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Sample records for beet beta vulgaris

  1. Plastid transformation in sugar beet: Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Bellucci, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Chloroplast biotechnology has assumed great importance in the past 20 years and, thanks to the numerous advantages as compared to conventional transgenic technologies, has been applied in an increasing number of plant species but still very much limited. Hence, it is of utmost importance to extend the range of species in which plastid transformation can be applied. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important industrial crop of the temperate zone in which chloroplast DNA is not transmitted trough pollen. Transformation of the sugar beet genome is performed in several research laboratories; conversely sugar beet plastome genetic transformation is far away from being considered a routine technique. We describe here a method to obtain transplastomic sugar beet plants trough biolistic transformation. The availability of sugar beet transplastomic plants should avoid the risk of gene flow between these cultivated genetic modified sugar beet plants and the wild-type plants or relative wild species.

  2. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Taguchi, Kazunori; Mikami, Tetsuo; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-01-01

    Creating transgenic plants is invaluable for the genetic analysis of sugar beet and will be increasingly important as sugar beet genomic technologies progress. A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of sugar beet is described in this chapter. Our protocol is optimized for a sugar beet genotype that performs exceptionally well in tissue culture, including the steps of dedifferentiation, callus proliferation, and regeneration. Because of the infrequent occurrence of such a genotype in sugar beet populations, our protocol includes an in vitro propagation method for germplasm preservation. The starting materials for transgenic experiments are aseptic shoots grown from surface-sterilized seed balls. Callus is induced from leaf explants and subsequently infected with Agrobacterium. Plantlets are regenerated from transgenic callus and vernalized for flowering, if necessary. The efficiency of transformation was quite high; in our laboratory, the culture of only ten leaf explants, on average, generated one transgenic plant.

  3. [Molecular genetic investigation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, A K; Kornienko, A V

    2011-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) are reviewed as a basis for the development of genomics of this species. The methods used to study structural and functional genomics are considered. The results and their application to increase the efficiency of sugar beet breeding are discussed.

  4. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Isa C.; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M.; Veloso, Maria M.; Simoes-Costa, Maria C.; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Oct?vio S.; Ricardo, C?ndido P.

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and...

  5. Genetic diversity and physiological performance of Portuguese wild beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from three contrasting habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Catarina Ribeiro; Carla Pinheiro; Carla Pinheiro; Carla Maria Ribeiro; Maria Manuela Veloso; Maria Manuela Veloso; Maria Cristina Simões-Costa; Isabel Evaristo; Octávio Salgueiro Paulo; Cândido Pinto Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial...

  6. Characterization of resistance mechanisms to powdery mildew (Erysiphe betae) in beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Prats, Elena; Emeran, Amero A; Rubiales, Diego

    2009-04-01

    Beet powdery mildew incited by Erysiphe betae is a serious foliar fungal disease of worldwide distribution causing losses of up to 30%. In the present work, we searched for resistance in a germplasm collection of 184 genotypes of Beta vulgaris including fodder (51 genotypes), garden (60 genotypes), leaf (51 genotypes), and sugar (22 genotypes) beet types. Resistant genotypes were identified in the four beet types under study. In addition, mechanisms underlying resistance were dissected through histological studies. These revealed different resistance mechanisms acting at different fungal developmental stages, i.e., penetration resistance, early and late cell death, or posthaustorial resistance. Most genotypes were able to hamper fungal development at several stages. The later are interesting for breeding aiming to resistance durability. Furthermore, characterization of defense mechanisms will be useful for further cellular and molecular studies to unravel the bases of resistance in this species.

  7. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Han; Cao, Hua; Cai, Yan-Fei; Wang, Ji-Hua; Qu, Su-Ping; Huang, Xing-Qi

    2014-06-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome (cpDNA) was determined in this study. The cpDNA was 149,637 bp in length, containing a pair of 24,439 bp inverted repeat regions (IR), which were separated by small and large single copy regions (SSC and LSC) of 17,701 and 83,057 bp, respectively. 53.4% of the sugar beet cpDNA consisted of gene coding regions (protein coding and RNA genes). The gene content and relative positions of 113 individual genes (79 protein encoding genes, 30 tRNA genes, 4 rRNA genes) were almost identical to those of tobacco cpDNA. The overall AT contents of the sugar beet cpDNA were 63.6% and in the LSC, SSC and IR regions were 65.9%, 70.8% and 57.8%, respectively. Fifteen genes contained one intron, while three genes had two introns.

  8. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  9. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Kimberly M.; Broccardo, Carolyn J.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Wintermantel, William M.

    2014-01-01

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on be...

  10. A greenhouse test for screening sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.E.; Panella, L.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Lange, W.

    2001-01-01

    Rhizoctonia solani Kühn is a serious plant pathogenic fungus, causing various types of damage to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). In Europe, the disease is spreading and becoming a threat for the growing of this crop. Plant resistance seems to be the most practical and economical way to control the

  11. Changes in quality of selected red beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivars during the growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Red beet (Beta vulgaris L. may be consumed at all stages of growth, both in the form of small early vegetable during spring and later, during winter, when stored. Therefore, knowledge of the dynamics of changes in the content of individual components in subsequent stages of growth is very important.

  12. Differential expression patterns of non-symbiotic hemoglobins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva-Eriksson, Nélida; Pin, Pierre A; Kraft, Thomas; Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Bülow, Leif

    2014-04-01

    Biennial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is a Caryophyllidae that has adapted its growth cycle to the seasonal temperature and daylength variation of temperate regions. This is the first time a holistic study of the expression pattern of non-symbiotic hemoglobins (nsHbs) is being carried out in a member of this group and under two essential environmental conditions for flowering, namely vernalization and length of photoperiod. BvHb genes were identified by sequence homology searches against the latest draft of the sugar beet genome. Three nsHb genes (BvHb1.1, BvHb1.2 and BvHb2) and one truncated Hb gene (BvHb3) were found in the genome of sugar beet. Gene expression profiling of the nsHb genes was carried out by quantitative PCR in different organs and developmental stages, as well as during vernalization and under different photoperiods. BvHb1.1 and BvHb2 showed differential expression during vernalization as well as during long and short days. The high expression of BvHb2 indicates that it has an active role in the cell, maybe even taking over some BvHb1.2 functions, except during germination where BvHb1.2 together with BvHb1.1-both Class 1 nsHbs-are highly expressed. The unprecedented finding of a leader peptide at the N-terminus of BvHb1.1, for the first time in an nsHb from higher plants, together with its observed expression indicate that it may have a very specific role due to its suggested location in chloroplasts. Our findings open up new possibilities for research, breeding and engineering since Hbs could be more involved in plant development than previously was anticipated.

  13. The identification of allergen proteins in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pollen causing occupational allergy in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoto, Susanne; Lambert, Wietske; Blomqvist, Anna; Emanuelsson, Cecilia

    2008-08-11

    During production of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) seeds in greenhouses, workers frequently develop allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize possible allergens in sugar beet pollen. Sera from individuals at a local sugar beet seed producing company, having positive SPT and specific IgE to sugar beet pollen extract, were used for immunoblotting. Proteins in sugar beet pollen extracts were separated by 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and IgE-reactive proteins analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A 14 kDa protein was identified as an allergen, since IgE-binding was inhibited by the well-characterized allergen Che a 2, profilin, from the related species Chenopodium album. The presence of 17 kDa and 14 kDa protein homologues to both the allergens Che a 1 and Che a 2 were detected in an extract from sugar beet pollen, and partial amino acid sequences were determined, using inclusion lists for tandem mass spectrometry based on homologous sequences. Two occupational allergens were identified in sugar beet pollen showing sequence similarity with Chenopodium allergens. Sequence data were obtained by mass spectrometry (70 and 25%, respectively for Beta v 1 and Beta v 2), and can be used for cloning and recombinant expression of the allergens. As for treatment of Chenopodium pollinosis, immunotherapy with sugar beet pollen extracts may be feasible.

  14. The genome of the recently domesticated crop plant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Minoche, André E; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Zakrzewski, Falk; Tafer, Hakim; Rupp, Oliver; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Stracke, Ralf; Reinhardt, Richard; Goesmann, Alexander; Kraft, Thomas; Schulz, Britta; Stadler, Peter F; Schmidt, Thomas; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2014-01-23

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climates which provides nearly 30% of the world's annual sugar production and is a source for bioethanol and animal feed. The species belongs to the order of Caryophylalles, is diploid with 2n = 18 chromosomes, has an estimated genome size of 714-758 megabases and shares an ancient genome triplication with other eudicot plants. Leafy beets have been cultivated since Roman times, but sugar beet is one of the most recently domesticated crops. It arose in the late eighteenth century when lines accumulating sugar in the storage root were selected from crosses made with chard and fodder beet. Here we present a reference genome sequence for sugar beet as the first non-rosid, non-asterid eudicot genome, advancing comparative genomics and phylogenetic reconstructions. The genome sequence comprises 567 megabases, of which 85% could be assigned to chromosomes. The assembly covers a large proportion of the repetitive sequence content that was estimated to be 63%. We predicted 27,421 protein-coding genes supported by transcript data and annotated them on the basis of sequence homology. Phylogenetic analyses provided evidence for the separation of Caryophyllales before the split of asterids and rosids, and revealed lineage-specific gene family expansions and losses. We sequenced spinach (Spinacia oleracea), another Caryophyllales species, and validated features that separate this clade from rosids and asterids. Intraspecific genomic variation was analysed based on the genome sequences of sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima; progenitor of all beet crops) and four additional sugar beet accessions. We identified seven million variant positions in the reference genome, and also large regions of low variability, indicating artificial selection. The sugar beet genome sequence enables the identification of genes affecting agronomically relevant traits, supports molecular breeding and maximizes the plant

  15. Construction and characterization of a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schulz, Britta; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2008-11-01

    A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) fosmid library from the doubled haploid accession KWS2320 encompassing 115 200 independent clones was constructed and characterized. The average insert size of the fosmid library was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis to be 39 kbp on average, thus representing 5.9-fold coverage of the sugar beet genome (758 Mbp). PCR screening of plate pools with primer pairs against nine sugar beet genes supported the insert size estimation. BLAST searches with 2951 fosmid end-sequences originating from 1510 clones (1536 clones attempted) revealed little contamination with organellar DNA (2.1% chloroplast DNA, 0.3% mitochondrial DNA). The sugar beet fosmid library will be integrated in the presently ongoing efforts to determine the sequence of the sugar beet genome. Fosmids will be publicly available in the format of plate pools and individual clones.

  16. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Saccharifera vitroculture initiation from encapsulated seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae PALCUT

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the optimal method of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera seed sterilization to "in vitro" cultures initiation, and to found a cultivar that is suitable to growth in specific conditions of vitroculture. The study was necessary because the literature does not refer to the method of initiating vitrocultures from encapsulated beet seeds and to avoid any losses that may occur in a massive micropropagation. The most optimal method for beet encapsulated seeds asepsization, prior inoculation on the vitroculture medium consists in the their dipping in sodium hypochlorite solution for 15 minutes, and the best cultivar which was suited to micropropagation was Evelina, but Diamant too, with 90 - 95% germination rate and a very good ulterior growth.

  17. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  18. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris) Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Kimberly M; Broccardo, Carolyn J; Prenni, Jessica E; Wintermantel, William M

    2014-04-09

    Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), severely impacts sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  19. Nuclear and cytoplasmic genetic diversity in weed beet and sugar beet accessions compared to wild relatives: new insights into the genetic relationships within the Beta vulgaris complex species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fénart, Stéphane; Arnaud, Jean-François; De Cauwer, Isabelle; Cuguen, Joël

    2008-05-01

    Hybridization between cultivated species and their wild relatives is now widely considered to be common. In the Beta vulgaris complex, the sugar beet seed multiplication areas have been the scene of inadvertent pollination of sugar beet seed bearers by wild ruderal pollen donors, generating a weedy form of beet which infests sugar beet fields in European countries. Up to now, investigations of evolutionary dynamics of genetic diversity within the B. vulgaris complex were addressed using few genetical markers and few accessions. In this study, we tackled this issue using a panel of complementary markers: five nuclear microsatellite loci, four mitochondrial minisatellite loci and one chloroplastic PCR-RFLP marker. We sampled 1,640 individuals that illustrate the actual distribution of inland ruderal beets of South Western France, weed beets and wild sea beets of northern France as well as the diversity of 35 contemporary European diploid cultivars. Nuclear genetic diversity in weed beets appeared to be as high as those of ruderal beets and sea beets, whereas the narrowness of cultivar accessions was confirmed. This genetic bottleneck in cultivars is even more important in the cytoplasmic genome as only one haplotype was found among all sugar beet cultivars. The large majority of weed beet populations also presented this unique cytoplasmic haplotype, as expected owing to their maternal cultivated origin. Nonetheless, various cytoplasmic haplotypes were found within three populations of weed beets, implying wild-to-weed seed flows. Finally, our findings gave new insights into the genetical relationships between the components of the B. vulgaris complex: (1) we found a very strong genetic divergence between wild sea beet and other relatives, which was unexpected given the recent evolutionary history and the full cross-compatibility of all taxa and (2) we definitely confirmed that the classification into cultivated, wild, ruderal and weed forms according to their

  20. Genetic analysis of bolting after winter in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Nina; Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana; Grosse, Ivo; Müller, Andreas E; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals for the first time a major QTL for post-winter bolting resistance in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L.). The knowledge of this QTL is a major contribution towards the development of a winter sugar beet with controlled bolting behavior. In cool temperate climates, sugar beets are currently grown as a spring crop. They are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Growing sugar beet as a winter crop with an extended vegetation period fails due to bolting after winter. Bolting after winter might be controlled by accumulating genes for post-winter bolting resistance. Previously, we had observed in field experiments a low post-winter bolting rate of 0.5 for sugar beet accession BETA 1773. This accession was crossed with a biennial sugar beet with regular bolting behavior to develop a F3 mapping population. The population was grown in the greenhouse, exposed to artificial cold treatment for 16 weeks and transplanted to the field. Bolting was recorded twice a week from May until October. Post-winter bolting behavior was assessed by two different factors, bolting delay (determined as days to bolt after cold treatment) and post-winter bolting resistance (bolting rate after winter). For days to bolt, means of F3 families ranged from 25 to 164 days while for bolting rate F3 families ranged from 0 to 1. For each factor one QTL explaining about 65% of the phenotypic variation was mapped to the same region on linkage group 9 with a partially recessive allele increasing bolting delay and post-winter bolting resistance. The results are discussed in relation to the potential use of marker-assisted breeding of winter sugar beets with controlled bolting.

  1. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  2. Association mapping in multiple segregating populations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Heckenberger, Martin; Möhring, Jens; Schechert, Axel; Piepho, Hans-Peter

    2008-11-01

    Association mapping in multiple segregating populations (AMMSP) combines high power to detect QTL in genome-wide approaches of linkage mapping with high mapping resolution of association mapping. The main objectives of this study were to (1) examine the applicability of AMMSP in a plant breeding context based on segregating populations of various size of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), (2) compare different biometric approaches for AMMSP, and (3) detect markers with significant main effect across locations for nine traits in sugar beet. We used 768 F(n) (n = 2, 3, 4) sugar beet genotypes which were randomly derived from 19 crosses among diploid elite sugar beet clones. For all nine traits, the genotypic and genotype x location interaction variances were highly significant (P < 0.01). Using a one-step AMMSP approach, the total number of significant (P < 0.05) marker-phenotype associations was 44. The identification of genome regions associated with the traits under consideration indicated that not only segregating populations derived from crosses of parental genotypes in a systematic manner could be used for AMMSP but also populations routinely derived in plant breeding programs from multiple, related crosses. Furthermore, our results suggest that data sets, whose size does not permit analysis by the one-step AMMSP approach, might be analyzed using the two-step approach based on adjusted entry means for each location without losing too much power for detection of marker-phenotype associations.

  3. Sugar Beet Extract (Beta vulgaris L.) as a New Natural Emulsifier: Emulsion Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralla, Theo; Salminen, Hanna; Edelmann, Matthias; Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas; Weiss, Jochen

    2017-05-24

    The interfacial and emulsion-forming properties of sugar beet extract (Beta vulgaris L.) were examined and compared to a Quillaja extract that is widely used within the food industry. We investigated the influence of extract concentration on surface activity at oil-water and air-water interfaces and on the formation of oil-in-water emulsions (10% w/w, pH 7). Sugar beet extract reduced the interfacial tension up to 38% at the oil-water interface, and the surface tension up to 33% at the air-water surface. The generated emulsions were negatively charged (ζ ≈ -46 mV) and had the smallest particle sizes (d 43 ) of ∼1.3 μm at a low emulsifier-to-oil ratio of 0.75:10. Applying lower or higher extract concentrations increased the mean particle sizes. The smallest emulsions were formed at an optimum homogenization pressure of 69 MPa. Higher homogenization pressures led to increased particle sizes. Overall, sugar beet extract showed high surface activity. Furthermore, the formation of small emulsion droplets was successful; however, the droplets were bigger compared to those from the Quillaja extract. These results indicate sugar beet as an effective natural emulsifier that may be utilized for a variety of food and beverage applications.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of apomictic monosomic addition line of Beta corolliflora and Beta vulgaris L. in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Bi, Ying-Dong; Yu, Li-Jie; Guo, De-Dong; Wang, Bai-Chen

    2009-11-01

    Apomixis refers to a process in which plants produce seed without fertilization through female syngamy that produces embryos genetically identical to the maternal parent. In sugar beet, interspecific hybrids between diploid Beta vulgaris and tetraploid Beta corolliflora were established and monosomic addition line M14 was selected because of the apomictic phenotype. By using two-dimensional electrophoresis gels we identified the proteins which were differently expressed between the M14 and B. vulgaris. A total of 27 protein spots which varied expressed between lines were isolated and successfully identified with MALDI-TOF MS. Among them five protein spots were found to be only presented in M14 and two protein spots only expressed in Beta. According to their functional annotations described in Swissprot database, these proteins were, respectively, involved in important biological pathways, such as cell division, functionally classified using the KEGG functional classification system. The result may be useful for us to better understand the genetic mechanism of apomixes.

  5. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima—ancestor of all beet crops—and modern sugar beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes. PMID:25206350

  6. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima-ancestor of all beet crops-and modern sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachow, Christin; Müller, Henry; Tilcher, Ralf; Berg, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS) and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS) under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 37.5% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8%) than for sugar beet (≤57.5%). Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  7. Liver-protecting effects of table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) during ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váli, László; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Fébel, Hedvig; Sárdi, Eva; Lugasi, Andrea; Kocsis, Ibolya; Blázovics, Anna

    2007-02-01

    Table beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) contains important bioactive agents (betaine and polyphenols), which have a wide range of physiologic effects. Because nutritive antioxidants may reduce the occurrence of complications and postoperative mortality, dietary intake of polyphenols and vitamins before surgery may greatly contribute to the survival of patients. Our aim was to determine the liver-protecting properties of bioactive substances of table beet in a model of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the rat. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: non-treated (n = 24) and fed with table beet (n = 8). For 10 days the second group was treated with lyophilized table beet (2 g/kg body weight daily) mixed into the rat chow. Hepatic ischemia was maintained for 45 min, followed by 15 min of reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion was carried out on animals from both groups. Chemiluminescent intensity, H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration, Randox-total antioxidant status, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were determined by luminometry and spectrophotometry. Fatty acid (Shimadzu GC) and metal ion (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) concentrations were observed in the liver. As a result of feeding, global parameters (H-donating ability, reducing power, free SH group concentration) and enzymatic antioxidants (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) of the liver were found to increase significantly, which indicated that the treatment had a positive effect on its redox state. The increase found in zinc and copper content may protect the hepatocytes against oxidative stress because these elements are required for the function of superoxide dismutase enzymes. In the table beet group the concentration of short-chain fatty acids decreased, whereas that of long-chain fatty acids increased. The changes in metal element and fatty acid concentrations confirmed that these elements have an essential function

  8. Transcriptome analysis of sugar beet root maggot (Tetanops myopaeformis) genes modulated by the Beta vulgaris host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Smigocki, Ann C

    2018-04-01

    Sugar beet root maggot (SBRM, Tetanops myopaeformis von Röder) is a major but poorly understood insect pest of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense responses are well documented, however, little information is available about complementary mechanisms for insect adaptive responses to overcome host resistance. To date, no studies have been published on SBRM gene expression profiling. Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) generated more than 300 SBRM ESTs differentially expressed in the interaction of the pest with a moderately resistant (F1016) and a susceptible (F1010) sugar beet line. Blast2GO v. 3.2 search indicated that over 40% of the differentially expressed genes had known functions, primarily driven by fruit fly D. melanogaster genes. Expression patterns of 18 selected EST clones were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis predicted a dominance of metabolic and catalytic genes involved in the interaction of SBRM with its host. SBRM genes functioning during development, regulation, cellular process, signaling and under stress conditions were annotated. SBRM genes that were common or unique in response to resistant or susceptible interactions with the host were identified and their possible roles in insect responses to the host are discussed. © Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Insect Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Traffic effects on soil compaction and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, F.; Pezzuolo, A.; Cillis, D.; Chiumenti, A.; Sartori, L.

