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Sample records for beetle dendroctonus ponderosae

  1. Rapid Increases in Forest Understory Diversity and Productivity following a Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Outbreak in Pine Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pec, Gregory J.; Justine Karst; Sywenky, Alexandra N.; Cigan, Paul W.; Nadir Erbilgin; Simard, Suzanne W.; Cahill, James F.

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks ar...

  2. Functional genomics of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae midguts and fat bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bearfield Jeremy C

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae is a significant coniferous forest pest in western North America. It relies on aggregation pheromones to colonize hosts. Its three major pheromone components, trans-verbenol, exo-brevicomin, and frontalin, are thought to arise via different metabolic pathways, but the enzymes involved have not been identified or characterized. We produced ESTs from male and female midguts and associated fat bodies and used custom oligonucleotide microarrays to study gene expression patterns and thereby made preliminary identification of pheromone-biosynthetic genes. Results Clones from two un-normalized cDNA libraries were directionally sequenced from the 5' end to yield 11,775 ESTs following sequence cleansing. The average read length was 550 nt. The ESTs clustered into 1,201 contigs and 2,833 singlets (4,034 tentative unique genes. The ESTs are broadly distributed among GO functional groups, suggesting they reflect a broad spectrum of the transcriptome. Among the most represented genes are representatives of sugar-digesting enzymes and members of an apparently Scolytid-specific gene family of unknown function. Custom NimbleGen 4-plex arrays representing the 4,034 tentative unique genes were queried with RNA from eleven different biological states representing larvae, pupae, and midguts and associated fat bodies of unfed or fed adults. Quantitative (Real-Time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR experiments confirmed that the microarray data accurately reflect expression levels in the different samples. Candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in terminal steps of biosynthetic pathways for exo-brevicomin and frontalin were tentatively identified. Conclusions These EST and microarray data are the first publicly-available functional genomics resources for this devastating forestry pest.

  3. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pec, Gregory J; Karst, Justine; Sywenky, Alexandra N; Cigan, Paul W; Erbilgin, Nadir; Simard, Suzanne W; Cahill, James F

    2015-01-01

    The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown. PMID:25859663

  4. Rapid Increases in forest understory diversity and productivity following a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreak in pine forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory J Pec

    Full Text Available The current unprecedented outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests of western Canada has resulted in a landscape consisting of a mosaic of forest stands at different stages of mortality. Within forest stands, understory communities are the reservoir of the majority of plant species diversity and influence the composition of future forests in response to disturbance. Although changes to stand composition following beetle outbreaks are well documented, information on immediate responses of forest understory plant communities is limited. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of D. ponderosae-induced tree mortality on initial changes in diversity and productivity of understory plant communities. We established a total of 110 1-m2 plots across eleven mature lodgepole pine forests to measure changes in understory diversity and productivity as a function of tree mortality and below ground resource availability across multiple years. Overall, understory community diversity and productivity increased across the gradient of increased tree mortality. Richness of herbaceous perennials increased with tree mortality as well as soil moisture and nutrient levels. In contrast, the diversity of woody perennials did not change across the gradient of tree mortality. Understory vegetation, namely herbaceous perennials, showed an immediate response to improved growing conditions caused by increases in tree mortality. How this increased pulse in understory richness and productivity affects future forest trajectories in a novel system is unknown.

  5. Transcriptome and full-length cDNA resources for the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, a major insect pest of pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Henderson, Hannah; Li, Maria; Yuen, Mack; Clark, Erin L; Fraser, Jordie D; Huber, Dezene P W; Liao, Nancy Y; Docking, T Roderick; Birol, Inanc; Chan, Simon K; Taylor, Greg A; Palmquist, Diana; Jones, Steven J M; Bohlmann, Joerg

    2012-08-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are major insect pests of many woody plants around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant historical pest of western North American pine forests. It is currently devastating pine forests in western North America--particularly in British Columbia, Canada--and is beginning to expand its host range eastward into the Canadian boreal forest, which extends to the Atlantic coast of North America. Limited genomic resources are available for this and other bark beetle pests, restricting the use of genomics-based information to help monitor, predict, and manage the spread of these insects. To overcome these limitations, we generated comprehensive transcriptome resources from fourteen full-length enriched cDNA libraries through paired-end Sanger sequencing of 100,000 cDNA clones, and single-end Roche 454 pyrosequencing of three of these cDNA libraries. Hybrid de novo assembly of the 3.4 million sequences resulted in 20,571 isotigs in 14,410 isogroups and 246,848 singletons. In addition, over 2300 non-redundant full-length cDNA clones putatively containing complete open reading frames, including 47 cytochrome P450s, were sequenced fully to high quality. This first large-scale genomics resource for bark beetles provides the relevant sequence information for gene discovery; functional and population genomics; comparative analyses; and for future efforts to annotate the MPB genome. These resources permit the study of this beetle at the molecular level and will inform research in other Dendroctonus spp. and more generally in the Curculionidae and other Coleoptera. PMID:22516182

  6. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

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    Erin L. Clark

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC, where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC and one population of jack pine (AB were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the

  7. Quantitative metabolome, proteome and transcriptome analysis of midgut and fat body tissues in the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, and insights into pheromone biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeling, Christopher I; Li, Maria; Sandhu, Harpreet K; Henderson, Hannah; Yuen, Macaire Man Saint; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2016-03-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are pests of many forests around the world. The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, is a significant pest of western North American pine forests. The MPB is able to overcome the defences of pine trees through pheromone-assisted aggregation that results in a mass attack of host trees. These pheromones, both male and female produced, are believed to be biosynthesized in the midgut and/or fat bodies of these insects. We used metabolite analysis, quantitative proteomics (iTRAQ) and transcriptomics (RNA-seq) to identify proteins and transcripts differentially expressed between sexes and between tissues when treated with juvenile hormone III. Juvenile hormone III induced frontalin biosynthesis in males and trans-verbenol biosynthesis in females, as well as affected the expression of many proteins and transcripts in sex- and tissue-specific ways. Based on these analyses, we identified candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of frontalin, exo-brevicomin, and trans-verbenol pheromones. PMID:26792242

  8. Spatial genetic structure of the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in western Canada: historical patterns and contemporary dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayathri Samarasekera, G D N; Bartell, Nicholas V; Lindgren, B Staffan; Cooke, Janice E K; Davis, Corey S; James, Patrick M A; Coltman, David W; Mock, Karen E; Murray, Brent W

    2012-06-01

    Environmental change has a wide range of ecological consequences, including species extinction and range expansion. Many studies have shown that insect species respond rapidly to climatic change. A mountain pine beetle epidemic of record size in North America has led to unprecedented mortality of lodgepole pine, and a significant range expansion to the northeast of its historic range. Our goal was to determine the spatial genetic variation found among outbreak population from which genetic structure, and dispersal patterns may be inferred. Beetles from 49 sampling locations throughout the outbreak area in western Canada were analysed at 13 microsatellite loci. We found significant north-south population structure as evidenced by: (i) Bayesian-based analyses, (ii) north-south genetic relationships and diversity gradients; and (iii) a lack of isolation-by-distance in the northernmost cluster. The north-south structure is proposed to have arisen from the processes of postglacial colonization as well as recent climate-driven changes in population dynamics. Our data support the hypothesis of multiple sources of origin for the outbreak and point to the need for population specific information to improve our understanding and management of outbreaks. The recent range expansion across the Rocky Mountains into the jack/lodgepole hybrid and pure jack pine zones of northern Alberta is consistent with a northern British Columbia origin. We detected no loss of genetic variability in these populations, indicating that the evolutionary potential of mountain pine beetle to adapt has not been reduced by founder events. This study illustrates a rapid range-wide response to the removal of climatic constraints, and the potential for range expansion of a regional population. PMID:22554298

  9. Simulation of mountain pine beetle (dendroctonus ponderosae hopkins) spread and control in British Columbia. Information report No. BC-X-329

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a method of predicting the spread of the mountain pine beetle through the use of a simulation model and explains the assumptions underlying the method. Control by selective harvesting of attacked stands, use of pheromones, and various single-tree treatments are evaluated through a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters; area of attack was the indicator variable for the sensitivity analysis.

  10. Density, heating value, and composition of pellets made from lodgepole pine (Pinus concorta Douglas) infested with mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaini, P.; Kadla, J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Wood Science; Sokansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div., Bioenergy Resource and Engineering Systems; Bi, X.; Lim, C.J. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Mani, S. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Faculty of Engineering; Melin, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Delta Research Corp., Delta, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC is currently experiencing the largest recorded mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation in North America that has killed nearly 7 million hectares of pine. The dead trees gradually lose their suitability for dimension lumber and pulp chips due to excessive cracking and spoilage. The economic losses can be partly averted by recovering the killed wood and processing it into pellets for bioenergy and other applications. Currently, Canada exports roughly 750,000 tons of wood pellets to Europe as a fuel for heat and power. The most important physical properties of wood pellets are bulk and pellet density, heating value, moisture content, and durability. In light of the chemical and structural changes reported with MPB attack, it is important to develop engineering data on properties of MPB-affected pine for wood pellets. The objective of this study was to compare chemical composition, density, and heat value of pellets made from MPB-infested wood and to compare these properties with those measured for pellets made from uninfested wood. Chemical analysis showed minor decrease in lignin and sugar contents of pellets made from MPB wood. Pellets made from MPB-infested pine had a mean value for density larger than those made from uninfested pine but the difference was not statistically significant. Heating values of the pellets from MPB-infested wood were similar to those measured for pellets from uninfested wood. A preliminary observation of mold growth did not show any further staining or other decay fungi growth for the pellets made from MPB-infested wood. The pellets made from MPB-infested wood were found to be similar to pellets made from uninfested wood in density, heating value, and most chemical constituents. The overall conclusion was that MBP infested wood can be used to produce comparable pellets to non infested wood pellets. 37 refs., 6 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. The Effect of Water Limitation on Volatile Emission, Tree Defense Response, and Brood Success of Dendroctonus ponderosae in Two Pine Hosts, Lodgepole, and Jack Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Lusebrink, Inka; Erbilgin, Nadir; Evenden, Maya L.

    2016-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) has recently expanded its range from lodgepole pine forest into the lodgepole × jack pine hybrid zone in central Alberta, within which it has attacked pure jack pine. This study tested the effects of water limitation on tree defense response of mature lodgepole and jack pine (Pinus contorta and Pinus banksiana) trees in the field. Tree defense response was initiated by inoculation of trees with the MPB-associated fungus Grosmannia clavig...

  12. Photochemical oxidant injury and bark beetle coleoptera scolytidae infestation of ponderosa pine. I. Incidence of bark beetle infestation in injured trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, R.W.; Miller, P.R.; Cobb, F.W. Jr.; Wood, D.L.; Parmeter, J.R. Jr.

    1968-05-01

    A total of 107 beetle-killed and 963 nearest-neighbor ponderosa pines were examined to determine the association between severity of atmospheric pollution injury and infestation by bark beetles. Trees exhibiting advanced symptoms of pollution injury were most frequently infested by the western pine beetle, Dendroctonus brevicomis, and the mountain pine beetle, D. ponderosae. The degree of injury and incidence of bark beetle infestation were not related to total height, diameter, length of live and dead crown or crown class. As severity of oxidant injury increased, live crown ratio decreased and incidence of bark beetle infestation increased. One hundred noninfested trees in each of three disease categories, advanced, intermediate, and healthy, were examined for evidence of prior beetle attacks. Thirty-six percent of the advanced-diseased trees versus only 5% of the healthy trees were attacked. Thus, the beetles may discriminate between healthy and diseased trees at a distance, upon contact with the host, or both. These studies indicate strongly that atmospheric pollution injury predisposes ponderosa pine to bark beetle infestations. 3 references, 7 tables.

  13. Bacterial and fungal symbionts of parasitic Dendroctonus bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohet, Loïc; Grégoire, Jean-Claude; Berasategui, Aileen; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Biedermann, Peter H W

    2016-09-01

    Bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are one of the most species-rich herbivorous insect groups with many shifts in ecology and host-plant use, which may be mediated by their bacterial and fungal symbionts. While symbionts are well studied in economically important, tree-killing species, little is known about parasitic species whose broods develop in living trees. Here, using culture-dependent and independent methods, we provide a comprehensive overview of the associated bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi of the parasitic Dendroctonus micans, D. punctatus and D. valens, and compare them to those of other tree-inhabiting insects. Despite inhabiting different geographical regions and/or host trees, the three species showed similar microbial communities. Enterobacteria were the most prevalent bacteria, in particular Rahnella, Pantoea and Ewingella, in addition to Streptomyces Likewise, the yeasts Candida/Cyberlindnera were the most prominent fungi. All these microorganisms are widespread among tree-inhabiting insects with various ecologies, but their high prevalence overall might indicate a beneficial role such as detoxification of tree defenses, diet supplementation or protection against pathogens. As such, our results enable comparisons of symbiont communities of parasitic bark beetles with those of other beetles, and will contribute to our understanding of how microbial symbioses facilitate dietary shifts in insects. PMID:27387908

  14. Spruce Beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) Outbreak in Engelmann Spruce (Picea engelmannil) in Central Utah, 1986-1998

    OpenAIRE

    Dymerski, Alan D; Anhold, John A; Munson, Allen S

    2001-01-01

    Extensive Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.) mortality caused by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) has been occurring at the southern end of the Wasatch Plateau in central Utah. This spruce beetle outbreak is the largest recorded in Utah history. An extensive ground survey was conducted in 1996 on the Manti-LaSal National Forest, Sanpete and Ferron Ranger Districts, to document mortality and impact of a major spruce beetle outbreak on post-outbreak forest co...

  15. Dispersal of the spruce beetle, `dendroctonus rufipennis`, and the engraver beetle, `ips perturbatus`, in Alaska. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, R.A.; Holsten, E.H.

    1997-09-01

    Mark-release-recapture experiments were performed with spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) and Ips engraver beetles (Ips perturbatus (Eichhoff)) to determine distance and direction of dispersal. The recapture rate of beetles marked with fluorescent powder was extremely low. Most I. perturbatus beetles dispersed up to 30 m from their overwintering sites compared to most D. rufipennis, which dispersed from 90 to 300 m. Ips perturbatus beetles were caught up to 90 m and D. rufipennis up to 600 m from the point of release.

  16. Resiliency of an Interior Ponderosa Pine Forest to Bark Beetle Infestations Following Fuel-Reduction and Forest-Restoration Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical thinning and the application of prescribed fire are commonly used to restore fire-adapted forest ecosystems in the Western United States. During a 10-year period, we monitored the effects of fuel-reduction and forest-restoration treatments on levels of tree mortality in an interior ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in California. Twelve experimental plots, ranging in size from 77–144 ha, were established to create two distinct forest structural types: mid-seral stage (low structural diversity; LoD and late-seral stage (high structural diversity; HiD. Following harvesting, half of each plot was treated with prescribed fire (B. A total of 16,473 trees (8.7% of all trees died during the 10-year period. Mortality was primarily attributed to bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae (10,655 trees, specifically fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis LeConte, mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, western pine beetle, D. brevicomis LeConte, pine engraver, Ips pini (Say, and, to a much lesser extent, Jeffrey pine beetle, D. jeffreyi Hopkins. Trees of all ages and size classes were killed, but mortality was concentrated in the smaller-diameter classes (19–29.2 and 29.3–39.3 cm at 1.37 m in height. Most mortality occurred three to five years following prescribed burns. Higher levels of bark beetle-caused tree mortality were observed on LoD + B (8.7% than LoD (4.2%. The application of these and other results to the   management of interior P. ponderosa forests are discussed, with an emphasis on the maintenance of large trees.

  17. Bark beetle management guidebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This guidebook is designed to provide a background to bark beetle management practices consistent with the British Columbia Forest Practices Code, as well as specific practices for managing mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis), and Douglas-fir beetle (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae). It describes their general biology and distribution in British Columbia, their life cycles and population dynamics, and symptoms of bark beetle attack. General management strategies presented include prevention (a long-term approach), suppression, holding actions, and salvage. Strategies appropriate to specific bark beetles include aerial surveys, ground detection, baiting, harvesting, and use of insecticides. The guidebook includes brief mention of other bark beetles (Scolytids and other Dendroctonus species) and a glossary.

  18. Douglas-Fir Tussock Moth- and Douglas-Fir Beetle-Caused Mortality in a Ponderosa Pine/Douglas-Fir Forest in the Colorado Front Range, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Negrón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata McDunnough, occurred in the South Platte River drainage on the Pike-San Isabel National Forest in the Colorado Front Range attacking Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco. Stocking levels, species composition, and tree size in heavily and lightly defoliated stands were similar. Douglas-fir tussock moth defoliation resulted in significant Douglas-fir mortality in the heavily defoliated stands, leading to a change in dominance to ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Lawson. Douglas-fir beetle, Dendroctonus pseudotsuqae Hopkins, populations increased following the defoliation event but caused less mortality, and did not differ between heavily and lightly defoliated stands. Douglas-fir tussock moth-related mortality was greatest in trees less than 15 cm dbh (diameter at 1.4 m above the ground that grew in suppressed and intermediate canopy positions. Douglas-fir beetle-related mortality was greatest in trees larger than 15 cm dbh that grew in the dominant and co-dominant crown positions. Although both insects utilize Douglas-fir as its primary host, stand response to infestation is different. The extensive outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth followed by Douglas-fir beetle activity may be associated with a legacy of increased host type growing in overstocked conditions as a result of fire exclusion.

  19. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano; Verónica Torres-Banda; María Fernanda López; Jaime Villa-Castillo; Gerardo Zúñiga

    2012-01-01

    After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC), the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC ...

  20. Mountain Pine Beetles Colonizing Historical and Naïve Host Trees Are Associated with a Bacterial Community Highly Enriched in Genes Contributing to Terpene Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Aaron S.; Aylward, Frank O.; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H.; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with...

  1. Influence of Mountain Pine Beetle on Fuels, Foliar Fuel Moisture Content, and Litter and Volatile Terpenes in Whitebark Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Toone, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) has caused extensive tree mortality in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm) forests. Previous studies conducted in various conifer forests have shown that fine surface fuels are significantly altered during a bark beetle outbreak. Bark beetle activity in conifer stands has also been shown to alter foliar fuel moisture content and chemistry over the course of the bark beetle rotation.The objective of this study was to evaluate changes ...

  2. Bird and beetle assemblages in mountain pine beetle killed forests and those subsequently burned: evidence for an effect of compound natural disturbances in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    House, Kimberly Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) outbreak in British Columbia (BC) is unprecedented in severity and extent, and has created a landscape of beetle-killed trees through which wildfires are now burning as compound natural disturbances. We asked the question: Is there an impact of grey phase MPB kill severity on bird and beetle assemblages, and does an effect persist following wildfire in BC? We compared the bird community of central interior BC against categ...

  3. New record and extension of the distribution range of the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae Nuevo registro y ampliación del área de distribución del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Armendáriz-Toledano

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available After several exploratory surveys to the states of Jalisco and Zacatecas in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, the bark beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas and Bright, 1970 was recorded in 2 geographic localities of Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. These new records extend the range of distribution of this beetle a further 250 km south along the SMOC from the southernmost site recorded in the state of Durango. These records indicate that this species may be present in almost any area of the SMOC where conditions are suitable for its development.Después de varios viajes de exploración a los estados de Jalisco y Zacatecas en la sierra Madre Occidental (SMOC, se registró la presencia del descortezador Dendroctonus rhizophagus Thomas y Bright, 1970 en 2 localidades en el Municipio de Villa Guerrero, Jalisco. Estos nuevos registros amplían el área de distribución del descortezador 250 km hacia el sur de la SMOC, a partir del punto más sureño registrado en el estado de Durango. Asimismo, estos registros indican que esta especie puede estar presente en prácticamente cualquier área de la SMOC que reúna las condiciones adecuadas para su desarrollo.

  4. Genetic diversity and biogeography of red turpentine beetle Dendroctonus valens in its native and invasive regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Wen Cai; Xin-Yue Cheng; Ru-Mei Xu; Dong-Hong Duan; Lawrence R. Kirkendall

    2008-01-01

    Sequences of 479 bp region of the mitochondrial COI gene were applied to detect population genetic diversity and structure of Dendroctonus valens populations. By comparing the genetic diversity between native and invasive populations, it was shown that the genetic diversity of Chinese populations was obviously lower than that of native populations with both indices of haplotype diversity and Nei's genetic diversity, suggesting genetic bottleneck occurred in the invasive process of D. valens, and was then followed by a relatively quick population buildup. According to phylogenetic analyses of haplotypes, we suggested that the origin of the Chinese population was from California, USA. Phylogenetic and network analysis of native populations of D. valens revealed strong genetic structure at two distinct spatial and temporal scales in North America. The main cause resulting in current biogeographic pattern was supposedly due to recycled glacial events. Meanwhile, a cryptic species might exist in the Mexican and Guatemalan populations.

  5. Differences in the Structure of the Gut Bacteria Communities in Development Stages of the Chinese White Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus armandi

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    Junning Ma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese white pine beetle Dendroctonus armandi Tsai and Li, is arguably the most destructive forest insect in the Qinling Mountains in Northern China. Little is known about the structure of the bacterial communities associated with D. armandi even though this wood-boring insect plays important roles in ecosystem and biological invasion processes that result in huge economic losses in pine forests. The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of the bacterial communities present in the guts of D. armandi at different developmental stages using a culture-independent method involving PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. Analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments of bacteria from the guts of larvae, pupae, and male and female adults revealed bacterial communities of low complexity that differed according to the developmental stage. Citrobacter spp. and Pantoea spp. predominated in larvae and adults, whereas Methylobacterium was the dominant genus at the pupal stage. The main difference between the guts of male and female adults was the greater dominance of Citrobacter in females. Previous studies suggest that the bacterial community associated with D. armandi guts may influence insect development. The data obtained in this study regarding the phylogenetic relationships and the community structure of intestinal bacteria at different developmental stages of the D. armandi life cycle contribute to our understanding of D. armandi and could aid the development of new pest control strategies.

  6. Distribution and attack behaviour of the red turpentine beetle, Dendroctonus valens, recently introduced to China

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gao, B.; Wen, X.; Guan, H.; Knížek, M.; Žďárek, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2005), 155-160. ISSN 1212-4834 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 639 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bark beetles * outbreak * forest pest Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  7. Assessment of post-beetle impacts on natural regeneration of Lodgepole Pine

    OpenAIRE

    Egger, Keith N; Arocena, Joselito; Green, Scott; Kennedy, Nabla; Massicotte, Hugues; Scholefield, Scott

    2009-01-01

    The ecological disturbance from wildfire (2004) on ~ 10,000 hectares of forests near the Kenny Dam presented a unique opportunity to study the natural and artificial regeneration in burned mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) infested stands in north-central British Columbia. Mountain pine beetle (MPB) has been documented as a natural disturbance agent that may precede wildfire in lodgepole pine forests (Pinus contorta var. latifolia). The objectives of this study were to i)...

  8. Isolation of some pathogenic bacteria from the great spruce bark beetle, Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, M; Ertürk, O; Aslan, I

    2010-01-01

    Some bacteria were isolated from Dendroctonus micans and its specific predator, Rhizophagus grandis. Six bacteria from D. micans were identified as Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter intermedius, Citrobacter freundii, Cellulomonas flavigena, Microbacterium liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus, three bacteria from R. grandis as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia grimesii, on the basis of fatty acid methyl ester analysis and carbon utilization profile by using Microbial Identification and Biolog Microplate Systems. Their insecticidal effects were tested on larvae and adults of D. micans. PMID:20336502

  9. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Colin Robertson; Michael A. Wulder; Christopher Bone; White, Joanne C.

    2013-01-01

    The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the p...

  10. Localized spatial and temporal attack dynamics of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, B.J.; Powell, J.A.; Logan, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    Colonization of a host tree by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) involves chemical communication that enables a massive aggregation of beetles on a single resource, thereby ensuring host death and subsequent beetle population survival. Beetle populations have evolved a mechanism for termination of colonization on a lodgepole pine tree at optimal beetle densities, with a concomitant switch of attacks to nearby trees. Observations of the daily spatial and temporal attack process of mountain pine beetles (nonepidemic) attacking lodgepole pine suggest that beetles switch attacks to a new host tree before the original focus tree is fully colonized, and that verbenone, an antiaggregating pheromone, may be acting within a tree rather than between trees.

  11. Large woody debris and salmonid habitat in the Anchor River basin, Alaska, following an extensive spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    A widespread and intense spruce beetle outbreak has killed most of the mature white spruce trees across many watersheds in south-central Alaska. To investigate the potential habitat impacts in a salmon stream, we characterized the current abundance and species composition of large woody debris (LWD...

  12. Fire severity unaffected by spruce beetle outbreak in spruce-fir forests in southwestern Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, Robert A; Veblen, Thomas T; Harvey, Brian J; Hart, Sarah J

    2016-04-01

    Recent large and severe outbreaks of native bark beetles have raised concern among the general public and land managers about potential for amplified fire activity in western North America. To date, the majority of studies examining bark beetle outbreaks and subsequent fire severity in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have focused on outbreaks of mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forests, but few studies, particularly field studies, have addressed the effects of the severity of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis Kirby) infestation on subsequent fire severity in subalpine Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) forests. In Colorado, the annual area infested by spruce beetle outbreaks is rapidly rising, while MPB outbreaks are subsiding; therefore understanding this relationship is of growing importance. We collected extensive field data in subalpine forests in the eastern San Juan Mountains, southwestern Colorado, USA, to investigate whether a gray-stage (fire) spruce beetle infestation affected fire severity. Contrary to the expectation that bark beetle infestation alters subsequent fire severity, correlation and multivariate generalized linear regression analysis revealed no influence of pre-fire spruce beetle severity on nearly all field or remotely sensed measurements of fire severity. Findings were consistent across moderate and extreme burning conditions. In comparison to severity of the pre-fire beetle outbreak, we found that topography, pre-outbreak basal area, and weather conditions exerted a stronger effect on fire severity. Our finding that beetle infestation did not alter fire severity is consistent with previous retrospective studies examining fire activity following other bark beetle outbreaks and reiterates the overriding influence of climate that creates conditions conducive to large, high-severity fires in the subalpine zone of Colorado. Both bark beetle outbreaks and

  13. Mountain pine beetles colonizing historical and naive host trees are associated with a bacterial community highly enriched in genes contributing to terpene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Aaron S; Aylward, Frank O; Adams, Sandye M; Erbilgin, Nadir; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Suen, Garret; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2013-06-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a subcortical herbivore native to western North America that can kill healthy conifers by overcoming host tree defenses, which consist largely of high terpene concentrations. The mechanisms by which these beetles contend with toxic compounds are not well understood. Here, we explore a component of the hypothesis that beetle-associated bacterial symbionts contribute to the ability of D. ponderosae to overcome tree defenses by assisting with terpene detoxification. Such symbionts may facilitate host tree transitions during range expansions currently being driven by climate change. For example, this insect has recently breached the historical geophysical barrier of the Canadian Rocky Mountains, providing access to näive tree hosts and unprecedented connectivity to eastern forests. We use culture-independent techniques to describe the bacterial community associated with D. ponderosae beetles and their galleries from their historical host, Pinus contorta, and their more recent host, hybrid P. contorta-Pinus banksiana. We show that these communities are enriched with genes involved in terpene degradation compared with other plant biomass-processing microbial communities. These pine beetle microbial communities are dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Rahnella, Serratia, and Burkholderia, and the majority of genes involved in terpene degradation belong to these genera. Our work provides the first metagenome of bacterial communities associated with a bark beetle and is consistent with a potential microbial contribution to detoxification of tree defenses needed to survive the subcortical environment. PMID:23542624

  14. Volatile and Within-Needle Terpene Changes to Douglas-fir Trees Associated With Douglas-fir Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giunta, A D; Runyon, J B; Jenkins, M J; Teich, M

    2016-08-01

    Mass attack by tree-killing bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) brings about large chemical changes in host trees that can have important ecological consequences. For example, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) attack increases emission of terpenes by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.), affecting foliage flammability with consequences for wildfires. In this study, we measured chemical changes to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mirb.) Franco) foliage in response to attack by Douglas-fir beetles (Dendroctonus pseudotsugae Hopkins) as trees die and crowns transitioned from green/healthy, to green-infested (year of attack), to yellow (year after attack), and red (2 yr after attack). We found large differences in volatile and within-needle terpene concentrations among crown classes and variation across a growing season. In general, emissions and concentrations of total and individual terpenes were greater for yellow and red needles than green needles. Douglas-fir beetle attack increased emissions and concentrations of terpene compounds linked to increased tree flammability in other conifer species and compounds known to attract beetles (e.g., [Formula: see text]-pinene, camphene, and D-limonene). There was little relationship between air temperature or within-needle concentrations of terpenes and emission of terpenes, suggesting that passive emission of terpenes (e.g., from dead foliage) does not fully explain changes in volatile emissions. The potential physiological causes and ecological consequences of these bark beetle-associated chemical changes are discussed. PMID:27231258

  15. A Comment on “Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Fettig

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are two general approaches for reducing the negative impacts of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, on forests. Direct control involves short-term tactics designed to address current infestations by manipulating mountain pine beetle populations, and includes the use of fire, insecticides, semiochemicals, sanitation harvests, or a combination of these treatments. Indirect control is preventive, and designed to reduce the probability and severity of future infestations within treated areas by manipulating stand, forest and/or landscape conditions by reducing the number of susceptible host trees through thinning, prescribed burning, and/or alterations of age classes and species composition. We emphasize that “outbreak suppression” is not the intent or objective of management strategies implemented for mountain pine beetle in the western United States, and that the use of clear, descriptive language is important when assessing the merits of various treatment strategies.

  16. Biological evaluation of the prototype standing tree debarking system (STDS) used for direct control of mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine. FRDA report No. 234

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitney, H.S.; Safranyik, L.; Moulson, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    The standing tree debarking system (STDS) consists of a tree-climbing delimber/debarker machine and a hand-held debarking machine. The tree-climbing machine is powered by a chain saw engine which, through a hydraulic system, operates a delimbing saw on ascent and a debarker on descent. The hand-held machine consists of a debarking head that replaces the cutter on a gasoline-powered brush saw. Prototypes of the STDS have been developed for mechanical removal of bark from standing lodgepole pine trees that have been attacked by the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae). This paper presents results of work conducted to ascertain the potential effectiveness of the STDS (the degree of bark disruption required to prevent mountain pine beetle from producing increased numbers of new beetles in infested trees of various size), the degree of bark disruption by the STDS, and brood survival in patches of bark remaining after STDS treatment.

  17. Incorporating Carbon Storage into the Optimal Management of Forest Insect Pests: A Case Study of the Southern Pine Beetle ( Dendroctonus Frontalis Zimmerman) in the New Jersey Pinelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Rebecca M.; Lutz, David A.; Howarth, Richard B.

    2014-10-01

    Forest insect pest disturbance is increasing in certain areas of North America as many insect species, such as the southern pine beetle, expand their range due to a warming climate. Because insect pests are beginning to occupy forests that are managed for multiple uses and have not been managed for pests before, it is becoming increasingly important to determine how forests should be managed for pests when non-timber ecosystem services are considered in addition to traditional costs and revenues. One example of a service that is increasingly considered in forest management and that may affect forest pest management is carbon sequestration. This manuscript seeks to understand whether the incorporation of forest carbon sequestration into cost-benefit analysis of different forest pest management strategies affects the financially optimal strategy. We examine this question through a case study of the southern pine beetle (SPB) in a new area of SPB expansion, the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve (NJPR). We utilize a forest ecology and economics model and include field data from the NJPR as well as outbreak probability statistics from previous years. We find under the majority of scenarios, incorporating forest carbon sequestration shifts the financially optimal SPB management strategy from preventative thinning toward no management or reactionary management in forest stands in New Jersey. These results contradict the current recommended treatment strategy for SPB and signify that the inclusion of multiple ecosystem services into a cost-benefit analysis may drastically alter which pest management strategy is economically optimal.

  18. Mountain pine beetle impacts on vegetation and carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawbaker, Todd J.; Briggs, Jennifer S.; Caldwell, Megan K.; Stitt, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In the Southern Rocky Mountains, an epidemic outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB) has caused levels of tree mortality unprecedented in recorded history. The impacts of this mortality on vegetation composition, forest structure, and carbon stocks have only recently received attention, although the impacts of other disturbances such as fires and land-use/land-cover change are much better known. This study, initiated in 2010, aims to increase our understanding of MPB outbreaks and their impacts. We have integrated field-collected data with vegetation simulation models to assess and quantify how long-term patterns of vegetation and carbon stocks have and may change in response to MPB outbreaks and other disturbances.

  19. Evaluation of Compatibility between Beetle-Killed Lodgepole Pine (Pinus Contorta var. Latifolia Wood with Portland Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Hartley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of wood from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia with Portland cement was investigated based on time-since-death as a quantitative estimator, and the presence of blue-stained sapwood, brown rot, or white rot as qualitative indicators. The exothermic behavior of cement hydration, maximum heat rate, time to reach this maximum, and total heat released within a 3.5–24 h interval were used for defining a new wood-cement compatibility index (CX. CX was developed and accounted for large discrepancies in assessing wood-cement compatibility compared to the previous methods. Using CX, no significant differences were found between fresh or beetle-killed wood with respect to the suitability for cement; except for the white rot samples which reached or exceeded the levels of incompatibility. An outstanding physicochemical behavior was also found for blue-stained sapwood and cement, producing significantly higher compatibility indices.

  20. The Spruce Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Holsten, E H; Their, R W; Munson, A. S.; Gibson, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The spruce beetle, Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby), is the most significant natural mortality agent of mature spruce. Outbreaks of this beetle have caused extensive spruce mortality from Alaska to Arizona and have occurred in every forest with substantial spruce stands. Spruce beetle damage results in the loss of 333 to 500 million board feet of spruce saw timber annually. More than 2.3 million acres of spruce forests have been infested in Alaska in the last 7 years with an estimated 30 milli...

  1. What is Next in Bark Beetle Phylogeography?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios N. Avtzis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetle species within the scolytid genera Dendroctonus, Ips, Pityogenes and Tomicus are known to cause extensive ecological and economical damage in spruce and pine forests during epidemic outbreaks all around the world. Dendroctonus ponderosae poses the most recent example having destroyed almost 100,000 km2 of conifer forests in North America. The success and effectiveness of scolytid species lies mostly in strategies developed over the course of time. Among these, a complex system of semiochemicals promotes the communication and aggregation on the spot of infestation facilitating an en masse attack against a host tree’s defenses; or an association with fungi that evolved either in the form of nutrition (ambrosia fungi or even by reducing the resistance of host trees (blue-stain fungi. Although often specific to a tree genus or species, some bark beetles are polyphagous and have the ability to switch on to new hosts and extend their host range (i.e., between conifer genera such as Pityogenes chalcographus or even from conifer to deciduous trees as Polygraphus grandiclava. A combination of these capabilities in concert with life history or ecological traits explains why bark beetles are considered interesting subjects in evolutionary studies. Several bark beetle species appear in phylogeographic investigations, in an effort to improve our understanding of their ecology, epidemiology and evolution. In this paper investigations that unveil the phylogeographic history of bark beetles are reviewed. A close association between refugial areas and postglacial migration routes that insects and host trees have followed in the last 15,000 BP has been suggested in many studies. Finally, a future perspective of how next generation sequencing will influence the resolution of phylogeographic patterns in the coming years is presented. Utilization of such novel

  2. Severe White Pine Blister Rust Infection in Whitebark Pine Alters Mountain Pine Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attack Density, Emergence Rate, and Body Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Edith M; Six, Diana L

    2015-10-01

    Exotic tree pathogens can cause devastating ecological effects on forests that can be exacerbated when infections increase the likelihood of attack by insects. Current high rates of mortality of whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis Engelm.) are due to white pine blister rust caused by the exotic fungus, Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch, and the native mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). These two mortality agents interact in whitebark pine; mountain pine beetle preferentially selects white pine blister rust-infected whitebark pine over healthy trees, and likelihood of attack has been observed to increase with infection severity. We examined attack and emergence rates, and size and sex ratio of mountain pine beetle in whitebark pines exhibiting varying white pine blister rust infection severities. Mountain pine beetle attack density was lowest on the most severely infected trees, but emergence rates and size of beetles from these trees were greater than those from uninfected and less severely infected trees. Low attack rates on severely infected whitebark pine may indicate these trees have lower defenses and that fewer beetle attacks are needed to kill them. Higher beetle emergence rates from severely infected trees may be due to low intraspecific competition resulting from low attack rates or differences in nutrient quality. PMID:26314009

  3. Assessing forest vulnerability and the potential distribution of pine beetles under current and future climate scenarios in the Interior West of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, P.H.; Kumar, S.; Stohlgren, T.J.; Young, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate forest vulnerability and potential distribution of three bark beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) under current and projected climate conditions for 2020 and 2050. Our study focused on the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), western pine beetle (Dendroctonus brevicomis), and pine engraver (Ips pini). This study was conducted across eight states in the Interior West of the US covering approximately 2.2millionkm2 and encompassing about 95% of the Rocky Mountains in the contiguous US. Our analyses relied on aerial surveys of bark beetle outbreaks that occurred between 1991 and 2008. Occurrence points for each species were generated within polygons created from the aerial surveys. Current and projected climate scenarios were acquired from the WorldClim database and represented by 19 bioclimatic variables. We used Maxent modeling technique fit with occurrence points and current climate data to model potential beetle distributions and forest vulnerability. Three available climate models, each having two emission scenarios, were modeled independently and results averaged to produce two predictions for 2020 and two predictions for 2050 for each analysis. Environmental parameters defined by current climate models were then used to predict conditions under future climate scenarios, and changes in different species' ranges were calculated. Our results suggested that the potential distribution for bark beetles under current climate conditions is extensive, which coincides with infestation trends observed in the last decade. Our results predicted that suitable habitats for the mountain pine beetle and pine engraver beetle will stabilize or decrease under future climate conditions, while habitat for the western pine beetle will continue to increase over time. The greatest increase in habitat area was for the western pine beetle, where one climate model predicted a 27% increase by 2050. In contrast, the predicted habitat of the

  4. Pheromone production in bark beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomquist, Gary J; Figueroa-Teran, Rubi; Aw, Mory; Song, Minmin; Gorzalski, Andrew; Abbott, Nicole L; Chang, Eric; Tittiger, Claus

    2010-10-01

    have much higher basal levels than in females, and feeding induces their expression. In I. duplicatus and I. pini, juvenile hormone III (JH III) induces pheromone production in the absence of feeding, whereas in I. paraconfusus and I. confusus, topically applied JH III does not induce pheromone production. In all four species, feeding induces pheromone production. While many of the details of pheromone production, including the site of synthesis, pathways and knowledge of the enzymes involved are known for Ips, less is known about pheromone production in Dendroctonus. Functional genomics studies are under way in D. ponderosae, which should rapidly increase our understanding of pheromone production in this genus. This chapter presents a historical development of what is known about pheromone production in bark beetles, emphasizes the genomic and post-genomic work in I. pini and points out areas where research is needed to obtain a more complete understanding of pheromone production. PMID:20727970

  5. Mountain pine beetles and emerging issues in the management of woodland caribou in Westcentral British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cichowski

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tweedsmuir—Entiako caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou herd summers in mountainous terrain in the North Tweedsmuir Park area and winters mainly in low elevation forests in the Entiako area of Westcentral British Columbia. During winter, caribou select mature lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta forests on poor sites and forage primarily by cratering through snow to obtain terrestrial lichens. These forests are subject to frequent large-scale natural disturbance by fire and forest insects. Fire suppression has been effective in reducing large-scale fires in the Entiako area for the last 40—50 years, resulting in a landscape consisting primarily of older lodgepole pine forests, which are susceptible to mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae attack. In 1994, mountain pine beetles were detected in northern Tweedsmuir Park and adjacent managed forests. To date, mountain pine beetles have attacked several hundred thousand hectares of caribou summer and winter range in the vicinity of Tweedsmuir Park, and Entiako Park and Protected Area. Because an attack of this scale is unprecedented on woodland caribou ranges, there is no information available on the effects of mountain pine beetles on caribou movements, habitat use or terrestrial forage lichen abundance. Implications of the mountain pine beetle epidemic to the Tweedsmuir—Entiako woodland caribou population include effects on terrestrial lichen abundance, effects on caribou movement (reduced snow interception, blowdown, and increased forest harvesting outside protected areas for mountain pine beetle salvage. In 2001 we initiated a study to investigate the effects of mountain pine beetles and forest harvesting on terrestrial caribou forage lichens. Preliminary results suggest that the abundance of Cladina spp. has decreased with a corresponding increase in kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and other herbaceous plants. Additional studies are required to determine caribou movement and

  6. Using pheromones to protect heat-injured lodgepole pine from mountain pine beetle infestation. Forest Service research note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amman, G.D.; Ryan, K.C.

    1994-01-01

    The bark beetle antiaggregative pheromones, verbenone and ipsdienol, were tested in protecting heat-injured lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud.) from mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) infestation in the Sawtooth National Recreation Area in central Idaho. Peat moss was placed around 70 percent of the basal circumference of lodgepole pines. When the peat moss was ignited, it simulated the smoldering of natural duff, generating temperatures that killed the cambium. The four treatments tested were uninjured tree, heat-injured tree, heat-injured tree treated with verbenone, and heat-injured tree treated with verbenone plus ipsdienol. Treatments were replicated 20 times. Mountain pine beetles were attracted into treatment blocks by placing mountain pine beetle tree baits on metal posts 3 to 5 meters from treated trees. Fisher's Extract Test showed that treatment and beetle infestation were not independent (P < 0.015). Check treatments contained more unattacked and mass-attacked trees, whereas pheromone treatments contained more unsuccessfully attacked trees.

  7. Impact of Forest Fragmentation on Patterns of Mountain Pine Beetle-Caused Tree Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisalyn A. Nelson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The current outbreak of mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins, has led to extensive tree mortality in British Columbia and the western United States. While the greatest impacts of the outbreak have been in British Columbia, ongoing impacts are expected as the outbreak continues to spread eastward towards Canada’s boreal and eastern pine forests. Successful mitigation of this outbreak is dependent on understanding how the beetle’s host selection behaviour is influenced by the patchwork of tree mortality across the landscape. While several studies have shown that selective mechanisms operate at the individual tree level, less attention has been given to beetles’ preference for variation in spatial forest patterns, namely forest fragmentation, and if such preference changes with changing population conditions. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of fragmentation on the location of mountain pine beetle caused mortality. Using a negative binomial regression model, we tested the significance of a fragmentation measure called the Aggregation Index for predicting beetle-caused tree mortality in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada in 2000 and 2005. The results explain that mountain pine beetle OPEN ACCESS Forests 2013, 4 280 exhibit a density-dependent dynamic behaviour related to forest patterns, with fragmented forests experiencing greater tree mortality when beetle populations are low (2000. Conversely, more contiguous forests are preferred when populations reach epidemic levels (2005. These results reinforce existing findings that bark beetles exhibit a strong host configuration preference at low population levels and that such pressures are relaxed when beetle densities are high.

  8. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  9. Effects of a Severe Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in Western Alberta, Canada under Two Forest Management Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Farr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We used a simulation model to investigate possible effects of a severe mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins epidemic under two management scenarios in Alberta, Canada. Our simulated outbreak was based on the current epidemic in British Columbia, which may kill close to 80% of the province's pine volume. Our two management scenarios were conventional harvest and a pine-reduction strategy modeled on a component of Alberta's Mountain Pine Beetle Management Strategy. The pine strategy seeks to reduce the number of susceptible pine stands by 75% over the next 20 years through targeted harvesting by the forest industry. Our simulations showed that the pine strategy could not be effectively implemented, even if the onset of the beetle outbreak was delayed for 20 years. Even though we increased mill capacity by 20% and directed all harvesting to high volume pine stands during the pine strategy's surge cut, the amount of highly susceptible pine was reduced by only 43%. Additional pine volume remained within mixed stands that were not targeted by the pine strategy. When the outbreak occurred in each scenario, sufficient pine remained on the landscape for the beetle to cause the timber supply to collapse. Alternative management approaches and avenues for future research are discussed.

  10. Commercial thinning of mature lodgepole pine to reduce susceptibility to mountain pine beetle. FRDA report No. 224, and FERIC special report No. SR-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents results of a study conducted to examine the effect of commercial thinning and fertilizing of lodgepole pine on attack by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosa Hopk.). At three study sites in the Cranbrook and Invermere Forest Districts of British Columbia, the researchers compared three harvesting treatments to an uncut control: a clearcut and commercial thins leaving trees at about 4- or 5-meter spacings. Equipment used included conventional hand-falling plus line skidders and crawler tractors, or mechanical systems including a feller-buncher, grapple-skidder, and excavator-mounted processor. The report documents the productivity and costs of the commercial thinning and clearcut harvesting operations, and compares the productivity of the equipment and practices used during the harvesting phase on each treatment. It also examines the operational feasibility of commercial thinning.

  11. A Tale of Two Forests: Simulating Contrasting Lodgepole Pine and Spruce Forest Water and Carbon Fluxes Following Mortality from Bark Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, B. E.; Peckham, S. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Pendall, E.; Frank, J. M.; Massman, W. J.; Reed, D. E.; Borkhuu, B.

    2014-12-01

    In recent decades, bark beetle infestation in western North America has reached epidemic levels. The resulting widespread forest mortality may have profound effects on present and future water and carbon cycling with potential negative consequences to a region that relies on water from montane and subalpine watersheds. We simulated stand-level ecosystem fluxes of water and carbon at two bark beetle-attacked conifer forests in southeast Wyoming, USA. The lower elevation site dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was attacked by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) during 2008-2010. The high elevation Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii) dominated site was attacked by the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) during roughly the same time period. Both beetle infestations resulted in >60% canopy mortality in the footprint of eddy covariance towers located at each site. However, carbon and water fluxes responses to mortality depended on the forest type. Using data collected at the sites, we scaled simulated plant hydraulic conductivity by either percent canopy mortality or loss of live tree basal area during infestation. We also simulated a case of no beetle attack. At the lodgepole site, the no-beetle model best fit the data and showed no significant change in growing season carbon flux and a 15% decrease in evapotranspiration (ET). However, at the spruce site, the simulation that tracked canopy loss agreed best with observations: carbon flux decreased by 72% and ET decreased by 31%. In the lodgepole stand, simulated soil water content agreed with spatially distributed measurements that were weighted to reflect overall mortality in the tower footprint. Although these two forest ecosystems are only 20 km apart, separated by less than 300m in elevation, and have been impacted by similar mortality agents, the associated changes in carbon and water cycling are significantly different. Beetle effects on hydrologic cycling were greatest at high elevation

  12. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Hu; Jiamin Yu; Chunyan Wang; Hui Chen

    2014-01-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria a...

  13. Spatial genetic structure of a symbiotic beetle-fungal system: toward multi-taxa integrated landscape genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M A James

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of genetic variation in interacting species can identify shared features that are important to gene flow and can elucidate co-evolutionary relationships. We assessed concordance in spatial genetic variation between the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae and one of its fungal symbionts, Grosmanniaclavigera, in western Canada using neutral genetic markers. We examined how spatial heterogeneity affects genetic variation within beetles and fungi and developed a novel integrated landscape genetics approach to assess reciprocal genetic influences between species using constrained ordination. We also compared landscape genetic models built using Euclidean distances based on allele frequencies to traditional pair-wise Fst. Both beetles and fungi exhibited moderate levels of genetic structure over the total study area, low levels of structure in the south, and more pronounced fungal structure in the north. Beetle genetic variation was associated with geographic location while that of the fungus was not. Pinevolume and climate explained beetle genetic variation in the northern region of recent outbreak expansion. Reciprocal genetic relationships were only detectedin the south where there has been alonger history of beetle infestations. The Euclidean distance and Fst-based analyses resulted in similar models in the north and over the entire study area, but differences between methods in the south suggest that genetic distances measures should be selected based on ecological and evolutionary contexts. The integrated landscape genetics framework we present is powerful, general, and can be applied to other systems to quantify the biotic and abiotic determinants of spatial genetic variation within and among taxa.

