines (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Louden var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson) that are killed by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its fungal associates are not harvested, fungal decay can affect wood and fibre properties. Ophiostomatoids stain sapwood but do not affect the structural properties of wood. In contrast, white or brown decay basidiomycetes degrade wood. We isolated both staining and decay fungi from 300 lodgepole pine trees killed by mountain pine beetle at green, red, and grey stages at 10 sites across British Columbia. We retained 224 basidiomycete isolates that we classified into 34 species using morphological and physiological characteristics and rDNA large subunit sequences. The number of basidiomycete species varied from 4 to 14 species per site. We assessed the ability of these fungi to degrade both pine sapwood and heartwood using the soil jar decay test. The highest wood mass losses for both sapwood and heartwood were measured for the brown rot species Fomitopsis pinicola and the white rot Metulodontia and Ganoderma species. The sap rot species Trichaptum abietinum was more damaging for sapwood than for heartwood. A number of species caused more than 50% wood mass losses after 12 weeks at room temperature, suggesting that beetle-killed trees can rapidly lose market value due to degradation of wood structural components.

  20. Mountain pine beetle infestation of lodgepole pine in areas of water diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Sharon L; Anthamatten, Peter J; Bruederle, Leo P; Barbour, Jon M; Chambers, Frederick B

    2014-06-15

    The Rocky Mountains have experienced extensive infestations from the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), affecting numerous pine tree species including lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia). Water diversions throughout the Rocky Mountains transport large volumes of water out of the basins of origin, resulting in hydrologic modifications to downstream areas. This study examines the hypothesis that lodgepole pine located below water diversions exhibit an increased incidence of mountain pine beetle infestation and mortality. A ground survey verified diversion structures in a portion of Grand County, Colorado, and sampling plots were established around two types of diversion structures, canals and dams. Field studies assessed mountain pine beetle infestation. Lodgepole pines below diversions show 45.1% higher attack and 38.5% higher mortality than lodgepole pines above diversions. These findings suggest that water diversions are associated with increased infestation and mortality of lodgepole pines in the basins of extraction, with implications for forest and water allocation management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Host Defense Mechanisms against Bark Beetle Attack Differ between Ponderosa and Lodgepole Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. West

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Conifer defenses against bark beetle attack include, but are not limited to, quantitative and qualitative defenses produced prior to attack. Our objective was to assess host defenses of lodgepole pine and ponderosa pine from ecotone stands. These stands provide a transition of host species for mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB. We asked two questions: (1 do the preformed quantitative host defenses (amount of resin and (2 the preformed qualitative host defenses (monoterpene constituents differ between lodgepole and ponderosa pines. We collected oleoresins at three locations in the Southern Rocky Mountains from 56 pairs of the pine species of similar size and growing conditions. The amount of preformed-ponderosa pine oleoresins exuded in 24 h (mg was almost four times that of lodgepole pine. Total qualitative preformed monoterpenes did not differ between the two hosts, though we found differences in all but three monoterpenes. No differences were detected in α-pinene, γ-terpinene, and bornyl acetate. We found greater concentrations of limonene, β-phellandrene, and cymene in lodgepole pines, whereas β-pinene, 3-carene, myrcene, and terpinolene were greater in ponderosa pine. Although we found differences both in quantitative and qualitative preformed oleoresin defenses, the ecological relevance of these differences to bark beetle susceptibility have not been fully tested.

  2. Streamwater Chemistry and Nutrient Export During Five Years of Bark Beetle Infestation of Subalpine Watersheds at the Fraser Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, C.; Elder, K.; Hubbard, R.; Porth, L.

    2008-12-01

    Forested watersheds of western North America are currently undergoing rapid and extensive canopy mortality caused by a variety of insect species. The mountain pine bark beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) began to attack lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) at the USFS Fraser Experimental Forest in central Colorado in 2002. By 2007, bark beetles had killed 78% of the overstory pine in Fraser research watersheds on average. The hydrologic, climatic, biogeochemical and vegetation records at the Fraser Experimental Forest provide a unique opportunity to quantify the impacts of this widespread, but poorly understood forest disturbance relative to a multi-decade pre-disturbance period. Here we compare seasonal streamwater chemistry and annual nutrient export for the five years since the bark beetle outbreak began with the pre- attack record. Patterns in post-outbreak streamwater biogeochemistry are compared to changes is species composition and proportional loss of overstory basal area for four basins. The influence of the outbreak will depend upon an aggregate of short (i.e. halted overstory water and nutrient use) and longer-term (i.e. altered canopy interception, windthrow, and understory growth) processes, so the hydrologic and biogeochemical implications of current beetle activity will not be fully realized for decades.

  3. Whitebark pine mortality related to white pine blister rust, mountain pine beetle outbreak, and water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Erin; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Thoma, David P.; Wilmoth, Siri K.; Ray, Andrew; Legg, Kristin; Shovic, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in the western United States have been adversely affected by an exotic pathogen (Cronartium ribicola, causal agent of white pine blister rust), insect outbreaks (Dendroctonus ponderosae, mountain pine beetle), and drought. We monitored individual trees from 2004 to 2013 and characterized stand-level biophysical conditions through a mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Specifically, we investigated associations between tree-level variables (duration and location of white pine blister rust infection, presence of mountain pine beetle, tree size, and potential interactions) with observations of individual whitebark pine tree mortality. Climate summaries indicated that cumulative growing degree days in years 2006–2008 likely contributed to a regionwide outbreak of mountain pine beetle prior to the observed peak in whitebark mortality in 2009. We show that larger whitebark pine trees were preferentially attacked and killed by mountain pine beetle and resulted in a regionwide shift to smaller size class trees. In addition, we found evidence that smaller size class trees with white pine blister rust infection experienced higher mortality than larger trees. This latter finding suggests that in the coming decades white pine blister rust may become the most probable cause of whitebark pine mortality. Our findings offered no evidence of an interactive effect of mountain pine beetle and white pine blister rust infection on whitebark pine mortality in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Interestingly, the probability of mortality was lower for larger trees attacked by mountain pine beetle in stands with higher evapotranspiration. Because evapotranspiration varies with climate and topoedaphic conditions across the region, we discuss the potential to use this improved understanding of biophysical influences on mortality to identify microrefugia that might contribute to successful whitebark pine conservation

  4. Contrasting Patterns of Diterpene Acid Induction by Red Pine and White Spruce to Simulated Bark Beetle Attack, and Interspecific Differences in Sensitivity Among Fungal Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Charles J; Klepzig, Kier D; Kopper, Brian J; Kersten, Philip J; Illman, Barbara L; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2015-06-01

    Conifers possess a suite of physiochemical defenses that protect their subcortical tissues from bark beetle - fungal complexes. These defenses include rapid induction of terpenoids and phenolics at the site of attack. Studies of the distribution, induction, and bioactivity of conifer terpenoids have focused heavily on monoterpenes. We assessed induction of diterpene acids in white spruce (Picea glauca) and red pine (Pinus resinosa) to fungal associates of two bark beetles, and the responses of four spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis)-associated fungi to three diterpene acids. Constitutive phloem contents differed between species, in that red pine had extremely low concentrations of diterpene acids, whereas white spruce had substantial constitutive levels. Induction differed quantitatively. Both red pine and white spruce exhibited marked increases, but red pine underwent greater increases and achieved higher concentrations than white spruce. Induction also differed qualitatively in that red pine showed lower diversity and fewer compositional changes during induction than white spruce. In red pine,fungal inoculation accompanying wounding elicited greater increases than wounding alone, but in white spruce total concentrations were higher following wounding alone. Spruce beetle fungal symbiont growth varied among species and compounds. Some diterpenes elicited both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on fungi, depending on concentration. All four fungi exhibited higher tolerances compared to those associated with pine bark beetles in previous studies. Variation in tolerances to, and potentially metabolism of, diterpene acids by symbionts may reflect differences in constitutive levels between spruce and pine, and partially explain differences in concentrations achieved during induction.

  5. Spatial genetic structure of a symbiotic beetle-fungal system: toward multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M A James

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can identify shared features that are important to gene flow and can elucidate co-evolutionary relationships. We assessed concordance in spatial genetic variation between the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae and one of its fungal symbionts, Grosmanniaclavigera, in western Canada using neutral genetic markers. We examined how spatial heterogeneity affects genetic variation within beetles and fungi and developed a novel integrated landscape genetics approach to assess reciprocal genetic influences between species using constrained ordination. We also compared landscape genetic models built using Euclidean distances based on allele frequencies to traditional pair-wise Fst. Both beetles and fungi exhibited moderate levels of genetic structure over the total study area, low levels of structure in the south, and more pronounced fungal structure in the north. Beetle genetic variation was associated with geographic location while that of the fungus was not. Pinevolume and climate explained beetle genetic variation in the northern region of recent outbreak expansion. Reciprocal genetic relationships were only detectedin the south where there has been alonger history of beetle infestations. The Euclidean distance and Fst-based analyses resulted in similar models in the north and over the entire study area, but differences between methods in the south suggest that genetic distances measures should be selected based on ecological and evolutionary contexts. The integrated landscape genetics framework we present is powerful, general, and can be applied to other systems to quantify the biotic and abiotic determinants of spatial genetic variation within and among taxa.

  6. The push-pull tactic for mitigation of mountain pine beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) damage in lodgepole and whitebark pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Nancy E; Mehmel, Constance J; Mori, Sylvia R; Webster, Jeffrey N; Wood, David L; Erbilgin, Nadir; Owen, Donald R

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to improve semiochemical-based treatments for protecting forest stands from bark beetle attack, we compared push-pull versus push-only tactics for protecting lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Douglas ex Loudon) and whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) stands from attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) in two studies. The first was conducted on replicated 4.04-ha plots in lodgepole pine stands (California, 2008) and the second on 0.81-ha plots in whitebark pine stands (Washington, 2010). In both studies, D. ponderosae population levels were moderate to severe. The treatments were 1) push-only (D. ponderosae antiaggregant semiochemicals alone); 2) push-pull (D. ponderosae antiaggregants plus perimeter traps placed at regular intervals, baited with four-component D. ponderosae aggregation pheromone); and 3) untreated controls. We installed monitoring traps baited with two-component D. ponderosae lures inside each plot to assess effect of treatments on beetle flight. In California, fewer beetles were collected in push-pull treated plots than in control plots, but push-only did not have a significant effect on trap catch. Both treatments significantly reduced the rate of mass and strip attacks by D. ponderosae, but the difference in attack rates between push-pull and push-only was not significant. In Washington, both push-pull and push-only treatments significantly reduced numbers of beetles caught in traps. Differences between attack rates in treated and control plots in Washington were not significant, but the push-only treatment reduced attack rates by 30% compared with both the control and push-pull treatment. We conclude that, at these spatial scales and beetle densities, push-only may be preferable for mitigating D. ponderosae attack because it is much less expensive, simpler, and adding trap-out does not appear to improve efficacy.

  7. Gene expression analysis of overwintering mountain pine beetle larvae suggests multiple systems involved in overwintering stress, cold hardiness, and preparation for spring development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cold-induced mortality has historically been a key aspect of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, population control, but little is known about the molecular basis for cold tolerance in this insect. We used RNA-seq analysis to monitor gene expression patterns of mountain pine beetle larvae at four time points during their overwintering period—early-autumn, late-autumn, early-spring, and late-spring. Changing transcript profiles over the winter indicates a multipronged physiological response from larvae that is broadly characterized by gene transcripts involved in insect immune responses and detoxification during the autumn. In the spring, although transcripts associated with developmental process are present, there was no particular biological process dominating the transcriptome.

  8. Fortaleza de Valença: projeto de requalificação urbana do centro histórico de Valença: escavações arqueológicas: edifício da Assembleia Valenciana : relatório final

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Luís, coord.; Pereira, Belisa Vilar; Andrade, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    O presente Relatório Final respeita aos trabalhos arqueológicos de sondagens preliminares e de acompanhamento realizados no edifício da Assembleia Valenciana/Liga dos Combatentes, na rua Mouzinho de Albuquerque ou Rua Direita-Rua de José Rodrigues- Travessa do Hospital da Misericórdia, no interior da fortaleza de Valença (Fig.1 e Fotos 1-2). A intervenção arqueológica foi determinada pela condicionante estabelecida pela Direção Regional de Cultura do Norte (ofício nº S- ...

  9. Cambial injury in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta): mountain pine beetle vs fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbellay, Estelle; Daniels, Lori D; Mansfield, Shawn D; Chang, Alice S

    2017-12-01

    Both mountain pine beetle (MPB) Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins and fire leave scars with similar appearance on lodgepole pine Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. that have never been compared microscopically, despite the pressing need to determine the respective effects of MPB and fire injury on tree physiology. We analysed changes in wood formation in naturally caused scars on lodgepole pine, and tested the hypotheses that (i) MPB and fire injury elicit distinct anomalies in lodgepole pine wood and (ii) anomalies differ in magnitude and/or duration between MPB and fire. Mountain pine beetle and fire injury reduced radial growth in the first year post-injury. Otherwise, radial growth and wood density increased over more than 10 years in both MPB and fire scars. We found that the general increase in radial growth was of greater magnitude (up to 27%) and of longer duration (up to 5 years) in fire scars compared with MPB scars, as shown in earlywood width. We also observed that the increase in latewood density was of greater magnitude (by 12%) in MPB scars, but of longer duration (by 4 years) in fire scars. Crystallinity decreased following MPB and fire injury, while microfibril angle increased. These changes in fibre traits were of longer duration (up to 4 years) in MPB scars compared with fire scars, as shown in microfibril angle. We found no significant changes in carbon and nitrogen concentrations. In conclusion, we stress that reduced competition and resistance to cavitation play an important role alongside cambial injury in influencing the type and severity of changes. In addition, more research is needed to validate the thresholds introduced in this study. Our findings serve as a foundation for new protocols to distinguish between bark beetle and fire disturbance, which is essential for improving our knowledge of historical bark beetle and fire regimes, and their interactions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All

  10. Changes to the N cycle following bark beetle outbreaks in two contrasting conifer forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Jacob M; Turner, Monica G

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Dendroctonus beetles are causing extensive mortality in conifer forests throughout North America. However, nitrogen (N) cycling impacts among forest types are not well known. We quantified beetle-induced changes in forest structure, soil temperature, and N cycling in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests of Greater Yellowstone (WY, USA), and compared them to published lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) data. Five undisturbed stands were compared to five beetle-killed stands (4-5 years post-outbreak). We hypothesized greater N cycling responses in Douglas-fir due to higher overall N stocks. Undisturbed Douglas-fir stands had greater litter N pools, soil N, and net N mineralization than lodgepole pine. Several responses to disturbance were similar between forest types, including a pulse of N-enriched litter, doubling of soil N availability, 30-50 % increase in understory cover, and 20 % increase in foliar N concentration of unattacked trees. However, the response of some ecosystem properties notably varied by host forest type. Soil temperature was unaffected in Douglas-fir, but lowered in lodgepole pine. Fresh foliar %N was uncorrelated with net N mineralization in Douglas-fir, but positively correlated in lodgepole pine. Though soil ammonium and nitrate, net N mineralization, and net nitrification all doubled, they remained low in both forest types (mineralization; litter and soil N cycling similarly in each forest type, despite substantial differences in pre-disturbance biogeochemistry. In contrast, soil temperature and soil N-foliar N linkages differed between host forest types. This result suggests that disturbance type may be a better predictor of litter and soil N responses than forest type due to similar disturbance mechanisms and disturbance legacies across both host-beetle systems.

  11. Evidence of compounded disturbance effects on vegetation recovery following high-severity wildfire and spruce beetle outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Amanda R.; Sibold, Jason S.; Assal, Timothy J.; Negrón, José F.

    2017-01-01

    Spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreaks are rapidly spreading throughout subalpine forests of the Rocky Mountains, raising concerns that altered fuel structures may increase the ecological severity of wildfires. Although many recent studies have found no conclusive link between beetle outbreaks and increased fire size or canopy mortality, few studies have addressed whether these combined disturbances produce compounded effects on short-term vegetation recovery. We tested for an effect of spruce beetle outbreak severity on vegetation recovery in the West Fork Complex fire in southwestern Colorado, USA, where much of the burn area had been affected by severe spruce beetle outbreaks in the decade prior to the fire. Vegetation recovery was assessed using the Landsat-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) two years after the fire, which occurred in 2013. Beetle outbreak severity, defined as the basal area of beetle-killed trees within Landsat pixels, was estimated using vegetation index differences (dVIs) derived from pre-outbreak and post-outbreak Landsat images. Of the seven dVIs tested, the change in Normalized Difference Moisture Index (dNDMI) was most strongly correlated with field measurements of beetle-killed basal area (R2 = 0.66). dNDMI was included as an explanatory variable in sequential autoregressive (SAR) models of NDVI2015. Models also included pre-disturbance NDVI, topography, and weather conditions at the time of burning as covariates. SAR results showed a significant correlation between NDVI2015 and dNDMI, with more severe spruce beetle outbreaks corresponding to reduced post-fire vegetation cover. The correlation was stronger for models which were limited to locations in the red stage of outbreak (outbreak ≤ 5 years old at the time of fire) than for models of gray-stage locations (outbreak > 5 years old at the time of fire). These results indicate that vegetation recovery processes may be negatively impacted by severe

  12. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  13. Fire and bark beetle interactions

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    Ken Gibson; Jose F. Negron

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetle populations are at outbreak conditions in many parts of the western United States and causing extensive tree mortality. Bark beetles interact with other disturbance agents in forest ecosystems, one of the primary being fires. In order to implement appropriate post-fire management of fire-damaged ecosystems, we need a better understanding of...

  14. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  15. Ecological consequences of mountain pine beetle outbreaks for wildlife in western North American forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Victoria A.; Latif, Quresh S.; Rowland, Mary M.; Johnson, Tracey N.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Buskirk, Steven W.; Heyward, Joslin E.; Dresser, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreaks are increasingly prevalent in western North America, causing considerable ecological change in pine (Pinus spp.) forests with important implications for wildlife. We reviewed studies examining wildlife responses to MPB outbreaks and postoutbreak salvage logging to inform forest management and guide future research. Our review included 16 studies describing MPB outbreak relationships with 89 bird species and 6 studies describing relationships with 11 mammalian species, but no studies of reptiles or amphibians. We included studies that compared wildlife response metrics temporally (before versus after the outbreak) and spatially (across sites that varied in severity of outbreak) in relation to beetle outbreaks. Outbreaks ranged in size from 20,600 to ≥107 ha and studies occurred 1‐30 years after the peak MPB outbreak, but most studies were conducted over the short-term (i.e., ≤6 years after the peak of MPB-induced tree mortality). Birds were the only taxa studied frequently; however, high variability existed among those studies to allow many inferences, although some patterns were evident. Avian studies concluded that cavity-nesting species responded more favorably to beetle-killed forests than species with open-cup nests, and species nesting in the shrub layer favored outbreak forests compared with ground and open-cup canopy nesters that generally showed mixed relationships. Bark-drilling species as a group clearly demonstrated a positive short-term association with MPB epidemics compared with that of other foraging assemblages. Cavity-nesting birds that do not consume bark beetles (i.e., secondary cavity-nesting species and nonbark-drilling woodpeckers) also exhibited some positive responses to MPB outbreaks, although not as pronounced or consistent as those of bark-drilling woodpeckers. Mammalian responses to MPB outbreaks were mixed. Studies consistently reported negative effects of MPB

  16. Low-severity fire increases tree defense against bark beetle attacks.

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    Hood, Sharon; Sala, Anna; Heyerdahl, Emily K; Boutin, Marion

    2015-07-01

    Induced defense is a common plant strategy in response to herbivory. Although abiotic damage, such as physical wounding, pruning, and heating, can induce plant defense, the effect of such damage by large-scale abiotic disturbances on induced defenses has not been explored and could have important consequences for plant survival facing future biotic disturbances. Historically, low-severity wildfire was a widespread, frequent abiotic disturbance in many temperate coniferous forests. Native Dendroctonus and Ips bark beetles are also a common biotic disturbance agent in these forest types and can influence tree mortality patterns after wildfire. Therefore, species living in these disturbance-prone environments with strategies to survive both frequent fire and bark beetle attack should be favored. One such example is Pinus ponderosa forests of western North America. These forests are susceptible to bark beetle attack and frequent, low-severity fire was common prior to European settlement. However, since the late 1800s, frequent, low-severity fires have greatly decreased in these forests. We hypothesized that non-lethal, low-severity, wildfire induces resin duct defense in P. ponderosa and that lack of low-severity fire relaxes resin duct defense in forests dependent on frequent, low-severity fire. We first compared axial resin duct traits between trees that either survived or died from bark beetle attacks. Next, we studied axial ducts using tree cores with crossdated chronologies in several natural P. ponderosa stands before and after an individual wildfire and, also, before and after an abrupt change in fire frequency in the 20th century. We show that trees killed by bark beetles invested less in resin ducts relative to trees that survived attack, suggesting that resin duct-related traits provide resistance against bark beetles. We then show low-severity fire induces resin duct production, and finally, that resin duct production declines when fire ceases. Our results

  17. Soil Respiration Declines Following Beetle - Induced Forest Mortality in a Lodgepole Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhuu, B.; Peckham, S. D.; Norton, U.; Ewers, B. E.; Pendall, E.