    2017-01-01

    Soil compaction is a critical issue in agriculture having a significant influence on crop growth. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is accounted as a crop susceptible to compaction. Reduction of leaf area, final yield, and root quality parameters are reported in compacted soils. The most obvious visual indicator of topsoil compaction is root depth affected by agricultural tractor and machinery traffic up on the soil. Such indicators are mainly correlated to initial soil condition, tyre features, and number of passages. Monitoring and controlling frequency and position of machine traffic across the field, in such a way that passages are completed on specific, well-defined tracks, can assist with minimization of compaction effects on soil. The objective of the present work was to analyze the subsoil compaction during the growing period of sugar beet with different farming approaches including controlled traffic passages and random traffic. To this end, tests were carried out following each agro technical operation using penetrometer readings in order to monitor the state of cone-index after each step. In addition, at the harvesting time, root quality parameters were analyzed with particular attention to length and regularity of the taproot, total length, circumference, mass, and above-ground biomass. Such parameters were usefully implemented in order to evaluate the effects of controlled traffic passages compared to the random traffic in a cultivation of sugar beet. Results highlight how an increase in crop yield, derived from samples monitored, higher than 10% can be expected with implementation of a careful traffic management.

  10. Traffic effects on soil compaction and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot quality parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, F.; Pezzuolo, A.; Cillis, D.; Chiumenti, A.; Sartori, L.

    2017-09-01

    Soil compaction is a critical issue in agriculture having a significant influence on crop growth. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is accounted as a crop susceptible to compaction. Reduction of leaf area, final yield, and root quality parameters are reported in compacted soils. The most obvious visual indicator of topsoil compaction is root depth affected by agricultural tractor and machinery traffic up on the soil. Such indicators are mainly correlated to initial soil condition, tyre features, and number of passages. Monitoring and controlling frequency and position of machine traffic across the field, in such a way that passages are completed on specific, well-defined tracks, can assist with minimization of compaction effects on soil. The objective of the present work was to analyze the subsoil compaction during the growing period of sugar beet with different farming approaches including controlled traffic passages and random traffic. To this end, tests were carried out following each agro technical operation using penetrometer readings in order to monitor the state of cone-index after each step. In addition, at the harvesting time, root quality parameters were analyzed with particular attention to length and regularity of the taproot, total length, circumference, mass, and above-ground biomass. Such parameters were usefully implemented in order to evaluate the effects of controlled traffic passages compared to the random traffic in a cultivation of sugar beet. Results highlight how an increase in crop yield, derived from samples monitored, higher than 10% can be expected with implementation of a careful traffic management.

  11. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear (DDQBN)]. E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.br; vital@ctex.eb.br; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst.de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia]. E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: ronoel@ctaa.embrapa.br

    2007-07-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  12. Shelf-life extension of minimally processed and gamma irradiated red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Cv. early wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre

    2007-01-01

    This work investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on the shelf-life extension and safety of minimally processed red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) by performing microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses. Red beets were harvested 73 days after transplanting and their tuberous parts were minimally processed and separated in two groups: control (non-irradiated) and irradiated (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy). Tests for Salmonella sp., total and fecal coliforms, total count of aerobic mesophilic and lactic-acid bacteria were performed during the 21-day storage at 8 deg C. They indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained in good conditions throughout storage while the unirradiated samples did not last 7 days. Chemical analyses indicated that the concentrations of vitamins B1 and B2 were not affected by irradiation. In contrast the amounts of fructose and glucose increased during storage while the one for sucrose decreased. In addition four series of sensory evaluations including appearance and aroma indicated that the samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy remained good for consumption for 20 days. Therefore it was concluded that the use of the doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy produced the best effects on the conservation of the samples without harming the sensory characteristics and nutritional constituents tested. (author)

  13. DNA methylation of retrotransposons, DNA transposons and genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schmidt, Martin; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke; Schmidt, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    The methylation of cytosines shapes the epigenetic landscape of plant genomes, coordinates transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, represses the activity of transposable elements (TEs), affects gene expression and, hence, can influence the phenotype. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris), an important crop that accounts for 30% of worldwide sugar needs, has a relatively small genome size (758 Mbp) consisting of approximately 485 Mbp repetitive DNA (64%), in particular satellite DNA, retrotransposons and DNA transposons. Genome-wide cytosine methylation in the sugar beet genome was studied in leaves and leaf-derived callus with a focus on repetitive sequences, including retrotransposons and DNA transposons, the major groups of repetitive DNA sequences, and compared with gene methylation. Genes showed a specific methylation pattern for CG, CHG (H = A, C, and T) and CHH sites, whereas the TE pattern differed, depending on the TE class (class 1, retrotransposons and class 2, DNA transposons). Along genes and TEs, CG and CHG methylation was higher than that of adjacent genomic regions. In contrast to the relatively low CHH methylation in retrotransposons and genes, the level of CHH methylation in DNA transposons was strongly increased, pointing to a functional role of asymmetric methylation in DNA transposon silencing. Comparison of genome-wide DNA methylation between sugar beet leaves and callus revealed a differential methylation upon tissue culture. Potential epialleles were hypomethylated (lower methylation) at CG and CHG sites in retrotransposons and genes and hypermethylated (higher methylation) at CHH sites in DNA transposons of callus when compared with leaves. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko Wadamori

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW. Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW. The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly (p < 0.05 reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  15. Hormonal control of endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings growing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewska, E; Virden, R; Sliwinska, E

    2012-01-01

    The effect on endoreduplication in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) seedlings of five plant hormones in MS medium, ethylene, 24-epibrassinolide (EBR), gibberellic acid (GA(3) ), kinetin and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), as well as a combination of kinetin and NAA at two different concentrations, was studied using flow cytometry. Analyses of DNA content in nuclei of the root, hypocotyl and cotyledons of seedlings growing in vitro were performed during their early development, starting from when the root was 0.5-1.0 cm long until expansion of the first pair of leaves. The proportions of nuclei with different DNA contents were established and the mean C-value calculated. The presence of exogenous plant hormones changed endoreduplication intensity, although to different extents, depending on the organ and developmental stage. Ethylene and NAA stimulated the process, while EBR and kinetin suppressed it and GA did not clearly affect it. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Physiological Performance of Portuguese Wild Beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from Three Contrasting Habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isa C; Pinheiro, Carla; Ribeiro, Carla M; Veloso, Maria M; Simoes-Costa, Maria C; Evaristo, Isabel; Paulo, Octávio S; Ricardo, Cândido P

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris) is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima) from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill), Comporta (CMP, marsh) and Oeiras (OEI, coastland), and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB), are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP), the inland ruderal beet (VMT) and the sugar beet (SB). A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root) was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages, and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness) and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e., the capacity to physiologically adjust to

  17. Genetic diversity and physiological performance of Portuguese wild beet (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from three contrasting habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Catarina Ribeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of stress resilient sugar beets (Beta vulgaris spp. vulgaris is an important breeding goal since this cash crop is susceptible to drought and salinity. The genetic diversity in cultivated sugar beets is low and the beet wild relatives are useful genetic resources for tolerance traits. Three wild beet populations (Beta vulgaris spp. maritima from contrasting environments, Vaiamonte (VMT, dry inland hill, Comporta (CMP, marsh and Oeiras (OEI, coastland, and one commercial sugar beet (Isella variety, SB, are compared. At the genetic level, the use of six microsatellite allowed to detect a total of seventy six alleles. It was observed that CMP population has the highest value concerning the effective number of alleles and of expected heterozygosity. By contrast, sugar beet has the lowest values for all the parameters considered. Loci analysis with STRUCTURE allows defining three genetic clusters, the sea beet (OEI and CMP, the inland ruderal beet (VMT and the sugar beet (SB. A screening test for progressive drought and salinity effects demonstrated that: all populations were able to recover from severe stress; drought impact was higher than that from salinity; the impact on biomass (total, shoot, root was population specific. The distinct strategies were also visible at physiological level. We evaluated the physiological responses of the populations under drought and salt stress, namely at initial stress stages, late stress stages and early stress recovery. Multivariate analysis showed that the physiological performance can be used to discriminate between genotypes, with a strong contribution of leaf temperature and leaf osmotic adjustment. However, the separation achieved and the groups formed are dependent on the stress type, stress intensity and duration. Each of the wild beet populations evaluated is very rich in genetic terms (allelic richness and exhibited physiological plasticity, i.e. the capacity to physiologically adjust

  18. Diversity of a complex centromeric satellite and molecular characterization of dispersed sequence families in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Dechyeva, Daryna; Wenke, Torsten; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this work was the identification and molecular characterization of novel sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) repetitive sequences to unravel the impact of repetitive DNA on size and evolution of Beta genomes via amplification and diversification. Genomic DNA and a pool of B. vulgaris repetitive sequences were separately used as probes for a screening of high-density filters from a B. vulgaris plasmid library. Novel repetitive motifs were identified by sequencing and further used as probes for Southern analyses in the genus Beta. Chromosomal localization of the repeats was analysed by fluorescent in situ hybridization on chromosomes of B. vulgaris and two other species of the section Beta. Two dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 and the tandemly arranged repeat family pRv1 were isolated from a sugar beet plasmid library. The dispersed repetitive families pDvul1 and pDvul2 were identified in all four sections of the genus Beta. The members of the pDvul1 and pDvul2 family are scattered over all B. vulgaris chromosomes, although amplified to a different extent. The pRv1 satellite repeat is exclusively present in species of the section Beta. The centromeric satellite pBV1 by structural variations of the monomer and interspersion of pRv1 units forms complex satellite structures, which are amplified in different degrees on the centromeres of 12 chromosomes of the three species of the Beta section. The complexity of the pBV1 satellite family observed in the section Beta of the genus Beta and, in particular, the strong amplification of the pBV1/pRv1 satellite in the domesticated B. vulgaris indicates the dynamics of centromeric satellite evolution during species radiation within the genus. The dispersed repeat families pDvul1 and pDvul2 might represent derivatives of transposable elements.

  19. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  20. Identification of saponins from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) by low and high-resolution HPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikołajczyk-Bator, Katarzyna; Błaszczyk, Alfred; Czyżniejewski, Mariusz; Kachlicki, Piotr

    2016-09-01

    We profiled triterpene saponins from the roots of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. cultivars Huzar and Boryna using reversed-phase liquid chromatography combined with negative-ion electrospray ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry. We tentatively identified 26 triterpene saponins, including 17 that had not been detected previously in this plant species and 7 saponins that were tentatively identified as new compounds. All observed compounds were glycosides of five different aglycones, of which gypsogenin and norhederagenin are reported for the first time in sugar beet. Thirteen of the saponins detected in sugar beet roots were substituted with dioxolane-type (4 saponins) or acetal-type (9 saponins) dicarboxylic acids. Among the 26 detected saponins, we identified 2 groups of isomers distinguished using high-resolution mass measurements that were detected only in the Huzar cultivar of sugar beet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Traffic effects on soil compaction and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. taproot quality parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marinello

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil compaction is a critical issue in agriculture having a significant influence on crop growth. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. is accounted as a crop susceptible to compaction. Reduction of leaf area, final yield, and root quality parameters are reported in compacted soils. The most obvious visual indicator of topsoil compaction is root depth affected by agricultural tractor and machinery traffic up on the soil. Such indicators are mainly correlated to initial soil condition, tyre features, and number of passages. Monitoring and controlling frequency and position of machine traffic across the field, in such a way that passages are completed on specific, well-defined tracks, can assist with minimization of compaction effects on soil. The objective of the present work was to analyze the subsoil compaction during the growing period of sugar beet with different farming approaches including controlled traffic passages and random traffic. To this end, tests were carried out following each agro technical operation using penetrometer readings in order to monitor the state of cone-index after each step. In addition, at the harvesting time, root quality parameters were analyzed with particular attention to length and regularity of the taproot, total length, circumference, mass, and above-ground biomass. Such parameters were usefully implemented in order to evaluate the effects of controlled traffic passages compared to the random traffic in a cultivation of sugar beet. Results highlight how an increase in crop yield, derived from samples monitored, higher than 10% can be expected with implementation of a careful traffic management.

  2. Genome-wide identification and characterisation of R2R3-MYB genes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracke, Ralf; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Schneider, Jessica; Pucker, Boas; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-09-25

    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, metabolite accumulation and defense responses. Although genome-wide analysis of this gene family has been carried out in some species, the R2R3-MYB genes in Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) as the first sequenced member of the order Caryophyllales, have not been analysed heretofore. We present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris (sugar beet) which is the first species of the order Caryophyllales with a sequenced genome. A total of 70 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Also, organ specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-seq data. The R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised which led to the identification of a sugar beet-specific clade with an atypical amino acid composition in the R3 domain, putatively encoding betalain regulators. The functional classification was verified by experimental confirmation of the prediction that the R2R3-MYB gene Bv_iogq encodes a flavonol regulator. This study provides the first step towards cloning and functional dissection of the role of MYB transcription factor genes in the nutritionally and evolutionarily interesting species B. vulgaris. In addition, it describes the flavonol regulator BvMYB12, being the first sugar beet R2R3-MYB with an experimentally proven function.

  3. Growth and chlorophyll fluorescence under salinity stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, at Der EzZour Agricultural Research Center, from 2008-2010, to examine the effect of salt conditions on some growth attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence in 10 Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar beet plants were irrigated with saline water, having electrical conductivity ranged from 8.6-10 dS.m-1during first year and 8.4-10.4 dS.m-1 during second year. A randomized completely block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that all studied growth attributes, leaf area, leaf number, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate were decreased in salinity stress conditions compared to the controlled state. The findings indicated that salinity caused a decrement of light utilizing through increased values of fluorescence origin (fo, decreased values of fluorescence maximum (fm, and maximum yield of quantum in photosystem-II (fv/fm. Genotypes differed significantly in all studied attributes except in leaf number. Under salt conditions, Brigitta (monogerm achieved an increase in net assimilation rate, while Kawimera (multigerm achieved the lowest decrement in quantum yield in photosystem-II. Further studies are necessary to correlate the yield with yield components under similar conditions to determine the most tolerant genotype.International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 1-9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9937

  4. Biological activities of the antiviral protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Rosario; Citores, Lucía; Di Maro, Antimo; Ferreras, José M

    2015-02-01

    The ribosome inactivating protein BE27 displays several biological activities in vitro that could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens. Beetin 27 (BE27), a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves, is an antiviral protein induced by virus and signaling compounds such as hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid. Its role as a defense protein has been attributed to its RNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity. Here we tested other putative activities of BE27 that could have a defensive role against pathogens finding that BE27 displays rRNA N-glycosidase activity against yeast and Agrobacterium tumefaciens ribosomes, DNA polynucleotide:adenosine glycosidase activity against herring sperm DNA, and magnesium-dependent endonuclease activity against the supercoiled plasmid PUC19 (nicking activity). The nicking activity could be a consequence of an unusual conformation of the BE27 active site, similar to that of PD-L1, a RIP from Phytolacca dioica L. leaves. Additionally, BE27 possesses superoxide dismutase activity, thus being able to produce the signal compound hydrogen peroxide. BE27 is also toxic to COLO 320 cells, inducing apoptosis in these cells by either activating the caspase pathways and/or inhibiting protein synthesis. The combined effect of these biological activities could result in a broad action against several types of pathogens such as virus, bacteria, fungi or insects.

  5. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  6. [Physiological responses of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to drought stress during vegetative development period under drip irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang-yang; Geng, Qing-yun; Fei, Cong; Fan, Huai

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris cv. Beta 356) was subjected to drought stress during vegetative development by maintaining the soil water content in the 0-40 cm soil depth at 70%, 50% or 30% of field capacity to study the physiological traits of the leaves. Results showed that the compensation index was the highest in the 50% field capacity treatment. Malonaldehyde (MDA) content, relative conductivity, catalase (CAT) activity, and soluble sugar content began to increase 24 h after rehydration. Proline content began to increase 48 h after rehydration. In contrast, no compensation effect was observed in peroxidase (POD) activity after rehydration. Among the active oxygen scavenging enzymes, CAT was most sensitive to drought stress. Supplemental irrigation should be carried out promptly when the soil water content dropped to 50% of field capacity during vegetative development. Rehydration could promote self-repair functions in leaves, thus reducing the effects of drought on sugar beet yield and sugar content.

  7. Proteome analysis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) elucidates constitutive adaptation during the first phase of salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Abdul; Asif, Abdul R; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2011-04-15

    Salinity is one of the major stress factors responsible for growth reduction of most of the higher plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on protein pattern in shoots and roots of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was examined. Sugar beet plants were grown in hydroponics under control and 125 mM salt treatments. A significant growth reduction of shoots and roots was observed. The changes in protein expression, caused by salinity, were monitored using two-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Most of the detected proteins in sugar beet showed stability under salt stress. The statistical analysis of detected proteins showed that the expression of only six proteins from shoots and three proteins from roots were significantly altered. At this stage, the significantly changed protein expressions we detected could not be attributed to sugar beet adaptation under salt stress. However, unchanged membrane bound proteins under salt stress did reveal the constitutive adaptation of sugar beet to salt stress at the plasma membrane level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) varieties using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Marinus J M; Esselink, G Danny; Everaert, Isabelle; De Riek, Jan; Vosman, Ben

    2010-05-18

    Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient F(is) was 0.282 +/- 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from F(is) = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency) to F(is) = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes). The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (F(st) = 0.232 +/- 0.027). Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (F(st) = 0.100 +/- 0.010). The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was F(st) = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  9. Characterisation of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris varieties using microsatellite markers

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    De Riek Jan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet is an obligate outcrossing species. Varieties consist of mixtures of plants from various parental combinations. As the number of informative morphological characteristics is limited, this leads to some problems in variety registration research. Results We have developed 25 new microsatellite markers for sugar beet. A selection of 12 markers with high quality patterns was used to characterise 40 diploid and triploid varieties. For each variety 30 individual plants were genotyped. The markers amplified 3-21 different alleles. Varieties had up to 7 different alleles at one marker locus. All varieties could be distinguished. For the diploid varieties, the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.458 to 0.744. The average inbreeding coefficient Fis was 0.282 ± 0.124, but it varied widely among marker loci, from Fis = +0.876 (heterozygote deficiency to Fis = -0.350 (excess of heterozygotes. The genetic differentiation among diploid varieties was relatively constant among markers (Fst = 0.232 ± 0.027. Among triploid varieties the genetic differentiation was much lower (Fst = 0.100 ± 0.010. The overall genetic differentiation between diploid and triploid varieties was Fst = 0.133 across all loci. Part of this differentiation may coincide with the differentiation among breeders' gene pools, which was Fst = 0.063. Conclusions Based on a combination of scores for individual plants all varieties can be distinguished using the 12 markers developed here. The markers may also be used for mapping and in molecular breeding. In addition, they may be employed in studying gene flow from crop to wild populations.

  10. Evaluation of Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. To Freezing Tolerance Under Controlled Conditions

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    A. Nezami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the freezing tolerance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., seven cultivars (Suprema, Jolge, Monotunno, Giada, PP8, SBSI1, Palma were exposed to the 10 temperatures (0, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -12, -14, -16 and -18˚C .The study carried out as a factorial arrangement of treatments based on randomized completely design with three replications at College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2009. Plants were kept until 4-5 leaf stage in natural environment at early autumn, then transferred to the thermogradient freezer. No. of leaf, leaf area, leaf dry weight, survival percentage, lethal temperature 50 according to the survival percentage (LT50su and reduced dry matter temperature 50 (RDMT50 were determined after 21 days (end of recovery duration. Results showed that by reduction of temperature No. of leaf, leaf area and its dry weight significantly decreased. Amounts of LT50su between the cultivars were significantly different. Monotunno with LT50su -16.9˚C was more cold hardly than others and PP8 and SBSI1 with LT50su -15.2˚C were susceptible to the freezing temperatures. Decreasing temperature below -14˚C reduced survival percentage in all cultivars. PP8 and SBSI1 cultivars perished completely at -16˚C while others like Suprema and Monotunno had high survival percentage, but all of them killed at -18˚C.Correlation between RDMT50 and LT50su was high but not significant. However there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.99** between LT50su and survival percentage.

  11. SMRT sequencing only de novo assembly of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) chloroplast genome.

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    Stadermann, Kai Bernd; Weisshaar, Bernd; Holtgräwe, Daniela

    2015-09-16

    Third generation sequencing methods, like SMRT (Single Molecule, Real-Time) sequencing developed by Pacific Biosciences, offer much longer read length in comparison to Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. Hence, they are well suited for de novo- or re-sequencing projects. Sequences generated for these purposes will not only contain reads originating from the nuclear genome, but also a significant amount of reads originating from the organelles of the target organism. These reads are usually discarded but they can also be used for an assembly of organellar replicons. The long read length supports resolution of repetitive regions and repeats within the organelles genome which might be problematic when just using short read data. Additionally, SMRT sequencing is less influenced by GC rich areas and by long stretches of the same base. We describe a workflow for a de novo assembly of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) chloroplast genome sequence only based on data originating from a SMRT sequencing dataset targeted on its nuclear genome. We show that the data obtained from such an experiment are sufficient to create a high quality assembly with a higher reliability than assemblies derived from e.g. Illumina reads only. The chloroplast genome is especially challenging for de novo assembling as it contains two large inverted repeat (IR) regions. We also describe some limitations that still apply even though long reads are used for the assembly. SMRT sequencing reads extracted from a dataset created for nuclear genome (re)sequencing can be used to obtain a high quality de novo assembly of the chloroplast of the sequenced organism. Even with a relatively small overall coverage for the nuclear genome it is possible to collect more than enough reads to generate a high quality assembly that outperforms short read based assemblies. However, even with long reads it is not always possible to clarify the order of elements of a chloroplast genome sequence reliantly

  12. Development of embryoids by microspore and anther cultures of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris

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    Krystyna GÓRECKA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available So far there is no information about receiving red beet androgenic embryos by androgenesis. Several factors were tested which affected this process: starch accumulation in microspores, correlation between bud length and microsporogenesis course, induction and regeneration medium composition. Ploidy level of obtained regenerants were evaluated. Treating anthers with α-amylase or watering donor plants with gibberellin increased number of obtained androgenic embryos. The highest percentage (80% of microspores at uninuclear stage appeared in buds with 1.3-1.5 mm. The B5 medium with 100 g·L-1 sucrose and 0.1 mg·L-1 2,4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid proved to be better for inducing androgenesis than MS medium supplemented with 0.2 mg·L-1 BAP (6-benzylaminopurine and 0.5 mg·L-1 IAA (indole-3-acetic acid. First androgenic embryos were placed on B5 medium without plant growth regulators and then on MS medium containing 0.2 mg·L-1 BAP and 1 mg·L-1 NAA (α-naphthaleneacetic acid. Androgenic embryos died on B5 regeneration medium without plant growth regulators. On MS medium first shoots and callus with and without roots were obtained. Rosettes withered during following passages whereas callus tissue developed further. The quantity of DNA in this tissue equivalent to 4X chromosomes.