  14. Volatile compounds in the larval frass ofDendroctonus valens andDendroctonus micans (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in relation to oviposition by the predator,Rhizophagus grandis (Coleoptera: Rhizophagidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grégoire, J C; Baisier, M; Drumont, A; Dahlsten, D L; Meyer, H; Francke, W

    1991-10-01

    During a laboratory study evaluatingRhizophagus grandis (a specific native predator of the Eurasian bark beetle,Dendroctonus micans), as a potential biocontrol agent against the North American bark beetle,Dendroctonus valens, it was found that feeding larvae and laboratory-produced frass of the potential prey elicited very high oviposition responses in the predator. Comparative chemical analysis of this laboratory-produced larval frass revealed that one major volatile compound, (-)-fenchone, is associated with the larvae of bothDendroctonus species.D. micans also generated pinocamphone while oxygenated monoterpenes in the frass ofD. valens were camphor,cis-4-thujanol, fenchol, terpinen-4-ol, myrtenal, pinocarvone, borneol, verbenone, piperitone, campholenaldehyde,trans-myrtanol,cis-myrtanol,p-cymen-8-ol and 5-oxo-camphor. This range of prey-produced compounds with a possible biological effect onR. grandis was narrowed down subsequent to comparative analysis of field-collected larval frass. (-)-Fenchone, pinocamphone, camphor, terpinen-4-ol, borneol, fenchol, and verbenone were found to be common to both prey species. A mixture of these seven components was tested in a bioassay, where it elicited as much oviposition as did larval frass ofD. micans. The oviposition stimulants forR. grandis are thus clearly among the mixture's constituents. PMID:24258494

  15. Fatty Acid Composition of Novel Host Jack Pine Do Not Prevent Host Acceptance and Colonization by the Invasive Mountain Pine Beetle and Its Symbiotic Fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishangulyyeva, Guncha; Najar, Ahmed; Curtis, Jonathan M; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2016-01-01

    Fatty acids are major components of plant lipids and can affect growth and development of insect herbivores. Despite a large literature examining the roles of fatty acids in conifers, relatively few studies have tested the effects of fatty acids on insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts. Particularly, whether fatty acids can affect the suitability of conifers for insect herbivores has never been studied before. Thus, we evaluated if composition of fatty acids impede or facilitate colonization of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) by the invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) and its symbiotic fungus (Grosmannia clavigera). This is the first study to examine the effects of tree fatty acids on any bark beetle species and its symbiotic fungus. In a novel bioassay, we found that plant tissues (hosts and non-host) amended with synthetic fatty acids at concentrations representative of jack pine were compatible with beetle larvae. Likewise, G. clavigera grew in media amended with lipid fractions or synthetic fatty acids at concentrations present in jack pine. In contrast, fatty acids and lipid composition of a non-host were not suitable for the beetle larvae or the fungus. Apparently, concentrations of individual, rather than total, fatty acids determined the suitability of jack pine. Furthermore, sampling of host and non-host tree species across Canada demonstrated that the composition of jack pine fatty acids was similar to the different populations of beetle's historical hosts. These results demonstrate that fatty acids composition compatible with insect herbivores and their microbial symbionts can be important factor defining host suitability to invasive insects. PMID:27583820

  16. Responses by Dendroctonus frontalis and Dendroctonus mesoamericanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Semiochemical Lures in Chiapas, Mexico: Possible Roles of Pheromones During Joint Host Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    In southern Mexico and Central America, the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) commonly colonizes host trees simultaneously with Dendroctonus mesoamericanus Armendáriz-Toledano and Sullivan, a recently described sibling species. We hypothesized that cross-species pheromone responses by host-seeking beetles might mediate joint mass attack, bole partitioning, and reproductive isolation between the species. Previous studies had indicated that D. frontalis females produce frontalin and that female D. mesoamericanus produce frontalin, endo-brevicomin, and ipsdienol (males of both species produce endo-brevicomin and possibly ipsdienol). In field trapping trials in the Mexican state of Chiapas, D. frontalis was attracted to the lure combination of turpentine and racemic frontalin; racemic endo-brevicomin enhanced this response. In a single test, D. mesoamericanus was attracted in low numbers to the combination of turpentine, racemic frontalin, and racemic endo-brevicomin after the addition of racemic ipsdienol; in contrast, racemic ipsdienol reduced responses of D. frontalis. Inhibition of D. frontalis was generated in both sexes by (+)- and racemic ipsdienol, but by (−)-ipsdienol only in females. Logs infested with D. mesoamericanus females (the pioneer sex in Dendroctonus) attracted both species in greater numbers than either D. frontalis female-infested or uninfested logs. Our data imply that D. frontalis may be more attracted to pioneer attacks of D. mesoamericanus females, and that this could be owing to the presence of endo-brevicomin in the latter. Possible intra- and inter-specific functions of semiochemicals investigated in our experiments are discussed. PMID:26803816

  17. Impact of mountain pine beetle induced mortality on forest carbon and water fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantifying impacts of ecological disturbance on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes will improve predictive understanding of biosphere—atmosphere feedbacks. Tree mortality caused by mountain pine bark beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) is hypothesized to decrease photosynthesis and water flux to the atmosphere while increasing respiration at a rate proportional to mortality. This work uses data from an eddy-covariance flux tower in a bark beetle infested lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) forest to test ecosystem responses during the outbreak. Analyses were conducted on components of carbon (C) and water fluxes in response to disturbance and environmental factors (solar radiation, soil water content and vapor pressure deficit). Maximum CO2 uptake did not change as tree basal area mortality increased from 30 to 78% over three years of beetle disturbance. Growing season evapotranspiration varied among years while ecosystem water use efficiency (the ratio of net CO2 uptake to water vapor loss) did not change. Between 2009 and 2011, canopy water conductance increased from 98.6 to 151.7 mmol H2O m−2 s−1. Ecosystem light use efficiency of photosynthesis increased, with quantum yield increasing by 16% during the outbreak as light increased below the mature tree canopy and illuminated remaining vegetation more. Overall net ecosystem productivity was correlated with water flux and hence water availability. Average weekly ecosystem respiration, derived from light response curves and standard Ameriflux protocols for CO2 flux partitioning into respiration and gross ecosystem productivity, did not change as mortality increased. Separate effects of increased respiration and photosynthesis efficiency largely canceled one another out, presumably due to increased diffuse light in the canopy and soil organic matter decomposition resulting in no change in net CO2 exchange. These results agree with an emerging consensus in the literature demonstrating CO2 and H2O dynamics following

  18. Mapping Mountain Pine Beetle Mortality through Growth Trend Analysis of Time-Series Landsat Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Liang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances are key processes in the carbon cycle of forests and other ecosystems. In recent decades, mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae outbreaks have become more frequent and extensive in western North America. Remote sensing has the ability to fill the data gaps of long-term infestation monitoring, but the elimination of observational noise and attributing changes quantitatively are two main challenges in its effective application. Here, we present a forest growth trend analysis method that integrates Landsat temporal trajectories and decision tree techniques to derive annual forest disturbance maps over an 11-year period. The temporal trajectory component successfully captures the disturbance events as represented by spectral segments, whereas decision tree modeling efficiently recognizes and attributes events based upon the characteristics of the segments. Validated against a point set sampled across a gradient of MPB mortality, 86.74% to 94.00% overall accuracy was achieved with small variability in accuracy among years. In contrast, the overall accuracies of single-date classifications ranged from 37.20% to 75.20% and only become comparable with our approach when the training sample size was increased at least four-fold. This demonstrates that the advantages of this time series work flow exist in its small training sample size requirement. The easily understandable, interpretable and modifiable characteristics of our approach suggest that it could be applicable to other ecoregions.

  19. Mountain pine beetle develops an unprecedented summer generation in response to climate warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Jeffry B; Ferrenberg, Scott M

    2012-05-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) is native to western North America, attacks most trees of the genus Pinus, and periodically erupts in epidemics. The current epidemic of the MPB is an order of magnitude larger than any previously recorded, reaching trees at higher elevation and latitude than ever before. Here we show that after 2 decades of air-temperature increases in the Colorado Front Range, the MPB flight season begins more than 1 month earlier than and is approximately twice as long as the historically reported season. We also report, for the first time, that the life cycle in some broods has increased from one to two generations per year. Because MPBs do not diapause and their development is controlled by temperature, they are responding to climate change through faster development. The expansion of the MPB into previously inhospitable environments, combined with the measured ability to increase reproductive output in such locations, indicates that the MPB is tracking climate change, exacerbating the current epidemic. PMID:22504550

  20. Pulpability of beetle-killed spruce. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, G.M.; Bormett, D.W.; Sutherland, N.R.; Abubakr, S.; Lowell, E.

    1996-08-01

    Infestation of the Dendroctonus rufipennis beetle has resulted in large stands of dead and dying timber on the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska. Tests were conducted to evaluate the value of beetle-killed spruce as pulpwood. The results showed that live and dead spruce wood can be pulped effectively. The two least deteriorated classes and the most deteriorated class of logs had similar characteristics when pulped; the remaining class had somewhat poorer pulpability.

  1. Nematode parasites and associates of Dendroctonus spp. and Trypodendron lineatum (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with a description of Bursaphelenchus varicauda n.sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Thong, Cyril H. S.; Webster, John M.

    1983-01-01

    Nematode parasites and associates of four bark beetle species in British Columbia were surveyed. Bursaphelenchus varicauda n.sp., Ektaphelenchus macrostylus, Panagrolaimus dentatus, and Cryptaphelenchus latus were found associated with Dendroctonus pseudotsugae. Parasitorhabditis obtusa was found in the gut and Contortylenchus reversus in the hemocoel of both D. pseudotsugae and D. rufipennis. The latter also had hemocoel infections of Sphaerulariopsis dendroetoni, which were not found concom...

  2. White Spruce Regeneration Following a Major Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Forests on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between 1987 and 2000, a spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) epidemic infested 1.19 million hectares of spruce (Picea spp.) forests in Alaska, killing most of the large diameter trees. We evaluated whether these forests would recover to their pre-outbreak density, and determined the site conditi...

  3. Resource release in lodgepole pine across a chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, B. H.; Trahan, N. A.; Dynes, E.; Beatty, S. W.; Monson, R. K.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade and a half Western North America has experienced a mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak on a scale not previously recorded. Millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in high elevation forests have been devastated. Although bark beetles are an important part of the endemic disturbance and regeneration regime in this region, the current unprecedented level of tree mortality will have a significant impact on resources and light availability to surviving trees. We established a decade-long chronosequence of mountain pine beetle disturbance, in a lodgepole stand, composed of three age classes: recent, intermediate, and longest (approximately 2-4, 5-7, 8-10 years respectively) time since initial infestation, as well as a control group. The focus of the study was a healthy tree and it's area of influence (1m radius from the bole), each located in a cluster of the respective chronosequence classes. In the 2011 growing season we have looked at rates of photosynthesis, and water potentials for the healthy trees, as well as soil respiration flux and gravimetric moisture in their areas of influence. We are also in the process of analyzing soil extractable dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and inorganic phosphorus, and plan to take hemispherical photographs and analyze tree-ring stable isotopes to determine if there is any reallocation of soil water use by the trees. Our data shows that photosynthetic rates in the youngest infestation class increase 10 percent over the control group and then falls well bellow the control by the oldest class. The mineral soil gravimetric moisture drastically increases between the control and the recent class and then maintains a consistently higher level through the remaining classes. In contrast, moisture in the organic soil significantly declines between the control and recent class before rebounding to pre-infestation levels in the two older classes. Soil

  4. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with the Gut of Dendroctonus armandi Larvae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Hu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to investigate the cellulolytic bacterial community in the intestine of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi larvae. A total of 91 cellulolytic bacteria were isolated and assigned to 11 genotypes using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA. Partial 16S rDNA sequence analysis and morphological tests were used to assign the 11 representative isolates. The results showed that the isolates belonged to α-Proteobacteria, γ-Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Members of γ-Proteobacteria were the most frequently represented species and accounted for 73.6% of all the cellulolytic bacteria. The majority of cellulolytic bacteria in D. armandi larva gut were identified as Serratia and accounted for 49.5%, followed by Pseudomonas, which accounted for 22%. In addition, members of Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Paenibacillus, Pseudoxanthomonas, Methylobacterium and Sphingomonas were found in the D. armandi larva gut. Brevundimonas kwangchunensis, Brevundimonas vesicularis, Methylobacterium populi and Pseudoxanthomonas mexicana were reported to be cellulolytic for the first time in this study. Information generated from the present study might contribute towards understanding the relationship between bark beetle and its gut flora.

  5. Evaluation of Beauveria bassiana (Hyphomycetes) isolates as potential agents for control of Dendroctonus valens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long-Wa Zhang; Yu-Jun Liu; Jian Yao; Bin Wang; Bo Huang; Zeng-Zhi Li; Mei-Zhen Fan; Jiang-Hua Sun

    2011-01-01

    The red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, as a destructive invasive pest, has become one of the most economically important forest pest in China. Effective control measures are desperately needed. Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Beauveria bassiana, have shown great potential for the management of some bark beetle species. In this study, 12 isolates of B. bassiana from bark beetle were examined for biological characteristics and virulence, to assess their potential as biocontrol agents for RTB. There were significant differences (at P = 0.05) in colony growth rate, conidial yield, conidial germination, tolerance to UV light and extracellular proteases activity among the tested B. bassiana isolates. Isolates, including Bbl801, Bbl906, Bb789 and Bb773, exhibited the best characteristics, because they have faster hyphal growth rate, higher spore production and faster spore germination, higher UV tolerance and protease (Prl) production. The results of a pathogenicity test of B. bassiana on RTB larvae showed that most isolates of B. bassiana have demonstrated high efficacy and the highest virulent isolate was Bbl801, which killed 100% of the treated insects and had a median lethal time (LT50) of 4.60 days at a concentration of 1× 107 conidia/mL. Therefore, isolate Bb 1801 has a great potential for sustainable control of RTB in the forest. The correlation between biological characteristics and virulence of the fungal isolates is discussed and the possibility of combination of entomopathogenic fungi with semiochemicals, as one of the promising strategy for RTB control, is considered.

  6. Impact of the Mountain Pine Beetle on the Forest Carbon Cycle in British Columbia from 1999 TO 2008 (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Czurylowicz, P.; Mo, G.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    The unprecedented mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) (MPB) outbreak in British Columbia starting in 1998 affected about 50% of the lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) forests occupying about 50% of the land area of the province. The impact of this outbreak on the C cycle is assessed in this study. Annual leaf area index (LAI) maps of the affected area from 1999 to 2008 were produced using SPOT VEGETATION data, and net ecosystem production (NEP) was modeled using inputs of LAI, land cover, soil texture and daily meteorological data with the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). Both LAI and NEP were validated using field measurements. LAI was found to decrease on average by 20% compared to pre-outbreak conditions, while NEP decreased on average by 90%. Annual NEP values ranged from 2.4 to -8.0 Tg C between 1999 and 2008, with the ecosystem changing from a carbon sink to a carbon source in 2000. The annual average NEP was -2.9 Tg C over the 10 years, resulting in a total loss of carbon of 29 Tg C to the atmosphere. The inter-annual variability of both LAI and NEP was characterized by substantial initial decreases followed by steady increases from 2006 to 2008 with NEP returning to near carbon neutrality in 2008 (-1.8 Pg C/y). The impact of this MPB outbreak appears to be less dramatic than previously anticipated. The apparent fast recovery of LAI and NEP after MPB attacks is examined under the framework of ecosystem resilience which was manifested in the form of secondary overstory and understory growth and increased production of non-attacked host trees.

  7. Seed release in serotinous lodgepole pine forests after mountain pine beetle outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teste, François P; Lieffers, Victor J; Landhausser, Simon M

    2011-01-01

    burial; cone opening; Dendroctonus ponderosae; ground-foraging vertebrates; mountain pine beetle; natural regeneration; Pinus contorta var. latifolia; Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine; seed banks; serotiny (canopy seed storage); Tamiasciurus hudsonicus. PMID:21516894

  8. Asparagus Beetle and Spotted Asparagus Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Erin W Hodgson; Drost, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Asparagus beetle, Crioceris asparagi, and spotted asparagus beetle, C. duodecimpunctata are leaf beetles in the family Chrysomelidae. These beetles feed exclusively on asparagus and are native to Europe. Asparagus beetle is the more economically injurious of the two species.

  9. Simulated impacts of mountain pine beetle and wildfire disturbances on forest vegetation composition and carbon stocks in the Southern Rocky Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Caldwell

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Forests play an important role in sequestering carbon and offsetting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but changing disturbance regimes may compromise the capability of forests to store carbon. In the Southern Rocky Mountains, a recent outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae; MPB has caused levels of tree mortality that are unprecedented in recorded history. To evaluate the long-term impacts of both this insect outbreak and another characteristic disturbance in these forests, high-severity wildfire, we simulated potential changes in species composition and carbon stocks using the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS. Simulations were completed for 3 scenarios (no disturbance, actual MPB infestation, and modeled wildfire using field data collected in 2010 at 97 plots in the lodgepole pine-dominated forests of eastern Grand County, Colorado, which were heavily impacted by MPB after 2002. Results of the simulations showed that (1 lodgepole pine remained dominant over time in all scenarios, with basal area recovering to pre-disturbance levels 70–80 yr after disturbance; (2 wildfire caused a greater magnitude of change than did MPB in both patterns of succession and distribution of carbon among biomass pools; (3 levels of standing-live carbon returned to pre-disturbance conditions after 40 vs. 50 yr following MPB vs. wildfire disturbance, respectively, but took 120 vs. 150 yr to converge with conditions in the undisturbed scenario. Lodgepole pine forests appear to be relatively resilient to both of the disturbances we modeled, although changes in climate, future disturbance regimes, and other factors may significantly affect future rates of regeneration and ecosystem response.

  10. Influence of water deficit on the molecular responses of Pinus contorta × Pinus banksiana mature trees to infection by the mountain pine beetle fungal associate, Grosmannia clavigera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Velez, Adriana; González, Leonardo M Galindo; Meents, Miranda J; El Kayal, Walid; Cooke, Barry J; Linsky, Jean; Lusebrink, Inka; Cooke, Janice E K

    2014-11-01

    Conifers exhibit a number of constitutive and induced mechanisms to defend against attack by pests and pathogens such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) and their fungal associates. Ecological studies have demonstrated that stressed trees are more susceptible to attack by mountain pine beetle than their healthy counterparts. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that water deficit affects constitutive and induced responses of mature lodgepole pine × jack pine hybrids (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Wats. × Pinus banksiana Lamb.) to inoculation with the mountain pine beetle fungal associate Grosmannia clavigera (Robinson-Jeffrey and Davidson) Zipfel, de Beer and Wingfield. The degree of stress induced by the imposed water-deficit treatment was sufficient to reduce photosynthesis. Grosmannia clavigera-induced lesions exhibited significantly reduced dimensions in water-deficit trees relative to well-watered trees at 5 weeks after inoculation. Treatment-associated cellular-level changes in secondary phloem were also observed. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to analyze transcript abundance profiles of 18 genes belonging to four families classically associated with biotic and abiotic stress responses: aquaporins (AQPs), dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB), terpene synthases (TPSs) and chitinases (CHIs). Transcript abundance profiles of a TIP2 AQP and a TINY-like DREB decreased significantly in fungus-inoculated trees, but not in response to water deficit. One TPS, Pcb(+)-3-carene synthase, and the Class II CHIs PcbCHI2.1 and PcbCHI2.2 showed increased expression under water-deficit conditions in the absence of fungal inoculation, while another TPS, Pcb(E)-β-farnesene synthase-like, and two CHIs, PcbCHI1.1 and PcbCHI4.1, showed attenuated expression under water-deficit conditions in the presence of fungal inoculation. The effects were observed both locally and systemically. These results demonstrate

  11. Using lake sediment records to reconstruct bark beetle disturbances in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Lee Morris

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent outbreak of native bark beetles in western North America is unprecedented in severity and scale, at least during the historical period. The aim of this work is to develop a proxy-based methodology to understand how bark beetle disturbances are recorded in lake sediments. Three hypotheses are tested to determine how the ecological impacts of severe spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis disturbances are recorded following mortality of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii. Outbreaks are hypothesized to: (1 decrease the ratio of spruce to fir pollen; (2 increase soil erosion and mobilize terrestrial C; and (3 leach foliar N, enhancing algal productivity. To test these hypotheses, sediment cores from spruce beetle-affected basins were analyzed for pollen, insect remains, organic and minerogenic content, and isotopic and elemental concentrations. The dataset was tested statistically using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs to determine if the response variables differed significantly between outbreak and non-outbreak periods. 

  12. Nematode parasites and associates of Dendroctonus spp. and Trypodendron lineatum (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), with a description of Bursaphelenchus varicauda n.sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, C H; Webster, J M

    1983-04-01

    Nematode parasites and associates of four bark beetle species in British Columbia were surveyed. Bursaphelenchus varicauda n.sp., Ektaphelenchus macrostylus, Panagrolaimus dentatus, and Cryptaphelenchus latus were found associated with Dendroctonus pseudotsugae. Parasitorhabditis obtusa was found in the gut and Contortylenchus reversus in the hemocoel of both D. pseudotsugae and D. rufipennis. The latter also had hemocoel infections of Sphaerulariopsis dendroetoni, which were not found concomitant with C. reversus infections. Contortylenchus brevicomi occurred in the hemocoel of D. brevicomis. The first report of a tylenchid larva parasitizing Trypodendron lineatum in North America is presented. Bursaphelenchus varicauda n.sp. was obtained from the gallery frass of D. pseudotsugae. It resembles B. corneolus and B. bestiolus but differs from the former species in female tail shape, the position of the excretory pore, spicule shape, and position of the male caudal papillae, and from the latter species in spicule shape and in the length of the esophagus and postuterine sac. PMID:19295808

  13. Respuesta kairomonal de coleópteros asociados a Dendroctonus frontalis y dos especies de Ips (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en bosques de Chiapas, México Kairomonal response of coleopterans associated with Dendroctonus frontalis and two Ips species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest of Chiapas, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Domínguez-Sánchez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la diversidad de escarabajos descortezadores y la respuesta diferencial de sus coleópteros asociados a feromonas comerciales de agregación, en bosques de pino del estado de Chiapas, México. Durante los meses de junio a octubre del 2006, se colocaron 40 trampas multiembudo tipo Lindgren cebadas con las feromonas racémicas frontalina, ipsenol e ipsdienol y un testigo (sin feromona. La captura fue más abundante para los escarabajos descortezadores Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann con frontalina, y de Ips spp. con ipsenol e ipsdienol. Se registró respuesta kairomonal específica de los depredadores Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr y Elacatis sp. hacia las feromonas de agregación. Tanto para descortezadores como para depredadores, las mayores abundancias fueron registradas durante el verano y a comienzos del otoño. Temmnochila chlorodia exhibió una atracción diferencial hacia los semioquímicos evaluados, mientras que E. ablusus, Elacatis sp. y Leptostylus sp. fueron atraídos principalmente por las feromonas ipsenol e ipsdienol. Además, por primera vez para México se determinó la respuesta kairomonal del fitófago Leptostylus sp. (Cerambycidae. Estos resultados indican que hay una comunicación intra e inter específica entre los escarabajos descortezadores y sus especies asociadas que promueven interacciones de competencia y depredación.We assessed the bark beetle diversity and the response of associated predators to aggregation pheromones in pine forests in Chiapas, Mexico. From June to October 2006, 40 Lindgren funnel traps were established with different baits that included frontalin, ipsenol and ipsdienol pheromones and a control (without pheromone. We registered the attractiveness of frontalin to the bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis (Zimmermann, and ipsenol and ipsdienol to Ips spp. Kairomonal specific response of the predators Temnochila chlorodia (Mannerheim, Enoclerus ablusus (Barr and

  14. Colonization of disturbed trees by the southern pine bark beetle guild (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamm, R.O.; Pulley, P.E.; Coulson, R.N. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The southern pine bark beetle guild [Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann, D. terebrans (Olivier), Ips calligraphus (Germar), I. grandicollis (Eichhoff), and I. avulsus (Eichhoff)] uses disturbed hosts as habitat for establishment of within-tree populations. The process of colonization of disturbed hosts was examined. Using a procedure designed to emulate effects of a lightning strike, pines were severely disturbed. Response was characterized by measuring beetle populations that (1) arrived at the trees and (2) successfully attacked the trees. Establishment of within-tree populations was characterized by measuring length of egg gallery excavated by attacking adults. The time delay between arrival and attack for D. frontalis and I. calligraphus was also calculated. Attack densities of both species became asymptotic as arrival increased. The percentage of arriving beetles that attacked ranged from 9 to 41 for D. frontalis and from 8 to 59 for I. calligraphus. Numbers of beetles that arrived at the tree but did not attack ranged from 2.7 to 50.2 beetles per dm[sup 2] for D. frontalis and from 0.2 to 10.0 beetles per dm[sup 2] for I. calligraphus. Most D. frontalis and I. calligraphus attacked on the day they arrived. The delay between arrival and attack was longer for I. calligraphus than the D. frontalis. Egg gallery excavated by D. frontalis increased throughout the study. Eventually, the Ips species were excluded from the lower half of the hole. The low attack densities observed in this study illustrate the significance of disturbed trees in providing refuges for enzootic levels of bark beetles. The aggregation behavior of beetle populations colonizing disturbed hosts supported the contention that these trees serve as foci for initiation of infestations. Furthermore, in disturbed pines, small numbers of beetles were capable of overcoming host defense systems.

  15. The mountain pine beetle in western North America: Management challenges in an era of altered disturbance regimes and changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an eruptive forest insect that is widely distributed in western North America. Throughout its range, it breeds in virtually all Pinus spp., but due to the size, intensity and commercial impact of epidemics, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) is considered its primary host. MPB preferentially attacks mature, large-diameter trees where it feeds and reproduces within the phloem. Successful colonisation of a tree almost always results in tree death. Although MPB populations have erupted several times in the past, the latest outbreak that began in 1992 in British Columbia (BC), Canada has reached levels that are nearly an order of magnitude greater than any previously recorded. Indeed, the cumulative area impacted comprises nearly 9 million ha of lodgepole pine forests. For a MPB outbreak to occur, two main conditions must be satisfied; there must be (i) an abundance of susceptible host trees, and (ii) a sustained period of favourable weather. Both of these conditions have coincided in recent years in western North America. Moreover, evidence suggests that these conditions have been exacerbated by anthropogenic activities. Lodgepole pine-dominated forests cover approximately 14 million ha of BC. Virtually all of these forests originated from stand-replacing wild fires. However, due to aggressive fire suppression, the average yearly area burned in these forests has declined from ca. 100,000 ha to <10,000 ha during last five decades. This dramatic reduction in the rate of disturbance has allowed pine forests to age such that nearly 70% of current stands are ≥80 years old. This is a significantly greater proportion than that expected from a natural wild-fire regime. Since MPB preferentially attacks trees ≥80 years old, fire suppression has dramatically increased the amount of susceptible trees. In fact, it has been estimated that there was 3

  16. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  17. Effects of thinning on temperature dynamics and mountain pine beetle activity in a lodgepole pine stand. Forest Service research paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, D.L.; Booth, G.D.

    1994-12-01

    Temperature measurements were made to better understand the role of microclimate on mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins (Coleoptera:Scolytidae), activity as a result of thinning lodgepole pine stands. Sampling was done over 61 days on the north slope of the Unita Mountain Range in Northeastern Utah. Principal components analysis was applied to all temperature variables. Most of the variation was attributed to two variables, coolest part of the night and hottest part of the day. The thinned stand was approximately 1 deg. C warmer than the unthinned stand.

  18. Ecological restoration of southwestern ponderosa pine ecosystems: A broad perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, C. D.; Savage, M.; Falk, D. A.; Suckling, K. F.; Swetnam, T.W.; Schulke, T.; Stacey, P. B.; Morgan, P.; Hoffman, M; Klingel, J. T.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to promote a broad and flexible perspective on ecological restoration of Southwestern (U.S.) ponderosa pine forests. Ponderosa pine forests in the region have been radically altered by Euro-American land uses, including livestock grazing, fire suppression, and logging. Dense thickets of young trees now abound, old-growth and biodiversity have declined, and human and ecological communities are increasingly vulnerable to destructive crown fires. A consensus has emer...

  19. Restoring Ecosystem Health in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Covington, W. Wallace; Fule, Peter Z; Moore, Margaret M.; Hart, Stephen C.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Mast, Joy N; Sackett, Stephen S; Wagner, Michael R

    1997-01-01

    Previous research has established that presettlement ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests in the southwestern USA were much more open. After Euro-American settlement, heavy livestock grazing, fire suppression, logging and climatic events favored dense pine regeneration. Studies were established within the Fort Valley Experimental Forest, near Flagstaff, Arizona, to determine: how the structure (by biomass component) and nutrient storage changed over the last century of fire exclusion in a...

  20. Modeling mountain pine beetle habitat suitability within Sequoia National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Andrew

    Understanding significant changes in climate and their effects on timber resources can help forest managers make better decisions regarding the preservation of natural resources and land management. These changes may to alter natural ecosystems dependent on historical and current climate conditions. Increasing mountain pine beetle (MBP) outbreaks within the southern Sierra Nevada are the result of these alterations. This study better understands MPB behavior within Sequoia National Park (SNP) and model its current and future habitat distribution. Variables contributing to MPB spread are vegetation stress, soil moisture, temperature, precipitation, disturbance, and presence of Ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa) and Lodgepole (Pinus contorta) pine trees. These variables were obtained using various modeled, insitu, and remotely sensed sources. The generalized additive model (GAM) was used to calculate the statistical significance of each variable contributing to MPB spread and also created maps identifying habitat suitability. Results indicate vegetation stress and forest disturbance to be variables most indicative of MPB spread. Additionally, the model was able to detect habitat suitability of MPB with a 45% accuracy concluding that a geospatial driven modeling approach can be used to delineate potential MPB spread within SNP.

  1. Fire, fuels, and restoration of ponderosa pine-Douglas-fir forests in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, W L; T. T. Veblen; Sherriff, R. L.

    2007-01-01

    Forest restoration in ponderosa pine and mixed ponderosa pine–Douglas fir forests in the US Rocky Mountains has been highly influenced by a historical model of frequent, low-severity surface fires developed for the ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern USA. A restoration model, based on this low-severity fire model, focuses on thinning and prescribed burning to restore historical forest structure. However, in the US Rocky Mountains, research on fire history and forest structure, and earl...

  2. Delayed conifer mortality after fuel reduction treatments: Interactive effects of fuel, fire intensity, and bark beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, A.; Grace, J.B.; Mciver, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Many low-elevation dry forests of the western United States contain more small trees and fewer large trees, more down woody debris, and less diverse and vigorous understory plant communities compared to conditions under historical fire regimes. These altered structural conditions may contribute to increased probability of unnaturally severe wildfires, susceptibility to uncharacteristic insect outbreaks, and drought-related mortality. Broad-scale fuel reduction and restoration treatments are proposed to promote stand development on trajectories toward more sustainable structures. Little research to date, however, has quantified the effects of these treatments on the ecosystem, especially delayed and latent tree mortality resulting directly or indirectly from treatments. In this paper, we explore complex hypotheses relating to the cascade of effects that influence ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) mortality using structural equation modeling (SEM). We used annual census and plot data through six growing seasons after thinning and four growing seasons after burning from a replicated, operational-scale, completely randomized experiment conducted in northeastern Oregon, USA, as part of the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study. Treatments included thin, burn, thin followed by burn (thin+burn), and control. Burn and thin+burn treatments increased the proportion of dead trees while the proportion of dead trees declined or remained constant in thin and control units, although the density of dead trees was essentially unchanged with treatment. Most of the new mortality (96%) occurred within two years of treatment and was attributed to bark beetles. Bark beetle-caused tree mortality, while low overall, was greatest in thin + burn treatments. SEM results indicate that the probability of mortality of large-diameter ponderosa pine from bark beetles and wood borers was directly related to surface fire severity and bole charring, which in

  3. Ectomycorrhizal communities of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine in the south-central Oregon pumice zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria O; Smith, Jane E; Luoma, Daniel L; Jones, Melanie D

    2016-05-01

    Forest ecosystems of the Pacific Northwest of the USA are changing as a result of climate change. Specifically, rise of global temperatures, decline of winter precipitation, earlier loss of snowpack, and increased summer drought are altering the range of Pinus contorta. Simultaneously, flux in environmental conditions within the historic P. contorta range may facilitate the encroachment of P. ponderosa into P. contorta territory. Furthermore, successful pine species migration may be constrained by the distribution or co-migration of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). Knowledge of the linkages among soil fungal diversity, community structure, and environmental factors is critical to understanding the organization and stability of pine ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to establish a foundational knowledge of the EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in the Deschutes National Forest, OR, USA, and to examine soil characteristics associated with community composition. We examined EMF root tips of P. ponderosa and P. contorta in soil cores and conducted soil chemistry analysis for P. ponderosa cores. Results indicate that Cenococcum geophilum, Rhizopogon salebrosus, and Inocybe flocculosa were dominant in both P. contorta and P. ponderosa soil cores. Rhizopogon spp. were ubiquitous in P. ponderosa cores. There was no significant difference in the species composition of EMF communities of P. ponderosa and P. contorta. Ordination analysis of P. ponderosa soils suggested that soil pH, plant-available phosphorus (Bray), total phosphorus (P), carbon (C), mineralizable nitrogen (N), ammonium (NH4), and nitrate (NO3) are driving EMF community composition in P. ponderosa stands. We found a significant linear relationship between EMF species richness and mineralizable N. In conclusion, P. ponderosa and P. contorta, within the Deschutes National Forest, share the same dominant EMF species, which implies that P. ponderosa may be able to successfully establish

  4. Semiochemical emission from individual galleries of the southern pine beetle, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), attacking standing trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S; Sullivan, Brian T

    2012-02-01

    We collected, identified, and quantified volatiles arising from individual gallery entrances of the monogamous bark beetle Dendroctonus frontalis Zimmermann. Samples were collected while the insects were mass attacking mature loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) in an established infestation in western Mississippi, 1 August through 3 October 2005. Following volatile sample collection, the entrances were dissected and categorized according to those that 1) contained a solitary female (the gallery initiating sex), 2) contained a pair that had not yet produced an egg gallery, 3) led to an egg gallery with niches and/or eggs, or 4) represented failed attacks (either abandoned or containing dead beetles). The greatest mean release rate of the female-produced aggregation pheromone components frontalin (74 ng/h) and trans-verbenol (0.35 microg/h) was detected from entrances of solitary females, whereas the highest mean quantities of the male-produced multifunctional pheromone components endo-brevicomin (18 ng/h) and verbenone (0.15 microg/h) were detected from entrances of preoviposition beetle pairs. Alpha-pinene, a host-produced monoterpene that functions as a synergist for the aggregation attractant for D. frontalis, was detected from entrances of solitary females and preoviposition pairs at a rate of 0.6 mg/h, or 3-4 orders of magnitude greater than the insect-produced components of the attractant. Our results indicate that the release rates of pheromone components used in published field studies of the chemical ecology of D. frontalis (generally > 0.1 mg/h) represent thousands of 'attack equivalents' or production rates on the scale of a beetle mass attack on a single host. Additionally, our data suggest that the loss in attractiveness of host tissue fully colonized by D. frontalis is because of the disappearance of attractants rather than an increase in inhibitors. PMID:22420266

  5. Nesting ecology of boreal forest birds following a massive outbreak of spruce beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, S.M.; Handel, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied breeding dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), yellow-rumped warblers (Dendroica coronata), and spruce-nesting birds from 1997 to 1998 among forests with different levels of spruce (Picea spp.) mortality following an outbreak of spruce beetles (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in Alaska, USA. We identified species using live and beetle-killed spruce for nest sites and monitored nests to determine how the outbreak influenced avian habitat selection and reproduction. We tested predictions that 1) nesting success of ground-nesting juncos would increase with spruce mortality due to proliferation of understory vegetation available to conceal nests from predators, 2) nesting success of canopy-nesting warblers would decrease with spruce mortality due to fewer live spruce in which to conceal nests, and 3) both species would alter nest-site selection in response to disturbance. Juncos did not benefit from changes in understory vegetation; nesting success in highly disturbed stands (46%) was comparable to that in undisturbed habitats throughout their range. In stands with low spruce mortality, nesting success of juncos was low (5%) and corresponded with high densities of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Yellow-rumped warblers nested exclusively in spruce, but success did not vary with spruce mortality. As disturbance increased, nesting warblers switched from selecting forest patches with high densities of live white spruce (Picea glauca) to patches with beetle-killed spruce. Warblers also placed nests in large-diameter live or beetle-killed spruce, depending on which was more abundant in the stand, with no differences in nesting success. Five of the 12 other species of spruce-nesting birds also used beetle-killed spruce as nest sites. Because beetle-killed spruce can remain standing for >50 years, even highly disturbed stands provide an important breeding resource for boreal forest birds. We recommend that boreal forest managers preserve uncut blocks of infested

  6. Synergism of turpentine and ethanol as attractants for certain pine-infesting beetles (Coleoptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.W.; Wilkening, A.J.; Atkinson, T.H.; Nation, J.L.; Wilkinson, R.C.; Foltz, J.L.

    1988-06-01

    Responses of seven species of pine-infesting beetles to traps baited with either turpentine, ethanol, turpentine and ethanol released from separate dispensers, or a 1:1 solution of turpentine and ethanol released from one dispenser were assessed in three field experiments. The weevil species, Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), and the cerambycid pine sawyer, Monochamus carolinenis (Olivier), were attracted to turpentine and were unaffected by the addition of ethanol. The ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, responded to ethanol alone but was not attracted to turpentine, nor did the presence of turpentine significantly affects its response to ethanol. The remaining four species) hylobius pales, M. titillator, Dendroctonus terebrans and x. pubescens) displayed responses to turpentine that were enhanced by the addition of ethanol, but in different ways according to the method of deployment. Reasons for increased responses by some species to a solution of turpentine and ethanol over the two released separately are not clear; they may lie in different dosages of evaporation rates of volatiles in the field. Laboratory analyses of trapped headspace volatiles from dispensers containing only turpentine and those containing a solution of turpentine and ethanol revealed no differences in the amounts of four principal monoterpene hydrocarbons (..cap alpha..-pinene, camphene, ..beta..-pinene, and limonene) released over time.

  7. Exploring climate niches of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) haplotypes in the western United States: Implications for evolutionary history and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas; Means, Robert E.; Potter, Kevin M.; Hipkins, Valerie D.

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with

  8. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Means, Robert E; Potter, Kevin M; Hipkins, Valerie D

    2016-01-01

    Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson) occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa) and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum) varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM), ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated with discrete

  9. Exploring Climate Niches of Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson Haplotypes in the Western United States: Implications for Evolutionary History and Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas J Shinneman

    Full Text Available Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson occupies montane environments throughout western North America, where it is both an ecologically and economically important tree species. A recent study using mitochondrial DNA analysis demonstrated substantial genetic variation among ponderosa pine populations in the western U.S., identifying 10 haplotypes with unique evolutionary lineages that generally correspond spatially with distributions of the Pacific (P. p. var. ponderosa and Rocky Mountain (P. p. var. scopulorum varieties. To elucidate the role of climate in shaping the phylogeographic history of ponderosa pine, we used nonparametric multiplicative regression to develop predictive climate niche models for two varieties and 10 haplotypes and to hindcast potential distribution of the varieties during the last glacial maximum (LGM, ~22,000 yr BP. Our climate niche models performed well for the varieties, but haplotype models were constrained in some cases by small datasets and unmeasured microclimate influences. The models suggest strong relationships between genetic lineages and climate. Particularly evident was the role of seasonal precipitation balance in most models, with winter- and summer-dominated precipitation regimes strongly associated with P. p. vars. ponderosa and scopulorum, respectively. Indeed, where present-day climate niches overlap between the varieties, introgression of two haplotypes also occurs along a steep clinal divide in western Montana. Reconstructed climate niches for the LGM suggest potentially suitable climate existed for the Pacific variety in the California Floristic province, the Great Basin, and Arizona highlands, while suitable climate for the Rocky Mountain variety may have existed across the southwestern interior highlands. These findings underscore potentially unique phylogeographic origins of modern ponderosa pine evolutionary lineages, including potential adaptations to Pleistocene climates associated

  10. 90SR uptake by Pinus ponderosa and Pinus radiata seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. Prior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. In this study, we inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Inoculated and noninoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove 90Sr from an organic growth medium. Ectomycorrhizal P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings are able to remove 3-5 times more 90Sr from contaminated soil than seedlings without ectomycorrhizae. (Author)

  11. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  12. Container-Grown Ponderosa Pine Seedlings Outperform Bareroot Seedlings on Harsh Sites in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1987-01-01

    Reforestation of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) on the lower elevations of the Dixie National Forest in southern Utah has traditionally been challenging. Replanting has often been necessary, costly, and not always successful. Although this problem is not unique, the low levels of available soil moisture during the spring planting season are probably as critical in the Dixie as anywhere in the Intermountain Region. Until this study was initiated, only bareroot seedlings ha...

  13. Growth of ponderosa pine seedlings as affected by air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, B.; Anderson, P. D.; Houpis, J. L. J.; Helms, J. A.

    The effect of air pollution on seedling survival and competitive ability is important to natural and artificial regeneration of forest trees. Although biochemical and physiological processes are sensitive indicators of pollution stress, the cumulative effects of air pollutants on seedling vigor and competitive ability may be assessed directly from whole-plant growth characteristics such as diameter, height, and photosynthetic area. A few studies that have examined intraspecific variation in seedling response to air pollution indicate that genotypic differences are important in assessing potential effects of air pollution on forest regeneration. Here, we studied the effects of acid rain (no-rain, pH 5.1 rain, pH 3.0 rain) and ozone (filtered, ambient, twice-ambient) in the field on height, diameter, volume, the height:diameter ratio, maximum needle length, and time to reach maximum needle length in seedlings of three families of ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws). Seedling diameter, height, volume, and height:diameter ratio related significantly to their pre-treatment values. Twice-ambient ozone decreased seedling diameter compared with ozone-filtered air. A significant family-by-ozone interaction was detected for seedling height, as the height of only one of the three families was decreased by twice-ambient ozone compared with the ambient level. Seedling diameter was larger and the height:diameter ratio was smaller under pH 3.0 rain compared to either the no-rain or the pH 5.1-rain treatment. This suggests greater seedling vigor, perhaps due to a foliar fertilization effect of the pH 3.0 rain.

  14. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  15. Fire Severity Controlled Susceptibility to a 1940s Spruce Beetle Outbreak in Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakowski, Dominik; Veblen, Thomas T.; Bebi, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The frequency, magnitude, and size of forest disturbances are increasing globally. Much recent research has focused on how the occurrence of one disturbance may affect susceptibility to subsequent disturbances. While much has been learned about such linked disturbances, the strength of the interactions is likely to be contingent on the severity of disturbances as well as climatic conditions, both of which can affect disturbance intensity and tree resistance to disturbances. Subalpine forests in western Colorado were affected by extensive and severe wildfires in the late 19th century and an extensive and severe outbreak of spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis) in the 1940s. Previous research found that most, but not all, of the stands that burned and established following the late 19th century fires were not susceptible to the 1940s outbreak as beetles preferentially attack larger trees and stands in advanced stages of development. However, previous research also left open the possibility that some stands that burned and established following the 19th century fires may have been attacked during the 1940s outbreak. Understanding how strongly stand structure, as shaped by disturbances of varying severity, affected susceptibility to past outbreaks is important to provide a baseline for assessing the degree to which recent climate change may be relaxing the preferences of beetles for larger trees and for stands in latter stages of structural development and thereby changing the nature of linked disturbances. Here, dendroecological methods were used to study disturbance history and tree age of stands in the White River National Forest in Western Colorado that were identified in historical documents or remotely-sensed images as having burned in the 19th century and having been attacked by spruce beetle in the 1940s. Dendroecological reconstructions indicate that in young post-fire stands only old remnant trees that survived the otherwise stand-replacing fires were

  16. Beetle wings are inflatable origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Ren, Jing; Ge, Siqin; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Beetles keep their wings folded and protected under a hard shell. In times of danger, they must unfold them rapidly in order for them to fly to escape. Moreover, they must do so across a range of body mass, from 1 mg to 10 grams. How can they unfold their wings so quickly? We use high-speed videography to record wing unfolding times, which we relate to the geometry of the network of blood vessels in the wing. Larger beetles have longer unfolding times. Modeling of the flow of blood through the veins successfully accounts for the wing unfolding speed of large beetles. However, smaller beetles have anomalously short unfolding times, suggesting they have lower blood viscosity or higher driving pressure. The use of hydraulics to unfold complex objects may have implications in the design of micro-flying air vehicles.

  17. Genetics of Ophraella leaf beetles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This proposal is to collect samples of each species of Ophraella leaf beetle encountered, not to exceed 50 specimens per species, for genetic analysis using DNA...

  18. Charles Darwin, beetles and phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Rolf G.; Friedrich, Frank; Leschen, Richard A. B.

    2009-11-01

    Here, we review Charles Darwin’s relation to beetles and developments in coleopteran systematics in the last two centuries. Darwin was an enthusiastic beetle collector. He used beetles to illustrate different evolutionary phenomena in his major works, and astonishingly, an entire sub-chapter is dedicated to beetles in “The Descent of Man”. During his voyage on the Beagle, Darwin was impressed by the high diversity of beetles in the tropics, and he remarked that, to his surprise, the majority of species were small and inconspicuous. However, despite his obvious interest in the group, he did not get involved in beetle taxonomy, and his theoretical work had little immediate impact on beetle classification. The development of taxonomy and classification in the late nineteenth and earlier twentieth century was mainly characterised by the exploration of new character systems (e.g. larval features and wing venation). In the mid-twentieth century, Hennig’s new methodology to group lineages by derived characters revolutionised systematics of Coleoptera and other organisms. As envisioned by Darwin and Ernst Haeckel, the new Hennigian approach enabled systematists to establish classifications truly reflecting evolution. Roy A. Crowson and Howard E. Hinton, who both made tremendous contributions to coleopterology, had an ambivalent attitude towards the Hennigian ideas. The Mickoleit school combined detailed anatomical work with a classical Hennigian character evaluation, with stepwise tree building, comparatively few characters and a priori polarity assessment without explicit use of the outgroup comparison method. The rise of cladistic methods in the 1970s had a strong impact on beetle systematics. Cladistic computer programs facilitated parsimony analyses of large data matrices, mostly morphological characters not requiring detailed anatomical investigations. Molecular studies on beetle phylogeny started in the 1990s with modest taxon sampling and limited DNA data

  19. Assessing the effects of changing climate on mountain pine beetle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, J.A.; Bentz, B.J. [Forest Service, Logan, UT (United States). Intermountain Research Station; Bolstad, P.V. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Perkins, D.L. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States). Dept. of Forest Resources

    1995-12-31

    In general terms, global climate warming will result in exacerbated insect pest problems. This is not to say, however, that the effects of every current pest species will increase under global warming. Projections regarding a particular pest species need to be made on a case-by-case basis. For example, mountain pine beetle (MPB) populations (Dendroctonus pondersae Hopkins), would benefit from global warming due to reduced winter mortality. Conversely, global warming may interfere with the maintaining of an appropriate seasonality for this non-diapausing species. Addressing such species response to modification of a basic ecological driving variable such as climate is a complex issue. Difficulty in dealing with this issue is further compounded by the fact that direct evidence is lacking and system level experimental manipulation is prohibitively expensive. The authors first describe in general terms the climatic adapted ecology of MPB and a computer model designed to represent important aspects of that ecology. Next they describe the important habitat component of mountain weather on MPB population performance and a landscape-level approach to modeling this critical driving variable. Finally, they describe a research application that uses these models to evaluate the potential of MPB outbreaks as an indication of forest health in high-elevation pine forests.

  20. The Beetle Reference Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Van Bakel, N; Van den Brand, J F J; Feuerstack-Raible, M; Harnew, N; Hofmann, W; Knöpfle, K-T; Löchner, S; Schmelling, M; Sexauer, E; Smale, N J; Trunk, U; Verkooijen, H

    2001-01-01

    This paper details the port de nitions, electrical speci cations, modes of operation and programming sequences of the 128 channel readout chip Beetle . The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and ful lls the requirements of the silicon vertex detector, the inner tracker, the pile-up veto trigger and the RICH detector in case of multianode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preampli ers and shapers. The risetime of the shaped pulse is 25 ns with a 30% remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns. A comparator per channel with con gurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought o chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analogue pipeline with a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervalls and an integrated derandomizing bu er of 16 stages. For analog readout data is multiplexed with up to 40 MHz onto 1 or 4 ports...

  1. ROOT GROWTH AND TURNOVER IN DIFFERENT AGED PONDEROSA PINE STANDS IN OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impacts of pollution and climate change on soil carbon dynamics are poorly understood, in part due to a lack of information regarding root production and turnover in natural ecosystems. In order to examine how root dynamics change with stand age in ponderosa pine forests (...

  2. Acoustic Signals of Dendroctonus valens and Structure of Its Stridulatory Apparatus%红脂大小蠹声音信号记录、分析与发声器官电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿斌; 赵丽稳; 罗茜; 张真; 孔祥波

    2012-01-01

    The bioacoustic signals often work alone or together with other signals like visual or olfactory signals in insect communication. The adult stridulatory signals of red turpentine beetle (RTB) , Dendroctonus valens, were recorded and stored digitally after amplification in three experiments ( glass phloem sandwich rearing, bolt rearing and directly field recording). The signals in different behavior were then analyzed by a specific acoustic software Adobe Audition and Matlab for echeme, duration, frequency, time domain and frequency domain analysis. The stridulatory apparatus of both male and female were observed by scanning electron microscope. The result showed that the frequency of the stridulatory sound by D. Valens was from 3 kHz to 5. 3 kHz, and there were clearly differences between the males and females, both in the sounds frequency and in apparatus structure. There were slightly differences with the signals recorded in different behavior, which proved the signals played a role in RTB behavior.%应用开发设计的昆虫声音采集与录制系统,对在不同实验条件下(玻璃板夹心、木段钻孔、室外直接测定)的红脂大小蠹两性成虫声音信号进行了采集、放大与数字化记录,并应用Adobe Audition与matlab软件分别对雌雄成虫的胁迫声、雄虫求偶声、雄虫竞争声、雌虫回应声等声音信号进行了脉冲组、频率、持续时间、频谱等特征分析,此外,还应用扫描电镜对其摩擦发声器官进行了观察与记录.研究结果表明:红脂大小蠹整体摩擦声音频率为3~5.3 kHz;雌雄间声音有显著区别,其摩擦发音结构音锉也有明显不同;而不同行为下所发出的声音信号在时域和频域上也略有差异,显示其与行为交流密切相关.

  3. Forest insect- and disease-caused impacts to timber resources of west-central Canada, 1988-92. Information report No. -X-341

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Describes the impacts caused by major forest insects (defoliators and bark beetles) and diseases (excluding those caused by fungi) to the timber resources of the Prairie Provinces and Northwest Territories in terms of wood volume losses due to tree mortality and growth reduction for the 1988-92 period. Most impacts were calculated using an automated system based on defoliation or infestation maps produced by geographic information systems and related inventory data. Results are presented for losses due to the following: Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana), jack pine budworm (C. pinus pinus), forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria), large aspen tortrix (C. conflictana), bruce spanworm (Operophtera bruceata), mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), spruce beetle (D. rufipennis), Douglas-fir beetle (D. pseudotsugae), Lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium americanum), and wood decay.

  4. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W.; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W.; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme r...