    2014-12-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests in northern Colorado and southeast Wyoming have been undergoing a major mortality event owing to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation since 2007. We studied biotic and abiotic drivers of growing season soil respiration in four mature stands experiencing different levels of mortality between 2008 and 2012 in the Medicine Bow Mountains, southeastern Wyoming, USA. For five years, beetle infestation significantly altered forest structure. Stand mortality was 30% and more than 80% in stands with the lowest and highest mortality, respectively. Understory vegetation cover increased by 50% for five years following beetle infestation. Needlefall was increased by more than 50% during first two years of beetle infestation compared to the pre-disturbance period. We did not observe an immediate increase in soil respiration following beetle infestation as suggested by some researchers. Soil respiration rates in midsummer ranged from 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol m-2 s-1 in stands with highest mortality to 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol m-2s-1 in uninfested stand. Live tree basal area was the dominant factor controlling soil respiration, explaining more than 60% of the interannual and spatial variations in response to the disturbance. In addition, soil respiration was significantly correlated with fine root biomass, which explained 55% of variations, providing strong evidence that autotrophic respiration dominated the forest soil respiration flux. Furthermore, the seasonality of soil respiration was controlled mainly by mean monthly precipitation and mid-day photosynthetically active radiation. Each factor predicted from 30% to 50% of seasonal soil respiration variability with the highest correlation coefficients in stand with the lowest mortality. Our results clearly indicate that the reduction of photosynthesis in trees over the infestation period significantly reduced soil respiration. The remaining activity in dead stands may

  18. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakowski, Dominik; Veblen, Thomas T; Bebi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand-replacing fires were

  20. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kulakowski

    Full Text Available The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand

  1. Relative importance of climate and mountain pine beetle outbreaks on the occurrence of large wildfires in the western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietkiewicz, Nathan; Kulakowski, Dominik

    2016-12-01

    Extensive outbreaks of bark beetles have killed trees across millions of hectares of forests and woodlands in western North America. These outbreaks have led to spirited scientific, public, and policy debates about consequential increases in fire risk, especially in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), where homes and communities are at particular risk from wildfires. At the same time, large wildfires have become more frequent across this region. Widespread expectations that outbreaks increase extent, severity, and/or frequency of wildfires are based partly on visible and dramatic changes in foliar moisture content and other fuel properties following outbreaks, as well as associated modeling projections. A competing explanation is that increasing wildfires are driven primarily by climatic extremes, which are becoming more common with climate change. However, the relative importance of bark beetle outbreaks vs. climate on fire occurrence has not been empirically examined across very large areas and remains poorly understood. The most extensive outbreaks of tree-killing insects across the western United States have been of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae), which have killed trees over >650,000 km 2 , mostly in forests dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). We show that outbreaks of MPB in lodgepole pine forests of the western United States have been less important than climatic variability for the occurrence of large fires over the past 29 years. In lodgepole pine forests in general, as well as those in the WUI, occurrence of large fires was determined primarily by current and antecedent high temperatures and low precipitation but was unaffected by preceding outbreaks. Trends of increasing co-occurrence of wildfires and outbreaks are due to a common climatic driver rather than interactions between these disturbances. Reducing wildfire risk hinges on addressing the underlying climatic drivers rather than treating beetle-affected forests.

  2. Synchrony, Weather, and Cycles in Southern Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, John D

    2018-02-08

    Spatial synchrony and cycles are common features of forest insect pests, but are often studied as separate phenomenon. Using time series of timber damage caused by Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (southern pine beetle) in 10 states within the southern United States, this study examines synchrony in D. frontalis abundance, the synchronizing effects of temperature extremes, and the evidence for shared cycles among state populations. Cross-correlation and cluster analyses are used to quantify synchrony across a range of geographic distances and to identify groups of states with synchronous dynamics. Similar techniques are used to quantify spatial synchrony in temperature extremes and to examine their relationship to D. frontalis fluctuations. Cross-wavelet analysis is then used to examine pairs of time series for shared cycles. These analyses suggest there is substantial synchrony among states in D. frontalis fluctuations, and there are regional groups of states with similar dynamics. Synchrony in D. frontalis fluctuations also appears related to spatial synchrony in summer and winter temperature extremes. The cross-wavelet results suggest that D. frontalis dynamics may differ among regions and are not stationary. Significant oscillations were present in some states over certain time intervals, suggesting an endogenous feedback mechanism. Management of D. frontalis outbreaks could potentially benefit from a multistate regional approach because populations are synchronous on this level. Extreme summer temperatures are likely to become the most important synchronizing agent due to climate change. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A B

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin's relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in "The Descent of Man". During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig's new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data. This has

  4. A dynamical model for bark beetle outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Křivan, Vlastimil; Lewis, Mark; Bentz, Barbara J; Bewick, Sharon; Lenhart, Suzanne M; Liebhold, Andrew

    2016-10-21

    Tree-killing bark beetles are major disturbance agents affecting coniferous forest ecosystems. The role of environmental conditions on driving beetle outbreaks is becoming increasingly important as global climatic change alters environmental factors, such as drought stress, that, in turn, govern tree resistance. Furthermore, dynamics between beetles and trees are highly nonlinear, due to complex aggregation behaviors exhibited by beetles attacking trees. Models have a role to play in helping unravel the effects of variable tree resistance and beetle aggregation on bark beetle outbreaks. In this article we develop a new mathematical model for bark beetle outbreaks using an analogy with epidemiological models. Because the model operates on several distinct time scales, singular perturbation methods are used to simplify the model. The result is a dynamical system that tracks populations of uninfested and infested trees. A limiting case of the model is a discontinuous function of state variables, leading to solutions in the Filippov sense. The model assumes an extensive seed-bank so that tree recruitment is possible even if trees go extinct. Two scenarios are considered for immigration of new beetles. The first is a single tree stand with beetles immigrating from outside while the second considers two forest stands with beetle dispersal between them. For the seed-bank driven recruitment rate, when beetle immigration is low, the forest stand recovers to a beetle-free state. At high beetle immigration rates beetle populations approach an endemic equilibrium state. At intermediate immigration rates, the model predicts bistability as the forest can be in either of the two equilibrium states: a healthy forest, or a forest with an endemic beetle population. The model bistability leads to hysteresis. Interactions between two stands show how a less resistant stand of trees may provide an initial toe-hold for the invasion, which later leads to a regional beetle outbreak in the

  5. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  6. Ground beetle populations near a kraft mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, R.; Hastings, L.; Mercer, W.R.; Smith, A.

    1973-02-01

    Twenty species of ground beetles (Family Carabidae) and one species of carrion beetle (Family Silphidae) were collected in six stations east of a kraft paper mill in Thunder Bay, Ontario, from May to August, 1971. The beetle population decreased markedly towards the mill. There was no apparent statistical difference in size variation of specimens near the mill and those further away.

  7. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  8. The bioconversion of mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine to fuel ethanol using the organosolv process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuejun; Xie, Dan; Yu, Richard W; Saddler, Jack N

    2008-09-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) killed by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (BLP) was compared with healthy lodgepole pine (HLP) for bioconversion to ethanol and high-value co-products. The BLP and HLP chips were pretreated using an ethanol organosolv process at a variety of severities. It was shown that the BLP was easier to pretreat and delignify than were the HLP chips. The resulting pretreated BLP substrate had a lower residual lignin, lower degree of polymerization of cellulose, lower cellulose crystallinity, smaller fiber size and thereby a better enzymatic hydrolysability than did the HLP substrates. However, under the same conditions, the BLP showed lower substrate yield and cellulose recovery than did the HLP, which likely resulted from the excessive hydrolysis and subsequent decomposition of the cellulose and hemicellulose during the pretreatment. The BLP wood yielded more ethanol organosolv lignin than was obtained with the HLP material. The HLP lignin had a lower molecular weight and narrower distribution than did the BLP lignin. It appears that the beetle killed LP is more receptive to organosolv pretreatment other than a slightly lower recovery of carbohydrates.

  9. Predation and bark beetle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John D. Reeve

    1997-01-01

    Bark beetle populations may undergo dramatic fluctuations and are often important pests in coniferous forests.Their dynamics are thought to be primarily driven by factors affecting the resistance of the host tree to attack, i.e., bottom-up forces, while natural enemies are usually assigned a minor role in these systems.I present behavioral experiments that suggest that...

  10. Tree physiology and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Gerard Sapes; Anna Sala; Sharon Hood

    2015-01-01

    Irruptive bark beetles usually co-occur with their co-evolved tree hosts at very low (endemic) population densities. However, recent droughts and higher temperatures have promoted widespread tree mortality with consequences for forest carbon, fire and ecosystem services (Kurz et al., 2008; Raffa et al., 2008; Jenkins et al., 2012). In this issue of New Phytologist,...

  11. Integrating models to investigate critical phenological overlaps in complex ecological interactions: the mountain pine beetle-fungus symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Audrey; Powell, James A; Bentz, Barbara J; Six, Diana L

    2015-03-07

    The fates of individual species are often tied to synchronization of phenology, however, few methods have been developed for integrating phenological models involving linked species. In this paper, we focus on mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its two obligate mutualistic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera and Ophiostoma montium. Growth rates of all three partners are driven by temperature, and their idiosyncratic responses affect interactions at important life stage junctures. One critical phase for MPB-fungus symbiosis occurs just before dispersal of teneral (new) adult beetles, when fungi are acquired and transported in specialized structures (mycangia). Before dispersal, fungi must capture sufficient spatial resources within the tree to ensure contact with teneral adults and get packed into mycangia. Mycangial packing occurs at an unknown time during teneral feeding. We adapt thermal models predicting fungal growth and beetle development to predict overlap between the competing fungi and MPB teneral adult feeding windows and emergence. We consider a spectrum of mycangial packing strategies and describe them in terms of explicit functions with unknown parameters. Rates of growth are fixed by laboratory data, the unknown parameters describing various packing strategies, as well as the degree to which mycangial growth is slowed in woody tissues as compared to agar, are determined by maximum likelihood and two years of field observations. At the field location used, the most likely fungus acquisition strategy for MPB was packing mycangia just prior to emergence. Estimated model parameters suggested large differences in the relative growth rates of the two fungi in trees at the study site, with the most likely model estimating that G. clavigera grew approximately twenty-five times faster than O. montium under the bark, which is completely unexpected in comparison with observed fungal growth on agar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Threats to North American Forests from Southern Pine Beetle with Warming Winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Coffel, Ethan; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Dodds, Kevin; Horton, Radley M.

    2016-01-01

    In coming decades, warmer winters are likely to lift range constraints on many cold-limited forest insects. Recent unprecedented expansion of the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis) into New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Massachusetts in concert with warming annual temperature minima highlights the risk that this insect pest poses to the pine forests of the northern United States and Canada under continued climate change. Here we present the first projections of northward expansion in SPB-suitable climates using a statistical bioclimatic range modeling approach and current-generation general circulation model (GCM) output under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios. Our results show that by the middle of the 21st century, the climate is likely to be suitable for SPB expansion into vast areas of previously unaffected forests throughout the northeastern United States and into southeastern Canada. This scenario would pose a significant economic and ecological risk to the affected regions, including disruption oflocal ecosystem services, dramatic shifts in forest structure, and threats to native biodiversity.

  13. Mapping Mountain Pine Beetle Mortality through Growth Trend Analysis of Time-Series Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances are key processes in the carbon cycle of forests and other ecosystems. In recent decades, mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreaks have become more frequent and extensive in western North America. Remote sensing has the ability to fill the data gaps of long-term infestation monitoring, but the elimination of observational noise and attributing changes quantitatively are two main challenges in its effective application. Here, we present a forest growth trend analysis method that integrates Landsat temporal trajectories and decision tree techniques to derive annual forest disturbance maps over an 11-year period. The temporal trajectory component successfully captures the disturbance events as represented by spectral segments, whereas decision tree modeling efficiently recognizes and attributes events based upon the characteristics of the segments. Validated against a point set sampled across a gradient of MPB mortality, 86.74% to 94.00% overall accuracy was achieved with small variability in accuracy among years. In contrast, the overall accuracies of single-date classifications ranged from 37.20% to 75.20% and only become comparable with our approach when the training sample size was increased at least four-fold. This demonstrates that the advantages of this time series work flow exist in its small training sample size requirement. The easily understandable, interpretable and modifiable characteristics of our approach suggest that it could be applicable to other ecoregions.

  14. Threats to North American forests from southern pine beetle with warming winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesk, Corey; Coffel, Ethan; D'Amato, Anthony W.; Dodds, Kevin; Horton, Radley

    2017-10-01

    In coming decades, warmer winters are likely to ease range constraints on many cold-limited forest insects. Recent unprecedented expansion of the southern pine beetle (SPB, Dendroctonus frontalis) into New Jersey, New York and Connecticut in concert with warming annual temperature minima highlights the risk that this insect pest poses to the pine forests of the northern United States and Canada under continued climate change. Here we present projections of northward expansion in SPB-suitable climates using a statistical bioclimatic range modelling approach and current-generation general circulation model output under Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Results show that by the middle of the twenty-first century, the climate is likely to be suitable for SPB expansion into vast areas of previously unaffected forests throughout the northeastern United States and into southeastern Canada. This scenario would pose a significant economic and ecological risk to the affected regions, including disruption of local ecosystem services, shifts in forest structure, and threats to native biodiversity.

  15. Prevalência de ametropias e oftalmopatias no quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Souza Couto Jr.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência das ametropias e oftalmopatias na população do Quilombo São José da Serra - Valença - RJ. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 92 indivíduos de uma população de 102 pessoas da comunidade Quilombola em São José da Serra. Todos foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica completa, incluindo anamnese, ectoscopia ocular, medida da acuidade visual, teste de estereopsia, reflexo vermelho, cobertura monocular, Hirschberg, refração objetiva, subjetiva, biomicroscopia, tonometria de aplanação de GoldmannR, tonometria de sopro e fundoscopia direta ou binocular indireta usando lente de 20D. RESULTADOS: Foram examinados cerca de 90,19% da população quilombola, sendo 61,95% do sexo feminino e 38,04% do sexo masculino. A idade variou de 6 meses a 89 anos. Foram encontrados ametropias com necessidade de correção óptica em 23,91% dos indivíduos sendo mais frequente a presbiopia associada à hipermetropia, miopia e/ou astigmatismo com prevalência de 59,09% dos indivíduos examinados, seguido da presbiopia isolada em 22,72%, do astigmatismo hipermetrópico em 13,63% e do astigmatismo miópico em 4,54% dos examinados. Em relação às oftalmopatias encontraram-se catarata senil em 7,61%, ambliopia refracional em 6,52%, atrofia do epitélio pigmentar da retina e atrofia peripapilar em 2,17%, glaucoma em 1,09%, pterígio em 1,09%, retinocoroidite por toxoplasmose em 1,09% e hipopigmentação retiniana (albinismo ocular em 1,09%. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência das ametropias e doenças oculares no Quilombo São José da Serra foi de 23,9%(22/92 e 20,6%(19/92, respectivamente.

  16. Effects of Dwarf Mistletoe on Stand Structure of Lodgepole Pine Forests 21-28 Years Post-Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C.; Shaw, David C.; Woolley, Travis J.; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E.

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21–28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  17. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle’s historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  18. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Agne

    Full Text Available Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its

  19. Effects of dwarf mistletoe on stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years post-mountain pine beetle epidemic in central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agne, Michelle C; Shaw, David C; Woolley, Travis J; Queijeiro-Bolaños, Mónica E

    2014-01-01

    Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests are widely distributed throughout North America and are subject to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemics, which have caused mortality over millions of hectares of mature trees in recent decades. Mountain pine beetle is known to influence stand structure, and has the ability to impact many forest processes. Dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum) also influences stand structure and occurs frequently in post-mountain pine beetle epidemic lodgepole pine forests. Few studies have incorporated both disturbances simultaneously although they co-occur frequently on the landscape. The aim of this study is to investigate the stand structure of lodgepole pine forests 21-28 years after a mountain pine beetle epidemic with varying levels of dwarf mistletoe infection in the Deschutes National Forest in central Oregon. We compared stand density, stand basal area, canopy volume, proportion of the stand in dominant/codominant, intermediate, and suppressed cohorts, average height and average diameter of each cohort, across the range of dwarf mistletoe ratings to address differences in stand structure. We found strong evidence of a decrease in canopy volume, suppressed cohort height, and dominant/codominant cohort diameter with increasing stand-level dwarf mistletoe rating. There was strong evidence that as dwarf mistletoe rating increases, proportion of the stand in the dominant/codominant cohort decreases while proportion of the stand in the suppressed cohort increases. Structural differences associated with variable dwarf mistletoe severity create heterogeneity in this forest type and may have a significant influence on stand productivity and the resistance and resilience of these stands to future biotic and abiotic disturbances. Our findings show that it is imperative to incorporate dwarf mistletoe when studying stand productivity and ecosystem recovery processes in lodgepole pine forests because of its potential to

  20. How tight are beetle hugs? Attachment in mating leaf beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Dagmar; Tsipenyuk, Alexey; Varenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Similar to other leaf beetles, rosemary beetles Chrysolina americana exhibit a distinct sexual dimorphism in tarsal attachment setae. Setal discoid terminals occur only in males, and they have been previously associated with a long-term attachment to the female's back (elytra) during copulation and mate guarding. For the first time, we studied living males and females holding to female's elytra. Pull-off force measurements with a custom-made tribometer featuring a self-aligning sample holder confirmed stronger attachment to female elytra compared with glass in both males and females; corresponding to 45 and 30 times the body weight, respectively. In line with previous studies, males generated significantly higher forces than females on convex elytra and flat glass, 1.2 times and 6.8 times, respectively. Convex substrates like elytra seem to improve the attachment ability of rosemary beetles, because they can hold more strongly due to favourable shear angles of legs, tarsi and adhesive setae. A self-aligning sample holder is found to be suitable for running force measurement tests with living biological samples.

  1. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E Reed, David; Ewers, Brent E; Pendall, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO 2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO 2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H 2 O m −2 s −1 . Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO 2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO 2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO 2 and H 2 O dynamics

  2. Mites associated with bark beetles and their hyperphoretic ophiostomatoid fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard W. Hofstetter; John Moser; Stacy Blomquist

    2014-01-01

    The role that mites play in many ecosystems is often overlooked or ignored. Within bark beetle habitats, more than 100 mite species exist and they have important impacts on community dynamics, ecosystem processes, and biodiversity of bark beetle systems. Mites use bark beetles to access and disperse among beetle-infested trees and the associations may range from...

  3. Some ecological, economic, and social consequences of bark beetle infestations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Progar; Adris Eglitis; John E. Lundquist

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are powerful agents of change in dynamic forest ecosystems. Most assessments of the effects of bark beetle outbreaks have been based on negative impacts on timber production. The positive effects of bark beetle activities are much less well understood. Bark beetles perform vital functions at all levels of scale in forest ecosystems. At the landscape...