  13. Isolation of pectin-enriched products from red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) wastes: composition and functional properties.

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    Fissore, E N; Ponce, N M A; Matkovic, L; Stortz, C A; Rojas, A M; Gerschenson, L N

    2011-12-01

    The present work was dedicated to the development of an extraction process for red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. conditiva) by-products that preserves the high molecular weight of the macromolecules with the primary aim of waste upgrading. Our study concerns the extraction of pectin-enriched products with potential thickening properties for their usage in food formulation, as well as with some healthy physiological effect, by using citrate buffer (pH = 5.2) either alone or with enzymes (hemicellulase or cellulase) active on cell wall polysaccharide networks. Considering that red beet tissue contains ferulic acid, which cross-links pectin macromolecules through arabinose residues to anchor them into the cell wall, an alkaline pretreatment was also evaluated in order to perform polysaccharide hydrolysis in the cell wall network to accomplish higher renderings. Chemical composition and yield, as well as the in vitro glucose retention exerted by the isolated fiber products were finally analyzed.

  14. Computational identification and characterization of conserved miRNAs and their target genes in beet (Beta vulgaris).

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    Li, J L; Cui, J; Cheng, D Y

    2015-08-07

    Highly conserved endogenous non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in plants and animals by silencing genes via destruction or blocking of translation of homologous mRNA. Sugar beet, Beta vulgaris, is one of the most important sugar crops in China, with properties that include wide adaptability and strong tolerance to salinity and impoverished soils. Seedlings of B. vulgaris can grow in soils containing up to 0.6% salt; it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance to enrich genetic resources for breeding salt-tolerant sugar beets. Here, we report 13 mature miRNAs from 12 families, predicted using an in silico approach from 29,857 expressed sequence tags and 279,223 genome survey sequences. The psRNATarget server predicted 25 target genes for the 13 miRNAs. Most of the target genes appeared to encode transcription factors or were involved in metabolism, signal transduction, stress response, growth, and development. These results improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of miRNA in beet and may aid in the development of novel and precise techniques for understanding post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanisms in response to stress tolerance.

  15. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of pesticides used in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces

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    A.B. Bazrgar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental optimizing of pest management strategies and improving theirs trends towards minimum environmental risks programs is a matter of considerable concern of food scientists particularly in developing countries. This study evaluates the environmental impacts of pesticides consumption based on Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ model in different sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production systems in Khorasan provinces as the largest producer of this strategic crop in Iran. For this purpose, information of pesticides used in 26 locations of 11 geographic regions in Khorasan provinces, (North, Razavi and South Khorasan provinces in three types of production systems was gathered: mechanized, semi-mechanized and traditional. In all three production systems, based on EIQ index which uses three risk components: farm worker, consumer and leaching and environment to estimate the relative potential risk of pesticide, the most negative effect of pesticide consumption was on ecosystem organisms as ecological component. Results showed that there is no relationship between sugar beet yield and increasing both diversity of pesticides types and quantity of active ingredients consumption as well. Moreover, granted that increasing in mechanization in sugar beet production caused more environmental load in farm, considering sugar beet yield, mechanized systems resulted in 33% less environmental damage per 1 ton sugar beet produced. Thus, it is expected that there is a possibility to improve ecological function of Khorasan sugar beet production systems without economic loss by substitution or decreasing the use of pesticides. Also, employing more mechanized and more productive systems may reduce environmental hazards in national scale and decrease environmental load due to transportation of non local production in international scale.

  16. The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

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    Bobek, P; Galbavý, S; Mariássyová, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with 5% and 15% cellulose or with 15% fiber isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) on the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinoma was studied in male Wistar rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol and colon carcinoma was induced by treatment with dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg, 12 doses applied s.c. in one-week intervals). Fibrous matter isolated from red beet contained 89% fiber, of which 9% was in water soluble form. Animals were killed 14 weeks after the application of dimethylhydrazine (i.e. 26 weeks after starting on the diets). Red beet fiber diet (and not the increased cellulose intake) caused a reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels (by 30 and 40%, respectively) and a significant increase in the fraction of cholesterol carried in HDL. This diet induced also a significant decrease (almost by 30%) of cholesterol content in aorta. Higher cellulose content in the diet and even more so the administration of red beet fiber caused a significant reduction of conjugated dienes content in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver. Also observed were increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and in colon and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. The presence of both higher cellulose content and red beet fiber in the diet significantly reduced the incidence of precancerous lesions--aberrant crypt foci--in the colon. The diet containing red beet fiber did not affect significantly the incidence of colon tumours although the number of animals bearing tumours was reduced by 30%.

  17. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

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    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  18. Survey of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hAT transposons and MITE-like hATpin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Gerhard; Krebs, Carmen; Diez, Mercedes; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Weisshaar, Bernd; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Genome-wide analyses of repetitive DNA suggest a significant impact particularly of transposable elements on genome size and evolution of virtually all eukaryotic organisms. In this study, we analyzed the abundance and diversity of the hAT transposon superfamily of the sugar beet (B. vulgaris) genome, using molecular, bioinformatic and cytogenetic approaches. We identified 81 transposase-coding sequences, three of which are part of structurally intact but nonfunctional hAT transposons (BvhAT), in a B. vulgaris BAC library as well as in whole genome sequencing-derived data sets. Additionally, 116 complete and 497 truncated non-autonomous BvhAT derivatives lacking the transposase gene were in silico-detected. The 116 complete derivatives were subdivided into four BvhATpin groups each characterized by a distinct terminal inverted repeat motif. Both BvhAT and BvhATpin transposons are specific for species of the genus Beta and closely related species, showing a localization on B. vulgaris chromosomes predominantely in euchromatic regions. The lack of any BvhAT transposase function together with the high degree of degeneration observed for the BvhAT and the BvhATpin genomic fraction contrasts with the abundance and activity of autonomous and non-autonomous hAT transposons revealed in other plant species. This indicates a possible genus-specific structural and functional repression of the hAT transposon superfamily during Beta diversification and evolution.

  19. Reliable In Silico Identification of Sequence Polymorphisms and Their Application for Extending the Genetic Map of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Viehöver, Prisca; Schneider, Jessica; Schulz, Britta; Borchardt, Dietrich; Kraft, Thomas; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers. PMID:25302600

  20. Effect of halotolerant rhizobacteria isolated from halophytes on the growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Na; Zhao, Shuai; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2017-06-15

    Utilization of rhizobacteria that have associated with plant roots in harsh environments could be a feasible strategy to deal with limits to agricultural production caused by soil salinity. Halophytes occur naturally in high-salt environments, and their roots may be associated with promising microbial candidates for promoting growth and salt tolerance in crops. This study aimed to isolate efficient halotolerant plant-growth-promoting rhizobacterial strains from halophytes and evaluate their activity and effects on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) growth under salinity stress. A total of 23 isolates were initially screened for their ability to secrete 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACD) as well as other plant-growth-promoting characteristics and subsequently identified by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene. Three isolates, identified as Micrococcus yunnanensis, Planococcus rifietoensis and Variovorax paradoxus, enhanced salt stress tolerance remarkably in sugar beet, resulting in greater seed germination and plant biomass, higher photosynthetic capacity and lower stress-induced ethylene production at different NaCl concentrations (50-125 mM). These results demonstrate that salinity-adapted, ACD-producing bacteria isolated from halophytes could promote sugar beet growth under saline stress conditions. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Reliable in silico identification of sequence polymorphisms and their application for extending the genetic map of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Viehöver, Prisca; Schneider, Jessica; Schulz, Britta; Borchardt, Dietrich; Kraft, Thomas; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers.

  2. Versatile synthesis of PHMB-stabilized silver nanoparticles and their significant stimulating effect on fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Alexander А; Kudrinsky, Alexey A; Zakharova, Olga V; Klimov, Alexey I; Zherebin, Pavel M; Lisichkin, George V; Vasyukova, Inna A; Denisov, Albert N; Krutyakov, Yurii A

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are well-known bactericidal agents. However, information about the influence of AgNPs on the morphometric parameters and biochemical status of most important agricultural crops is limited. The present study reports the influence of AgNPs stabilized with cationic polymer polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) on growth, development, and biochemical status of fodder beet Beta vulgaris L. under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. PHMB-stabilized AgNPs were obtained via sodium borohydride reduction of silver nitrate in an aqueous solution. The average diameter of thus prepared AgNPs was 10 nm. It appears that the results of experiments with laboratory-grown beets in the nanosilver-containing medium, where germination of seeds and growth of roots were suppressed, do not correlate with the results of greenhouse experiments. The observed growth-stimulating action of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs can be explained by the change of activity of oxidases and, consequently, by the change of auxins amount in plant tissues. In beets grown in the presence of PHMB-stabilized AgNPs no negative deviations of biological parameters from normal values were registered. Furthermore, the SEM/EDS examination revealed no presence of silver in the tissues of the studied plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and some physiological parameters of four sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.) cultivars as affected by salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari-Nejad, R A; Najafi, F; Khavari-Nejad, S

    2008-05-15

    The comparative responses of certain biochemical and physiological characteristics to salinity were studied in 4 cultivars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants. Eight weeks old plants were treated with NaCl at 0, 25 and 50 mM in nutrient solutions. Plants were grown under controlled environment and harvested after 3 weeks for measurements of biochemical and physiological parameters. Results showed that in 25 mM NaCl for cultivars of ET5 and C3-3, soluble sugars in leaves, photosynthetic rate and growth parameters were significantly increased as compared to those of other cultivars. In 50 mM NaCl photosynthetic rate and soluble sugars were significantly increased only in ET5 cultivar as compared with those of others. Results indicated that in 25 mM NaCl, ET5 cultivar showed high growth responses and tolerated to 50 mM NaCl.

  4. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  5. Environmental impact study of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production using life cycle assessment (Case study: South Khorasan region

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    H. Mirhaji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of environmental protection in modern communities is vital, the action and implementation of any program requires the sufficient knowledge and understanding of environment. One of the methods to preserve natural resources and achieving sustainable development, especially sustainable agriculture, is the environmentally evaluation of agriculture production processes. Life cycle assessment approach is an accepted method for determining the side effects of a production process on environment during its complete life cycle. In this research, the impacts of global warming, acidification, fossil resources depletion and water resources depletion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production on environment is investigated using life cycle assessment method in Khezri Farming Company, one of the major production areas in South Khorasan province. The final environmental indices for global warming, acidification, fossil resource depletion and water resources depletion were 0.0003, 0.002, 0.025 and 0.073, respectively. In other words, the effect of water resources depletion has the greatest damaging potential on environment among others in sugar beet production in this region.

  6. In vivo anticoccidial effects of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Asghar; Iqbal, Zafar; Abbas, Rao Zahid; Khan, Muhammad Kasib; Khan, Junaid Ali; Sindhu, Zia Ud Din; Mahmood, Muhammad Shahid; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif

    2017-10-01

    Recently, use of botanicals as an alternative to anticoccidial drugs has been appealing approach for controlling avian coccidiosis. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial activity of aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight) of Beta vulgaris (roots) in broiler chicks. A total of 315 day old broiler chicks were divided into seven equal groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G). At 14th day of age, all groups except group G, which served as non infected non medicated control, were infected orally with 60,000 sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. At the same day, groups A, B and C were treated with graded oral doses of B. vulgaris aqueous methanolic extract (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, respectively). Group D was treated with Vitamin-E, group E served as infected medicated control group (Baycox ® treated) and group F served as infected non medicated control group (PBS treated). Treatment with extract, reference drug Baycox ® , Vitamin E and PBS was continued for three consecutive days (14-16 days of age). Though, not at par with reference drug (Baycox ® ), B. vulgaris demonstrated good anticoccidial activity adjudged based on considered criteria, i.e., feed conversion ratio, lesion score, oocyst score and oocysts per gram of feces. Results of serum profile of infected chicks revealed no adverse effects of aqueous methanolic extract of B. vulgaris on the experimental chicks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [The dynamics of hormonal status of developing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) in correlation with the dynamics of sugar accumulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolina, N V; Pradedova, E V; Saliaev, R K

    2005-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of phytohormone levels (indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, cytokinins, and gibberellin-like substances) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots at different developmental stages in comparison with the data on the dynamics of sugar accumulation in order to test possible hormonal regulation of sugar accumulation. The obtained data suggest the involvement of cytokinins and gibberellin-like substances in the control of sugar accumulation in the roots, while indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid, and gibberellin-like substances can control the outflow. The data on the dynamics of phytohormone levels shed light on their specific physiological role in red beet root development.

  8. Crecimiento de Plantas de Remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia Bajo Coberturas de Color Growth of Beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia under Colored Covers

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La respuesta de las plantas a diferente color en la iluminación, se atribuye a fotorreceptores que conducen a diversas expresiones fenotípicas en diferentes niveles y etapas del desarrollo vegetal. Para determinar si el color de iluminación en que se cultivan las plantas de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia, afecta su crecimiento, rendimiento y calidad, se realizó en Duitama -; Colombia, un estudio bajo coberturas de color azul, rojo o transparente. Para conseguir los colores se colocaron películas de polietileno, 65 cm por encima del cultivo, dejando un control a plena exposición. Las plantas cubiertas con la película roja presentaron mejor calidad de raíz basada en el diámetro, sólidos solubles totales y peso fresco y seco en comparación con las que crecieron bajo cobertura azul, transparente o los controles. Las plantas bajo la cobertura roja mostraron valores mayores de área foliar y peso seco total. Los valores más bajos se presentaron en plantas bajo la cubierta azul. La radiación monocromática inducida por las coberturas alteró también la distribución de materia seca en los órganos de la planta. La calidad de la luz alteró el crecimiento y la calidad del producto a cosechar en remolacha, por los efectos sobre los fotorreceptores que alteran los patrones de crecimiento.Plant responses to different colors of illumination are attributed to different photoreceptors which operate as light-induced initiators of signalling pathways leading to varying phenotypic expressions at various levels and stages of plant development. To determine whether the color of illumination under which plants are grown, affects the growth, yield and the quality of harvested product, beet plants (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia were grown under either blue-enriched, red-enriched, or transparent covers in Duitama -Colombia. To get colors, red, blue and transparent polyethylene films were expanded 65 cm above crop, leaving an

  9. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  10. Molecular selection of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. by resistance to biotic and abiotic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. В. Корниенко

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Molecular selection (MAS makes the newest trend in breeding that has been progressively applied in many agricultural crops, including sugar beet. The article reviews papers on sugar beet MAL in Russia and overseas consi­ ering the methods applied and results obtained, das well as prospects for further development of this trend.

  11. Effect of Trimethyltin Chloride on Slow Vacuolar (SV) Channels in Vacuoles from Red Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Taproots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, Zenon; Burdach, Zbigniew; Siemieniuk, Agnieszka; Przestalski, Stanisław; Karcz, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, patch-clamp techniques have been used to investigate the effect of trimethyltin chloride (Met3SnCl) on the slow vacuolar (SV) channels in vacuoles from red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. Activity of SV channels has been measured in whole-vacuole and cytosolic side-out patch configurations. It was found that addition of trimethyltin chloride to the bath solution suppressed, in a concentration-dependent manner, SV currents in red beet vacuoles. The time constant, τ, increased significantly in the presence of the organotin. When single channel activity was analyzed, only little channel activity could be recorded at 100 μM Met3SnCl. Trimethyltin chloride added to the bath medium significantly decreased (by ca. threefold at 100 μM Met3SnCl and at 100 mV voltage, as compared to the control medium) the open probability of single channels. Single channel recordings obtained in the presence and absence of trimethyltin chloride showed that the organotin only slightly (by <10%) decreased the unitary conductance of single channels. It was also found that Met3SnCl significantly diminished the number of SV channel openings, whereas it did not change the opening times of the channels. Taking into account the above and the fact that under the here applied experimental conditions (pH = 7.5) Met3SnCl is a non-dissociated (more lipophilic) compound, we suggest that the suppression of SV currents observed in the presence of the organotin results probably from its hydrophobic properties allowing this compound to translocate near the selectivity filter of the channel.

  12. Transcriptomic profiling of taproot growth and sucrose accumulation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) at different developmental stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Feng; Li, Guo-Long; Wang, Xue-Feng; Sun, Ya-Qing; Zhang, Shao-Ying

    2017-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), taproot weight and sucrose content are the important determinants of yield and quality. However, high yield and low sucrose content are two tightly bound agronomic traits. The advances in next-generation sequencing technology and the publication of sugar beet genome have provided a method for the study of molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of these two agronomic traits. In this work, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses in the high taproot yield cultivar SD13829 and the high sucrose content cultivar BS02 at five developmental stages. More than 50,000,000 pair-end clean reads for each library were generated. When taproot turned into the rapid growth stage at the growth stage of 82 days after emergence (DAE), eighteen enriched gene ontology (GO) terms, including cell wall, cytoskeleton, and enzyme linked receptor protein signaling pathway, occurred in both cultivars. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of paired comparison in both cultivars were enriched in the cell wall GO term. For pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs that were respectively generated at 82 DAE compared to 59 DAE (the earlier developmental stage before taproot turning into the rapid growth stage), plant hormone signal transduction pathway was enriched. At 82 DAE, the rapid enlarging stage of taproot, several transcription factor family members were up-regulated in both cultivars. An antagonistic expression of brassinosteroid- and auxin-related genes was also detected. In SD13829, the growth strategy was relatively focused on cell enlargement promoted by brassinosteroid signaling, whereas in BS02, it was relatively focused on secondarily cambial cell division regulated by cytokinin, auxin and brassinosteroid signaling. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the weight and sucrose content of taproot rely on its growth strategy, which is controlled by brassinosteroid, auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin.

  13. Identification and Precise Mapping of Resistant QTLs of Cercospora Leaf Spot Resistance in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Kazunori; Kubo, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Abe, Hideyuki

    2011-09-01

    The complex inheritance of resistance to Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), the most severe fungal foliar disease in sugar beet, was investigated by means of quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Over a three year period, recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), generated through a cross between lines resistant ('NK-310mm-O') and susceptible ('NK-184mm-O') to CLS, were field-tested for their resistance to the pathogen. Composite interval mapping (CIM) showed four QTL involved in CLS resistance to be consistently detected. Two resistant QTL (qcr1 on chromosome III, qcr4 on chromosome IX) bearing 'NK-310mm-O' derived alleles promoted resistance. Across 11 investigations, the qcr1 and qcr4 QTL explained approximately 10% and over 20%, respectively, of the variance in the resistance index. Two further QTL (qcr2 on chromosome IV, qcr3 on chromosome VI) bearing 'NK-184mm-O' derived alleles each explained about 10% of the variance. To identify the monogenic effect of the resistance, two QTL derived from 'NK-310mm-O' against the genetic background of 'NK-184mm-O', using molecular markers. The qcr1 and qcr4 were precisely mapped as single QTL, using progenies BC(5)F(1) and BC(2)F(1), respectively. The qcr1 that was located near e11m36-8 had CLS disease severity indices (DSI) about 15% lower than plants homozygous for the 'NK-184mm-O' genotype. As with qcr1, heterozygosis of the qcr4 that was located near e17m47-81 reduced DSI by about 45% compared to homozygosis. These two resistant QTL might be of particular value in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs in CLS resistance progression.

  14. A Detailed Analysis of theBR1Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgarisL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; Vogt, Sebastian H; Müller, Andreas E; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F 2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F 2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR 1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR 1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I ( CPSF73-I ) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter.