  5. A Data Mining Approach to Characterize Amanita ponderosa Mushrooms Using Inorganic Profile and M13-PCR Molecular Data

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. Rosário; Salvador, Cátia; Vicente, Henrique; Neves, José; Arteiro, José; Caldeira, A. Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Wild eatable mushrooms Amanita ponderosa are very appreciated in gastronomy, showing high export potential. This specie grows spontaneously in some microclimates, namely in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. The aim of this study is to find inorganic and molecular markers that allow to characterize the wild A. ponderosa strains collected from different geographical locations in the Iberian Peninsula. Molecular approach using the microsatellite primer M13-PCR allowed to distinguish the mu...

  6. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Koksharov; Natalia Ugarova

    2012-01-01

    Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic enginee...

  7. Photosynthetic acclimation to enriched CO{sub 2} concentrations in Pinus Ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, M.P. [California State Univ., Humbolt, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    By the middle of the 21st century earth`s ambient CO{sub 2} level is expected to increase two-fold ({approximately}350 umol/L). Higher levels of CO{sub 2} are expected to cause major changes in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the world`s vegetation. Therefore, we constructed an experiment designed to measure the long-term acclimation processes of Pinus Ponderosa. As a prominent forest conifer, Pinus Ponderosa is useful when assessing a large scale global carbon budget. Eighteen genetically variable families were exposed to 3 different levels of CO{sub 2} (350 umol/L, 525 umol/L, 700 umol/L), for three years. Acclimation responses were quantified by assays of photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll pigment concentrations.

  8. Accumulation of cesium-137 and strontium-90 in ponderosa pine and monterey pine seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and Monterey pone (P. radiata D Don) have exceptionally fast growth rates and their abscised needles are not readily dispersed by wind, these species may be valuable for removing radioisotopes from contaminated soils. Ponderosa and Monterey pine seedlings were tested for their ability to accumulate 137Cs and 90Sr-characteristic radioisotopes of nuclear fallout-from contaminated soil. Seedlings were grown for 3 mo in 165 cm3 sphagnum peat moss/perlite (1:1 V/V) in a growth chamber. In Exp. 1, seedling accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr after 1 mo of exposure was measured. In Exp. 2, seedling accumulation of the radioisotopes during different-length exposures was measured. Seedling accumulation of 137CS and 90Sr at different concentrations of the radioisotopes in the growth medium was measured in Exp. 3. Ponderosa pine accumulated 6.3% of the 137Cs and I.5% of the 90Sr present in the growth medium after 1 mo; Monterey pine accumulated 8.3% of the 137Cs and 4.5% of the 90Sr. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both coniferous species was curvilinearly related to duration of exposure. Accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr by both species increased with increasing concentration in the growth medium and correlated curvilinearly with radioisotope concentration in the growth medium. Large areas throughout the world are contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of nuclear weapons testing or atomic reactor accidents. The ability of trees to sequester and store 137Cs and 90Sr introduces the possibility of using reforestation to remediate contaminated soils

  9. WILDFIRE FUELS MANAGEMENT: A NESTED ROTATION APPROACH APPLIED TO PONDEROSA PINE FORESTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lankoande, Mariam D.; Yoder, Jonathan K.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetative fuels management for wildfire risk mitigation is increasing recognized as a crucial complement to suppression. We develop a nested rotation model to examine the fuel treatment timing in the context of a forest environment where part of the values at risk are standing timber to be harvested. Simulations are performed for a representative ponderosa pine forest, and implications of the model for policy issues are discussed, including 1) the effects of public suppression of wildfire on...

  10. Protein-bound polysaccharides from Amanita ponderosa cultures: characterisation, toxicological assessment and antioxidant properties

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Patricia; Salvador, Catia; Arteiro, J. M.; Martins, M. Rosário; Caldeira, A. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, protein-polysaccharide complexes extracted from mushrooms have received great attention from the scientific community, due to their medicinal properties, namely antioxidant, antitumor, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, antiatherogenic and hypoglycaemic properties [1, 2]. The southern of Portugal, due to its Mediterranean climate and flora diversity, is a region with a high prevalence of wild edible mushrooms Amanita ponderosa [3]. The aim of this work was to produce and ch...

  11. Molecular Biomarkers and Inorganic Profile to characterize Amanita ponderosa mushrooms strains

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, M. R.; Salvador, C.; Arteiro, J M; Caldeira, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Amanita ponderosa strains are wild mushroom eatable species, very appreciated in gastronomy, with a high exportation potential that grow spontaneously in some microclimates, particularly in Alentejo and Andaluzia. Additionally, its mineral and organic composition, depend on the fungal strain and their ecosystem. Moreover, due to symbiotic relation between mushrooms and some plants in its habitats, mushrooms can accumulate high concentrations of some elements, namely metals. Due to positive an...

  12. Species richness and soil properties in Pinus ponderosa forests: A structural equation modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, D.C.; Abella, S.R.; Covington, W.W.; Grace, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    Question: How are the effects of mineral soil properties on understory plant species richness propagated through a network of processes involving the forest overstory, soil organic matter, soil nitrogen, and understory plant abundance? Location: North-central Arizona, USA. Methods: We sampled 75 0.05-ha plots across a broad soil gradient in a Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) forest ecosystem. We evaluated multivariate models of plant species richness using structural equation modeling. Results: Richness was highest at intermediate levels of understory plant cover, suggesting that both colonization success and competitive exclusion can limit richness in this system. We did not detect a reciprocal positive effect of richness on plant cover. Richness was strongly related to soil nitrogen in the model, with evidence for both a direct negative effect and an indirect non-linear relationship mediated through understory plant cover. Soil organic matter appeared to have a positive influence on understory richness that was independent of soil nitrogen. Richness was lowest where the forest overstory was densest, which can be explained through indirect effects on soil organic matter, soil nitrogen and understory cover. Finally, model results suggest a variety of direct and indirect processes whereby mineral soil properties can influence richness. Conclusions: Understory plant species richness and plant cover in P. ponderosa forests appear to be significantly influenced by soil organic matter and nitrogen, which are, in turn, related to overstory density and composition and mineral soil properties. Thus, soil properties can impose direct and indirect constraints on local species diversity in ponderosa pine forests. ?? IAVS; Opulus Press.

  13. Forest sleuths stalk a killer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, F.A.

    This article describes the impact of air pollution on the San Bernardino National Forest near Los Angeles. Ponderosa and Jeffry pines, damaged as a result of ozone have been replaced by increasing numbers of white fir and incense cedar. Ozone-damaged trees have been less able to recover during years favorable for growth and have been attacked aggressively by dendroctonus beetles. It is not yet known what the change in species composition will mean to wildlife such as squirrels; if squirrels and other rodents are affected, hawks and other predators will also be affected. Researchers are considering these questions and, further, the problem of combinations of ozone and acid rain.

  14. Los factores del sitio y su relación con el ataque del descortezador Dendroctonus adjunctus B. en un bosque de Pinus hartwegii L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Camacho, Martín

    2010-01-01

    Dendroctonus adjunctus Blandford es el principal descortezador de los bosques de coníferas de alturas mayores a 2600 m.s.n.m (Cibrián et al., 1980). En el bosque natural de Pinus hartwegii Lindl del Cerro Tláloc, Texcoco Estado de México, existe alta mortalidad de pinos a causa del descortezador mencionado. El control silvícola de la plaga no ha sido suficiente hasta el momento para mantener las poblaciones de descortezadores en niveles bajos. Una estrategia adecuada de control necesita del c...

  15. Impact of a Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak on Young Lodgepole Pine Stands in Central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalesh Dhar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current mountain pine beetle (MPB (Dendroctonous ponderosae Hopkins epidemic has severely affected pine forests of Western Canada and killed millions of hectares of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm. forest. Generally, MPB attack larger and older (diameter > 20 cm or >60 years of age trees, but the current epidemic extends this limit with attacks on even younger and smaller trees. The study’s aim was to investigate the extent of MPB attack in young pine stands and its possible impact on stand dynamics. Although MPB attacks were observed in trees as small as 7.5 cm diameter at breast height (DBH and as young as 13 years old, the degree of MPB attack (percent stems ha−1 increased with increasing tree diameter and age class (13–20, 21–40, 41–60, and 61–80 years old (6.4%, 49.4%, 62.6%, and 69.5% attack, respectively, by age class which is greater than that reported from previous epidemics for stands of this age. The mean density of surviving residual structure varied widely among age classes and ecological subzones. Depending on age class, 65% to 77% of the attacked stands could contribute to mid-term timber supply. The surviving residual structure of young stands offers an opportunity to mitigate the effects of MPB-attack on future timber supply, increase age class diversity, and enhance ecological resilience in younger stands.

  16. Growth and nutrition of container-grown ponderosa pine seedlings with controlled-release fertilizer incorporated in the root plug

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhaofei; Moore, James; Wenny, David

    2004-01-01

    International audience Prior to sowing seeds, three controlled-release fertilizers (fast release (FR), moderate release (MR) and slow release (SR)) were incorporated into the growing media at rates of 0.8, 1.6 or 3.2 g as supplements to nursery supplied soluble fertilizer to grow containerized ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Laws) seedlings in the greenhouse. At lifting, the stem diameter, height and total mass of fertilized seedlings ranged from 14 to 29%, 15 to 22%, and 39 to 10...

  17. US Forest Service Western Bark Beetle Strategy

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting Western Bark Beetle Strategy (WBBS) activities reported through the U.S. Forest Service FACTS database. Activities include...

  18. Approaches to engineer stability of beetle luciferases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Koksharov

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Luciferase enzymes from fireflies and other beetles have many important applications in molecular biology, biotechnology, analytical chemistry and several other areas. Many novel beetle luciferases with promising properties have been reported in the recent years. However, actual and potential applications of wild-type beetle luciferases are often limited by insufficient stability or decrease in activity of the enzyme at the conditions of a particular assay. Various examples of genetic engineering of the enhanced beetle luciferases have been reported that successfully solve or alleviate many of these limitations. This mini-review summarizes the recent advances in development of mutant luciferases with improved stability and activity characteristics. It discusses the common limitations of wild-type luciferases in different applications and presents the efficient approaches that can be used to address these problems.

  19. American burying beetle site records : Valentine NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is specific site records of American burying beetle on Valentine Nationl Wildlife Refuge to date. It includes a map of site location. A discussion...

  20. Cucurbitacins as kairomones for diabroticite beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, R L; Metcalf, R A; Rhodes, A M

    1980-07-01

    The characteristic bitter substances of the Cucurbitaceae act as kairomones for a large group of diabroticite beetles (Chrysomelidae, Galerucinae, Luperini), promoting host selection and compulsive feeding behavior. These beetles (e.g., Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) respond to as little as 1 ng of cucurbitacin (Cuc) B on thin-layer plates by arrest and compulsive feeding. Six species of diabroticite beetles were about 10 times more responsive to Cuc B than to Cuc E and less responsive to Cuc D, I, and L. Chloroform extracts of 18 species of Cucurbita were developed on thin-layer chromatograms and exposed to diabroticite beetles. The feeding patterns showed pronounced beetle responses to three general Cuc distribution patterns: Cuc B and D as in Cucurbita andreana and C. ecuadorensis; Cuc E and I as in C. okeechobeensis and C. martinezii; and Cuc E glycoside in C. texana. All the diabroticites responded in exactly the same feeding patterns. The results demonstrate a coevolutionary association between the Cucurbitaceae and the Luperini, during which the intensely bitter and toxic Cucs that arose to repel herbivores and protect the plants from attack became specific kairomone feeding stimulants for the beetles. PMID:16592849

  1. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  2. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO2 responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO2 responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO2 responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO2 exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO2 scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  3. Trends in Pinus ponderosa foliar pigment concentration due to chronic exposure of ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the effects of ozone and acid rain on mature Ponderosa pine trees, Lawrence Livermore National Lab. has collaborated with University of California Berkeley, University of California Davis, California State University Chico, and the US Forest Service at the latter's Chico Tree Improvement Center. Foliar tissue from mature grafted scions of Pinus ponderosa were exposed to two times ambient ozone for ten months and to acid rain (3.0 pH) weekly for 10 weeks using branch exposure chambers. Pigment extracts were analyzed spectrophotometrically for concentrations of chlorophylls a and b, and carotenoid pigments, at 662 nm, 644 nm, and 470 nm, respectively. Pigment concentrations were expressed on a surface area basis. Preliminary results revealed that chlorophyll a showed a downward trend due to the ozone treatment. Acid rain caused no effects on these three pigments, however, chlorophyll b showed an upward trend due to the interaction of ozone and acid rain. The carotenoid pigments showed no changes due to the treatments either singly, or in combination

  4. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices. PMID:27153402

  5. An evaluation of ozone exposure metrics for a seasonally drought-stressed ponderosa pine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Jeanne A; Kurpius, Meredith R; Goldstein, Allen H

    2002-01-01

    Ozone stress has become an increasingly significant factor in cases of forest decline reported throughout the world. Current metrics to estimate ozone exposure for forest trees are derived from atmospheric concentrations and assume that the forest is physiologically active at all times of the growing season. This may be inaccurate in regions with a Mediterranean climate, such as California and the Pacific Northwest, where peak physiological activity occurs early in the season to take advantage of high soil moisture and does not correspond to peak ozone concentrations. It may also misrepresent ecosystems experiencing non-average climate conditions such as drought years. We compared direct measurements of ozone flux into a ponderosa pine canopy with a suite of the most common ozone exposure metrics to determine which best correlated with actual ozone uptake by the forest. Of the metrics we assessed, SUM0 (the sum of all daytime ozone concentrations > 0) best corresponded to ozone uptake by ponderosa pine, however the correlation was only strong at times when the stomata were unconstrained by site moisture conditions. In the early growing season (May and June). SUM0 was an adequate metric for forest ozone exposure. Later in the season, when stomatal conductance was limited by drought. SUM0 overestimated ozone uptake. A better metric for seasonally drought-stressed forests would be one that incorporates forest physiological activity, either through mechanistic modeling, by weighting ozone concentrations by stomatal conductance, or by weighting concentrations by site moisture conditions. PMID:11843543

  6. Defoliation of interior Douglas-fir elicits carbon transfer and stress signalling to ponderosa pine neighbors through ectomycorrhizal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan Yuan; Simard, Suzanne W; Carroll, Allan; Mohn, William W; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2015-01-01

    Extensive regions of interior Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca, IDF) forests in North America are being damaged by drought and western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis). This damage is resulting from warmer and drier summers associated with climate change. To test whether defoliated IDF can directly transfer resources to ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosae) regenerating nearby, thus aiding in forest recovery, we examined photosynthetic carbon transfer and defense enzyme response. We grew pairs of ectomycorrhizal IDF 'donor' and ponderosa pine 'receiver' seedlings in pots and isolated transfer pathways by comparing 35 μm, 0.5 μm and no mesh treatments; we then stressed IDF donors either through manual defoliation or infestation by the budworm. We found that manual defoliation of IDF donors led to transfer of photosynthetic carbon to neighboring receivers through mycorrhizal networks, but not through soil or root pathways. Both manual and insect defoliation of donors led to increased activity of peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase and superoxide dismutase in the ponderosa pine receivers, via a mechanism primarily dependent on the mycorrhizal network. These findings indicate that IDF can transfer resources and stress signals to interspecific neighbors, suggesting ectomycorrhizal networks can serve as agents of interspecific communication facilitating recovery and succession of forests after disturbance. PMID:25683155

  7. Long-term benefits to the growth of ponderosa pines from controlling southwestern pine tip moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michael R; Chen, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    The southwestern pine tip moth, Rhyacionia neomexicana (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a native forest pest that attacks seedlings and saplings of ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws, in the southwestern United States. Repeated attacks can cause severe deformation of host trees and significant long-term growth loss. Alternatively, effective control of R. neomexicana, vegetative competition, or both in young pine plantations may increase survival and growth of trees for many years after treatments are applied. We test the null hypothesis that 4 yr of R. neomexicana and weed control with insecticide, weeding, and insecticide plus weeding would not have any residual effect on survival and growth of trees in ponderosa pine plantation in northern Arizona 14 yr post-treatment, when the trees were 18 yr old. Both insecticide and weeding treatment increased tree growth and reduced the incidence of southwestern pine tip moth damage compared with the control. However, weeding alone also significantly increased tree survival, whereas insecticide alone did not. The insecticide plus weeding treatment had the greatest tree growth and survival, and the lowest rate of tip moth damage. Based on these results, we rejected our null hypothesis and concluded that there were detectable increases in the survival and growth of ponderosa pines 14 yr after treatments applied to control R. neomexicana and weeds. PMID:15666752

  8. Volatile emissions from the lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lesser mealworm beetle Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) is a serious, cosmopolitan pest in poultry production facilities, consuming grain, carrying disease organisms, and causing structural damage in poultry house walls. Pheromones have been described for many economically important beetle speci...

  9. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A. with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. B. SUTTON, Y. WANG, C. J. SCHWEITZER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles representing 19 species during 564 total trap nights. We used canonical correspondence analysis to examine habitat associations for the reptiles sampled and we detected a distinct habitat gradient ranging from sites with greater litter depth and percent canopy cover to more open sites with greater woody, herbaceous, and coarse woody debris (CWD coverage, and CWD volume. Little brown skinks Scincella lateralis and eastern worm snakes Carphophis a. amoenus were associated with sites with greater litter depth and canopy cover, whereas eastern fence lizards Sceloporus undulatus, copperheads Agkistrodon contortrix, and gray ratsnakes Pantherophis spiloides were associated with sites possessing greater CWD coverage and volume. We found that disturbances due to the southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis were likely important for influencing reptile distributions through the creation of canopy gaps and fallen coarse woody debris. Compared to other studies, our modified drift-fence trap technique was successful for sampling larger snake species (66 snakes in 564 trap nights. We have also provided detailed schematics for constructing drift fence array and box traps used in this study [Current Zoology 56 (4: 411–420, 2010].

  10. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  11. Nitrogen oxide fluxes over a ponderosa pine plantation during BEARPEX-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K.; Lafranchi, B. W.; Pusede, S. E.; Browne, E. C.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    The biosphere-atmosphere exchange of reactive nitrogen oxides affects atmospheric oxidative capacity and ecosystem nutrient cycling. During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment (BEARPEX-2009), eddy covariance fluxes of NO2, sum of peroxy nitrates (∑PNs), sum of alkyl nitrates (∑ANs), and nitric acid (HNO3) were monitored from July 4 to July 26 above a ponderosa pine plantation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California using thermal dissociation - laser induced fluorescence (TD-LIF). NO2 fluxes are found to be positive and ∑AN fluxes negative supporting previous research (Farmer and Cohen, 2006). In contrast, we report downward ∑PN and HNO3 fluxes. We present these results and interpret the relationship between our flux observations and concurrent NO2, ∑PN, ∑AN, and HNO3 gradient measurements.

  12. Carbon Stocks and Climate Change: Management Implications in Northern Arizona Ponderosa Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Bagdon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have observed climate-driven shifts of forest types to higher elevations in the Southwestern US and predict further migration coupled with large-scale mortality events proportional to increases in radiative forcing. Range contractions of forests are likely to impact the total carbon stored within a stand. This study examines the dynamics of Pinus ponderosa stands under three climate change scenarios in Northern Arizona using the Climate Forest Vegetation Simulator (Climate-FVS model to project changes in carbon pools. A sample of 90 stands were grouped according to three elevational ranges; low- (1951 to 2194 m, mid- (2194 to 2499 m, and high- (2499 to 2682 m. elevation stands. Growth, mortality, and carbon stores were simulated in the Climate-FVS over a 100 year timespan. We further simulated three management scenarios for each elevational gradient and climate scenario. Management included (1 a no-management scenario, (2 an intensive-management scenario characterized by thinning from below to a residual basal area (BA of 18 m2/ha in conjunction with a prescribed burn every 10 years, and (3 a moderate-management scenario characterized by a thin-from-below treatment to a residual BA of 28 m2/ha coupled with a prescribed burn every 20 years. Results indicate that any increase in aridity due to climate change will produce substantial mortality throughout the elevational range of ponderosa pine stands, with lower elevation stands projected to experience the most devastating effects. Management was only effective for the intensive-management scenario; stands receiving this treatment schedule maintained moderately consistent levels of basal area and demonstrated a higher level of resilience to climate change relative to the two other management scenarios. The results of this study indicate that management can improve resiliency to climate change, however, resource managers may need to employ more intensive thinning treatments than

  13. Restoring forest structure and process stabilizes forest carbon in wildfire-prone southwestern ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurteau, Matthew D; Liang, Shuang; Martin, Katherine L; North, Malcolm P; Koch, George W; Hungate, Bruce A

    2016-03-01

    Changing climate and a legacy of fire-exclusion have increased the probability of high-severity wildfire, leading to an increased risk of forest carbon loss in ponderosa pine forests in the southwestern USA. Efforts to reduce high-severity fire risk through forest thinning and prescribed burning require both the removal and emission of carbon from these forests, and any potential carbon benefits from treatment may depend on the occurrence of wildfire. We sought to determine how forest treatments alter the effects of stochastic wildfire events on the forest carbon balance. We modeled three treatments (control, thin-only, and thin and burn) with and without the occurrence of wildfire. We evaluated how two different probabilities of wildfire occurrence, 1% and 2% per year, might alter the carbon balance of treatments. In the absence of wildfire, we found that thinning and burning treatments initially reduced total ecosystem carbon (TEC) and increased net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB). In the presence of wildfire, the thin and burn treatment TEC surpassed that of the control in year 40 at 2%/yr wildfire probability, and in year 51 at 1%/yr wildfire probability. NECB in the presence of wildfire showed a similar response to the no-wildfire scenarios: both thin-only and thin and burn treatments increased the C sink. Treatments increased TEC by reducing both mean wildfire severity and its variability. While the carbon balance of treatments may differ in more productive forest types, the carbon balance benefits from restoring forest structure and fire in southwestern ponderosa pine forests are clear. PMID:27209781

  14. Small hive beetles survive in honeybee prisons by behavioural mimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J. D.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Kastberger, G.; Elzen, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    We report the results of a simple experiment to determine whether honeybees feed their small hive beetle nest parasites. Honeybees incarcerate the beetles in cells constructed of plant resins and continually guard them. The longevity of incarcerated beetles greatly exceeds their metabolic reserves. We show that survival of small hive beetles derives from behavioural mimicry by which the beetles induce the bees to feed them trophallactically. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at htpp://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00114-002-0326-y.

  15. Long-term landscape patterns of past fire events in a montane ponderosa pine forest of central Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, P. M.; Kaufmann, M. R.; Sheppard, W. D.

    1999-01-01

    Parameters of fire regimes, including fire frequency, spatial extent of burned areas, fire severity, and season of fire occurrence, influence vegetation patterns over multiple scales. In this study, centuries-long patterns of fire events in a montane ponderosa pine – Douglas-fir forest landscape surrounding Cheesman Lake in central Colorado were reconstructed from fire-scarred trees and inferences from forest stand ages. We crossdated 153 fire-scarred trees from an approximately 4000 ha study...

  16. A review of precipitation and temperature control on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Matthew; Wildeman, A.M.; Bradford, John B.; Hubbard, R.M.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    The persistence of ponderosa pine and lodgepole pine forests in the 21st century depends to a large extent on how seedling emergence and establishment are influenced by driving climate and environmental variables, which largely govern forest regeneration. We surveyed the literature, and identified 96 publications that reported data on dependent variables of seedling emergence and/or establishment and one or more independent variables of air temperature, soil temperature, precipitation and moisture availability. Our review suggests that seedling emergence and establishment for both species is highest at intermediate temperatures (20 to 25 °C), and higher precipitation and higher moisture availability support a higher percentage of seedling emergence and establishment at daily, monthly and annual timescales. We found that ponderosa pine seedlings may be more sensitive to temperature fluctuations whereas lodgepole pine seedlings may be more sensitive to moisture fluctuations. In a changing climate, increasing temperatures and declining moisture availability may hinder forest persistence by limiting seedling processes. Yet, only 23 studies in our review investigated the effects of driving climate and environmental variables directly. Furthermore, 74 studies occurred in a laboratory or greenhouse, which do not often replicate the conditions experienced by tree seedlings in a field setting. It is therefore difficult to provide strong conclusions on how sensitive emergence and establishment in ponderosa and lodgepole pine are to these specific driving variables, or to investigate their potential aggregate effects. Thus, the effects of many driving variables on seedling processes remain largely inconclusive. Our review stresses the need for additional field and laboratory studies to better elucidate the effects of driving climate and environmental variables on seedling emergence and establishment for ponderosa and lodgepole pine.

  17. Pathogens, promising candidates for bark beetle control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wegensteiner, R.; Weiser, Jaroslav

    Georgetown: International Union of Forestry Research Organizations., 2003. s. 35. [Integrated Control of Scolytid Bark Beetles.. 29.09.2003-02.10.2003, Georgetown] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Rhizopoda * Sporozoa Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  18. Chirality determines pheromone activity for flour beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, H. Z.; Mori, K.

    1983-04-01

    Olfactory perception and orientation behaviour of female and male flour beetles ( Tribolium castaneum, T. confusum) to single stereoisomers of their aggregation pheromone revealed maximal receptor potentials and optimal attraction in response to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, whereas its optical antipode 4S,8S-(+)-dimethyldecanal was found to be inactive in this respect. Female flour beetles of both species were ≈ 103 times less attracted to 4R,8S-(+)- and 4S,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal than to 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyldecanal, while male flour beetles failed to respond to the R,S-(+)- and S,R-(-)-stereoisomers. Pheromone extracts of prothoracic femora from unmated male flour beetles elicited higher receptor potentials in the antennae of females than in those of males. The results suggest that the aggregation pheromone emitted by male T. castaneum as well as male T. confusum has the stereochemical structure of 4R,8R-(-)-dimethyl-decanal, which acts as sex attractant for the females and as aggregant for the males of both species.

  19. Late Holocene geomorphic record of fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests, Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, S.E.; Hull, Sieg C.; Anderson, D.E.; Kaufman, D.S.; Pearthree, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term fire history reconstructions enhance our understanding of fire behaviour and associated geomorphic hazards in forested ecosystems. We used 14C ages on charcoal from fire-induced debris-flow deposits to date prehistoric fires on Kendrick Mountain, northern Arizona, USA. Fire-related debris-flow sedimentation dominates Holocene fan deposition in the study area. Radiocarbon ages indicate that stand-replacing fire has been an important phenomenon in late Holocene ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and ponderosa pine-mixed conifer forests on steep slopes. Fires have occurred on centennial scales during this period, although temporal hiatuses between recorded fires vary widely and appear to have decreased during the past 2000 years. Steep slopes and complex terrain may be responsible for localised crown fire behaviour through preheating by vertical fuel arrangement and accumulation of excessive fuels. Holocene wildfire-induced debris flow events occurred without a clear relationship to regional climatic shifts (decadal to millennial), suggesting that interannual moisture variability may determine fire year. Fire-debris flow sequences are recorded when (1) sufficient time has passed (centuries) to accumulate fuels; and (2) stored sediment is available to support debris flows. The frequency of reconstructed debris flows should be considered a minimum for severe events in the study area, as fuel production may outpace sediment storage. ?? IAWF 2011.

  20. Areas of Agreement and Disagreement Regarding Ponderosa Pine and Mixed Conifer Forest Fire Regimes: A Dialogue with Stevens et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odion, Dennis C; Hanson, Chad T; Baker, William L; DellaSala, Dominick A; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    In a recent PLOS ONE paper, we conducted an evidence-based analysis of current versus historical fire regimes and concluded that traditionally defined reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and mixed-conifer forests were incomplete, missing considerable variability in forest structure and fire regimes. Stevens et al. (this issue) agree that high-severity fire was a component of these forests, but disagree that one of the several sources of evidence, stand age from a large number of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots across the western USA, support our findings that severe fire played more than a minor role ecologically in these forests. Here we highlight areas of agreement and disagreement about past fire, and analyze the methods Stevens et al. used to assess the FIA stand-age data. We found a major problem with a calculation they used to conclude that the FIA data were not useful for evaluating fire regimes. Their calculation, as well as a narrowing of the definition of high-severity fire from the one we used, leads to a large underestimate of conditions consistent with historical high-severity fire. The FIA stand age data do have limitations but they are consistent with other landscape-inference data sources in supporting a broader paradigm about historical variability of fire in ponderosa and mixed-conifer forests than had been traditionally recognized, as described in our previous PLOS paper. PMID:27195808

  1. Molecular phylogeny of beetle associated diplogastrid nematodes suggests host switching rather than nematode-beetle coevolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Ralf J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematodes are putatively the most species-rich animal phylum. They have various life styles and occur in a variety of habitats, ranging from free-living nematodes in aquatic or terrestrial environments to parasites of animals and plants. The rhabditid nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most important model organisms in modern biology. Pristionchus pacificus of the family of the Diplogastridae has been developed as a satellite model for comparison to C. elegans. The Diplogastridae, a monophyletic clade within the rhabditid nematodes, are frequently associated with beetles. How this beetle-association evolved and whether beetle-nematode coevolution occurred is still elusive. As a prerequisite to answering this question a robust phylogeny of beetle-associated Diplogastridae is needed. Results Sequences for the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA and for 12 ribosomal protein encoding nucleotide sequences were collected for 14 diplogastrid taxa yielding a dataset of 5996 bp of concatenated aligned sequences. A molecular phylogeny of beetle-associated diplogastrid nematodes was established by various algorithms. Robust subclades could be demonstrated embedded in a phylogenetic tree topology with short internal branches, indicating rapid ancestral divergences. Comparison of the diplogastrid phylogeny to a comprehensive beetle phylogeny revealed no major congruence and thus no evidence for a long-term coevolution. Conclusion Reconstruction of the phylogenetic history of beetle-associated Diplogastridae yields four distinct subclades, whose deep phylogenetic divergence, as indicated by short internal branch lengths, shows evidence for evolution by successions of ancient rapid radiation events. The stem species of the Diplogastridae existed at the same time period when the major radiations of the beetles occurred. Comparison of nematode and beetle phylogenies provides, however, no evidence for long-term coevolution of

  2. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  3. Soil responses to management, increased precipitation, and added nitrogen in ponderosa pine forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungate, Bruce A; Hart, Stephen C; Selmants, Paul C; Boyle, Sarah I; Gehring, Catherine A

    2007-07-01

    Forest management, climatic change, and atmospheric N deposition can affect soil biogeochemistry, but their combined effects are not well understood. We examined the effects of water and N amendments and forest thinning and burning on soil N pools and fluxes in ponderosa pine forests near Flagstaff, Arizona (USA). Using a 15N-depleted fertilizer, we also documented the distribution of added N into soil N pools. Because thinning and burning can increase soil water content and N availability, we hypothesized that these changes would alleviate water and N limitation of soil processes, causing smaller responses to added N and water in the restored stand. We found little support for this hypothesis. Responses of fine root biomass, potential net N mineralization, and the soil microbial N to water and N amendments were mostly unaffected by stand management. Most of the soil processes we examined were limited by N and water, and the increased N and soil water availability caused by forest restoration was insufficient to alleviate these limitations. For example, N addition caused a larger increase in potential net nitrification in the restored stand, and at a given level of soil N availability, N addition had a larger effect on soil microbial N in the restored stand. Possibly, forest restoration increased the availability of some other limiting resource, amplifying responses to added N and water. Tracer N recoveries in roots and in the forest floor were lower in the restored stand. Natural abundance delta15N of labile soil N pools were higher in the restored stand, consistent with a more open N cycle. We conclude that thinning and burning open up the N cycle, at least in the short-term, and that these changes are amplified by enhanced precipitation and N additions. Our results suggest that thinning and burning in ponderosa pine forests will not increase their resistance to changes in soil N dynamics resulting from increased atmospheric N deposition or increased

  4. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK+MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK+MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the

  5. Comparison of different real time VOC measurement techniques in a ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compound (VOC mixing ratios measured by five independent instruments are compared at a forested site dominated by ponderosa pine (Pinus Ponderosa during the BEACHON-ROCS field study in summer 2010. The instruments included a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS, a Proton Transfer Reaction Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS, a Fast Online Gas-Chromatograph coupled to a Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS; TOGA, a Thermal Dissociation Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (PAN-CIMS and a Fiber Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument (FILIF. The species discussed in this comparison include the most important biogenic VOCs and a selected suite of oxygenated VOCs that are thought to dominate the VOC reactivity at this particular site as well as typical anthropogenic VOCs that showed low mixing ratios at this site. Good agreement was observed for methanol, the sum of the oxygenated hemiterpene 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and the hemiterpene isoprene, acetaldehyde, the sum of acetone and propanal, benzene and the sum of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK and butanal. Measurements of the above VOCs conducted by different instruments agree within 20%. The ability to differentiate the presence of toluene and cymene by PTR-TOF-MS is tested based on a comparison with GC-MS measurements, suggesting a study-average relative contribution of 74% for toluene and 26% for cymene. Similarly, 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanal (HMPR is found to interfere with the sum of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MAC using PTR-(TOF-MS at this site. A study-average relative contribution of 85% for MVK + MAC and 15% for HMPR was determined. The sum of monoterpenes measured by PTR-MS and PTR-TOF-MS was generally 20–25% higher than the sum of speciated monoterpenes measured by TOGA, which included α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene, carene, myrcene, limonene, cineole as well as other terpenes. However, this difference is consistent throughout the study

  6. Pelletized ponderosa pine bark for adsorption of toxic heavy metals from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tshabalala, M. A.

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark flour from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa was consolidated into pellets using citric acid as cross-linking agent. The pellets were evaluated for removal of toxic heavy metals from synthetic aqueous solutions. When soaked in water, pellets did not leach tannins, and they showed high adsorption capacity for Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II, and Ni(II under both equilibrium and dynamic adsorption conditions. The experimental data for Cd(II and Zn(II showed a better fit to the Langmuir than to the Freundlich isotherm. The Cu(II data best fit the Freundlich isotherm, and the Ni(II data fitted both Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms equally. According to the Freundlich constant KF, adsorption capacity of pelletized bark for the metal ions in aqueous solution, pH 5.1 ± 0.2, followed the order Cd(II > Cu(II > Zn(II >> Ni(II; according to the Langmuir constant b, adsorption affinity followed the order Cd(II >> Cu(II ≈ Zn(II >> Ni(II. Although data from dynamic column adsorption experiments did not show a good fit to the Thomas kinetic adsorption model, estimates of sorption affinity series of the metal ions on pelletized bark derived from this model were not consistent with the series derived from the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherms and followed the order Cu(II > Zn(II ≈ Cd(II > Ni(II. According to the Thomas kinetic model, the theoretical maximum amounts of metal that can be sorbed on the pelletized bark in a column at influent concentration of ≈10 mg/L and flow rate = 5 mL/min were estimated to be 57, 53, 50, and 27 mg/g for copper, zinc, cadmium, and nickel, respectively. This study demonstrated the potential for converting low-cost bark residues to value-added sorbents using starting materials and chemicals derived from renewable resources. These sorbents can be applied in the removal of toxic heavy metals from waste streams with heavy metal ion concentrations of up to 100 mg/L in the case of Cu(II.

  7. Dung beetle database: comparison with other invertebrate transcriptomes

    OpenAIRE

    Khanyile, Lucky M; Hull, Rodney; Ntwasa, Monde

    2008-01-01

    The dung beetle E. intermedius, a member of the highly diverse order, Coleoptera has immense economic benefits. It was estimated that insect ecological services in the United States amounted to some $60 billion in 2006 with dung beetles being major contributors. E. intermedius may be endowed with a robust immune system given its microbe-rich habitat. Dung beetles live on juice and microbes from the dung and are therefore, potential models for the study of infectious agents and ecological dama...

  8. The bacterial community of entomophilic nematodes and host beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneru, Sneha L; Salinas, Heilly; Flores, Gilberto E; Hong, Ray L

    2016-05-01

    Insects form the most species-rich lineage of Eukaryotes and each is a potential host for organisms from multiple phyla, including fungi, protozoa, mites, bacteria and nematodes. In particular, beetles are known to be associated with distinct bacterial communities and entomophilic nematodes. While entomopathogenic nematodes require symbiotic bacteria to kill and reproduce inside their insect hosts, the microbial ecology that facilitates other types of nematode-insect associations is largely unknown. To illuminate detailed patterns of the tritrophic beetle-nematode-bacteria relationship, we surveyed the nematode infestation profiles of scarab beetles in the greater Los Angeles area over a five-year period and found distinct nematode infestation patterns for certain beetle hosts. Over a single season, we characterized the bacterial communities of beetles and their associated nematodes using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. We found significant differences in bacterial community composition among the five prevalent beetle host species, independent of geographical origin. Anaerobes Synergistaceae and sulphate-reducing Desulfovibrionaceae were most abundant in Amblonoxia beetles, while Enterobacteriaceae and Lachnospiraceae were common in Cyclocephala beetles. Unlike entomopathogenic nematodes that carry bacterial symbionts, insect-associated nematodes do not alter the beetles' native bacterial communities, nor do their microbiomes differ according to nematode or beetle host species. The conservation of Diplogastrid nematodes associations with Melolonthinae beetles and sulphate-reducing bacteria suggests a possible link between beetle-bacterial communities and their associated nematodes. Our results establish a starting point towards understanding the dynamic interactions between soil macroinvertebrates and their microbiota in a highly accessible urban environment. PMID:26992100

  9. Initial Decomposition and Humification Dynamics of Ponderosa Pine Fine Roots and Needles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. A.; Torn, M. S.

    2002-12-01

    To understand the influence of litter chemistry and microclimate on the long-term stabilization of plant inputs, it is essential to better understand biological and chemical regulation of the conversion of litter to stable soil organic matter (SOM). We present first-year results from a 3-year field study examining the fate of 13C- and 15N- labeled Pinus ponderosa in an 80-year-old conifer forest in the Sierra Nevada, CA on an Ultic Haploxeralf. Our objectives are to assess the effects of litter type (fine roots vs. needles) and substrate placement depth (O vs. A horizon) on rates of C and N mineralization, immobilization into microbial biomass and specific microbial groups, and stabilization into SOM fractions. Data will be presented on recovery of 13C and 15N in soil microbial, mineral and SOM fractions after 152 d and C respiration over the initial 300 d. In situ litter decomposition, as estimated by 13C respiration, of needles exceeded that of roots by 270% at 61 d, by 140% at 152 d and was similar for the two substrates at 221 d. Comparing the effect of soil depth, pine needles had greater 13C respiration in the O horizon than in the A horizon through 152 d, while the rate of fine root decay was not significantly different between soil depths through 221 d.

  10. Foliar nutrient status of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and acid rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct effect of foliar exposure to acid rain may be increased leaching of nutrient elements. Ozone exposure, through degradation of the cuticle and cellular membranes, may also result in increased nutrient leaching. To test these hypotheses, the foliar concentrations of 13 nutrient elements were monitored for mature branches of three clones of Pinus ponderosa exposed to ozone and/or acid rain. The three clones represented three distinct levels of phenotypic vigor. Branches were exposed to charcoal filtered, ambient, or 2 x ambient concentrations of ozone and received no acid rain (NAP), pH 5.1 rain (5.1), or pH 3.0 (3.0) rain. Following 10 months of continuous ozone exposure and 3 months of weekly rain applications, the concentrations of P and Mg differed significantly among rain treatments with a ranking of: 5.1 < NAP < 3.0. The S concentration increased with rain application regardless of pH. For the clones of moderate and low vigor, the concentration of N decreased with increasing rain acidity. There was no evidence of significant ozone or ozone x acid rain response. Among the three families, high phenotypic vigor was associated with significantly greater concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, B and An. These results indicate generally negligible leaching as a result of exposure to acid rain and/or ozone for one growing season. Increases in foliar concentrations of S, Mg and P are possibly the result of evaporative surface deposition from the rain solution

  11. Temperature and light acclimation of photosynthetic capacity in seedlings and mature trees of Pinus ponderosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Momen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary step to understand the impact of possible rise in temperature on carbon dynamics of forests is to examine the temperature elasticity of key processes involved in carbon fixation in forest trees. For seedling and mature ponderosa pines of three genotypes, we used a response-surface methodology and ANOVA to evaluate changes in maximum net photosynthesis (An max, and corresponding light (LAn max and temperature (TAn max to diurnal and seasonal changes in ambient temperature during summer and autumn. As seasonal ambient temperature decreased: (1 An max did not change in seedlings or mature trees, (2 LAn max did not change in mature trees, but it decreased for current-yr foliage of seedlings from 964 to 872 µmol photons m-2 s-1, and (3 TAn max did not change in seedlings but it decreased in mature trees for both current- and one-yr-old foliage, from 26.8 to 22.2, and 24.6 to 21.7 C, respectively.

  12. Evolution of exocrine chemical defense in leaf beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pasteels, Jacques M.; Rowell-Rahier, Martine; Braekman, J.C.; Daloze, D.; Duffey, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we speculate on possible scenarios for the evolution of the very high diversity in chemical compounds liberated by exocrine glands of adults Chrysomelidae. Shift in host plant affinities and subsequent adaptation of the beetles to the plant toxins strongly influence the nature of the beetles' chemical defense.

  13. Cucumber Beetle Antifeedants: Laboratory Screening of Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, D. K.; Jacobson, M.; Warthen, J. D. Jr; Uebel, E. C.; Tromley, N. J.; Jurd, L.; Freedman, B

    1981-01-01

    Cucumber beetles are destructive pests of melons in the Midwest both because of their feeding and transmission of bacterial wilt disease. Because an effective antifeedant would be an ideal control measure, more than 350 materials of biological origin have been screened against striped cucumber beetle. Such materials as neem derivatives, neriifolin, -tung, and napthoquinones appear promising and will be tested more extensively.

  14. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, L.I.& A.M. Frake. Observations on the Life History of Small Hive Beetles - The life history of small hive beetles (SHB) kept in an incubator (34ºC) and at room temperature (24-28ºC) was compared. Six slides of eggs, obtained using the glass slide technique, were placed individually in rear...

  15. Formulating entompathogens for control of boring beetles in avocado orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A foam formulation of Beauveria bassiana was adapted to control boring beetles in avocado orchards. The two geographically independent avocado growing areas in the United States are threatened by emerging diseases vectored by boring beetles. In the California growing region, Fusarium dieback is vect...

  16. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  17. Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN, and MPAN above a Ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007, we observed eddy covariance (EC fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs, including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN, above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of −0.3 cm s−1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake contributes to 25–50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15% is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil. Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer – fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. The depositional loss of APNs can be 3–21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition is approximately 4–19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

  18. Eddy covariance fluxes of acyl peroxy nitrates (PAN, PPN and MPAN above a Ponderosa pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment 2007 (BEARPEX-2007, we observed eddy covariance (EC fluxes of speciated acyl peroxy nitrates (APNs, including peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN, peroxypropionyl nitrate (PPN and peroxymethacryloyl nitrate (MPAN, above a Ponderosa pine forest in the western Sierra Nevada. All APN fluxes are net downward during the day, with a median midday PAN exchange velocity of −0.3 cm s−1; nighttime storage-corrected APN EC fluxes are smaller than daytime fluxes but still downward. Analysis with a standard resistance model shows that loss of PAN to the canopy is not controlled by turbulent or molecular diffusion. Stomatal uptake can account for 25 to 50% of the observed downward PAN flux. Vertical gradients in the PAN thermal decomposition (TD rate explain a similar fraction of the flux, suggesting that a significant portion of the PAN flux into the forest results from chemical processes in the canopy. The remaining "unidentified" portion of the net PAN flux (~15% is ascribed to deposition or reactive uptake on non-stomatal surfaces (e.g. leaf cuticles or soil. Shifts in temperature, moisture and ecosystem activity during the summer – fall transition alter the relative contribution of stomatal uptake, non-stomatal uptake and thermochemical gradients to the net PAN flux. Daytime PAN and MPAN exchange velocities are a factor of 3 smaller than those of PPN during the first two weeks of the measurement period, consistent with strong intra-canopy chemical production of PAN and MPAN during this period. Depositional loss of APNs can be 3–21% of the gross gas-phase TD loss depending on temperature. As a source of nitrogen to the biosphere, PAN deposition represents approximately 4–19% of that due to dry deposition of nitric acid at this site.

  19. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Röckmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane analyzer (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. The fluctuations of the CH4 concentration measured at 10 Hz appear to be small and their standard deviation is comparable to the magnitude of the signal noise (±5 ppbv. Consequently, the power spectra typically have a white noise signature at the high frequency end (a slope of +1. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. We furthermore evaluate the complications of combined open and closed-path measurements when applying the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections (Webb et al., 1980 and the consequences of a phase lag between the water vapor and methane signal inside the closed path system. The results of diurnal variations of CH4 concentrations and fluxes are summarized and compared to the monthly results of process-based model calculations.

  20. Curcurbita pepo subspecies delineates striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum) preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowski, L; Leckie, B M; Gardner, J; Hoffmann, M P; Mazourek, M

    2016-01-01

    The striped cucumber beetle (Acalymma vittatum (F.)) is a destructive pest of cucurbit crops, and management could be improved by host plant resistance, especially in organic farming systems. However, despite the variation in striped cucumber beetle preference observed within the economically important species, Cucurbita pepo L., plant breeders and entomologists lacked a simple framework to classify and exploit these differences. This study used recent phylogenetic evidence and bioassays to organize striped cucumber beetle preference within C. pepo. Our results indicate preference contrasts between the two agriculturally relevant subspecies: C. pepo subsp. texana and C. pepo subsp. pepo. Plants of C. pepo subsp. pepo were more strongly preferred than C. pepo subsp. texana plants. This structure of beetle preference in C. pepo will allow plant breeders and entomologists to better focus research efforts on host plant non-preference to control striped cucumber beetles. PMID:27347423

  1. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the biology, ecology and management of spruce and spruce beetle populations. This paper is a review of literature on spruce beetle focusing on work published since the late 1970s and is intended as an addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies.

  2. Pseudomonas coleopterorum sp nov., a cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from the bark beetle Hylesinus fraxini

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menéndez, E.; Ramírez-Bahena, M.H.; Fabryová, A.; Igual, J.M.; Benada, Oldřich

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 65, SEP 2015 (2015), s. 2852-2858. ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : CURCULIONIDAE SCOLYTINAE * NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCES * DENDROCTONUS-RHIZOPHAGUS Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.511, year: 2014

  3. Extreme late-summer drought causes neutral annual carbon balance in southwestern ponderosa pine forests and grasslands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed the impacts of extreme late-summer drought on carbon balance in a semi-arid forest region in Arizona. To understand drought impacts over extremes of forest cover, we measured net ecosystem production (NEP), gross primary production (GPP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) with eddy covariance over five years (2006–10) at an undisturbed ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest and at a former forest converted to grassland by intense burning. Drought shifted annual NEP from a weak source of carbon to the atmosphere to a neutral carbon balance at the burned site and from a carbon sink to neutral at the undisturbed site. Carbon fluxes were particularly sensitive to drought in August. Drought shifted August NEP at the undisturbed site from sink to source because the reduction of GPP (70%) exceeded the reduction of TER (35%). At the burned site drought shifted August NEP from weak source to neutral because the reduction of TER (40%) exceeded the reduction of GPP (20%). These results show that the lack of forest recovery after burning and the exposure of undisturbed forests to late-summer drought reduce carbon sink strength and illustrate the high vulnerability of forest carbon sink strength in the southwest US to predicted increases in intense burning and precipitation variability. (letter)

  4. Stomata open at night in pole-sized and mature ponderosa pine: implications for O{sub 3} exposure metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grulke, N. E.; Alonso, R.; Nguyen, T.; Dobrowolski, W. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Station, Riverside, CA (United States); Cascio, C. [University of Florence, Firenze (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Nighttime stomatal behaviour in two tree size stands of ponderosa pine are described. Ponderosa pine is one of the most ozone-sensitive conifers in western North America. The study involved measurement of time required to reach equilibrium in response to small increases in low irradiances at sites differing in environmental stressors. The contribution of nighttime ozone uptake to total daily ozone uptake in early and later summer was also investigated. Nighttime stomata conductance ranged between one tenth and one fifth that of maximum day-time values. Pole-size trees (i.e. less than 40 years old) showed greater ozone conductance than mature trees (i.e. over 250 years old). In June, nighttime ozone uptake accounted for 9, 5, and 3 per cent of the total daily ozone uptake of pole-sized trees. In late summer, ozone uptake at night was less than two percent of daily uptake at all sites. It is suspected that nighttime uptake of oxidants may have harmful physiological effects, such as contributing to the declining health of forest trees, owing to the fact that oxidants absorbed at night are not detoxified as well during the day. 67 refs.,1 tab., 8 figs.

  5. Short-Term Belowground Responses to Thinning and Burning Treatments in Southwestern Ponderosa Pine Forests of the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T. Overby

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-mediated decomposition and nutrient mineralization are major drivers of forest productivity. As landscape-scale fuel reduction treatments are being implemented throughout the fire-prone western United States of America, it is important to evaluate operationally how these wildfire mitigation treatments alter belowground processes. We quantified these important belowground components before and after management-applied fuel treatments of thinning alone, thinning combined with prescribed fire, and prescribed fire in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa stands at the Southwest Plateau, Fire and Fire Surrogate site, Arizona. Fuel treatments did not alter pH, total carbon and nitrogen (N concentrations, or base cations of the forest floor (O horizon or mineral soil (0–5 cm during this 2-year study. In situ rates of net N mineralization and nitrification in the surface mineral soil (0–15 cm increased 6 months after thinning with prescribed fire treatments; thinning only resulted in net N immobilization. The rates returned to pre-treatment levels after one year. Based on phospholipid fatty acid composition, microbial communities in treated areas were similar to untreated areas (control in the surface organic horizon and mineral soil (0–5 cm after treatments. Soil potential enzyme activities were not significantly altered by any of the three fuel treatments. Our results suggest that a variety of one-time alternative fuel treatments can reduce fire hazard without degrading soil fertility.