  4. Competitive interactions among symbiotic fungi of the southern pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; Richard T. Wilkens

    1997-01-01

    The southern pine beetle, a damaging pest of conifers, is intimately linked to three symbiotic fungi.Two fungi, Ceratocystiopsis ranaculosus and Entomocorticium sp. A, are transported within specialized structures (mycangia) in the beetle exoskeleton and are mutualists of the beetle.A third fungus, Ophiostoma minus, is transported externally on the beetle exoskeleton (...

  5. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanen, D.K.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics

  6. Interactions of Root Disease and Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    George T. Ferrell; J. Richard Parmeter Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Associations between root diseases and bark beetles (Scolytidae) constitute some of the most serious pest complexes affecting forests in North America and elsewhere. The interactive functioning of these pests derives from the following relationships: 1) root diseases predispose trees to bark beetle infestation by lowering resistance, and perhaps...

  7. Modelling spruce bark beetle infestation probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulius Zolubas; Jose Negron; A. Steven Munson

    2009-01-01

    Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) risk model, based on pure Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) stand characteristics in experimental and control plots was developed using classification and regression tree statistical technique under endemic pest population density. The most significant variable in spruce bark beetle...

  8. Bark beetles in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Barbara J. Bentz

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, native bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have killed billions of trees across millions of hectares of forest from Alaska to Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several current outbreaks occurring simultaneously across western North America are the largest and most...

  9. Monitoring Asian longhorned beetles in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya Nehme; Melody Keena; Aijun Zhang; Alan Sawyer; Kelli. Hoover

    2011-01-01

    An operationally effective trap to monitor the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis or ALB) has been a goal of the ALB eradication program since the first beetle was found in New York in 1996. Ground surveying is only ~20 percent effective at identifying infested trees and, although tree climbing is more effective, it is also...

  10. Book review: Methods for catching beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles are the most speciose animal group and found in virtually all habitats on Earth. Methods for Catching Beetles is a comprehensive general sourcebook about where and how to collect members of this diverse group. The book makes a compelling case in its Introduction about the value of scientif...

  11. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  12. Comparative multilocus phylogeography of two Palaearctic spruce bark beetles: influence of contrasting ecological strategies on genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, François; Piel, Frédéric B; Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna; Kirichenko, Natalia; Grumiau, Laurent; Økland, Bjørn; Bertheau, Coralie; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Mardulyn, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    While phylogeographic patterns of organisms are often interpreted through past environmental disturbances, mediated by climate changes, and geographic barriers, they may also be strongly influenced by species-specific traits. To investigate the impact of such traits, we focused on two Eurasian spruce bark beetles that share a similar geographic distribution, but differ in their ecology and reproduction. Ips typographus is an aggressive tree-killing species characterized by strong dispersal, whereas Dendroctonus micans is a discrete inbreeding species (sib mating is the rule), parasite of living trees and a poor disperser. We compared genetic variation between the two species over both beetles' entire range in Eurasia with five independent gene fragments, to evaluate whether their intrinsic differences could have an influence over their phylogeographic patterns. We highlighted widely divergent patterns of genetic variation for the two species and argue that the difference is indeed largely compatible with their contrasting dispersal strategies and modes of reproduction. In addition, genetic structure in I. typographus divides European populations in a northern and a southern group, as was previously observed for its host plant, and suggests past allopatric divergence. A long divergence time was estimated between East Asian and other populations of both species, indicating their long-standing presence in Eurasia, prior to the last glacial maximum. Finally, the strong population structure observed in D. micans for the mitochondrial locus provides insights into the recent colonization history of this species, from its native European range to regions where it was recently introduced. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Landscape-scale quantification of fire-induced change in canopy cover following mountain pine beetle outbreak and timber harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarley, T. Ryan; Kolden, Crystal A.; Vaillant, Nicole M.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Smith, Alistair M.S.; Kreitler, Jason R.

    2017-01-01

    Across the western United States, the three primary drivers of tree mortality and carbon balance are bark beetles, timber harvest, and wildfire. While these agents of forest change frequently overlap, uncertainty remains regarding their interactions and influence on specific subsequent fire effects such as change in canopy cover. Acquisition of pre- and post-fire Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on the 2012 Pole Creek Fire in central Oregon provided an opportunity to isolate and quantify fire effects coincident with specific agents of change. This study characterizes the influence of pre-fire mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) and timber harvest disturbances on LiDAR-estimated change in canopy cover. Observed canopy loss from fire was greater (higher severity) in areas experiencing pre-fire MPB (Δ 18.8%CC) than fire-only (Δ 11.1%CC). Additionally, increasing MPB intensity was directly related to greater canopy loss. Canopy loss was lower for all areas of pre-fire timber harvest (Δ 3.9%CC) than for fire-only, but among harvested areas, the greatest change was observed in the oldest treatments and the most intensive treatments [i.e., stand clearcut (Δ 5.0%CC) and combination of shelterwood establishment cuts and shelterwood removal cuts (Δ 7.7%CC)]. These results highlight the importance of accounting for and understanding the impact of pre-fire agents of change such as MPB and timber harvest on subsequent fire effects in land management planning. This work also demonstrates the utility of multi-temporal LiDAR as a tool for quantifying these landscape-scale interactions.

  14. Prediction of Forest Canopy and Surface Fuels from Lidar and Satellite Time Series Data in a Bark Beetle-Affected Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin C. Bright

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE = 12–54%. Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%. Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  15. Prediction of forest canopy and surface fuels from Lidar and satellite time series data in a bark beetle-affected forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Benjamin C.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jenny S.; Kennedy, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    Wildfire behavior depends on the type, quantity, and condition of fuels, and the effect that bark beetle outbreaks have on fuels is a topic of current research and debate. Remote sensing can provide estimates of fuels across landscapes, although few studies have estimated surface fuels from remote sensing data. Here we predicted and mapped field-measured canopy and surface fuels from light detection and ranging (lidar) and Landsat time series explanatory variables via random forest (RF) modeling across a coniferous montane forest in Colorado, USA, which was affected by mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) approximately six years prior. We examined relationships between mapped fuels and the severity of tree mortality with correlation tests. RF models explained 59%, 48%, 35%, and 70% of the variation in available canopy fuel, canopy bulk density, canopy base height, and canopy height, respectively (percent root-mean-square error (%RMSE) = 12–54%). Surface fuels were predicted less accurately, with models explaining 24%, 28%, 32%, and 30% of the variation in litter and duff, 1 to 100-h, 1000-h, and total surface fuels, respectively (%RMSE = 37–98%). Fuel metrics were negatively correlated with the severity of tree mortality, except canopy base height, which increased with greater tree mortality. Our results showed how bark beetle-caused tree mortality significantly reduced canopy fuels in our study area. We demonstrated that lidar and Landsat time series data contain substantial information about canopy and surface fuels and can be used for large-scale efforts to monitor and map fuel loads for fire behavior modeling at a landscape scale.

  16. Asian longhorned beetle complicates the relationship ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban foresters routinely emphasise the importance of taxonomic diversity to reduce the vulnerability of tree assemblages to invasive pests, but it is unclear to what extent diversity reduces vulnerability to polyphagous (i.e. generalist) pests. Drawing on field data from seven communities in metropolitan Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, we tested the hypothesis that communities with higher diversity would exhibit lower vulnerability to the polyphagous Asian longhorned beetle, which currently threatens the region. Based on street tree compositions and the beetle?s host preferences, Asian longhorned beetle threatened up to 35.6% of individual street trees and 47.5% of the total basal area across the study area, but we did not see clear connections between taxonomic diversity and beetle vulnerability among study communities. For example, the city of Fairfield was among the least diverse communities but had the lowest proportion of trees vulnerable to Asian longhorned beetle, whereas the city of Wyoming exhibited high diversity and high vulnerability. On the other hand, Forest Park aligned with our original hypothesis, as it was characterised by low diversity and high vulnerability. Our results demonstrate that relatively high taxonomic diversity in street tree assemblages does not necessarily lead to reduced vulnerability to a polyphagous pest. Considering the threats posed by polyphagous pests, selecting a set of relatively pest resistant trees known to perform well in urb

  17. Southern Pine Beetle Handbook: Southern Pine Beetles Can Kill Your Ornamental Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Thatcher; Jack E. Coster; Thomas L. Payne

    1974-01-01

    Southern pine beetles are compulsive eaters. Each year in the South from Texas to Virginia the voracious insects conduct a movable feast across thousands of acres of pine forests. Most trees die soon after the beetles sink their teeth into them.

  18. Pheromone biosynthesis in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2017-12-01

    Pine bark beetles rely on aggregation pheromones to coordinate mass attacks and thus reproduce in host trees. The structural similarity between many pheromone components and those of defensive tree resin led to early suggestions that pheromone components are metabolic derivatives of ingested precursors. This model has given way to our current understanding that most pheromone components are synthesized de novo. Their synthesis involves enzymes that modify products from endogenous metabolic pathways; some of these enzymes have been identified and characterized. Pheromone production is regulated in a complex way involving multiple signals, including JH III. This brief review summarizes progress in our understanding of this highly specialized metabolic process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    burial; cone opening; Dendroctonus ponderosae; ground-foraging vertebrates; mountain pine beetle; natural regeneration; Pinus contorta var. latifolia; Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine; seed banks; serotiny (canopy seed storage); Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

  20. New data on flea beetle management in cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report of two trials conducted this summer for flea beetle management. The first one, conducted in the greenhouse, compares efficacy of native WI nematodes to chemical insecticides for flea beetle control. In this trial, nematodes provided similar control for flea beetles as both insecticides (Belay...

  1. Asian Longhorned Beetle - A New Introduction, Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service, State and Private Forestry, Northeastern Area; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2008-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB) has been discovered attacking trees in the United States. Tunneling by beetle larvae girdles tree stems and branches. Repeated attacks lead to dieback of the tree crown and, eventually, death of the tree. ALB probably traveled to the United States inside solid wood packing material from China. The beetle has been intercepted at ports...

  2. The ground-beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of Nukatlinskiy watershed

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; Sh. M. Imanaliev

    2008-01-01

    The article is devoted to studying of ground-beetles fauna of Nukatlinskiy watershed of Republic Dagestan. For the first time the specific structure of ground-beetles this area, the numbering 109 kinds concerning 31 sort is resulted. The analysis of sexual structure of populations and seasonal dynamics of activity ground-beetles is lead.

  3. Dosage response mortality of Japanese beetle, masked chafer, and June beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) adults when exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult beetles of three different white grub species, Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, June beetle, Phyllophaga spp., and masked chafer, Cyclocephala spp. were exposed to experimental and commercially available granules containing Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) strain F52, to determine susceptibilit...

  4. Long-horned Beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Tortoise Beetles (Chrysomelidae: Cassidinae of Tripura, northeastern India with some new additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.K. Agarwala

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the occurrence of nineteen species of Long-horned Beetles (Cerambycidae and eleven species of Tortoise Beetles (Cassidinae from Tripura state, northeastern India. These include 11 species of Cerambycidae and seven species of Cassidinae, respectively, as new records from the state. Distribution of these beetles in different parts of the state are provided.

  5. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putchkov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  6. Ground beetles of the Ukraine (Coleoptera, Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Putchkov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes, situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.

  7. Studies on tiger beetles : 84. Additions to the tiger beetle fauna of Sulawesi, Indonesia (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassola, F.

    1996-01-01

    Distributional new data are provided for several interesting or poorly known tiger beetle species from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The generic attribution of Wallacedela brendelli Cassola, 1991, is confirmed, and moreover two new species, Wallacedela? problematica spec. nov. and Wallacedela butonensis

  8. Volatile Organic Compounds Emitted by Fungal Associates of Conifer Bark Beetles and their Potential in Bark Beetle Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandasamy, Dineshkumar; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hammerbacher, Almuth

    2016-09-01

    Conifer bark beetles attack and kill mature spruce and pine trees, especially during hot and dry conditions. These beetles are closely associated with ophiostomatoid fungi of the Ascomycetes, including the genera Ophiostoma, Grosmannia, and Endoconidiophora, which enhance beetle success by improving nutrition and modifying their substrate, but also have negative impacts on beetles by attracting predators and parasites. A survey of the literature and our own data revealed that ophiostomatoid fungi emit a variety of volatile organic compounds under laboratory conditions including fusel alcohols, terpenoids, aromatic compounds, and aliphatic alcohols. Many of these compounds already have been shown to elicit behavioral responses from bark beetles, functioning as attractants or repellents, often as synergists to compounds currently used in bark beetle control. Thus, these compounds could serve as valuable new agents for bark beetle management. However, bark beetle associations with fungi are very complex. Beetle behavior varies with the species of fungus, the stage of the beetle life cycle, the host tree quality, and probably with changes in the emission rate of fungal volatiles. Additional research on bark beetles and their symbiotic associates is necessary before the basic significance of ophiostomatoid fungal volatiles can be understood and their applied potential realized.

  9. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  10. A catalogue of Lithuanian beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Tamutis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera belonging to 92 families found and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monograic treatment (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997. The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of territory of the Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research.Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are also mentioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this

  11. Overwintering biology and tests of trap and relocate as a conservation measure for burying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Burying beetles are carrion beetles and utilize dead animal carcasses for feeding : and reproductive efforts. They assist with decomposition, prevent the spread of disease, : and reduce the number of pest species. The largest species of carrion beetl...

  12. Ecosystem CO2/H2O fluxes are explained by hydraulically limited gas exchange during tree mortality from spruce bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, John M.; Massman, William J.; Ewers, Brent E.; Huckaby, Laurie S.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances are increasing globally due to anthropogenic changes in land use and climate. This study determines whether a disturbance that affects the physiology of individual trees can be used to predict the response of the ecosystem by weighing two competing hypothesis at annual time scales: (a) changes in ecosystem fluxes are proportional to observable patterns of mortality or (b) to explain ecosystem fluxes the physiology of dying trees must also be incorporated. We evaluate these hypotheses by analyzing 6 years of eddy covariance flux data collected throughout the progression of a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic in a Wyoming Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii)-subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forest and testing for changes in canopy conductance (gc), evapotranspiration (ET), and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2. We predict from these hypotheses that (a) gc, ET, and NEE all diminish (decrease in absolute magnitude) as trees die or (b) that (1) gc and ET decline as trees are attacked (hydraulic failure from beetle-associated blue-stain fungi) and (2) NEE diminishes both as trees are attacked (restricted gas exchange) and when they die. Ecosystem fluxes declined as the outbreak progressed and the epidemic was best described as two phases: (I) hydraulic failure caused restricted gc, ET (28 ± 4% decline, Bayesian posterior mean ± standard deviation), and gas exchange (NEE diminished 13 ± 6%) and (II) trees died (NEE diminished 51 ± 3% with minimal further change in ET to 36 ± 4%). These results support hypothesis b and suggest that model predictions of ecosystem fluxes following massive disturbances must be modified to account for changes in tree physiological controls and not simply observed mortality.

  13. Bacteriome from Pinus arizonica and P. durangensis: Diversity, Comparison of Assemblages, and Overlapping Degree with the Gut Bacterial Community of a Bark Beetle That Kills Pines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Gonzalez-Escobedo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbioses between plants and microorganims have been fundamental in the evolution of both groups. The endophytic bacteria associated with conifers have been poorly studied in terms of diversity, ecology, and function. Coniferous trees of the genera Larix, Pseudotsugae, Picea and mainly Pinus, are hosts of many insects, including bark beetles and especially the Dendroctonus species. These insects colonize and kill these trees during their life cycle. Several bacteria detected in the gut and cuticle of these insects have been identified as endophytes in conifers. In this study, we characterized and compared the endophytic bacterial diversity in roots, phloem and bark of non-attacked saplings of Pinus arizonica and P. durangensis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, we evaluated the degree of taxonomic relatedness, and the association of metabolic function profiles of communities of endophytic bacteria and previously reported gut bacterial communities of D. rhizophagus; a specialized bark beetle that colonizes and kills saplings of these pine species. Our results showed that both pine species share a similar endophytic community. A total of seven bacterial phyla, 14 classes, 26 orders, 43 families, and 51 genera were identified. Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant family across all samples, followed by Acetobacteraceae and Acidobacteriaceae, which agree with previous studies performed in other pines and conifers. Endophytic communities and that of the insect gut were significantly different, however, the taxonomic relatedness of certain bacterial genera of pines and insect assemblages suggested that some bacteria from pine tissues might be the same as those in the insect gut. Lastly, the metabolic profile using PICRUSt showed there to be a positive association between communities of both pines and insect gut. This study represents the baseline into the knowledge of the endophytic bacterial communities of two of the major hosts

  14. Bacteriome from Pinus arizonica and P. durangensis: Diversity, Comparison of Assemblages, and Overlapping Degree with the Gut Bacterial Community of a Bark Beetle That Kills Pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Escobedo, Roman; Briones-Roblero, Carlos I; Pineda-Mendoza, Rosa M; Rivera-Orduña, Flor N; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Symbioses between plants and microorganims have been fundamental in the evolution of both groups. The endophytic bacteria associated with conifers have been poorly studied in terms of diversity, ecology, and function. Coniferous trees of the genera Larix , Pseudotsugae , Picea and mainly Pinus , are hosts of many insects, including bark beetles and especially the Dendroctonus species. These insects colonize and kill these trees during their life cycle. Several bacteria detected in the gut and cuticle of these insects have been identified as endophytes in conifers. In this study, we characterized and compared the endophytic bacterial diversity in roots, phloem and bark of non-attacked saplings of Pinus arizonica and P. durangensis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. In addition, we evaluated the degree of taxonomic relatedness, and the association of metabolic function profiles of communities of endophytic bacteria and previously reported gut bacterial communities of D. rhizophagus ; a specialized bark beetle that colonizes and kills saplings of these pine species. Our results showed that both pine species share a similar endophytic community. A total of seven bacterial phyla, 14 classes, 26 orders, 43 families, and 51 genera were identified. Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant family across all samples, followed by Acetobacteraceae and Acidobacteriaceae, which agree with previous studies performed in other pines and conifers. Endophytic communities and that of the insect gut were significantly different, however, the taxonomic relatedness of certain bacterial genera of pines and insect assemblages suggested that some bacteria from pine tissues might be the same as those in the insect gut. Lastly, the metabolic profile using PICRUSt showed there to be a positive association between communities of both pines and insect gut. This study represents the baseline into the knowledge of the endophytic bacterial communities of two of the major hosts affected by D

  15. The fossil record and macroevolutionary history of the beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dena M; Marcot, Jonathan D

    2015-04-22

    Coleoptera (beetles) is the most species-rich metazoan order, with approximately 380 000 species. To understand how they came to be such a diverse group, we compile a database of global fossil beetle occurrences to study their macroevolutionary history. Our database includes 5553 beetle occurrences from 221 fossil localities. Amber and lacustrine deposits preserve most of the beetle diversity and abundance. All four extant suborders are found in the fossil record, with 69% of all beetle families and 63% of extant beetle families preserved. Considerable focus has been placed on beetle diversification overall, however, for much of their evolutionary history it is the clade Polyphaga that is most responsible for their taxonomic richness. Polyphaga had an increase in diversification rate in the Early Cretaceous, but instead of being due to the radiation of the angiosperms, this was probably due to the first occurrences of beetle-bearing amber deposits in the record. Perhaps, most significant is that polyphagan beetles had a family-level extinction rate of zero for most of their evolutionary history, including across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary. Therefore, focusing on the factors that have inhibited beetle extinction, as opposed to solely studying mechanisms that may promote speciation, should be examined as important determinants of their great diversity today. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetles from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Montgomery; Melody A. Keena

    2011-01-01

    In 1995, we found our first Scymnus (Neopullus) lady beetle in China (Neopullus is a subgenus of Scymnus, the largest genus in the family Coccinellidae). At that time there were just a few known species in the subgenus and very little was known of their biology. By the end of the project, 14...

  17. Bark beetle responses to vegetation management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. McMillin; Christopher J. Fettig

    2009-01-01

    Native tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are a natural component of forest ecosystems. Eradication is neither possible nor desirable and periodic outbreaks will occur as long as susceptible forests and favorable climatic conditions co-exist. Recent changes in forest structure and tree composition by natural processes and management...

  18. Risk Assessment for the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) causes significant damage (tree mortality) to pine forests. Although this tree mortality has characteristic temporal and spatial patterns, the precise location and timing of damage is to some extent unpredictable. Consequently, although forest managers are able to identify stands that are predisposed to SPB damage, they are unable to...