  15. A Detailed Analysis of the BR1 Locus Suggests a New Mechanism for Bolting after Winter in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Lemnian, Ioana M.; Emrani, Nazgol; Pfeiffer, Nina; Tiwari, Surya P.; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J.; Vogt, Sebastian H.; Müller, Andreas E.; Schilhabel, Markus; Jung, Christian; Grosse, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) is a biennial, sucrose-storing plant, which is mainly cultivated as a spring crop and harvested in the vegetative stage before winter. For increasing beet yield, over-winter cultivation would be advantageous. However, bolting is induced after winter and drastically reduces yield. Thus, post-winter bolting control is essential for winter beet cultivation. To identify genetic factors controlling bolting after winter, a F2 population was previously developed by crossing the sugar beet accessions BETA 1773 with reduced bolting tendency and 93161P with complete bolting after winter. For a mapping-by-sequencing analysis, pools of 26 bolting-resistant and 297 bolting F2 plants were used. Thereby, a single continuous homozygous region of 103 kb was co-localized to the previously published BR1 QTL for post-winter bolting resistance (Pfeiffer et al., 2014). The BR1 locus was narrowed down to 11 candidate genes from which a homolog of the Arabidopsis CLEAVAGE AND POLYADENYLATION SPECIFICITY FACTOR 73-I (CPSF73-I) was identified as the most promising candidate. A 2 bp deletion within the BETA 1773 allele of BvCPSF73-Ia results in a truncated protein. However, the null allele of BvCPSF73-Ia might partially be compensated by a second BvCPSF73-Ib gene. This gene is located 954 bp upstream of BvCPSF73-Ia and could be responsible for the incomplete penetrance of the post-winter bolting resistance allele of BETA 1773. This result is an important milestone for breeding winter beets with complete bolting resistance after winter. PMID:27895650

  16. Study the Possibility of Using the Electrolyte Leakage Index for Evaluation of Cold Tolerance in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    k Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the electrolyte leakage as an indicator for cold injury in eight sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivars including Rasoul, Shirin, IC, 7233 (national cultivars, Afshari, Paolina, Rhizofort and Laetitia (foreign cultivars, a trial carried out at Crop Physiology Lab. of Agriculture College of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. In this study beet cultivars, with 8 freezing temperatures (0, -2, -4, -6, -8, -10, -12 and -16 °C as a complete randomized design in a factorial arrangement with three replications. Plants were kept until 4-5 leaf stage in natural environment, then transferred to the thermogradient freezer. The cell membrane stability of beet cultivars was measured through electrolyte leakage and the lethal temperature 50 (LT50 of leaf samples based on electrolyte leakage percent also were determined. Results showed that there were significant differences (p≤0.01 among freezing temperatures and cultivars for electrolyte leakage and LT50. As temperature decreased below -4 °C, electrolyte leakage of all genotypes were increased. Among beet cultivars, IC cultivar had the highest, and 7233 cultivar had the lowest cold tolerance according to the LT50. Also in grouping sugar beet as local and foreign cultivars, there were no significant different in electrolyte leakage among cultivars. According to the high correlation between electrolyte leakage percent and LT50 (r= -0.81, it seems that using this index for evaluation of freezing tolerance injury in sugar beet could be useful. Keywords: Cytoplasmic membran, Freezing, LT50

  17. Multi-trait association mapping in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Benjamin; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Schulz, Britta; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2008-10-01

    Association mapping promises to overcome the limitations of linkage mapping methods. The main objective of this study was to examine the applicability of multivariate association mapping with an empirical data set of sugar beet. A total of 111 diploid sugar beet inbreds was selected from the seed parent heterotic pool to represent a broad diversity with respect to sugar content (SC). The inbreds were genotyped with 26 simple sequence repeat markers chosen according to their map positions in proximity to previously identified quantitative trait loci for SC. For SC and beet yield (BY), the genotypic variances were highly significant (P sugar beet breeding context for detection of marker-phenotype associations. Furthermore, based on our results multivariate association mapping can be recommended as a promising tool to discriminate with a high mapping resolution between pleiotropy and linkage as reasons for co-localization of marker-phenotype associations for different traits.

  18. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.): Influence of Caffeic Acid Derivatives, Oxidative Coupling, and Coupled Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean-Paul

    2017-06-21

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8 m ) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3 m ). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3 m and 8 m , respectively, quantitated by reverse-phase-ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet-mass spectrometry (RP-UHPLC-UV-MS). The PPO activity was 6.7 times higher in extracts from 8 m than from 3 m leaves. Substrate content increased from 0.53 to 2.45 mg/g FW in 3 m and 8 m , respectively, of which caffeic acid glycosyl esters were most important, increasing 10-fold with age. Caffeic acid glycosides and vitexin derivatives were no substrates. In 3 m and 8 m, nonsubstrate-to-substrate ratios were 8:1 and 3:1, respectively. A model system showed browning at 3:1 ratio due to formation of products with extensive conjugated systems through oxidative coupling and coupled oxidation. The 8:1 ratio did not turn brown as oxidative coupling occurred without much coupled oxidation. We postulate that differences in nonsubstrate-to-substrate ratio and therewith extent of coupled oxidation explain browning.

  19. The Effect of Herbicides on Hydrogen Peroxide Generation in Isolated Vacuoles of Red Beet Root (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Pradedova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of herbicides on the hydrogen peroxide generation in vacuolar extracts of red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. was investigated. Belonging to different chemical classes of herbicide compounds have been used. Herbicides differ from each other in the mechanism of effects on plants. Clopyralid (aromatic acid herbicide, derivative of picolinic acid and 2.4-D (phenoxyacetic herbicide, characterized by hormone-like effects, contributed to the formation of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Fluorodifen (nitrophenyl ether herbicide and diuron (urea herbicide also have increased contents H2O2. These compounds inhibit the electron transport, photosynthesis, and photorespiration in sensitive plants. Herbicidal effect of glyphosate (organophosphorus herbicide is due to the inhibition of amino acid synthesis in plant cells. Glyphosate did not affect the content of H2O2 in vacuolar extracts. Herbicide dependent H2O2-generation did not occur with oxidoreductase inhibitors, potassium cyanide and sodium azide. The results suggest that the formation of ROS in the vacuoles due to activity of oxidoreductases, which could interact with herbicides.

  20. Post-translational mechanisms are associated with fertility restoration of cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Arakawa, Takumi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2015-07-01

    Genetic conflict between cytoplasmically inherited elements and nuclear genes arising from their different transmission patterns can be seen in cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS), the mitochondrion-encoded inability to shed functional pollen. CMS is associated with a mitochondrial open reading frame (ORF) that is absent from non-sterility inducing mitochondria (S-orf). Nuclear genes that suppress CMS are called restorer-of-fertility (Rf) genes. Post-transcriptional and translational repression of S-orf mediates the molecular action of Rf that encodes a class of RNA-binding proteins with pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) motifs. Besides the PPR-type of Rfs, there are also non-PPR Rfs, but the molecular interactions between non-PPR Rf and S-orf have not been described. In this study, we investigated the interaction of bvORF20, a non-PPR Rf from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), with preSatp6, the S-orf from sugar beet. Anthers expressing bvORF20 contained a protein that interacted with preSATP6 protein. Analysis of anthers and transgenic calli expressing a FLAG-tagged bvORF20 suggested the binding of preSATP6 to bvORF20. To see the effect of bvORF20 on preSATP6, which exists as a 250-kDa protein complex in CMS plants, signal bands of preSATP6 in bvORF20-expressing and non-expressing anthers were compared by immunoblotting combined with Blue Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The signal intensity of the 250-kDa band decreased significantly, and 200- and 150-kDa bands appeared in bvORF20-expressing anthers. Transgenic callus expressing bvORF20 also generated the 200- and 150-kDa bands. The 200-kDa complex is likely to include both preSATP6 and bvORF20. Post-translational interaction between preSATP6 and bvORF20 appears to alter the higher order structure of preSATP6 that may lead to fertility restoration in sugar beet. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  2. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Raupp, Dorivaldo da Silva; Rodrigues, Eliseu; Rockenbach, Ismael Ivan; Carbonar, Aline; Campos, Priscilla Faber de; Borsato, Aurélio Vinicius; Fett, Roseane

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned) on the antioxidant potential (ABTS) and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours) increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild ...

  3. Alternative splicing of the maize Ac transposase transcript in transgenic sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, Ralph; Hellert, Jan; Ringleb, Malte; Machens, Fabian; Kraus, Josef; Hehl, Reinhard

    2010-09-01

    The maize Activator/Dissociation (Ac/Ds) transposable element system was introduced into sugar beet. The autonomous Ac and non-autonomous Ds element excise from the T-DNA vector and integrate at novel positions in the sugar beet genome. Ac and Ds excisions generate footprints in the donor T-DNA that support the hairpin model for transposon excision. Two complete integration events into genomic sugar beet DNA were obtained by IPCR. Integration of Ac leads to an eight bp duplication, while integration of Ds in a homologue of a sugar beet flowering locus gene did not induce a duplication. The molecular structure of the target site indicates Ds integration into a double strand break. Analyses of transposase transcription using RT-PCR revealed low amounts of alternatively spliced mRNAs. The fourth intron of the transposase was found to be partially misspliced. Four different splice products were identified. In addition, the second and third exon were found to harbour two and three novel introns, respectively. These utilize each the same splice donor but several alternative splice acceptor sites. Using the SplicePredictor online tool, one of the two introns within exon two is predicted to be efficiently spliced in maize. Most interestingly, splicing of this intron together with the four major introns of Ac would generate a transposase that lacks the DNA binding domain and two of its three nuclear localization signals, but still harbours the dimerization domain.

  4. Influence of external factors on growth and development of sugar-beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    Several trials on the quantitative influence of photophase, chilling (vernalization) and high temperature (devernalization) on bolting of sugar-beet were analysed on the basis of a simple physiological model, in which bolting is considered as the final event of dynamic, momentary and quantitative

  5. Efficient somatic embryogenesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, C.L.; Chen, D. F.; Kubaláková, Marie; Zhang, J.; Scott, N. W.; Elliott, M. C.; Slater, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2008), s. 209-221 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Sugar beet * somatic embryogenesis * culture medium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008

  6. Efficient callus formation and plant regeneration are heritable characters in sugar beet (Beta vulgarisL.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Hiroyo; Taguchi, Kazunori; Arakawa, Takumi; Kuroda, Yosuke; Tamagake, Hideto; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining dedifferentiated cells (callus) that can regenerate into whole plants is not always feasible for many plant species. Sugar beet is known to be recalcitrant for dedifferentiation and plant regeneration. These difficulties were major obstacles for obtaining transgenic sugar beets through an Agrobacterium -mediated transformation procedure. The sugar beet line 'NK-219mm-O' is an exceptional line that forms callus efficiently and is easy to regenerate, but the inheritance of these characters was unknown. Another concern was whether these characters could coexist with an annual habitat that makes it possible to breed short life-cycle sugar beet suitable for molecular genetic analysis. Five sugar beet lines including NK-219mm-O were crossed with each other and subjected to in vitro culture to form callus. F 1 s with a NK-219mm-O background generally formed callus efficiently compared to the others, indicating that efficient callus formation is heritable. The regeneration potential was examined based on the phenotypes of calli after placement on regeneration medium. Five phenotypes were observed, of which two phenotypes regenerated shoots or somatic embryo-like structures. Vascular differentiation was evident in regenerable calli, whereas non-regenerable calli lacked normally developed vascular tissues. In a half-diallel cross, the callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F 1 s progeny having a NK-219mm-O background were high. Finally, we crossed NK-219mm-O with an annual line that had a poor in vitro performance. The callus-formation efficiency and the regeneration potential of reciprocal F 1 were high. The regenerated plants showed an annual habitat. Efficient callus formation and the high plant regeneration potential of NK-219mm-O were inherited and expressed in the F 1 . The annual habitat does not impair these high in vitro performances.

  7. Functional characterisation and cell specificity of BvSUT1, the transporter that loads sucrose into the phloem of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) source leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieberl, P; Ehrl, C; Pommerrenig, B; Graus, D; Marten, I; Jung, B; Ludewig, F; Koch, W; Harms, K; Flügge, U-I; Neuhaus, H E; Hedrich, R; Sauer, N

    2017-05-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is one of the most important sugar-producing plants worldwide and provides about one third of the sugar consumed by humans. Here we report on molecular characterisation of the BvSUT1 gene and on the functional characterisation of the encoded transporter. In contrast to the recently identified tonoplast-localised sucrose transporter BvTST2.1 from sugar beet taproots, which evolved within the monosaccharide transporter (MST) superfamily, BvSUT1 represents a classical sucrose transporter and is a typical member of the disaccharide transporter (DST) superfamily. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the β-GLUCURONIDASE (GUS) reporter gene under control of the BvSUT1-promoter showed GUS histochemical staining of their phloem; an anti-BvSUT1-antiserum identified the BvSUT1 transporter specifically in phloem companion cells. After expression of BvSUT1 cDNA in bakers' yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) uptake characteristics of the BvSUT1 protein were studied. Moreover, the sugar beet transporter was characterised as a proton-coupled sucrose symporter in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Our findings indicate that BvSUT1 is the sucrose transporter that is responsible for loading of sucrose into the phloem of sugar beet source leaves delivering sucrose to the storage tissue in sugar beet taproot sinks. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Genetic diversity analysis of tropical sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties in Bangladesh using RAPD markers

    OpenAIRE

    Saclain Saidin; Latif Abdul; Bala Babul; Mallik Mithun; Islam Shahidul

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on intra-specific genetic variation of an organism is important for its genetic improvement and conservation. In order to estimate genetic variation and relatedness in eleven tropical Sugar beet varieties we used randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The RAPD analysis was performed using six decamer random primers, which amplified a total of 63 DNA fragments of which 43 (68.25%) were found polymorphic. The average polymorphic bands pe...

  9. The effects of rinsing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) juice on Streptococcus sp. dental plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Dyah Setyorini; Yani Corvianindya Rahayu; Tita Sistyaningrum

    2017-01-01

    Objective : The early attachment process of plaque formation is dominated by Streptococcus sp. Chemical antiplaque agent can optimize plaque control. Material and Methods : Materials of antiplaque have side effects, so it is necessary to do research of alternative antiplaque materials. One of them use red beet root because contain some antibacterial substance. The aim of this study was examine the effectiveness of rinsing red beetroot juice to Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque. Resul...

  10. Application of Glycine, Tufool and Salicylic Acid in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kheirkhah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of strategic products to supply sugar in water limited areas of Iran. Thus, proper managements to supply enouph water in production of sugar beet is very important. To evaluate the effects of some anti stress substances like salicylic acid, tyuful and glycine to irritigate the effect of early water deficit on suger beet, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Research Farm of Fariman Sugar Factory in 2013. Treatments consisted of control (without using anti stress substances, with three concentration of salicylic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM, tyuful with three concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 liter per thousand and glycine with three concentration (1, 2 and 3 liters per thousand. The results showed that the effects of anti-stress materials significantly affected the sugar content, root yield, white sugar yield and harmful nitrogen. Highest sugar content (15.65%, root yield (83.82 t.ha-1 and white sugar percentage (11.15% were obtained by using tyuful 1.5 lit/1000. While, the lowest levels of these characters were obtained from control (not using anti stress substances. Maximum harmful nitrogen was produced in control treatment (4.38 and highest level of alkalinity with mean of 3.49 was observed by using 3 lit/1000 of glycine. Our results showed that all of the anti stress substances had positive effects on sugar beet under drought stress condition.

  11. Genetic determination of high productivity in experimental hybrid combinations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creation of experimental sugar beet hybrid combinations of high sugar yield values and defining gene­tic determination of their heterotic effect. Methods. Diallel crossing and topcrossing, genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Results. The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of sugar beet heterotic hybrid combinations for «sugar yield» trait created on the basis of two pollinator lines to be genetically valuable for productivity elements, CMS lines and single-cross sterile hybrids with the use of diallel and topcrossing system of controlled hybridization. The share of parental components’ effect and their interaction in CMS hybrids variability for productivity was determined. Expediency of heterotic forecasting based on high combining ability lines was substabtiated. Promising high-yielding sugar beet combinations were selected that exceeded the group standard by 4.1–16.3%. Conclusions. The theory of genetic balance by M. V. Turbin was confirmed. Such hybrids as [CMS 5OT 4]MGP 1 (116.3%, [CMS 1OT 2]MGP 1 (112.5% and [CMS 3OT 5]MGP 1 (113.2% were recognized as the best for their productivity, MGP 1 and MGP 2 lines – as the best for their combining ability.

  12. The effects of rinsing red beet root (Beta vulgaris L. juice on Streptococcus sp. dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Setyorini

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The early attachment process of plaque formation is dominated by Streptococcus sp. Chemical antiplaque agent can optimize plaque control. Material and Methods : Materials of antiplaque have side effects, so it is necessary to do research of alternative antiplaque materials. One of them use red beet root because contain some antibacterial substance. The aim of this study was examine the effectiveness of rinsing red beetroot juice to Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque. Results : This study was a quasi-experimental research with the post test only control group design. Subjects were 27 students from Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jember who fulfilled the criteria, have been scalled, and given the knowledge of how to rinse. The subjects were divided into three groups, and instructed to rinse for 30 seconds using chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2%, distilled water, and red beet root juice. Plaque were taken at the buccal maxillary first molar. Plaque were diluted and planted on streptococcus media for 24 hours, the number of colonies counted using colony counter. Analysis of One-Way ANOVA have significance 0.000, means decreased the number of Streptococcus sp. Conclusion : Rinsing red beet root juice was effective to decrease the number of Streptococcus sp. on dental plaque.

  13. Utilization of Micronutrients in Dorotti Sugar-beet (Beta vulgaris L. Cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Soleymani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients have an important role in growth and yield of plants. This investigatin was carried out to evaluate effect of foliar applications of three micronutrients (Fe, Mn and Zn at different times (4-6 and 8-10 leaf stage with three replication on sugar beet. Based on results obtained all of the micronutrients used increased sugar beet sugar yield. Highest root yield was obtained by using 9 % of micronutrients at 4-6 leaf stage, but other concentrations did not have any effect on sugar beet yield. All of the three micronutrient concentrations increased root yield significantly. Application of 6% concentration increased root yield by 15.6 %. Mn application did not have any effect on sugar yield. 9 % concentration of Zn foliar application increased sugar yield by 16.4 %, and application of 6 and 9% of Fe increased sugar yield by 18.6 and 36 % respectively. Sugar percent did not changed by Mn application, but high concentrations of Fe and Zn at 8-10 leaf stage increased it. Highest increase in sugar percent obtained by using Fe 9 % foliar appliction. Because of economical importance of sugar and root yield, foliar application of 9 % of Fe and Zn at 8-10 leaf stage will be suitable.

  14. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants.

  15. In vitro gynogenesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.: effects of ovule culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Barański

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of factors affecting gynogenic response of red beet ovules is discussed. The ovule response frequencies were the highest in the following conditions: N6 (Chu 1975 mineral salts, 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 27 or 32oC. The influence of genotype of donor plants was confirmed and it was found that the ovules excised from cultivar plants have a greater gynogenic ability than the ovules of hybrids or inbred lines.

  16. Oxalate content of silver beet leaves (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) at different stages of maturation and the effect of cooking with different milk sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Thomas S; Savage, Geoffrey P; Sherlock, Robert; Vanhanen, Leo P

    2009-11-25

    The work presented here indicates that people who have a tendency to develop kidney stones should avoid consuming regrowth and developed silver beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla) leaves. Soluble oxalate contents of leaves range from 58% of the total oxalate for the mature leaves up to 89% for the regrowth tissue, with regrowth tissue containing the highest levels of soluble oxalate at 7267+/-307 mg/100 g of dry matter (DM). Leaves cooked in milk contained significantly (pbeet, a low fat milk cooking medium with neutral pH should be utilized.

  17. Characterization of protein changes associated with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Rebecca L; Hill, Amy L; Nuñez, Alberto

    2007-09-19

    Fusarium oxysporum (F-19) is a serious threat to sugar beet. Resistance exists, but the basis for resistance and disease is unknown. Protein extracts from sugar beet genotypes C1200.XH024 (resistant, R) and Fus7 (susceptible, S) were analyzed by multidimensional liquid chromatography at 2 and 5 days postinoculation (dpi) and compared to mock-inoculated controls. One hundred twenty-one (R) and 73 (S) protein peaks were induced/repressed by F-19, approximately 12 (R) and 8% (S) of the total proteome detected. Temporal protein regulation occurred within and between each genotype, indicating that the timing of expression may be important for resistance. Thirty-one (R) and 48 (S) of the differentially expressed peaks were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization with tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry; others were below detection level. Comparison between the two genotypes uncovered R- and S-specific proteins with potential roles in resistance and disease development, respectively. Use of these proteins to select for new sources of resistance and to develop novel disease control strategies is discussed.

  18. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned on the antioxidant potential (ABTS and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild drying conditions decreased it (80 °C/6 hours; 100 + 70 °C/6 hours or had no effect on it (70 °C/7 hours; 100 + 80 °C/6 hours. For the canned products, the antioxidant potential did not differ according to the pH (4.2 to 3.8 for any of the four acids tested. Some processing methods influenced the antioxidant potential of the processed products, and this was also dependent on changes in the total phenolics content.

  19. [Autosegregation of enzyme loci in agamospermous progenies of triploid plants of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levites, E V; Kirikovich, S S

    2011-07-01

    The ratios of the phenotypic classes of glucosephosphate isomerase (GP12) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH1 and MDH2) were studied in agamospermous progenies of triploid sugar beet plants. The ratio of the phenotypic classes of these enzymes corresponds to the calculations based on the assumption of polyteny of chromosomes carrying alleles of the enzyme loci accompanied by the loss of extra copies of the alleles in the first division of a cell entering embryogenesis. An increase in the gene dosage due to polyteny leads to the appearance in the progeny with a definite frequency of alleles that were absent in the original parental plant. The notions of meiotic autosegregation and mitotic autosegregation characteristic of meiotic and mitotic agamospermy are introduced, as well as the term locus polygenotype characterizing not only the allelic composition and the number of chromosomes, but also the number of chromatids carrying alleles of the marker locus in the cell before its entry into embryogenesis.

  20. [Fruit set variation associated with apozygotic reproduction in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris l.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iudanova, S S; Maletskiĭ, S I; Pozniak, S I; Maletskaia, E I

    2011-05-01

    Fruit set upon apozygotic reproduction was studied for four years in the msSOAN-5 pollen-sterile inbred sugar beet line. The progenies obtained from pollen-sterile plants by apozygotic reproduction had both fruits with normal seeds and parthenocarpic fruits without seeds, which was not an occasional event. Growth conditions proved to strongly affect the fruit set and seed quality. For instance, water deficiency during early plant development increased the proportion ofparthenocarpic seeds. Waiter deficiency combined with a lower temperature during flowering additionally caused a substantial decrease in the total number of fruits. Under the same growth conditions, related accessions did not differ in seed productivity, but varied in the proportion of normal (with seeds) and parthenocarpic (without seeds) fruits.