  6. Isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance indicate shift in genetic structure of ponderosa and Jeffrey pine in Sequoia National Park, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of canopy ozone (O3) exposure and signatures of genetic structure using isozyme markers associated with O3 tolerance were analyzed in ∼20-, ∼80-, and >200-yr-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) and Jeffrey pine (Pinus jeffreyi Grev. and Balf.) in Sequoia National Park, California. For both species, the number of alleles and genotypes per loci was higher in parental trees relative to saplings. In ponderosa pine, the heterozygosity value increased, and the fixation index indicated reduction of homozygosity with increasing tree age class. The opposite tendencies were observed for Jeffrey pine. Utilizing canopy attributes known to be responsive to O3 exposure, ponderosa pine was more symptomatic than Jeffrey pine, and saplings were more symptomatic than old growth trees. We suggest that these trends are related to differing sensitivity of the two species to O3 exposure, and to higher O3 exposures and drought stress that younger trees may have experienced during germination and establishment. - Genetic variation in isozyme markers associated with ozone tolerance differed between parental trees and their progeny in two closely related species of yellow pine

  7. Eddy covariance methane measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. P. P. Smeets

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Long term methane flux measurements have been mostly performed with plant or soil enclosure techniques on specific components of an ecosystem. New fast response methane analyzers make it possible to use the eddy covariance (EC technique instead. The EC technique is advantageous because it allows continuous flux measurements integrating over a larger and more representative area including the complete ecosystem, and allows fluxes to be observed as environmental conditions change naturally without disturbance. We deployed the closed-path Fast Methane Analyser (FMA from Los Gatos Research Ltd and demonstrate its performance for EC measurements at a Ponderosa pine plantation at the Blodgett Forest site in central California. CH4 concentrations measured at 10 Hz showed a relatively high noise level that was caused by a software related problem. Nevertheless, in the frequency range important for turbulent exchange, the cospectra of CH4 compare very well with all other scalar cospectra confirming the quality of the FMA measurements are good for the EC technique. The low-pass filtering characteristics of our closed-path system and the use of the Webb-Pearman-Leuning (WPL corrections for a combination of open and closed-path sensors are discussed using a large ensemble of cospectra. The diurnal variation of the methane concentration was up to 60 ppbv with an average of 1843 ppbv. Concentrations increased from morning to late afternoon as upslope flow from the valley below carried polluted air to the site, and then decreased through the night as downslope flow carried cleaner air from aloft. The fluxes were consistently directed downward with a well defined diurnal pattern, averaging −35±40 ng m−2 s−1 during the daytime. The detection limit of the system was estimated at 22 ng m−2 s−1. The average CH4 deposition during the daytime was higher than the average value for

  8. Distribution of black carbon in ponderosa pine forest floor and soils following the High Park wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, C. M.; Haddix, M.; Paustian, K.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Biomass burning produces black carbon (BC), effectively transferring a fraction of the biomass C from an actively cycling pool to a passive C pool, which may be stored in the soil. Yet the timescales and mechanisms for incorporation of BC into the soil profile are not well understood. The High Park fire (HPF), which occurred in northwestern Colorado in the summer of 2012, provided an opportunity to study the effects of both fire severity and geomorphology on properties of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and BC in the Cache La Poudre River drainage. We sampled montane ponderosa pine forest floor (litter plus O-horizon) and soils at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depth 4 months post-fire in order to examine the effects of slope and burn severity on %C, C stocks, %N and BC. We used the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method for quantifying BC. With regard to slope, we found that steeper slopes had higher C : N than shallow slopes but that there was no difference in BPCA-C content or stocks. BC content was greatest in the forest floor at burned sites (19 g BPCA-C kg-1 C), while BC stocks were greatest in the 5-15 cm subsurface soils (23 g BPCA-C m-2). At the time of sampling, unburned and burned soils had equivalent BC content, indicating none of the BC deposited on the land surface post-fire had been incorporated into either the 0-5 or 5-15 cm soil layers. The ratio of B6CA : total BPCAs, an index of the degree of aromatic C condensation, suggested that BC in the 5-15 cm soil layer may have been formed at higher temperatures or experienced selective degradation relative to the forest floor and 0-5 cm soils. Total BC soil stocks were relatively low compared to other fire-prone grassland and boreal forest systems, indicating most of the BC produced in this system is likely lost, either through erosion events, degradation or translocation to deeper soils. Future work examining mechanisms for BC losses from forest soils will be required for understanding the role BC plays in the global

  9. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biro, L.P., E-mail: biro@mfa.kfki.h [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary)

    2010-05-25

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  10. Photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin in butterflies and beetles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photonic nanoarchitectures occurring in butterflies and beetles, which produce structural color in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum by the selective reflection of light, are investigated under the aspect of being used as possible 'blueprints' for artificial, bioinspired nanoarchitectures. The role of order and disorder and of regularity/irregularity in photonic nanoarchitectures of biologic origin is discussed. Three recent case studies are briefly reviewed for butterflies (Albulina metallica, Cyanophrys remus, Troides magellanus) and three for beetles (Hoeplia coerulea, Chrysochroa vittata, Charidotella egregia). The practical realization of bioinspired artificial structures is discussed for the A. metallica butterfly and for the C. vittata beetle.

  11. Atlas of Iberian water beetles (ESACIB database).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, David; Millán, Andrés; Abellán, Pedro; Picazo, Félix; Carbonell, José A; Ribera, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    The ESACIB ('EScarabajos ACuáticos IBéricos') database is provided, including all available distributional data of Iberian and Balearic water beetles from the literature up to 2013, as well as from museum and private collections, PhD theses, and other unpublished sources. The database contains 62,015 records with associated geographic data (10×10 km UTM squares) for 488 species and subspecies of water beetles, 120 of them endemic to the Iberian Peninsula and eight to the Balearic Islands. This database was used for the elaboration of the "Atlas de los Coleópteros Acuáticos de España Peninsular". In this dataset data of 15 additional species has been added: 11 that occur in the Balearic Islands or mainland Portugal but not in peninsular Spain and an other four with mainly terrestrial habits within the genus Helophorus (for taxonomic coherence). The complete dataset is provided in Darwin Core Archive format. PMID:26448717

  12. Examining historical and current mixed-severity fire regimes in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis C Odion

    Full Text Available There is widespread concern that fire exclusion has led to an unprecedented threat of uncharacteristically severe fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. Laws and mixed-conifer forests of western North America. These extensive montane forests are considered to be adapted to a low/moderate-severity fire regime that maintained stands of relatively old trees. However, there is increasing recognition from landscape-scale assessments that, prior to any significant effects of fire exclusion, fires and forest structure were more variable in these forests. Biota in these forests are also dependent on the resources made available by higher-severity fire. A better understanding of historical fire regimes in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests of western North America is therefore needed to define reference conditions and help maintain characteristic ecological diversity of these systems. We compiled landscape-scale evidence of historical fire severity patterns in the ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests from published literature sources and stand ages available from the Forest Inventory and Analysis program in the USA. The consensus from this evidence is that the traditional reference conditions of low-severity fire regimes are inaccurate for most forests of western North America. Instead, most forests appear to have been characterized by mixed-severity fire that included ecologically significant amounts of weather-driven, high-severity fire. Diverse forests in different stages of succession, with a high proportion in relatively young stages, occurred prior to fire exclusion. Over the past century, successional diversity created by fire decreased. Our findings suggest that ecological management goals that incorporate successional diversity created by fire may support characteristic biodiversity, whereas current attempts to "restore" forests to open, low-severity fire conditions may not align with historical reference conditions in

  13. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Tague

    Full Text Available Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa. Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  14. An integrated model of environmental effects on growth, carbohydrate balance, and mortality of Pinus ponderosa forests in the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tague, Christina L.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Climate-induced tree mortality is an increasing concern for forest managers around the world. We used a coupled hydrologic and ecosystem carbon cycling model to assess temperature and precipitation impacts on productivity and survival of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). Model predictions were evaluated using observations of productivity and survival for three ponderosa pine stands located across an 800 m elevation gradient in the southern Rocky Mountains, USA, during a 10-year period that ended in a severe drought and extensive tree mortality at the lowest elevation site. We demonstrate the utility of a relatively simple representation of declines in non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) as an approach for estimating patterns of ponderosa pine vulnerability to drought and the likelihood of survival along an elevation gradient. We assess the sensitivity of simulated net primary production, NSC storage dynamics, and mortality to site climate and soil characteristics as well as uncertainty in the allocation of carbon to the NSC pool. For a fairly wide set of assumptions, the model estimates captured elevational gradients and temporal patterns in growth and biomass. Model results that best predict mortality risk also yield productivity, leaf area, and biomass estimates that are qualitatively consistent with observations across the sites. Using this constrained set of parameters, we found that productivity and likelihood of survival were equally dependent on elevation-driven variation in temperature and precipitation. Our results demonstrate the potential for a coupled hydrology-ecosystem carbon cycling model that includes a simple model of NSC dynamics to predict drought-related mortality. Given that increases in temperature and in the frequency and severity of drought are predicted for a broad range of ponderosa pine and other western North America conifer forest habitats, the model potentially has broad utility for assessing ecosystem vulnerabilities.

  15. Managing invasive populations of Asian longhorned beetle and citrus longhorned beetle: a worldwide perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Robert A; Hérard, Franck; Sun, Jianghua; Turgeon, Jean J

    2010-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle (ALB), Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky), and citrus longhorned beetle (CLB), Anoplophora chinensis (Forster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), are polyphagous xylophages native to Asia and are capable of killing healthy trees. ALB outbreaks began in China in the 1980s, following major reforestation programs that used ALB-susceptible tree species. No regional CLB outbreaks have been reported in Asia. ALB was first intercepted in international trade in 1992, mostly in wood packaging material; CLB was first intercepted in 1980, mostly in live plants. ALB is now established in North America, and both species are established in Europe. After each infestation was discovered, quarantines and eradication programs were initiated to protect high-risk tree genera such as Acer, Aesculus, Betula, Populus, Salix, and Ulmus. We discuss taxonomy, diagnostics, native range, bionomics, damage, host plants, pest status in their native range, invasion history and management, recent research, and international efforts to prevent new introductions. PMID:19743916

  16. Comparative resistance of Russian and Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frake, Amanda M; De Guzman, Lilia I; Rinderer, Thomas E

    2009-02-01

    To compare resistance to small hive beetles (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) between Russian and commercial Italian honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae), the numbers of invading beetles, their population levels through time and small hive beetle reproduction inside the colonies were monitored. We found that the genotype of queens introduced into nucleus colonies had no immediate effect on small hive beetle invasion. However, the influence of honey bee stock on small hive beetle invasion was pronounced once test bees populated the hives. In colonies deliberately freed from small hive beetle during each observation period, the average number of invading beetles was higher in the Italian colonies (29 +/- 5 beetles) than in the Russian honey bee colonies (16 +/- 3 beetles). A similar trend was observed in colonies that were allowed to be freely colonized by beetles throughout the experimental period (Italian, 11.46 +/- 1.35; Russian, 5.21 +/- 0.66 beetles). A linear regression analysis showed no relationships between the number of beetles in the colonies and adult bee population (r2 = 0.1034, P = 0.297), brood produced (r2 = 0.1488, P = 0.132), or amount of pollen (P = 0.1036, P = 0.295). There were more Italian colonies that supported small hive beetle reproduction than Russian colonies. Regardless of stock, the use of entrance reducers had a significant effect on the average number of small hive beetle (with reducer, 16 +/- 3; without reducer, 27 +/- 5 beetles). However, there was no effect on bee population (with reducer, 13.20 +/- 0.71; without reducer, 14.60 +/- 0.70 frames) or brood production (with reducer, 6.12 +/- 0.30; without reducer, 6.44 +/- 0.34 frames). Overall, Russian honey bees were more resistant to small hive beetle than Italian honey bees as indicated by fewer invading beetles, lower small hive beetle population through time, and lesser reproduction. PMID:19253612

  17. The artificial beetle, or a brief manifesto for engineered biomimicry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Michael H.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2015-03-01

    The artificial beetle is possibly the Holy Grail for practitioners of engineered biomimicry. An artificial beetle could gather and relay data and images from compromised environments on earth and other planets to decision makers. It could also be used for surveillance of foes and friends alike, and will require ethical foresight and oversight. What would it take to develop an artificial beetle? Several biotemplating techniques can be harnessed for the replication of external structural features of beetle bodies, and thus preserve functionalities such as coloration of the exoskeleton and the hydrophobicity of wings. The body cavity must host a power supply, motors to move the wings for flight, sensors to capture ambient conditions and images, and data transmitters and receivers to communicate with a remote command center. All of these devices must be very small and reliable.

  18. Biologically inspired optics: analog semiconductor model of the beetle exoskeleton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, Kaia; Roth, Zachary; Srinivasan, Pradeep; Rumpf, Raymond; Johnson, Eric

    2008-08-01

    Evolution in nature has produced through adaptation a wide variety of distinctive optical structures in many life forms. For example, pigment differs greatly from the observed color of most beetles because their exoskeletons contain multilayer coatings. The green beetle is disguised in a surrounding leaf by having a comparable reflection spectrum as the leaves. The Manuka and June beetle have a concave structure where light incident at any angle on the concave structures produce matching reflection spectra. In this work, semiconductor processing methods were used to duplicate the structure of the beetle exoskeleton. This was achieved by combining analog lithography with a multilayer deposition process. The artificial exoskeleton, 3D concave multilayer structure, demonstrates a wide field of view with a unique spectral response. Studying and replicating these biologically inspired nanostructures may lead to new knowledge for fabrication and design of new and novel nano-photonic devices, as well as provide valuable insight to how such phenomenon is exploited.

  19. Host plant preference in Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...

  20. New generic synonyms in the Oriental flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following new synonyms are proposed for the genera of flea beetles from Oriental Region: Pseudocrypta Medvedev, 1996 and Sebaethiella Medvedev, 1993 = Acrocrypta Baly, 1862: 457; Bhutajana Scherer, 1979 = Aphthona Chevrolat, 1836; Burmaltica Scherer, 1969 = Aphthonaltica Heikertinger, 1924; Apht...

  1. Bergamot versus beetle: evidence for intraspecific chemical specialization

    OpenAIRE

    Keefover-Ring, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Many plant-eating insects have developed the ability to eat plants that synthesize toxins which they use to defend themselves against herbivores. While these specialized insects are good at dealing with specific plant toxins, plant species with highly variable chemistry can present a challenge. This study tested for reciprocal effects of a specialist tortoise beetle feeding on a host plant with individuals contained two different essential oil toxins. Overall, beetles showed higher survival, ...

  2. Chemical defense: Aquatic beetle (Dineutes hornii) vs. fish (Micropterus salmoides)

    OpenAIRE

    Eisner, Thomas; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Captive largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) reject the gyrinid beetle, Dineutes hornii. They also reject edible items (mealworms) treated by topical addition of the norsesquiterpene gyrinidal, the principal component of the defensive secretion of the beetle. The bass' oral tolerance of gyrinidal varies broadly as a function of the gyrinidal dosage and the state of satiation of the fish. When taking a D. hornii or a gyrinidal-treated mealworm in the mouth, the f...

  3. Juvenile Hormone Regulates Extreme Mandible Growth in Male Stag Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J.; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with o...

  4. Spectral information as an orientation cue in dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jundi, Basil; Foster, James J; Byrne, Marcus J; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2015-11-01

    During the day, a non-uniform distribution of long and short wavelength light generates a colour gradient across the sky. This gradient could be used as a compass cue, particularly by animals such as dung beetles that rely primarily on celestial cues for orientation. Here, we tested if dung beetles can use spectral cues for orientation by presenting them with monochromatic (green and UV) light spots in an indoor arena. Beetles kept their original bearing when presented with a single light cue, green or UV, or when presented with both light cues set 180° apart. When either the UV or the green light was turned off after the beetles had set their bearing in the presence of both cues, they were still able to maintain their original bearing to the remaining light. However, if the beetles were presented with two identical green light spots set 180° apart, their ability to maintain their original bearing was impaired. In summary, our data show that ball-rolling beetles could potentially use the celestial chromatic gradient as a reference for orientation. PMID:26538537

  5. Computationally efficient statistical differential equation modeling using homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooten, Mevin B.; Garlick, Martha J.; Powell, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Statistical models using partial differential equations (PDEs) to describe dynamically evolving natural systems are appearing in the scientific literature with some regularity in recent years. Often such studies seek to characterize the dynamics of temporal or spatio-temporal phenomena such as invasive species, consumer-resource interactions, community evolution, and resource selection. Specifically, in the spatial setting, data are often available at varying spatial and temporal scales. Additionally, the necessary numerical integration of a PDE may be computationally infeasible over the spatial support of interest. We present an approach to impose computationally advantageous changes of support in statistical implementations of PDE models and demonstrate its utility through simulation using a form of PDE known as “ecological diffusion.” We also apply a statistical ecological diffusion model to a data set involving the spread of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in Idaho, USA.

  6. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Mary M; O'Neal, Matthew E; Landis, Douglas A

    2011-01-01

    Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows that intraguild

  7. Intraguild predation and native lady beetle decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Gardiner

    Full Text Available Coccinellid communities across North America have experienced significant changes in recent decades, with declines in several native species reported. One potential mechanism for these declines is interference competition via intraguild predation; specifically, increased predation of native coccinellid eggs and larvae following the introduction of exotic coccinellids. Our previous studies have shown that agricultural fields in Michigan support a higher diversity and abundance of exotic coccinellids than similar fields in Iowa, and that the landscape surrounding agricultural fields across the north central U.S. influences the abundance and activity of coccinellid species. The goal of this study was to quantify the amount of egg predation experienced by a native coccinellid within Michigan and Iowa soybean fields and explore the influence of local and large-scale landscape structure. Using the native lady beetle Coleomegilla maculata as a model, we found that sentinel egg masses were subject to intense predation within both Michigan and Iowa soybean fields, with 60.7% of egg masses attacked and 43.0% of available eggs consumed within 48 h. In Michigan, the exotic coccinellids Coccinella septempunctata and Harmonia axyridis were the most abundant predators found in soybean fields whereas in Iowa, native species including C. maculata, Hippodamia parenthesis and the soft-winged flower beetle Collops nigriceps dominated the predator community. Predator abundance was greater in soybean fields within diverse landscapes, yet variation in predator numbers did not influence the intensity of egg predation observed. In contrast, the strongest predictor of native coccinellid egg predation was the composition of edge habitats bordering specific fields. Field sites surrounded by semi-natural habitats including forests, restored prairies, old fields, and pasturelands experienced greater egg predation than fields surrounded by other croplands. This study shows

  8. New records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera:Dytiscidae) in Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.

  9. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  10. Distance and sex determine host plant choice by herbivorous beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Ballhorn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plants respond to herbivore damage with the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs. This indirect defense can cause ecological costs when herbivores themselves use VOCs as cues to localize suitable host plants. Can VOCs reliably indicate food plant quality to herbivores? METHODOLOGY: We determined the choice behavior of herbivorous beetles (Chrysomelidae: Gynandrobrotica guerreroensis and Cerotoma ruficornis when facing lima bean plants (Fabaceae: Phaseolus lunatus with different cyanogenic potential, which is an important constitutive direct defense. Expression of inducible indirect defenses was experimentally manipulated by jasmonic acid treatment at different concentrations. The long-distance responses of male and female beetles to the resulting induced plant volatiles were investigated in olfactometer and free-flight experiments and compared to the short-distance decisions of the same beetles in feeding trials. CONCLUSION: Female beetles of both species were repelled by VOCs released from all induced plants independent of the level of induction. In contrast, male beetles were repelled by strongly induced plants, showed no significant differences in choice behavior towards moderately induced plants, but responded positively to VOCs released from little induced plants. Thus, beetle sex and plant VOCs had a significant effect on host searching behavior. By contrast, feeding behavior of both sexes was strongly determined by the cyanogenic potential of leaves, although females again responded more sensitively than males. Apparently, VOCs mainly provide information to these beetles that are not directly related to food quality. Being induced by herbivory and involved in indirect plant defense, such VOCs might indicate the presence of competitors and predators to herbivores. We conclude that plant quality as a food source and finding a potentially enemy-free space is more important for female than for male insect herbivores

  11. Rain forest provides pollinating beetles for atemoya crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, Rosalind; Cunningham, Saul A

    2005-08-01

    Small beetles, usually species of Nitidulidae, are the natural pollinators of atemoya (Annona squamosa L. x A. cherimola Mill. hybrids; custard apple) flowers but commercial atemoya growers often need to carry out labor-intensive hand pollination to produce enough high-quality fruit. Because Australian rain forest has plant species in the same family as atemoya (Annonaceae) and because many rain forest plants are beetle pollinated, we set out to discover whether tropical rain forest in far north Queensland harbors beetles that could provide this ecosystem service for atemoya crops. Orchards were chosen along a gradient of increasing distance from tropical rain forest (0.1-24 km). We sampled 100 flowers from each of nine atemoya orchards and determined the identity and abundance of insects within each flower. To assess the amount of pollination due to insects, we bagged six flowers per tree and left another six flowers per tree accessible to insects on 10 trees at an orchard near rain forest. Results indicated that atemoya orchards < or = 0.5 km from rain forest were predominantly visited by five previously unrecognized native beetle pollinators that are likely to originate in tropical rain forest. These native beetles occurred reliably enough in crops near rain forest to have a positive effect on the quantity of fruit produced but their contribution was not great enough to satisfy commercial production needs. Management changes, aimed at increasing native beetle abundance in crops, are required before these beetles could eliminate the need for growers to hand pollinate atemoya flowers. Appreciation of the value of this resource is necessary if we are to develop landscapes that both conserve native biodiversity and support agricultural production. PMID:16156571

  12. 7 CFR 301.48-6 - Movement of live Japanese beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of live Japanese beetles. 301.48-6 Section... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Japanese Beetle Quarantine and Regulations § 301.48-6 Movement of live Japanese beetles. Regulations requiring a permit for and...

  13. Flow Visualization of Rhinoceros Beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) in Free Flight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tien Van Truong; Tuyen Quang Le; Hieu Trung Tran; Hoon Cheol Park; Kwang Joon Yoon; Doyoung Byun

    2012-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics of the beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus,which has a pair of elytra (forewings) and flexible hind wings,are investigated.Visualization experiments were conducted for various flight conditions of a beetle,Trypoxylus dichotomus:free,tethered,hovering,forward and climbing flights.Leading edge,trailing edge and tip vortices on both wings were observed clearly.The leading edge vortex was stable and remained on the top surface of the elytron for a wide interval during the downstroke of free forward flight.Hence,the elytron may have a considerable role in lift force generation of the beetle.In addition,we reveal a suction phenomenon between the gaps of the hind wing and the elytron in upstroke that may improve the positive lift force on the hind wing.We also found the reverse clap-fling mechanism of the T.dichotomus beetle in hovering flight.The hind wings touch together at the beginning of the upstroke.The vortex generation,shedding and interaction give a better understanding of the detailed aerodynamic mechanism of beetle flight.

  14. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Miraldo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species. Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges.

  15. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    Madagascar has a rich fauna of dung beetles (Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae) withalmost 300 species described to date. Like most other taxa in Madagascar, dung beetles exhibit an exceptionally high level of endemism (96% of the species). Here,we review the current knowledge of the origin and diversification of Malagasy dung beetles. Based on molecular phylogenies, the extant dung beetles originate from eight colonizations, of which four have given rise to extensive radiations. These radiations have occurred in wet forests, while the few extant species in the less successfulradiations occur in open and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles. Phylogeographic analyses of selected species reveal complex patterns with evidence for genetic introgression between old taxa. The introduction of cattle to Madagascar 1500 years ago created a new abundant resource, onto which a few species haveshifted and thereby been able to greatly expand their geographical ranges. PMID:26467617

  16. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  17. Marking small hive beetles with thoracic notching: effects on longevity, flight ability and fecundity

    OpenAIRE

    De Guzman, Lilia; Frake, Amanda; Rinderer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    International audience We tested two marking techniques for adult small hive beetles (SHB): dusting and thoracic notching. The use of blue and red chalk dusts to mark beetles was not persistent and caused early death of SHB with an average survival of 52.6 ± 23.8 and 13.9 ± 7.3 days, respectively. In contrast, notched beetles survived longer (mean = 353.6 ± 5.3 days) with the last beetle dying after 383 days. Likewise, notched beetles (presumed to be injured because of oozing hemolymph fro...

  18. Changes in food resources and conservation of scarab beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Piattella, Emanuele

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the research was to show how a change in land use influences the structure of a dung beetle assemblage and affect its conservation. In the Pineto Urban Regional Park (Rome), dog dung is the sole food resource currently available for scarab dung beetles, after the recent removal of wild...... and domestic herbivores. A one-year sampling was conducted to study the scarab assemblage in dog scats (1999) and to compare it with the previous assemblage associated with sheep droppings (1986). Richness, evenness and similarity parameters were compared between the two allochronic assemblages. From...... sheep to dog dung, an impoverishment of the total richness was observed (from 19 to 9 species) together with an increase of individuals (by 7 times). Dog dung harboured 20% of the current scarab dung beetle fauna of Rome, probably as a consequence of the dog mixed diet, rich in cellulose. Both the...

  19. Micro-structure and frictional characteristics of beetle's joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhendong; Stanislav N. Gorb

    2004-01-01

    Geometric and micro-structure design, tribology properties of beetle joints were experimentally studied, which aimed to enlighten ideas for the joint design of MEMS.The observation by using SEM and microscopy suggested that beetle's joints consist of a concave surface matched with a convex surface. The heads of the beetles, rubbing with flat glass, were tested in fresh and dried statuses and compared with sapphire ball with flat glass. Frictional coefficient of the joint material on glass was significantly lower than that of the sapphire sphere on glass. The material of the joint cuticle for convex surface is rather stiff (the elastic modulus 4.5 Gpa) and smooth. The surface is hydrophobic (the contact angle of distilled water was 88.3° ). It is suggested here that the high stiffness of the joint material and hydrophobicity of the joint surface are parts of the mechanism minimizing friction in insect joints.

  20. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  1. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Werner Hopp

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage composition of the corresponding forest stages was similar in both months. We suggest that sampling of small litter inhabiting beetles at different points in time using the Winkler technique reveals identical ecological patterns, which are more likely to be influenced by sample incompleteness than by differences in their assemblage composition. A strong relationship between litter quantity and beetle occurrences indicates the importance of this variable for the temporal species density pattern. Additionally, the sampled beetle material was compared with beetle data obtained with pitfall traps in one old-growth forest. Over 60% of the focal species captured with pitfall traps were also sampled by Winkler extraction in different forest stages. Few beetles with a body size too large to be sampled by Winkler extraction were only sampled with pitfall traps. This indicates that the local litter beetle fauna is dominated by small species. Hence, being aware of the exclusion of large beetles and beetle species occurring during the wet season, the Winkler method reveals a reliable picture of the local leaf litter beetle community.

  2. Fungi associated with the beetles of Ips typographus on Norway spruce in southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of the beetles of the phloem-feeding spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus was studied. The most important group of fungi were the ophiostomatoid fungi. Among them O. penicillatum was very frequent ophiostomatoid species. Other common fungi were O. ainoae, O. bicolor, O. piceaperdum and O. piceae. The ophiostomatoid fungi were often more frequent in beetles collected in galleries than in the beetles caught With a trap. Generally the ophiostomatoid fungi were more ofien isolated from the beetle.s bathed in sterile water for 30 seconds. However C. polonica, O. ainoae, and O. minutum occurred most abundantly in the beetles disinfected in 96% ethyl alcohol for 15 and 30 seconds.

  3. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fine Licht Henrik H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae, wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily

  4. Impact of prescribed fire and other factors on cheatgrass persistence in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; McGinnis, T.W.

    2007-01-01

    Following the reintroduction of fire Bromus tectorum has invaded the low elevation ponderosa pine forests in parts of Kings Canyon National Park, California. We used prescribed burns, other field manipulations, germination studies, and structural equation modelling, to investigate how fire and other factors affect the persistence of cheatgrass in these forests. Our studies show that altering burning season to coincide with seed maturation is not likely to control cheatgrass because sparse fuel loads generate low fire intensity. Increasing time between prescribed fires may inhibit cheatgrass by increasing surface fuels (both herbaceous and litter), which directly inhibit cheatgrass establishment, and by creating higher intensity fires capable of killing a much greater fraction of the seed bank. Using structural equation modelling, postfire cheatgrass dominance was shown to be most strongly controlled by the prefire cheatgrass seedbank; other factors include soil moisture, fire intensity, soil N, and duration of direct sunlight. Current fire management goals in western conifer forests are focused on restoring historical fire regimes; however, these frequent fire regimes may enhance alien plant invasion in some forest types. Where feasible, fire managers should consider the option of an appropriate compromise between reducing serious fire hazards and exacerbating alien plant invasions. ?? IAWF 2007.

  5. Climatic Versus Biotic Constraints on Carbon and Water Fluxes in Seasonally Drought-affected Ponderosa Pine Ecosystems. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, P. A.; Law, B. E.; Williams, M.; Irvine, J.; Kurpius, M.; Moore, D.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the relative importance of climatic versus biotic controls on gross primary production (GPP) and water vapor fluxes in seasonally drought-affected ponderosa pine forests. The study was conducted in young (YS), mature (MS), and old stands (OS) over 4 years at the AmeriFlux Metolius sites. Model simulations showed that interannual variation of GPP did not follow the same trends as precipitation, and effects of climatic variation were smallest at the OS (50%), and intermediate at the YS (climate, although leaf area is a function of climate in that climate can interact with age-related shifts in carbon allocation and affect whole-tree hydraulic conductance. Older forests, with well-established root systems, appear to be better buffered from effects of seasonal drought and interannual climatic variation. Interannual variation of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was also lowest at the OS, where NEE is controlled more by interannual variation of ecosystem respiration, 70% of which is from soil, than by the variation of GPP, whereas variation in GPP is the primary reason for interannual changes in NEE at the YS and MS. Across spatially heterogeneous landscapes with high frequency of younger stands resulting from natural and anthropogenic disturbances, interannual climatic variation and change in leaf area are likely to result in large interannual variation in GPP and NEE.

  6. Growing season soil moisture following restoration treatments of varying intensity in semi-arid ponderosa pine forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F. C.; Springer, A. E.; Sankey, T.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest restoration projects are being planned for large areas of overgrown semi-arid ponderosa pine forests of the Southwestern US. Restoration involves the thinning of smaller trees and prescribed or managed fire to reduce tree density, restore a more natural fire regime, and decrease the risk of catastrophic wildfire. The stated goals of these projects generally reduced plant water stress and improvements in hydrologic function. However, little is known about how to design restoration treatments to best meet these goals. As part of a larger project on snow cover, soil moisture, and groundwater recharge, we measured soil moisture, an indicator of plant water status, in four pairs of control and restored sites near Flagstaff, Arizona. The restoration strategies used at the sites range in both amount of open space created and degree of clustering of the remaining trees. We measured soil moisture using 30 cm vertical time domain reflectometry probes installed on 100 m transects at 5 m intervals so it would be possible to analyze the spatial pattern of soil moisture. Soil moisture was higher and more spatially variable in the restored sites than the control sites with differences in spatial pattern among the restoration types. Soil moisture monitoring will continue until the first snow fall, at which point measurements of snow depth and snow water equivalent will be made at the same locations.

  7. Spruce Beetle Biology, Ecology and Management in the Rocky Mountains: An Addendum to Spruce Beetle in the Rockies

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Michael J; Hebertson, Elizabeth G; A. Steven Munson

    2014-01-01

    Spruce beetle outbreaks have been reported in the Rocky Mountains of western North America since the late 1800s. In their classic paper, Spruce Beetle in the Rockies, Schmid and Frye reviewed the literature that emerged from the extensive outbreaks in Colorado in the 1940s. A new wave of outbreaks has affected Rocky Mountain subalpine spruce-fir forests beginning in the mid-1980s and continuing to the present. These outbreaks have spurred another surge of basic and applied research in the bio...

  8. The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus: A threat to avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurel wilt (LW) is a disease caused by Raffaelea sp., a fungal symbiont associated with the recently-introduced redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus. Impact of RAB as a vector of the disease to avocado is a threat to avocado production in the U.S. Since 2006, we have a) tested suscepti...

  9. Use of infochemicals to attract carrion beetles into pitfall traps

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podskalská, H.; Růžička, J.; Hoskovec, Michal; Šálek, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2009), s. 59-64. ISSN 0013-8703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : burying beetles * dimethylsulfide * dimethyldisulfide * dimethyltrisulfide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.568, year: 2009

  10. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano; Luiselli, Luca; Audisio, Paolo; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M.

    2013-01-01

    . Detection probability and population size estimates were drawn from each of these four capture methods. There were strong differences in detection probability among methods. Despite using pheromone and beetle manipulation, capture histories were not affected by trap-happiness or trap-shyness. Population...

  11. The Pied Piper: A Parasitic Beetle's Melodies Modulate Ant Behaviours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Giulio

    Full Text Available Ants use various communication channels to regulate their social organisation. The main channel that drives almost all the ants' activities and behaviours is the chemical one, but it is long acknowledged that the acoustic channel also plays an important role. However, very little is known regarding exploitation of the acoustical channel by myrmecophile parasites to infiltrate the ant society. Among social parasites, the ant nest beetles (Paussus are obligate myrmecophiles able to move throughout the colony at will and prey on the ants, surprisingly never eliciting aggression from the colonies. It has been recently postulated that stridulatory organs in Paussus might be evolved as an acoustic mechanism to interact with ants. Here, we survey the role of acoustic signals employed in the Paussus beetle-Pheidole ant system. Ants parasitised by Paussus beetles produce caste-specific stridulations. We found that Paussus can "speak" three different "languages", each similar to sounds produced by different ant castes (workers, soldiers, queen. Playback experiments were used to test how host ants respond to the sounds emitted by Paussus. Our data suggest that, by mimicking the stridulations of the queen, Paussus is able to dupe the workers of its host and to be treated as royalty. This is the first report of acoustic mimicry in a beetle parasite of ants.

  12. PATCH EXPLOITATION BY FEMALE RED FLOUR BEETLES, TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae) has had a long association with human stored food and can be a major pest in anthropogenic structures used for the processing and storage of grain-based products. Anthropogenic structures are fragmented landscapes characte...

  13. CUTICULAR HYDROCARBONS OF THE SUNFLOWER BEETLE, ZYGOGRAMMA EXCLAMATIONIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrocarbons were the major lipid class on the cuticular surface of adults, nymphs, and eggs of the sunflower beetle, Zygogramma exclamationis, characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minor amounts of wax ester from 40 to 48 carbon atoms in size were only detected in larvae. The hyd...

  14. The genome of the model beetle and pest Tribolium castaneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denell, Robin; Gibbs, Richard; Muzny, Donna;

    2008-01-01

    Tribolium castaneum is a member of the most species-rich eukaryotic order, a powerful model organism for the study of generalized insect development, and an important pest of stored agricultural products. We describe its genome sequence here. This omnivorous beetle has evolved the ability to inte...

  15. Origin and Diversification of Dung Beetles in Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraldo, Andreia; Wirta, Helena; Hanski, Ilkka

    2011-01-01

    and semi-open habitats. We discuss the likely mechanisms of speciation and the ecological characteristics of the extant communities, emphasizing the role of adaptation along environmental gradients and allopatric speciation in generating the exceptionally high beta diversity in Malagasy dung beetles...

  16. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Bark and Ambrosia Beetles in a Brazilian Tropical Dry Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-Reis, Luiz Eduardo; Novais, Samuel Matos Antunes de; Monteiro, Graziela França; Flechtmann, Carlos Alberto Hector; Faria, Maurício Lopes de; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira

    2016-01-01

    Bark and the ambrosia beetles dig into host plants and live most of their lives in concealed tunnels. We assessed beetle community dynamics in tropical dry forest sites in early, intermediate, and late successional stages, evaluating the influence of resource availability and seasonal variations in guild structure. We collected a total of 763 beetles from 23 species, including 14 bark beetle species, and 9 ambrosia beetle species. Local richness of bark and ambrosia beetles was estimated at 31 species. Bark and ambrosia composition was similar over the successional stages gradient, and beta diversity among sites was primarily determined by species turnover, mainly in the bark beetle community. Bark beetle richness and abundance were higher at intermediate stages; availability of wood was the main spatial mechanism. Climate factors were effectively non-seasonal. Ambrosia beetles were not influenced by successional stages, however the increase in wood resulted in increased abundance. We found higher richness at the end of the dry and wet seasons, and abundance increased with air moisture and decreased with higher temperatures and greater rainfall. In summary, bark beetle species accumulation was higher at sites with better wood production, while the needs of fungi (host and air moisture), resulted in a favorable conditions for species accumulation of ambrosia. The overall biological pattern among guilds differed from tropical rain forests, showing patterns similar to dry forest areas. PMID:27271969

  17. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Dai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs, which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae. The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1 and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides.

  18. The CYP51F1 Gene of Leptographium qinlingensis: Sequence Characteristic, Phylogeny and Transcript Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lulu; Li, Zhumei; Yu, Jiamin; Ma, Mingyuan; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Hui; Pham, Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Leptographium qinlingensis is a fungal associate of the Chinese white pine beetle (Dendroctonus armandi) and a pathogen of the Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi) that must overcome the terpenoid oleoresin defenses of host trees. L. qinlingensis responds to monoterpene flow with abundant mechanisms that include export and the use of these compounds as a carbon source. As one of the fungal cytochrome P450 proteins (CYPs), which play important roles in general metabolism, CYP51 (lanosterol 14-α demethylase) can catalyze the biosynthesis of ergosterol and is a target for antifungal drug. We have identified an L. qinlingensis CYP51F1 gene, and the phylogenetic analysis shows the highest homology with the 14-α-demethylase sequence from Grosmannia clavigera (a fungal associate of Dendroctonus ponderosae). The transcription level of CYP51F1 following treatment with terpenes and pine phloem extracts was upregulated, while using monoterpenes as the only carbon source led to the downregulation of CYP5F1 expression. The homology modeling structure of CYP51F1 is similar to the structure of the lanosterol 14-α demethylase protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae YJM789, which has an N-terminal membrane helix 1 (MH1) and transmembrane helix 1 (TMH1). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of terpenoid and azole fungicides (itraconazole (ITC)) and the docking of terpenoid molecules, lanosterol and ITC in the protein structure suggested that CYP51F1 may be inhibited by terpenoid molecules by competitive binding with azole fungicides. PMID:26016505

  19. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Hiroki; Cornette, Richard; Koshikawa, Shigeyuki; Okada, Yasukazu; Lavine, Laura Corley; Emlen, Douglas J; Miura, Toru

    2011-01-01

    The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure) remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer), juvenile hormone (JH) titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects. PMID:21731659

  20. Juvenile hormone regulates extreme mandible growth in male stag beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Gotoh

    Full Text Available The morphological diversity of insects is one of the most striking phenomena in biology. Evolutionary modifications to the relative sizes of body parts, including the evolution of traits with exaggerated proportions, are responsible for a vast range of body forms. Remarkable examples of an insect trait with exaggerated proportions are the mandibular weapons of stag beetles. Male stag beetles possess extremely enlarged mandibles which they use in combat with rival males over females. As with other sexually selected traits, stag beetle mandibles vary widely in size among males, and this variable growth results from differential larval nutrition. However, the mechanisms responsible for coupling nutrition with growth of stag beetle mandibles (or indeed any insect structure remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that during the development of male stag beetles (Cyclommatus metallifer, juvenile hormone (JH titers are correlated with the extreme growth of an exaggerated weapon of sexual selection. We then investigate the putative role of JH in the development of the nutritionally-dependent, phenotypically plastic mandibles, by increasing hemolymph titers of JH with application of the JH analog fenoxycarb during larval and prepupal developmental periods. Increased JH signaling during the early prepupal period increased the proportional size of body parts, and this was especially pronounced in male mandibles, enhancing the exaggerated size of this trait. The direction of this response is consistent with the measured JH titers during this same period. Combined, our results support a role for JH in the nutrition-dependent regulation of extreme mandible growth in this species. In addition, they illuminate mechanisms underlying the evolution of trait proportion, the most salient feature of the evolutionary diversification of the insects.

  1. Dock leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula Deg., herbivory on Mossy Sorrel, Rumex confertus Willd: Induced plant volatiles and beetle orientation responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive weed Rumex confertus Willd. (mossy sorrel) is fed upon and severely defoliated by Gastrophysa viridula Deg. (dock leaf beetle), a highly promising biological control agent for this weed. We report volatile organic compound (VOC) induction when one leaf on R. confertus was damaged by G. ...

  2. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K

    2014-09-01

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature, and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was dependent on light and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions, which explicitly accounts for the physicochemical properties of emitted compounds, we were able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced experimentally or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light-dependent monoterpenes comprise a significant fraction of emissions in ponderosa pine. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene. PMID:25015120

  3. Seasonal climate signals from multiple tree ring metrics: A case study of Pinus ponderosa in the upper Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Matthew P.; Wise, Erika K.

    2016-04-01

    Projected changes in the seasonality of hydroclimatic regimes are likely to have important implications for water resources and terrestrial ecosystems in the U.S. Pacific Northwest. The tree ring record, which has frequently been used to position recent changes in a longer-term context, typically relies on signals embedded in the total ring width of tree rings. Additional climatic inferences at a subannual temporal scale can be made using alternative tree ring metrics such as earlywood and latewood widths and the density of tree ring latewood. Here we examine seasonal precipitation and temperature signals embedded in total ring width, earlywood width, adjusted latewood width, and blue intensity chronologies from a network of six Pinus ponderosa sites in and surrounding the upper Columbia River Basin of the U.S. Pacific Northwest. We also evaluate the potential for combining multiple tree ring metrics together in reconstructions of past cool- and warm-season precipitation. The common signal among all metrics and sites is related to warm-season precipitation. Earlywood and latewood widths differ primarily in their sensitivity to conditions in the year prior to growth. Total and earlywood widths from the lowest elevation sites also reflect cool-season moisture. Effective correlation analyses and composite-plus-scale tests suggest that combining multiple tree ring metrics together may improve reconstructions of warm-season precipitation. For cool-season precipitation, total ring width alone explains more variance than any other individual metric or combination of metrics. The composite-plus-scale tests show that variance-scaled precipitation reconstructions in the upper Columbia River Basin may be asymmetric in their ability to capture extreme events.

  4. Acid composition of particles and gases in a ponderosa pine forest during the BEACHON-RoMBAS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, H.; Yatavelli, L.; Thompson, S.; Kimmel, J. R.; Palm, B. B.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Cubison, M. J.; Jayne, J.; Worsnop, D. R.; Thornton, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from the high mass-resolution analysis of gas-phase and aerosol spectra collected with a chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, equipped with a micro-orifice volatilization impactor ("MOVI-HRToF-CIMS", Yatavelli and Thornton AS&T, 2010; Yatavelli et al., AS&T, 2012) during the 2011 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen - Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study ("BEACHON-RoMBAS"). The study was conducted during July - August 2011 in a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado. Choosing acetate (CH3C(O)O-) as the reagent ion and developing analysis tools for formula identification and elemental analysis allowed us to identify hundreds of individual acids in aerosol spectra. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis of the ion time series is useful to account for backgrounds in the different modes of operation and to separate several gas-phase and particulate factors with different volatility and composition. Results on aerosol composition, including nitrogen- and sulfur-containing species as well as information about elemental ratios (e.g. O:C, H:C) and average carbon oxidation state are presented. Most of the acids detected have between 1 and 10 carbons and average carbon oxidation states (OsC) between -1 and 1. This suggests the importance of monoterpenes and MBO as precursors of the measured acids. We will discuss these results with special consideration of fragmentation on the heated surfaces of the instrument.

  5. Satellite Image-based Estimates of Snow Water Equivalence in Restored Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, T.; Springer, A. E.; O'Donnell, F. C.; Donald, J.; McVay, J.; Masek Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service plans to conduct forest restoration treatments through the Four Forest Restoration Initiative (4FRI) on hundreds of thousands of acres of ponderosa pine forest in northern Arizona over the next 20 years with the goals of reducing wildfire hazard and improving forest health. The 4FRI's key objective is to thin and burn the forests to create within-stand openings that "promote snowpack accumulation and retention which benefit groundwater recharge and watershed processes at the fine (1 to 10 acres) scale". However, little is known about how these openings created by restoration treatments affect snow water equivalence (SWE) and soil moisture, which are key parts of the water balance that greatly influence water availability for healthy trees and for downstream water users in the Sonoran Desert. We have examined forest canopy cover by calculating a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a key indicator of green vegetation cover, using Landsat satellite data. We have then compared NDVI between treatments at our study sites in northern Arizona and have found statistically significant differences in tree canopy cover between treatments. The control units have significantly greater forest canopy cover than the treated units. The thinned units also have significantly greater tree canopy cover than the thin-and-burn units. Winter season Landsat images have also been analyzed to calculate Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI), a key indicator of snow water equivalence and snow accumulation at the treated and untreated forests. The NDSI values from these dates are examined to determine if snow accumulation and snow water equivalence vary between treatments at our study sites. NDSI is significantly greater at the treated units than the control units. In particular, the thinned forest units have significantly greater snow cover than the control units. Our results indicate that forest restoration treatments result in increased snow pack

  6. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in narrow hedgerows in a Danish agricultural landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lövei, G. L.; Magura, T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of hedgerows in supporting ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in a Danish agricultural landscape was examined. Nine old, well established single-row hedges were selected for the study, three each of a native species (hawthorn, Crataegus monogyna), a non-native deciduous one (rowan...... beetle assemblages. The number of ground beetle individuals and species were significantly the highest in the hawthorn hedges and significantly decreased from the hedges with rowan toward the spruce hedges. The elevated number of ground beetle individuals and species in the hawthorn hedges were due...... to the forest specialist species, as the number of forest specialist ground beetle individuals and species were significantly higher in the hawthorn hedges compared to the hedges with rowan and spruce. Differences in the number of the grassland and the cropland specialist ground beetle individuals and species...

  7. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics in Lodgepole Pine Forests, Part 1: Course of an Infectation

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Walter E; Amman, Gene D

    1980-01-01

    Much of this work is original research by the authors. However, published literature on the mountain pine beetle is reviewed with particular reference to epidemic infestations in lodgepole pine forests. The mountain pine beetle and lodgepole pine have evolved into an intensive and highly compatible relationship. Consequently, stand dynamics of lodgepole pine is a primary factor in the development of beetle epidemics. the diameter-growth relationship and the effects of environmental factors on...

  8. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Renata C. Campos; Malva I. Medina Hernández

    2013-01-01

    Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae) in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung) or carcasses (carrion) and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the ...

  9. Yeast Associated with the Ambrosia Beetle, Platypus koryoensis, the Pest of Oak Trees in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Suh, Dong Yeon; Yoo, Hun Dal; Oh, Man Hwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Oak tree death caused by symbiosis of an ambrosia beetle, Platypus koryoensis, and an ophiostomatoid filamentous fungus, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, has been a nationwide problem in Korea since 2004. In this study, we surveyed the yeast species associated with P. koryoensis to better understand the diversity of fungal associates of the beetle pest. In 2009, a total of 195 yeast isolates were sampled from larvae and adult beetles (female and male) of P. koryoensis in Cheonan, Goyang, and Paj...

  10. Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

  11. Darkling beetle populations (Tenebrionidae) of the Hanford site in southcentral Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L.E.; Woodley, N.; Sheldon, J.K.; Uresk, V.A.

    1978-02-01

    This 3-yr study documents the taxonomic composition, relative abundance, and seasonal distribution of darkling beetles occupying the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington. A taxonomic key and species diagnosis are provided to assist in identification by the nonspecialist. Analysis of food plant availability and selection serves to identify transfer pathways through beetle populations and permits construction of food web diagrams depicting the flow of materials through the darkling beetle component.

  12. Tracking an invasive honey bee pest: mitochondrial DNA variation in North American small hive beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Jay. D. Evans,; Jeff. S. Pettis,; Michael Hood, W.; Shimanuki, Hachiro

    2003-01-01

    International audience We describe the current and past distributions of North American small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) having two distinct mitochondrial DNA haplotypes. A collection of 539 hive beetles showed irregular distributions of these haplotypes across the southeastern US. Beetles from the first collections made in coastal South Carolina showed haplotype NA1, exclusively. This haplotype is less common in Georgia and was not observed in North Carolina. Later collections from thi...

  13. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite–host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee

    OpenAIRE

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G.; Arbogast, Richard T.; Tumlinson, James H.; Teal, Peter E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles f...

  14. Dutch elm disease and elm bark beetles: a century of association

    OpenAIRE

    Santini A; Faccoli M

    2015-01-01

    Bark beetles of the genus Scolytus Geoffroy are the main vectors of the fungus Ophiostoma ulmi s.l., which causes the Dutch elm disease. The large and small elm bark beetles - S. scolytus (F.) and S. multistriatus (Marsham), respectively - are the most common and important species spreading the pathogen worldwide. The success of the pathogen-insect interactions is mainly due to the characteristic reproductive behavior of the elm bark beetles, which, however, largely depends on the occurrence ...

  15. Population Dynamics of Bean Leaf Beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae on Edamame Soybean Plants In Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Edamame soybeans are a speciality food item for fresh and processed markets and they are harvested at a physiologically immature (R6 stage. Bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, is a sporadic pest of soybean in Nebraska, however, its pest status and abundance has increased in the recent years due to an increase in soybean acreage. This was a field experiment aimed at determining the population growth rate of bean leaf beetle on two edamame soybean cultivars, ‘Butterbeans’ and ‘Envy,’ at two planting dates during 2004 and 2005 in Nebraska. The population growth of beetles was significantly higher on 'Butterbeans' than on 'Envy' for both the first and second planting periods in both 2004 and 2005 seasons. The beetle infestation differences were noticed on plants at the late reproductive growth stages, R5 and R6. Additionally, the beetle infestation on 'Butterbeans' growth stages in 2004 and 2005 was significantly different for the first and second planting dates. On average, the beetles were higher on plants at the late reproductive stages than the other stages for first and second planting periods. Similarly, ‘Envy’ growth stages showed significant difference in beetle infestation during the first and second planting dates. Significantly high beetle infestations were observed at the vegetative growth stages. The study revealed that population growth of bean leaf beetles on edamame soybeans is affected by the planting date, season and cultivar choice.