  19. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  20. Parasitoids of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wayne Berisford

    2011-01-01

    Hymenopterous parasitoids make up a significant portion of the natural enemy complex associated with the southern pine beetle (SPB). Collectively, parasitoids can affect the growth of individual SPB infestations and area populations by reducing the survival rates of developing SPB larval/pupal broods. A substantial body of information on parasitoids has been...

  1. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dung beetle fauna of the subfamily Scarabaeinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) occurring in the Laikipia District of Kenya was surveyed. A total of 79 species were found which are diagnosed, keyed, and known dung preferences discussed. Seven species are new records for Kenya, namely Allogymnopleurus ...

  2. Floral associations of cyclocephaline scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Matthew Robert; Jameson, Mary Liz

    2013-01-01

    The scarab beetle tribe Cyclocephalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) is the second largest tribe of rhinoceros beetles, with nearly 500 described species. This diverse group is most closely associated with early diverging angiosperm groups (the family Nymphaeaceae, magnoliid clade, and monocots), where they feed, mate, and receive the benefit of thermal rewards from the host plant. Cyclocephaline floral association data have never been synthesized, and a comprehensive review of this ecological interaction was necessary to promote research by updating nomenclature, identifying inconsistencies in the data, and reporting previously unpublished data. Based on the most specific data, at least 97 cyclocephaline beetle species have been reported from the flowers of 58 plant genera representing 17 families and 15 orders. Thirteen new cyclocephaline floral associations are reported herein. Six cyclocephaline and 25 plant synonyms were reported in the literature and on beetle voucher specimen labels, and these were updated to reflect current nomenclature. The valid names of three unavailable plant host names were identified. We review the cyclocephaline floral associations with respect to inferred relationships of angiosperm orders. Ten genera of cyclocephaline beetles have been recorded from flowers of early diverging angiosperm groups. In contrast, only one genus, Cyclocephala, has been recorded from dicot flowers. Cyclocephaline visitation of dicot flowers is limited to the New World, and it is unknown whether this is evolutionary meaningful or the result of sampling bias and incomplete data. The most important areas for future research include: (1) elucidating the factors that attract cyclocephalines to flowers including floral scent chemistry and thermogenesis, (2) determining whether cyclocephaline dicot visitation is truly limited to the New World, and (3) inferring evolutionary relationships within the Cyclocephalini to rigorously test vicarance hypotheses

  3. Zombie soldier beetles: Epizootics in the goldenrod soldier beetle, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus (Coleoptera: Cantharidae) caused by Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina: Entomophthoraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Donald C; Hajek, Ann E; Liebherr, Jim K

    2017-09-01

    Adult goldenrod soldier beetles, Chauliognathus pensylvanicus, were found infected by the fungus Eryniopsis lampyridarum (Entomophthoromycotina) in Arkansas during September - October (1996, 2001, 2015 and 2016). Living and dead infected beetles were found on flowering frost aster, Symphyotrichum pilosum, common boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum, and Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis. Live and dead beetles (n=446) were collected in 1996 from S. pilosum flowers and held individually in the laboratory for determination of fungal prevalence. Of the beetles collected, 281 (63%) were males and 165 (37%) were females. A total of 90 beetles were infected with E. lampyridarum, an overall prevalence of 20.2%. Prevalence in males was 19.6% (n=55 infected/281 males total) and prevalence in females was 21.2% (n=35 infected /165 females total). Conidia were produced from 57% of the infected beetles, 23% of the infected beetles produced resting spores, and 20% contained the hyphal body stage. Infected beetles produced either conidia or resting spores but never both in the same host. Post-mortem morphological changes in the hosts due to E. lampyridarum were observed periodically for 24h. Shortly before death, by unknown mechanisms, dying infected beetles tightly clamped their mandibles into flower heads and ca. 15-22h later (between 2400 and 0700h) the fungus caused dead beetles to raise their elytra and expand their metathoracic wings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  5. Attraction of southern pine engravers and associated bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D R; Asaro, C; Berisford, C W

    2005-12-01

    We determined the response of the small southern pine engraver, Ips avulsus (Eichhoff); eastern fivespined ips, Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff); sixspined ips, Ips calligraphus (Germar); and pine engraver, Ips pini (Say) to the pheromones (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone in the southeastern United States. Catches of I. avulsus and I. grandicollis to baited multiple-funnel traps were increased by (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol in Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, and North Carolina. In all four localities, the highest numbers of I. avulsus were caught in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone. In Florida, the highest numbers of I. grandicollis were captured in traps baited with the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). In the remaining three localities, the largest catches of I. grandicollis occurred in traps baited with (+/-)-ipsenol alone or the combination of (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol (with or without lanierone). (+/-)-Ipsdienol was the only consistent attractant for I. calligraphus and I. pini. Attraction of I. pini in North Carolina to (+/-)-ipsdienol-baited traps was synergized by lanierone but interrupted with (+/-)-ipsenol. The interruptive effect of (+/-)-ipsenol on attraction of I. pini to (+/-)-ipsdienol was negated by lanierone. (+/-)-Ipsdienol was attractive to black turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus terebrans (Olivier), in Florida but not North Carolina, whereas (+/-)-ipsdienol was attractive to I. calligraphus in Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. Both (+/-)-ipsenol and (+/-)-ipsdienol affected catches of Gnathotrichus materiarus (Fitch) in North Carolina. Trap catches of Hylurgops rugipennis pinifex (Fitch), Hylastes salebrosus Eichhoff, and Hylastes tenuis Eichhoff were unaffected by the pheromone treatments. The combination of (+/-)-ipsenol, (+/-)-ipsdienol, and lanierone may be a cost-effective general lure for I. avulsus, I. grandicollis, and I. pini.

  6. Gene discovery for enzymes involved in limonene modification or utilization by the mountain pine beetle-associated pathogen Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Lim, Lynette; Madilao, Lina; Lah, Ljerka; Bohlmann, Joerg; Breuil, Colette

    2014-08-01

    To successfully colonize and eventually kill pine trees, Grosmannia clavigera (Gs cryptic species), the main fungal pathogen associated with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), has developed multiple mechanisms to overcome host tree chemical defenses, of which terpenoids are a major component. In addition to a monoterpene efflux system mediated by a recently discovered ABC transporter, Gs has genes that are highly induced by monoterpenes and that encode enzymes that modify or utilize monoterpenes [especially (+)-limonene]. We showed that pine-inhabiting Ophiostomale fungi are tolerant to monoterpenes, but only a few, including Gs, are known to utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that Gs can modify (+)-limonene through various oxygenation pathways, producing carvone, p-mentha-2,8-dienol, perillyl alcohol, and isopiperitenol. It can also degrade (+)-limonene through the C-1-oxygenated pathway, producing limonene-1,2-diol as the most abundant intermediate. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data indicated that Gs may utilize limonene 1,2-diol through beta-oxidation and then valine and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolic pathways. The data also suggested that at least two gene clusters, located in genome contigs 108 and 161, were highly induced by monoterpenes and may be involved in monoterpene degradation processes. Further, gene knockouts indicated that limonene degradation required two distinct Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), an epoxide hydrolase and an enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase. Our work provides information on enzyme-mediated limonene utilization or modification and a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between an economically important fungal pathogen and its host's defense chemicals.

  7. The Mexican bean beetle (Epilachna varivestis regurgitome and insights into beetle-borne virus specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Gedling

    Full Text Available For nearly 400 million years, insects and plants have been embattled in an evolutionary arms race. Insects have developed diverse feeding strategies and behaviors in an effort to circumvent and overcome an extensive collection of plant defense tactics. Sap-sucking insects often inject saliva into hosts plants, which contains a suite of effector proteins and even microbial communities that can alter the plant's defenses. Lacking salivary glands, leaf-feeding beetles represent an interesting group of phytophagous insects. Feeding beetles regurgitate onto leaf surfaces and it is thought that these oral secretions influence insect-plant interactions and even play a role in virus-vector specificity. Since the molecular and biological makeup of the regurgitant is virtually unknown, we carried out RNA sequencing and 16S rDNA analysis on a major soybean pest, Epilachna varivestis, to generate the first ever beetle "regurgitome" and characterize its microbiome. Interestingly, the regurgitant is comprised of a rich molecular assortment of genes encoding putative extracellular proteins involved in digestion, molting, immune defense, and detoxification. By carrying out plant inoculation assays, we reinforced the fundamental role of the regurgitant in beetle-borne virus specificity. Ultimately, these studies begin to characterize the importance of regurgitant in virus transmission and beetle-plant interactions.

  8. Prison construction and guarding behaviour by European honeybees is dependent on inmate small hive beetle density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Hepburn, H R; Ellis, A M; Elzen, P J

    2003-08-01

    Increasing small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) density changes prison construction and guarding behaviour in European honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). These changes include more guard bees per imprisoned beetle and the construction of more beetle prisons at the higher beetle density. Despite this, the number of beetles per prison (inmate density) did not change. Beetles solicited food more actively at the higher density and at night. In response, guard bees increased their aggressive behaviour towards beetle prisoners but did not feed beetles more at the higher density. Only 5% of all beetles were found among the combs at the low density but this percentage increased five-fold at the higher one. Successful comb infiltration (and thus reproduction) by beetles is a possible explanation for the significant damage beetles cause to European honeybee colonies in the USA.

  9. Fungal Symbionts of the Spruce Bark Beetle Synthesize the Beetle Aggregation Pheromone 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Axelsson, Karolin; Krokene, Paal; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-09-01

    Tree-killing bark beetles depend on aggregation pheromones to mass-attack their host trees and overwhelm their resistance. The beetles are always associated with phytopathogenic ophiostomatoid fungi that probably assist in breaking down tree resistance, but little is known about if or how much these fungal symbionts contribute to the beetles' aggregation behavior. In this study, we determined the ability of four major fungal symbionts of the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus to produce beetle aggregation pheromones. The fungi were incubated on Norway spruce Picea abies bark, malt agar, or malt agar amended with 0.5% (13)C glucose. Volatiles present in the headspace of each fungus were analyzed for 7 days after incubation using a SPME autosampler coupled to a GC/MS. Two Grosmannia species (G. penicillata and G. europhioides) produced large amounts of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MB), the major component in the beetles' aggregation pheromone blend, when growing on spruce bark or malt agar. Grosmannia europhioides also incorporated (13)C glucose into MB, demonstrating that the fungi can synthesize MB de novo using glucose as a carbon source. This is the first clear evidence that fungal symbionts of bark beetles can produce components in the aggregation pheromone blend of their beetle vectors. This provides new insight into the possible ecological roles of fungal symbionts in bark beetle systems and may deepen our understanding of species interactions and coevolution in these important biological systems.

  10. Plasticity of mycangia in Xylosandrus ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You; Ruan, Yong-Ying; Stanley, Edward L; Skelton, James; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-03-23

    Insects that depend on microbial mutualists evolved a variety of organs to transport the microsymbionts while dispersing. The ontogeny and variability of such organs is rarely studied, and the microsymbiont's effects on the animal tissue development remain unknown in most cases. Ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae or Platypodinae) and their mutualistic fungi are an ideal system to study the animal-fungus interactions. While the inter-specific diversity of their fungus transport organ-mycangia-is well-known, their developmental plasticity has been poorly described. To determine the ontogeny of the mycangium and the influence of the symbiotic fungus on the tissue development, we dissected by hand or scanned with micro-CT the mycangia in various developmental stages in five Xylosandrus ambrosia beetle species that possess a large, mesonotal mycangium: Xylosandrus amputatus, Xylosandrus compactus, Xylosandrus crassiusculus, Xylosandrus discolor and Xylosandrus germanus. We processed 181 beetle samples from the USA and China. All five species displayed three stages of the mycangium development: (1) Young teneral adults had an empty, deflated and cryptic mycangium without fungal mass; (2) In fully mature adults during dispersal, the pro-mesonotal membrane was inflated, and most individuals developed a mycangium mostly filled with the symbiont, though size and symmetry varied; (3) After successful establishment of their new galleries, most females discharged the bulk of the fungal inoculum and deflated the mycangium. Experimental aposymbiotic individuals demonstrated that the pronotal membrane invaginated independently of the presence of the fungus, but the fungus was required for inflation. Mycangia are more dynamic than previously thought, and their morphological changes correspond to the phases of the symbiosis. Importantly, studies of the fungal symbionts or plant pathogen transmission in ambrosia beetles need to consider which developmental stage

  11. Ecological interactions of bark beetles with host trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain species of bark beetles in the insect order Coleoptera, family Curculionidae (formerly Scolytidae) are keystone species in forest ecosystems. However, the tree-killing and woodboring bark and ambrosia beetles are also among the most damaging insects of forest products including lumber, paper...

  12. Efficacy of plant extracts against the cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Barnaud, B.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Kossou, D.K.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally used African plant powders, with a known effect against the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus in stored cowpea, were extracted with water. The extracts, 13 volatile oils, 2 non-volatile oils and 8 slurries, were evaluated for their toxic and repellent effects against the beetle.

  13. Method for continuously rearing Coccinella lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccinella novemnotata L., the ninespotted lady beetle, and Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, the transverse lady beetle, are predatory species whose abundance has declined significantly over the last few decades in North America. An ex situ system for continuously rearing these two b...

  14. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: Causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  15. Bark Beetle-Fungal Symbiosis: Context Dependency in Complex Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; D.L. Six

    2004-01-01

    Recent thinking in symbiosis research has emphasized a holistic consideration of these complex interactions. Bark beetles and their associated microbes are one group which has previously not been addressed in this manner. We review the study of symbiotic interactions among bark beetles and microbes in light of this thinking. We describe the considerable progress...

  16. Book review of advances in insect physiology: pine bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    If not the most destructive forest pest, bark beetles are probably a close second in their culpability for killing millions of trees in the Northern Hemisphere. This volume provides an aptly-timed interdisciplinary review on aspects of bark beetle physiology, especially how it relates to selecting, ...

  17. Effects of bark beetle-caused tree mortality on wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey A Hicke; Morris C. Johnson; Jane L. Hayes; Haiganoush K. Preisler

    2012-01-01

    Millions of trees killed by bark beetles in western North America have raised concerns about subsequent wildfire, but studies have reported a range of conclusions, often seemingly contradictory, about effects on fuels and wildfire. In this study, we reviewed and synthesized the published literature on modifications to fuels and fire characteristics following beetle-...

  18. an assessment of methods for sampling carabid beetles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    ground beetles. The number of samples, total number of individual carabid beetles, total number of species and species complementality for the six replicates are shown in Table 1. The total number of individuals caught using the two methods was 3025 for ground-searching methods. (mean of 4.97 individuals per one-hour.

  19. Chemical ecology and lure development for redbay ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The exotic redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, has become a serious invasive pest in the U.S., currently established in nine southeastern states. Female beetles are the primary vectors of a pathogenic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt. This lethal vascular dise...

  20. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  1. Pallidus beetle, Delphastus pallidus LeConte (Insecta: Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), a native predatory beetle of whitefly species in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetles in the genus Delphastus Casey are small whitefly-specific predatory ladybird beetles belonging to the coccinellid tribe Serangiini. They feed on all immature stages of whitefly and are reared and sold commercially all over the world for this purpose. They are compatible with the application ...

  2. Bark beetle conditions in western forests and formation of the Western Bark Beetle Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Cain; Jane L. Hayes

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic impacts of bark beetle outbreaks across conifer forests of the West have been mapped and reported by entomology and pathology professionals with Forest Health Protection (FHP), a component of USDA Forest Service's State and Private Forestry, and their state counterparts. These forest conditions set the stage for the formation of the Western...

  3. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  4. Metabarcoding of fungal communities associated with bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kirsten E; Hopkins, Kevin; Inward, Daegan J G; Vogler, Alfried P

    2016-03-01

    Many species of fungi are closely allied with bark beetles, including many tree pathogens, but their species richness and patterns of distribution remain largely unknown. We established a protocol for metabarcoding of fungal communities directly from total genomic DNA extracted from individual beetles, showing that the ITS3/4 primer pair selectively amplifies the fungal ITS. Using three specimens of bark beetle from different species, we assess the fungal diversity associated with these specimens and the repeatability of these estimates in PCRs conducted with different primer tags. The combined replicates produced 727 fungal Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) for the specimen of Hylastes ater, 435 OTUs for Tomicus piniperda, and 294 OTUs for Trypodendron lineatum, while individual PCR reactions produced on average only 229, 54, and 31 OTUs for the three specimens, respectively. Yet, communities from PCR replicates were very similar in pairwise comparisons, in particular when considering species abundance, but differed greatly among the three beetle specimens. Different primer tags or the inclusion of amplicons in separate libraries did not impact the species composition. The ITS2 sequences were identified with the Lowest Common Ancestor approach and correspond to diverse lineages of fungi, including Ophiostomaceae and Leotiomycetes widely found to be tree pathogens. We conclude that Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding reliably captures fungal diversity associated with bark beetles, although numerous PCR replicates are recommended for an exhaustive sample. Direct PCR from beetle DNA extractions provides a rapid method for future surveys of fungal species diversity and their associations with bark beetles and environmental variables.

  5. Importance of Secondary Metabolites for Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. EKİZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae are one of the most diverse families of herbivorous insects. Many of them are important agricultural pests and cause remarkable loss of crop and money as well. Plant leaves and roots are primary food source of both larva and adults of leaf beetles. Plants produce many secondary metabolites in reaction to herbivore insects. It is a well-known phenomenon that quantity and variety of secondary metabolites in plant leaves may change in response to insect attacks. Herbivore insects have to deal with such defensive secondary chemicals and overcome either by detoxifying or storing them. Accordingly, many specialist herbivores coevolved with their host plant. Certain phenolic glycosides may reduce leaf beetle feeding. Condensed tannins are anti-herbivore defenses against leaf chewing beetles, including leaf beetles. Flavonoid compounds are feeding deterrents for many flea leaf beetles. Cinnamic acid derivatives are other known feeding deterrents for leaf beetles. Secondary metabolites quantity and nutritional quality of host plants are not only important for feeding but also for providing enemy-free space and suitable oviposition sites.

  6. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurisse, Nicolas; Pawson, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles). We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9%) of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04%) of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that has proven

  7. Quantifying dispersal of a non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Meurisse

    Full Text Available Long distance dispersal to locate suitable breeding sites is recognized as a key trait influencing the population dynamics and distribution of bark beetles and other saprophytic insects. While dispersal behavior has been studied for a range of aggressive 'tree killing' bark beetles, few have considered the dispersal behaviour of non-aggressive saprophytic bark beetles that utilize kairomones (host volatiles. We present the results of a mark-recapture experiment that examined adult dispersal patterns of the saprophytic bark beetle Hylurgus ligniperda. Releases took place in summer and autumn 2014, in a clearcut pine forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Both flight-experienced and flight-naïve adults were marked and released in the center of a circular trap grid that extended to 960 m with 170 or 200 panel traps baited with a kairomone blend of alpha-pinene and ethanol. Of the 18,464 released H. ligniperda, 9,209 (49.9% of the beetles flew, and 96 (1.04% of the beetles that flew were recaptured. Individuals were recaptured at all distances. The recapture of flight-experienced beetles declined with dispersal distance, and a diffusion model showed heterogeneous dispersal tendencies within the population. Our best model estimated that 46% of flight-experienced beetles disperse > 1 km, and 1.6% > 5 km. Conversely, no declining pattern was shown in the recapture of flight-naïve beetles, suggesting that emerging H. ligniperda may require a period of flight to initiate chemotropic orientation behavior and subsequent attraction to traps. We discuss the implications of these findings for the management of phytosanitary risks. For instance, combining landscape knowledge of source populations with dispersal processes facilitates estimation of pest pressure at economically sensitive areas such as harvest and timber storage sites. Quantitative dispersal estimates also inform pest risk assessments by predicting spread rates for H. ligniperda that

  8. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae agrocenoses of spring and winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Purchart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available On two monitoring areas of the Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture (ÚKZÚZ loaded with risk elements we carried out investigations of beetles of the family Carabidae (Coleoptera in agricultural stands of winter and spring wheat. The focus of the present study is on synecological characteristics and in some extent on the impact of agricultural practise on the population and seasonal dynamics of the most important representatives of ground beetles. This paper precedes the following article aimed to contents of heavy metals in ground beetles.