  1. [Effect of 5-azacitidine on flower stalk branching in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletskaia, E I; Iudanova, S S; Maletskiĭ, S I

    2006-01-01

    An influence of epimutagen 5-azacitidine on a flower stalk morphogenesis in sugar beet was studied. After the epimutagene treatment the great number of the first- and the third-order branch formation was observed. A higher level of branching completely modified the flower stalk architectonics (generations A0Az0 and A1Az1). A number of the second-order branches in the control and the experimental plants were not distinguished. A new epiphenotype with higher level of branching (generation A0Az0) inherited in daughter generation A1Az1. A flower stalk architectonics was modified because the third-order branches developed in the bract axil instead of flower primordium. A great number of lateral shoot modified a metamer organization of the flower stalk. The metamers on the third-order branches were single-flowered.

  2. Quality changes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. roots during storage period in piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entessar Al-Jbawi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties, and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %, from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4 2015: 77-85

  3. Co-expression of xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance in chimeric sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Qiang; Feng, Rui-Jun; Wang, Suo-Min; Wang, Chun-Mei; Bao, Ai-Ke; Wei, Li; Yuan, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses that limit the growth and productivity of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). To improve sugar beet's salinity tolerance, the ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 genes encoding tonoplast Na(+)/H(+) antiporter and H(+)-PPase from xerophyte Zygophyllum xanthoxylum were co-expressed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. It is showed here that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 confers enhanced salinity tolerance to the transformed sugar beet plants compared with the wild-type (WT) plants. The chimeric plants grew well in the presence of high salinity (400 mM NaCl), whereas WT plants displayed chlorosis and died within 8 days. Compared to WT plants, the chimeric plants co-expressing ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 accumulated more proline, Na(+) and K(+) in their leaves and petioles when exposed to high salinity, which caused lower solute potential, retained more water and thus subjected to lesser cell membrane damage. Interestingly, the chimeric plants accumulated higher sucrose, glucose and fructose contents in their storage roots than WT plants in the absence or presence of high salinity. Our results suggested that co-expression of ZxNHX and ZxVP1-1 improved the osmoregulatory capacity in chimeric sugar beet through increased compartmentalization of ions into the vacuoles by enhancing the activity of proton pumps and thus mitigated Na(+)-toxicity for plants.

  4. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were

  5. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beetsBeta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤vulgaris¤) into Danish populations of sea beetBeta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤maritima¤ (L.) Arcangeli)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.

    2005-01-01

    seed propagation areas. A set of 12 Danish, two Swedish, one French, one Italian, one Dutch, and one Irish populations of sea beets, and four lines of sugar beet were analysed. To evaluate the genetic variation and gene flow, eight microsatellite loci were screened. This analysis revealed hybridization...... with cultivated beet in one of the sea beet populations from the centre of the Danish seed propagation area. Triploid hybrids found in this population were verified with flow cytometry. Possible hybrids or introgressed plants were also found in the French and Italian populations. However, individual assignment...... of genetic admixture among subspecies. This underlines that introgression beyond the first hybridization is not extensive. The overall pattern of genetic distance and structure showed that Danish and Swedish sea beet populations were closely related to each other, and they are both more closely related...

  6. Palaeohexaploid ancestry for Caryophyllales inferred from extensive gene-based physical and genetic mapping of the sugar beet genome (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohm, Juliane C; Lange, Cornelia; Holtgräwe, Daniela; Sörensen, Thomas Rosleff; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schulz, Britta; Lehrach, Hans; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz

    2012-05-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop plant that accounts for 30% of the world's sugar production annually. The genus Beta is a distant relative of currently sequenced taxa within the core eudicotyledons; the genomic characterization of sugar beet is essential to make its genome accessible to molecular dissection. Here, we present comprehensive genomic information in genetic and physical maps that cover all nine chromosomes. Based on this information we identified the proposed ancestral linkage groups of rosids and asterids within the sugar beet genome. We generated an extended genetic map that comprises 1127 single nucleotide polymorphism markers prepared from expressed sequence tags and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequences. To construct a genome-wide physical map, we hybridized gene-derived oligomer probes against two BAC libraries with 9.5-fold cumulative coverage of the 758 Mbp genome. More than 2500 probes and clones were integrated both in genetic maps and the physical data. The final physical map encompasses 535 chromosomally anchored contigs that contains 8361 probes and 22 815 BAC clones. By using the gene order established with the physical map, we detected regions of synteny between sugar beet (order Caryophyllales) and rosid species that involves 1400-2700 genes in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis, poplar, grapevine, and cacao. The data suggest that Caryophyllales share the palaeohexaploid ancestor proposed for rosids and asterids. Taken together, we here provide extensive molecular resources for sugar beet and enable future high-resolution trait mapping, gene identification, and cross-referencing to regions sequenced in other plant species. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity. PMID:27832171

  8. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  9. Influence of cultivar on the content of selected minerals in red beet roots (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot is a vegetable that accumulate heavy metals. This is largely dependent on the cultivar, methods and growing conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of elements in the roots of 15 cultivars of red beet. The analysis assessed the content of macroelements (Na, P and heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn. Most soils of the Lesser Poland region are exposed to the impact of industrial and transportation pollution. The soils of this region are characterized by strong acidification as well as natural or increased heavy metal content. The experiment was set up at the experimental field of the Department of Vegetable and Medicinal Plants of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, in 2009-2010. On the basis of the performed analysis, ‘Opolski’ was chosen as the cultivar that was characterized by a high content of macroelements and lower ability to accumulate heavy metals than the other tested cultivars. The lowest ability to accumulate heavy metals (Cd and Cr was found in the cases of cultivars with cylindrical root shapes, such as Rywal or Opolski. One can indicate such cultivars as Astar F1 or Nabab F1 as cultivars recommended for cultivation in ecologically threatened areas.

  10. Selected Indicators Of The Root Quality Of Fifteen Cultivars Of Red Beet (Beta Vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizioł-Łukaszewska Zofia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the quality of 15 cultivars of red beet has been made during four successive vegetative seasons. The study involved cultivars ‘Astar F1’, ‘Boro F1’, ‘Ceryl’, ‘Chrobry’, ‘Czerwona Kula’, ‘Egipski’, ‘Karmazyn’, ‘Nabab F1’, ‘Nochowski’, ‘Opolski’, ‘Pablo F1’, ‘Patryk’, ‘Regulski Cylinder’, ‘Okrągły Regulski’ and ‘Rywal’. The mass, diameter of roots, antioxidant activity, the content of dry mass, soluble sugars, betanin and vulgaxanthin in roots were evaluated. The study indicated ‘Chrobry’ as the cultivar of the most favorable quality features. It was characterized by high antioxidant activity, high content of dry mass, soluble sugars and betalain pigments. Among cultivars of cylindrical shaped roots, content of soluble sugars and antiradical activity was the highest in ‘Regulski Cylinder’ roots.

  11. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  12. Genetic diversity analysis of tropical sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. varieties in Bangladesh using RAPD markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saclain Saidin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on intra-specific genetic variation of an organism is important for its genetic improvement and conservation. In order to estimate genetic variation and relatedness in eleven tropical Sugar beet varieties we used randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers. The RAPD analysis was performed using six decamer random primers, which amplified a total of 63 DNA fragments of which 43 (68.25% were found polymorphic. The average polymorphic bands per primer was 7.17 and the overall gene diversity was 0.24. Among the 43 polymorphic loci studied, 2 were specific for 2K 310, 1 for Shubraha, 1 for Natura and 1 for HI-0473 varieties. Pair wise genetic distance and similarity indices were ranged from 0.12-0.51 and 66.73-92.91, respectively. Cauvery and 2K 310 were found to be the most distantly related with a higher genetic distance value (GD = 0.51 and lower similarity index (SI = 66.73, while Aranka and Serenada were the most closely related with their lower GD (0.12 and higher SI(92.91 values. In an unweighted pair group method of arithmetic mean dendrogram constructed on the basis of genetic distances, the eleven varieties grouped into two main clusters: 2K 310 alone was in one cluster whereas 10 other varieties grouped into a major cluster. This indicates that 2K 310 was distantly related with each of the other varieties. Distantly related varieties based on estimated genetic variation could be selected for future breeding program that could result in improvement of this crop.

  13. Analysis of DNA polymorphisms in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and development of an SNP-based map of expressed genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Katharina; Kulosa, Dagmar; Soerensen, Thomas Rosleff; Möhring, Silke; Heine, Martin; Durstewitz, Gregor; Polley, Andreas; Weber, Eberhard; Jamsari; Lein, Jens; Hohmann, Uwe; Tahiro, Emma; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schulz, Britta; Koch, Georg; Jung, Christian; Ganal, Martin

    2007-09-01

    A panel of 13 sugar beet lines and one genotype each of the Beta vulgaris cultivars red beet and Swiss chard, and B. vulgaris ssp. maritima were used to identify polymorphisms in alignments of genomic DNA sequences derived from 315 EST- and 43 non-coding RFLP-derived loci. In sugar beet lines, loci of expressed genes showed an average SNP frequency of 1/72 bp, 1 in 58 bp in non-coding sequences, increasing to 1/47 bp upon the addition of the remaining genotypes. Within analysed DNA fragments, alleles at different SNP positions displayed linkage disequilibrium indicative of haplotype structures. On average 2.7 haplotypes were found in sugar beet lines, and haplotype conservation in expressed genes appeared to exceed 500 bp in length. Seven different genotyping techniques including SNP detection by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, pyrosequencing and fluorescence scanning of labelled nucleotides were employed to perform 712 segregation analyses for 538 markers in three F(2) populations. Functions were predicted for 492 mapped sequences. Genetic maps comprised 305 loci covering 599.8 cM in population K1, 241 loci distributed over 636.6 cM in population D2, and 166 loci over 507.1 cM in population K2, respectively. Based on 156 markers common to more than one population an integrated map was constructed with 524 loci covering 664.3 cM. For 377 loci the genome positions of the most similar sequences from A. thaliana were identified, but little evidence for previously presented ancestral genome structures was found.

  14. Repeat Composition of CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowar, Teresa; Zakrzewski, Falk; Macas, Jiří; Kobližková, Andrea; Viehoever, Prisca; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-26

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is an important crop of temperate climate zones, which provides nearly 30 % of the world's annual sugar needs. From the total genome size of 758 Mb, only 567 Mb were incorporated in the recently published genome sequence, due to the fact that regions with high repetitive DNA contents (e.g. satellite DNAs) are only partially included. Therefore, to fill these gaps and to gain information about the repeat composition of centromeres and heterochromatic regions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) using antibodies against the centromere-specific histone H3 variant of sugar beet (CenH3) and the heterochromatic mark of dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2). ChIP-Seq analysis revealed that active centromeres containing CenH3 consist of the satellite pBV and the Ty3-gypsy retrotransposon Beetle7, while heterochromatin marked by H3K9me2 exhibits heterogeneity in repeat composition. H3K9me2 was mainly associated with the satellite family pEV, the Ty1-copia retrotransposon family Cotzilla and the DNA transposon superfamily of the En/Spm type. In members of the section Beta within the genus Beta, immunostaining using the CenH3 antibody was successful, indicating that orthologous CenH3 proteins are present in closely related species within this section. The identification of repetitive genome portions by ChIP-Seq experiments complemented the sugar beet reference sequence by providing insights into the repeat composition of poorly characterized CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-heterochromatin. Therefore, our work provides the basis for future research and application concerning the sugar beet centromere and repeat-rich heterochromatic regions characterized by the presence of H3K9me2.

  15. Spatial analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA diversity in wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) populations: do marine currents shape the genetic structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fievet, Virgil; Touzet, Pascal; Arnaud, Jean-François; Cuguen, Joël

    2007-05-01

    Patterns of seed dispersal in the wild sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima) are predicted to be influenced by marine currents because populations are widely distributed along the European Atlantic coast. We investigated the potential influence of marine currents on the pattern of spatial genetic structuring in natural populations of sea beet. Populations were located along the French coasts of the Anglo-Norman gulf that features peculiar marine currents in the Channel. Thirty-three populations were sampled, among which 23 were continental and 10 were insular populations located in Jersey, Guernsey and Chausey, for a total of 1224 plants genotyped. To validate the coastal topography influence and the possibility of marine current orientated gene flow on the genetic features of sea beet populations, we assessed patterns of genetic structuring of cytoplasmic and nuclear diversity by: (i) searching for an isolation-by-distance (IBD) pattern using spatial autocorrelation tools; (ii) using the Monmonier algorithm to identify genetic boundaries in the area studied; and (iii) performing assignment tests that are based on multilocus genotype information to ascertain population membership of individuals. Our results showed a highly contrasted cytoplasmic and nuclear genetic differentiation and highlighted the peculiar situation of island populations. Beyond a classical isolation-by-distance due to short-range dispersal, genetic barriers fitting the orientation of marine currents were clearly identified. This suggests the occurrence of long-distance seed dispersal events and an asymmetrical gene flow separating the eastern and western part of the Anglo-Norman gulf.

  16. Changes in weed infestations on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris cultivated on black soil near Wrocław in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Domaradzki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out in 1989–1995 and 2006–2012 on plantations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. vulgaris. During this period, 542 phytosociological relevés were made using the Braun-Blanquet method. In total, 46 weed species were found. In 1989–1995, the occurrence of 36 segetal species was reported. The highest cover indices were determined for Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus. Galium aparine, Echinochloa crus-galli, and Elymus repens were the dominant species, as well. Analysis of the frequency of occurrence revealed one constant species (Chenopodium album, two frequent species (Amaranthus retroflexus and Galium aparine, and two medium-frequent species (Echinochloa crus-galli and Matricaria maritima ssp. inodora. In 2006–2012, the occurrence of 40 weed species on the sugar beet plantations was recorded. The plantations were clearly dominated by Chenopodium album, accompanied by Polygonum persicaria and Polygonum lapathifolium ssp. lapathifolium. Other dominant species comprised Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, and Fallopia convolvulus. The Chenopodium album was a constant component of the sugar beet plantations. In turn, no frequent species were observed and six medium-frequent species were found (Setaria viridis, Galinsoga parviflora, Brassica napus ssp. napus, Echinochloa crus-galli, Amaranthus retroflexus, and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Noteworthy, the presence of previously unreported species, e.g., Abutilon theophrasti, Hyoscyamus niger, or Artemisia vulgaris, was revealed. These species are rare components in sugar beet crops. A reverse phenomenon, i.e., the disappearance of some species such as Euphorbia helioscopia, Malva neglecta, Rumex acetosella, Sinapis arvensis, or Sisymbrium officinale, was also observed.

  17. Effects of herbicides on 14CO2 fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Beta vulgaris (sugar beet) and Chenopodium album

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, G.; Guenther, G.

    1979-01-01

    10 -4 - 10 -6 molar solutions of herbicides (atrazine, 2,4-D, desmetryne, diallate, diquat, feuron, lenacil, NaTa, paraquat, phenmedipham, prometryne, propham, pyrazone, and simazine) cause similar inhibitory effects on the photosynthetic 14 CO 2 fixation in isolated mesophyll cells from Chenopodium album and Beta vulgaris. Correlatdion between inhibition and herbicide resistance of the whole plants could be realized for lenacil only

  18. Hydrolytic and pumping activity of H+-ATPase from leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) as affected by salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeel, Abdul; Hanstein, Stefan; Pitann, Britta; Schubert, Sven

    2010-06-15

    Cell wall extensibility plays an important role in plant growth. According to the acid-growth theory, lower apoplastic pH allows extension growth by affecting cell wall extensibility. A lowered apoplastic pH is presumed to activate wall-loosening enzymes that control plant growth. Plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPases play a major role in the apoplastic acidification by H(+) transport from cytosol to the apoplast. A salt-induced decrease in H(+)-pumping activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases in salt-sensitive maize plants has previously been found. This led us to formulate the hypothesis that salt-resistant plant species such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) may have a mechanism to eliminate the effect of higher salt concentrations on plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activity. In the present study, sugar beet plants were grown in 1mM NaCl (control) or 150 mM NaCl in hydroponics. H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were measured in plasma membrane vesicles isolated from sugar beet shoots. We found that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase hydrolytic and pumping activities were not affected by application of 150 mM NaCl. Moreover, apoplastic pH was also not affected under salt stress. However, a decrease in plant growth was observed. We assume that growth reduction was not due to a decrease in PM-H(+)-ATPase activity, but that other factors may be responsible for growth inhibition of sugar beet plants under salt stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Agro-ecological zoning for wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays on the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Neamatollahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate is the most important factor determining the sustainability of agricultural production systems. A qualitative land evaluation was carried out for the Mashhad plain, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran, to assess the suitability of the land to grow the locally most important crops, i.e. wheat (Triticum aestivum, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris and corn (Zea mays using a Geographical Information System (GIS. The possible growing seasons were defined as early (10 September–20 June and late (10 October–20 July season for wheat, early (15 March–15 October and late (15 April–15 November season for sugar beet, and early (1 May–1 November and late (15 May–15 November season for corn. The study area covered approximately 99.915 ha−1. Climate variables were taken into account including maximum, optimum and minimum daily average temperatures and were obtained from 30 years agro-meteorological data set from 12 synoptic stations. Growing Degree Days (GDDs were determined for wheat, sugar beet, and corn crops from sowing to harvest. To produce digital elevation model for Mashhad plain two sources were used on utilization of the IRS III satellite images with resolution that is 23.5 m, and topographic maps with scale of 1:25000. Aspect and slope layers were produced by Arc GIS 9.2 software. The study identified suitable elevation, slope, and GDDs for optimal growth and indicated that high yields are possible for wheat, sugar beet, and corn on the Mashhad plain. The study also identified the most suitable regions of the Mashhad plain for each crop.

  20. Stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO2 are the main limitations to photosynthesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown with excess zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Vázquez, S; Florez-Sarasa, I D; Albacete, A; Ribas-Carbó, M; Flexas, J; Abadía, J; Morales, F

    2010-07-01

    *The effects of zinc (Zn) toxicity on photosynthesis and respiration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) plants grown hydroponically with 1.2, 100 and 300 microM Zn. *A photosynthesis limitation analysis was used to assess the stomatal, mesophyll, photochemical and biochemical contributions to the reduced photosynthesis observed under Zn toxicity. *The main limitation to photosynthesis was attributable to stomata, with stomatal conductances decreasing by 76% under Zn excess and stomata being unable to respond to physiological and chemical stimuli. The effects of excess Zn on photochemistry were minor. Scanning electron microscopy showed morphological changes in stomata and mesophyll tissue. Stomatal size and density were smaller, and stomatal slits were sealed in plants grown under high Zn. Moreover, the mesophyll conductance to CO(2) decreased by 48% under Zn excess, despite a marked increase in carbonic anhydrase activity. Respiration, including that through both cytochrome and alternative pathways, was doubled by high Zn. *It can be concluded that, in sugar beet plants grown in the presence of excess Zn, photosynthesis is impaired due to a depletion of CO(2) at the Rubisco carboxylation site, as a consequence of major decreases in stomatal and mesophyll conductances to CO(2).

  1. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Katrin; Meinhard, Juliane; Dobrev, Peter; Linkies, Ada; Pesek, Bedrich; Hess, Barbara; Machácková, Ivana; Fischer, Uwe; Leubner-Metzger, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    The control of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germination by plant hormones was studied by comparing fruits and seeds. Treatment of sugar beet fruits and seeds with gibberellins, brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, and jasmonates or corresponding hormone biosynthesis inhibitors did not appreciably affect radicle emergence of fruits or seeds. By contrast, treatment with ethylene or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) promoted radicle emergence of fruits and seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) acted as an antagonist of ethylene and inhibited radicle emergence of seeds, but not appreciably of fruits. High endogenous contents of ACC and of ABA were evident in seeds and pericarps of dry mature fruits, but declined early during imbibition. ABA-treatment of seeds and fruits induced seed ACC accumulation while ACC-treatment did not affect the seed ABA content. Transcripts of ACC oxidase (ACO, ethylene-forming enzyme) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A, ABA-degrading enzyme) accumulate in fruits and seeds upon imbibition. ABA and ACC and the pericarp did not affect the seed CYP707A transcript levels. By contrast, seed ACO transcript accumulation was promoted by ABA and by pericarp removal, but not by ACC. Quantification of the endogenous ABA and ACC contents, ABA and ACC leaching, and ethylene evolution, demonstrate that an embryo-mediated active ABA extrusion system is involved in keeping the endogenous seed ABA content low by 'active ABA leaching', while the pericarp restricts ACC leaching during imbibition. Sugar beet radicle emergence appears to be controlled by the pericarp, by ABA and ACC leaching, and by an ABA-ethylene antagonism that affects ACC biosynthesis and ACO gene expression.