  16. Repeated evolution of crop theft in fungus-farming ambrosia beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulcr, Jiri; Cognato, Anthony I

    2010-11-01

    Ambrosia beetles, dominant wood degraders in the tropics, create tunnels in dead trees and employ gardens of symbiotic fungi to extract nutrients from wood. Specificity of the beetle-fungus relationship has rarely been examined, and simple vertical transmission of a specific fungal cultivar by each beetle species is often assumed in literature. We report repeated evolution of fungal crop stealing, termed mycocleptism, among ambrosia beetles. The mycocleptic species seek brood galleries of other species, and exploit their established fungal gardens by tunneling through the ambient mycelium-laden wood. Instead of carrying their own fungal sybmbionts, mycocleptae depend on adopting the fungal assemblages of their host species, as shown by an analysis of fungal DNA from beetle galleries. The evidence for widespread horizontal exchange of fungi between beetles challenges the traditional concept of ambrosia fungi as species-specific symbionts. Fungus stealing appears to be an evolutionarily successful strategy. It evolved independently in several beetle clades, two of which have radiated, and at least one case was accompanied by a loss of the beetles' fungus-transporting organs. We demonstrate this using the first robust phylogeny of one of the world's largest group of ambrosia beetles, Xyleborini. PMID:20633043

  17. Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, P.; Pirk, C. W. W.; Hepburn, H. R.; Solbrig, A. J.; Ratnieks, F. L. W.; Elzen, P. J.; Baxter, J. R.

    2001-05-01

    Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour.

  18. Phylogeny of ambrosia beetle symbionts in the genus Raffaelea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreaden, Tyler J; Davis, John M; de Beer, Z Wilhelm; Ploetz, Randy C; Soltis, Pamela S; Wingfield, Michael J; Smith, Jason A

    2014-12-01

    The genus Raffaelea was established in 1965 when the type species, Raffaelea ambrosia, a symbiont of Platypus ambrosia beetles was described. Since then, many additional ambrosia beetle symbionts have been added to the genus, including the important tree pathogens Raffaelea quercivora, Raffaelea quercus-mongolicae, and Raffaelea lauricola, causal agents of Japanese and Korean oak wilt and laurel wilt, respectively. The discovery of new and the dispersal of described species of Raffaelea to new areas, where they can become invasive, presents challenges for diagnosticians as well as plant protection and quarantine efforts. In this paper, we present the first comprehensive multigene phylogenetic analysis of Raffaelea. As it is currently defined, the genus was found to not be monophyletic. On the basis of this work, Raffaelea sensu stricto is defined and the affinities of undescribed isolates are considered. PMID:25457944

  19. Simulation of light scattering from exoskeletons of scarab beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valyukh, Sergiy; Arwin, Hans; Järrendahl, Kenneth

    2016-03-21

    An approach for simulation of light scattering from beetles exhibiting structural colors originating from periodic helicoidal structures is presented. Slight irregularities of the periodic structure in the exoskeleton of the beetles are considered as a major cause of light scattering. Two sources of scattering are taken into account: surface roughness and volume non-uniformity. The Kirchhoff approximation is applied to simulate the effect of surface roughness. To describe volume non-uniformity, the whole structure is modeled as a set of domains distributed in space in different orientations. Each domain is modeled as an ideal uniformly twisted uniaxial medium and differs from each other by the pitch. Distributions of the domain parameters are assumed to be Gaussian. The analysis is performed using the Mueller matrix formalism which, in addition to spectral and spatial characteristics, also provides polarization properties of the scattered light. PMID:27136777

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium everts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on all developmental stages of khapra beetle was examined. The results showed that when higher doses were applied and immature stages were treated the developmental time, larval and pupal mortality and adults' deformation were increased. Whereas, the fecundity and fertility of the emerged adults resulted from the treatment of immature stages, were increased when old eggs, larvae and pupae were treated with low doses. When newly emerged adults were irradiated the longevity of the male and the female was not affected, while the fecundity and fertility were declined especially when high doses were applied. The female of khapra beetle was more radiosensitive than the male, regardless of the applied dose or/and the treated developmental stage. (author)

  1. Approaches to mimic the metallic sheen in beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Aggerbeck, Martin; Nielsen, Steffen

    2009-01-01

    A range of different beetles exhibits brilliant colours and metallic sheen. One of the most spectacular species is the Plusiotis resplendens from Central America with gold metal appearance. The beetle shells are made from chitin and have a number of unique properties that apart from spectacular...... aesthetic effects include metal sheen from non-metal surfaces combined with electric and thermal insulation. The reflection mechanism has been studied by a number of authors and is well understood. Basically there are 2 different reflection principles. One is the multilayer reflector where alternating...... layers have high and low refractive index. The other is the Bouligand structure where birefringent chiral nanofibres are organised in spiral structures. The paper describes work done to explore different approaches to mimic these structures using polymer based materials and production methods that are...

  2. Associational Patterns of Scavenger Beetles to Decomposition Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Nestor D

    2015-07-01

    Beetles associated with carrion play an important role in recycling organic matter in an ecosystem. Four experiments on decomposition, one per season, were conducted in a semirural area in Bahía Blanca, Argentina. Melyridae are reported for the first time of forensic interest. Apart from adults and larvae of Scarabaeidae, thirteen species and two genera of other coleopteran families are new forensic records in Argentina. Diversity, abundance, and species composition of beetles showed differences between stages and seasons. Our results differed from other studies conducted in temperate regions. Four guilds and succession patterns were established in relation to decomposition stages and seasons. Dermestidae (necrophages) predominated in winter during the decomposition process; Staphylinidae (necrophiles) in Fresh and Bloat stages during spring, summer, and autumn; and Histeridae (necrophiles) and Cleridae (omnivores) in the following stages during those seasons. Finally, coleopteran activity, diversity and abundance, and decomposition rate change with biogeoclimatic characteristics, which is of significance in forensics. PMID:26174466

  3. The Japanese jewel beetle: a painter's challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colours as dynamic as the metallic-like hues adorning the Japanese jewel beetle have never been captured on canvas before. Unlike, and unmatched by, the chemical pigments of the artist's palette, the effect is generated by layered microstructures that refract and reflect light to make colour visible. Exclusive to nature for millions of years, such jewel-like colouration is only now being introduced to art. Sustained scientific research into nature's iridescent multilayer reflectors has recently led to the development and manufacture of analogous synthetic structures, notably innovative light interference flakes. For the first time this novel technology offers artists the exciting, yet challenging, potential to accurately depict nature's iridescence. Mimicking the Japanese jewel beetle by using paints with embedded flakes, we demonstrate that the resulting painting, just like the model, displays iridescent colours that shift with minute variation of the angle of light and viewing. (paper)

  4. Chemical Defense of an Ozaenine Bombardier Beetle From New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Jerrold Meinwald; Blankespoor, Curtis L.; Maria Eisner; Thomas Eisner; Braden Roach; Aneschansley, Daniel J.; Ball, George E.

    1989-01-01

    We had occasion recently to study 3 live specimens of Pseudozaena orientalis opaca, an ozaenine carabid beetle (subfamily Paussinae, tribe Ozaenini) from New Guinea, and report here on the biology and chemistry of its defensive spray mechanism. A number of New World ozaenines had previously been studied chemically and shown to be “bombardiers” that discharge a hot quinonoid mixture (Aneshansley et al. 1969, 1983; Eisner and Aneshansley 1982; Eisner et al. 1977; Roach et al. 1979). Pseudozaena...

  5. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Scheffer, M.; Vergnon, R.O.H.; Nes, van, S.I.; Cuppen, J.G.M.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Leijs, R.; Nilsson, A. N.

    2015-01-01

    While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are eit...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: red flour beetle [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Arthropoda Tribolium_castaneum_L.png Tribolium..._castaneum_NL.png Tribolium_castaneum_S.png Tribolium_castaneum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triboliu...m+castaneum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=N...L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tribolium+castaneum&t=NS ...

  7. Cost of flight and the evolution of stag beetle weaponry

    OpenAIRE

    Goyens, Jana; Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Dirckx, Joris; Aerts, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Male stag beetles have evolved extremely large mandibles in a wide range of extraordinary shapes. These mandibles function as weaponry in pugnacious fights for females. The robust mandibles of Cyclommatus metallifer are as long as their own body and their enlarged head houses massive, hypertrophied musculature. Owing to this disproportional weaponry, trade-offs exist with terrestrial locomotion: running is unstable and approximately 40% more costly. Therefore, flying is most probably essentia...

  8. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn

    2005-01-01

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  9. Using malaise traps to sample ground beetles (Coleoptera. Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael D. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Hanula, James L. [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Horn, Scott [USDA Forest Service, Savannah River, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2012-04-02

    Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.

  10. Hit‐and‐run trophallaxis of small hive beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Naef, J.; Crailsheim, K; Crewe, RM; Pirk, CWW

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Some parasites of social insects are able to exploit the exchange of food between nestmates via trophallaxis, because they are chemically disguised as nestmates. However, a few parasites succeed in trophallactic solicitation although they are attacked by workers. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The small hive beetle (=SHB), Aethina tumida, is such a parasite of honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies and is able to induce trophallaxis. Here, we investigate whether SHB ...

  11. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Verheggen, François; Lognay, Georges; Haubruge, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and...

  12. Large carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) in Western Europe: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeirsschieter, J.; Verheggen, F.; Lognay, G.; Haubruge, E.

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on carrion beetles (Coleoptera, Silphidae) of the Western Palearctic and their potential use in forensic entomology as bioindicators. Few studies have looked at Silphidae in forensic context and investigations. However, some Silphidae present the desirable characteristics of some Diptera used in postmortem estimates and thus may extend the minimum postmortem interval (PMImin). We review here the taxonomy and distribution of Western Palearctic Silphidae. The anatomical and ...

  13. Coffee Berry Borer Joins Bark Beetles in Coffee Klatch

    OpenAIRE

    Jaramillo, Juliana; Torto, Baldwyn; Mwenda, Dickson; Troeger, Armin; Borgemeister, Christian; Poehling, Hans-Michael; Francke, Wittko

    2013-01-01

    Unanswered key questions in bark beetle-plant interactions concern host finding in species attacking angiosperms in tropical zones and whether management strategies based on chemical signaling used for their conifer-attacking temperate relatives may also be applied in the tropics. We hypothesized that there should be a common link in chemical signaling mediating host location by these Scolytids. Using laboratory behavioral assays and chemical analysis we demonstrate that the yellow-orange exo...

  14. Effects of Pathogens and Bark Beetles on Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Goheen, D J; Hansen, E M

    1993-01-01

    This chapter addresses the varied roles that root pathogens and bark beetles play in western coniferous forests as (1) regulators of ecological structure and processes, (2) arbiters of management success and (3) agents of significant economic loss. Pathologists, entomologists, and forest managers often speak of the "impact" of fungal and insect "pests" on forest values. This terminology carries connotations of death and destruction that reflect only part of the role that these organisms play ...

  15. Southern pine beetle: Olfactory receptor and behavior discrimination of enantiomers of the attractant pheromone frontalin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, T.L.; Berisford, C.W.; Blum, M.S.; Dickens, J.C.; Hedden, R.L.; Mori, K.; Richerson, J.V.; Vite, J.P.; West, J.R.

    1982-05-01

    In a laboratory and field bioassays, the response of Dendroctonus frontalis was significantly greater to the mixture of (1S,55R)-(-)-frontalin and alpha-pinene than to (1R,5S)-(+)-frontalin and alpha-pinene. Electrophysiologrical studies revealed that antennal olfactory receptor cells were significantly more responsive to (1S,5R)-(-)-frontalin than to 1R,5S)-(+) -frontalin. Both enanitiomers stimulated the same olfactory cells which suggests that each cell possesses at least two types of enanitomer-specific acceptors.

  16. ROVE BEETLES (COLEOPTERA, STAPHYLINIDAE AND THEIR MEDICAL IMPORTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Janbakhsh

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetle dermatitis produced by the family Staphylinidae genus Paederus has world- wide distribution some one hundred species of Paederus have been found, but it is believed that only 30 of these produce dermatitis. Up to 1976 three species of paederus have been found in Iran as: P. fusciped Curtis; P. pietschmanni Bershaner , and P. spectabilis Kraatz . Observations on the biology of Paederus SPP have shown that the greatest activity coincides with a high degree of humidity during the hot season. Some species seem to be attracted to artificial light. The most common pathological feature caused by rose beetles is a viscular dermatitis Eye lesions may occur, but they are the result of spread of the irritant with the fingers, after the insect was crushed on the skin, therefore secondary infection. Experiments have shown that dermatitis only develops when a rove beetle is crushed on the haemolymph. The vesicant substance is pederin which is distinct from cantharidin in terns of its biological, physical, and chemical propertics.

  17. DETECTION OF DRUGSTORE BEETLES IN 9975 PACKAGES USING ACOUSTIC EMISSIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shull, D.

    2013-03-04

    This report documents the initial feasibility tests performed using a commercial acoustic emission instrument for the purpose of detecting beetles in Department of Energy 9975 shipping packages. The device selected for this testing was a commercial handheld instrument and probe developed for the detection of termites, weevils, beetles and other insect infestations in wooden structures, trees, plants and soil. The results of two rounds of testing are presented. The first tests were performed by the vendor using only the hand-held instrument’s indications and real-time operator analysis of the audio signal content. The second tests included hands-free positioning of the instrument probe and post-collection analysis of the recorded audio signal content including audio background comparisons. The test results indicate that the system is promising for detecting the presence of drugstore beetles, however, additional work would be needed to improve the ease of detection and to automate the signal processing to eliminate the need for human interpretation. Mechanisms for hands-free positioning of the probe and audio background discrimination are also necessary for reliable detection and to reduce potential operator dose in radiation environments.

  18. Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S. Vieira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Rove beetles of medical importance in Brazil (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae. The rove beetles of the genus Paederus Fabricius, 1775 are the most important group within Coleoptera causing dermatitis around the world. The medical importance of Paederus depends on its toxic hemolymph released when these beetles are crushed on human skin. The effects are mainly dermatitis linearis and some sporadic cases of conjunctivitis. In Brazil seven species of Paederus are known to cause dermatitis: P. amazonicus Sharp, 1876, P. brasiliensis Erichson, 1840, P. columbinus Laporte, 1835, P. ferus Erichson, 1840, P. mutans Sharp, 1876, P. protensus Sharp, 1876 stat. rev., and Paederus rutilicornis Erichson, 1840. Paederus mutans and P. protensus are for the first time recorded as of medical importance, whereas the record of P. rutilicornis in Brazil is doubtful. All seven species are redescribed and a dichotomous key is provided. The geographic distributions of all species are documented. The results provided here include the most recent and relevant taxonomic revision of Paederus of the Neotropical region, the first identification key for Brazilian species and the increase of recorded species of medical importance in the world.

  19. Insect pest management in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.

    1983-01-01

    Understanding the role of insects in forest ecosystems is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest ecosystems, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those ecosystems Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in California is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking

  20. Undisturbed and disturbed above canopy ponderosa pine emissions: PTR-TOF-MS measurements and MEGAN 2.1 model results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kaser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first eddy covariance flux measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs using a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass-spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS above a ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA. The high mass resolution of the PTR-TOF-MS enabled the identification of chemical sum formulas. During a 30 day measurement period in August and September 2010, 649 different ion mass peaks were detected in the ambient air mass spectrum (including primary ions and mass calibration compounds. Eddy covariance with the vertical wind speed was calculated for all ion mass peaks. On a typical day, 17 ion mass peaks including protonated parent compounds, their fragments and isotopes as well as VOC-H+-water clusters showed a significant flux with daytime average emissions above a reliable flux threshold of 0.1 mg compound m−2 h−1. These ion mass peaks could be assigned to seven compound classes. The main flux contributions during daytime (10:00–18:00 LT are attributed to the sum of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO and isoprene (50%, methanol (12%, the sum of acetic acid and glycolaldehyde (10% and the sum of monoterpenes (10%. The total MBO + isoprene flux was composed of 10% isoprene and 90% MBO. There was good agreement between the light and temperature dependency of the sum of MBO and isoprene observed for this work and those of earlier studies. The above canopy flux measurements of the sum of MBO and isoprene and the sum of monoterpenes were compared to emissions calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN 2.1. The best agreement between MEGAN 2.1 and measurements was reached using emission factors determined from site specific leaf cuvette measurements. While the modelled and measured MBO + isoprene fluxes agree well the emissions of the sum of monoterpenes is underestimated by MEGAN 2.1. This is expected as some factors impacting monoterpene emissions, such as physical damage of needles and

  1. Measurement of BVOCs by PTR-ToF-MS in a ponderosa pine forest during the BEACHON-ROCS campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, L.; Evans, T.; Knopf, D. A.; Mak, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present measurements of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) during the 2010 Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen-Rocky Mountain Organic Carbon Study (BEACHON-ROCS) campaign in a ponderosa pine forest near Woodland Park, Colorado. BVOCs were continuously measured through the gradient sampling lines mounted at 1.8 m, 5.0 m, 8.5 m, 12.0 m, 17.7 m, and 25.3 m, respectively, of the Manitou Forest Observatory Chemistry Tower. 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO) and the monoterpenes (MT) were identified as the major BVOCs emitted from the forest. The 5-minute averaged mixing ratios of MBO ranged from 0.03 to 3.9 ppbv, while mixing ratios of MT ranged from 0.02 to 3.8 ppbv, with an analytical precision of ±15%. The mixing ratios of MBO were highest during the daytime, with the maximum concentrations occurred right under the canopy top, decreasing towards the ground and above the canopy. The diurnal variations of MT mixing ratios showed an opposite pattern compared to MBO, with nighttime values significantly higher than during the daytime. The high nighttime mixing ratios of MT could be due to the sufficient temperature-dependent emission together with lack of oxidation and small vertical transport. MT usually accumulated near the ground level and decreased vertically towards the canopy top. Soil enclosure measurements were performed to characterize the needle litter emission of BVOCs. The flux of MT from needle litter were quantified and showed a clear temperature dependency. The highest flux of MT from needle litter occurred in the morning (09:00-12:00 MST), while during the nighttime the flux was significantly reduced. Measurements of BVOCs gradients throughout the canopy together with ground needle litter emissions could provide a better understanding of the contribution to above-canopy emission of BVOCs from different sources.

  2. Observations of BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound) Fluxes and Vertical Gradients in a Ponderosa Pine Forest during BEARPEX 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Fares, S.; Weber, R.; Goldstein, A.

    2010-12-01

    During summer 2009 an intensive field campaign (Biosphere Effects on AeRosols and Photochemistry EXperiment - BEARPEX) took place in Blodgett Forest, a Ponderosa pine forest in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The campaign aimed to investigate biosphere-atmosphere interactions during a period of intense photochemical activity, to elucidate the fate BVOC (Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds) in the atmosphere, and explore the processes of secondary organic aerosol formation. In this study, a PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry) was used to measure 19 compounds (masses) including methanol, isoprene + MBO (2-Methyl-3-butene-2-ol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and some oxygenated BVOCs at 5 heights of a vertical gradient from the forest floor to above the canopy. Fluxes of the 4 dominant BVOCs were measured above the canopy with the Eddy covariance technique. In parallel with BVOC measurements, ozone fluxes and gradients, and meteorological parameters (PAR, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction) were recorded in order to investigate the dependence of BVOC emissions and chemistry on meteorological conditions and to test the hypothesis that BVOC remove atmospheric ozone through gas-phase reactions. BVOCs which are directly emitted from pine trees generally have the highest concentration at the lowest measurement height and the lowest concentration above the canopy. Sesquiterpenes were observed at lower concentration than monoterpenes, but with very similar vertical gradient patterns, indicating their emission patterns are similar. The observed MBO flux was approximately twice the Monoterpene flux. Measured monoterpene canopy scale flux was consistent with modeled emissions based on scaling up from branch enclosure measurements at this site (basal emission rate F30= 0.61 ±0.14 mgC m-2 hr-1 and temperature response β= 0.15 ±0.09 °C-1). We find that m/z 113, an unidentified OVOCs (oxygenated volatile organic compounds

  3. Assessing meteorological key factors influencing crop invasion by pollen beetle (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Junk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The pollen beetle, Meligethes aeneus F. (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae, is a severe pest of winter oilseed rape. A phenological model to forecast the first spring invasion of crops in Luxembourg by M. aeneus was developed in order to provide a tool for improving pest management and for assessing the potential effects of climate change on this pest. The model was derived using long-term, multi-site observational datasets of pollen beetle migration and meteorological data, as the timing of crop invasion is determined mainly by meteorological variables. Daily values of mean air and soil temperature, accumulated sunshine duration and precipitation were used to create a threshold-based model to forecast crop invasion. Minimising of the root mean squared error (RMSE of predicted versus observed migration dates was used as the quality criterion for selecting the optimum combination of threshold values for meteorological variables. We identified mean air temperature 8.0 °C, mean soil temperature 4.6 °C, and sunshine duration of 3.4 h as the best threshold values, with a cut-off of 1 mm precipitation and with no need for persistence of those conditions for more than one day (RMSE=9.3days$RMSE=9.3\\,\\text{days}$. Only in six out of 30 cases, differences between observed and predicted immigration dates were >5$>5$ days. In the future, crop invasion by pollen beetles will probably be strongly affected by changes in air temperature and precipitation related to climate change. We used a multi-model ensemble of 15 regional climate models driven by the A1B emission scenario to assess meteorological changes in two 30‑year future periods, near future (2021–2050 and far future (2069–2098 in comparison with the reference period (1971–2000. Air temperature and precipitation were predicted to increase in the first three months of each year, both in the near future and the far future. The pollen beetle migration model indicated that this change would

  4. An illustrated checklist of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae from the Periyar Tiger Reserve, Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Sathiandran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated checklist of 36 species of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae from the Periyar Tiger Reserve in the southern Western Ghats is presented.  Records of eight species endemic to the Western Ghats and a rare primitive old world dung beetle group, Ochicanthon nitidus (Paulian, from the forests of Periyar Tiger Reserve are provided. 

  5. Traditional African plant products to protect stored cowpeas against insect damage : the battle against the beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Seeds of the cowpea plant, Vigna unguiculata , a tropical crop, are very susceptible to attack by the cowpea beetle. This specialist beetle needs only the beans to reproduce rapidly.Most farmers in West Africa have few possibilities to treat the beans and they face their stored supply

  6. Control of Chinese rose beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) through the use of solar-powered nighttime illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese rose beetle, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister), a scarab beetle found in Asia and the Pacific Islands, was first reported in Hawaii in 1891. Adults feed at night on leaves of a wide range of plant species, including many that are economically important. Aggregate feeding can stunt or even kill ...

  7. Semiochemical based attraction of Small Hive Beetle: a window into evolution and invasive biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect behavioral preferences are tied to individual experience and evolutionary history. The Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is seemingly an anomaly among Nitidulids because members of the genus commonly feed on fruit and decaying material in association with fungi but the small hive beetle th...

  8. Adult beetles compensate for poor larval food conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorben; Müller, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    Life history traits of herbivores are highly influenced by the quality of their hosts, i.e., the composition of primary and secondary plant metabolites. In holometabolous insects, larvae and adults may face different host plants, which differ in quality. It has been hypothesised that adult fitness is either highest when larval and adult environmental conditions match (environmental matching) or it may be mainly determined by optimal larval conditions (silver spoon effect). Alternatively, the adult stage may be most decisive for the actual fitness, independent of larval food exposure, due to adult compensation ability. To determine the influence of constant versus changing larval and adult host plant experiences on growth performance, fitness and feeding preferences, we carried out a match-mismatch experiment using the mustard leaf beetle, Phaedon cochleariae. Larvae and adults were either constantly reared on watercress (natural host) or cabbage (crop plant) or were switched after metamorphosis to the other host. Growth, reproductive traits and feeding preferences were determined repeatedly over lifetime and host plant quality traits analysed. Differences in the host quality led to differences in the development time and female reproduction. Egg numbers were significantly influenced by the host plant species experienced by the adults. Thus, adults were able to compensate for poor larval conditions. Likewise, the current host experience was most decisive for feeding preferences; in adult beetles a feeding preference was shaped regardless of the larval host plant. Larvae or adults reared on the more nutritious host, cabbage, showed a higher preference for this host. Hence, beetles most likely develop a preference when gaining a direct positive feedback in terms of an improved performance, whereby the current experience matters the most. Highly nutritious crop plants may be, in consequence, all the more exploited by potential pests that may show a high plasticity in

  9. Reconstruction of pre-instrumental storm track trajectories across the U.S. Pacific Northwest using circulation-based field sampling of Pinus Ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, E.; Dannenberg, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    The trajectory of incoming storms from the Pacific Ocean is a key influence on drought and flood regimes in western North America. Flow is typically from the west in a zonal pattern, but decadal shifts between zonal and meridional flow have been identified as key features in hydroclimatic variability over the instrumental period. In Washington and most of the Pacific Northwest, there tend to be lower-latitude storm systems that result in decreased precipitation in El Niño years. However, the Columbia Basin in central Washington behaves in opposition to the surrounding region and typically has average to above-average precipitation in El Niño years due to changing storm-track trajectories and a decreasing rain shadow effect on the leeward side of the Cascades. This direct connection between storm-track position and precipitation patterns in Washington provided an exceptional opportunity for circulation-based field sampling and chronology development. New Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) tree-ring chronologies were developed from eight sites around the Columbia Basin in Washington and used to examine year-to-year changes in moisture regimes. Results show that these sites are representative of the two distinct climate response areas. The divergence points between these two site responses allowed us to reconstruct changing precipitation patterns since the late-17th century, and to link these patterns to previously reconstructed atmospheric pressure and El Niño indices. This study highlights the potential for using synoptic climatology to inform field-based proxy collection.

  10. Observations and models of emissions of volatile terpenoid compounds from needles of ponderosa pine trees growing in situ: control by light, temperature and stomatal conductance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Peter; Eller, Allyson; Guenther, Alex; Monson, Russell K.

    2014-07-12

    Terpenoid emissions from ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa subsp. scopulorum) were measured in Colorado, USA over two growing seasons to evaluate the role of incident light, needle temperature and stomatal conductance in controlling emissions of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and several monoterpenes. MBO was the dominant daylight terpenoid emission, comprising on average 87% of the total flux, and diurnal variations were largely determined by light and temperature. During daytime, oxygenated monoterpenes (especially linalool) comprised up to 75% of the total monoterpenoid flux from needles. A significant fraction of monoterpenoid emissions was light dependent and 13CO2 labeling studies confirmed de novo production. Thus, modeling of monoterpenoid emissions required a hybrid model in which a significant fraction of emissions was dependent on both light and temperature, while the remainder was dependent on temperature alone. Experiments in which stomata were forced to close using abscisic acid demonstrated that MBO and a large fraction of the monoterpene flux, presumably linalool, could be limited at the scale of seconds to minutes by stomatal conductance. Using a previously published model of terpenoid emissions which explicitly accounts for the physico-chemical properties of emitted compounds, we are able to simulate these observed stomatal effects, whether induced through experimentation or arising under naturally fluctuation conditions of temperature and light. This study shows unequivocally that, under naturally occurring field conditions, de novo light dependent monoterpenes can comprise a large fraction of emissions. Differences between the monoterpene composition of ambient air and needle emissions imply a significant non-needle emission source enriched in Δ-3-carene.

  11. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, M. E.; Gyenge, J. E.; Urquiza, M. M.; Varela, S.

    2012-11-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to understand how management practices can help to increase their adaptability to climate change. Growth magnitude and period, specific hydraulic conductivity, and anatomical traits (early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter, cell-wall thickness, tracheid length and bordered pit dimensions) were measured in the ring 2008-2009, which was formed during drought conditions. This drought event decreased annual stem growth by 30-38% and 58-65% respect to previous mean growth, in open vs. closed stand trees, respectively, indicating a higher sensitivity of the latter, which is opposite to reports from the same species growing in managed native forests in USA. Some wood anatomical variables did differ in more water stressed trees (lower cell wall thickness of early wood cells and higher proportion of small-lumen cells in late wood), which in turn did not affect wood function (hydraulic conductivity and resistance to implosion). Other anatomical variables (tracheid length, pit dimensions, early- and late wood proportion, lumen diameter of early wood cells) did not differ between tree sizes and plantation density. The results suggest that severe drought affects differentially the amount but not the function and quality of formed wood in ponderosa pine growing at different competition levels. (Author) 41 refs.

  12. Surveying an endangered saproxylic beetle, Osmoderma eremita, in Mediterranean woodlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiari, Stefano; Zauli, Agnese; Mazziotta, Adriano;

    2013-01-01

    Measuring population size is riddled with difficulties for wildlife biologists and managers, and in the case of rare species, it is sometimes practically impossible to estimate abundance, whereas estimation of occupancy is possible. Furthermore, obtaining reliable population size estimates is not....... Detection probability and population size estimates were drawn from each of these four capture methods. There were strong differences in detection probability among methods. Despite using pheromone and beetle manipulation, capture histories were not affected by trap-happiness or trap-shyness. Population...

  13. 75 FR 57945 - Atonik and Verbenone, Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ..., verbenone and 4-allyl anisole. Verbenone is a terpene that acts as an anti-aggregation pheromone in... southern pine beetle Dendroctonus frontalis. 4-allyl anisole is an alkenylbenzene compound that is...

  14. Management of Chinese Rose Beetle (Adoretus sinicus) Adults Feeding on Cacao (Theobroma cacao) Using Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spafford, Helen; Ching, Alexander; Manley, Megan; Hardin, Chelsea; Bittenbender, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese rose beetle (Adoretus sinicus Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)) is an introduced, widely-established pest in Hawai'i. The adult beetles feed on the leaves of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), which can lead to defoliation and even death of young trees. We evaluated the impact of five commercially available products with different active ingredients (imidacloprid, azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill., kaolin clay, and pyrethrin) and the presence or absence of weed mat cover in reducing adult beetle feeding on sapling cacao in the field. The use of weed mat cover reduced feeding damage compared to the untreated control, as did foliar application of imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and B. bassiana. In the laboratory, field-collected adult beetles were presented cacao leaf samples dipped in one of the five products and compared to a control. Beetles exposed to pyrethrin died rapidly. Among the other treatments, only exposure to imidacloprid significantly reduced survival relative to the control. Beetles fed very little on leaf samples with azadirachtin but their longevity was not significantly reduced. Imidacloprid, azadirachtin, and weed mat application had the most promise for reducing adult Chinese rose beetle feeding damage in young cacao and deserve further investigation for successful management of this significant pest. PMID:27348004

  15. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, B. C.; Hicke, J. A.; Hudak, A. T.

    2012-12-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40-50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75-89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3-6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale.

  16. Landscape-scale analysis of aboveground tree carbon stocks affected by mountain pine beetles in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bark beetle outbreaks kill billions of trees in western North America, and the resulting tree mortality can significantly impact local and regional carbon cycling. However, substantial variability in mortality occurs within outbreak areas. Our objective was to quantify landscape-scale effects of beetle infestations on aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks using field observations and remotely sensed data across a 5054 ha study area that had experienced a mountain pine beetle outbreak. Tree mortality was classified using multispectral imagery that separated green, red, and gray trees, and models relating field observations of AGC to LiDAR data were used to map AGC. We combined mortality and AGC maps to quantify AGC in beetle-killed trees. Thirty-nine per cent of the forested area was killed by beetles, with large spatial variability in mortality severity. For the entire study area, 40–50% of AGC was contained in beetle-killed trees. When considered on a per-hectare basis, 75–89% of the study area had >25% AGC in killed trees and 3–6% of the study area had >75% of the AGC in killed trees. Our results show that despite high variability in tree mortality within an outbreak area, bark beetle epidemics can have a large impact on AGC stocks at the landscape scale. (letter)

  17. Dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae attracted to sheep dung in exotic pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Murilo de Albuquerque Correa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae attracted to sheep dung in exotic pastures. In this study we provide data on the abundance and richness of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae attracted to sheep dung in exotic pastures (Brachiaria spp.. In four areas of exotic pasture pitfall traps were installed and baited with fresh sheep dung for sampling of dung beetles. A total of 2,290 individuals were captured belonging to 16 species, 10 genera and five tribes of Scarabaeinae beetles. Trichillum externepunctatum Preudhomme de Borre, 1886 and Dichotomius bos (Blanchard, 1843 were dominant. The guild of dwellers was the most abundant in pastures. We demonstrate that dung beetles are attracted to sheep dung. Since the production of both cattle and sheep in the same area is common in tropical pasturelands, results obtained here highlight the need to investigate the actual role of dung sharing (cattle dung + sheep dung by dung beetles. It is also suggested that experiments be performed for evaluation of the ecological functions performed by dung beetles using sheep dung.

  18. Tropical rain forest fragmentation, howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), and dung beetles at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, A; Anzures D, A; Coates-Estrada, R

    1999-01-01

    In Neotropical rain forests, fresh mammal dung, especially that of howler monkeys, constitutes an important resource used by dung beetles as food and for oviposition and further feeding by their larvae. Tropical rain forest destruction, fragmentation, and subsequent isolation causing reductions in numbers of and the disappearance of howler monkeys may result in decreasing numbers of dung beetles, but this has not been documented. In this study, we present information on the presence of howlers and dung beetles in 38 isolated forest fragments and 15 agricultural habitats. Howler monkeys were censused by visual means, while dung beetles were sampled with traps baited with a mixture of howler, cow, horse, and dog dung. Results indicated that loss of area and isolation of forest fragments result in significant decrements in howlers and dung beetles. However, dung beetle abundance was found to be closely related to the presence of howler monkeys at the sites and habitats investigated. Scenarios of land management designed to reduce isolation among forest fragments may help sustain populations of howler monkeys and dung beetles, which may have positive consequences for rain forest regeneration. PMID:10402034

  19. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. PMID:27341891

  20. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  1. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite-host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G; Arbogast, Richard T; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-05-15

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles from both Africa and the United States vector a strain of Kodamaea ohmeri yeast, which produces these same honey bee alarm pheromones when grown on pollen in hives. The beetle is not a pest of African honey bees because African bees have evolved effective methods to mitigate beetle infestation. However, European honey bees, faced with disease and pest management stresses different from those experienced by African bees, are unable to effectively inhibit beetle infestation. Therefore, the environment of the European honey bee colony provides optimal conditions to promote the unique bee-beetle-yeast-pollen multitrophic interaction that facilitates effective infestation of hives at the expense of the European honey bee. PMID:17483478

  2. Using dung beetles to evaluate the effects of urbanization on Atlantic Forest biodiversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vanesca Korasaki; José Lopes; George Gardner Brown; Julio Louzada

    2013-01-01

    We used dung beetles to evaluate the impact of urbanization on insect biodiversity in three Atlantic Forest fragments in Londrina,Paraná,Brazil.This study provides the first empirical evidence of the impact of urbanization on richness,abundance,composition and guild structure of dung beetle communities from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.We evaluated the community aspects (abundance,richness,composition and food guilds) of dung beetles in fragments with different degrees of immersion in the urban matrix using pitfall traps with four alternative baits (rotten meat,rotten fish,pig dung and decaying banana).A total of 1719 individuals were collected,belonging to 29 species from 11 genera and six Scarabaeinae tribes.The most urban-immersed fragment showed a higher species dominance and the beetle community captured on dung presented the greatest evenness.The beetle communities were distinct with respect to the fragments and feeding habits.Except for the dung beetle assemblage in the most urbanized forest fragment,all others exhibited contrasting differences in species composition attracted to each bait type.Our results clearly show that the degree of urbanization affects Atlantic Forest dung beetle communities and that the preservation of forest fragments inside the cities,even small ones,can provide refuges for Scarabaeinae.

  3. Behavioral niche partitioning in a sympatric tiger beetle assemblage and implications for the endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tierney R. Brosius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available How behavioral patterns are related to niche partitioning is an important question in understanding how closely related species within ecological communities function. Behavioral niche partitioning associated with thermoregulation is well documented in tiger beetles as a group. Co-occurring species of salt flat tiger beetles have adapted many thermoregulatory behaviors to cope with this harsh ecosystem. On first examination these beetles appear to occur in overlapping microhabitats and therefore compete for resources. To determine if behavioral niche partitioning is allowing multiple species to occur within the same harsh salt flat ecosystem we observed Cicindela nevadica lincolniana, Cicindela circumpicta, Cicindela fulgida, and Cicindela togata between 8:00 h and 21:00 h and recorded all behaviors related to thermoregulation using a digital voice recorder. Results of this study strongly indicate that competition among these species for resources has been reduced by the adaptation of different thermoregulatory behaviors such as spending time in shallow water, avoiding the sun during the hottest parts of the day, and by positioning their body against or away from the soil. The endangered C. n. lincolniana appears to rely most heavily on the shallow water of seeps for their diurnal foraging behavior (potentially limiting their foraging habitat, but with the advantage of allowing foraging during the hottest times of the day when potential competitors are less frequent. Ironically, this association also may help explain C. n. lincolniana’s susceptibility to extinction: beyond the loss of saline wetlands generally, limited seeps and pools even within remaining saline habitat may represent a further habitat limitation within an already limited habitat.

  4. The saproxylic beetle assemblage associated with different host trees in Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Wu; Xiao-Dong Yu; Hong-Zhang Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a habitat for many insects and other small animals,some of which may be rare or endangered and in need of effective protection.In this paper,saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with different host trees in the subtropical forests in southwestern China were investigated.A total of 277 species (1 439 specimens) in 36 beetle families were collected from 117 dead wood samples,of which 101 samples were identified and respectively belonged to 12 tree genera.The number of saproxylic beetle species varied greatly among logs of different tree genera,with the highest diversity on logs of Juglans.Generally,broad-leaved trees had a higher richness and abundance of saproxylic species than coniferous trees.Cluster analysis revealed that assemblages from broad-leaved tree genera were generally similar (except for Betula) and assemblages from coniferous trees formed another distinct cluster.The subsequent indicator analysis proposed that there are different characteristic species for different cluster groups of host tree genera.In our study,log diameter has no positive influence on beetle species density.Conversely,comparisons of individual-based rarefaction curves suggested that beetle species richness was highest in the small diameter class both in coniferous and broad-leaved tree genera.With increased wood decay,proportion of habitat specialists (saproxylic beetles living on one tree genus)decreased,whereas proportion of habitat generalists (living on more than three tree genera)increased.The beetle species density was found to be higher in early stages,and decreased in later stages as well.A negative influence of altitude on saproxylic beetle species richness and abundance was detected.It was indicated that different tree genera and altitudes possibly display cross effects in modulating the altitudinal distribution and host preference of the beetles.

  5. Benefits of Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on Nutrient Cycling and Forage Growth in Alpaca Pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaudin, Mary Elin

    2012-01-01

    Alpacas have been gaining prominence in the U.S. since the early 1980s. In pastures, dung beetle activity has been shown to enhance the degradation and incorporation of dung into the soil. The benefits of this activity have been quantified for cattle, but not for alpacas. The objectives of this study were to document the dung beetle species present in alpaca pastures, and to evaluate the impact of dung beetle activity on the growth of a common summer annual grass. In 2010 and 2011, dun...

  6. Significantly higher Carabid beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) catch in conventionally than in organically managed Christmas tree plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Søren; Lund, Malthe; Rønn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... managed sites. Carabid beetle abundance and richness did not decline more between two sampling periods at sites with pesticide application than at unamended sites. Apparently, the amount of bare ground, which dominated in the conventionally managed, herbicide treated sites, correlated closely with the...

  7. Significantly Higher Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Catch in Conventionally than in Organically Managed Christmas Tree Plantations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, Soren; Lund, Malthe; Ronn, Regin;

    2012-01-01

    Carabid beetles play an important role as consumers of pest organisms in forestry and agriculture. Application of pesticides may negatively affect abundance and activity of carabid beetles, thus reducing their potential beneficial effect. We investigated how abundance and diversity of pitfall...... managed sites. Carabid beetle abundance and richness did not decline more between two sampling periods at sites with pesticide application than at unamended sites. Apparently, the amount of bare ground, which dominated in the conventionally managed, herbicide treated sites, correlated closely with the...

  8. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920–30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets. (letter)

  9. Species radiation of carabid beetles (broscini: mecodema in new zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Goldberg

    Full Text Available New Zealand biodiversity has often been viewed as Gondwanan in origin and age, but it is increasingly apparent from molecular studies that diversification, and in many cases origination of lineages, postdate the break-up of Gondwanaland. Relatively few studies of New Zealand animal species radiations have as yet been reported, and here we consider the species-rich genus of carabid beetles, Mecodema. Constrained stratigraphic information (emergence of the Chatham Islands and a substitution rate for Coleoptera were separately used to calibrate Bayesian relaxed molecular clock date estimates for diversification of Mecodema. The inferred timings indicate radiation of these beetles no earlier than the mid-Miocene with most divergences being younger, dating to the Plio-Pleistocene. A shallow age for the radiation along with a complex spatial distribution of these taxa involving many instances of sympatry implicates recent ecological speciation rather than a simplistic allopatric model. This emphasises the youthful and dynamic nature of New Zealand evolution that will be further elucidated with detailed ecological and population genetic analyses.

  10. Hypogean carabid beetles as indicators of global warming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmayr, Pietro; Giorgi, Filippo; Casale, Achille; Colombetta, Giorgio; Mariotti, Laura; Vigna Taglianti, Augusto; Weber, Friedrich; Pizzolotto, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has been shown to impact the geographical and altitudinal distribution of animals and plants, and to especially affect range-restricted polar and mountaintop species. However, little is known about the impact on the relict lineages of cave animals. Ground beetles (carabids) show a wide variety of evolutionary pathways, from soil-surface (epigean) predatory habits to life in caves and in other subterranean (hypogean) compartments. We reconstructed an unprecedented set of species/time accumulation curves of the largest carabid genera in Europe, selected by their degree of ‘underground’ adaptation, from true epigean predators to eyeless highly specialized hypogean beetles. The data show that in recent periods an unexpectedly large number of new cave species were found lying in well established European hotspots; the first peak of new species, especially in the most evolved underground taxa, occurred in the 1920-30s and a second burst after the 70s. Temperature data show large warming rates in both periods, suggesting that the temperature increase in the past century might have induced cave species to expand their habitats into large well-aired cavities and superficial underground compartments, where they can be easily sampled. An alternative hypothesis, based on increased sampling intensity, is less supported by available datasets.

  11. The Evolution of Functionally Redundant Species; Evidence from Beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marten Scheffer

    Full Text Available While species fulfill many different roles in ecosystems, it has been suggested that numerous species might actually share the same function in a near neutral way. So-far, however, it is unclear whether such functional redundancy really exists. We scrutinize this question using extensive data on the world's 4168 species of diving beetles. We show that across the globe these animals have evolved towards a small number of regularly-spaced body sizes, and that locally co-existing species are either very similar in size or differ by at least 35%. Surprisingly, intermediate size differences (10-20% are rare. As body-size strongly reflects functional aspects such as the food that these generalist predators can eat, these beetles thus form relatively distinct groups of functional look-a-likes. The striking global regularity of these patterns support the idea that a self-organizing process drives such species-rich groups to self-organize evolutionary into clusters where functional redundancy ensures resilience through an insurance effect.

  12. Effects of nitrogen application on beetle communities in tea plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-Bo Chen; Zhi-Juan Wei; Zhao-Hua Zeng; Li-Lin Chen; Hui-Tao Chen; Min-Sheng You

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to grassland and forest ecosystems, little is known about insect response to nitrogen deposition in agricultural ecosystems. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of short-term (1-2 years) nitrogen application (0, 172.5, 345.0, 690.0, families, 89 species of beetles, was obtained from a tea plantation in Wuyishan, China. Among them, herbivores, predators and detritivores had 52, 29, and eight species, respectively. Species richness, effective diversity and abundance (measured as the number of individuals and insect biomass) of the beetle community were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, nitrogen application changed the species distribution and weakly increased the evenness of species distribution, while this did not significantly change the species evenness. Species richness and abundance of herbivores and predators were not significantly related to the rate of nitrogen application. However, there were some variations in trophic responses to nitrogen. Species richness and abundance of detritivores increased with increasing nitrogen application.

  13. Quantification of motility of carabid beetles in farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allema, A B; van der Werf, W; Groot, J C J; Hemerik, L; Gort, G; Rossing, W A H; van Lenteren, J C

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the movement of insects at field and landscape levels helps us to understand their ecology and ecological functions. We conducted a meta-analysis on movement of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), to identify key factors affecting movement and population redistribution. We characterize the rate of redistribution using motility μ (L2 T-1), which is a measure for diffusion of a population in space and time that is consistent with ecological diffusion theory and which can be used for upscaling short-term data to longer time frames. Formulas are provided to calculate motility from literature data on movement distances. A field experiment was conducted to measure the redistribution of mass-released carabid, Pterostichus melanarius in a crop field, and derive motility by fitting a Fokker-Planck diffusion model using inverse modelling. Bias in estimates of motility from literature data is elucidated using the data from the field experiment as a case study. The meta-analysis showed that motility is 5.6 times as high in farmland as in woody habitat. Species associated with forested habitats had greater motility than species associated with open field habitats, both in arable land and woody habitat. The meta-analysis did not identify consistent differences in motility at the species level, or between clusters of larger and smaller beetles. The results presented here provide a basis for calculating time-varying distribution patterns of carabids in farmland and woody habitat. The formulas for calculating motility can be used for other taxa. PMID:25673121

  14. Larval RNA interference in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, David M; Clark-Hachtel, Courtney M; Borràs-Castells, Ferran; Tomoyasu, Yoshinori

    2014-01-01

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, offers a repertoire of experimental tools for genetic and developmental studies, including a fully annotated genome sequence, transposon-based transgenesis, and effective RNA interference (RNAi). Among these advantages, RNAi-based gene knockdown techniques are at the core of Tribolium research. T. castaneum show a robust systemic RNAi response, making it possible to perform RNAi at any life stage by simply injecting double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into the beetle's body cavity. In this report, we provide an overview of our larval RNAi technique in T. castaneum. The protocol includes (i) isolation of the proper stage of T. castaneum larvae for injection, (ii) preparation for the injection setting, and (iii) dsRNA injection. Larval RNAi is a simple, but powerful technique that provides us with quick access to loss-of-function phenotypes, including multiple gene knockdown phenotypes as well as a series of hypomorphic phenotypes. Since virtually all T. castaneum tissues are susceptible to extracellular dsRNA, the larval RNAi technique allows researchers to study a wide variety of tissues in diverse contexts, including the genetic basis of organismal responses to the outside environment. In addition, the simplicity of this technique stimulates more student involvement in research, making T. castaneum an ideal genetic system for use in a classroom setting. PMID:25350485

  15. Comportamiento a la impregnación por vacío y presión de las maderas de Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws y Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Gabriel; Maly, Laura; De Cristófano, Natalia; Refort, Mercedes; Acciaresi, Gustavo

    2012-01-01

    La mejora tecnológica de las maderas amplía su espectro de usos cuando a éstas se les incorporan sustancias que mejoran su aptitud natural. La incorporación de sustancias químicas tiene por objetivos la mejora de sus propiedades ignífugas y el incremento de su durabilidad natural, densidad y dureza. El Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws, Pino ponderosa, es la conífera de rápido crecimiento de mayor difusión en la región andino patagónica argentina. La gran proporción de madera juvenil en madera p...

  16. Primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae and Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...

  17. Mechanisms of Odor Coding in Coniferous Bark Beetles: From Neuron to Behavior and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin N. Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Coniferous bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae locate their hosts by means of olfactory signals, such as pheromone, host, and nonhost compounds. Behavioral responses to these volatiles are well documented. However, apart from the olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs detecting pheromones, information on the peripheral olfactory physiology has for a long time been limited. Recently, however, comprehensive studies on the ORNs of the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus, were conducted. Several new classes of ORNs were described and odor encoding mechanisms were investigated. In particular, links between behavioral responses and ORN responses were established, allowing for a more profound understanding of bark beetle olfaction. This paper reviews the physiology of bark beetle ORNs. Special focus is on I. typographus, for which the available physiological data can be put into a behavioral context. In addition, some recent field studies and possible applications, related to the physiological studies, are summarized and discussed.

  18. REVIEW: Research on insect biodiversity in Indonesia: Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae and its role in ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYAFRIDA MANUWOTO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Research on insect biodiversity in Indonesia which is known as megabiodiversity still not yet a lot of done. Dung beetles represent one of insect group owning very important ecological role and enough suscebtible to condition change of an ecosistem so that is often made as one of bioindicator. Although it was estimated that there is about 1000 to 2000 species of dung beetle in Indo-Australia archipelago but the exact species number of Indonesia’s dung beetles not yet been known, since the are more than 17,000 islands in the country and different islands posseses a lot of endemic species. The lack of entomologist especially taxonomist and the limited of identification key available also become the problems of study on dung beetles biodiversity as well as another group of insect in Indonesia. Therefore, we need some effort expected to solve these problem in order to accelarate the research of insect biodiversity in Indonesia.

  19. Biological control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) by saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda spp.): effects on small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    The spread of introduced saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) throughout many riparian systems across the western United States motivated the introduction of biological control agents that are specific to saltcedar, saltcedar leaf beetles (Diorhabda carinulata, D. elongata; Chrysomelidae). I monitored small mam...

  20. Critical Assessment of Risk Classification Systems for the Mountain Pine Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Bentz, B J; Amman, G D; J. A. Logan

    1993-01-01

    Hazard/risk systems developed for mountain pine beetle management traditionally have attempted to describe the potential for timber loss in pine stands due to outbreak phase populations. A variety of stand and site characteristics, as well as climatic conditions, have been used. In this study, four hazard/risk systems were evaluated using data from 105 stands in northern Montana. None of the systems evaluated were found to predict adequately mountain pine beetle induced mortality which occurr...