  9. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  10. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  11. Patterns of movement of radioactive carabid beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baars, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Tracking of individual 192 Ir-labelled ground beetles released in the field revealed that both the day-active and night-active species studied showed periods of small distances covered per day in random directions, alternating with periods of directed movement with large distances covered per day. This pattern occurred not only in the reproductive period but outside the breeding season as well in juvenile Pterostichus versicolor and spent Calathus melanocephalus. Although mean locomotory activity increased with temperature, great daily differences occurred between individuals, pointing to asynchronous behaviour. In an unfavorable habitat directed movement occurred both more frequently and more extremely, sometimes resulting in escape to more favorable areas. Most of the radioactive beetles died within 7 weeks due to radiation effects, but independent field experiments and simulations showed that the recorded patterns were valid. Simulated individuals of P. versicolor living on 1 ha spread over 49 ha, whereas simulated C. melanocephalus covered only 9 ha after one activity season. Normal locomotory activities lead to both exchange of individuals between subpopulations and dispersal out of the habitat. The significance of these phenomena for population stability and for the survival of the species is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A.; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ESACIB (‘EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos’) database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the “Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular”. In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  13. Impact of food source on survival of red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) exposed to diatomaceous earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, F H

    2000-08-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of a flour food source on survival of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), exposed to the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2) of Protect-It, a marine formulation of diatomaceous earth. Beetles were exposed at 27 degrees C, and 40, 57, and 75% RH in 62-cm2 petri dishes. When beetles were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate (0.5 mg/cm2, or 31 mg per dish) of diatomaceous earth or in dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg mixed with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth, survival of both species increased as the amount of flour increased, and quickly plateaued at levels approaching 100%. In a second set of experiments, beetles were transferred to dishes containing flour at varying levels from 0 to 200 mg after they were exposed for 1 or 2 d in dishes with the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone. There were no significant differences in beetle survival among the levels of flour, however, survival in dishes with flour was usually greater than survival in dishes with diatomaceous earth alone. In a third test, beetles were exposed for 1, 2, and 3 d in dishes with either the labeled rate of diatomaceous earth alone (clean dishes), dishes with diatomaceous earth and empty straws, or dishes with diatomaceous earth and approximately 300 mg of flour packed in the straws. Survival was not significantly different between clean dishes or dishes with straws, but survival in dishes containing the straws with flour was usually 100%, regardless of exposure interval. In all experiments, confused flour beetles were less susceptible to diatomaceous earth than red flour beetles. In addition, survival was negatively related to exposure interval and positively related to relative humidity.

  14. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction.

  15. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Takaku, Gen; Katakura, Haruo; Yoshida, Nobuyo

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i.e., ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus carab...

  16. Mesostigmatic Mites (Acari) Associated with Ground, Burying, Roving Carrion and Dung Beetles (Coleoptera) in Sapporo and Tomakomai, Hokkaido, Northern Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Gen, Takaku; Haruo, Katakura; Nobuyo, Yoshida; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Division of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University; Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station

    1994-01-01

    A total of 19 species belonging to 5 families of mesostigmatic mites were collected in Sapporo and Tomakomai, northern Japan, on four groups of beetles, i. e. , ground beetles (Carabinae, Carabidae), burying beetles (Nicrophorini, Silphinae, Silphidae), roving carrion beetles (Silphini, Silphinae, Silphidae) and dung beetles (Scarabaeidae and Geotrupidae), all of which mainly forage on the ground surface. No mite species was found on more than one group of beetles except for Poecilochirus car...

  17. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  18. Physiological benefits of nectar-feeding by a predatory beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrafloral nectar is an important food source for many animals, including predatory lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), although the physiological benefits of nectar consumption are poorly understood for most consumers. Under laboratory conditions, we confined new females of Coleomegilla macu...

  19. Irregular fog as a water source for desert dune beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, M K

    1979-09-01

    Three methods of fog-water uptake have been observed in three tribes of Namib desert dune tenebrionid beetles, Adesmiini, Eurychorini and Zophosini. The methods used correlate with distribution and gross morphology of each species but cut across phylogenetic affinities. Of the three methods described, none involve obvious fine anatomical or physical adaptations of the beetles for fog-water uptake. Rather, the beetles have evolved specific behavioural patterns for drinking water condensed on vegetation, their own dorsum or sand.Use of fog-water necessitates surface activity at times when surface temperatures and wind velocities are not optimal for these diurnal or crepuscular species. Behavioural adaptation has enabled these beetles to use irregular and unpredictable fogs as a moisture source.

  20. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  1. A new soldier beetle from Eocene Baltic amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Fanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The family Cantharidae is a worldwide distributed group of flattened and soft-bodied beetles displaying aposematic colouration. These beetles, commonly known as soldier beetles, have an extensive fossil record dating back to the Lower Cretaceous. The majority of fossil material, referred to Cantharidae, is known from amber inclusions. In this paper we describe and illustrate a new soldier beetle Kuskaella macroptera gen. et sp. nov. from the Baltic amber. It is characterised by pronotum of the male parallel-sided in basal third and abruptly narrowed towards apex, and of the female gradually and steadily narrowing from the basal margin to the apex; globular head; unequal maxillary palpomeres with the last segment elongated-globular and pointed; long elytra slightly surpassing the last abdominal segment. This finding is the first described species of both sexes preserved in a single amber piece.

  2. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  3. Identifying ponderosa pines infested with mountain pine beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    William F. McCambridge

    1974-01-01

    Trees successfully and unsuccessfully attacked by mountain pine beetles have several symptoms in common, so that proper diagnosis is not always easy. Guidelines presented here enable the observer to correctly distinguish nearly all attacked trees.

  4. Olfactory host location in beetle bruchid parasitoid Dinarmus basalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rond.) was investigated in bioassays by measuring response to stimuli associated with one of its hosts, the larvae of beetle bruchid, Bruchidius atrolineatus (Pic.) infesting Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.) seeds. Orientation of parasitoid females was ...

  5. Mechanical properties of the beetle elytron, a biological composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    We determined the relationship between composition and mechanical properties of elytral (modified forewing) cuticle of the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Tenebrio molitor. Elytra of both species have similar mechanical properties at comparable stages of maturation (tanning). Shortly after adult ecl...

  6. Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Megan K.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jenny S.; Cigan, P.W.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Forests play an important role in sequestering carbon and offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but changing disturbance regimes may compromise the capability of forests to store carbon. In the Southern Rocky Mountains, a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality that are unprecedented in recorded history. To evaluate the long-term impacts of both this insect outbreak and another characteristic disturbance in these forests, high-severity wildfire, we simulated potential changes in species composition and carbon stocks using the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS). Simulations were completed for 3 scenarios (no disturbance, actual MPB infestation, and modeled wildfire) using field data collected in 2010 at 97 plots in the lodgepole pine-dominated forests of eastern Grand County, Colorado, which were heavily impacted by MPB after 2002. Results of the simulations showed that (1) lodgepole pine remained dominant over time in all scenarios, with basal area recovering to pre-disturbance levels 70–80 yr after disturbance; (2) wildfire caused a greater magnitude of change than did MPB in both patterns of succession and distribution of carbon among biomass pools; (3) levels of standing-live carbon returned to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 vs. 50 yr following MPB vs. wildfire disturbance, respectively, but took 120 vs. 150 yr to converge with conditions in the undisturbed scenario. Lodgepole pine forests appear to be relatively resilient to both of the disturbances we modeled, although changes in climate, future disturbance regimes, and other factors may significantly affect future rates of regeneration and ecosystem response.

  7. Transcriptome resources and functional characterization of monoterpene synthases for two host species of the mountain pine beetle, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dawn E; Yuen, Macaire M S; Jancsik, Sharon; Quesada, Alfonso Lara; Dullat, Harpreet K; Li, Maria; Henderson, Hannah; Arango-Velez, Adriana; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, Roderick T; Chan, Simon K; Cooke, Janice Ek; Breuil, Colette; Jones, Steven Jm; Keeling, Christopher I; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2013-05-16

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB, Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has affected lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) across an area of more than 18 million hectares of pine forests in western Canada, and is a threat to the boreal jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest. Defence of pines against MPB and associated fungal pathogens, as well as other pests, involves oleoresin monoterpenes, which are biosynthesized by families of terpene synthases (TPSs). Volatile monoterpenes also serve as host recognition cues for MPB and as precursors for MPB pheromones. The genes responsible for terpene biosynthesis in jack pine and lodgepole pine were previously unknown. We report the generation and quality assessment of assembled transcriptome resources for lodgepole pine and jack pine using Sanger, Roche 454, and Illumina sequencing technologies. Assemblies revealed transcripts for approximately 20,000 - 30,000 genes from each species and assembly analyses led to the identification of candidate full-length prenyl transferase, TPS, and P450 genes of oleoresin biosynthesis. We cloned and functionally characterized, via expression of recombinant proteins in E. coli, nine different jack pine and eight different lodgepole pine mono-TPSs. The newly identified lodgepole pine and jack pine mono-TPSs include (+)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-α-pinene synthases, (-)-β-pinene synthases, (+)-3-carene synthases, and (-)-β-phellandrene synthases from each of the two species. In the absence of genome sequences, transcriptome assemblies are important for defence gene discovery in lodgepole pine and jack pine, as demonstrated here for the terpenoid pathway genes. The product profiles of the functionally annotated mono-TPSs described here can account for the major monoterpene metabolites identified in lodgepole pine and jack pine.

  8. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  9. Toxicity of diatomaceous earth to red flour beetles and confused flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): effects of temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, F H

    2000-04-01

    Red flour beetles, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and confused flour beetles, Tribolium confusum (DuVal), were exposed for 8-72 h to diatomaceous earth (Protect-It) at 22, 27, and 32 degrees C and 40, 57, and 75% RH (9 combinations). Insects were exposed to the diatomaceous earth at 0.5 mg/cm2 on filter paper inside plastic petri dishes. After exposure, beetles were held for 1 wk without food at the same conditions at which they were exposed. Mortality of both species after initial exposure was lowest at 22 degrees C but increased as temperature and exposure interval increased, and within each temperature decreased as humidity increased. With 2 exceptions, all confused flour beetles were still alive after they were exposed at 22 degrees C, 57 and 75% RH. Mortality of both species after they were held for 1 wk was greater than initial mortality for nearly all exposure intervals at each temperature-humidity combination, indicating delayed toxic effects from exposure to diatomaceous earth. For both species, the relationship between mortality and exposure interval for initial and 1-wk mortality was described by linear, nonlinear, quadratic, and sigmoidal regression. Mortality of confused flour beetles was lower than mortality of red flour beetles exposed for the same time intervals for 46.7% of the total comparisons at the various temperature-relative humidity combinations.

  10. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin

    2012-01-01

    trapped carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) varied between conventionally and organically managed Caucasian Fir (Abies nordmanniana (Stev.)) plantations, in northern Zealand, Denmark. We recorded significantly higher numbers of carabid beetle specimens and species at conventionally than at organically...

  11. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  12. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Nahibasheva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  14. Structure of domination and dynamics of activity of ground-beetles in agroecosistems of Derbent area

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Nahibasheva; A. A. Bagomaev; R. A. Musaeva

    2008-01-01

    For the first time for area of research 61 kind of ground-beetles, concerning to 28 sorts and 13 vital  structure of ground-beetles of agroecosistems are studied. New data about structure and character biotopical are obtained distributions, seasonal dynamics of activity of ground-beetles. Phenological change prepotent of ground-beetles ofagroecosistems of Derbent area is revealed.

  15. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores?We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials.Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores, whereas the presence of a slightly damaged

  16. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  17. Recognition of imported lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini released in Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn A. Jones; Michael Montgomery; Guoyue Yu; Wenhau. Lu

    2002-01-01

    Adults of lady beetles in the tribe Scymnini imported for biological control of hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in eastern North America can be readily distinguished from native lady beetles (Coccinellidae). The imported lady beetles are in the genera Pseudoscymnus and Scymnus (Neopullus...

  18. Dutch elm disease pathogen transmission by the banded elm bark beetle Scolytus schevyrewi

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. R. Jacobi; R. D. Koski; J. F. Negron

    2013-01-01

    Dutch Elm Disease (DED) is a vascular wilt disease of Ulmus species (elms) incited in North America primarily by the exotic fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi. The pathogen is transmitted via root grafts and elm bark beetle vectors, including the native North American elm bark beetle, Hylurgopinus rufipes and the exotic smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus...

  19. Semiochemical sabotage: behavioral chemicals for protection of western conifers from bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy. E. Gillette; A. Steve Munson

    2009-01-01

    The discovery and elucidation of volatile behavioral chemicals used by bark beetles to locate hosts and mates has revealed a rich potential for humans to sabotage beetle host-finding and reproduction. Here, we present a description of currently available semiochemical methods for use in monitoring and controlling bark beetle pests in western conifer forests. Delivery...

  20. Fires following bark beetles: Factors controlling severity and disturbance interactions in ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn H. Sieg; Rodman R. Linn; Francois Pimont; Chad M. Hoffman; Joel D. McMillin; Judith Winterkamp; L. Scott Baggett

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that bark beetles and fires can be interacting disturbances, whereby bark beetle-caused tree mortality can alter the risk and severity of subsequent wildland fires. However, there remains considerable uncertainty around the type and magnitude of the interaction between fires following bark beetle attacks, especially in drier forest types...

  1. Effects of available water on growth and competition of southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kier D. Klepzig; J. Flores-Otero; R.W. Hofstetter; M.P. Ayers

    2004-01-01

    Competitive interactions among bark beetle associated fungi are potentially influenced by abiotic factors. Water potential, in particular, undergoes marked changes over the course of beetle colonization of tree hosts. To investigate the impact of water potential on competition among three southern pine beetle associated fungi, Ophiostoma minus,

  2. The importance of streamside sandbars to ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) communities in a deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Horn; M.D. Ulyshen

    2009-01-01

    We used pitfall traps to sample ground beetles on sandbars along a small woodland stream and in the adjacent floodplain forest (Oglethorpe Co., GA, USA). We captured a total of 1,477 ground beetles representing 41 species. Twenty-two species were exclusive to sandbars, while eight were found only in the forested habitat. Ground beetles...

  3. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and otherwise...

  4. Pseudomonas coleopterorum sp nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from the bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; Ramírez-Bahena, M.H.; Fabryová, Anna; Igual, J.M.; Benada, Oldřich; Mateos, P.; Peix, A.; Kolařík, Miroslav; García-Fraile, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, September (2015), s. 2852-2858 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CURCULIONIDAE SCOLYTINAE * NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCES * DENDROCTONUS-RHIZOPHAGUS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.439, year: 2015

  5. Pseudomonas coleopterorum sp nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from the bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; Ramírez-Bahena, M.H.; Fabryová, A.; Igual, J.M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 2852-2858 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CURCULIONIDAE SCOLYTINAE * NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCES * DENDROCTONUS-RHIZOPHAGUS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.439, year: 2015

  6. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  7. DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Oba

    Full Text Available Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation. These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa.

  8. DNA Barcoding of Japanese Click Beetles (Coleoptera, Elateridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Yuichi; Ôhira, Hitoo; Murase, Yukio; Moriyama, Akihiko; Kumazawa, Yoshinori

    2015-01-01

    Click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae) represent one of the largest groups of beetle insects. Some click beetles in larval form, known as wireworms, are destructive agricultural pests. Morphological identification of click beetles is generally difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. This study reports on the DNA barcoding of Japanese click beetles to enable their rapid and accurate identification. We collected and assembled 762 cytochrome oxidase subunit I barcode sequences from 275 species, which cover approximately 75% of the common species found on the Japanese main island, Honshu. This barcode library also contains 20 out of the 21 potential pest species recorded in Japan. Our analysis shows that most morphologically identified species form distinct phylogenetic clusters separated from each other by large molecular distances. This supports the general usefulness of the DNA barcoding approach for quick and reliable identification of Japanese elaterid species for environmental impact assessment, agricultural pest control, and biodiversity analysis. On the other hand, the taxonomic boundary in dozens of species did not agree with the boundary of barcode index numbers (a criterion for sequence-based species delimitation). These findings urge taxonomic reinvestigation of these mismatched taxa. PMID:25636000

  9. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  10. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove...... angustatus. Beauveria bassiana was the predominant fungus isolated from ground beetles and rove beetles from all studied sites. Other fungal species included the hyphomycetes Metarhizium anisopliae, Paecilomyces farinosus and Verticillium lecanii as well as Zoophthora radicans and Zoophthora philonthi...

  11. Arsenic accumulation in bark beetles and forest birds occupying mountain pine beetle infested stands treated with monosodium methanearsonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Christy A; Albert, Courtney A; Dods, Patti L; Cullen, William R; Lai, Vivian W M; Elliott, John E

    2007-02-15

    The arsenic-based pesticide, monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), is presently being evaluated for re-registration in Canada and the United States and has been widely used in British Columbia to help suppress Mountain Pine Beetle (MPB) outbreaks. We assessed the availability and exposure of MSMA to woodpeckers and other forest birds that may prey directly on contaminated bark beetles. Total arsenic residues in MPB from MSMA treated trees ranged from 1.3-700.2 microg g(-1) dw (geometric mean 42.0 microg g(-1)) with the metabolite monomethyl arsonic acid (MMAA) contributing 90-97% to the total arsenic extracted. Live adult and larval beetles were collected from treated trees and reached concentrations up to 327 microg g(-1) dw. MPBs from reference trees had significantly lower arsenic concentrations averaging 0.19 microg g(-1) dw. Woodpeckers foraged more heavily on MSMAtreesthat contained beetles with lower arsenic residues, suggesting those trees had reduced MSMAtranslocation and possibly greater live beetle broods. Blood samples from five species of woodpeckers and other forest passerines breeding within 1 km of MSMA stands contained elevated levels of total arsenic but with large individual variability (geometric mean = 0.18 microg g(-1) dw, range 0.02-2.20 microg g(-1). The results indicate that there is significant accumulation and transfer of organic arsenic within the food chain at levels that may present a toxicity risk to avian wildlife.

  12. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the communities...... showed a high percentage of tunnellers, probably because of the food shortage and, for dog scats, of the high dehydration rate. A comparison with other Roman scarab communities enhanced that: (1) the change in food resource determined a higher difference in species composition respect to other parameters......The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...

  13. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Detecting Symbioses in Complex Communities: the Fungal Symbionts of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles Within Asian Pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, James; Jusino, Michelle A; Li, You; Bateman, Craig; Thai, Pham Hong; Wu, Chengxu; Lindner, Daniel L; Hulcr, Jiri

    2018-02-24

    Separating symbioses from incidental associations is a major obstacle in symbiosis research. In this survey of fungi associated with Asian bark and ambrosia beetles, we used quantitative culture and DNA barcode identification to characterize fungal communities associated with co-infesting beetle species in pines (Pinus) of China and Vietnam. To quantitatively discern likely symbioses from coincidental associations, we used multivariate analysis and multilevel pattern analysis (a type of indicator species analysis). Nearly half of the variation in fungal community composition in beetle galleries and on beetle bodies was explained by beetle species. We inferred a spectrum of ecological strategies among beetle-associated fungi: from generalist multispecies associates to highly specialized single-host symbionts that were consistently dominant within the mycangia of their hosts. Statistically significant fungal associates of ambrosia beetles were typically only found with one beetle species. In contrast, bark beetle-associated fungi were often associated with multiple beetle species. Ambrosia beetles and their galleries were frequently colonized by low-prevalence ambrosia fungi, suggesting that facultative ambrosial associations are commonplace, and ecological mechanisms such as specialization and competition may be important in these dynamic associations. The approach used here could effectively delimit symbiotic interactions in any system where symbioses are obscured by frequent incidental associations. It has multiple advantages including (1) powerful statistical tests for non-random associations among potential symbionts, (2) simultaneous evaluation of multiple co-occurring host and symbiont associations, and (3) identifying symbionts that are significantly associated with multiple host species.