  2. Uridine 5'-diphospho-D-glucose-dependent vectorial sucrose synthesis in tonoplast vesicles of the storage hypocotyl of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voß, M; Weidner, M

    1988-01-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were prepared from red-beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. conditiva) hypocotyl tubers ("beetroot") known to store sucrose. Uptake experiments, employing uridine 5'-diphospho-[(14)C]glucose (UDP-[(14)C]glucose) showed the operation of an UDP-glucose-dependent group translocator for vectorial synthesis and accumulation of sucrose, recently described for sugarcane and red-beet vacuoles and for tonoplast vesicles prepared from sugarcane suspension cells. Characterization of the kinetic properties yielded the following results. Uptake of UDP-glucose was linear for 15 min. The apparent K m was 0.75 mM for UDP-glucose (at pH 7.2, 1 mM Mg(2+)), V max was 32 nmol·(mg protein)(-1)·min(-1). The incorporation of UDP-glucose exhibited a sigmoidal substrate-saturation curve in the absence of Mg(2+), the Hill coefficient (n H) was 1.33; Michaelis-Menten kinetics were obtained, however, in the presence of 1 mM MgCl2. For the reaction sequence under the control of the group translocator a dual pH optimum was found at pH 7.2 and 7.9, respectively. All reaction intermediates and the end product sucrose could be identified by two-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography and autoradiography. The distribution pattern of radioactivity showed almost uniformly high labeling of all intermediates and sucrose. The physiological relevance of the results is discussed in the light of the fact that the tonoplast of red-beet storage cells accommodates two mechanisms of sucrose uptake (i) vectorial sucrose synthesis and (ii) direct ATP-dependent sucrose assimilation.

  3. First report of QoI resistance in Alternaria spp. infecting sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) in Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternaria leaf spot (ALS) of sugar beet is caused by Alternaria spp. in the A. alternata species complex. ALS is common wherever sugar beet is grown, but historically has been a minor issue for sugar beet production in the USA with damage usually not affecting crop yield significantly. Occurrence o...

  4. Protein synthesis is the most sensitive process when potassium is substituted by sodium in the nutrition of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Franziska; Schubert, Sven

    2016-10-01

    Potassium ions (K(+)) and sodium ions (Na(+)) share many physical and chemical similarities. However, their interchangeability in plant nutrition is restricted. Substitution studies showed that K(+) can be replaced by Na(+) to a large extent in the nutrition of Beta vulgaris L. However, the extent of substitution without negative impacts is not unlimited. The aim of the present study was to identify the process which is most sensitive during the substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in nutrition of young sugar beet plants. We focused on transpiration, growth, and net protein synthesis. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions. With transfer of seedlings into nutrient solution, plants were cultivated in different substitution treatments. For all treatments the sum of K(+) and Na(+) (applied as chloride) was fixed to 4 mM. The extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrient solution was varied from low (0.25% substitution: 3.99 mM K(+), 0.01 mM Na(+)) to almost complete substitution (99.75% substitution: 0.01 mM K(+), 3.99 mM Na(+)). The supply of 3.99 mM K(+) in 0.25% substitution treatment guaranteed the absence of K(+) deficiency. Transpiration was not affected by the substitution. Growth was inhibited at a substitution level of 99.75%. Net protein synthesis was already affected at a substitution level of 97.50% (0.10 mM K(+), 3.90 mM Na(+)). Hence, net protein synthesis was most sensitive to the substitution and limited the extent of substitution of K(+) by Na(+) in the nutrition of young sugar beet plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Short Communication Assessing the ability of fodder beet ( Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out to determine the sodium (Na) absorption ability of halophytic fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. ʽBrigadierʼ) irrigated with water enriched to Na levels found in winery wastewater. Treatments comprised (1) soil without plants irrigated with untreated water or (2) Na-enriched water, and (3) fodder ...

  6. Unusual and typical features of a novel restorer-of-fertility gene of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Kagami, Hiroyo; Kurata, Masayuki; Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Hamaguchi, Yuko; Hagihara, Eiki; Ueda, Minoru; Harada, Michiyo; Muramatsu, Aki; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Taguchi, Kazunori; Tamagake, Hideto; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2012-12-01

    Male gametogenesis in plants can be impaired by an incompatibility between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, termed cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). A sterilizing factor resides in mitochondria, whereas a nuclear factor, Restorer-of-fertility (Rf), restores male fertility. Although a majority of plant Rf genes are thought to encode a family of RNA-binding proteins called pentatrico-peptide repeat (PPR) proteins, we isolated a novel type of Rf from sugar beet. Two BACs and one cosmid clone that constituted a 383-kbp contig covering the sugar beet Rf1 locus were sequenced. Of 41 genes borne by the contig, quadruplicated genes were found to be associated with specific transcripts in Rf1 flower buds. The quadruplicated genes encoded a protein resembling OMA1, a protein known from yeast and mammals to be involved in mitochondrial protein quality control. Construction of transgenic plants revealed that one of the four genes (bvORF20) was capable of restoring partial pollen fertility to CMS sugar beet; the level of restoration was comparable to that evaluated by a crossing experiment. However, the other genes lacked such a capability. A GFP-fusion experiment showed that bvORF20 encoded a mitochondrial protein. The corresponding gene was cloned from rf1rf1 sugar beet and sequenced, and a solitary gene that was similar but not identical to bvORF20 was found. Genetic features exhibited by sugar beet Rf1, such as gene clustering and copy-number variation between Rf1 and rf, were reminiscent of PPR-type Rf, suggesting that a common evolutionary mechanism(s) operates on plant Rfs irrespective of the translation product.

  7. Sensory acceptance tests of red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimally processed and irradiated; Testes sensoriais de aceitacao da beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada e irradiada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandes, Nilber Kenup; Vital, Helio de Carvalho, E-mail: nilberkenup@ctex.eb.b [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear; Coneglian, Regina Celi Cavestre [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Agronomia. Dept. de Fitotecnia; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; Freire Junior, Murillo [EMBRAPA Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2007-08-15

    Red beet (Early Wonder) was cultivated in an experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia at the Institute of Agronomy at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. After harvest, the roots were minimally processed; packed; exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and stored for 20 days at 8.0 deg C. Sensory evaluations were performed 1; 9; 13 and 20 days after irradiation by 12 testers who rated the overall appearance and aroma on a hedonic scale. The results indicated that the irradiated samples remained within the limit of acceptance for 20 days. In addition, the aroma was found to be a more sensitive indicator of the effect of different doses of radiation to the acceptance of the product. (author)

  8. A sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) reference FISH karyotype for chromosome and chromosome-arm identification, integration of genetic linkage groups and analysis of major repeat family distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesold, Susanne; Borchardt, Dietrich; Schmidt, Thomas; Dechyeva, Daryna

    2012-11-01

    We developed a reference karyotype for B. vulgaris which is applicable to all beet cultivars and provides a consistent numbering of chromosomes and genetic linkage groups. Linkage groups of sugar beet were assigned to physical chromosome arms by FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) using a set of 18 genetically anchored BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) markers. Genetic maps of sugar beet were correlated to chromosome arms, and North-South orientation of linkage groups was established. The FISH karyotype provides a technical platform for genome studies and can be applied for numbering and identification of chromosomes in related wild beet species. The discrimination of all nine chromosomes by BAC probes enabled the study of chromosome-specific distribution of the major repetitive components of sugar beet genome comprising pericentromeric, intercalary and subtelomeric satellites and 18S-5.8S-25S and 5S rRNA gene arrays. We developed a multicolor FISH procedure allowing the identification of all nine sugar beet chromosome pairs in a single hybridization using a pool of satellite DNA probes. Fiber-FISH was applied to analyse five chromosome arms in which the furthermost genetic marker of the linkage group was mapped adjacently to terminal repetitive sequences on pachytene chromosomes. Only on two arms telomere arrays and the markers are physically linked, hence these linkage groups can be considered as terminally closed making the further identification of distal informative markers difficult. The results support genetic mapping by marker localization, the anchoring of contigs and scaffolds for the annotation of the sugar beet genome sequence and the analysis of the chromosomal distribution patterns of major families of repetitive DNA. © 2012 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Identification of molecular variants of the nonrestoring restorer-of-fertility 1 allele in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Takashi; Uchiyama, Daisuke; Ue, Sachiyo; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Yoshida, Yu; Kamei, Yoko; Kuroda, Yosuke; Taguchi, Kazunori; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2016-04-01

    Only three variants of nonrestoring alleles for sugar beet Rf1 were found from the US maintainer lines which were the selections from a broad range of genetic resources. Cytoplasmic male sterility is widely used for hybrid breeding of sugar beets. Specific genotypes with a nonsterility-inducing cytoplasm and a nonrestoring allele of restorer-of-fertility gene (rf) are called maintainers. The infrequent occurrence of the maintainer genotype evokes the need to diagnose rf alleles. Molecular analysis of Rf1, one of the sugar beet Rfs, revealed a high level of nucleotide sequence diversity, but three variants were tightly associated with maintainer selection in Japan. The question was raised whether this small number of variants would be seen in cases where a wider range of genetic resources was used for maintainer selection. Fifty-seven accessions registered as maintainers in the USDA germplasm collection were characterized in this study. Mitochondrial DNA types (mitotypes) of 551 plants were diagnosed based on minisatellite polymorphism. A mitotype associated with sterility-inducing (S) cytoplasm was identified in 58 plants, indicating S-cytoplasm contamination. The organization of rf1 was investigated by two PCR markers and DNA gel blot analysis. Eight haplotypes were found among the US maintainers, but subsequently two haplotypes were judged as restoring alleles after a test cross and another haplotype was not inherited by the progeny. Nucleotide sequences of rf1 regions in the remaining five haplotypes were compared, and despite the sequence diversity of the gene-flanking regions, the gene-coding regions were identified to be three types. Therefore, there are three rf1 variants in US maintainers, the same number as in the Japanese sugar beet germplasm collection. The implications of having a small repertoire of rf1 variants are discussed.

  10. The Effects of Boron Fertilizatıon to Yield Properties in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Durak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of agribor fertilizer (18% pure B on yield features of sugar beet were investigated. The study was conducted on ustifluvent subgroup soils according to soil taxonomy of agricultural faculty of Gaziosmanpaşa university. Randomized block experiment design with three replications were used and three treatments of agribor fertilizer 0.18 kg da-1 B (1 kg da -1 agribor; 0.27 kg da-1 B (1.5 kg da -1 agribor; 0.36 kg da-1 B (2 kg da -1 agribor and control (no fertilizer were applied. The effects of applied doses on yield properties were studied. From yield properties for sugar beet tuber weight, green leaf weight, and proportion of polar sugar in tuber were investigated. Results showed that green leaf and proportion of polar sugar in tuber not statistically important but the first application (0.18 kg da-1 agribor fertilizer gave an statistically important yield increase in sugar beet. Boron contents of soils and boron uptake of plant species should be considered at boron application.

  11. Unexpected presence of fructan 6-exohydrolases (6-FEHs) in non-fructan plants: characterization, cloning, mass mapping and functional analysis of a novel "cell-wall invertase-like" specific 6-FEH from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Ende, Wim; De Coninck, Barbara; Clerens, Stefan; Vergauwen, Rudy; Van Laere, André

    2003-12-01

    About 15% of flowering plant species synthesize fructans. Fructans serve mainly as reserve carbohydrates and are subject to breakdown by plant fructan exohydrolases (FEHs), among which 1-FEHs (inulinases) and 6-FEHs (levanases) can be differentiated. This paper describes the unexpected finding that 6-FEHs also occur in plants that do not synthesize fructans. The purification, characterization, cloning and functional analysis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) 6-FEH are described. Enzyme activity measurements during sugar beet development suggest a constitutive expression of the gene in sugar beet roots. Classical enzyme purification followed by in-gel trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry (quadruple-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF) MS) led to peptide sequence information used in subsequent RT-PCR based cloning. Levan-type fructans (beta-2,6) are the best substrates for the enzyme, while inulin-type fructans (beta-2,1) and sucrose are poorly or not degraded. Sugar beet 6-FEH is more related to cell wall invertases than to vacuolar invertases and has a low iso-electric point (pI), clearly different from typical high pI cell wall invertases. Poor sequence homology to bacterial or fungal FEHs makes an endophytic origin highly unlikely. The functionality of the 6-FEH cDNA was further demonstrated by heterologous expression in Pichia pastoris. As fructans are absent in sugar beet, the role of 6-FEH in planta is not obvious. Like chitinases and beta-glucanases hydrolysing cell-surface components of fungal plant pathogens, a straightforward working hypothesis for further research might be that plant 6-FEHs participate in hydrolysis (or prevent the formation) of levan-containing slime surrounding endophytic or phytopathogenic bacteria.

  12. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Ayse; Alikamanoglu, Sema

    2012-01-01

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M(1)V(1)-M(1)V(3) generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20gl(-1) PEG6000. Of the M(1)V(3) plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10gl(-1) PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of drought-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) mutants induced with gamma radiation using SDS-PAGE and ISSR markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayse, E-mail: senayse@istanbul.edu.tr [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey); Alikamanoglu, Sema [Istanbul University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 34459 Vezneciler, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2012-10-15

    Drought is one of the major environmental stresses which greatly affect the plant growth and productivity. In the present study, various doses (0-75 Gy) of gamma rays were applied to investigate the effect of radiation on shoot tip explants. It was observed that the regeneration rates and plant fresh weights decreased significantly with an increase in radiation dose. The optimal irradiation doses for mutation induction were determined at 15 and 20 Gy. Afterwards, the induction of somatic mutation in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) was investigated by irradiation of shoot tips with 15 and 20 Gy gamma rays. Irradiated shoot tips were sub-cultured and M{sub 1}V{sub 1}-M{sub 1}V{sub 3} generations were obtained. Mutants tolerant to drought stress were selected on MS medium, supplemented with 10 and 20 gl{sup -1} PEG6000. Of the M{sub 1}V{sub 3} plantlets, drought-tolerant mutants were selected. Leaf soluble proteins obtained from the control and drought-tolerant mutants were analyzed by SDS-PAGE. A total of 22 protein bands were determined and 2 of them were observed to be drought-tolerant mutants except the control. Polymorphism was also detected among the control and drought-tolerant mutants by DNA fingerprinting using ISSR markers. A total of 106 PCR fragments were amplified with 19 ISSR primers and 91 of them were polymorphic. The dendrograms were separated into two main clusters. First cluster included M8 mutant plant, which was applied 20 Gy gamma radiation and regenerated on selective culture media containing 10 g l{sup -1} PEG6000 concentration, and the second cluster was further divided into five sub-clusters.

  14. The Effects of Boron Fertilizatıon to Yield Properties in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Durak; Gülin Ulubaş Karan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effect of agribor fertilizer (18% pure B) on yield features of sugar beet were investigated. The study was conducted on ustifluvent subgroup soils according to soil taxonomy of agricultural faculty of Gaziosmanpaşa university. Randomized block experiment design with three replications were used and three treatments of agribor fertilizer 0.18 kg da-1 B (1 kg da -1 agribor); 0.27 kg da-1 B (1.5 kg da -1 agribor); 0.36 kg da-1 B (2 kg da -1 agribor) and control (no fertilizer...

  15. Integrated evaluation of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and global warming potential for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) agroecosystems in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Mohammad; Khoramivafa, Mahmud; Mondani, Farzad

    2014-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine and discuss the aggregate of energy use and greenhouse gas emission (CO2, N2O, and CH4) for sugar beet agroecosystems in western of Iran. For this propose data was collected by using questionnaires and face to face interview with 50 farmers. Results showed that total inputs and output energy were 49517.2 and 1095360.0 MJ ha-1, respectively. Energy use efficiency was 22.12. Total CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions due to chemical inputs were 2668.35, 22.92 and 3.49 kg, respectively. In sugar beet farms total global warming potential (GWPs) was 9847.77 kg CO2eq ha-1. In terms of CO2 equivalents, 27% of the GWPs come from CO2, 72% from N2O, and 1% from CH4. In this research input and output carbon were 29340.0 and 2678.6 kg C ha-1, respectively. Hence, carbon efficiency ratio was 10.95.

  16. Genetic basis of agronomically important traits in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) investigated with joint linkage association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Jochen C; Liu, Wenxin; Gowda, Manje; Maurer, Hans Peter; Möhring, Jens; Fischer, Sandra; Schechert, Axel; Würschum, Tobias

    2010-11-01

    Epistatic interactions may contribute substantially to the hybrid performance of sugar beet. The main goal of our study was to dissect the genetic basis of eight important physiological and agronomic traits using two different biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping. A total of 197 genotypes of an elite breeding population were evaluated in multi-location trials and fingerprinted with 194 SNP markers. Two different statistical models were used for the genome-wide scan for marker-trait associations: Model A, which corrects for the genetic background with markers as cofactors and Model B, which additionally models a population effect. Based on the extent of linkage disequilibrium in the parental population, we estimated that for a genome-wide scan at least 100 equally spaced markers are necessary. We mapped across the eight traits 39 QTL for Model A and 22 for Model B. Only 11% of the total number of QTL were identified based on Models A and B, which indicates that both models are complementary. Epistasis was detected only for two out of the eight traits, and contributed only to a minor extent to the genotypic variance. This low relevance of epistasis implies that in sugar beet breeding the prediction of performance of three-way hybrids is feasible with high accuracy based on the means of their single crosses.

  17. Isolation of DNA markers linked to a beet cyst nematode resistamce locus in Beta patellaris and Beta procumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Sandal, N.N.; Lange, W.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Krens, F.A.; Marcker, K.A.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    In cultivated beet no useful level of resistance of the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii Schm. has been found, unlike the situation in wild species of the section Procumbentes. Stable introgression of resistance genes from the wild species into Beta vulgaris has not been achieved, but

  18. Quantification of seed-soil contact of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) using X-ray Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunk, Sebastian; Malik, Ali Hafeez; de Heer, Martine I; Ekblad, Tobias; Bussell, Jennifer; Sparkes, Debbie; Fredlund, Kenneth; Sturrock, Craig J; Mooney, Sacha J

    2017-01-01

    Seed-soil contact is important to ensure successful germination, however, there is a paucity of reported studies that have quantified the microstructure at and around this critical interface, mainly due to the opacity of soil. Here we describe a novel methodology to non-destructively calculate the seed-soil contact area using X-ray Computed Tomography. Under controlled conditions, we observed that seed-soil contact was strongly influenced by the size and type of seed, with a seed-soil contact of ca. 15% for naked sugar beet seeds compared to ca. 32% for pelleted and coated seeds. Similar results were obtained for seeds sampled from the field albeit with a higher spatial variability. By application of this new quantification method it is hoped seed enhancement technologies can be optimised and ultimately seedbed preparation improved to ensure better germination.

  19. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-11-09

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant age (i.e., harvesting time), using leaves from sugar beets grown in a field (Rhino, Arrival) and in a greenhouse (Isabella). Within the same variety (Rhino, field; Arrival, field; Isabella, greenhouse) the protein content was similar for leaves from young and old plants (22 ± 1, 16 ± 1, and 10 ± 3% w/w db, respectively). Variation in final protein isolation yield was mostly due to variation in nitrogen extractability (28-56%), although no consistent correlation with plant age was found. A significant effect of plant age was observed on the quality (color) of the extracted protein, that is, brown (indicative of polyphenol oxidase activity) and yellow for extracts from old and young plants, respectively.

  20. Perfection of methods of development of female component of MS hybrids of sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var.altissita Doell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. О. Корнєєва

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Development and improvement of a female component of MS hybrids of sugar beet were carried out on the basis of the following methods: inereasing frequency of occurrence of sterility maintainers by means of preliminary saturation of the population with alleles of the x and z genes; the use, as a female form, of simple sterile hybrids from the crossing of sterile lines with unrelated O-types; and also the drawing in of complexes of valuable genes from materials of foreign origin.

  1. Application of low-dose gamma irradiation to extend the shelf life of minimally processed Red Beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder; Aplicacao de baixas doses de radiacao gama para extensao da vida util de beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Nilber Kenup

    2006-07-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the effects of low-dose gamma irradiation on shelf-life extension and phyto sanitary safety of minimally processed red beet with basis on physicochemical; microbiological; chemical and sensory analyses. The samples (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.), Early Wonder cultivar, were cultivated in the experimental area of the Horticulture Sector of the Departamento de Fitotecnia of the Instituto de Agronomia, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica, RJ, as part of two experiments performed during the second semester of 2005. In each experiment, 1200 plants (40 per linear meter of terrain) were sowed. Physicochemical analyses (fresh mass; length; average diameter and total soluble solids) of the edible part of the red beets (their tuberous roots) were periodically carried out in order to assess the most appropriate time for harvest by monitoring the development of the plants. Those times were found to be 104 and 73 days after transplanting, respectively. The harvested edible part of the roots were minimally processed and separated in two groups: (1) gamma irradiated (with doses of 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) and (2) non-irradiated (control). All samples were stored at 8 degree C. Microbiological analyses were performed during the storage period (22 and 21 days, for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) in order to evaluate the phyto sanitary quality of the samples (Salmonella sp.; coliforms and total count of mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria). The samples irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy were found to remain appropriate for consumption for 21 days, as compared to only 7 days for the control. Monitoring of chemical composition was also performed and included the determination of saccharose; glucose; fructose and vitamins B1 and B2. No difference was found between the concentrations of those vitamins in irradiated and control samples at the end of the storage period, whereas significant changes in sugar contents were

  2. Effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and quality of sugar beet Beta vulgaris irrigated with saline groundwater (fertigation and surface irrigation) and grown under saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.