  1. Plant-derived visual signals may protect beetle herbivores from bird predators

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar; Miriam Kishinevsky; Avi Shmida; Yoram Gerchman; Nicka Chinkov; Avi Koplovich; Gadi Katzir

    2013-01-01

    Insect herbivores often use chemical signals obtained from their food plants to deter enemies and/or attract sexual partners. Do plant-based visual signals act similarly, i.e., repel consumers' enemies and appeal to potential mates? We explored this question using the pollen-feeding beetle Pygopleurus israelitus (Glaphyridae), a specialized pollinator of Anemone coronaria's chemically defended red-morph flowers. We presented dead beetles, which had fed either on anemones or on cat-food, to yo...

  2. Bark beetles and fire: two forces of nature transforming western forests

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Bark beetles are chewing a wide swath through forests across North America. Over the past few years, infestations have become epidemic in lodgepole and spruce-fir forests of the Intermountain West. The resulting extensive acreages of dead trees are alarming the public and raising concern about risk of severe fire. Researchers supported by the Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) are examining the complicated relationship between bark beetles and wildfire, the two most influential natural disturb...

  3. Contribution of Augosoma centaurus beetle to rural livelihoods in the East region of Cameroon : study report

    OpenAIRE

    F. J. Muafor; Le Gall, Philippe; Levang, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the level to which forest dependent people in the East region of Cameroon rely on the consumption of Augosoma centaurus beetle (Dynastidae) for food security and rural livelihood. In total, 14 villages and 2 small towns, comprising of 9 ethnic groups in 10 sub-divisions were surveyed using quantitative and qualitative socioeconomic approaches. From the results of this study, both the larvae and adult individuals of the Augosoma beetle are traditional delic...

  4. The tiger beetles ( Coleoptera , Carabidae , Cicindelinae ) of Israel and adjacent lands

    OpenAIRE

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicinde...

  5. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    OpenAIRE

    Matalin,Andrey; I. Chikatunov,Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti...

  6. Contrasting needs of grassland dwellers: habitat preferences of endangered steppe beetles (Coleoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2012), s. 281-293. ISSN 1366-638X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : blister beetle * carpathian basin * darkling beetle Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.801, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/h7523m513164v7l3/

  7. Analysis of the Wing Mechanism Movement Parameters of Selected Beetle Species (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisler T.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a structural and functional analysis of the wing bending and folding mechanism of a selected beetle species. Insect motility studies, with regard to the anatomical structure, were performed. The main inner wing structures were highlighted and their mechanical properties and functions were determined. The structure parameters as mechanisms bodies that allow wings of various beetle species to bend and fold were defined.

  8. Aquatic beetles of the alpine lakes: diversity, ecology and small-scale population genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Čiamporová-Zaovičová Z.; Čiampor F.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we summarize water beetle fauna of the alpine lakes and ponds of the Tatra Mountains. The literature and recent data were used to assess species diversity. Out of around 95 studied alpine water bodies, beetles were found in 61. Altogether, 54 taxa from six families were identified. The different altitudinal zones and lake areas were compared with species richness and species incidence concerning the sites sampled. Besides ...

  9. Dung beetles in an avian-dominated island ecosystem: feeding and trophic ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavert, J R; Gaskett, A C; Scott, D J; Beggs, J R

    2014-09-01

    Globally, dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) are linked to many critical ecosystem processes involving the consumption and breakdown of mammal dung. Endemic New Zealand dung beetles (Canthonini) are an anomaly, occurring at high abundance and low diversity on an island archipelago historically lacking terrestrial mammals, except bats, and instead dominated by birds. Have New Zealand's dung beetles evolved to specialise on bird dung or carrion, or have they become broad generalist feeders? We test dietary preferences by analysing nitrogen isotope ratios of wild dung beetles and by performing feeding behaviour observations of captive specimens. We also use nitrogen and carbon stable isotopes to determine if the dung beetle Saphobius edwardsi will consume marine-derived carrion. Nitrogen isotope ratios indicated trophic generalism in Saphobius dung beetles and this was supported by behavioural observations where a broad range of food resources were utilised. Alternative food resource use was further illustrated experimentally by nitrogen and carbon stable isotope signatures of S. edwardsi, where individuals provided with decomposed squid had δ(15)N and δ(13)C values that had shifted toward values associated with marine diet. Our findings suggest that, in the absence of native mammal dung resources, New Zealand dung beetles have evolved a generalist diet of dung and carrion. This may include marine-derived resources, as provided by the seabird colonies present in New Zealand forests before the arrival of humans. This has probably enabled New Zealand dung beetles to persist in indigenous ecosystems despite the decline of native birds and the introduction of many mammal species. PMID:24974270

  10. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena I Hanson

    Full Text Available In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities.

  11. Agricultural Land Use Determines the Trait Composition of Ground Beetle Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Helena I; Palmu, Erkki; Birkhofer, Klaus; Smith, Henrik G; Hedlund, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve biological control of agricultural pests, it is fundamental to understand which factors influence the composition of natural enemies in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we aimed to understand how agricultural land use affects a number of different traits in ground beetle communities to better predict potential consequences of land-use change for ecosystem functioning. We studied ground beetles in fields with different agricultural land use ranging from frequently managed sugar beet fields, winter wheat fields to less intensively managed grasslands. The ground beetles were collected in emergence tents that catch individuals overwintering locally in different life stages and with pitfall traps that catch individuals that could have a local origin or may have dispersed into the field. Community weighted mean values for ground beetle traits such as body size, flight ability and feeding preference were estimated for each land-use type and sampling method. In fields with high land-use intensity the average body length of emerging ground beetle communities was lower than in the grasslands while the average body length of actively moving communities did not differ between the land-use types. The proportion of ground beetles with good flight ability or a carnivorous diet was higher in the crop fields as compared to the grasslands. Our study highlights that increasing management intensity reduces the average body size of emerging ground beetles and the proportion of mixed feeders. Our results also suggest that the dispersal ability of ground beetles enables them to compensate for local management intensities. PMID:26730734

  12. Diagnostic methods of pollen beetle and other winter rape pests resistance to insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The literature review summarizes informations about pests of winter oilseed rape, problem of pest resistance to insecticides, mechanisms of resistance of insects to insecticides and methods, how to evaluate the resistance, and the emergence and development of resistance of pollen beetle to pyrethroids in Europe and in the Czech Republic. In the experimental part of the master‘s thesis, resistance of pollen beetle from 5 locations in the Czech Republic to the three selected pyrethroids (deltam...

  13. Impact of anthropogenic disturbances on beetle communities of French Mediterranean coastal dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Comor, V.N.R.; Orgeas, J.; Ponel, P; Rolando, C.; Delettre, Y.R.

    2008-01-01

    In coastal dunes, influenced by anthropogenic activities such as tourism, it is important to determine the relative influence of environmental factors at different spatial scales to evaluate the sensitivity of local communities to disturbances. We analyzed beetle communities of 14 dunes of the French Mediterranean coast: four in the relatively preserved Camargue area, and ten in the Var department, where tourism is intensive. Beetle communities were studied three times in early spring using s...

  14. Parental effects and flight behaviour in the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides

    OpenAIRE

    Attisano, Alfredo; Kilner, Rebecca M.

    2015-01-01

    Parents play a key role in determining the phenotype of their offspring. However, relatively few studies have investigated whether parents can change their offspring's behaviour in a sustained way that persists into adulthood. With experiments on the burying beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, we investigated how the developmental environment created by parents affects their offspring's wing morphology in adulthood, and the correlated effects on adult flight behaviour. Burying beetles exhibit c...

  15. Laboratory evaluation of some indigenous plant extracts as toxicants against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst

    OpenAIRE

    Mamum, M.S.A; Shahjahan, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the toxicity of six botanicals, Bazna (Zanthoxylum rhetsa), Ghora-neem (Melia sempervirens), Hijal (Barringtonia acutangula), Karanja (Pongamia pinnata), Mahogoni (Swietenia mahagoni) and Neem (Azadirachta indica) against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Leaf and seed extracts were prepared by using acetone, methanol and water as solvents. The results showed that extracts of all the six plants had direct toxic effect on red flour beetle. A...

  16. Beetle-Grow: An Effective Intelligent Tutoring System to Support Conceptual Change

    OpenAIRE

    Farrow, Elaine; Moore, Johanna D.

    2016-01-01

    We will demonstrate the Beetle-Grow intelligent tutoring system, which combines active experimentation, self-explanation, and formative feedback using natural language interaction. It runs in a standard web browser and has a fresh, engaging design. The underlying back-end system has previously been shown to be highly effective in teaching basic electricity and electronics concepts.Beetle-Grow has been designed to capture student interaction and indicators of learning in a form suitable for da...

  17. Saproxylic Beetle Assemblage Selection as Determining Factor of Species Distributional Patterns: Implications for Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    García López, Alejandra; Galante, Eduardo; Micó, Estefanía

    2016-01-01

    The knowledge of the distributional patterns of saproxylic beetles is essential for conservation biology due to the relevance of this fauna in the maintenance of ecological processes and the endangerment of species. The complex community of saproxylic beetles is shaped by different assemblages that are composed of species linked by the microhabitats they use. We evaluate how different the species distribution patterns that are obtained can be, depending on the analyzed assemblage and to what ...

  18. Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Werner Hopp; Edilson Caron; Richard Ottermanns; Martina Roß-Nickoll

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating leaf litter beetle data sampled by Winkler extraction from Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil. To evaluate the reliability of data obtained by Winkler extraction in Atlantic forest sites in southern Brazil, we studied litter beetle assemblages in secondary forests (5 to 55 years after abandonment) and old-growth forests at two seasonally different points in time. For all regeneration stages, species density and abundance were lower in April compared to August; but, assemblage...

  19. Comparative analysis of microbial diversity in Longitarsus flea beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Scott T; Dobler, Susanne

    2011-05-01

    Herbivorous beetles comprise a significant fraction of eukaryotic biodiversity and their plant-feeding adaptations make them notorious agricultural pests. Despite more than a century of research on their ecology and evolution, we know little about the diversity and function of their symbiotic microbial communities. Recent culture-independent molecular studies have shown that insects possess diverse gut microbial communities that appear critical for their survival. In this study, we combined culture-independent methods and high-throughput sequencing strategies to perform a comparative analysis of Longitarsus flea-beetles microbial community diversity (MCD). This genus of beetle herbivores contains host plant specialists and generalists that feed on a diverse array of toxic plants. Using a deep-sequencing approach, we characterized the MCD of eleven Longitarsus species across the genus, several of which represented independent shifts to the same host plant families. Database comparisons found that Longitarsus-associated microbes came from two habitat types: insect guts and the soil rhizosphere. Statistical clustering of the Longitarsus microbial communities found little correlation with the beetle phylogeny, and uncovered discrepancies between bacterial communities extracted directly from beetles and those from frass. A Principal Coordinates Analysis also found some correspondence between beetle MCD and host plant family. Collectively, our data suggest that environmental factors play a dominant role in shaping Longitarsus MCD and that the root-feeding beetle larvae of these insects are inoculated by soil rhizosphere microbes. Future studies will investigate MCD of select Longitarsus species across their geographic ranges and explore the connection between the soil rhizosphere and the beetle MCD. PMID:20844936

  20. Microsatellite loci for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, a nest parasite of honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J D; Spiewok, S; Teixeira, E W; Neumann, P

    2008-05-01

    Aethina tumida, a beetle parasite of honey bee colonies, has recently and dramatically expanded its range and now parasitizes honey bees on three continents. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for this beetle species will help map this continuing range expansion, and will also prove useful for exploring the mating system and local gene flow patterns for this important parasite. We describe 15 loci that are polymorphic in both the native and introduced ranges of this species, showing from two to 22 alleles. PMID:21585875

  1. The influence of light on small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) behavior and trap capture

    OpenAIRE

    Duehl, Adrian; Arbogast, Richard; Sheridan, Audrey; Teal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International audience The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Murray) is a major pest of honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies, particularly in the Southeastern USA. We evaluated the small hive beetle's (SHB) response to different wavelengths of the light spectrum and found that SHB larvae and adults were most attracted to the 390 nm wavelength. Early instar larvae were not significantly attracted to light, while wandering larvae and adults exhibited strong positive phototaxis. The light resp...

  2. Mechanistic origins of bombardier beetle (Brachinini) explosion-induced defensive spray pulsation

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, Eric Michael; Moore, Wendy; Lee, Wah-Keat; Ortiz, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Bombardier beetles (Brachinini) use a rapid series of discrete explosions inside their pygidial gland reaction chambers to produce a hot, pulsed, quinone-based defensive spray. The mechanism of brachinines’ spray pulsation was explored using anatomical studies and direct observation of explosions inside living beetles using synchrotron x-ray imaging. Quantification of the dynamics of vapor inside the reaction chamber indicates that spray pulsation is controlled by specialized, contiguous cuti...

  3. Incorporating a Sorghum Habitat for Enhancing Lady Beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    P. G. Tillman; Cottrell, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) prey on insect pests in cotton. The objective of this 2 yr on-farm study was to document the impact of a grain sorghum trap crop on the density of Coccinellidae on nearby cotton. Scymnus spp., Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coleomegilla maculata (De Geer), Cycloneda munda (Say), and Olla v-nigrum (Mulsant) were found in sorghum over both years. Lady beetle compositions in sorghum and ...

  4. Analysis of the Wing Mechanism Movement Parameters of Selected Beetle Species (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler T.; Topczewska S.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a structural and functional analysis of the wing bending and folding mechanism of a selected beetle species. Insect motility studies, with regard to the anatomical structure, were performed. The main inner wing structures were highlighted and their mechanical properties and functions were determined. The structure parameters as mechanisms bodies that allow wings of various beetle species to bend and fold were defined.

  5. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  6. Ascarosides coordinate the dispersal of a plant-parasitic nematode with the metamorphosis of its vector beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lilin; Zhang, Xinxing; Wei, Yanan; Zhou, Jiao; Zhang, Wei; Qin, Peijun; Chinta, Satya; Kong, Xiangbo; Liu, Yunpeng; Yu, Haiying; Hu, Songnian; Zou, Zhen; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Sun, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Insect vectors are required for the transmission of many species of parasitic nematodes, but the mechanisms by which the vectors and nematodes coordinate their life cycles are poorly understood. Here, we report that ascarosides, an evolutionarily conserved family of nematode pheromones, are produced not only by a plant-parasitic nematode, but also by its vector beetle. The pinewood nematode and its vector beetle cause pine wilt disease, which threatens forest ecosystems world-wide. Ascarosides secreted by the dispersal third-stage nematode LIII larvae promote beetle pupation by inducing ecdysone production in the beetle and up-regulating ecdysone-dependent gene expression. Once the beetle develops into the adult stage, it secretes ascarosides that attract the dispersal fourth-stage nematode LIV larvae, potentially facilitating their movement into the beetle trachea for transport to the next pine tree. These results demonstrate that ascarosides play a key role in the survival and spread of pine wilt disease. PMID:27477780

  7. Treating cattle with antibiotics affects greenhouse gas emissions, and microbiota in dung and dung beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Tobin J; Fierer, Noah; Hardwick, Bess; Simojoki, Asko; Slade, Eleanor; Taponen, Juhani; Viljanen, Heidi; Roslin, Tomas

    2016-05-25

    Antibiotics are routinely used to improve livestock health and growth. However, this practice may have unintended environmental impacts mediated by interactions among the wide range of micro- and macroorganisms found in agroecosystems. For example, antibiotics may alter microbial emissions of greenhouse gases by affecting livestock gut microbiota. Furthermore, antibiotics may affect the microbiota of non-target animals that rely on dung, such as dung beetles, and the ecosystem services they provide. To examine these interactions, we treated cattle with a commonly used broad-spectrum antibiotic and assessed downstream effects on microbiota in dung and dung beetles, greenhouse gas fluxes from dung, and beetle size, survival and reproduction. We found that antibiotic treatment restructured microbiota in dung beetles, which harboured a microbial community distinct from those in the dung they were consuming. The antibiotic effect on beetle microbiota was not associated with smaller size or lower numbers. Unexpectedly, antibiotic treatment raised methane fluxes from dung, possibly by altering the interactions between methanogenic archaea and bacteria in rumen and dung environments. Our findings that antibiotics restructure dung beetle microbiota and modify greenhouse gas emissions from dung indicate that antibiotic treatment may have unintended, cascading ecological effects that extend beyond the target animal. PMID:27226475

  8. Striped Cucumber Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Aggregation in Response to Cultivar and Flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Jeffrey; Hoffmann, Michael P; Mazourek, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The striped cucumber beetle [Acalymma vittatum (F.)] is a specialist pest of cucurbits throughout its range in the United States and Canada. Improved integrated pest management options are needed across the pest's range, especially on organic farms where there are few effective controls. Trap cropping in cucurbits is an option, but there are significant challenges to the technique. Because cucurbit flowers are highly attractive to the beetles, four field experiments tested whether cultivar and phenology interact to preferentially aggregate beetles. The first experiment tested the hypothesis that cucurbit flowers were more attractive to striped cucumber beetles than was foliage. The second experiment tested whether there were differences in beetle aggregation between two relatively attractive cultivars. The third and fourth experiments were factorial designs with two plant cultivars and two levels of flowering to specifically test for an interaction of cultivar and flowering. Results indicated that flowers were more attractive than foliage, beetle aggregation was affected by plant cultivar, and that there was an interaction of cultivar with flowering. We conclude that a single cultivar may be sufficient to serve as a generic trap crop to protect a wide variety of cucurbits. PMID:26313184

  9. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase. PMID:25632972

  10. The role of dung beetles in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from cattle farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eleanor M.; Riutta, Terhi; Roslin, Tomas; Tuomisto, Hanna L.

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), with dairy and beef production accounting for nearly two-thirds of emissions. Several recent papers suggest that dung beetles may affect fluxes of GHGs from cattle farming. Here, we put these previous findings into context. Using Finland as an example, we assessed GHG emissions at three scales: the dung pat, pasture ecosystem, and whole lifecycle of milk or beef production. At the first two levels, dung beetles reduced GHG emissions by up to 7% and 12% respectively, mainly through large reductions in methane (CH4) emissions. However, at the lifecycle level, dung beetles accounted for only a 0.05-0.13% reduction of overall GHG emissions. This mismatch derives from the fact that in intensive production systems, only a limited fraction of all cow pats end up on pastures, offering limited scope for dung beetle mitigation of GHG fluxes. In contrast, we suggest that the effects of dung beetles may be accentuated in tropical countries, where more manure is left on pastures, and dung beetles remove and aerate dung faster, and that this is thus a key area for future research. These considerations give a new perspective on previous results perspective, and suggest that studies of biotic effects on GHG emissions from dung pats on a global scale are a priority for current research.

  11. Observations on the Cave-Associated Beetles (Coleoptera of Nova Scotia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moseley M.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The cave-associated invertebrates of Nova Scotia constitute a fauna at a very early stage of post-glacial recolonization. TheColeoptera are characterized by low species diversity. A staphylinid Quedius spelaeus spelaeus, a predator, is the only regularlyencountered beetle. Ten other terrestrial species registered from cave environments in the province are collected infrequently. Theyinclude three other rove-beetles: Brathinus nitidus, Gennadota canadensis and Atheta annexa. The latter two together with Catopsgratiosus (Leiodidae constitute a small group of cave-associated beetles found in decompositional situations. Quedius s. spelaeusand a small suite of other guanophiles live in accumulations of porcupine dung: Agolinus leopardus (Scarabaeidae, Corticariaserrata (Latrididae, and Acrotrichis castanea (Ptilidae. Two adventive weevils Otiorhynchus ligneus and Barypeithes pellucidus(Curculionidae collected in shallow cave passages are seasonal transients; Dermestes lardarius (Dermestidae, recorded fromone cave, was probably an accidental (stray. Five of the terrestrial beetles are adventive Palaearctic species. Aquatic beetles arecollected infrequently. Four taxa have been recorded: Agabus larsoni (Dytiscidae may be habitual in regional caves; another Agabussp. (probably semivittatus, Dytiscus sp. (Dytiscidae, and Crenitis digesta (Hydrophilidae are accidentals. The distribution andecology of recorded species are discussed, and attention is drawn to the association of beetles found in a Nova Scotia “ice cave”.

  12. Dung beetles use their dung ball as a mobile thermal refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus J; el Jundi, Basil; Warrant, Eric J; Dacke, Marie

    2012-10-23

    At midday, surface temperatures in the desert often exceed 60°C. To be active at this time, animals need extraordinary behavioural or physiological adaptations. Desert ants, for instance, spend up to 75% of their foraging time cooling down on elevated thermal refuges such as grass stalks. Ball-rolling dung beetles work under similar thermal conditions in South African savannahs. After landing at a fresh dung pile, a beetle quickly forms a dung ball and rolls it away in a straight line, head down, walking backwards. Earlier studies have shown that some dung beetles maintain an elevated body temperature to gain a competitive advantage, and that heat shunting may prevent overheating during flight. However, we know little about the behavioural strategies beetles might employ to mitigate heat stress while rolling their dung balls. Using infrared thermography and behavioural experiments, we show here that dung beetles use their dung ball as a mobile thermal refuge onto which they climb to cool down while rolling across hot soil. We further demonstrate that the moist ball functions not only as a portable platform, but also as a heat sink, which effectively cools the beetle as it rolls or climbs onto it. PMID:23098590

  13. Long-term dynamics of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) and its biocontrol agent, flea beetles in the genus Aphthona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.; Grace, James B.; Larson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Three flea beetle species (Aphthona spp.), first introduced into North America in 1988, have come to be regarded as effective biological control organisms for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula). The black flea beetles (Aphthona lacertosa and A. czwalinae) in particular have been shown to cause reductions in leafy spurge stem counts in the northern Great Plains, while the brown flea beetle (A. nigriscutis) has persisted and spread, but has not been found to be as effective at controlling leafy spurge. The ability of black flea beetles to control leafy spurge in any given year, however, has been found to vary. To better understand the long-term effects of flea beetle herbivory on leafy spurge, we monitored stem counts of leafy spurge and numbers of black and brown flea beetles at three sites on two National Wildlife Refuges in east-central North Dakota, USA, from 1998 to 2006. Brown flea beetle numbers were observed to be negligible on these sites. Over the 9 years of the study, black flea beetles were seen to spread over the three study sites and leafy spurge stem counts declined substantially on two of the three sites. Even at low densities of spurge, black flea beetle populations persisted, a necessary prerequisite for long-term control. We used structural equation models (SEM) to assess the yearly effects of black flea beetles, soil texture, and refuge site on leafy spurge stem counts over this time period. We then used equations developed from the SEM analysis to explore flea beetle–leafy spurge dynamics over time, after controlling for soil texture and refuge. Yearly effect strength of black flea beetles on leafy spurge was found to be modest, largely owing to substantial spatial variability in control. However, simulation results based on prediction coefficients revealed leafy spurge to be highly responsive to increases in flea beetle populations on average.

  14. The biology of the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, Coleoptera: Nitidulidae): Gaps in our knowledge of an invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience Small hive beetles, Aethina tumida, are honeybee parasites native to Africa, where they are a minor pest only. In contrast, the beetles can be harmful parasites of European honeybee subspecies. Resistance of African subspecies to infestations is probably due to quantitative differences in a series of behaviours such as absconding, aggression, removal of parasite eggs and larvae and social encapsulation. The beetles use counter-resistance tactics such as defence postu...

  15. Mimicking unfolding motion of a beetle hind wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Azhar; PARK Hoon C; HWANG Do Y; BYUN Doyoung; GOO Nam S

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental research aiming to realize an artificial hind wing that can mimic the wing unfolding motion of Allomyrina dichotoma, an insect in coleopteran order. Based on the understanding of working principles of beetle wing folding/unfolding mechanisms, the hind wing unfolding motion is mimicked by a combination of creative ideas and state-of-art artificial muscle actuator. In this work, we devise two types of artificial wings and the successfully demonstrate that they can be unfolded by actuation of shape memory alloy wires to provide actuation force at the wing base and along the leading edge vein. The folding/unfolding mechanisms may provide an insight for portable nano/micro air vehicles with morphing wings.

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wei, Jia-Ning; Jia, Dong; Li, Shuang; Ma, Rui-Yan

    2016-09-01

    To provide molecular markers for population genetic analysis of the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, we determined its mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) for the first time. The mitogenome of A. hygrophila was 15 917 bp in length with an AT content of 75.15%. It had the typical set of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and an AT-rich control region. Compared with the ancestral mitogenome of insects, no gene rearrangement occurred in A. hygrophila. Incomplete stop codons were present in PCGs of A. hygrophila. All tRNA genes except for trnS(AGN) could form the typical clover-leaf secondary structures. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that A. hygrophila was close to other species belonging to the same family of Chrysomelidae. PMID:26368047

  17. Effects of polyhydroxy compounds on beetle antifreeze protein activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornwittawat, Natapol; Wang, Sen; Banatlao, Joseph; Chung, Melody; Velasco, Efrain; Duman, John G.; Wen, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) noncolligatively depress the nonequilibrium freezing point of a solution and produce a difference between the melting and freezing points termed thermal hysteresis (TH). Some low-molecular-mass solutes can affect the TH values. The TH enhancement effects of selected polyhydroxy compounds including polyols and carbohydrates on an AFP from the beetle Dendroides canadensis were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The number of hydroxyl groups dominates the molar enhancement effectiveness of polyhydroxy compounds having one to five hydroxyl groups. However, the above rule does not apply for polyhydroxy compounds having more than five hydroxyl groups. The most efficient polyhydroxy enhancer identified is trehalose. In a combination of enhancers the strongest enhancer plays the major role in determining the TH enhancement. Mechanistic insights into identification of highly efficient AFP enhancers are discussed. PMID:19038370

  18. Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  19. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  20. Deforestation and apparent extinctions of endemic forest beetles in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanski, Ilkka; Koivulehto, Helena; Cameron, Alison; Rahagalala, Pierre

    2007-06-22

    Madagascar has lost about half of its forest cover since 1953 with much regional variation, for instance most of the coastal lowland forests have been cleared. We sampled the endemic forest-dwelling Helictopleurini dung beetles across Madagascar during 2002-2006. Our samples include 29 of the 51 previously known species for which locality information is available. The most significant factor explaining apparent extinctions (species not collected by us) is forest loss within the historical range of the focal species, suggesting that deforestation has already caused the extinction, or effective extinction, of a large number of insect species with small geographical ranges, typical for many endemic taxa in Madagascar. Currently, roughly 10% of the original forest cover remains. Species-area considerations suggest that this will allow roughly half of the species to persist. Our results are consistent with this prediction. PMID:17341451

  1. Fungal farming in a non-social beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Toki

    Full Text Available Culturing of microbes for food production, called cultivation mutualism, has been well-documented from eusocial and subsocial insects such as ants, termites and ambrosia beetles, but poorly described from solitary, non-social insects. Here we report a fungal farming in a non-social lizard beetle Doubledaya bucculenta (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae, which entails development of a special female structure for fungal storage/inoculation, so-called mycangium, and also obligate dependence of the insect on the fungal associate. Adult females of D. bucculenta bore a hole on a recently-dead bamboo culm with their specialized mandibles, lay an egg into the internode cavity, and plug the hole with bamboo fibres. We found that the inner wall of the bamboo internode harboring a larva is always covered with a white fungal layer. A specific Saccharomycetes yeast, Wickerhamomyces anomalus ( = Pichia anomala, was consistently isolated from the inner wall of the bamboo internodes and also from the body surface of the larvae. Histological examination of the ovipositor of adult females revealed an exoskeletal pocket on the eighth abdominal segment. The putative mycangium contained yeast cells, and W. anomalus was repeatedly detected from the symbiotic organ. When first instar larvae were placed on culture media inoculated with W. anomalus, they grew and developed normally to adulthood. By contrast, first instar larvae placed on either sterile culture media or autoclaved strips of bamboo inner wall exhibited arrested growth at the second instar, and addition of W. anomalus to the media resumed growth and development of the larvae. These results strongly suggest a mutualistic nature of the D. bucculenta-W. anomalus association with morphological specialization and physiological dependence. Based on these results, we compare the fungal farming of D. bucculenta with those of social and subsocial insects, and discuss ecological factors relevant to the

  2. Variability in the intraspecific response of Pinus ponderosa seedlings subjected to long-term exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houpis, J.L.J.; Anschel, D.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Health and Ecological Assessment Div.; Pushnik, J.C. [California State Univ., Chico, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences; Anderson, P.D. [Forest Service, Rhinelander, WI (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors are investigating the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and intraspecific variability on Pinus ponderosa. To analyze intraspecific variability, they included seedling source (family) as an additional treatment, using a split-plot experimental design. The three elevated CO{sub 2} treatments were ambient (approx. 350 ppm CO{sub 2}), ambient + 175 ppm CO{sub 2} and ambient +350 ppm CO{sub 2}. Their study uses the source/sink control framework at several key integrating steps, incorporating the long-term effects of elevated CO{sub 2} (insuring sufficient time for the expression of any long-term physiological and biochemical acclimation to occur) and genetics (using multiple species and multiple known genetic sources) in an attempt to ascertain the extent of overall regulation contributed by selected independent regulatory process at the physiological, biochemical and structural level. In order to assess intraspecific variability, this paper reports on the integration of measurements of photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, pigmentation, RuBPCase, SPSase to quantify the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the growth response of various families of the same species.

  3. Nitrogen cycling responses to mountain pine beetle disturbance in a high elevation whitebark pine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan P Keville

    Full Text Available Ecological disturbances can significantly affect biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial ecosystems, but the biogeochemical consequences of the extensive mountain pine beetle outbreak in high elevation whitebark pine (WbP (Pinus albicaulis ecosystems of western North America have not been previously investigated. Mountain pine beetle attack has driven widespread WbP mortality, which could drive shifts in both the pools and fluxes of nitrogen (N within these ecosystems. Because N availability can limit forest regrowth, understanding how beetle-induced mortality affects N cycling in WbP stands may be critical to understanding the trajectory of ecosystem recovery. Thus, we measured above- and belowground N pools and fluxes for trees representing three different times since beetle attack, including unattacked trees. Litterfall N inputs were more than ten times higher under recently attacked trees compared to unattacked trees. Soil inorganic N concentrations also increased following beetle attack, potentially driven by a more than two-fold increase in ammonium (NH₄⁺ concentrations in the surface soil organic horizon. However, there were no significant differences in mineral soil inorganic N or soil microbial biomass N concentrations between attacked and unattacked trees, implying that short-term changes in N cycling in response to the initial stages of WbP attack were restricted to the organic horizon. Our results suggest that while mountain pine beetle attack drives a pulse of N from the canopy to the forest floor, changes in litterfall quality and quantity do not have profound effects on soil biogeochemical cycling, at least in the short-term. However, continuous observation of these important ecosystems will be crucial to determining the long-term biogeochemical effects of mountain pine beetle outbreaks.

  4. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran.Methods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key Results: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorariusThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. Conclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  5. Scarab Beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae Fauna in Ardabil Province, North West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Mowlavi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dung beetles of Coleoptera associated to undisturbed cattle droppings in pastures present great diver¬sity and abundance. Dung beetles also play an important role for transmission of some helminthes to human and cat¬tle. This study was made to survey the biodiversity and abundance of these beetles in Ardebil Province, western Iran."nMethods: According to the field study all beetles attracted to fresh cow dung in five areas of Ardebil Province in¬cluding Namin, Ardabil, Meshkinshahr, Neer and Sarein were collected and identified. They were collected during summer 2007 from June to September, with general peaks appearing to be correlated with temperature mainly at 11 a.m to 15 p.m. The samples were identified using appropriate systematic key "nResults: A total of 231 specimens belonging to 9 beetle genera and at least 15 species were identified as Euoniticel¬lus fulvus, Sisyphus schaffaer, Euonthophagus taurus, Copris lunaris, Chironitis pamphilus, Gymnopleurus coriarus, Euonthophagus amyntas, Caccobius schreberi, Onthophagus speculifer, Onthophagus furcatus, Aphodius, lugens, Apho¬dius fimetarius, A. scrutator, Geotrupes spiniger and G. stercorarius"nThe most abundant and diverse subfamilies were Coprinae, Geotrupinae, and Aphodiinae. "nConclusion: We found 15 species of dung beetles occurred in the region. The prevalence of each species is varied depending on location. Some of them play an important role for helminths transmission of veterinary and public health importance. The finding will provide a clue for pasture management as well as public health monitoring and surveillance of the disease transmitted by dung beetles

  6. Use of a Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measuring the Material Properties of Beetle Wing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tailie Jin; Nam Seo Goo; Sung-Choong Woo; Hoon Cheol Park

    2009-01-01

    Beetle wings are very specialized flight organs consisting of the veins and membranes. Therefore it is necessary from a bionic view to investigate the material properties of a beetle wing experimentally. In the present study, we have used a Digital lmage Correlation (DIC) technique to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing membrane. Specimens were prepared by carefully cutting a beetle hind wing into 3.0 mm by 7.0 mm segments (the gage length was 5 mm). We used a scanning electron microscope for a precise measurement of the thickness of the beetle wing membrane. The specimen was attached to a designed fixture to induce a uniform displacement by means of a micromanipulator. We used an ARAMISTM system based on the digital image correlation technique to measure the corresponding displacement of a specimen. The thickness of the beetle wing varied at different points of the membrane. The elastic modulus differed in relation to the membrane arrangement showing a structural anisotropy; the elastic modulus in the chordwise direction is approximately 2.65 GPa, which is three times larger than the elastic modulus in the spanwise direction of 0.84 GPa. As a result, the digital image correlation-based ARAMIS system was suc-cessfully used to measure the elastic modulus of a beetle wing. In addition to membrane's elastic modulus, we considered the Poisson's ratio of the membrane and measured the elastic modulus of a vein using an Instron universal tensile machine. The result reveals the Poisson's ratio is nearly zero and the elastic modulus of a vein is about 11 GPa.

  7. Unintended effects of the herbicides 2,4-D and dicamba on lady beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydier, Laurène; Lundgren, Jonathan G

    2016-08-01

    Weed resistance to glyphosate and development of new GM crops tolerant to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and dicamba is expected to lead to increased use of these herbicides in cropland. The lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata is an important beneficial insect in cropland that is commonly used as an indicator species in safety evaluations of pesticides. Here, we examined the lethal and non-lethal effects of 2,4-D and dicamba active ingredients and commercial formulations to this lady beetle species, and tested for synergistic effects of the herbicides. Second instars of lady beetles were exposed to an experimental treatment, and their mortality, development, weight, sex ratio, fecundity, and mobility was evaluated. Using similar methods, a dose-response study was conducted on 2,4-D with and without dicamba. The commercial formulation of 2,4-D was highly lethal to lady beetle larvae; the LC90 of this herbicide was 13 % of the label rate. In this case, the "inactive" ingredients were a key driver of the toxicity. Dicamba active ingredient significantly increased lady beetle mortality and reduced their body weight. The commercial formulations of both herbicides reduced the proportion of males in the lady beetle population. The herbicides when used together did not act synergistically in their toxicity toward lady beetles versus when the chemistries were used independently. Our work shows that herbicide formulations can cause both lethal and sublethal effects on non-target, beneficial insects, and these effects are sometimes driven by the "inactive" ingredients. The field-level implications of shifts in weed management practices on insect management programs should receive further attention. PMID:27282375

  8. Association of the symbiotic fungi Fusarium euwallaceae, Graphium sp. and Acremonium sp., with the ambrosia beetle Euwallacea nr. fornicatus in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus (Coleoptera:Scolytinae), is a new invasive species to Israel. To date, the beetle has been recorded from 48 tree species representing 25 plant families. Amongst the most affected are avocado, castor-bean and box elder. Isolations from beetle heads revea...

  9. Suitability of California bay laurel and other species as potential hosts for the non-native redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff) is a non-native invasive forest pest and vector of the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a deadly disease of trees in the family Lauraceae in the southeastern United States (U.S.). Concern exists that X. glabratus and its fungal symbiont cou...

  10. Behavioral Ecology of Host Selection in the Asian Longhorn Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cermabycidae): Implications for Survey, Detection and Monitoring Adult Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (ALB), is among high risk invasive species that recently invaded the U.S. from China, with infestations in New York City and Long Island, NY, Chicago, IL, Jersey City, Carteret and Linden, NJ, and Toronto, Canada. ALB has attacked 25 deciduous tree s...

  11. Functional genomics and microbiome profiling of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis) reveal insights into the digestive physiology and nutritional ecology of wood feeding beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gut microbial communities associated with xylophagous beetles are taxonomically rich and predominately comprised of taxa that are poised to promote survival in woody tissue, which is devoid of nitrogen and essential nutrients. However, the contributions of gut microbes to digestive physiology a...

  12. Leptographium tereforme sp. nov. and other Ophiostomatales isolated from the root-feeding bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda, in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda F., is native to Europe but was discovered in Los Angeles, California in 2003. This root- and stump-feeding bark beetle is a common vector of Ophiostomatales, which are potential tree pathogens or causes of blue-stain of conifer sapwood. In this st...

  13. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  14. 甲壳虫是怎么得到颜色的%How Beetle Got Her Colors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Long ago in the Amazon rain forest Beetle was just plain brown.In this same forest there lived a rat that used to tease other small animals and insects that lived there.Best of all she liked to torment the beetle.Rat had a gang of other small animals who followed her,and laughed at her mean jokes.

  15. Efficacy and longevity of essential oil lures for capture of the redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The redbay ambrosia beetle Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff is an exotic wood-boring pest native to southeastern Asia. It carries a symbiotic fungus (Raffaelea lauricola) that causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in Georgia in 2002, the beetle has spre...

  16. Microsatellite analysis of the Genetic Diversity of Asian Longhorned Beetles from an Invasive Population in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asian Longhorned Beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky) were discovered in Ontario, Canada in 2003 at a commercial warehouse site, where they likely arrived on solid wood packing materials from China. Trees in the area were heavily scarred with oviposition sites, and larvae and adult beetle...

  17. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object

  18. Performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip reading out a Micron PR03 R measuring sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, J; Eckstein, D; Palacios, J P

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a Beetle 1.2 chip bonded to a Micron PR03 measuring prototype VELO sensor has been studied using test beam data collected by the VELO group. Results concerning the peak signal, signal to noise ratio, signal remainder 25 ns after peaking time, and a scan of the undershoot region for different bias settings of the Beetle are presented.

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Raffaelea quercivora JCM 11526, a Japanese Oak Wilt Pathogen Associated with the Platypodid Beetle, Platypus quercivorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Ri-ichiroh; Ohkuma, Moriya; Endoh, Rikiya

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese oak wilt pathogen Raffaelea quercivora and the platypodid beetle, Platypus quercivorus, cause serious mass mortality of Quercus spp. in Japan. Here, we present the first draft genome sequence of R. quercivora JCM 11526 to increase our understanding of the mechanism of pathogenicity and symbiosis with the ambrosia beetle. PMID:27469944

  20. Cloning and characterization of an MRNA encoding an insulin receptor from the horned scarab beetle Onthophagus nigriventris (Coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in the control of insect polyphenisms for some caste-forming insects and potentially has a role in horn dimorphisms in beetles. Males of the sexually dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus nigriventris develop a magnificent thoracic horn up to twice the l...

  1. Redbay ambrosia beetle/Laurel wilt: Overview of projects at the USDA-ARS Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Laurel wilt, a deadly fungal disease of avocado and other trees in the Lauraceae, is vectored by the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). First detected near Savannah, GA in 2002, the beetle and its obligatory pathogen have since spread to South Carolina and Florida. Currently, t...

  2. Fusarium euwallaceae, a novel species cultivated by a Euwallacea ambrosia beetle that threatens avocado production in Israel and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado production in Israel and California, USA is facing a serious threat due to damage caused by an invasive Euwallacea ambrosia beetle and a novel Fusarium that it cultivates as a source of food. Adult female beetles possess mandibular mycangia within which they carry the Fusarium symbiont. At l...

  3. Management for Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak Suppression: Does Relevant Science Support Current Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Six

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of timber harvests is generally accepted as an effective approach to controlling bark beetles during outbreaks, in reality there has been a dearth of monitoring to assess outcomes, and failures are often not reported. Additionally, few studies have focused on how these treatments affect forest structure and function over the long term, or our forests’ ability to adapt to climate change. Despite this, there is a widespread belief in the policy arena that timber harvesting is an effective and necessary tool to address beetle infestations. That belief has led to numerous proposals for, and enactment of, significant changes in federal environmental laws to encourage more timber harvests for beetle control. In this review, we use mountain pine beetle as an exemplar to critically evaluate the state of science behind the use of timber harvest treatments for bark beetle suppression during outbreaks. It is our hope that this review will stimulate research to fill important gaps and to help guide the development of policy and management firmly based in science, and thus, more likely to aid in forest conservation, reduce financial waste, and bolster public trust in public agency decision-making and practice.

  4. Associations of Conifer-Infesting Bark Beetles and Fungi in Fennoscandia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wingfield

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Bark beetles (Coleoptera, Scolytinae have a widespread association with fungi, especially with ophiostomatoid fungi (Ascomycota that cause blue staining of wood, and in some cases, serious tree diseases. In Fennoscandia, most studies of these fungi have focused on economically important bark beetle species and this is likely to have led to a biased view of the fungal biodiversity in the region. Recently, the associations between fungi and bark beetles in Fennoscandia have been shown to be more diverse than previously thought. Furthermore, they form complex and dynamic associations that are only now beginning to emerge. This review examines the current knowledge of the rather poorly known interactions between bark beetles, fungi and their conifer host trees in Fennoscandia. The diversity of ophiostomatoid species is discussed and the possible factors that influence the assemblages of fungal associates are considered for all species that are known to occur in the region. For many ophiostomatoid species found in Fennoscandia, little or nothing is known regarding their pathogenicity, particularly if they were to be transferred to new environments. We, therefore, draw attention to the possible threats of timber trade and climate change-induced invasions of new habitats by bark beetles and the fungi that can be moved along with them.

  5. Recalibrated tree of leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae indicates independent diversification of angiosperms and their insect herbivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez-Zurita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The great diversity of the "Phytophaga" (weevils, longhorn beetles and leaf beetles has been attributed to their co-radiation with the angiosperms based on matching age estimates for both groups, but phylogenetic information and molecular clock calibrations remain insufficient for this conclusion. METHODOLOGY: A phylogenetic analysis of the leaf beetles (Chrysomelidae was conducted based on three partial ribosomal gene markers (mitochondrial rrnL, nuclear small and large subunit rRNA including over 3000 bp for 167 taxa representing most major chrysomelid lineages and outgroups. Molecular clock calibrations and confidence intervals were based on paleontological data from the oldest (K-T boundary leaf beetle fossil, ancient feeding traces ascribed to hispoid Cassidinae, and the vicariant split of Nearctic and Palearctic members of the Timarchini. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The origin of the Chrysomelidae was dated to 73-79 Mya (confidence interval 63-86 Mya, and most subfamilies were post-Cretaceous, consistent with the ages of all confirmed body fossils. Two major monocot feeding chrysomelid lineages formed widely separated clades, demonstrating independent colonization of this ancient (early Cretaceous angiosperm lineage. CONCLUSIONS: Previous calibrations proposing a much older origin of Chrysomelidae were not supported. Therefore, chrysomelid beetles likely radiated long after the origin of their host lineages and their diversification was driven by repeated radiaton on a pre-existing diverse resource, rather than ancient host associations.

  6. Beetle adhesive hairs differ in stiffness and stickiness: in vivo adhesion measurements on individual setae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, James M. R.; Federle, Walter

    2011-05-01

    Leaf beetles are able to climb on smooth and rough surfaces using arrays of micron-sized adhesive hairs (setae) of varying morphology. We report the first in vivo adhesive force measurements of individual setae in the beetle Gastrophysa viridula, using a smooth polystyrene substrate attached to a glass capillary micro-cantilever. The beetles possess three distinct adhesive pads on each leg which differ in function and setal morphology. Visualisation of pull-offs allowed forces to be measured for each tarsal hair type. Male discoidal hairs adhered with the highest forces (919 ± 104 nN, mean ± SE), followed by spatulate (582 ± 59 nN) and pointed (127 ± 19 nN) hairs. Discoidal hairs were stiffer in the normal direction (0.693 ± 0.111 N m-1) than spatulate (0.364 ± 0.039 N m-1) or pointed (0.192 ± 0.044 N m-1) hairs. The greater adhesion on smooth surfaces and the higher stability of discoidal hairs help male beetles to achieve strong adhesion on the elytra of females during copulation. A comparison of pull-off forces measured for single setae and whole pads (arrays) revealed comparable levels of adhesive stress. This suggests that beetles are able to achieve equal load sharing across their adhesive pads so that detachment through peeling is prevented.

  7. Dung beetles eat acorns to increase their ovarian development and thermal tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Verdú

    Full Text Available Animals eat different foods in proportions that yield a more favorable balance of nutrients. Despite known examples of these behaviors across different taxa, their ecological and physiological benefits remain unclear. We identified a surprising dietary shift that confers ecophysiological advantages in a dung beetle species. Thorectes lusitanicus, a Mediterranean ecosystem species adapted to eat semi-dry and dry dung (dung-fiber consumers is also actively attracted to oak acorns, consuming and burying them. Acorn consumption appears to confer potential advantages over beetles that do not eat acorns: acorn-fed beetles showed important improvements in the fat body mass, hemolymph composition, and ovary development. During the reproductive period (October-December beetles incorporating acorns into their diets should have greatly improved resistance to low-temperature conditions and improved ovarian development. In addition to enhancing the understanding of the relevance of dietary plasticity to the evolutionary biology of dung beetles, these results open the way to a more general understanding of the ecophysiological implications of differential dietary selection on the ecology and biogeography of these insects.

  8. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Tian; Zheng, Fu-Shan; Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  9. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tian Tang

    Full Text Available Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.. To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC, central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC and southwestern China (SWC based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900-126,500 years ago.

  10. Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures. PMID:26496732

  11. The tiger beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Cicindelinae) of Israel and adjacent lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198

  12. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference. PMID:24498758

  13. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground bark beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jun; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    2008-01-01

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and affect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of particular interest is the decline of red pines, which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... the Great Lakes region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the relations...... among red turpentine beetle colonization, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees while accounting for correlation across space and over time. We extend traditional Markov random-field models to include temporal terms and multiple-response variables aimed at developing a...

  14. Spatial-temporal modeling of forest gaps generated by colonization from below- and above-ground beetle species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J.; Rasmussen, Jakob Gulddahl; Møller, Jesper;

    Studies of forest declines are important, because they both reduce timber production and aect successional trajectories of landscapes and ecosystems. Of partic- ular interest is the decline of red pines which is characterized by expanding areas of dead and chlorotic trees in plantations throughout...... the Great Lakes Region. Here we examine the impact of two bark beetle groups, namely red turpentine beetles and pine engraver bark beetles, on tree mortality and the subsequent gap formation over time in a plantation in Wisconsin. We construct spatial-temporal statistical models that quantify the...... relations among red turpentine beetle coloniza- tion, pine engraver bark beetle colonization, and mortality of red pine trees, while accounting for correlation across space and over time. For statistical inference, we adopt a Bayesian hierarchical model and devise Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms for...

  15. Water beetle distribution along a perennial distance gradient in an intermittent stream from the Mediterranean part of Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Ana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the impact of an unstable hydrological regime (floods and seasonal drying on water beetle fauna after a drought period, in an intermittent stream in the Mediterranean part of Montenegro. Aquatic beetles were collected between November 2009 and May 2010 from three intermittent sites along the Rimanić stream at different distances from the perennial part (DP, using quantitative sampling methods. We predicted that water beetle assemblages would vary in structure and composition along DP gradients. Total abundance, taxa richness, main faunal groups and proportion of adults and larvae were assessed in order to describe the changes in the water beetle assemblages. The water beetle fauna in the studied sites recovered slowly from the drought periods in terms of both total abundance and taxa richness. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM showed no significant changes in community structure between the sites, but revealed changes in terms of date (Rho = 0.403.

  16. Changes in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabor Pozsgai; Nick A. Littlewood

    2011-01-01

    A growing body ofevidence shows that climate change can alter the phenology of plants and animals.In this study long-term data from the UK Environmental Change Network (ECN) were analyzed to investigate whether there has been a change in the phenology of the ground beetle Pterostichus madidus (Fabricius,1775).Pitfall trap data were available from 12 ECN sites across the United Kingdom,most of which have been in operation for more than 15 years.Weather and vegetation datasets were also utilized.Pitfall trap lines were categorized to eight vegetation types.Trend analysis over time was carried out first using all the available dates of capture events,then the datasets grouped by vegetation type and site.Shifts in high-activity periods were also analyzed.P.madidus appearance dates advanced significantly at seven sites and in five vegetation types.Peak activity advanced at two sites.At one site the timing of activity became significantly later.The last day of activity did not change significantly,supporting the theory that the cessation of the activity period is more likely to be controlled by photoperiod than temperature.The relationships between phenological variables and climatic factors were also investigated.However,no significant correlations were detected.These results demonstrate that between 1992 and 2008,phenology ofP madidus at seven sites from the eight analyzed has changed.Global warming may be driving these changes and future work will investigate underlying processes.