  15. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  16. The original colours of fossil beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Noh, Heeso; Cao, Hui

    2012-03-22

    Structural colours, the most intense, reflective and pure colours in nature, are generated when light is scattered by complex nanostructures. Metallic structural colours are widespread among modern insects and can be preserved in their fossil counterparts, but it is unclear whether the colours have been altered during fossilization, and whether the absence of colours is always real. To resolve these issues, we investigated fossil beetles from five Cenozoic biotas. Metallic colours in these specimens are generated by an epicuticular multi-layer reflector; the fidelity of its preservation correlates with that of other key cuticular ultrastructures. Where these other ultrastructures are well preserved in non-metallic fossil specimens, we can infer that the original cuticle lacked a multi-layer reflector; its absence in the fossil is not a preservational artefact. Reconstructions of the original colours of the fossils based on the structure of the multi-layer reflector show that the preserved colours are offset systematically to longer wavelengths; this probably reflects alteration of the refractive index of the epicuticle during fossilization. These findings will allow the former presence, and original hue, of metallic structural colours to be identified in diverse fossil insects, thus providing critical evidence of the evolution of structural colour in this group.

  17. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  18. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  19. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Damage by yam beetle heteroligus meles ( Coleoptera:Dynastidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damage by yam beetle heteroligus meles (Coleoptera:Dynastidae) under different population in yam cropping system. FO Tobih, SO Emosairue. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 5-8. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  1. Genetic Gain for Adzuki Bean Beetle ( Callosobruchus chinensis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Number of uninfested seeds (%) and percent seed coat weight showed strong negative correlations with seed weight loss. Selection of genotypes could improve resistance to the beetle in this gene pool, but with a compromise for seed quality. A search for more suitable sources of variability and selection criteria would be ...

  2. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  3. Elytra boost lift, but reduce aerodynamic efficiency in flying beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, L Christoffer; Engel, Sophia; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie; Muijres, Florian T; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-10-07

    Flying insects typically possess two pairs of wings. In beetles, the front pair has evolved into short, hardened structures, the elytra, which protect the second pair of wings and the abdomen. This allows beetles to exploit habitats that would otherwise cause damage to the wings and body. Many beetles fly with the elytra extended, suggesting that they influence aerodynamic performance, but little is known about their role in flight. Using quantitative measurements of the beetle's wake, we show that the presence of the elytra increases vertical force production by approximately 40 per cent, indicating that they contribute to weight support. The wing-elytra combination creates a complex wake compared with previously studied animal wakes. At mid-downstroke, multiple vortices are visible behind each wing. These include a wingtip and an elytron vortex with the same sense of rotation, a body vortex and an additional vortex of the opposite sense of rotation. This latter vortex reflects a negative interaction between the wing and the elytron, resulting in a single wing span efficiency of approximately 0.77 at mid downstroke. This is lower than that found in birds and bats, suggesting that the extra weight support of the elytra comes at the price of reduced efficiency.

  4. Are bark beetle outbreaks less synchronous than forest Lepidoptera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorn Okland; Andrew M. Liebhold; Ottar N. Bjornstad; Nadir Erbilgin; Paal Krokene; Paal Krokene

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of intraspecific spatial synchrony across multiple epidemic insect species can be useful for generating hypotheses about major determinants of population patterns at larger scales. The present study compares patterns of spatial synchrony in outbreaks of six epidemic bark beetle species in North America and Europe. Spatial synchrony among populations of the...

  5. Management strategies for bark beetles in conifer forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Fettig; Jacek  Hilszczański

    2015-01-01

    Several species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are capable of causing significant amounts of tree mortality in conifer forests throughout much of the world.  In most cases, these events are part of the ecology of conifer forests and positively influence many ecological processes, but the economic and social implications can be...

  6. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study aimed to determine the level of resistance of different strains of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology and results: The insecticides tests were done in three localities of Senegal (Mpal, ...

  7. Absence of endothermy in flightless dung beetles from southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-06-19

    Jun 19, 1987 ... Bartholomew & Heinrich (1978) found that when the diurnal species were rolling dung balls their Tmth was increased by endothermic means and then further elevated by solar radiation. However, these beetles still. Table 1 Metathoracic temperatures of Circe/lium bacchus during various activities. Activity.

  8. Impact of Stand Management Practices on Beetle Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen P. Cook

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - Insects are useful indicators of change within ecosystems because of their abundance, richness and functional importance. Stand management practices impact the insect community within a forest. Therefore, the objective of the project is to determine the impact of various stand management practices on the diversity of beetles within...

  9. Bark beetle management after a mass attack - some Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Forster; F. Meier; R. Gall

    2003-01-01

    In 1990 and 1999, heavy storms accompanied by the worst gales ever recorded in Switzerland, struck Europe and left millions of cubic metres of windthrown Norway spruce trees; this provided breeding material for the eight-toothed spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) and led to mass attacks in subsequent years which resulted in the additional loss...

  10. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  11. Population Dynamics of Southern Pine Beetle in Forest Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Birt

    2011-01-01

    Southern pine beetle (SPB) is an important pest of Southeastern United States pine forests. Periodic regional outbreaks are characterized by localized areas of tree mortality (infestations) surrounded by areas with little or no damage. Ultimately, this spatiotemporal pattern of tree mortality is driven by the dynamics of SPB populations—more specifically, by rates of...

  12. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64 ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  13. Current status of small hive beetle infestation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution of the small hive beetle (SHB, Aethina tumida) is rapidly expanding. From sub-Saharan Africa where it is considered indigenous, SHB has successfully invaded other continents, is prevalent in Australia and North America, and has recently been introduced into Europe (summarized by FE...

  14. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type

  15. Ambrosia beetles associated with laurel wilt of avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt has since spr...

  16. Molecular genetic pathway analysis of Asian longhorned beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan. Braswell

    2011-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, is a destructive pest of hardwood trees. Historically, A. glabripennis was geographically restricted within China and Korea and not of economic importance. However, as a result of massive reforestation programs designed to combat desertification, the species emerged as a pest...

  17. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allema, A.B.; Werf, van der W.; Groot, J.C.J.; Hemerik, L.; Gort, G.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We

  18. East African dung beetles (Scarabaeidae) attracted by defensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dung beetles of six species of the genus Onthophagus (Scarabaeidae) were attracted by millipede carcasses in Laikipia, Central Kenya. One of these species (Onthophagus gibbus) was lured by the quinonoid defensive secretions of the millipedes. The attractive effect of quinonoid millipede secretions to necrophagous ...

  19. Social and Political Impact of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert N. Coulson; James R. Meeker

    2011-01-01

    Impact is defined broadly to mean any effect on the forest environment resulting from the activities of the southern pine beetle (SPB). In this chapter we focus on social and political impact. Social impact deals with effects of the SPB on aesthetic, moral, and metaphysical values associated with forests. Two aspects of social impact are investigated: how the SPB...

  20. Using Malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages...

  1. Checklist of the Iranian Ground Beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Nozari, Jamasb

    2015-09-30

    An up-to-date checklist of the ground beetles of Iran is presented. Altogether 955 species and subspecies in 155 genera belonging to 26 subfamilies of Carabidae are reported; 25 taxa are recorded for Iran for the fist time. New localities are listed and some previous distributional records are discussed.

  2. "Sea Turtles" and "Ground Beetles" [Land Turtles] Should Shake Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This article talks about those who come back to China after studies abroad, characterized as "sea turtles" and those scholars who have remained in China to arduously pursue their studies, characterized as "ground beetles". " Sea turtles" are those foreign MBAs and Ph.D.s who are objects of praise, admiration and are…

  3. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  4. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giulio, Andrea; Maurizi, Emanuela; Barbero, Francesca; Sala, Marco; Fattorini, Simone; Balletto, Emilio; Bonelli, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus) are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen). Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  5. Evaluation of resistance of the groundnut seed beetle, Caryedon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2016-05-31

    May 31, 2016 ... beetle, Caryedon serratus against some synthetic insecticides formulas and to compare their biodemographic parameters. Methodology ... half of the arable surfaces, and reported each year for a value of 80 billion CFA ... dosage brought back to 1L of water allowed to determine the concentration Cx from ...

  6. Patterns of saproxylic beetle succession in loblolly pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Ulyshen; James Hanula

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of insect succession in dead wood remain unclear, particularly beyond the first several years of decay. In the present study, saproxylic beetles were sampled from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) logs aged between 1 month and 9 years old using both emergence traps attached to logs in the field and rearing bags in the laboratory.

  7. A deficiency of the homeotic complex of the beetle Tribolium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, J. J.; Brown, S. J.; Beeman, R. W.; Denell, R. E.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    In Drosophila, the establishment of regional commitments along most of the anterior/posterior axis of the developing embryo depends on two clusters of homeotic genes: the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and the bithorax complex (BX-C). The red flour beetle has a single complex (HOM-C) representing the homologues of the ANT-C and BX-C in juxtaposition. Beetles trans-heterozygous for two particular HOM-C mutations spontaneously generate a large deficiency, presumably by an exchange within the common region of two overlapping inversions. Genetic and molecular results indicate that this deficiency spans at least the interval between the Deformed and abdominal-A homologues. In deficiency homozygous embryos, all gnathal, thoracic and abdominal segments develop antennal appendages, suggesting that a gene(s) has been deleted that acts to distinguish trunk from head. There is no evidence that beetles have a homologue of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of similar genomic location and function. On the basis of the genetic tractability, convenient genome size and organization of Tribolium, and its relatively long phylogenetic divergence from Drosophila (>300 million years), we have integrated developmental genetic and molecular analyses of the HOM-C. We isolated about 70 mutations in the complex representing at least six complementation groups. The homeotic phenotypes of adults and lethal embryos lead us to believe that these beetle genes are homologous with the Drosophila genes indicated in Fig. 1 (see text).

  8. Variegated tropical landscapes conserve diverse dung beetle communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Costa

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Conserving biodiversity in tropical landscapes is a major challenge to scientists and conservationists. Current rates of deforestation, fragmentation, and land use intensification are producing variegated landscapes with undetermined values for the conservation of biological communities and ecosystem functioning. Here, we investigate the importance of tropical variegated landscapes to biodiversity conservation, using dung beetle as focal taxa. Methods The study was carried out in 12 variegated landscapes where dung beetles were sampled using six pitfall traps, 30 m apart from each other, along a transect in each studied landscape use and cover classes—LUCC (forest fragment and corridor, coffee plantation, and pasture. We baited each pitfall trap with 30 g of human feces and left open for a 48 h period. We also measured three environmental variables reflecting structural differences among the studied classes: canopy cover, local vegetation heterogeneity and soil sand content. Results We collected 52 species and 2,695 individuals of dung beetles. We observed significant differences in the mean species richness, abundance and biomass among classes, with forest fragments presenting the highest values, forest corridors and coffee plantations presenting intermediate values, and pastures the lowest values. Regarding community structure, we also found significant differences among classes. Canopy cover was the only variable explaining variation in dung beetle species richness, abundance, biomass, and community structure. The relative importance of spatial turnover was greater than nestedness-resultant component in all studied landscapes. Discussion This study evaluated the ecological patterns of dung beetle communities in variegated tropical landscapes highlighting the importance of these landscapes for conservation of tropical biodiversity. However, we encourage variegation for the management of landscapes that have already been fragmented

  9. Proceedings of a workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research. Workshop on Bark Beetle Genetics; 1998 July 17-18; Madison, WI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Kenneth F. Raffa

    1999-01-01

    This proceedings contains contributions from each author or group of authors who presented their current research at the bark beetle genetics workshop held 17-18 July 1998 on the campus of the University of Wisconsin in Madison, Wisconsin, USA. This was the second meeting on this subject; the first was held in 1992. The subject of bark beetle genetics is of growing,...

  10. A Multiplex PCR Assay for Differentiating Coconut Rhinoceros Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) From Oriental Flower Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Early Life Stages and Excrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Melzer, M J

    2017-04-01

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros (L.), is a major pest of coconut and other palm trees. An incipient coconut rhinoceros beetle population was recently discovered on the island of Oahu, Hawaii and is currently the target of a large, mutiagency eradication program. Confounding this program is the widespread presence of another scarab beetle on Oahu, the oriental flower beetle, Protaetia orientalis (Gory and Percheron 1833). Eggs, early life stages, and fecal excrement of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle are morphologically indistinguishable, thereby creating uncertainty when such specimens are discovered in the field. Here, we report the development of a multiplex PCR assay targeting cytochrome oxidase I of coconut rhinoceros beetle and oriental flower beetle that can rapidly detect and distinguish between these insects. This assay also features an internal positive control to ensure DNA of sufficient quantity and quality is used in the assay, increasing its reliability and reducing the chances of false negative results. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. IV. Theory on the relationships between oxidant injury and bark beetle infestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Stark, R.W.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    The authors suggest that a reduction of oleoresin exudation pressure, quantity, rate of flow, and an increase in the propensity of oleoresin to crystallize, and a reduction in phloem and sapwood moisture content enhance successful establishment of the western pine beetle and mountain pine beetle in ponderosa pine injured by photochemical atmospheric pollution. Hypotheses are presented which relate these results to host susceptibility.

  12. Outbreaks of three leaf beetles species in Salix plantations; Insektsskadegoerelse i Salixodlingar - bladbaggar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, Solveig; Eklund, Karin; Bjoerkman, Christer [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Entomology

    1999-07-01

    Several species of leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have caused economic damage in coppiced willow plantations in Britain. In Sweden we have observed outbreaks of three species; Phratora vulgatissima, Galerucella lineola and Lochmaea caprea. One feature of leaf beetles is that both adults and larvae feed on plants. The adults make holes in willow leaves when feeding whereas larvae skeletonize the leaves by eating on the leaf underside. Willows attacked by high densities of P. vulgatissima may show a yield loss of up to 40%. Leaf beetles have a large reproduction capacity. Each female can lay 10-20 eggs per day for several weeks. Without natural control the beetles would be very common in plantations. The egg and the first larval stages seem to be the most vulnerable to predation. With more knowledge about the biology of leaf beetle enemies it will perhaps be possible to use natural biological control programs as a method for managing these beetles.

  13. Heavy metal concentrations in ground beetles, leaf litter, and soil of a forest ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelaska, Lucija Serić; Blanusa, Maja; Durbesić, Paula; Jelaska, Sven D

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between heavy metal concentrations in soil, leaf litter, and ground beetles at four sampling sites of a forest ecosystem in Medvednica Nature Park, Croatia. Ground beetles were sampled by pitfall trapping. Specimens were dry-ashed and soil and beetle samples digested with nitric acid. Lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, manganese, and iron were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistically significant differences between plots were found for lead, cadmium, and iron in ground beetles. Correlations between ground beetles and soil or leaf litter were positive for lead and cadmium concentrations and negative for iron concentration. Differences in species metal concentrations were recorded. Higher concentrations of all studied metals were found in female beetles. However, a significant difference between sexes was found only for manganese. Significant differences in species metal concentrations were found for species that differ in feeding strategies and age based on breeding season and emergence of young adults.

  14. Bark Beetle Outbreaks Increase Fire Probability in Western United States Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisrat, S. A.; White, M. A.

    2006-12-01

    Many of the direct influences of disturbances such as fire or insects on ecosystem function are well known. In contrast, the interactions among disturbances are less well understood. In the forests of the western United States, the interaction between bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fires is a pressing management concern for a diverse political, economic, and ecological community but the disturbance interaction is generally unknown. For example, although conventional wisdom holds that bark beetle outbreaks will increase fire risk, limited field studies suggest the opposite may be true. To our knowledge, no study has attempted to study bark beetle - fire interactions over the entire western United States. Here, using five years (2000-2004) of manually collected aerial detection survey (ADS) polygons depicting the extent of bark beetle outbreaks and five years (2001-2005) of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 1km fire images (MOD14), we calculated the influence of bark beetle outbreaks on one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence across the entire western United States. We converted the ADS polygons to raster format and co-registered all imagery to the Albers Equal Area projection. We then calculated the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle presence P(fire|bark beetles presence) and the conditional probability of fire given bark beetle absence P(fire|bark beetle absence). The presence of bark beetles increased the probability of one-year-lagged subsequent fire occurrence by 17% to 115% with an average value of 65%, strongly suggesting that bark beetle outbreaks in one year will increase the risk of fire in the next year. Key words: bark beetles, fire, disturbance interaction, conditional probability

  15. Induced Terpene Accumulation in Norway Spruce Inhibits Bark Beetle Colonization in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Hu, Jiang; Christiansen, Erik; Björklund, Niklas; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2011-01-01

    Background Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae) are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization. Methods To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L.) we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem.) C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark. Results Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7) had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m−2) and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m−2 vs. 1.11 m m−2) as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6). There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g−1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked. Conclusion/Significance This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles. PMID:22028932

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from dung pats vary with dung beetle species and with assemblage composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Piccini

    Full Text Available Cattle farming is a major source of greenhouse gases (GHGs. Recent research suggests that GHG fluxes from dung pats could be affected by biotic interactions involving dung beetles. Whether and how these effects vary among beetle species and with assemblage composition is yet to be established. To examine the link between GHGs and different dung beetle species assemblages, we used a closed chamber system to measure fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O from cattle dung pats. Targeting a total of four dung beetle species (a pat-dwelling species, a roller of dung balls, a large and a small tunnelling species, we ran six experimental treatments (four monospecific and two mixed and two controls (one with dung but without beetles, and one with neither dung nor beetles. In this setting, the overall presence of beetles significantly affected the gas fluxes, but different species contributed unequally to GHG emissions. When compared to the control with dung, we detected an overall reduction in the total cumulative CO2 flux from all treatments with beetles and a reduction in N2O flux from the treatments with the three most abundant dung beetle species. These reductions can be seen as beneficial ecosystem services. Nonetheless, we also observed a disservice provided by the large tunneler, Copris lunaris, which significantly increased the CH4 flux-an effect potentially traceable to the species' nesting strategy involving the construction of large brood balls. When fluxes were summed into CO2-equivalents across individual GHG compounds, dung with beetles proved to emit less GHGs than did beetle-free dung, with the mix of the three most abundant species providing the highest reduction (-32%. As the mix of multiple species proved the most effective in reducing CO2-equivalents, the conservation of diverse assemblages of dung beetles emerges as a priority in agro-pastoral ecosystems.

  17. Fog-basking behaviour and water collection efficiency in Namib Desert Darkling beetles

    OpenAIRE

    N?rgaard, Thomas; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In the Namib Desert fog represents an alternative water source. This is utilised by Darkling beetles (Tenebrionidae) that employ different strategies for obtaining the fog water. Some dig trenches in the sand, while others use their own bodies as fog collectors assuming a characteristic fog-basking stance. Two beetle species from the genus Onymacris have been observed to fog-bask on the ridges of the sand dunes. These beetles all have smooth elytra surfaces, while another ...

  18. Induced terpene accumulation in Norway spruce inhibits bark beetle colonization in a dose-dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    Full Text Available Tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae are among the most economically and ecologically important forest pests in the northern hemisphere. Induction of terpenoid-based oleoresin has long been considered important in conifer defense against bark beetles, but it has been difficult to demonstrate a direct correlation between terpene levels and resistance to bark beetle colonization.To test for inhibitory effects of induced terpenes on colonization by the spruce bark beetle Ips typographus (L. we inoculated 20 mature Norway spruce Picea abies (L. Karsten trees with a virulent fungus associated with the beetle, Ceratocystis polonica (Siem. C. Moreau, and investigated induced terpene levels and beetle colonization in the bark.Fungal inoculation induced very strong and highly variable terpene accumulation 35 days after inoculation. Trees with high induced terpene levels (n = 7 had only 4.9% as many beetle attacks (5.1 vs. 103.5 attacks m(-2 and 2.6% as much gallery length (0.029 m m(-2 vs. 1.11 m m(-2 as trees with low terpene levels (n = 6. There was a highly significant rank correlation between terpene levels at day 35 and beetle colonization in individual trees. The relationship between induced terpene levels and beetle colonization was not linear but thresholded: above a low threshold concentration of ∼100 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees suffered only moderate beetle colonization, and above a high threshold of ∼200 mg terpene g(-1 dry phloem trees were virtually unattacked.This is the first study demonstrating a dose-dependent relationship between induced terpenes and tree resistance to bark beetle colonization under field conditions, indicating that terpene induction may be instrumental in tree resistance. This knowledge could be useful for developing management strategies that decrease the impact of tree-killing bark beetles.