    2009-07-01

    In a field experiment Sugar beet Beta vulgaris was grown as a spring crop during the growing seasons of 2004 and 2006, in salt affected soil, previously planted with sesbania and barley (2005 and 2003) to evaluate the response of sugar beet to two irrigation methods, (drip fertigation and surface irrigation), different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its effect on yield and quality. Different rates of nitrogen fertilizers (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N/ ha) as urea (46% N) were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the surface-irrigated treatments in four equally split applications. The 15 N labelled urea was applied to sub-plots of 1.0 m 2 in each experimental unit in a manner similar to that of unlabeled urea. Irrigation scheduling was carried out using the direct method of neutron scattering technique. Sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 25 cm was 80% of the field capacity (FC) and such practice continued until the six leaf stage. From the latter stage until harvest, sugar beet was irrigated when soil moisture in the upper 50 cm reached 80% of the FC. The amount of irrigation water applied, electrical conductivity of the soil paste, dry matter and fresh roots yield, total nitrogen uptake and N derived from fertilizer were also determined. Furthermore, Nitrogen use as well as water use-efficiencies for dry matter and roots yield were also calculated. Results revealed that sugar beets and dry matter yield increased with increasing N input up to 100-150 kg N/ha which was indicated by the higher dry matter yield, and sugar beet yield. Sugar percentage was also increased relative to the average percentage recorded in Syria. Crop water use efficiencies, for both the drip-fertigated and surface-irrigated treatments were increased in most cases with increasing rate of nitrogen fertilizer. During the course of this study, small increases in soil salinity under both irrigation methods were observed. Higher increases in soil salinity was

  3. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  4. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  5. Use of low doses of cobalt 60 gamma radiation on beet (Beta vulgaris L.), carrot (Daucus carota L.) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.) seed to stimulate increase yield; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto 60 em sementes de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L.), cenoura (Daucus carota L.) e rabanete (Raphanus sativus L.) para estimular o aumento da producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, Jose Eduardo

    2000-07-01

    The research had the aim of evaluating the effects of low doses of Cobalt-60 gamma radiation on seeds of radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultiva Champion, cultivars Nantes Forto (european origin) and Brasilia (Rio Grande do Sul origin) carrot (Daucus carota L. var. sativus (Hoffm.) Thell), and red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) cultivar Tall Top Early Wonder before sowing, its effects on plant growth, on the yield and roots storage of two tillages: with sowing in the same day of radiation and six days after radiation seeds. The data showed that the seeds radiation did not interfered negatively on plants growth, and the species presented differences as roots production and doses on both plantation: radish with 5,0 Gy and 2,5 Gy doses respectively to the first and the second sowings, Brasilia carrot with 2,5 Gy dose to both sowings. Nantes carrot with 2,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second sowings, and beet with 7,5 Gy and 5,0 Gy respectively to the first and the second plantations. There is not statistics difference by Tukey test (5% and 1%) and none relation between seeds radiation and loss weight on roots storage. (author)

  6. Registration of sugar beet doubled haploid line KDH13 with resistance to beet curly top

    Science.gov (United States)

    KDH13 is a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) doubled haploid line (PI 663862) released as a genetic stock by USDA-ARS in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Development Foundation, Denver, CO. KDH13 is resistant to beet curly top (BCT) caused by Beet curly top virus which is transmitted by the ...

  7. [High-priority research directions in genetics, and the breeding of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the 21st century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, A V; Podvigina, O A; Zhuzhzhalova, T P; Fedulova, T P; Bogomolov, M A; Oshevnev, V P; Butorina, A K

    2014-11-01

    High-priority research directions for the genetics and breeding of the sugar beet in the 21st century were developed with consideration of the available scientific achievements of domestic and foreign scholars. These directions unite the classical and molecular approaches to solving the problems of increasing the effectiveness of sugar beet breeding carried out on a genetic basis, and they correspond to the contemporary level of scientific research. Seven such directions are proposed.

  8. Transgenic salt-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) constitutively expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar Na/H antiporter gene, AtNHX3, accumulates more soluble sugar but less salt in storage roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hua; Wang, Qiuqing; Yu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Yanyan; Wu, Yingbao; Zhang, Hongxia

    2008-09-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, six vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters (AtNHX1-6) were identified. Among them, AtNHX1, 2 and 5 are functional Na(+)/H(+) antiporters with the most abundant expression levels in seedling shoots and roots. However, the expression of AtNHX3 in Arabidopsis can only be detected by RT-PCR, and its physiological function still remains unclear. In this work, we demonstrate that constitutive expression of AtNHX3 in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) conferred augmented resistance to high salinity on transgenic plants. In the presence of 300 or 500 mm NaCl, transgenic plants showed very high potassium accumulation in the roots and storage roots. Furthermore, the transcripts of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS) and cell wall sucrose invertase (SI) genes were maintained in transgenic plants. The accumulation of soluble sugar in the storage roots of transgenic plants grown under high salt stress condition was also higher. Our results implicate that AtNHX3 is also a functional antiporter responsible for salt tolerance by mediating K(+)/H(+) exchange in higher plants. The salt accumulation in leaves but not in the storage roots, and the increased yield of storage roots with enhanced constituent soluble sugar contents under salt stress condition demonstrate a great potential use of this gene in improving the quality and yield of crop plants.

  9. In vitro and in vivo antagonism of actinomycetes isolated from Moroccan rhizospherical soils against Sclerotium rolfsii: a causal agent of root rot on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errakhi, R; Lebrihi, A; Barakate, M

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the ability of the isolated actinomycetes to inhibit in vitro plant pathogenic fungi and the efficacy of promising antagonistic isolates to reduce in vivo the incidence of root rot induced by Sclerotium rolfsii on sugar beet. Actinomycetes isolated from rhizosphere soil of sugar beet were screened for antagonistic activity against a number of plant pathogens, including S. rolfsii. Ten actinomycetes out of 195 screened in vitro were strongly inhibitory to S. rolfsii. These isolates were subsequently tested for their ability to inhibit sclerotial germination and hyphal growth of S. roflsii. The most important inhibitions were obtained by the culture filtrate from the isolates J-2 and B-11, including 100% inhibition of sclerotial germination and 80% inhibition of hyphal growth. These two isolates (J-2 and B-11) were then screened for their ability to protect sugar beet against infection of S. rolfsii induced root rot in a pot trial. The treatment of S. rolfsii infested soil with a biomass and culture filtrate mixture of the selected antagonists reduced significantly (P sugar beet. Isolate J-2 was most effective and allowed a high fresh weight of sugar beet roots to be obtained. Both antagonists J-2 and B-11 were classified as belonging to the genus Streptomyces species through morphological and chemical characteristics as well as 16S rDNA analysis. Streptomyces isolates J-2 and B-11 showed a potential for controlling root rot on sugar beet and could be useful in integrated control against diverse soil borne plant pathogens. This investigation showed the role, which actinomycete bacteria can play to control root rot caused by S. rolfsii, in the objective to reduce treatments with chemical fungicides.

  10. Identification of the predominant nonrestoring allele for Owen-type cytoplasmic male sterility in sugar beet (Beta vulgarisL.): development of molecular markers for the maintainer genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritani, Mari; Taguchi, Kazunori; Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Katsuyama, Takaya; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2013-06-01

    Hybrid seed production in sugar beet relies on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). As time-consuming and laborious test crosses with a CMS tester are necessary to identify maintainer lines, development of a marker-assisted selection method for the rf gene (the nonrestoring allele of restorer - of - fertility locus) is highly desirable for sugar-beet breeding. To develop such a method, we investigated genetic variation at the Rf1 locus, one of two Rf loci known in sugar beet. After Hin dIII-digestion, genomic DNAs from beet plants known to have a restoring Rf1 allele yielded a range of hybridization patterns on agarose gels, indicating that Rf1 is a multi-allelic locus. However, the hybridization patterns of 22 of 23 maintainer lines were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequences of the rf1 coding regions of these 22 maintainer lines were found to be identical, confirming that the lines had the same rf1 allele. Two PCR markers were developed that targeted a downstream intergenic sequence and an intron of Rf1. The electrophoretic patterns of both markers indicated multiple Rf1 alleles, one of which, named the dd(L) type, was associated with the maintainer genotype. To test the validity of marker-assisted selection, 147 sugar beet plants were genotyped using these markers. Additionally, the 147 sugar beet plants were crossed with CMS plants to determine whether they possessed the maintainer genotype. Analysis of 5038 F1 offspring showed that 53 % of the dd(L) plants, but none of the plants with other alleles, had the maintainer genotype. Thus, selection for the dd(L) type considerably enriched the proportion of plants with the maintainer genotype.

  11. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  12. The effect of leaf area reduction on the yield and quality of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. altissima Döll).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cerkal, R.; Dvořák, J.; Vejražka, K.; Kamler, Jiří

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2007), s. 37-43 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QF4192 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : damage caused by game * defoliation * sugar beet Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  13. In vitro protein synthesis of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and maize (Zea mays) is differentially inhibited when potassium is substituted by sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Franziska; Schubert, Sven

    2017-09-01

    The substitution of potassium ions (K + ) by sodium ions (Na + ) in the nutrition of plants is restricted. It was shown earlier that net protein synthesis is the process which is most sensitive to the substitution of K + by Na + in young sugar beet. We hypothesized that the activity of ribosomes is inhibited by the substitution. This hypothesis was tested in an in vitro approach. Cytosolic polysomes were isolated from growing leaves of sugar beet and maize by means of differential centrifugation. In vitro systems of both plant species were tested for functionality and comparability. Translation was quantified by the 35 S-methionine incorporation in TCA-precipitable products. The effect of different substitution levels (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% substitution of K + by Na + ) on in vitro translation was measured. Translation by polysomes of both plant species was significantly inhibited by the substitution. However, the translation by maize polysomes was more negatively affected by the substitution. A significant decrease in the translation by maize polysomes was observed already when 20% of K + were replaced by Na + , whereas in the case of sugar beet, the translation was inhibited firstly at the substitution level of 40%. The in vitro results show that the process of translation itself is disturbed by the substitution and indicate a higher tolerance of sugar beet polysomes to increased Na + concentrations and Na + /K + ratios compared to polysomes of maize. We propose that this tolerance contributes to the salt resistance of sugar beet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetics of thermal degradation of betacyanins, betaxantins and vitamin C in a juice-based drink beet (Beta vulgaris l. and honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Sánchez-Chávez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic of degradation betacyanins, betaxantins and vitamin C at 30 °C, 40 °C and 50 ºC was evaluated in a commercial beverage made of beet and honey, using the kinetic models of zero, first and second order; and Arrhenius model to evaluate the dependence of the rate of degradation with respect to temperature. It was determined that the degradation of the three compounds evaluated at the three tested temperatures followed a first order kinetics with a high correlation (R2=0.974, 0.98, 0.979. It was determined that the betacyanins and vitamin have a similar sensitivity to temperature; while betaxantins were more stable. Referring to the influence of temperature on the degradation rate, the activation energy and the reaction Q10 values were determined which confirm the increased stability of betaxantins regarding betacyanins and vitamin in the beverage of beet and honey.

  15. Effect of Salt Stress on Growth, Photosynthesis, Gas Exchanges and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Insugar Beet(Beta vulgaris L. Cultivars in the Seedling Stage under Controlled Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Assadi Nassab

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available According to continuing of drought phenomenon, global warming and dust storms resulted in salining increasing of arable lands, because it’s necessary to know some physiological mechanisms in sugar beet under salt stress,this experiment was conducted to investigation of effect of salinity on growth characteristics, respiration, gas exchange and photosynthesis in three sugar beet cultivars (BR1, Jolgeh and Rasoul in the 2010 growing season, in greenhouse of Shahid Chamran University as the factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications.35 days sugar beet seedlings were kept for eight weeks under three salinity levels including control (zero, 100, and 200 mM sodium chloride (NaCl. Salinity Stress reduced shoot and root dry matter and leaf area significantly. With increasing of salinity, the rate of photosynthesis (carbon dioxide assimilation, stomatal conductance, and leaf transpiration rate decreased, but respiratory rate, leaf temperature and SPAD value increased. The results showed that Quantum yield of PSII(ФPSII decreased by increasing of salinity level, meanwhile Non-Photo Chemical Quenching (NPQ increased.Accordingto theresults, theconcentration of 200mMsodium chloride, had a highnegative correlation betweenrootdry matter(r=-0.95**stress susceptibility index. Meansanyreductionindry matter accumulationincreasedinstress susceptibility index.Lowerlevelsofstress susceptibility indexshowingmoretolerance of cultivar tosalinity stress. Based on stress susceptibility index (SSI, in the concentration of 200 mM sodium chloride, cultivars Rasoul, BR1 and Jolgeh are tolerant, semi-tolerant respectively and sensitive were identified. In the end, it seems that root dry weight, can be use as a criterion for salinity resistance of sugar beet cultivars.

  16. A protocol for sonication-assisted Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of haploid and diploid sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek-Chodacka, Magdalena; Baranski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Hairy root cultures obtained after Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated genetic transformation can serve as a model system for studying plant metabolism and physiology, or can be utilized for the production of secondary metabolites. So far no efficient protocol of hairy root development in sugar beet has been publically released. In this work, two A. rhizogenes strains (A4T and LBA1334) carrying a binary vector pBIN-m-gfp5-ER or pCAMBIA1301 possessing gfp and uidA reporter genes were used to transform petiole explants of haploid and diploid sugar beet genotypes. Five treatment combinations of sonicated-assisted Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were compared. Hairy roots appeared on 0% to 54% of explants depending on the treatment combination used. The highest frequency was achieved when explants of a diploid genotype were sonicated for 15 s in the inoculum containing A. rhizogenes of OD600=0.5 and then co-cultured for three days. Using the same treatment combinations the explants of haploid genotypes developed hairy roots with the frequency ranging from 10% to 36%. Transformation efficiency was independent on the bacterial strain used. The results indicate that haploid sugar beet explants are amenable to transformation using A. rhizogenes, and that the efficiency of that process can be increased by applying short ultrasound treatment.

  17. Impact of Humic Acid on Yield and Quality of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Grown on Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbanali RASSAM

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was performed to determine the effects of using humic acid with irrigation on quantitative and qualitative yield traits of sugar beet grown on calcareous soils in Esfaraen, located in the North-East of Iran. Treatments consisted of three levels of humic acid concentration (zero or control, 2.5 and 5 L ha-1 and the number of applications (once 45 days after planting; twice, 45 and 75 days after planting; three times, respectively 45, 75 and 105 days after planting. The effect of the two experimental factors on sugar beet yield traits such as the content of sucrose, refined sugar, molasses forming substances, root yield and refined sugar yield were evaluated. The results proved the existence of a significant interaction between humic acid concentration and the number of applications on all parameters under study. The application of humic acid caused a significant increase of sucrose, refined sugar, root yield and refined sugar yield and a reduction in molasses forming substances content, compared to the control. The increased amount of sucrose and refined sugar content in all applications in concentration of 2.5 L ha-1 humic acid was more than with 5 L ha-1. Similarly, the content of molasses forming substances showed more reduction in 2.5 L ha-1 than in 5 L ha-1 treatment. However, the results revealed that the highest root yield and refined sugar yield, as the main qualitative and quantitative parameters of sugar beet yield, were achieved by three times application of 5 L ha-1 that had 24 and 37% increase compared to control.

  18. Cryptic diversity, pathogenicity, and evolutionary species boundaries in Cercospora populations associated with Cercospora leaf spot of Beta vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora is one of the largest genera of hyphomycetes accommodating several important phytopathogenic species associated with foliar diseases of vegetable and field crops. Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by C. beticola, is a destructive disease of Beta vulgaris (sugar beet, table beet and swiss...

  19. ROW METHOD OF SUGAR BEET (BETA VULGARIS L. FERTILIZATION WITH MULTICOMPONENT FERTILIZER BASED ON UREA-AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION AS A WAY TO INCREASE NITROGEN EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław BARŁÓG

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is the main crop commonly cultivated for sugar production in temperate regions of the World. Actual yields in main Central Europe producing countries are much lower, due to many limiting factors. Among them, nutrients supply is of great value, especially referring to efficiency of nitrogen, which is generally low. In the conducted study two methods of nitrogen application were compared (i broadcast of calcium saltpeter and (ii row application of the multicomponent fertilizer based on urea-ammonium-nitrate (UAN solution. The basic amount of the applied N was 75 kg ha-1. The highest yields of both taproots and refined sugar were harvested on the plot receiving 75 kg N-1 as UAN liquid multicomponent fertilizer and 50% of the recommended P and K rates. The positive effects of row application of liquid N fertilizer on taproot and sugar yields were also corroborated by high values of indices of agronomic efficiency for both N as well as P and K. However this method of sugar beets fertilization has some possibilities, as indicated by still high contents of melassogenic substances.

  20. Improvement of hypertension, endothelial function and systemic inflammation following short-term supplementation with red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) juice: a randomized crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Afshani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Keshvari, M; Taheri, M; Jahanian, E; Rafieian-Kopaei, M; Malekian, F; Sarrafzadegan, N

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a prevalence of about one billion people worldwide. It has been shown that adherence to a diet rich in fruits and vegetables helps in decreasing blood pressure (BP). This study aimed to investigate the effect of raw beet juice (RBJ) and cooked beet (CB) on BP of hypertensive subjects. In this randomized crossover study, 24 hypertensive subjects aged 25-68 years old were divided into two groups. One group took RBJ for 2 weeks and the other group took CB. After 2 weeks of treatment, both groups had a washout for 2 weeks then switched to the alternate treatment. Each participant consumed 250 ml day(-1) of RBJ or 250 g day(-1) of CB each for a period of 2 weeks. Body weight, BP, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), lipid profile and inflammatory parameters were measured at baseline and after each period. According to the results, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were significantly lower and FMD was significantly higher after treatment with RBJ compared with CB (Pbeetroot were effective in improving BP, endothelial function and systemic inflammation, the raw beetroot juice had greater antihypertensive effects. Also more improvement was observed in endothelial function and systemic inflammation with RBJ compared with CB.

  1. Effect of ph on the stability of red beet extract (Beta vulgaris l. microcapsules produced by spray drying or freeze drying

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    Jéssica Loraine Duenha ANTIGO

    Full Text Available Abstract Red beets is rich in phenolic acids and has high antioxidant capacity, and can be used to produce a natural dye. This study evaluated the effect of pH (3 to 6 on the stability of red beet extract microcapsules, dried by freeze drying and spray drying and stored at room temperature. The microcapsules were produced using a combination of maltodextrin and xanthan gum as encapsulating agents and stored for 7 days. For all evaluated microcapsules, a degradation of betanin was observed, however, that degradation was independent of pH, with the exception of the sample with maltodextrin and dried by spray drying. The freeze dried products showed lower degradation constants and higher half-life (t1/2 when comparing with the spray dried samples. The microcapsules containing maltodextrin and xanthan gum, dried by spray drying, showed the highest change in the content of phenolic compounds after storage for 7 days. The color parameters showed a reduction for a*, and increase in b* and L*, for all samples during the storage time. In general, the microcapsules produced using maltodextrin and xanthan gum, and dried by freeze dryer, showed higher stability in terms of betanin content, phenolic compounds and color parameters during storage at different pHs.

  2. Evolutionary aspects of a unique internal mitochondrial targeting signal in nuclear-migrated rps19 of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Takahashi, Yoshiya; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2013-03-15

    The endosymbiotic theory postulates that many genes migrated from endosymbionts to the nuclear genomes of their hosts. Some migrated genes lack presequences directing proteins to mitochondria, and their mitochondrial targeting signals appear to be inscribed in the core coding regions as internal targeting signals (ITSs). ITSs may have evolved after sequence transfer to nuclei or ITSs may have pre-existed before sequence transfer. Here, we report the molecular cloning of a sugar beet gene for ribosomal protein S19 (Rps19; the first letter is capitalized when the gene is a nuclear gene). We show that sugar beet Rps19 (BvRps19) is an ITS-type gene. Based on amino-acid sequence comparison, dicotyledonous rps19s (the first letter is lower-cased when the gene is a mitochondrial gene), such as tobacco rps19 (Ntrps19), resemble an ancestral form of BvRps19. We investigated whether differences in amino-acid sequences between BvRps19 and Ntrps19 were involved in ITS evolution. Analyses of the intracellular localization of chimaeric GFP-fusion proteins that were transiently expressed in Welsh onion cells showed that Ntrps19-gfp was not localized in mitochondria. When several BvRps19-type amino acid substitutions, none of which was seen in any other angiosperm rps19, were introduced into Ntrps19-gfp, the modified Ntrps19-gfp became localized in mitochondria, supporting the notion that an ITS in BvRps19 evolved following sequence transfer to nuclei. Not all of these substitutions were seen in other ITS-type Rps19s, suggesting that the ITSs of Rps19 are diverse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Vermistabilization of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L) waste produced from sugar factory using earthworm Eisenia fetida: Genotoxic assessment by Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, sugar beet mud (SBM) and pulp (SBP) produced as a waste by-products of the sugar industry were mixed with cattle dung (CD) at different ratios on dry weight basis for vermicomposting with Eisenia fetida. Minimum mortality and highest population of worms were observed in 20:80 (SBM20) mixture of SBM and 10:90 (SBP10) ratios. However, increased percentages of wastes significantly affected the growth and fecundity of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, increased from initial feed mixture to final products (i.e., vermicompost), while organic carbon (OC), C:N ratio and electrical conductivity (EC) declined in all the products of vermicomposting. Although there was an increase in the contents of all the heavy metals except copper, chromium, and iron in SBM, the contents were less than the international standards for compost which indicates that the vermicompost can be used in the fields without any ill effects on the soil. Allium cepa root chromosomal aberration assay was used to evaluate the genotoxicity of pre- and post-vermicomposted SBM to understand the effect of vermicomposting on the reduction of toxicity. Genotoxicity analysis of post-vermicomposted samples of SBM revealed 18-75% decline in the aberration frequencies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was recorded to identify the changes in texture in the control and vermicomposted samples. The vermicomposted mixtures in the presence of earthworms confirm more numerous surface irregularities that prove to be good manure.