  17. The Beetle Reference Manual chip version 1.2

    CERN Document Server

    Baumeister, D; Schmelling, M

    2006-01-01

    This paper details the electrical specifications, operating conditions and port definitions of the readout chip Beetle 1.2. The chip is developed for the LHCb experiment and fulfils the requirements of the silicon vertex detector (VELO, VETO), the silicon tracker and the RICH detector in case of multi-anode photomultiplier readout. It integrates 128 channels with low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifiers and shapers. The pulse shape can be chosen such that it complies with LHCb specifications: a peaking time of 25 ns with a remainder of the peak voltage after 25 ns of less than 30%. A comparator per channel with configurable polarity provides a binary signal. Four adjacent comparator channels are being ORed and brought off chip via LVDS ports. Either the shaper or comparator output is sampled with the LHC-bunch-crossing frequency of 40 MHz into an analog pipeline. This ring buffer has a programmable latency of max. 160 sampling intervals and an integrated derandomising buffer of 16 stages. For analog readout d...

  18. Aerodynamics of a beetle in take-off flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Boogeon; Park, Hyungmin; Kim, Sun-Tae

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, we investigate the aerodynamics of a beetle in its take-off flights based on the three-dimensional kinematics of inner (hindwing) and outer (elytron) wings, and body postures, which are measured with three high-speed cameras at 2000 fps. To track the highly deformable wing motions, we distribute 21 morphological markers and use the modified direct linear transform algorithm for the reconstruction of measured wing motions. To realize different take-off conditions, we consider two types of take-off flights; that is, one is the take-off from a flat ground and the other is from a vertical rod mimicking a branch of a tree. It is first found that the elytron which is flapped passively due to the motion of hindwing also has non-negligible wing-kinematic parameters. With the ground, the flapping amplitude of elytron is reduced and the hindwing changes its flapping angular velocity during up and downstrokes. On the other hand, the angle of attack on the elytron and hindwing increases and decreases, respectively, due to the ground. These changes in the wing motion are critically related to the aerodynamic force generation, which will be discussed in detail. Supported by the grant to Bio-Mimetic Robot Research Center funded by Defense Acquisition Program Administration (UD130070ID).

  19. Restudies on Body Surface of Dung Beetle and Application of Its Bionics Flexible Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Sun; Jianqiao Li; Hong Cheng; Zhendong Dai; Luquan Ren

    2004-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the structures of the setae on the surface of a dung beetle Copris ochus, Motschulsky. There are lots of setae on the body surface, especially on the ventral part surface and lateral to the legs which are different in size, arrangement and shape. These setae have different lengths and many thorns on the whole seta. The top ends of these setae stand up without furcations which direct uprightly towards the surface of the touched soil. By the method of removing these setae, getting the insect weight before and after digging into the dung we affirm farther that the setae on the beetle body surface form the anti-stick and non-adherent gentle interface. The soil machines and components made by imitating the gentle body surface of beetles have favorable non-adherent results.

  20. Phylogeny of diving beetles reveals a coevolutionary arms race between the sexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Bergsten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Darwin illustrated his sexual selection theory with male and female morphology of diving beetles, but maintained a cooperative view of their interaction. Present theory suggests that instead sexual conflict should be a widespread evolutionary force driving both intersexual coevolutionary arms races and speciation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined Bayesian phylogenetics, complete taxon sampling and a multi-gene approach to test the arms race scenario on a robust diving beetle phylogeny. As predicted, suction cups in males and modified dorsal surfaces in females showed a pronounced coevolutionary pattern. The female dorsal modifications impair the attachment ability of male suction cups, but each antagonistic novelty in females corresponds to counter-differentiation of suction cups in males. CONCLUSIONS: A recently diverged sibling species pair in Japan is possibly one consequence of this arms race and we suggest that future studies on hypoxia might reveal the key to the extraordinary selection for female counter-adaptations in diving beetles.

  1. A System for Harvesting Eggs from the Pink-Spotted Lady Beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret L. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a system for harvesting eggs from a predatory insect, the pink-spotted lady beetle, Coleomegilla maculata De Geer (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. Adult beetles placed in square, transparent containers that included oviposition substrates hanging from the top of the cage deposited eggs on the materials provided. We harvested eggs from these substrates in quantities sufficient for either destructive sampling or synchronous development of larvae. We evaluated effects of crowding inside cages; effects of a chemical attractant on oviposition behavior; egg cannibalism. Females preferred a textured surface rather than a smooth, waxy one for laying eggs. Crowding inhibited oviposition of beetles. Presence of a chemical attractant (methyl salicylate did not significantly improve oviposition. This paper describes an inexpensive system for harvesting eggs from C. maculata. Refinement of this system should improve oviposition and reduce cannibalism.

  2. BIOACTIVITY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AGAINST RED FLOUR BEETLE TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst is a major pest of stored products. The aim of this study was to assess the potential fumigant effects of 1,8-cineole, essential oil component, on the T. castaneum pupae. The compound was tested in 6 doses; in two treatments (fumigation without grain and with wheat grain, exposed for 48 h, in 4 repetitions, for each gender. The compound 1,8-cineole had lethal effect on the treated pupae at both genders and in the both treatments. Total proportion of the normally developed beetles was decreased. In addition, 1,8-cineole had also a growth regulator effect, producing adultoids and deformed units, with males more susceptible. In the treatment with the grain there were significant lower dead pupae, normally developed live male beetles and also deformed female units in the stage 2. In general, compound 1,8-cineole has multiple effect against T. castaneum in pupal stage.

  3. Use of habitat resources by scarab dung beetles in an Savanna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Mazziotta, Adriano; Ieradi, Michele

    2010-01-01

    In the Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda, we compared the scarab beetle assemblages in the dung of three wild ungulates (African buffalo, a ruminant foregut fermenter; hippopotamus, nonruminant foregut fermenter; and warthog, nonruminant hindgut fermenter). Dung was collected from two sandy......-clay soils with different percentage of coarse sand. We aimed at investigating habitat resource selection by dung beetle species within a savanna natural contest with abundant and diverse food availability. Analyses were performed to detect differences for dung beetle assemblages in abundance, diversity......, functional groups. Species richness in the three dung types and in the two soil types was similar. However, warthog dung and sandy-rich soil appeared the preferred habitat resources, in terms of abundance and biomass, while hippopotamus dung hosted the lowest values for these parameters. The analysis of...

  4. Development of red-shifted mutants derived from luciferase of Brazilian click beetle Pyrearinus termitilluminans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Yamada, Toshimichi; Nasu, Yusuke; Ito, Mashiho; Yoshimura, Hideaki; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2015-10-01

    Luciferase, a bioluminescent protein, has been used as an analytical tool to visualize intracellular phenomena. Luciferase with red light emission is particularly useful for bioluminescence imaging because of its high transmittance in mammalian tissues. However, the luminescence intensity of existing luciferases with their emission over 600 nm is insufficient for imaging studies because of their weak intensities. We developed mutants of Emerald luciferase (Eluc) from Brazilian click beetle (Pyrearinus termitilluminans), which emits the strongest bioluminescence among beetle luciferases. We successively introduced four amino acid mutations into the luciferase based on a predicted structure of Eluc using homology modeling. Results showed that quadruple mutations R214K/H241K/S246H/H347A into the beetle luciferase emit luminescence with emission maximum at 626 nm, 88-nm red-shift from the wild-type luciferase. This mutant luciferase is anticipated for application in in vivo multicolor imaging in living samples.

  5. Nutrient richness of wood mould in tree hollows with the Scarabaeid beetle Osmoderma eremita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jönsson, N.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Trunk hollows with wood mould habour a rich invertebrate fauna with many threatened species, and it has been suggested that the beetle Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea is a keystone species in this community. We estimated the amount of nitrogen and phosphorus in wood mould and compared the coarse fraction which constitutes frass of O. eremita with the finer fraction of wood mould, and found that the nutrient richness was higher in frass. O. eremita larvae have a fermentation chamber that harbours nitrogen fixing bacteria. As the levels of absorbable nitrogen are a limiting factor in insect growth, an increase in nutrient richness is one of several possible explanations why the species richness of saproxylic beetles is higher in hollow oaks where O. eremita is present in relation to similar trees where the beetle is absent

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and altered locomotor behavior in the carabid beetle pterostichus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte S.; Krause-Jensen, Lone; Baatrup, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The establishment of cause–effect relationships is fundamental for the interpretation and the predictive value of biomarker responses measured at all levels of biological complexity. In the present study, the biochemical exposure biomarker acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was related to...... locomotor behavior, representing a general effect biomarker at the organismal level. Both sexes of the carabid beetle Pterostichus cupreus were intoxicated with three doses of the organophosphorous insecticide dimethoate. Five elements of their locomotor behavior were measured for 4 h employing computer......-aided video tracking, whereupon the whole body AChE activity was measured in the individual beetle. AChE inhibition was strongly correlated with dimethoate dose in both sexes. Alterations in the locomotor behavior were directly correlated with AChE inhibition in male beetles, which responded by reducing the...

  7. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984–2010, fires killed trees that contained 5–11 Tg C year−1 and during 1997–2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2–24 Tg C year−1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5–10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States. (letter)

  8. Flight behavior of the rhinoceros beetle Trypoxylus dichotomus during electrical nerve stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuronal stimulation is an intricate part of understanding insect flight behavior and control insect itself. In this study, we investigated the effects of electrical pulses applied to the brain and basalar muscle of the rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus). To understand specific neuronal stimulation mechanisms, responses and flight behavior of the beetle, four electrodes were implanted into the two optic lobes, the brain's central complex and the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum. We demonstrated flight initiation, turning and cessation by stimulating the brain. The change undergone by the wing flapping in response to the electrical signal was analyzed from a sequence of images captured by a high-speed camera. Here, we provide evidence to distinguish the important differences between neuronal and muscular flight stimulations in beetles. We found that in the neural potential stimulation, both the hind wing and the elytron were suppressed. Interestingly, the beetle stopped flying whenever a stimulus potential was applied between the pronotum and one side of the optic lobe, or between the ventral nerve cord in the posterior pronotum and the central complex. In-depth experimentation demonstrated the effective of neural stimulation over muscle stimulation for flight control. During electrical stimulation of the optic lobes, the beetle performed unstable flight, resulting in alternating left and right turns. By applying the electrical signal into both the optic lobes and the central complex of the brain, we could precisely control the direction of the beetle flight. This work provides an insight into insect flight behavior for future development of insect-micro air vehicle. (paper)

  9. Brood ball-mediated transmission of microbiome members in the dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Estes

    Full Text Available Insects feeding on plant sap, blood, and other nutritionally incomplete diets are typically associated with mutualistic bacteria that supplement missing nutrients. Herbivorous mammal dung contains more than 86% cellulose and lacks amino acids essential for insect development and reproduction. Yet one of the most ecologically necessary and evolutionarily successful groups of beetles, the dung beetles (Scarabaeinae feeds primarily, or exclusively, on dung. These associations suggest that dung beetles may benefit from mutualistic bacteria that provide nutrients missing from dung. The nesting behaviors of the female parent and the feeding behaviors of the larvae suggest that a microbiome could be vertically transmitted from the parental female to her offspring through the brood ball. Using sterile rearing and a combination of molecular and culture-based techniques, we examine transmission of the microbiome in the bull-headed dung beetle, Onthophagus taurus. Beetles were reared on autoclaved dung and the microbiome was characterized across development. A ~1425 bp region of the 16S rRNA identified Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Comamonadaceae as the most common bacterial families across all life stages and populations, including cultured isolates from the 3(rd instar digestive system. Finer level phylotyping analyses based on lepA and gyrB amplicons of cultured isolates placed the isolates closest to Enterobacter cloacae, Providencia stuartii, Pusillimonas sp., Pedobacter heparinus, and Lysinibacillus sphaericus. Scanning electron micrographs of brood balls constructed from sterile dung reveals secretions and microbes only in the chamber the female prepares for the egg. The use of autoclaved dung for rearing, the presence of microbes in the brood ball and offspring, and identical 16S rRNA sequences in both parent and offspring suggests that the O. taurus female parent transmits specific microbiome members to her offspring through the brood

  10. Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata C. Campos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dung beetle assemblages (Coleoptera, Scarabaeinae in Atlantic forest fragments in southern Brazil. The beetles of the subfamily Scarabaeinae are important organisms that participate in the cycle of decomposition, especially in tropical ecosystems. Most species feed on feces (dung or carcasses (carrion and are associated with animals that produce their food resources. Dung beetles are divided into three functional groups: rollers, tunnelers and dwellers. This present work aims to study the diversity of dung beetle communities inhabiting fragments of the Atlantic Forest, with the purpose of describing the ecology of the species in southern Brazil. This study was conducted in the region of Campos Novos, in Santa Catarina, where twenty sites of Atlantic forest fragments were sampled. Samplings of dung beetles were conducted using 200 pitfall traps, of which 100 were baited with human feces and another 100 with carrion. Size and environmental complexity were also measured for each forest fragment. A total of 1,502 dung beetles, belonging to six tribes, 12 genera and 33 species, were collected. Results of the Levin's index of niche breadth indicated that 11 species were categorized as being coprophagous, ten as generalists, and two as necrophagous. Most species are tunnelers (19, nine of rollers and four of dwellers. The great diversity of Scarabaeinae in the region of Campos Novos, including several rare species, adds important data to the Scarabaeinae fauna in the central-western region of Santa Catarina. It may also help choosing priority areas for conservation in the region, where human impact, with large areas of monoculture, increasingly threatens the fragments of Mixed Ombrophilous Forest.

  11. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  12. A comparison of trap type and height for capturing cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Elizabeth E; Poland, Therese M; McCullough, Deborah G; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2012-06-01

    Wood-boring beetles in the family Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) play important roles in many forest ecosystems. However, increasing numbers of invasive cerambycid species are transported to new countries by global commerce and threaten forest health in the United States and worldwide. Our goal was to identify effective detection tools for a broad array of cerambycid species by testing some known cerambycid attractants and a pheromone in different trap designs placed across a range of habitats. We compared numbers and species richness of cerambycid beetles captured with cross-vane panel traps and 12-unit Lindgren multiple-funnel traps, placed either at ground level (1.5 m high) or canopy level (approximately 3-10 m high), at eight sites classified as either residential, industrial, deciduous forest, or conifer forest. We captured 3,723 beetles representing 72 cerambycid species from 10 June to 15 July 2010. Species richness was highest for the subfamilies Cerambycinae and Lamiinae, which accounted for 33 and 46% of all species captured, respectively. Overall, the cross-vane panel traps captured approximately 1.5 times more beetles than funnel traps. Twenty-one species were captured exclusively in traps at one height, either in the canopy or at ground level. More species were captured in hardwood sites (59 species) where a greater diversity of host material was available than in conifer (34 species), residential (41 species), or industrial (49) sites. Low numbers of beetles (n < 5) were recorded for 28 of the beetle species. The number of species captured per week ranged from 49 species on 21 June to 37 species on 12 July. Cross-vane panel traps installed across a vertical gradient should maximize the number of cerambycid species captured. PMID:22812119

  13. Carbon stocks of trees killed by bark beetles and wildfire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Meddens, Arjan J.H.; Allen, Craig D.; Kolden, Crystal A.

    2013-01-01

    Forests are major components of the carbon cycle, and disturbances are important influences of forest carbon. Our objective was to contribute to the understanding of forest carbon cycling by quantifying the amount of carbon in trees killed by two disturbance types, fires and bark beetles, in the western United States in recent decades. We combined existing spatial data sets of forest biomass, burn severity, and beetle-caused tree mortality to estimate the amount of aboveground and belowground carbon in killed trees across the region. We found that during 1984-2010, fires killed trees that contained 5-11 Tg C year-1 and during 1997-2010, beetles killed trees that contained 2-24 Tg C year-1, with more trees killed since 2000 than in earlier periods. Over their periods of record, amounts of carbon in trees killed by fires and by beetle outbreaks were similar, and together these disturbances killed trees representing 9% of the total tree carbon in western forests, a similar amount to harvesting. Fires killed more trees in lower-elevation forest types such as Douglas-fir than higher-elevation forest types, whereas bark beetle outbreaks also killed trees in higher-elevation forest types such as lodgepole pine and Engelmann spruce. Over 15% of the carbon in lodgepole pine and spruce/fir forest types was in trees killed by beetle outbreaks; other forest types had 5-10% of the carbon in killed trees. Our results document the importance of these natural disturbances in the carbon budget of the western United States.

  14. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Safford, Hugh D; North, Malcolm P; Fried, Jeremy S; Gray, Andrew N; Brown, Peter M; Dolanc, Christopher R; Dobrowski, Solomon Z; Falk, Donald A; Farris, Calvin A; Franklin, Jerry F; Fulé, Peter Z; Hagmann, R Keala; Knapp, Eric E; Miller, Jay D; Smith, Douglas F; Swetnam, Thomas W; Taylor, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  15. Whole System Carbon Exchange of Small Stands of Pinus Ponderosa Growing at Different CO(sub 2) concentrations in open top chambers; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional understanding of the carbon cycle from the molecular to the global level is a high scientific priority requiring explanation of the relationship between fluxes at different spatial and temporal scales. We describe methods used to convert an open top chamber into both closed and open flow gas exchange systems utilized to measure such fluxes. The systems described consist of temporary modifications to an open top chamber, and are put in place for several days on one or several open top chambers. In the closed system approach, a chamber is quickly sealed for a short, predetermined time interval, the change in gas concentrations is measured, then the chamber is unsealed and ventilated. In the open flow system approach, airflow into the open top chamber is measured by trace gas injection, and the air stream concentration of CO(sub 2) and water vapor is measured before and after injection into the chamber. The closed chamber approach can resolve smaller fluxes, but causes transient increases in chamber air temperature, and has a high labor requirement. The open flow approach reduces the deviation of measuring conditions from ambient, may be semi-automated (requiring less labor), allows a more frequent sampling interval, but cannot resolve low fluxes well. Data demonstrating the capabilities of these systems show that, in open canopies of ponderosa pine, scaling fluxes from leaves to whole canopies is well approximated from summation of leaf P(sub s) rates. Flux measurements obtained from these systems can be a valuable contribution to our understanding whole system material fluxes, and challenge our understanding of ecosystem carbon budgets

  16. Characterization of vegetation properties: Canopy modeling of pinyon-juniper and ponderosa pine woodlands; Final report. Modeling topographic influences on solar radiation: A manual for the SOLARFLUX model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, P.M.; Hetrick, W.A.; Saving, S.C.

    1994-12-31

    This report is comprised of two studies. The first study focuses on plant canopies in pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine woodland, and waste sites at Los Alamos National Laboratory which involved five basic areas of research: (1) application of hemispherical photography and other gap fraction techniques to study solar radiation regimes and canopy architecture, coupled with application of time-domain reflectometry to study soil moisture; (2) detailed characterization of canopy architecture using stand mapping and allometry; (3) development of an integrated geographical information system (GIS) database for relating canopy architecture with ecological, hydrological, and system modeling approaches; (4) development of geometric models that simulate complex sky obstruction, incoming solar radiation for complex topographic surfaces, and the coupling of incoming solar radiation with energy and water balance, with simulations of incoming solar radiation for selected native vegetation and experimental waste cover design sites; and (5) evaluation of the strengths and limitations of the various field sampling techniques. The second study describes an approach to develop software that takes advantage of new generation computers to model insolation on complex topographic surfaces. SOLARFLUX is a GIS-based (ARC/INFO, GRID) computer program that models incoming solar radiation based on surface orientation (slope and aspect), solar angle (azimuth and zenith) as it shifts over time, shadows caused by topographic features, and atmospheric conditions. This manual serves as the comprehensive guide to SOLARFLUX. Included are discussions on modelling insolation on complex surfaces, the theoretical approach, program setup and operation, and a set of applications illustrating characteristics of topographic insolation modelling.

  17. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens T Stevens

    Full Text Available Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the "stand age" variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1 the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2 recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical "mixed-severity" fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data.

  18. Average Stand Age from Forest Inventory Plots Does Not Describe Historical Fire Regimes in Ponderosa Pine and Mixed-Conifer Forests of Western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T.; Safford, Hugh D.; North, Malcolm P.; Fried, Jeremy S.; Gray, Andrew N.; Brown, Peter M.; Dolanc, Christopher R.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.; Falk, Donald A.; Farris, Calvin A.; Franklin, Jerry F.; Fulé, Peter Z.; Hagmann, R. Keala; Knapp, Eric E.; Miller, Jay D.; Smith, Douglas F.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Taylor, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying historical fire regimes provides important information for managing contemporary forests. Historical fire frequency and severity can be estimated using several methods; each method has strengths and weaknesses and presents challenges for interpretation and verification. Recent efforts to quantify the timing of historical high-severity fire events in forests of western North America have assumed that the “stand age” variable from the US Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program reflects the timing of historical high-severity (i.e. stand-replacing) fire in ponderosa pine and mixed-conifer forests. To test this assumption, we re-analyze the dataset used in a previous analysis, and compare information from fire history records with information from co-located FIA plots. We demonstrate that 1) the FIA stand age variable does not reflect the large range of individual tree ages in the FIA plots: older trees comprised more than 10% of pre-stand age basal area in 58% of plots analyzed and more than 30% of pre-stand age basal area in 32% of plots, and 2) recruitment events are not necessarily related to high-severity fire occurrence. Because the FIA stand age variable is estimated from a sample of tree ages within the tree size class containing a plurality of canopy trees in the plot, it does not necessarily include the oldest trees, especially in uneven-aged stands. Thus, the FIA stand age variable does not indicate whether the trees in the predominant size class established in response to severe fire, or established during the absence of fire. FIA stand age was not designed to measure the time since a stand-replacing disturbance. Quantification of historical “mixed-severity” fire regimes must be explicit about the spatial scale of high-severity fire effects, which is not possible using FIA stand age data. PMID:27196621

  19. [Behavioral mechanisms of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and ground beetles (Carabidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosheva, E A; Reznikova, Zh I

    2006-01-01

    Behavioral aspects of spatial competition between red wood ants (Formica aquilonia) and six mass species of Carabidae were studied in field and laboratory experiments. We showed that red wood ants essentially influence spatial distribution of ground beetles on their common territories. Transplantation experiments suggest that in newly established ants' settlements stronger forms of interrelations arise than in old stable colony. To examine the ability of beetles to avoid collisions with ants we used two experimental techniques. In laboratory, we tested carabids ability to avoid a clash in a Y-shaped labyrinth containing an active tethered ant in one section. In field experiments we compared quantitative characteristics of movements (such as crookedness of individual trajectories, speed of movement, the time spent on stops) for beetles placed close to ants foraging routes and on ant-free plots. All beetles studied displayed a clear tendency to learn, that is, to modity their behavior in order to avoid collisions with ants. Species that exhibited best parameters of learning were closer to ants by their size and characteristic movement, namely, Pterostichus oblogopunctatus and P. magus. Beetles' stereotyped behavioral tactics can be considered universal for avoiding collisions with any subject (for instance, with an ant) of a certain size and speed of movements. A set of tactics in the labyrinth included: (1) attempts to round the ant; (2) turns away after touching the ant with antennae; (3) turns away without a contact; (4) avoidances of a dangerous section; (5) stops near the ant with the antennae hidden. Comparing pairwise difference between four species shows that beetles use species-specific preference for definite combinations of tactics. Effective learning allows carabids to penetrate into ant foraging territory and partly avoide interference competition. It seems that red wood ants are not inclined to learn to avoid collisions with competing carabid species

  20. Beetle species diversity in the Lesser Antilles islands: How many species are really there?

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stewart B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive and intensive field work by the team of M. A. Ivie on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat suggests that a mean of 827 beetle species may be expected on that island. This datum makes possible the generation of hypotheses of the probable beetle species diversity on other islands of the Lesser Antilles as a function of the areas of the islands. Figures are given for the presently known, estimated total, and estimated number of unknown species for each principal island. Thi...

  1. Susceptibility of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), to insecticides and insect growth regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Kanga, Lambert; Somorin, Abisoye

    2011-01-01

    International audience The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, has become an important pest of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., in the USA. In this study, we assessed the susceptibility of this pest to 14 selected insecticides and four insect growth regulators (IGRs). The results indicated that the small hive beetle (SHB) was selectively susceptible to several classes of insecticides. The lethal concentration for 50% mortality (LC50) to adult SHBs was 0.53, 0.53, and 0.54 μg/vial for...

  2. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-01-01

    The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle,...

  3. Dung beetles use their dung ball as a mobile thermal refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Smolka, Jochen; Baird, Emily; Byrne, Marcus; el Jundi, Basil; Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2012-01-01

    At midday, surface temperatures in the desert often exceed 60°C. To be active at this time, animals need extraordinary behavioural or physiological adaptations. Desert ants, for instance, spend up to 75% of their foraging time cooling down on elevated thermal refuges such as grass stalks [1]. Ball-rolling dung beetles work under similar thermal conditions in South African savannahs. After landing at a fresh dung pile, a beetle quickly forms a dung ball and rolls it away in a straight line, he...

  4. A Red List of Italian Saproxylic Beetles: taxonomic overview, ecological features and conservation issues (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this review are: 1 the compilation and updating of a reference database for Italian saproxylic beetles, useful to assess the trend of their populations and communities in the next decades; 2 the identification of the major threats involving the known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 3 the evaluation of the extinction risk for all known Italian species of saproxylic beetles; 4 the or- ganization of an expert network for studying and continuous updating of all known species of saproxylic beetle species in Italy; 5 the creation of a baseline for future evaluations of the trends in biodiversity conservation in Italy; 6 the assignment of ecological categories to all the Italian saproxylic beetles, useful for the aims of future researches on their communities and on forest environments. The assess- ments of extinction risk are based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria and the most updated guidelines. The assessments have been carried out by experts covering different regions of Italy, and have been evaluated according to the IUCN standards. All the beetles whose larval biology is sufficiently well known as to be considered saproxylic have been included in the Red List, either the autochtho- nous species (native or possibly native to Italy or a few allochthonous species recently introduced or probably introduced to Italy in his- toric times. The entire national range of each saproxylic beetle species was evaluated, including large and small islands; for most species, the main parameters considered for evaluation were the extent of their geographical occurrence in Italy, and the number of known sites of presence. 2049 saproxylic beetle species (belonging to 66 families have been listed, assigned to a trophic category (Table 3 and 97% of them have been assessed. On the whole, threatened species (VU + EN + CR are 421 (Fig. 6, corresponding to 21 % of the 1988 as- sessed species; only two species are formally

  5. Influence of mating and age on susceptibility of the beetle Anoplophora glabripennis to the fungal pathogen Metarhizium brunneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joanna J; Hajek, Ann E

    2016-05-01

    The age and life history of an insect can influence its susceptibility to pathogens. Reproduction can be costly and may trade off with immunity while it is generally assumed that immunity will decrease with increasing age through a process called immunosenescence. Fungal pathogens are used as biological control agents for a variety of insect pests, and Metarhizium brunneum is being developed to control the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), an invasive wood-borer. Because adult female A. glabripennis take 1-2weeks to mature after eclosion and both sexes can be long-lived, we investigated how age and mating status would influence susceptibility of A. glabripennis to M. brunneum. Young (6.5day-old) unmated, mature (27-33day-old) mated and unmated, and old (57-71day-old) unmated and mated adults were inoculated with a lethal dose of M. brunneum. The presence of M. brunneum in the hemolymph was quantified and beetle mortality was monitored daily. There was a cost to reproduction for mated mature male and female beetles which died a median of 1.6-1.9days earlier than unmated beetles, while there was no effect of mating on susceptibility for old beetles. We found no evidence for immunosenescence in old beetles, as they did not die faster than young or mature beetles. Young unmated males however were more susceptible than mature or old unmated males, while there was no effect of age on susceptibility of unmated females. PMID:27103165

  6. The incidence and use of Oryctes virus for control of rhinoceros beetle in oil palm plantations in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramle, M; Wahid, M B; Norman, K; Glare, T R; Jackson, T A

    2005-05-01

    The rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, has emerged as a serious pest of oil palm since the prohibition of burning as a method for maintaining estate hygiene in the 1990s. The abundance of beetles is surprising given that the Malay peninsula was the site of first discovery of the Oryctes virus, which has been used to effect good as a biological control agent in other regions. A survey of adult beetles was carried out throughout Malaysia using pheromone traps. Captured beetles were examined for presence of virus using both visual/microscopic examination and PCR detection methods. The survey indicated that Oryctes virus was common in Malaysia among the adult beetles. Viral DNA analysis was carried out after restriction with HindIII enzyme and indicated at least three distinct viral genotypes. Bioassays were used to compare the viral strains and demonstrate that one strain (type B) is the most virulent against both larvae and adults of the beetle. Virus type B has been cultured and released into healthy populations where another strain (type A) forms the natural background. Capture and examination of beetles from the release site and surrounding area has shown that the spread and persistence of the applied virus strain is accompanied by a reduction in palm frond damage. PMID:16039309

  7. Predisposition to bark beetle attack by root herbivores and associated pathogens: Roles in forest decline, gap formation, and persistence of endemic bark beetle populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aukema, Brian H.; Zhu, Jun; Møller, Jesper;

    2010-01-01

    , however, due to the requirement of long-term monitoring and high degrees of spatial and temporal covariance. We censused more than 2700 trees annually over 7 years, and at the end of 17 years, in a mature red pine plantation. Trees were measured for the presence of bark beetles and wood borers that breed....... This interaction results in an expanding forest gap, with subsequent colonization by early-successional vegetation. Spatial position strongly affects the likelihood of tree mortality. A red pine is initially very likely to avoid attack by tree-killing Ips beetles, but attack becomes increasingly likely...... as the belowground complex spreads to neighboring trees and eventually make trees susceptible. This system is largely internally driven, as there are strong gap edge, but not stand-edge, effects. Additional stressors, such as drought, can provide an intermittent source of susceptible trees to Ips...

  8. Hit-and-run trophallaxis of small hive beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Peter; Naef, Jan; Crailsheim, Karl; Crewe, Robin M; Pirk, Christian W W

    2015-12-01

    Some parasites of social insects are able to exploit the exchange of food between nestmates via trophallaxis, because they are chemically disguised as nestmates. However, a few parasites succeed in trophallactic solicitation although they are attacked by workers. The underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The small hive beetle (=SHB), Aethina tumida, is such a parasite of honey bee, Apis mellifera, colonies and is able to induce trophallaxis. Here, we investigate whether SHB trophallactic solicitation is innate and affected by sex and experience. We quantified characteristics of the trophallactic solicitation in SHBs from laboratory-reared individuals that were either bee-naïve or had 5 days experience. The data clearly show that SHB trophallactic solicitation is innate and further suggest that it can be influenced by both experience and sex. Inexperienced SHB males begged more often than any of the other groups had longer breaks than their experienced counterparts and a longer soliciting duration than both experienced SHB males and females, suggesting that they start rather slowly and gain more from experience. Successful experienced females and males were not significantly different from each other in relation to successful trophallactic interactions, but had a significantly shorter soliciting duration compared to all other groups, except successful inexperienced females. Trophallactic solicitation success, feeding duration and begging duration were not significantly affected by either SHB sex or experience, supporting the notion that these behaviors are important for survival in host colonies. Overall, success seems to be governed by quality rather than quantity of interactions, thereby probably limiting both SHB energy investment and chance of injury (<1%). Trophallactic solicitation by SHBs is a singular example for an alternative strategy to exploit insect societies without requiring chemical disguise. Hit-and-run trophallaxis is an attractive test

  9. First occurrence of western corn root worm beetles in the federal states Hesse and Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicke, Dominik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, western corn root worm beetles were detected in the federal states Hesse (Groß-Gerau and Rhineland-Palatinate (Bodenheim for the first time. Control measures based on commission decision 2003/766/EG (Byrne, 2003 were conducted after detection in PAL-traps. Focus and safety zones were established. In Hesse, both focus and safety zones were treated with the insecticide Biscaya, due to the high number of 50 beetles which were detected in the PAL-traps. Since in Rhineland-Palatinate, only one beetle had been captured, only the focus zone was treated with the insecticide. After insecticide treatment, new PAL-traps were arranged like a close grid over the infested areas in both federal states. In each maize field in the focus- and safety zone further traps were placed and checked weekly until September 30th by supporting staff. Until the end of the monitoring in 2011 (September 30th further beetles were detected in the south of the area (district of Groß-Gerau, Hesse, were the first infestation had been discovered. However, in Rhineland-Palatinate no further beetles were detected that year. By the end of the monitoring 354 beetles in Hesse and one beetle in Rhineland-Palatinate had been captured in total. Subsequently the demarked zones in Hesse were extended. Taking into account the local circumstances, the new focus zone was delimited to include all the areas where beetles had been detected as well as the surrounding maize fields. In the focus zones the cultivation of maize was forbidden for the consecutive two years and a crop rotation with at least 50 percent maize was established in the safety zones. In 2012 no further beetles were captured in the infested region.

  10. Temporal Dynamics of Corn Flea Beetle Populations Infested with Pantoea stewartii, Causal Agent of Stewart's Disease of Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esker, P D; Nutter, F W

    2003-02-01

    ABSTRACT In order to better understand the epidemiology of the Stewart's disease of corn pathosystem, quantitative information concerning the temporal dynamics of the amount of pathogen inoculum present in the form of Pantoea stewartii-infested corn flea beetles (Chaetocnema pulicaria) is needed. Temporal changes in the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetle populations were monitored by testing individual corn flea beetles for the presence of P. stewartii using a peroxidase-labeled, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Approximately 90 corn flea beetles were collected each week from seven locations in Iowa from September 1998 through October 2000 using sweep nets. The proportion of P. stewartii-infested beetles at the end of the 1998 growing season ranged from 0.04 to 0.19. In spring 1999, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.10 to 0.11 and did not differ significantly from the previous fall based on chi(2). During the 1999 corn-growing season, the proportion of infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.04 to 0.86, with the highest proportions occurring in August. In fall 1999, the proportion of beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.20 to 0.77. In spring 2000, the proportion of overwintering adult corn flea beetles infested with P. stewartii ranged from 0.08 to 0.30; these proportions were significantly lower than the proportions observed in fall 1999 at Ames, Chariton, and Nashua. During the 2000 corn-growing season, the proportion of P. stewartii-infested corn flea beetles ranged from 0.08 to 0.53, and the highest observed proportions again occurred in August. Corn flea beetle populations sampled in late fall 2000 had proportions of infested beetles ranging from 0.08 to 0.20. This is the first study to quantify the temporal population dynamics of P. stewartii-infested C. pulicaria populations in hybrid corn and provides new quantitative information that should be useful in

  11. Functional response and numerical response of great spotted woodpecker Picoides major on Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis larvae

    OpenAIRE

    JIAO Zhen-Biao; Wan, Tao; Wen, Jun-Bao; HU Jia-Fu; Luo, You-Qing; ZHANG Lin-Sheng; FU Lin-Ju

    2008-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is a wood-boring beetle that, upon severe outbreaks, causes great damage in the artificial shelter-forest of the Three-Northern Areas. The Great Spotted Woodpecker Picoides major is one of the natural predators of A.glabripennis. P.major is also a common species in Wulate Qianqi of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region and is widely distributed in the artificial shelter-forest. The wood-boring beetle is an important food source of P.major, e...

  12. Association of Geosmithia fungi (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) with pine- and spruce-infesting bark beetles in Poland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankowiak, R.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Bilanski,, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, OCT 2014 (2014), s. 71-79. ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/11/2302 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Insect-fungus interactions * Bark beetles * Ectosymbiosis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.929, year: 2014

  13. Characterization of two closely related α-amylase paralogs in the bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Viktorinová, I.; Kučerová, Lucie; Böhmová, Marta; Henry, I.; Jindra, Marek; Doležal, Petr; Žurovcová, Martina; Žurovec, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2011), s. 179-198. ISSN 0739-4462 EU Projects: European Commission(CZ) FP7/2007-2013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : bark beetle * intron polymorphism * α-amylase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.361, year: 2011

  14. Management of Yellowmargined Leaf Beetle Microtheca ochroloma (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Using Turnip as a Trap Crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balusu, Rammohan; Rhodes, Elena; Liburd, Oscar; Fadamiro, Henry

    2015-12-01

    The yellowmargined leaf beetle, Microtheca ochroloma Stål, is a major pest of cruciferous vegetable crops in organic production systems. Very few organically acceptable management options are currently available for this pest. Field studies were conducted at a research station in Alabama and at a commercial organic vegetable farm in Florida to investigate the effectiveness of turnip, Brassica rapa rapa, as a trap crop for M. ochroloma. In the research station trial with cabbage planted as the cash crop, perimeter planting of turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced beetle numbers and crop damage below levels recorded in the control. During the first season of our on-farm trial, with napa cabbage and mustard as the cash crops, using turnip as a trap crop effectively reduced both beetle numbers and cash crop damage below levels found in the control plots, but economic damage was still high. In the second season, beetle populations were too low for significant differences in damage levels to occur between the trap crop and control plots. Together, these results suggest that turnip planted as a trap crop can be an effective control tactic for cruciferous crops, like cabbage, that are much less attractive to M. ochroloma than turnip. In crops, like mustard and napa cabbage, that are equally or only slightly less attractive than turnip, planting turnip as a trap crop would have to be used in combination with other tactics to manage M. ochroloma. PMID:26470380

  15. Investigation of the enzyme system of detoxification of insecticides in the Colorado beetle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity of three enzymes systems of xenobiotic metabolism - cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases, nonspecific esterases, and glutathione S-transferases - was investigated at various stages of the development of the Colorado beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. Substantial sex and ontogenetic differences in the content of cytochrome P-450, the position of the maxima of the CO-differential spectra of its reduced form, and the substrate specificity of cytochrome P-450 were demonstrated. An increase in the activity of nonspecific esterases with increasing age of Colorado beetle larvae was observed. The insecticide 1-naphtholenol methylcarbamate, which is metabolized by the system of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases, is more toxic at the larval stage of development in comparison with the imaginal stage, which is in good agreement with the activity of this system at different stages of development. The inhibitor of microsomal monooxygenases piperonyl butoxide more than doubles the toxicity of the insecticide in the Colorado beetle imago. The data presented are evidence of a different contribution of the systems of detoxification to the sensitivity of the Colorado beetle to insecticides at different stages of metamorphosis

  16. Low doses of ivermectin cause sensory and locomotor disorders in dung beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdú, José R.; Cortez, Vieyle; Ortiz, Antonio J.; González-Rodríguez, Estela; Martinez-Pinna, Juan; Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Lobo, Jorge M.; Numa, Catherine; Sánchez-Piñero, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Ivermectin is a veterinary pharmaceutical generally used to control the ecto- and endoparasites of livestock, but its use has resulted in adverse effects on coprophilous insects, causing population decline and biodiversity loss. There is currently no information regarding the direct effects of ivermectin on dung beetle physiology and behaviour. Here, based on electroantennography and spontaneous muscle force tests, we show sub-lethal disorders caused by ivermectin in sensory and locomotor systems of Scarabaeus cicatricosus, a key dung beetle species in Mediterranean ecosystems. Our findings show that ivermectin decreases the olfactory and locomotor capacity of dung beetles, preventing them from performing basic biological activities. These effects are observed at concentrations lower than those usually measured in the dung of treated livestock. Taking into account that ivermectin acts on both glutamate-gated and GABA-gated chloride ion channels of nerve and muscle cells, we predict that ivermectin’s effects at the physiological level could influence many members of the dung pat community. The results indicate that the decline of dung beetle populations could be related to the harmful effects of chemical contamination in the dung.

  17. 75 FR 81832 - Asian Longhorned Beetle; Quarantined Area and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., 2010, we are adopting as a final rule the interim rule published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010... (75 FR 34320-34322, Docket No. APHIS-2010- 0004), we amended the Asian longhorned beetle regulations... that was published at 75 FR 34320-34322 on June 17, 2010. Done in Washington, DC on December 22,...

  18. Atomic force microscopy study of nano-physiological response of ladybird beetles to photostimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V Guz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insects are of interest not only as the most numerous and diverse group of animals but also as highly efficient bio-machines varying greatly in size. They are the main human competitors for crop, can transmit various diseases, etc. However, little study of insects with modern nanotechnology tools has been done. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we applied an atomic force microscopy (AFM method to study stimulation of ladybird beetles with light. This method allows for measuring of the internal physiological responses of insects by recording surface oscillations in different parts of the insect at sub-nanometer amplitude level and sub-millisecond time. Specifically, we studied the sensitivity of ladybird beetles to light of different wavelengths. We demonstrated previously unknown blindness of ladybird beetles to emerald color (∼500nm light, while being able to see UV-blue and green light. Furthermore, we showed how one could study the speed of the beetle adaptation to repetitive flashing light and its relaxation back to the initial stage. CONCLUSIONS: The results show the potential of the method in studying insects. We see this research as a part of what might be a new emerging area of "nanophysiology" of insects.

  19. Side effects of kaolin particle films on apple orchard bug, beetle and spider communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marko, V.; Bogya, S.; Kondorosy, E.; Blommers, L.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film on apple orchard bug (Heteroptera), beetle (Coleoptera) and spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied in the Netherlands. Insecticide-free orchard plots served as a control. The kaolin applications significantly reduced the abu

  20. Characterization of a Pantoea stewartii TTSS gene required for persistence in its flea beetle vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart's bacterial wilt of maize is caused by Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii (Pnss), a bacterium that is transmitted by the flea beetle, Chaetocnema pulicaria. Few studies have focused on the molecular basis of the interactions of Pnss with its vector. Genome analyses indicated that Pnss carri...

  1. Age and aggregation trigger mating behaviour in the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Sandra G.; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Duncan, Michael; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Steidle, Johannes L. M.; Rosenkranz, Peter

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the poorly documented reproductive behaviour of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida (Nitidulidae), a honey bee ( Apis mellifera) parasite. We described the mating behaviour in detail and tested the hypothesis that beetle aggregation plays a vital role in mating in this species. Gender preference was examined in the context of age-dependency and possible chemical communication. Beetles started mating at a high frequency 18 days after emergence from the soil but only if they were aggregated ( p sex ( p sex ( p < 0.01). This suggests that chemical substances produced by the beetles themselves play a role in mating. Mating behaviour was characterised by a short pre-copulation courtship and female aggression towards other females and copulating couples. Both behaviours may be indicative of cryptic female choice. Delayed onset of reproductive behaviour is typical of many polygamous species, whilst the indispensability of aggregation for onset of sexual behaviour seems to be a feature unique to A. tumida. Both strategies support mass reproduction in this parasitic species, enabling A. tumida to overcome its honey bee host colony, and are probably triggered by chemotactic cues.

  2. Spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) infestation and Norway spruce status: is there a causal relationship?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, Ivo; Cudlín, Pavel; Polák, T.; Havlíček, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 8, - (2002), s. 255-264. ISSN 1211-7420 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 389 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * crown status * Picea abies Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  3. ALKANES, METHYLALKANES, ALKENES AND ALKADIENES OF ADULT FLEA BEETLES, APHTHONA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The adult beetles, Aphthona lacertosa and Aphthona nigriscutis, used as biocontrol agents for leafy spurge, had a complex mixture of hydrocarbons on their cuticular surface consisting of alkanes, methylalkanes, alkenes and alkadienes as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A trace ...

  4. A Dung Beetle-like Leg and its Adaptive Neural Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Canio, Giuliano; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Larsen, Jørgen Christian;

    2016-01-01

    Dung beetles show fascinating locomotion abilities. They can use their legs to not only walk but also manipulate objects. Furthermore, they can perform their leg movements at a proper frequency with respect to their biomechanical properties and quickly adapt the movements to deal with external pe...

  5. A New foodweb based on microbes in calcitic caves: The Cansiliella (Beetles) case in Northern Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Paoletti Maurizio G.; Beggio Mattia; Dreon Angelo Leandro; Pamio Alberto; Gomiero Tiziano; Brilli Mauro; Dorigo Luca; Concheri Giuseppe; Squartini Andrea; Summers Engel Annette

    2011-01-01

    The troglobitic beetle, Cansiliella servadeii (Leptodirini), has specialized mouthparts modified for browsing and feeding under percolating water on moonmilk, a speleothem formation in Grotta della Foos, Italy. Results from analyses of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen suggest thatacquires and assimilates dissolved allochthonous organic carbon, inorganic nitrogen, and possibly phosphorus and other nutrients from the microbial fauna associated with moonmilk.

  6. Response of soil chemistry to forest dieback after bark beetle infestation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaňa, Jiří; Tahovská, K.; Kopáček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 113, 1-3 (2013), s. 369-383. ISSN 0168-2563 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB600960907 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : bark beetle infestation * soil nutrient availability * soil sorption complex Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2013

  7. Beetles and the decline of the Old Kingdom: climate change in ancient Egypt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bárta, M.; Bezděk, Aleš

    Praha : Czech Institute of Egyptology , Faculty of Arts, Charles University, 2008 - (Vymazalová, H.; Bárta, M.), s. 214-222 ISBN 978-80-7308-245-1 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS500070505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Beetles * Egypt * archaeology Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  8. Hybrid engineered materials with high water-collecting efficiency inspired by Namib Desert beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hai; Guo, Zhiguang

    2016-05-21

    Inspired by Namib Desert beetles, a hybrid superhydrophobic surface was fabricated, showing highly efficient fog harvesting with a water collection rate (WCR) of 1309.9 mg h(-1) cm(-2). And, the surface possessed an excellent robustness and self-cleaning property. PMID:27125658

  9. Seasonal activity of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, as estimated by baited flight traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal variation in flight activity of the small hive beetle was monitored at two sites in north-central Florida, one near colonies of the European honeybee and the other far removed from bee colonies. Activity was monitored by flight traps baited with fermenting pollen dough that had been inocul...

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the desert darkling beetle Asbolus verrucosus (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, Stanley Dean

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the desert darkling beetle Asbolus verrucosus (LeConte, 1851) was sequenced using paired-end technology to an average depth of 42,111× and assembled using De Bruijn graph-based methods. The genome is 15,828 bp in length and conforms to the basal arthropod mitochondrial gene composition with the same gene orders and orientations as other darkling beetle mitochondria. This arrangement includes a control region, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes. The main coding strand is probably replicated as the lagging strand (GC skew of -0.36 and AT skew of +0.19). Phylogenomics analyses are consistent with taxonomic classifications and indicate that Tenebrio molitor is the closest relative that has a completely sequenced mitochondrial genome available for analysis. This is the first fully assembled mitogenome sequence for a darkling beetle in the subfamily Pimeliinae and will be useful for population studies on members of this ecologically important group of beetles. PMID:26016880

  11. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  12. Investigation of acoustic sensors to detect coconut rhinoceros beetle in Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coconut rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros, was accidentally introduced into Guam last year and now threatens the Island’s forests and tourist industry. These large insects can be detected easily with acoustic sensors, and procedures are being developed to incorporate acoustic technology int...

  13. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.

  14. Are bark beetles chewing up our forests? What about our coffee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    A write-up for the Elsevier SciTech Connect blog on the recently published book entitled "Bark Beetles: Biology and Ecology of Native and Invasive Species," edited by Fernando E. Vega and Richard W. Hofstetter. The book was published by Academic Press in January 2015....

  15. Stenusine, an antimicrobial agent in the rove beetle genus Stenus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms. PMID:18392795

  16. Survival of Campylobacter spp. in Darkling Beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and Their Larvae in Australia▿

    OpenAIRE

    Templeton, Jillian M.; De Jong, Amanda J.; Blackall, P. J.; Miflin, Jeanette K.

    2006-01-01

    Campylobacter infection is the most frequently reported notifiable food-borne disease in humans in Australia. Our studies investigated the persistence of Campylobacter spp. in or on darkling beetles (Alphitobius diaperinus) and their larvae. Our results in analyses with chickens confirm that, unless very short turnaround times are used (

  17. Ice age climate, evolutionary constraints and diversity patterns of European dung beetles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hortal, Joaquín; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre F.; Bini, Luis Mauricio;

    2011-01-01

    Current climate and Pleistocene climatic changes are both known to be associated with geographical patterns of diversity. We assess their associations with the European Scarabaeinae dung beetles, a group with high dispersal ability and well-known adaptations to warm environments. By assessing spa...

  18. Evolution of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporini, Bidessini) in the arid zone of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Remko; Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steve J B; Humphreys, William F

    2003-12-01

    Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification. PMID:14761060

  19. Comparison of ambrosia beetle communities in two host with laurel wilt: swampbay vs. avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invasive redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest first detected in 2002 near Savannah, Georgia. The beetle’s dominant fungal symbiont, Raffaelea lauricola, is the pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal disease of tre...

  20. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  1. Sex, offspring and carcass determine antimicrobial peptide expression in the burying beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Chris G C; Steiger, Sandra; Heckel, David G; Wielsch, Natalie; Vilcinskas, Andreas; Vogel, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    The burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides has emerged as a model system for the investigation of adaptations that allow the utilization of carrion as a diet and as a resource for reproduction. The survival of beetles and their offspring given their exposure to soil-dwelling and cadaver-borne microbes requires mechanisms that reduce bacterial contamination in the diet and that achieve sanitation of the microhabitat. To explore the role of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in this context, we analyzed burying beetle males and females at different stages of their breeding cycle using the RNA-Seq and proteomics approaches. To address variation in immune functions, we investigated the impact of adult sex, the presence or absence of offspring (social context), and the presence of carrion (environmental context) on the expression of the identified immune effector genes. We found that particular AMPs are sex-specific and tightly regulated by the presence of a carcass or offspring and identified the two most context-dependent antimicrobial proteins in anal secretions. The context-specific expression dynamics of particular AMPs and lysozymes reveals a complex regulatory system, reflecting adaptations to specific ecological niches. This study highlights how burying beetles cope with microorganisms found on carrion and identifies candidates for both internal and external immunity. PMID:27139635

  2. Ground beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae) assemblages in the Conservation Reserve Program crop rotation systems in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...

  3. Larval dermestid beetles feeding on nestling snail kites, wood storks, and great blue herons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Ogden, J.C.; Bittner, J.D.; Grau, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    In recent years abdominal lesions attributable to larval dermestid beetles (Dermestes nidum) have appeared in nestling Snail (Everglade) Kites (Rostrhamus sociabilis), Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias). Although it appears that most nestlings affected have survived, the degree of threat posed by dermestid larvae to various avian species is as yet unclear.