  19. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SPECIES COMPOSITION OF GROUND BEETLES OF COASTAL AND ISLAND ECOSYSTEMS OF THE WESTERN CASPIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available For the first time studied the species composition of ground beetles of coastal and island ecosystems of the Western Caspian. The article provides a comparative analysis of species composition of ground beetles and adjacent areas.

  20. A Role for Intercept Traps in the Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) IPM Strategy at Ornamental Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) cause significant damage to ornamental nursery tree crops throughout the Eastern U. S. Depending on surrounding habitat, some nurseries can undergo large influxes of ambrosia beetles from the forest to susceptible nursery stock. Eth...

  1. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, Franziska; Wilts, Bodo D; Stavenga, Doekele G

    2013-01-01

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  2. Ecology and behavior of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövei, G L; Sunderland, K D

    1996-01-01

    The ground beetles from the speciose beetle family Carabidae and, since their emergence in the Tertiary, have populated all habitats except deserts. Our knowledge about carabids is biased toward species living in north-temperate regions. Most carabids are predatory, consume a wide range of food types, and experience food shortages in the field. Feeding on both plant and animal material and scavenging are probably more significant than currently acknowledged. The most important mortality sources are abiotic factors and predators; pathogens and parasites can be important for some developmental stages. Although competition among larvae and adults does occur, the importance of competition as a community organization is not proven. Carabids are abundant in agricultural fields all over the world and may be important natural enemies of agricultural pests.

  3. Mountain pine beetle-caused mortality over eight years in two pine hosts in mixed conifer stands of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel R.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Jacobi, William R.; Negrón, José F.

    2014-01-01

    Eruptive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) populations have caused widespread mortality of pines throughout western North America since the late 1990s. Early work by A.D. Hopkins suggested that when alternate host species are available, MPB will prefer to breed in the host to which it has become adapted. In Colorado, epidemic MPB populations that originated in lodgepole pine expanded into mixed-conifer stands containing ponderosa pine, a related host. We evaluated the susceptibility of both hosts to successful MPB colonization in a survey of 19 sites in pine-dominated mixed-conifer stands spanning 140 km of the Front Range, CO, USA. In each of three 0.2-ha plots at each site, we (1) assessed trees in the annual flights of 2008–2011 to compare MPB-caused mortality between lodgepole and ponderosa pine; (2) recorded previous MPB-caused tree mortality from 2004–2007 to establish baseline mortality levels; and (3) measured characteristics of the stands (e.g. tree basal area) and sites (e.g. elevation, aspect) that might be correlated with MPB colonization. Uninfested average live basal area of lodgepole and ponderosa pine was 74% of total basal area before 2004. We found that for both species, annual percent basal area of attacked trees was greatest in one year (2009), and was lower in all other years (2004–2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011). Both pine species had similar average total mortality of 38–39% by 2011. Significant predictors of ponderosa pine mortality in a given year were basal area of uninfested ponderosa pine and the previous year’s mortality levels in both ponderosa and lodgepole pine. Lodgepole pine mortality was predicted by uninfested basal areas of both lodgepole and ponderosa pine, and the previous year’s lodgepole pine mortality. These results indicate host selection by MPB from lodgepole pine natal hosts into ponderosa pine the following year, but not the reverse. In both species, diameters of attacked trees within each year

  4. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Youngik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population

  5. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability......, but nevertheless offers similar power for the elucidation of gene function and identification of targets for selective insect control. Udgivelsesdato: e-pub.2008-Apr-24...

  6. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  7. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  8. Beetles from Sălaj County, Romania (Coleoptera, excluding Carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkl O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 840 beetle species were recorded, including two species of Community interest (Natura 2000 species: Cucujus cinnaberinus (Scopoli, 1763 and Lucanus cervus Linnaeus, 1758. Notes on the distribution of Augyles marmota (Kiesenwetter, 1850 (Heteroceridae, Trichodes punctatus Fischer von Waldheim, 1829 (Cleridae, Laena reitteri Weise, 1877 (Tenebrionidae, Brachysomus ornatus Stierlin, 1892, Lixus cylindrus (Fabricius, 1781 (Curculionidae, Mylacomorphus globus (Seidlitz, 1868 (Curculionidae are given.

  9. Intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), between adjacent cotton and alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastola, Anup; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, R Patrick; Shrestha, Ram B; Chen, Fa-Jun; Carroll, Stanley C

    2016-02-01

    A 2-year study was conducted to characterize the intercrop movement of convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) between adjacent cotton and alfalfa. A dual protein-marking method was used to assess the intercrop movement of the lady beetles in each crop. In turns field collected lady beetles in each crop were assayed by protein specific ELISA to quantify the movement of beetles between the crops. Results indicated that a high percentage of convergent lady beetles caught in cotton (46% in 2008; 56% in 2009) and alfalfa (46% in 2008; 71% in 2009) contained a protein mark, thus indicating that convergent lady beetle movement was largely bidirectional between the adjacent crops. Although at a much lower proportion, lady beetles also showed unidirectional movement from cotton to alfalfa (5% in 2008 and 6% in 2009) and from alfalfa to cotton (9% in 2008 and 14% in 2009). The season-long bidirectional movement exhibited by the beetles was significantly higher in alfalfa than cotton during both years of the study. The total influx of lady beetles (bidirectional and unidirectional combined) was significantly higher in alfalfa compared with that in cotton for both years. While convergent lady beetles moved between adjacent cotton and alfalfa, they were more attracted to alfalfa when cotton was not flowering and/or when alfalfa offered more opportunities for prey. This study offers much needed information on intercrop movement of the convergent lady beetle that should facilitate integrated pest management decisions in cotton utilizing conservation biological control. © 2014 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Urban forests sustain diverse carrion beetle assemblages in the New York City metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A. Fusco

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is an increasingly pervasive form of land transformation that reduces biodiversity of many taxonomic groups. Beetles exhibit a broad range of responses to urbanization, likely due to the high functional diversity in this order. Carrion beetles (Order: Coleoptera, Family: Silphidae provide an important ecosystem service by promoting decomposition of small-bodied carcasses, and have previously been found to decline due to forest fragmentation caused by urbanization. However, New York City (NYC and many other cities have fairly large continuous forest patches that support dense populations of small mammals, and thus may harbor relatively robust carrion beetle communities in city parks. In this study, we investigated carrion beetle community composition, abundance and diversity in forest patches along an urban-to-rural gradient spanning the urban core (Central Park, NYC to outlying rural areas. We conducted an additional study comparing the current carrion beetle community at a single suburban site in Westchester County, NY that was intensively surveyed in the early 1970’s. We collected a total of 2,170 carrion beetles from eight species at 13 sites along this gradient. We report little to no effect of urbanization on carrion beetle diversity, although two species were not detected in any urban parks. Nicrophorus tomentosus was the most abundant species at all sites and seemed to dominate the urban communities, potentially due to its generalist habits and shallower burying depth compared to the other beetles surveyed. Variation between species body size, habitat specialization, and % forest area surrounding the surveyed sites also did not influence carrion beetle communities. Lastly, we found few significant differences in relative abundance of 10 different carrion beetle species between 1974 and 2015 at a single site in Westchester County, NY, although two of the rare species in the early 1970’s were not detected in 2015. These

  11. Decreases in beetle body size linked to climate change and warming temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Michelle; Kaur, Katrina M; Soleimani Pari, Sina; Sarai, Karnjit; Chan, Denessa; Yao, Christine H; Porto, Paula; Toor, Anmol; Toor, Harpawantaj S; Fograscher, Katrina

    2018-01-30

    Body size is a fundamental ecological trait and is correlated with population dynamics, community structure and function, and ecosystem fluxes. Laboratory data from broad taxonomic groups suggest that a widespread response to a warming world may be an overall decrease in organism body size. However, given the myriad of biotic and abiotic factors that can also influence organism body size in the wild, it is unclear whether results from these laboratory assays hold in nature. Here we use datasets spanning 30 to 100 years to examine whether the body size of wild-caught beetles has changed over time, whether body size changes are correlated with increased temperatures, and we frame these results using predictions derived from a quantitative review of laboratory responses of 22 beetle species to temperature. We found that 95% of laboratory-reared beetles decreased in size with increased rearing temperature, with larger-bodied species shrinking disproportionately more than smaller-bodied beetles. In addition, the museum datasets revealed that larger-bodied beetle species have decreased in size over time, that mean beetle body size explains much of the interspecific variation in beetle responses to temperature, and that long-term beetle size changes are explained by increases in autumn temperature and decreases in spring temperature in this region. Our data demonstrate that the relationship between body size and temperature of wild-caught beetles matches relatively well with results from laboratory studies, and that variation in this relationship is largely explained by interspecific variation in mean beetle body size. This long-term beetle dataset is one of the most comprehensive arthropod body size datasets compiled to date, it improves predictions regarding the shrinking of organisms with global climate change, and together with the meta-analysis data, call for new hypotheses to explain why larger-bodied organisms may be more sensitive to temperature. © 2018 The

  12. Impact of planting date on sunflower beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) infestation, damage, and parasitism in cultivated sunflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Knodel, Janet J

    2003-06-01

    The sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis (F.), is the major defoliating pest of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a potential management tool in a variety of production regions throughout North Dakota from 1997 to 1999, for its impact on sunflower beetle population density of both adults and larvae, defoliation caused by both feeding stages, seed yield, oil content, and larval parasitism in cultivated sunflower. Results from this 3-yr study revealed that sunflower beetle adult and larval populations decreased as planting date was delayed. Delayed planting also reduced defoliation from adult and larval feeding, which is consistent with the lower numbers of the beetles present in the later seeded plots. Even a planting delay of only 1 wk was sufficient to significantly reduce feeding damage to the sunflower plant. Yield reduction caused by leaf destruction of the sunflower beetle adults and larvae was clearly evident in the first year of the study. The other component of sunflower yield, oil content, did not appear to be influenced by beetle feeding. The tachinid parasitoid, Myiopharus macellus (Rheinhard), appeared to be a significant mortality factor of sunflower beetle larvae at most locations regardless of the dates of planting, and was able to attack and parasitize the beetle at various larval densities. The results of this investigation showed the potential of delayed planting date as an effective integrated pest management tactic to reduce sunflower beetle adults, larvae, and their resulting defoliation. In addition, altering planting dates was compatible with biological control of the beetle, because delaying the planting date did not reduce the effectiveness of the parasitic fly, M. macellus, which attacks the sunflower beetle larvae.

  13. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  14. Coffee berry borer joins bark beetles in coffee klatch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jaramillo

    Full Text Available Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exocarp stage of coffee berries, which attracts the coffee berry borer, releases relatively high amounts of volatiles including conophthorin, chalcogran, frontalin and sulcatone that are typically associated with Scolytinae chemical ecology. The green stage of the berry produces a much less complex bouquet containing small amounts of conophthorin but no other compounds known as bark beetle semiochemicals. In behavioral assays, the coffee berry borer was attracted to the spiroacetals conophthorin and chalcogran, but avoided the monoterpenes verbenone and α-pinene, demonstrating that, as in their conifer-attacking relatives in temperate zones, the use of host and non-host volatiles is also critical in host finding by tropical species. We speculate that microorganisms formed a common basis for the establishment of crucial chemical signals comprising inter- and intraspecific communication systems in both temperate- and tropical-occurring bark beetles attacking gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  15. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  16. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  17. Modeling bark beetles and fuels on landscapes: A demonstration of ArcFuels and a discussion of possible model enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. McMahan; Alan A. Ager; Helen Maffei; Jane L. Hayes; Eric L. Smith

    2008-01-01

    The Westwide Pine Beetle Model and the Fire and Fuels Extension were used to simulate a mountain pine beetle outbreak under different fuel treatment scenarios on a 173,000 acre landscape on the Deschutes National Forest. The goal was to use these models within ArcFuels to analyze the interacting impacts of bark beetles and management activities on landscape fuel...

  18. Predicting live and dead basal area in bark beetle-affected forests from discrete-return LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Ben Bright; Jose Negron; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jeffrey A. Hicke

    2012-01-01

    Recent bark beetle outbreaks in western North America have been widespread and severe. High tree mortality due to bark beetles affects the fundamental ecosystem processes of primary production and decomposition that largely determine carbon balance (Kurz et al. 2008, Pfeifer et al. 2011, Hicke et al. 2012). Forest managers need accurate data on beetle-induced tree...

  19. Changes in transpiration and foliage growth in lodgepole pine trees following mountain pine beetle attack and mechanical girdling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert M. Hubbard; Charles C. Rhoades; Kelly Elder; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle outbreak in North American lodgepole pine forests demonstrates the importance of insect related disturbances in changing forest structure and ecosystem processes. Phloem feeding by beetles disrupts transport of photosynthate from tree canopies and fungi introduced to the tree's vascular system by the bark beetles inhibit water...

  20. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  1. Brown rot in inner heartwood: why large logs support characteristics saproxylic beetle assemblages of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Yee; Simon J. Grove; Alastair M.M. Richardson; Caroline L. Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    It is not clear why large diameter logs generally host saproxylic beetle assemblages that are different from those of small diameter logs. In a study in Tasmanian wet eucalypt forest, two size-classes of Eucalyptus obliqua logs (>100cm and 30-60cm diameter) were destructively sampled to assess their beetle fauna and the associations of this fauna...

  2. Pheromones in White Pine Cone Beetle, Conophthorus coniperdu (Schwarz) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran Birgersson; Gary L. DeBarr; Peter de Groot; Mark J. Dalusky; Harold D. Pierce; John H. Borden; Holger Meyer; Wittko Francke; Karl E. Espelie; C. Wayne Berisford

    1995-01-01

    Female white pine cone beetles, Conophrhorus coniperda, attacking second-year cones of eastern white pine, Pinus strobus L., produced a sex-specific pheromone that attracted conspecific males in laboratory bioassays and to field traps. Beetle response was enhanced by host monoterpenes. The female-produced compound was identified in...

  3. Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles: Behavior and laboratory breeding success in three Xyleborine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Biedermann; Kier Klepzig; Taborsky Michael

    2009-01-01

    Fungus cultivation by ambrosia beetles is one of the four independently evolved cases of agriculture known in animals. Such cultivation is most advanced in the highly social subtribe Xyleborina (Scolytinae), which is characterized by haplodiploidy and extreme levels of inbreeding. Despite their ubiquity in forests worldwide, the behavior of these beetles remains poorly...

  4. The effect of wind on foraging activity of the tenebrionid beetle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-10-06

    Oct 6, 1997 ... The foraging activity of the tenebrionid beetle, Lepidochora discoidalis, was studied in the sand dunes of the. Namib Desert. The surface activity of this beetle species was found to be correlated both with time of day and wind speed. Higher numbers were observed on the dune surface between 17:00-19:00 ...

  5. A system for harvesting eggs from the pink-spotted lady beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink spotted lady beetle. Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). Adult beetles placed in square transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on t...

  6. Estimating the probability of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A Wulder; J. C. White; Barbara J Bentz; M. F. Alvarez; N. C. Coops

    2006-01-01

    Accurate spatial information on the location and extent of mountain pine beetle infestation is critical for the planning of mitigation and treatment activities. Areas of mixed forest and variable terrain present unique challenges for the detection and mapping of mountain pine beetle red-attack damage, as red-attack has a more heterogeneous distribution under these...

  7. US Forest Service bark beetle research in the western United States: Looking toward the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Barbara J. Bentz; Christopher J. Fettig; Nancy Gillette; E. Matthew Hansen; Jane L. Hayes; Rick G. Kelsey; John E. Lundquist; Ann M. Lynch; Robert A. Progar; Steven J. Seybold

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles cause extensive tree mortality in coniferous forests of western North America and play an important role in the disturbance ecology of these ecosystems. Recently, elevated populations of bark beetles have been observed in all conifer forest types across the western United States. This has heightened public awareness of the issue and triggered legislation...

  8. Fire-injured ponderosa pine provide a pulsed resource for bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan S. Davis; Sharon Hood; Barbara J. Bentz

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles can cause substantial mortality of trees that would otherwise survive fire injuries. Resin response of fire-injured northern Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex P. Lawson & C. Lawson) and specific injuries that contribute to increased bark beetle attack susceptibility and brood production are unknown. We monitored ponderosa pine...

  9. Linking Increasing Drought Stress to Scots Pine Mortality and Bark Beetle Infestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Dobbertin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the dry Swiss Rhone Valley, Scots pine forests have experienced increased mortality in recent years. It has commonly been assumed that drought events and bark beetles fostered the decline, however, whether bark beetle outbreaks increased in recent years and whether they can be linked to drought stress or increasing temperature has never been studied.

  10. Co-occurence of Two Invasive Species: The Banded and European Elm Bark Beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), was first detected a century ago and now occurs in most of the continental United States. The invasive banded elm bark beetle, Scolytus schevyrewi Semenov, native to Asia, was discovered in the United States in 2003 and is now...

  11. Trophic habits of mesostigmatid mites associated with bark beetles in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Patricia Chaires-Grijalva; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando Equihua-Martinez; John C. Moser; Stacy R. Blomquist

    2016-01-01

    Samples of bark and logs damaged by bark beetles were collected from 16 states of Mexico from 2007 to 2012. Fifteen bark beetle species were found within the bark and log samples and were examined for phoretic mites and arthropod associates. Thirty-three species of mesostigmatid mites were discovered within the samples. They were identified in several trophic guilds...

  12. Bark beetle-caused mortality in a drought-affected ponderosa pine landscape in Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; Joel D. McMillin; John A. Anhold; Dave Coulson

    2009-01-01

    Extensive ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) mortality associated with a widespread severe drought and increased bark beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) populations occurred in Arizona from 2001 to 2004. A complex of Ips beetles including: the Arizona fivespined ips, Ips lecontei Swaine...

  13. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  14. 77 FR 58469 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    .... APHIS-2012-0003] Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Areas in Massachusetts, Ohio, and New York AGENCY.... SUMMARY: We are adopting as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that amended the Asian... areas. The interim rule was necessary to prevent the artificial spread of Asian longhorned beetle to...

  15. Bark beetles and fungal associates colonizing white spruce in the Great Lakes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten E. Haberkern; Barbara L. Illman; Kenneth F. Raffa

    2002-01-01

    We examined the major bark beetles and associated fungi colonizing subcortical tissues of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) in the Great Lakes region. Trees were felled at one northwestern Wisconsin site in a preliminary study in 1997 and at 10 sites throughout northern Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan in 1998. Fungal isolations were made from beetles...

  16. Bio-Inspired Design and Kinematic Analysis of Dung Beetle-Like Legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aditya, Sai Krishna Venkata; Ignasov, Jevgeni; Filonenko, Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    The African dung beetle Scarabaeus galenus can use its front legs to walk and manipulate or form a dung ball. The interesting multifunctional legs have not been fully investigated or even used as inspiration for robot leg design. Thus, in this paper, we present the development of real dung beetle...

  17. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  18. A trial of direct control of pine engraver beetles on a small logging unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. L. Jackson

    1960-01-01

    Laboratory tests and small-scale field trials have shown the insecticide lindane to be highly toxic to pine engraver beetles. On the basis of that information, the insecticide was applied to fresh logging slash heavily infested with pine engraver beetles at Challenge Experimental Forest in 1959. Costs were reasonable and no insurmountable problems were encountered....

  19. A foam formulation of an entomopathogenic fungus for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  20. Analysis of cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production by southern pine beetle associated fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduvali Valiev; Zumrut B. Ogel; Dier D. Klepzig

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the production of extracellular enzymes by fungi associated with southern pine beetle was investigated for the first time. Cellulase and polyphenol oxidase production were analyzed for three beetle associated fungi. Only the mutualistic symbiont Entomocorticium sp. A was found to produce cellulases and polyphenol oxidase....

  1. Climate influences on whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Haiganoush K. Preisler; John T. Abatzoglou; Kenneth F. Raffa; Jesse A. Logan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive mortality of whitebark pine, beginning in the early to mid-2000s, occurred in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) of the western USA, primarily from mountain pine beetle but also from other threats such as white pine blister rust. The climatic drivers of this recent mortality and the potential for future whitebark pine mortality from mountain pine beetle...