  4. A Rare Excitatory Amino Acid from Flowers of Zonal Geranium responsible for Paralyzing the Japanese Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Japanese beetle (Popillia japonica) exhibits rapid paralysis after consuming flowers from zonal geranium (Pelargonium × hortorum). Activity-guided fractionations were conducted with polar flower petal extracts from Pelargonium × hortorum cv. Nittany Lion Red, which led to the isolation of a paraly...

  5. Elevational Distribution of Flightless Ground Beetles in the Tropical Rainforests of North-Eastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Kyran M.; Nakamura, Akihiro; Burwell, Chris J.; Robson, Simon K. A.; Williams, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how the environment influences patterns of diversity is vital for effective conservation management, especially in a changing global climate. While assemblage structure and species richness patterns are often correlated with current environmental factors, historical influences may also be considerable, especially for taxa with poor dispersal abilities. Mountain-top regions throughout tropical rainforests can act as important refugia for taxa characterised by low dispersal capacities such as flightless ground beetles (Carabidae), an ecologically significant predatory group. We surveyed flightless ground beetles along elevational gradients in five different subregions within the Australian Wet Tropics World Heritage Area to investigate (1) whether the diversity and composition of flightless ground beetles are elevationally stratified, and, if so, (2) what environmental factors (other than elevation per se) are associated with these patterns. Generalised linear models and model averaging techniques were used to relate patterns of diversity to environmental factors. Unlike most taxonomic groups, flightless ground beetles increased in species richness and abundance with elevation. Additionally, each subregion consisted of relatively distinct assemblages containing a high level of regional endemic species. Species richness was most strongly and positively associated with historical and current climatic stabilities and negatively associated with severity of recent disturbance (treefalls). Assemblage composition was associated with latitude and historical and current climatic conditions. Although the results need to be interpreted carefully due to inter-correlation between historical and current climatic variables, our study is in agreement with the hypothesis that upland refugia provided stable climatic conditions since the last glacial maximum, and supported a diverse fauna of flightless beetle species. These findings are important for conservation

  6. Dung Beetles along a Tropical Altitudinal Gradient: Environmental Filtering on Taxonomic and Functional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cássio Alencar; Braga, Rodrigo Fagundes; Figueira, José Eugênio Cortes; Neves, Frederico de Siqueira; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Mountains provide an interesting context in which to study the many facets of biodiversity in response to macroclimate, since environmental conditions change rapidly due to elevation. Although the decrease in biodiversity with increasing elevation is generally accepted, our understanding of the variation of functional diversity along altitudinal gradients is still poorly known. The partitioning of diversity into spatial components can help to understand the processes that influence the distribution of species, and these studies are urgently needed in face of the increasing threats to mountain environments throughout the world. We describe the distribution of dung beetle diversity along an altitudinal gradient on a tropical mountain in southeastern Brazil, including the spatial partitioning of taxonomic and functional diversities. The altitudinal gradient ranged from 800 up to 1400 m a.s.l. and we collected dung beetles at every 100 m of altitude. We used the Rao Index to calculate γ, α and β diversity for taxonomic and functional diversity of dung beetles. Climatic, soil and vegetation variables were used to explain variation in community attributes along the altitudinal gradient. Dung beetle richness declined with altitude and was related to climatic and vegetation variables, but functional diversity did not follow the same pattern. Over 50% of γ taxonomic diversity was caused by among altitudes diversity (β), while almost 100% of functional diversity was due to the α component. Contrasting β taxonomic with β functional diversity, we suggest that there is ecological redundancy among communities and that the environment is filtering species in terms of the Grinnellian niche, rather than the Eltonian niche. β taxonomic diversity is caused mainly by the turnover component, reinforcing the hypothesis of environmental filtering. Global warming may have strong effects on mountain communities due to upslope range shifts and extinctions, and these events will

  7. Negative impacts of human land use on dung beetle functional diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragán, Felipe; Moreno, Claudia E; Escobar, Federico; Halffter, Gonzalo; Navarrete, Dario

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity caused by human activity is assumed to alter ecosystem functioning. However our understanding of the magnitude of the effect of these changes on functional diversity and their impact on the dynamics of ecological processes is still limited. We analyzed the functional diversity of copro-necrophagous beetles under different conditions of land use in three Mexican biosphere reserves. In Montes Azules pastures, forest fragments and continuous rainforest were analyzed, in Los Tuxtlas rainforest fragments of different sizes were analyzed and in Barranca de Metztitlán two types of xerophile scrub with different degrees of disturbance from grazing were analyzed. We assigned dung beetle species to functional groups based on food relocation, beetle size, daily activity period and food preferences, and as measures of functional diversity we used estimates based on multivariate methods. In Montes Azules functional richness was lower in the pastures than in continuous rainforest and rainforest fragments, but fragments and continuous forest include functionally redundant species. In small rainforest fragments (Tuxtlas, dung beetle functional richness was lower than in large rainforest fragments (>20 ha). Functional evenness and functional dispersion did not vary among habitat types or fragment size in these reserves. In contrast, in Metztitlán, functional richness and functional dispersion were different among the vegetation types, but differences were not related to the degree of disturbance by grazing. More redundant species were found in submontane than in crassicaule scrub. For the first time, a decrease in the functional diversity in communities of copro-necrophagous beetles resulting from changes in land use is documented, the potential implications for ecosystem functioning are discussed and a series of variables that could improve the evaluation of functional diversity for this biological group is proposed. PMID:21448292

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  9. Metal fate and partitioning in soils under bark beetle-killed trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearup, Lindsay A; Mikkelson, Kristin M; Wiley, Joseph F; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; Maxwell, Reed M; Sharp, Jonathan O; McCray, John E

    2014-10-15

    Recent mountain pine beetle infestation in the Rocky Mountains of North America has killed an unprecedented acreage of pine forest, creating an opportunity to observe an active re-equilibration in response to widespread land cover perturbation. This work investigates metal mobility in beetle-impacted forests using parallel rainwater and acid leaches to estimate solid-liquid partitioning coefficients and a complete sequential extraction procedure to determine how metals are fractionated in soils under trees experiencing different phases of mortality. Geochemical model simulations analyzed in consideration with experimental data provide additional insight into the mechanisms controlling metal complexation. Metal and base-cation mobility consistently increased in soils under beetle-attacked trees relative to soil under healthy trees. Mobility increases were more pronounced on south facing slopes and more strongly correlated to pH under attacked trees than under healthy trees. Similarly, soil moisture was significantly higher under dead trees, related to the loss of transpiration and interception. Zinc and cadmium content increased in soils under dead trees relative to living trees. Cadmium increases occurred predominantly in the exchangeable fraction, indicating increased mobilization potential. Relative increases of zinc were greatest in the organic fraction, the only fraction where increases in copper were observed. Model results reveal that increased organic complexation, not changes in pH or base cation concentrations, can explain the observed differences in metal partitioning for zinc, nickel, cadmium, and copper. Predicted concentrations would be unlikely to impair human health or plant growth at these sites; however, higher exchangeable metals under beetle-killed trees relative to healthy trees suggest a possible decline in riverine ecosystem health and water quality in areas already approaching criteria limits and drinking water standards. Impairment of water

  10. Genetic Structure of Water Chestnut Beetle: Providing Evidence for Origin of Water Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jing; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Water chestnut beetle (Galerucella birmanica Jacoby) is a pest of the water chestnut (Trapa natans L.). To analyze the phylogeny and biogeography of the beetle and provide evidence for the origin of T. natans in China, we conducted this by using three mitochondrial genes (COI, COII and Cytb) and nuclear ITS2 ribosomal DNA of G. birmanica. As for mtDNA genes, the beetle could be subdivided into three groups: northeastern China (NEC), central-northern-southern China (CC-NC-SC) and southwestern China (SWC) based on SAMOVA, phylogenetic analyses and haplotype networks. But for ITS2, no obvious lineages were obtained but individuals which were from NEC region clustered into one clade, which might be due to sequence conservation of ITS2. Significant genetic variation was observed among the three groups with infrequent gene flow between groups, which may have been restricted due to natural barriers and events in the Late Pleistocene. Based on our analyses of genetic variation in the CC-NC-SC geographical region, the star-like haplotype networks, approximate Bayesian computation, niche modelling and phylogeographic variation of the beetle, we concluded that the beetle population has been lasting in the lower, central reaches of the Yangtze River Basin with its host plant, water chestnut, which is consistent with archaeological records. Moreover, we speculate that the CC-NC-SC population of G. birmanica may have undergone a period of expansion coincident with domestication of the water chestnut approximately 113,900–126,500 years ago. PMID:27459279

  11. Changes in metal mobility associated with bark beetle-induced tree mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelson, Kristin M; Bearup, Lindsay A; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis K; McCray, John E; Sharp, Jonathan O

    2014-05-01

    Recent large-scale beetle infestations have caused extensive mortality to conifer forests resulting in alterations to dissolved organic carbon (DOC) cycling, which in turn can impact metal mobility through complexation. This study analyzed soil-water samples beneath impacted trees in concert with laboratory flow-through soil column experiments to explore possible impacts of the bark beetle infestation on metal release and transport. The columns mimicked field conditions by introducing pine needle leachate and artificial rainwater through duplicate homogenized soil columns and measuring effluent metal (focusing on Al, Cu, and Zn) and DOC concentrations. All three metals were consistently found in higher concentrations in the effluent of columns receiving pine needle leachate. In both the field and laboratory, aluminum mobility was largely correlated with the hydrophobic fraction of the DOC, while copper had the largest correlation with total DOC concentrations. Geochemical speciation modeling supported the presence of DOC-metal complexes in column experiments. Copper soil water concentrations in field samples supported laboratory column results, as they were almost twice as high under grey phase trees than under red phase trees further signifying the importance of needle drop. Pine needle leachate contained high concentrations of Zn (0.1 mg l(-1)), which led to high effluent zinc concentrations and sorption of zinc to the soil matrix representing a future potential source for release. In support, field soil-water samples underneath beetle-impacted trees where the needles had recently fallen contained approximately 50% more zinc as samples from under beetle-impacted trees that still held their needles. The high concentrations of carbon in the pine needle leachate also led to increased sorption in the soil matrix creating the potential for subsequent carbon release. While unclear if manifested in adjacent surface waters, these results demonstrate an increased

  12. Diversity of beetle genes encoding novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; Ffrench-Constant, Richard H

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent "disappearance" of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

  13. Semi-continuous measurements of gas/particle partitioning of organic acids in a ponderosa pine forest using a MOVI-HRToF-CIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. N. Yatavelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of gas and particle phase organic acids were measured in a rural ponderosa pine forest in Colorado, USA, during the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen – Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (BEACHON-RoMBAS. A recently developed Micro-Orifice Volatilization Impactor High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS using acetate (CH3C(OO- as the reagent ion was used to selectively ionize and detect acids semi-continuously from 20–30 August 2011, with a measurement time resolution of ~1.5 h. At this site 98% of the organic acid mass is estimated to be in the gas-phase, with only ~2% in the particle phase. We investigated gas/particle partitioning, quantified as the fraction in the particle phase (Fp, of C1–C18 alkanoic acids, six known terpenoic acids and total bulk organic acids. Data were compared to the absorptive partitioning model and suggest that bulk organic acids at this site follow absorptive partitioning to the organic aerosol mass. The rapid response (<1–2 h of partitioning to temperature changes for bulk acids suggests that kinetic limitations to equilibrium are minor, which is in contrast to conclusions of some recent laboratory and field studies, possibly due to lack of very low ambient relative humidities at this site. Time trends for partitioning of individual and groups of acids were mostly captured by the model, with varying degrees of absolute agreement. Species with predicted substantial fractions in both the gas and particle phases show better absolute agreement, while species with very low predicted fractions in one phase often show agreement on trends, but poor absolute agreement, potentially due to thermal decomposition, inlet adsorption, or other issues. Based on measurement-model comparison we conclude that species carbon number and oxygen content, together with ambient temperature control the volatility of organic

  14. Combining state-and-transition simulations and species distribution models to anticipate the effects of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Miller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available State-and-transition simulation models (STSMs are known for their ability to explore the combined effects of multiple disturbances, ecological dynamics, and management actions on vegetation. However, integrating the additional impacts of climate change into STSMs remains a challenge. We address this challenge by combining an STSM with species distribution modeling (SDM. SDMs estimate the probability of occurrence of a given species based on observed presence and absence locations as well as environmental and climatic covariates. Thus, in order to account for changes in habitat suitability due to climate change, we used SDM to generate continuous surfaces of species occurrence probabilities. These data were imported into ST-Sim, an STSM platform, where they dictated the probability of each cell transitioning between alternate potential vegetation types at each time step. The STSM was parameterized to capture additional processes of vegetation growth and disturbance that are relevant to a keystone species in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem—whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis. We compared historical model runs against historical observations of whitebark pine and a key disturbance agent (mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and then projected the simulation into the future. Using this combination of correlative and stochastic simulation models, we were able to reproduce historical observations and identify key data gaps. Results indicated that SDMs and STSMs are complementary tools, and combining them is an effective way to account for the anticipated impacts of climate change, biotic interactions, and disturbances, while also allowing for the exploration of management options.

  15. Post-fire regeneration dynamics in whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) forests in Wind River and Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer G Klutsch; Betsy A Goodrich; William R Jacobi

    2015-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) populations are in decline across the species’ range due to historic wildfire exclusion, mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) outbreaks, and an invasive fungal pathogen causing the disease white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, WPBR). Despite reliance on stand-replacing fires, information on whitebark pine regeneration occurrence is limited and the trajectory of future forests is largely unknown in some areas of the range. Regeneration densities were assessed in burned and adjacent non-burned areas at six high elevation locations in northwest Wyoming where stand-replacing fires occurred 8–32 years before the surveys. In these locations at the eastern extent of the species range, we assessed what site factors were associ-ated with regeneration success. Whitebark pine regen-eration density was greater and seedlings were older in non-burned compared to burned areas. Within burns, north aspects had more regeneration than south aspects. Potential seed source densities and other species’ regeneration were positively related to whitebark pine regeneration densities in burned areas. South facing slopes or grass covered areas may have either delayed or no regeneration of whitebark pine without the help of artificial planting.

  16. Mountain Pine Beetle Impact on Stand-level Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J. A.; Woods, S.

    2012-12-01

    The recent mountain pine beetle (MPB) epidemic has disturbed millions of hectares throughout the Rocky Mountain West. The most persistent effects of MPB infestation on the stand-level water balance are likely concomitant with the grey stage of the disturbance cycle. The grey stage occurs within 3 to 5 years of the initial infestation after the needles of an infected tree have turned red and fallen off due to tree death. Large numbers of grey-stage trees in a stand may remain on the landscape for up to 20 years, until windthrow or another disturbance sends them to the forest floor. The greater temporal persistence of the grey stage over antecedent stages suggested that an examination of the grey stage would best capture long-term effects of MPB disturbance on the forest water balance. In this study we hypothesized that changes to the forest canopy associated with MPB disturbance may affect the stand-level water balance. The needle loss and windthrow that follows MPB disturbance is expected to increase the amount of precipitation reaching the forest floor. Additionally, overstory evapotranspiration (ET) demand is expected to decrease as MPB-induced tree mortality increases within disturbed stands. The expected cumulative effect of MPB disturbance on the stand-level water balance is an increase in soil moisture due to increased precipitation inputs and reduced overstory ET. This study was conducted in Lubrecht Experimental Forest and adjacent Bureau of Land Management areas near Missoula, Montana. Sub-canopy measurements of soil moisture, precipitation (rain and snow water equivalent), overstory transpiration and micro-meteorological data (net radiation, temperature, wind speed, etc.) were collected in three 50 x 50 meter plots. The plots consisted of a uniform stand of grey-stage lodgepole pine, a uniform stand of non-infested lodgepole pine, and a recent clear-cut stand, which served as a control unit. Water balances for each stand were constructed using a mass

  17. Temporal dynamics of a commensal network of cavity-nesting vertebrates: increased diversity during an insect outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockle, Kristina L; Martin, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Network analysis offers insight into the structure and function of ecological communities, but little is known about how empirical networks change over time during perturbations. "Nest webs" are commensal networks that link secondary cavity-nesting vertebrates (e.g., bluebirds, ducks, and squirrels, which depend on tree cavities for nesting) with the excavators (e.g., woodpeckers) that produce cavities. In central British Columbia, Canada, Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus) is considered a keystone excavator, providing most cavities for secondary cavity-nesters. However, roles of species in the network, and overall network architecture, are expected to vary with population fluctuations. Many excavator species increased in abundance in association with a pulse of food (adult and larval beetles) during an outbreak of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which peaked in 2003-2004. We studied nest-web dynamics from 1998 to 2011 to determine how network architecture changed during this resource pulse. Cavity availability increased at the onset of the beetle outbreak and peaked in 2005. During and after the outbreak, secondary cavity-nesters increased their use of cavities made by five species of beetle-eating excavators, and decreased their use of flicker cavities. We found low link turnover, with 74% of links conserved from year to year. Nevertheless, the network increased in evenness and diversity of interactions, and declined slightly in nestedness and niche overlap. These patterns remained evident seven years after the beetle outbreak, suggesting a legacy effect. In contrast to previous snapshot studies of nest webs, our dynamic approach reveals how the role of each cavity producer, and thus quantitative network architecture, can vary over time. The increase in interaction diversity with the beetle outbreak adds to growing evidence that insect outbreaks can increase components of biodiversity in forest ecosystems at various temporal scales. The observed

  18. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  19. Functional diversity of staphylinid beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) in maize fields: testing the possible effect of genetically modified, insect resistant maize

    OpenAIRE

    Svobodová, Zdeňka

    2016-01-01

    Staphylinid beetles are recommended bioindicators for the pre-market environmental risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) insect protected maize expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin. Bionomics, food specialization, temperature requirements and size group were assigned for 25 most common staphylinid species. These traits determine the occurrence of staphylinid beetles in the field, the food sources they could utilize and thus also their likely contact with the Cry3Bb1 toxin. The opportunity for ...

  20. CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL CONTROL OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) ON POTATO IN ĐAKOVO AREA

    OpenAIRE

    Kristijan Rack; Marija Ivezić; Emilija Raspudić; Mirjana Brmež

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the efficacy in controlling Colorado potato beetles (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) by using chemical and mechanical methods of control. The field trials were carried out in 1999 and 2000 in the area of Đakovo. The aim was also to determine the differences between chemical and mechanical way of control, and on the base of the obtained results, give the recommendations for acceptable and profitable way in controlling Colorado potato beetle. This t...

  1. Comparing Host Plant Resistance, Engineered Resistance, and Insecticide Treatment for Control of Colorado Potato Beetle and Potato Leafhopper in Potatoes

    OpenAIRE

    Coombs, Joseph J.; Felcher, Kimberly J.; Douches, David S; Ghidiu, Gerald M.

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) Order Coleoptera and the potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) Order Homoptera, are the major insect pests of potato in eastern North America. In two years of field trials, we compared the effectiveness of three pest management options for the control of Colorado potato beetle and potato leafhopper: natural host plant resistance (glandular trichomes), engineered resistance (Bacillus thuringiensis [Bt] Berliner cry3A gene) and a ...

  2. Residual effect of two insecticides and neem oil against epilachna beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.) on bitter gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Mala, M.; Islam, M.M.U.; Islam, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the Laboratory and Entomology Field Laboratory to determine the residual effect of two insecticides (viz. Siperin 10EC, Malathion 57EC) and a botanical (Neem oil) against Epilachna beetle, Epilachna vigintioctopunctata (Fab.) during the period from February to May 2009. To evaluate the residual effect of one synthetic and one organophosphors pesticides and one botanical pesticide on the mortality of Epilachna beetle, different concentrations of the insecticides (...

  3. Comparative repellency effect of three plant extracts on Paederus beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), the cause of linear dermatitis in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Dariush Gaffari; Maryam Hakimi Parizi; Abbas Aghaei Afshar; Siavosh Tirgari

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the repellent effect of neem, juniper and eucalyptus extracts as a form of protection against Paederus beetles, which are a cause of linear dermatitis in Iran. Methods: After collecting and extracting plant samples, the extracts were tested on Paederus beetles in three concentrations (2.5%, 5.0% and 10.0%) with direct method under laboratory conditions. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: The results indicated that there was a sign...

  4. ±Genetic structure of the oak wilt vector beetle Platypus quercivorus: inferences toward the process of damaged area expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Nozaki Ai; Okada Mitsuhiro; Saito Shoichi; Shoda-Kagaya Etsuko; Nunokawa Kouichi; Tsuda Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The ambrosia beetle, Platypus quercivorus, is the vector of oak wilt, one of the most serious forest diseases in Japan. Population genetics approaches have made great progress toward studying the population dynamics of pests, especially for estimating dispersal. Knowledge of the genetic structuring of the beetle populations should reveal their population history. Using five highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, 605 individuals from 14 sampling sites were assessed to infe...

  5. The Role of Body Size and Shape in Understanding Competitive Interactions within a Community of Neotropical Dung Beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, Malva I. M.; Monteiro, Leandro R; Mario E. FAVILA

    2011-01-01

    Geometric morphometrics is helpful for understanding how body size and body shape influence the strength of inter-specific competitive interactions in a community. Dung beetles, characterized by their use of decomposing organic material, provide a useful model for understanding the structuring of ecological communities and the role of competition based on their size and morphology. The relationship between body size and shape in a dung beetle community from the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Jap...

  6. Indirect effects of emerald ash borer-induced ash mortality and canopy gap formation on epigaeic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kamal J K; Smith, Annemarie; Hartzler, Diane M; Herms, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    Exotic herbivorous insects have drastically and irreversibly altered forest structure and composition of North American forests. For example, emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) from Asia has caused wide-scale mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) in eastern United States and Canada. We studied the effects of forest changes resulting from emerald ash borer invasion on epigaeic or ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) along a gradient of ash dieback and gap sizes in southeastern Michigan. Ground beetles were sampled in hydric, mesic, and xeric habitats in which black (Fraxinus nigra Marshall), green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall), and white (Fraxinus americana L.) ash were the most common species, respectively. During 2006-2007, we trapped 2,545 adult ground beetles comprising 52 species. There was a negative correlation between percent ash tree mortality in 2006 and catches of all beetles. Catches of Agonum melanarium Dejean (in 2006) and Pterostichus mutus (Say) (in 2006-2007) were negatively correlated with tree mortality and gap size, respectively. However, catches of Pterostichus corvinus Dejean were positively correlated with gap size in 2006. As ash mortality and average gap size increased from 2006 to 2007, catches of all beetles as well as P. mutus and Pterostichus stygicus (Say) increased (1.3-3.9 times), while species diversity decreased, especially in mesic and xeric stands. Cluster analysis revealed that beetle assemblages in hydric and mesic stand diverged (25 and 40%, respectively) in their composition from 2006 to 2007, and that hydric stands had the most unique beetle assemblages. Overall, epigaeic beetle assemblages were altered in ash stands impacted by emerald ash borer; however, these impacts may dissipate as canopy gaps close. PMID:24690169

  7. Walking to survive. Searching, feeding and egg production of the carabid beetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. (= Poecilus versicolor Sturm).

    OpenAIRE

    Mols, P.J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This study concerns the prey-searching and feeding behaviour of the polyphagous groundbeetle Pterostichus coerulescens L. ( = Poecilus versicolor Sturm), a common species on sandy soils. This ground beetle rarely flies, thus preysearching behaviour involves walking. The beetle is diurnal. As object of research, predators of this kind are very suitable because they can be handled easily, their behaviour can be observed directly or filmed with a video camera. Furthermore they are abundantly ava...

  8. A modified blade element theory for estimation of forces generated by a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truong, Q T; Nguyen, Q V; Park, H C; Goo, N S [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Truong, V T; Byun, D Y, E-mail: hcpark@konkuk.ac.kr [National Research Laboratory for Biomimetics and Intelligent Microsystems, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We present an unsteady blade element theory (BET) model to estimate the aerodynamic forces produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. Added mass and rotational forces are included to accommodate the unsteady force. In addition to the aerodynamic forces needed to accurately estimate the time history of the forces, the inertial forces of the wings are also calculated. All of the force components are considered based on the full three-dimensional (3D) motion of the wing. The result obtained by the present BET model is validated with the data which were presented in a reference paper. The difference between the averages of the estimated forces (lift and drag) and the measured forces in the reference is about 5.7%. The BET model is also used to estimate the force produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. The wing kinematics used in the BET calculation of a real beetle and the flapping wing system are captured using high-speed cameras. The results show that the average estimated vertical force of the beetle is reasonably close to the weight of the beetle, and the average estimated thrust of the beetle-mimicking flapping wing system is in good agreement with the measured value. Our results show that the unsteady lift and drag coefficients measured by Dickinson et al are still useful for relatively higher Reynolds number cases, and the proposed BET can be a good way to estimate the force produced by a flapping wing system.

  9. A modified blade element theory for estimation of forces generated by a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an unsteady blade element theory (BET) model to estimate the aerodynamic forces produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. Added mass and rotational forces are included to accommodate the unsteady force. In addition to the aerodynamic forces needed to accurately estimate the time history of the forces, the inertial forces of the wings are also calculated. All of the force components are considered based on the full three-dimensional (3D) motion of the wing. The result obtained by the present BET model is validated with the data which were presented in a reference paper. The difference between the averages of the estimated forces (lift and drag) and the measured forces in the reference is about 5.7%. The BET model is also used to estimate the force produced by a freely flying beetle and a beetle-mimicking flapping wing system. The wing kinematics used in the BET calculation of a real beetle and the flapping wing system are captured using high-speed cameras. The results show that the average estimated vertical force of the beetle is reasonably close to the weight of the beetle, and the average estimated thrust of the beetle-mimicking flapping wing system is in good agreement with the measured value. Our results show that the unsteady lift and drag coefficients measured by Dickinson et al are still useful for relatively higher Reynolds number cases, and the proposed BET can be a good way to estimate the force produced by a flapping wing system.

  10. First measurement of the performance of a Beetle1.2 chip reading out a VELO sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Buytaert, J; Eckstein, D; Facius, K; Palacios, J

    2003-01-01

    First results of an analysis of test beam data taken with a Beetle1.2 chip reading out a PR03 VELO prototype sensor are presented. Beetle bias settings were scanned in order to find the optimum setting which meets the requirement of the VELO concerning noise, signal and signal to noise ratio. The analysis steps are described and the results are summarised in this note.

  11. Aiming for the management of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, using relative humidity and diatomaceous earth

    OpenAIRE

    Cribb, Bronwen; Rice, Steven; Leemon, Diana

    2013-01-01

    International audience Small hive beetles (SHBs) are a global pest of European honeybee colonies. In the laboratory, the survival of adult SHBs was evaluated in relation to relative humidity (RH = 56, 64, 73, 82 and 96 %) and treatment with diatomaceous earth (DE) across 4 days. Low RH reduced survival. The application of DE reduced survival in addition to RH. Adults treated with corn flour (control) showed no difference in survival from untreated beetles. Scanning electron microscopy imag...

  12. Removal of small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) eggs and larvae by African honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera scutellata)

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Peter; Härtel, Stephan

    2004-01-01

    International audience The removal of small hive beetle [SHB] eggs and larvae was studied in seven Apis mellifera scutellata colonies. Because female beetles can protect their eggs by oviposition in small cracks we introduced unprotected eggs and protected eggs into these colonies. Whereas all unprotected eggs were removed within 24 hours, $66 \\pm 12$% of the protected eggs remained, showing that SHB eggs are likely to hatch in infested colonies. However, all larvae introduced into the sam...

  13. Genetic variation corroborates subspecific delimitation in the Namib fog-basking beetle, Onymacris unguicularis (Haag) (Tenebrionidae, Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Trip Lamb; Rachel Pollard; Jason Bond

    2013-01-01

    The fog-basking beetle, Onymacris unguicularis (Haag, 1875), is currently listed as a polytypic form comprising two subspecies. A flightless substrate specialist, the beetle is endemic to vegetationless dunes in the Namib, where southern populations constitute the nominate subspecies, O. u. unguicularis, and populations some 300 km to the north compose O. u. schulzeae Penrith, 1984. Their taxonomic descriptions are based on minor differences in pronotal and prosternal shape, and the phylogene...

  14. Predation of amphibians by carabid beetles of the genus Epomis found in the central coastal plain of Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Wizen; Avital Gasith

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The genus Epomis is represented in Israel by two species: Epomis dejeani and Epomis circumscriptus . In the central coastal plain these species are sympatric but do not occur in the same sites. The objective of this study was to record and describe trophic interactions between the adult beetles and amphibian species occurring in the central coastal plain of Israel. Day and night surveys at three sites, as well as controlled laboratory experiments were conducted for studying beetle-am...

  15. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a Microbial Community Associated with a Wood-Feeding Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Scully, Erin D.; Scott M Geib; Kelli Hoover; Ming Tien; Tringe, Susannah G; Barry, Kerrie W.; Tijana Glavina del Rio; Mansi Chovatia; Herr, Joshua R.; Carlson, John E

    2013-01-01

    The Asian longhorned beetle ( Anoplophora glabripennis ) is an invasive, wood-boring pest that thrives in the heartwood of deciduous tree species. A large impediment faced by A . glabripennis as it feeds on woody tissue is lignin, a highly recalcitrant biopolymer that reduces access to sugars and other nutrients locked in cellulose and hemicellulose. We previously demonstrated that lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose are actively deconstructed in the beetle gut and that the gut harbors an as...

  16. Field trial of diatomaceous earth in cotton gin trash against the larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, N E; Porter, P

    2004-04-01

    The larger black flour beetle, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an agricultural and home nuisance pest in North America. In the Southern High Plains of Texas, the larger black flour beetle is associated with cotton gin trash, by-products of cotton ginning that are field stored in large piles for economic reasons. Larger black flour beetle overwinter in gin trash piles but may disperse by the millions in summer and autumn, entering houses as far as 2 km away where they cause distress to homeowners. Because > 1.2 billion kg of gin trash is produced annually in Texas alone, the potential consequences of the larger black flour beetle are enormous. We conducted a field experiment that evaluated the efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) on the abundance of the larger black flour beetle in gin trash. There were no significant differences in numbers of larger black flour beetle among treatments and controls (mean number of adults summed over time: controls = 115.41, layered treatment = 87.60, top and bottom treatment = 96.50, bottom treatment = 115.16). There were sufficient numbers of beetles in treated piles to still pose a potential home nuisance problem, likely because the moisture content of field-stored gin trash is too high for DE to work effectively. Therefore, treating cotton gin trash with diatomaceous earth will probably be unable to prevent home infestations of larger black flour beetle. Location within a gin trash pile and season influenced pest numbers, which has implications for long-term field storage of cotton gin trash. PMID:15154486

  17. Desert detritivory: Nutritional ecology of a dung beetle (Pachysoma glentoni) subsisting on plant litter in arid South African sand dunes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H; Stenseng, Lena

    2009-01-01

    Dry conditions limit microbial decomposition of plant litter in deserts, which leaves a primary role to detritivorous macroarthropods. In the sandy arid strip along the west coast of South Africa, such detritivores include the large scarabaeid dung beetle Pachysoma glentoni. Highly unusual among...... dung beetles, this species collects surface litter and drags it into an underground storage and feeding chamber which is abandoned after 6-7 days. Fresh stores for single beetles and for breeding pairs (mean depths: 30 and 39 cm) contained about 1.1 and 2.9 g organic matter, respectively. Using...... shown to have relatively high quality (mean atomic C:N ratio: 35) and the beetles assimilated about 60% of it. Estimated weekly water gain per beetle, supplied entirely by the food, was about 0.6 g. Our results highlight unique nutritional adaptations to survival in deserts without the usual dung beetle...

  18. Response of Coprophagus Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae on changes of vegetation structure in various habitat types at Lore Lindu National Park, Central Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTIAN H. SCHULZE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the response of dung beetles − a group of beetles which play a major role in decomposition of dung and animal carcasses − to changes of vegetation structure due to forest conversion to different human-made habitat types at the margin of Lore Lindu National Park. Therefore, dung beetles were sampled at natural forest, cacao agroforestry systems and open area. A total of 28 species of coprophagus beetle species were recorded from the sampled sites. Species richness and abundance of dung beetles, particularly of large species, decreased from forest towards agroforestry systems and open areas. However, more than 80 % of the species recorded in natural forest were found in cacao agroforestry systems Of the measured habitat parameters, particularly the number of tree species, air temperature, and canopy cover had a significant power for explaining changes in dung beetle ensembles along the gradient of land-use intensity.

  19. Diversity and Abundance of Beetle (Coleoptera Functional Groups in a Range of Land Use System in Jambi, Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURYO HARDIWINOTO

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of tropical rain forest might exert impacts on biodiversity loss and affect the function and stability of the related ecosystems. The objective of this study was to study the impact of land use systems (LUS on the diversity and abundance of beetle functional groups in Jambi area, Sumatra. This research was carried out during the rainy season (May-June of 2004. Inventory and collection of beetles have been conducted using winkler method across six land use systems, i.e. primary forest, secondary forest, Imperata grassland, rubber plantation, oilpalm plantation, and cassava garden. The result showed that a total of 47 families and subfamilies of beetles was found in the study area, and they were classified into four major functional groups, i.e. herbivore, predator, scavenger, and fungivore. There were apparent changes in proportion, diversity, and abundance of beetle functional groups from forests to other land use systems. The bulk of beetle diversity and abundance appeared to converge in primary forest and secondary forest and predatory beetles were the most diverse and the most abundant of the four major functional groups.

  20. Effect of bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) attack on bark VOC emissions of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Rajendra P.; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Blomqvist, Minna; Holopainen, Toini; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-02-01

    Climate warming driven storms are evident causes for an outbreak of the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) resulting in the serious destruction of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) forests in northern Europe. Conifer species are major sources of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the boreal zone. Climate relevant BVOC emissions are expected to increase when conifer trees defend against bark beetle attack by monoterpene (MT)-rich resin flow. In this study, BVOC emission rates from the bark surface of beetle-attacked and non-attacked spruce trees were measured from two outbreak areas, Iitti and Lahti in southern Finland, and from one control site at Kuopio in central Finland. Beetle attack increased emissions of total MTs 20-fold at Iitti compared to Kuopio, but decreased the emissions of several sesquiterpenes (SQTs) at Iitti. At the Lahti site, the emission rate of α-pinene was positively correlated with mean trap catch of bark beetles. The responsive individual MTs were tricyclene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, 1,8-cineole and bornyl acetate in both of the outbreak areas. Our results suggest that bark beetle outbreaks affect local BVOC emissions from conifer forests dominated by Norway spruce. Therefore, the impacts of insect outbreaks are worth of consideration to global BVOC emission models.

  1. Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHABUDDIN

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Shahabuddin (2011 Effect of land use change on ecosystem function of dung beetles: experimental evidence from Wallacea Region in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 177-181. The deforestation of tropical forests and their subsequent conversion to human-dominated land-use systems is one of the most significant causes of biodiversity loss. However clear understanding of the links between ecological functions and biodiversity is needed to evaluate and predict the true environmental consequences of human activities. This study provided experimental evidence comparing ecosystem function of dung beetles across a land use gradient ranging from natural tropical forest and agroforestry systems to open cultivated areas in Central Sulawesi. Therefore, standardized dung pats were exposed at each land-use type to assess dung removal and parasite suppression activity by dung beetles. The results showed that ecosystem function of dung beetles especially dung burial activity were remarkably disrupted by land use changes from natural forest to open agricultural area. Dung beetles presence enhanced about 53% of the total dung removed and reduced about 83% and 63% of fly population and species number respectively, indicating a pronounce contribution of dung beetles in our ecosystem.

  2. crw1--A novel maize mutant highly susceptible to foliar damage by the western corn rootworm beetle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Puchakayala Venkata

    Full Text Available Western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, is the most destructive insect pest of corn (Zea mays L. in the United States. The adult WCR beetles derive their nourishment from multiple sources including corn pollen and silks as well as the pollen of alternate hosts. Conversely, the corn foliage is largely neglected as a food source by WCR beetles, leading to a perception of a passive interaction between the two. We report here a novel recessive mutation of corn that was identified and named after its foliar susceptibility to corn rootworm beetles (crw1. The crw1 mutant under field conditions was exceptionally susceptible to foliar damage by WCR beetles in an age-specific manner. It exhibits pleiotropic defects on cell wall biochemistry, morphology of leaf epidermal cells and lower structural integrity via differential accumulation of cell wall bound phenolic acids. These findings indicate that crw1 is perturbed in a pathway that was not previously ascribed to WCR susceptibility, as well as implying the presence of an active mechanism(s deterring WCR beetles from devouring corn foliage. The discovery and characterization of this mutant provides a unique opportunity for genetic analysis of interactions between maize and adult WCR beetles and identify new strategies to control the spread and invasion of this destructive pest.

  3. Evaluation of window flight traps for effectiveness at monitoring dead wood associated beetles: the effect of ethanol lure under contrasting environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bouget, C.; Brustel, H.; Brin, A.; Valladares, L.

    2009-01-01

    1. Since the biodiversity of saproxylic beetles has been proposed to be used as a management tool in forestry, more explicit knowledge about the efficiency and selective properties of beetle sampling methods is needed. 2. We compared saproxylic beetle assemblages caught by alcohol-baited or unbaited window traps in different forest contexts. Considering that trap attractiveness depends on kairomone concentrations, we appraised whether the trap efficiency was influenced by trap environment ...

  4. Molecular and microscopic analysis of the gut contents of abundant rove beetle species (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Klimaszewski; Marie-Josee Morency; Philippe Labrie; Armand Seguin; David Langor; Timothy Work; Caroline Bourdon; Evelyne Thiffault; David Pare; Alfred Newton; Margaret Thayer

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research on beetle responses to removal of logging residues following clearcut harvesting in the boreal balsam fir forest of Quebec revealed several abundant rove beetle (Staphylinidae) species potentially important for long-term monitoring. To understand the trophic affiliations of these species in forest ecosystems, it was necessary to analyze their gut contents. We used microscopic and molecular (DNA) methods to identify the gut contents of the following rove beetles: Atheta c...

  5. Effect of tree species and end seal on attractiveness and utility of cut bolts to the redbay ambrosia beetle and granulate ambrosia beetle (coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, A E; Hanula, J L

    2012-04-01

    The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff, is a non-native invasive pest and vector of the fungus that causes laurel wilt disease in certain trees of the family Lauraceae. This study assessed the relative attractiveness and suitability of cut bolts of several tree species to X. glabratus. In 2009, female X. glabratus were equally attracted to traps baited with swampbay (Persea palustris (Rafinesque) Sargent) and camphortree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl), which were more attractive than avocado (Persea americana Miller), lancewood (Ocotea coriacea (Swartz) Britton), and sweetbay (Magnolia virginiana L.). These species were more attractive than loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J. Ellis). X. glabratus entrance hole density and emergence from caged bolts were highest on swampbay and camphortree. In 2010, swampbay was significantly more attractive to X. glabratus than sassafras (Sassafras albidum (Nuttall) Nees), yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), and eastern redbud (Cercis canadensis L.). Sassafras bolts end sealed with a liquid wax-and-water emulsion were more attractive to X. glabratus than end-sealed bolts of yellow poplar and redbud. Relative to unsealed bolts, end seal decreased X. glabratus entrance hole density on swampbay and decreased granulate ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky)) trap catch, entrance hole density, and adult emergence from swampbay. X. crassiusculus was not attracted to sassafras, yellow poplar, and redbud and was not more attracted to manuka oil than to unbaited traps. Sassafras was more attractive to X. glabratus than previously reported and supported reproducing populations of the insect. End sealing bolts with a wax-and-water emulsion may not be optimal for attracting and rearing ambrosia beetles in small logs. PMID:22606816

  6. Development of Beetle-Type Robot with Sub-Micropipette Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takami, Tomohide; Deng, Xiao Long; Son, Jong Wan; Park, Bae Ho; Kawai, Tomoji

    2012-08-01

    We have developed a motion system with tripod piezo tube legs, which is called the beetle-type or Besocke-type system, in order to control the position of a sub-micropipette. The stick-slip lateral motion of the beetle-type robot achieved a minimum step size of 600±200 nm by applying a sawtooth pulse at a voltage of 30 V and a pulse width of 10 ms. The sliding motion for the insertion and extraction of the sub-micropipette was controlled by a piezoactuator, and inverse sawtooth pulses were applied to the actuator to have more precise step motion than the specifications of the actuator, and a minimum step size of 480±80 nm at a pulse width of 0.17 ms was achieved. Nonlinear responses of the step size with sawtooth pulse widths were observed in both lateral motion and pipette insertion/extraction motion.

  7. Coupling between elytra of some beetles: Mechanism, forces and effect of surface texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight materials, structures and coupling mechanisms are very important for realizing advanced flight vehicles. Here, we obtained the geometric structures and morphologies of the elytra of beetles and ascertained its coupling zone by using the histological section technique and SEM. We set up a three-dimensional motion observing system to monitor the opening and closing behaviour of elytra in beetles and to determine the motion mechanism. We constructed a force measuring system to measure the coupling forces between elytra. The results show that elytra open and close by rotating about a single axle, where the coupling forces may be as high as 160 times its own bodyweight, the elytra coupling with the tenon and mortise mechanism, surface texture and opening angle between elytra heavily influence the coupling forces. These results may provide insights into the design mechanism and structure for future vehicles of flight.

  8. Prediction of abundance of beetles according to climate warming in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Sung Kwon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To identify the change in distribution of insects in climate warming, changes in abundance of beetles were predicted using data from 366 survey sites (forests in South Korea. Abundance along temperature gradients showed patterns (linear or hump-shaped of normal distribution for 18 candidate species. Mean abundance in temperature zones of these species was used to predict the change in abundance. Temperature change was based on climate scenario Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 and abundance of the two periods from 2011 to 2015 and 2056 to 2065 were predicted. Of the 18 species analyzed, six were predicted to increase in abundance and 12 were predicted to decrease. Using a high relationship between abundance change and temperature of collected sites, a qualitative prediction was conducted on non-candidate species with ≥ 1% occurrence. This prediction also shows that more beetle species in South Korea will decrease rather than increase as climate warms.

  9. Seasonal Variation of Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera: Carabidae Abundance and Diversity in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Rainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal variation in arthropod abundances is observed in many tropical forests all over the world. This study examines seasonal occurrence of carabid beetles in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar, where little research has been done concerning seasonality of arthropods. Carabid beetles were collected from secondary and primary montane rainforests throughout a one year. In total, 1205 individuals of 50 species were collected. During the year there was a considerable variation in the abundances of carabids. The highest number of individuals was collected in February, which is a warm and rainy month while the lowest numbers were obtained in May, which is in the beginning of drier months. Species composition varied considerably during the year, 28 % of the species were found only in one month, and only one species was collected in every sampling month. For total species inventory at least one year of collecting is then recommended.

  10. Transfer of radionuclides through Calluna vulgaris to the heather beetle, Lochmaea suturalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, experiments on uptake and mobility of radionuclides (caesium, strontium, ruthenium) via root and shoot pathways in Calluna Vulgaris are described. Preliminary studies on the transfer of the radionuclides to the next trophic level are also discussed, taking the heather beetle (Lochmaea suturalis) as an example of an external chewing herbivore. This species feeds on Calluna during all stages of its life cycle. Large outbreaks of heather beetles can occur, often over wide areas of heathland, causing defoliation and death of heather plants. Any significant transfer into these herbivores and their excreta, together with activities that result in leaf loss could accelerate cycling from the plant to the soil, with a potentially significant impact on the ultimate fate of the radionuclides concerned. (author)

  11. Control of corpus allatum activity in the adult Colorado potato beetle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assay conditions for the short-term, radiochemical, in vitro determination of the spontaneous rate of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by isolated corpora allata from Leptinotarsa decemlineata have been further improved permitting the measurement of juvenile hormone biosynthesis by individual pairs of corpora allata. Using the new assay conditions, the activities of adult corpora allata during maturation were found to be significantly higher in reproductive, long-day animals than in pre-diapause, short-day beetles. During diapause no activity was detectable, whereas corpora allata from post-diapause beetles were reactivated totally after 5 days. Simultaneous determination of the in vitro rates of juvenile hormone biosynthesis and corpus allatum volumes revealed no clear correlation. (Auth.)

  12. Elm bark beetle in Holocene peat deposits and the northwest European elm decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sarah H. E.; Edwards, Kevin J.

    2004-09-01

    The elm decline of 5000 14C yr ago has been the most widely discussed phenomenon in post-glacial vegetation history. This pan-European reduction of elm populations, echoed in the decimation of elmwoods in Europe during the twentieth century, has attracted a series of interrelated hypotheses involving climate change, human activity, disease and soil deterioration. The elm bark beetle (Scolytus scolytus L.) is an essential component of disease explanations. We present evidence for the presence of the beetle over a prolonged period (ca. 7950-4910 yr BP [8800-5660 cal. yr BP]) from a lowland raised mire deposit in northeast Scotland, with its final appearance at this site, and the first and only appearance in another mire of a single scolytid find, around the time of the elm decline. The subfossil S. scolytus finds are not only the first from Scotland, but they also represent the most comprehensive sequence of finds anywhere. Copyright

  13. Structural characteristics of a novel antifreeze protein from the longhorn beetle Rhagium inquisitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, E; Ramløv, Hans; Højrup, Peter;

    2011-01-01

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are characterized by their capacity to inhibit the growth of ice and are produced by a variety of polar fish, terrestrial arthropods and other organisms inhabiting cold environments. This capacity reflects their role as stabilizers of supercooled body fluids. The longhorn...... beetle Rhagium inquisitor is known to express AFPs in its body fluids. In this work we report on the primary structure and structural characteristics of a 12.8 kDa AFP from this beetle (RiAFP). It has a high capacity to evoke antifreeze activity as compared to other known insect AFPs and it is...... structurally unique in several aspects. In contrast to the high content of disulfide bond-formation observed in other coleopteran AFPs, RiAFP contains only a single such bond. Six internal repeat segments of a thirteen residue repeat pattern is irregularly spaced apart throughout its sequence. The central part...

  14. Spray aiming in bombardier beetles: jet deflection by the coanda effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, T; Aneshansley, D J

    1982-01-01

    Bombardier beetles of the carabid subfamily Paussinae have a pair of flanges, diagnostic for the group, that project outward from the sides of the body. Behind each flange is a gland opening, from which the beetles discharge a hot, quinone-containing secretion when disturbed. The flanges are curved and grooved and serve as launching guides for anteriorly aimed ejections of secretion. Jets of fluid, on emergence from the gland openings, follow the curvature of the flanges and are thereby bent sharply in their trajectory and directed forward. The phenomenon is illustrative of the Coanda effect, widely applicable in engineering and responsible for the familiar tendency of liquids to curve around spouts and down the front of containers when being poured. PMID:17790472

  15. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida: A review of its biology and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. CUTHBERTSON et al

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The small hive beetle Aethina tumida is an endemic parasitic pest and scavenger of colonies of social bees indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa. In this region this species rarely inflicts severe damage on strong colonies since the bees have develo­­ped strategies to combat them. However, A. tumida has since ‘escaped’ from its native home and has recently invaded areas such as North America and Australia where its economic impact on the apiculture industry has been significant. Small hive beetle, should it become established within Europe, represents a real and live threat to the UK bee keeping industry. Here we review the biology and current pest status of A. tumida and up to-date research in terms of both chemical and biological control used against this honey bee pest [Current Zoology 59 (5: 644–653, 2013].

  16. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  17. Sequestration of plant-derived glycosides by leaf beetles: A model system for evolution and adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Boland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf beetles have developed an impressive repertoire of toxins and repellents to defend themselves against predators. Upon attack, the larvae discharge small droplets from glandular reservoirs on their back. The reservoirs are “bioreactors” performing the late reactions of the toxin-production from plant-derived or de novo synthesised glucosides. The import of the glucosides into the bioreactor relies on a complex transport system. Physiological studies revealed a functional network of transporters guiding the glucosides through the larval body into the defensive system. The first of the involved transporters has been identified and characterised concerning selectivity, tissue distribution, and regulation. The development of a well-tuned transport system, perfectly adjusted to the compounds provided by the food plants, provides the functional basis for the leaf beetle defenses and their local adaptation to their host plants.

  18. Extensive collection of femtoliter pad secretion droplets in beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata allows nanoliter microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Abou, Bérengère; Gay, Cyprien; Laurent, Bastien; Cardoso, Olivier; Voigt, Dagmar; Peisker, Henrik; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Pads of beetles are covered with long, deformable setae, each ending in a micrometric terminal plate coated with secretory fluid. It was recently shown that the layer of the pad secretion covering the terminal plates is responsible for the generation of strong attractive forces. However, less is known about the fluid itself because it is produced in extremely small quantity. We here present a first experimental investigation of the rheological properties of the pad secretion in the Colorado p...

  19. Extensive collection of femtolitre pad secretion droplets in the beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata allows nanolitre microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Abou, Bérengère; Gay, Cyprien; Laurent, Bastien; Cardoso, Olivier; Voigt, Dagmar; Peisker, Henrik; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Pads of beetles are covered with long, deformable setae, each ending in a micrometric terminal plate coated with secretory fluid. It was recently shown that the layer of the pad secretion covering the terminal plates is responsible for the generation of strong attractive forces. However, less is known about the fluid itself because it is produced in an extremely small quantity. We present here the first experimental investigation of the rheological properties of the pad secretion in the Color...

  20. Underwater attachment using hairs: the functioning of spatula and sucker setae from male diving beetles

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ying; Shih, Ming-Chih; Wu, Ming-Huang; Yang, En-Cheng; Chi, Kai-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Males of Dytiscinae beetles use specialized adhesive setae to adhere to female elytra during underwater courtship. This coevolution of male setae and female elytra has attracted much attention since Darwin. However, there has been little examination of their biomechanical functioning despite increasing knowledge on biofibrillar adhesion. Here, we report and compare, for the first time, the mechanisms of underwater attachment using two hair types, the primitive spatula and derived ‘passive’ su...