  2. Diversity and Seasonal Activity of Carrion Beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) in Northeastern Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula

    2004-01-01

    The Family Silphidae is a small but widespread group of primarily necrophagous beetles. Approximately 175 species are found throughout the world with 30 of these in North America (Arnett and Thomas 2001, American Beetles Vol. 1: 269). Silphids have been the subject of many studies on behavior and ecology and have some forensic importance as well (Carvalho et al. 2000,...

  3. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Bright; J. A. Hicke; A. T. Hudak

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field...

  4. Carbon dynamics in central US Rockies lodgepole pine type after mountain pine beetle outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Matthew Hansen; Michael C. Amacher; Helga Van Miegroet; James N. Long; Michael G. Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle-caused tree mortality has substantially changed live tree biomass in lodgepole pine ecosystems in western North America since 2000. We studied how beetle-caused mortality altered ecosystem carbon (C) stocks and productivity using a central US Rockies age sequence of ecosystem recovery after infestation, augmented with growth-and-yield...

  5. Attractant semiochemicals of the engraver beetle, Ips perturbatus, in south-central and interior Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward H. Holsten; Roger E. Burnside; Steven J. Seybold

    2000-01-01

    From 1996 through 1999, field tests of various engraver beetle (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) semiochemicals in funnel traps were conducted in south-central and interior Alaska in stands of Lutz (Picea xlutzii Little) and white spruce (P.glauca (Moench) Voss). The European spruce beetle (I....

  6. Influence of temperature on spring flight initiation for southwestern ponderosa pine bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. L. Gaylord; K. K. Williams; R. W. Hofstetter; J. D. McMillin; T. E. Degomez; M. R. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Determination of temperature requirements for many economically important insects is a cornerstone of pest management. For bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), this information can facilitate timing of management strategies. Our goals were to determine temperature predictors for flight initiation of three species of Ips bark beetles...

  7. Soil/litter beetle abundance and diversity along a land use gradient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beetles represent acomponent of arthropods that contributes to enrichment and circulation of mineral elements retained in litter and the topsoil. We have studied beetle abundance, diversity, and distribution in response to anthropogenic activities (farming, urbanization, etc.). Two collecting methods were used: soil monoliths ...

  8. Alternative timing of carbaryl treatments for protecting lodgepole pine from mortality attributed to mountain pine beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Fettig; A.Steve Munson; Kenneth E. Gibson

    2015-01-01

    Carbaryl is regarded among the most effective, economically viable, and ecologically-compatible insecticides available for protecting conifers from bark beetle attack in the western United States. Treatments are typically applied in spring prior to initiation of bark beetle flight for that year. We evaluated the efficacy of spring and fall applications for protecting...

  9. Managing bark beetle impacts on ecosystems and society: Priority questions to motivate future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse L. Morris; Stuart Cottrell; Chris Fettig; Winslow D. Hansen; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Vachel A. Carter; Jennifer L. Clear; Jessica Clement; R. Justin DeRose; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Philip E. Higuera; Katherine M. Mattor; Alistair W. R. Seddon; Heikki T. Sepp; John D. Stednick; Steven J. Seybold

    2016-01-01

    1. Recent bark beetle outbreaks in North America and Europe have impacted forested landscapes and the provisioning of critical ecosystem services. The scale and intensity of many recent outbreaks are widely believed to be unprecedented. 2. The effects of bark beetle outbreaks on ecosystems are often measured in terms of area affected, host tree mortality rates, and...

  10. The effect of Beetle leaves (Piper Betle Linn for dental caries formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kurniawan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still the main problem in dental and oral health. Caries is caused by several factors working simultaneously. The main principle of management caries is by prioritizing preventive action and avoiding invasive action. Beetle leaves are medicamentous plant which are widely cultivated and very beneficial for Indonesian people. Its active content enable beetle leaves to be used as antimicrobial, antiseptic, antifungal, antioxidant, and disinfectant. The government of Indonesia and WHO greatly support the utilization of natural resources as medical cure. Currently we can find a lot of toothpaste and mouthwash products which use beetle leaves as additional ingredient. Various researches have proved that the use of beetle leaves extract as mouthwash, toothpaste and chewing beetle leaves may decrease plaque score. Chavicol and chavibetol content enable beetle leaves to function as very good antimicrobial. Beetle leaves also contain charvacrol, eugenol, methyl eugenol, cadinene, and seskuiterpene, which can function as antiseptic. Beetle leaves may effect salivary function and secretion and also impede the forming of dental caries.

  11. BIOECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF GROUND BEETLES OF GUMBETOVSKY DISTRICT OF DAGHESTAN REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. NAKHIBASHEVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground beetles of the Gumbetovskiy area are studied. For the first time for the territory there are defined 95 species of the beetles related to 28 genus. Bioecological features of the species are presented and the analysis of the received materials is lead.

  12. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  13. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  14. Lack of genetic differentiation in aggressive and secondary bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) from Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Allender; Karen M. Clancy; Tom E. DeGomez; Joel D. McMillin; Scott A. Woolbright; Paul Keim; David M. Wagner

    2008-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) play an important role as disturbance agents in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) forests of Arizona. However, from 2001 to 2003, elevated bark beetle activity caused unprecedented levels of ponderosa pine mortality. A better understanding of the population structure of these...

  15. Effectiveness of insecticide-incorporated bags to control stored-product beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults of seven stored-product beetle species were exposed on the inside and outside surfaces of polypropylene polymer bags incorporated with the insecticide deltamethrin (approx. concentration of 3,000 ppm; ZeroFly® Storage Bags (3g/kg). Beetles were exposed for 60, 120, and 180 min, and 1, 3 and 5...

  16. Effectiveness of two systemic insecticides for protecting western conifers from mortality due to bark beetle attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Grosman; C.J. Fettig; C.L. Jorgensen; A.S. Munson

    2010-01-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) are important tree mortality agents in western coniferous forests. Protection of individual trees from bark beetle attack has historically involved applications of liquid formulations of contact insecticides to the tree bole using hydraulic sprayers. More recently, researchers looking for more portable and...

  17. Electrophysiological and olfactometer responses of two histerid predators to three pine bark beetle pheromones

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Shepherd; Brian T. Sullivan; Richard A. Goyer; Kier D. Klepzig

    2005-01-01

    We measured electrophysiological responses in the antennae of two predaceous hister beetles, Platysoma parallelum and Plegaderus transversus, exposes to racemic mixtures of primary aggregation pheromones of scolytid bark beetle prey, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and frontalin. No significant differences were found for either histerid...

  18. Chemical ecology and serendipity: Developing attractants for Florida ambrosia beetle pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two exotic ambrosia beetles have become established in southern Florida: Xyleborus glabratus, the redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), and Euwallacea fornicatus, the tea shot hole borer (TSHB). Both pests vector pathogenic fungal symbionts; the former for laurel wilt and the latter for Fusarium dieback d...

  19. Ethanol accumulation during severe drought may signal tree vulnerability to detection and attack by bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick G. Kelsey; D. Gallego; F.J. Sánchez-Garcia; J.A. Pajares

    2014-01-01

    Tree mortality from temperature-driven drought is occurring in forests around the world, often in conjunction with bark beetle outbreaks when carbon allocation to tree defense declines. Physiological metrics for detecting stressed trees with enhanced vulnerability prior to bark beetle attacks remain elusive. Ethanol, water, monoterpene concentrations, and composition...

  20. Residue age and tree attractiveness influence efficacy of insecticide treatments against ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Management of ambrosia beetles in ornamental nurseries relies, in part, on treatments of insecticides to prevent beetles from boring into trees emitting stress-induced ethanol. However, data on residual efficacy of commonly used pyrethroid insecticides is warranted to gauge the duration that trees ...

  1. Relationships between forest structure, composition, site, and spruce beetle occurrence in the Intermountain West

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Justin DeRose; James N. Long; John D. Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Engelmann spruce forests are structurally and compositionally diverse, occur across a wide range of physiographic conditions, and are the result of varying disturbance histories such as fire, wind and spruce beetle. The spruce beetle is a natural disturbance agent of spruce forests and has population levels that fluctuate from endemic to epidemic. Conceptually,...

  2. New records of water beetles (Coleoptera: Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae from Montenegro (SE Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Vladimir M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The water beetle fauna of Montenegro is still poorly known. In the catalog dealing with water beetles (Hydrochantares and Palpicornia in Yugoslavia Gueorguiev (1971 gives a list of 116 water beetle species from Montenegro. Mikšić (1977 reported the presence of six water beetles species from the Ulcinj area. In the present paper, 19 water beetle species (Coleoptera Hydradephaga are reported, five of which are new for the fauna of Montenegro. All specimens have been deposited in the zoological collection of the department of Biology (Podgorica. In list of the species, we give the locality, the date of sampling, the total number of individuals and the names of collectors.

  3. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... Sorbus intermedia), and the non-native spruce (Picea spp.). We hypothesised that hedgerows with deciduous trees harbour more diverse ground beetle assemblages than hedges composed of non-native conifer trees. We also investigated which vegetation structure characteristics might influence the ground...... beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due...

  4. Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. I. Flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Alticini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadein, Konstantin; Betz, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The present study analyses the anatomy, mechanics and functional morphology of the jumping apparatus, the performance and the kinematics of the natural jump of flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini). The kinematic parameters of the initial phase of the jump were calculated for five species from five genera (average values from minimum to maximum): acceleration 0.91-2.25 (×10(3)) m s(-2), velocity 1.48-2.80 m s(-1), time to take-off 1.35-2.25 ms, kinetic energy 2.43-16.5 µJ, G: -force 93-230. The jumping apparatus is localized in the hind legs and formed by the femur, tibia, femoro-tibial joint, modified metafemoral extensor tendon, extensor ligament, tibial flexor sclerite, and extensor and flexor muscles. The primary role of the metafemoral extensor tendon is seen in the formation of an increased attachment site for the extensor muscles. The rubber-like protein resilin was detected in the extensor ligament, i.e. a short, elastic element connecting the extensor tendon with the tibial base. The calculated specific joint power (max. 0.714 W g(-1)) of the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement and the fast full extension of the hind tibia (1-3 ms) suggest that jumping is performed via a catapult mechanism releasing energy that has beforehand been stored in the extensor ligament during its stretching by the extensor muscles. In addition, the morphology of the femoro-tibial joint suggests that the co-contraction of the flexor and the extensor muscles in the femur of the jumping leg is involved in this process. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis; AGLAB) is a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important orchard, ornamental and forest trees. Genome sequencing, annotation, gene expression assays, and functional and comparative genomic s...

  6. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

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    Tang Zuojian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology.

  8. Ground beetles from Sǎlaj county (Romania (coleoptera: carabidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutasi Cs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During a faunistical exploration of Sǎlaj county carried out in 2014 and 2015, 207 ground beetle (Carabidae species were recorded from the area. Considering the earlier literature data the total number of carabid species known from the county is 246. Carabus variolosus Fabricius, 1787 is a Natura 2000 species, Pterostichus bielzii Fuss, 1878 is a species endemic to the Western Apuseni Mountains. Further rare species from the area: Dromius quadraticollis A. Morawitz, 1862, Elaphropus parvulus (Dejean, 1831, Lebia marginata (Geoffroy, 1785, Ophonus ardosiacus (Lučnik, 1922, Trechus amplicollis Fairmaire, 1859.

  9. Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal, effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses.

  10. Influence of bark beetles outbreaks on the carbon balance of western United States forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, B.; Williams, C. A.; Collatz, G. J.; Masek, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Recently bark beetle outbreaks have been increasing in western United States forests due to increases in temperatures and prolonged occurrence of droughts. Bark beetle outbreaks transfer carbon from the live photosynthesizing pools to the dead respiring pool where carbon slowly decomposes into the atmosphere causing landscapes to change from a net sink to source of carbon. Previous studies have usually been conducted at small localized areas, focused only on one or two bark beetle types or encompass a single outbreak event. The literature largely ignores the influence of bark beetle mortality on carbon balance at both local and regional scales by focusing on multiple bark beetles types and events. This study uses a combination of the Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach (CASA) carbon cycle model driven by remotely sensed biophysical observations, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) derived post-disturbance biomass regeneration trajectories, and mortality rates obtained from Aerial Detection Survey (ADS) insect outbreak polygons. The synthesis of the carbon cycle based modeling approach and different data products results in characteristic carbon trajectories for Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP), Net Primary Productivity (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration associated with insect outbreaks. This study demonstrates that bark beetle events change landscapes from a sink to source of carbon at a local scale but at a larger regional level the influence of bark beetle outbreaks are not prominent compared to other disturbance agents.

  11. Development of a Dung Beetle Robot and Investigation of Its Dung-Rolling Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a bio-inspired dung beetle robot was developed that emulated the dung rolling motion of the dung beetle. Dung beetles, which can roll objects up to 1000 times their own body weight, are one of the strongest insect species in the world. While the locomotion of many insects, such as cockroaches, inchworms, and butterflies, has been studied widely, the locomotion of dung beetles has rarely been given attention. Here, we report on the development of a dung beetle robot made specifically to investigate dung-rolling behavior and to determine and understand the underlying mechanism. Two versions of the robot were built, and the leg trajectories were carefully designed based on kinematic analysis. Cylinder and ball rolling experiments were conducted, and the results showed that the dung beetle robot could successfully and reliably roll objects. This further suggests that the dung beetle robot, with its current morphology, is capable of reliably rolling dung without the need for complex control strategies.

  12. The spatial distribution of the Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica, in soybean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Stacey A; McCallen, Emily B; Switzer, Paul V

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns.

  13. The Spatial Distribution of the Japanese Beetle, Popillia japonica, in Soybean Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara, Stacey A.; McCallen, Emily B.; Switzer, Paul V.

    2013-01-01

    The Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), is a serious pest of many agricultural and horticultural plants. Relatively little research has investigated the distributions of Japanese beetles in agricultural fields, and this lack of information makes pest management more difficult. In the present study, the spatial distribution of Japanese beetles in soybean fields was examined. Specifically, how the distribution and abundance of beetles was affected by distance from an edge, edge direction, and edge type was examined. An edge effect for density was discovered; beetle numbers decreased significantly with increasing distance from the field edge. The east and south sides averaged higher numbers of beetles than the north and west. Downwind edges, in particular downwind edges adjacent to hedgerows, also had significantly higher beetle densities. In addition, females relatively far from the edge had larger egg loads than those closer to the edge. Differences in aggregation seeking behavior, in combination with movement in relation to wind and obstructions such as hedgerows, are possible explanations for these spatial patterns. PMID:23895634

  14. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  15. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-06-24

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest.

  16. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, B C; Hicke, J A; Hudak, A T

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  17. Ecological and Evolutionary Determinants of Bark Beetle —Fungus Symbioses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Diana L.

    2012-01-01

    Ectosymbioses among bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae) and fungi (primarily ophiostomatoid Ascomycetes) are widespread and diverse. Associations range from mutualistic to commensal, and from facultative to obligate. Some fungi are highly specific and associated only with a single beetle species, while others can be associated with many. In addition, most of these symbioses are multipartite, with the host beetle associated with two or more consistent partners. Mycangia, structures of the beetle integument that function in fungal transport, have evolved numerous times in the Scolytinae. The evolution of such complex, specialized structures indicates a high degree of mutual dependence among the beetles and their fungal partners. Unfortunately, the processes that shaped current day beetle-fungus symbioses remain poorly understood. Phylogeny, the degree and type of dependence on partners, mode of transmission of symbionts (vertical vs. horizontal), effects of the abiotic environment, and interactions among symbionts themselves or with other members of the biotic community, all play important roles in determining the composition, fidelity, and longevity of associations between beetles and their fungal associates. In this review, I provide an overview of these associations and discuss how evolution and ecological processes acted in concert to shape these fascinating, complex symbioses. PMID:26467964

  18. Occurrence of spruce bark beetles in forest stands at different levels of air pollution stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzki, Wojciech; McManus, Michael; Knizek, Milos; Meshkova, Valentina; Mihalciuc, Vasile; Novotny, Julius; Turcani, Marek; Slobodyan, Yaroslav

    2004-01-01

    The spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.) is the most serious pest of mature spruce stands, mainly Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) Karst. throughout Eurasia. A complex of weather-related events and other environmental stresses are reported to predispose spruce stands to bark beetle attack and subsequent tree mortality; however the possible role of industrial pollution as a predisposing factor to attack by this species is poorly understood. The abundance and dynamics of I. typographus populations was evaluated in 60-80 year old Norway spruce stands occurring on 10x50 ha sites in five countries within the Carpathian range that were selected in proximity to established ozone measurement sites. Data were recorded on several parameters including the volume of infested trees, captures of adult beetles in pheromone traps, number of attacks, and the presence and relative abundance of associated bark beetle species. In several cases, stands adjacent to sites with higher ozone values were associated with higher bark beetle populations. The volume of sanitary cuttings, a reflection of tree mortality, and the mean daily capture of beetles in pheromone traps were significantly higher at sites where the O 3 level was higher. However, the mean infestation density on trees was higher in plots associated with lower O 3 levels. Captures of beetles in pheromone traps and infestation densities were higher in the zone above 800 m. However, none of the relationships was conclusive, suggesting that spruce bark beetle dynamics are driven by a complex interaction of biotic and abiotic factors and not by a single parameter such as air pollution. - Air pollution (ozone) can be one of predisposing factors that increases the susceptibility of mountain Norway spruce stands to attack by Ips typographus and associated bark beetle species

  19. Bacterial gut symbionts contribute to seed digestion in an omnivorous beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Lundgren

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect prey and seeds, but the contributions of microbes to diet diversification in this and similar groups of facultative granivores are largely unknown.Using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and terminal restriction fragment (tRF length polymorphism analyses of these genes, we examined the bacterial communities within the guts of facultatively granivorous, adult Harpalus pensylvanicus (Carabidae, fed one of five dietary treatments: 1 an untreated Field population, 2 Seeds with antibiotics (seeds were from Chenopodium album, 3 Seeds without antibiotics, 4 Prey with antibiotics (prey were Acheta domesticus eggs, and 5 Prey without antibiotics. The number of seeds and prey consumed by each beetle were recorded following treatment. Harpalus pensylvanicus possessed a fairly simple gut community of approximately 3-4 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU per beetle that were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, and Mollicutes. Bacterial communities of the host varied among the diet and antibiotic treatments. The field population and beetles fed seeds without antibiotics had the closest matching bacterial communities, and the communities in the beetles fed antibiotics were more closely related to each other than to those of the beetles that did not receive antibiotics. Antibiotics reduced and altered the bacterial communities found in the beetle guts. Moreover, beetles fed antibiotics ate fewer seeds, and those beetles that harbored the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis consumed more seeds on average than those lacking this symbiont.We conclude that the relationships between the bacterium E. faecalis and this factultative granivore's ability to

  20. Bacterial Gut Symbionts Contribute to Seed Digestion in an Omnivorous Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Jonathan G.; Lehman, R. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Obligate bacterial symbionts alter the diets of host animals in numerous ways, but the ecological roles of facultative bacterial residents that colonize insect guts remain unclear. Carabid beetles are a common group of beneficial insects appreciated for their ability to consume insect prey and seeds, but the contributions of microbes to diet diversification in this and similar groups of facultative granivores are largely unknown. Methodology and Principal Findings Using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and terminal restriction fragment (tRF) length polymorphism analyses of these genes, we examined the bacterial communities within the guts of facultatively granivorous, adult Harpalus pensylvanicus (Carabidae), fed one of five dietary treatments: 1) an untreated Field population, 2) Seeds with antibiotics (seeds were from Chenopodium album), 3) Seeds without antibiotics, 4) Prey with antibiotics (prey were Acheta domesticus eggs), and 5) Prey without antibiotics. The number of seeds and prey consumed by each beetle were recorded following treatment. Harpalus pensylvanicus possessed a fairly simple gut community of approximately 3-4 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) per beetle that were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Alphaproteobacteria, and Mollicutes. Bacterial communities of the host varied among the diet and antibiotic treatments. The field population and beetles fed seeds without antibiotics had the closest matching bacterial communities, and the communities in the beetles fed antibiotics were more closely related to each other than to those of the beetles that did not receive antibiotics. Antibiotics reduced and altered the bacterial communities found in the beetle guts. Moreover, beetles fed antibiotics ate fewer seeds, and those beetles that harbored the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis consumed more seeds on average than those lacking this symbiont. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the relationships between the