  4. Investigation of Growth Analysis of Conventional and Commercial Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Varieties at Delayed Planting Date in Chenaran(Khorasan Razavi Province

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    R. Sadrabadi Haghighi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of yield, growth index and physiological traits in spring sugar beet genotypes with delayed planting date, a field experiment was carried out in Chenaran in Khorasan Razavi Province in the east of Iran in 2008 cropping season. For this experiment a complete randomized block design with 4 replications and 6 treatments was used. The experimental treatments were six improved varieties: Nagano, Brigiitta, Latitia, Flores, Dorotea and 7112. The results showed that the 7112 and Flores varies had highest leaf area Index (5.8 and lowest LAI (0.38, respectively. Nagano variety had the highest total dry weight (1600gm-2, root dry weight (1200gm-2, crop growth rate (17 gm-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.05g.g-1.day-1. 7112 variety had the lowest total dry weight (700 gm-2, root dry weight (560g.m-2, crop growth rate (6 g.m-2.day-1 and relative growth rate (0.036g.g-1.day-1.

  5. Molecular mapping of restorer-of-fertility 2 gene identified from a sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) homozygous for the non-restoring restorer-of-fertility 1 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Yujiro; Taguchi, Kazunori; Hiyama, Hajime; Yui-Kurino, Rika; Mikami, Tetsuo; Kubo, Tomohiko

    2014-12-01

    By genetically eliminating the major restorer - of - fertility gene ( Rf ), a weak Rf gene was unveiled. It is an allele of Z , long known as an elusive Rf gene in sugar beet. In the hybrid breeding of sugar beet, maintainer-genotype selection is a laborious process because of the dependence on test crossing, despite the very low occurrence of this genotype. Marker-assisted selection (MAS) of the maintainer genotype is highly desired by sugar beet breeders. The major restorer-of-fertility gene (Rf) was identified as Rf1, and its non-restoring allele (rf1) was discriminated at the DNA level; however, some of the rf1rf1 selections retained an as yet unidentified Rf, another target locus for MAS. The objective of this study was to identify this Rf. An rfrf1 plant was crossed to a cytoplasmic male-sterile sugar beet and then backcrossed to obtain progeny segregating the unidentified Rf. The progeny exhibited partial male-fertility restoration that was unstable in single plants. The segregation ratio of restored vs. non-restored plants suggested the involvement of a single Rf in this male-fertility restoration, designated as Rf2. We confirmed the feasibility of molecular tagging of Rf2 by identifying four shared amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments specific to 17 restored plants. Bulked segregant analysis also was performed to screen the Rf2-linked AFLP markers, which were subsequently converted into 17 sequence-tagged site markers. All the markers, as well two additional chromosome-IV-assigned markers, were linked to each other to form a single linkage map, on which Rf2 was located. Our data suggested that Rf2 is likely an allele of Z, long known as an elusive Rf gene in sugar beet. We also discuss the importance of Rf2 for sugar beet breeding.

  6. Beta vulgaris - A mini review of traditional uses in Iran, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Shokouhsadat; Honarvar, Masoud

    2018-03-08

    Beta vulgaris (family: Chenopodiacea) is now much used in the food industry as a rich source of sugar but it is much less considered in medicine. Beet has been used in traditional medicine for hundreds of years to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, decreased libido, gut and joint pain and dandruff. This study introduced the benefits of Beta vulgaris by reviewing of Iranian traditional documents from 10th century until now and also compared modern phytotherapy of plant beet from the electronic data banks such as ISI, Pub Med and Scopus with findings that extracted from traditional literature. This plant is known in Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) as Selgh (Arabic) or Choghondar (Farsi) and its leaves are used to develop treatments. Results confirmed that the plant referred to as Selgh in traditional books is that the plant Beta vulgaris in contemporary studies. Treatments that have not been evaluated in modern phytotherapy but do appear in traditional treatments include fever, as well as psychological and psychiatric issues. This article tells the history of beet in ITM and can confirm use of plant Beta vulgaris in medicinal practice. The report can be applied for certification of plant Beta vulgaris for researchers and experts. The findings of this study can help the researchers in producing therapeutic products and new application. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... CFR part 340 for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) designated as event H7-1, which has been... sugar beet to other Beta species, including gene flow between seed fields, root crops, and feral plants... conventional sugar beet production and on export markets. What are the potential impacts of mitigation measures...

  8. Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris Rote Kugel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Martina; Turinek, Matjaz; Grobelnik-Mlakar, Silva; Slatnar, Ana; Bavec, Franc

    2010-11-24

    The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. Significant differences were measured for malic acid, total phenolic content (TPC), and total antioxidant activity, where malic acid content ranged from 2.39 g kg(-1) FW (control) to 1.63 g kg(-1) FW (CON, ORG, and INT). The highest TPC was measured in BD and control samples (0.677 and 0.672 mg GAE g(-1), respectively), and the lowest in CON samples (0.511 mg GAE g(-1)). Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective.

  9. Testes sensoriais de aceitação da beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder, minimamente processada e irradiada Sensory acceptance tests of red beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder, minimally processed and irradiated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilber Kenup Hernandes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A beterraba vermelha (variedade hortícola, cultivar Early Wonder foi cultivada na área experimental do Departamento de Fitotecnia do Instituto de Agronomia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro. Após a colheita, as raízes foram minimamente processadas, embaladas e submetidas a diferentes doses de radiação gama (0; 0,5; 1,0; e 1,5 kGy, sendo em seguida armazenadas, por 20 dias, a 8 ºC. Durante o período de armazenamento, aos: 1, 9, 13 e 20 dias, foram realizados testes sensoriais, nos quais 12 avaliadores julgaram a aparência e o aroma segundo uma escala hedônica. Os resultados indicaram que as amostras irradiadas com doses de 1,0 e 1,5 kGy mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões de aceitabilidade por 20 dias. Alem disso, foi também observado que a avaliação do aroma permitiu uma melhor discriminação, dos efeitos das diferentes doses de radiação sobre a aceitação do produto.Red beet (Early Wonder was cultivated in an experimental area of the Department of Fitotecnia at the Institute of Agronomy at the Rural Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. After harvest, the roots were minimally processed; packed; exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 kGy and stored for 20 days at 8.0 ºC. Sensory evaluations were performed 1; 9; 13 and 20 days after irradiation by 12 testers who rated the overall appearance and aroma on a hedonic scale. The results indicated that the irradiated samples remained within the limit of acceptance for 20 days. In addition, the aroma was found to be a more sensitive indicator of the effect of different doses of radiation to the acceptance of the product.

  10. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes...

  11. Effect of Kimchi Fermentation on Oxalate Levels in Silver Beet (Beta vulgarisvar. cicla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadamori, Yukiko; Vanhanen, Leo; Savage, Geoffrey P

    2014-04-23

    Total, soluble and insoluble oxalates were extracted and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) following the preparation of kimchi using silver beet ( Beta vulgaris var. cicla) stems and leaves. As silver beet contains high oxalate concentrations and consumption of high levels can cause the development of kidney stones in some people, the reduction of oxalate during preparation and fermentation of kimchi was investigated. The silver beet stems and leaves were soaked in a 10% brine solution for 11 h and then washed in cold tap water. The total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents of the silver beet leaves were reduced by soaking in brine, from 4275.81 ± 165.48 mg/100 g to 3709.49 ± 216.51 mg/100 g fresh weight (FW). Fermenting the kimchi for 5 days at 19.3 ± 0.8 °C in 5 L ceramic jars with a water airtight seal resulted in a mean 38.50% reduction in total oxalate content and a mean 22.86% reduction in soluble oxalates. The total calcium content was essentially the same before and after the fermentation of the kimchi (mean 296.1 mg/100 g FW). The study showed that fermentation of kimchi significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced the total oxalate concentration in the initial mix from 609.32 ± 15.69 to 374.71 ± 7.94 mg/100 g FW in the final mix which led to a 72.3% reduction in the amount of calcium bound to insoluble oxalate.

  12. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

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    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  13. The effects of super absorbent polymer application into soil and humic acid foliar application on some agrophysiological criteria and quantitative and qualitative yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) under Mashhad conditions

    OpenAIRE

    M Jahan; M Nassiri Mahallati; F Ranjbar; M Aryaee; N Kamayestani

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is the most limiting factor of agricultural production through the world. To evaluate the effect of super absorbent and humic acid to reduce drought stress in sugar beet production, a strip split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Field of Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2010-2011. The main plot factor was application and no application of super absorbent...

  14. C-Glycosyl Flavonoids from Beta vulgaris Cicla and Betalains from Beta vulgaris rubra: Antioxidant, Anticancer and Antiinflammatory Activities-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Antonini, Elena; Frati, Alessandra; Scarpa, Emanuele-Salvatore

    2017-06-01

    The green beet (Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.) and red beetroot (B. vulgaris var. rubra L.) contain phytochemicals that have beneficial effects on human health. Specifically, the green beet contains apigenin, vitexin, vitexin-2-O-xyloside and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside, while the red beetroot is a source of betaxanthins and betacyanins. These phytochemicals show considerable antioxidant activity, as well as antiinflammatory and antiproliferative activities. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, in combination with betaxanthins and betacyanins, exerts antiproliferative activity in breast, liver, colon and bladder cancer cell lines, through the induction of both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. A significant body of evidence also points to the role of these phytochemicals in the downregulation of the pro-survival genes, baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis repeat-containing 5 and catenin beta-1, as well as the genes controlling angiogenesis, hypoxia inducible factor 1A and vascular endothelial growth factor A. The multi-target action of these phytochemicals enhances their anticancer activity. Vitexin-2-O-xyloside, betaxanthins and betacyanins can be used in combination with conventional anticancer drugs to reduce their toxicity and overcome the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. In this review, we describe the molecular mechanisms that enable these dietary phytochemicals to block the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit their pro-survival pathways. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. EcoTILLING in Beta vulgaris reveals polymorphisms in the FLC-like gene BvFL1 that are associated with annuality and winter hardiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichmann, Sebastian L M; Kirchhoff, Martin; Müller, Andreas E; Scheidig, Axel J; Jung, Christian; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J

    2013-03-25

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris L.) is an important crop for sugar and biomass production in temperate climate regions. Currently sugar beets are sown in spring and harvested in autumn. Autumn-sown sugar beets that are grown for a full year have been regarded as a cropping system to increase the productivity of sugar beet cultivation. However, for the development of these "winter beets" sufficient winter hardiness and a system for bolting control is needed. Both require a thorough understanding of the underlying genetics and its natural variation. We screened a diversity panel of 268 B. vulgaris accessions for three flowering time genes via EcoTILLING. This panel had been tested in the field for bolting behaviour and winter hardiness. EcoTILLING identified 20 silent SNPs and one non-synonymous SNP within the genes BTC1, BvFL1 and BvFT1, resulting in 55 haplotypes. Further, we detected associations of nucleotide polymorphisms in BvFL1 with bolting before winter as well as winter hardiness. These data provide the first genetic indication for the function of the FLC homolog BvFL1 in beet. Further, it demonstrates for the first time that EcoTILLING is a powerful method for exploring genetic diversity and allele mining in B. vulgaris.

  16. Difference of proteomics vernalization-induced in bolting and flowering transitions of Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Naiguo; Cheng, Dayou; Liu, Qiaohong; Cui, Jie; Luo, Chengfei

    2018-02-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a biennial crop that accounts for 30% sugar production of the world. Vernalization is an essential factor for sugar beet reproductative growth under long days. Although genes association with bolting and flowering were well explored, the difference of proteomics in the two growth stages were still poorly understood. To address the molecular mechanism at the level of proteins, an isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based quantitative proteomics approach was employed to the three different growth stages (germination, bolting, flowering) of vernalized samples and the corresponding stage germination (17W weeks), 19W and 20W of nonvernalized samples. A total of 1110 peptides, 842 unique peptides and 570 proteins were identified. Most of them were assigned to phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, hormone metabolism and protein processing pathway. IAA and Gibberellins (GA3) promoted growth and development in a threshold manner at growth stage germination after vernalization. A novel discovery was that IAA biosynthetic pathway of sugar beet was the Trp-dependent. In addition, two predominant pathways of protein processing association with vernalization were also identified in sugar beet at growth stage flowering. This study provided an in-depth understanding of the molecular mechanism of vernalization at the level of proteomics. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of super absorbent polymer application into soil and humic acid foliar application on some agrophysiological criteria and quantitative and qualitative yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. under Mashhad conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jahan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is the most limiting factor of agricultural production through the world. To evaluate the effect of super absorbent and humic acid to reduce drought stress in sugar beet production, a strip split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at Research Field of Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran during growing season of 2010-2011. The main plot factor was application and no application of super absorbent polymer and the sub plot factor was foliar application and no application of humic acid. Two irrigation intervals (7 and 10 days assigned to strip plots. The results showed that super absorbent application comparing to no super absorbent affected leaf area index (LAI, sugar gross yield (SGY and SPAD readings significantly, as the highest amount for this traits were 3.4, 4.7 t ha-1 and 46.2, respectively. Humic acid foliar application resulted to the highest LAI (3.4 and SPAD reading (45.1 which significantly were different with other treatments. Irrigation interval of 7 days resulted to the highest LAI (3.8 and root yield (24.9 t ha-1. The highest SPAD reading (49.9 resulted from super absorbent and humic acid application with 7 days interval irrigation interaction. Dry matter yield (DM and leaf number per plant showed a positive and significant correlation (p≤0.01 with tuber yield (TY, SGY and SPAD readings. The strongest correlation coefficients were obtained for DM and LAI, and between DM and SGY. This positive and significant correlation emphasis that any factor increasing LAI will increase DM and thereby, SGY. The positive and significant correlations were observed between DM and SPAD readings, and between SPAD readings and TY. SGY estimation model predicted that SGY was determined by some variables such as TY, SP and SPAD reading. In general, these results indicate super absorbent application could increase soil water holding capacity and

  18. Sugar beet breeding lines evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-nine beet sugar beet breeding lines (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service breeding program at Fort Collins, CO, were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (Rcrr) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. The...

  19. Effects of feeding Beta vulgaris saccharifera bulb for fattening desert lambs under tropical conditions of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M D Mohammed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of introducing Sugar Beet bulb as a cheap substitute for grains in rations formulated for sheep fattening. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Experimental unit of Rural Development and extension center, Faculty of animal production, University of Gezira. Twenty four Sudanese desert lambs (Ashgur ecotype were purchased from local markets to assess the effects of replacing grain with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris saccharifera Bulb on feed lot performance, carcass traits under tropical conditions of Sudan. Sugar Beet bulb was incorporated in three rations with a control ration (A: control, B, C, D at percentages of 0, 11, 22, and 33. Results: The results showed that total weight gain and daily feed intake in group D were significantly different at (P<0.05 where values of 5.59±1.73 and 0.94± 0.13 kg were recorded. Total weight gain, daily dry matter intake, daily energy intake and feed conversion ratio were in the range of 10.67- 5.59, 1.03-0.83, 0.33-0.27and 11.77- 7.70 kg respectively. Treatments showed no significant differences at (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, empty body weight, dressing % on slaughter weight basis and dressing % on empty weight basis, the obtained results for these traits were 27.78-25.37, 24.76- 22.22, 45.80- 43.45% and 51.41- 49.65%. Carcass cuts (Leg, Loin, Rack, Plate and Neck & shoulder weight and percentages showed no significant differences among treatments. Conclusion: It is concluded that replacing expensive grains with Beta vulgaris bulb can be practiced in sheep fattening project up to 22% with excellent results. [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 330-334

  20. OMICS Technologies and Applications in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxue; Nan, Jingdong; Yu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet is a species of the Chenopodiaceae family. It is an important sugar crop that supplies approximately 35% of the sugar in the world. Sugar beet M14 line is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss. And exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this review, we have summarized OMICS technologies and applications in sugar beet including M14 for identification of novel genes, proteins related to biotic and abiotic stresses, apomixes and metabolites related to energy and food. An OMICS overview for the discovery of novel genes, proteins and metabolites in sugar beet has helped us understand the complex mechanisms underlying many processes such as apomixes, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. The knowledge gained is valuable for improving the tolerance of sugar beet and other crops to biotic and abiotic stresses as well as for enhancing the yield of sugar beet for energy and food production. PMID:27446130

  1. Taxonomic, spatial and adaptive genetic variation of Beta section Beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrello, Marco; Henry, Karine; Devaux, Pierre; Desprez, Bruno; Manel, Stéphanie

    2016-02-01

    The genetic variation of Beta section Beta is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters. There are significant associations between molecular markers and environmental variables. We investigated the genetic diversity of Beta section Beta, which includes the wild and cultivated relatives of the sugar beet. The taxa included in the study were: Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima, B. vulgaris subsp. adanensis, B. macrocarpa, B. patula and B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris (garden beet, leaf beet and swiss chards). We collected 1264 accessions originating from the entire distribution area of these taxa and genotyped them for 4436 DArT markers (DArTs). We showed that the genetic variation of these accessions is structured into four taxonomic and spatial clusters: (1) samples of Beta macrocarpa, (2) samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. adanensis, (3) Mediterranean and Asian samples and (4) Atlantic and Northern European samples. These last two clusters were mainly composed of samples of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima. We investigated in deeper detail the genetic structure of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima, which constituted the majority (80%) of the wild samples. This subspecies exhibited a clinal genetic variation from South-East to North-West. We detected some markers significantly associated to environmental variables in B. vulgaris subsp. maritima. These associations are interpreted as results of natural selection. The variable most often involved in the associations was annual mean temperature. Therefore, these markers can be useful for the development of frost-tolerant winter beets and drought-tolerant rain-fed beets.

  2. Deciphering the complex nature of bolting time regulation in Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tränkner, Conny; Pfeiffer, Nina; Kirchhoff, Martin; Kopisch-Obuch, Friedrich J; van Dijk, Henk; Schilhabel, Markus; Hasler, Mario; Emrani, Nazgol

    2017-08-01

    Only few genetic loci are sufficient to increase the variation of bolting time in Beta vulgaris dramatically, regarding vernalization requirement, seasonal bolting time and reproduction type. Beta species show a wide variation of bolting time regarding the year of first reproduction, seasonal bolting time and the number of reproduction cycles. To elucidate the genetics of bolting time control, we used three F 3 mapping populations that were produced by crossing a semelparous, annual sugar beet with iteroparous, vernalization-requiring wild beet genotypes. The semelparous plants died after reproduction, whereas iteroparous plants reproduced at least twice. All populations segregated for vernalization requirement, seasonal bolting time and the number of reproduction cycles. We found that vernalization requirement co-segregated with the bolting locus B on chromosome 2 and was inherited independently from semel- or iteroparous reproduction. Furthermore, we found that seasonal bolting time is a highly heritable trait (h 2  > 0.84), which is primarily controlled by two major QTL located on chromosome 4 and 9. Late bolting alleles of both loci act in a partially recessive manner and were identified in both iteroparous pollinators. We observed an additive interaction of both loci for bolting delay. The QTL region on chromosome 4 encompasses the floral promoter gene BvFT2, whereas the QTL on chromosome 9 co-localizes with the BR 1 locus, which controls post-winter bolting resistance. Our findings are applicable for marker-assisted sugar beet breeding regarding early bolting to accelerate generation cycles and late bolting to develop bolting-resistant spring and winter beets. Unexpectedly, one population segregated also for dwarf growth that was found to be controlled by a single locus on chromosome 9.

  3. Genome-wide identification and characterization of aquaporin gene family inBeta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Weilong; Yang, Shaozong; Wang, Yulu; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Fu, Xiaopeng

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are essential channel proteins that execute multi-functions throughout plant growth and development, including water transport, uncharged solutes uptake, stress response, and so on. Here, we report the first genome-wide identification and characterization AQP ( BvAQP ) genes in sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris ) , an important crop widely cultivated for feed, for sugar production and for bioethanol production. Twenty-eight sugar beet AQPs ( BvAQPs ) were identified and assigned into five subfamilies based on phylogenetic analyses: seven of plasma membrane (PIPs), eight of tonoplast (TIPs), nine of NOD26-like (NIPs), three of small basic (SIPs), and one of x-intrinsic proteins (XIPs). BvAQP genes unevenly mapped on all chromosomes, except on chromosome 4. Gene structure and motifs analyses revealed that BvAQP have conserved exon-intron organization and that they exhibit conserved motifs within each subfamily. Prediction of BvAQPs functions, based on key protein domains conservation, showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among the five subfamilies. Analyses of BvAQPs expression, by mean of RNA-seq, in different plant organs and in response to various abiotic stresses revealed that they were ubiquitously expressed and that their expression was induced by heat and salt stresses. These results provide a reference base to address further the function of sugar beet aquaporins and to explore future applications for plants growth and development improvements as well as in response to environmental stresses.

  4. Extreme consumption of Beta vulgaris var. rubra can cause metal ion accumulation in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázovics, Anna; Sárdi, Eva; Szentmihályi, Klára; Váli, L; Takács-Hájos, Mária; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva

    2007-09-01

    Redox homeostasis can be considered as the cumulative action of all free radical reactions and antioxidant defences in different tissues, which provide suitable conditions for life. Transition metal ions are ubiquitous in biological systems. Beta vulgaris var. rubra (table beet root) contains several bioactive agents (e.g. betain, betanin, vulgaxanthine, polyphenols, folic acid) and different metal elements (e.g. Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn), which act on the various physiological routes. Therefore we studied the effect of this metal rich vegetable on element content of the liver in healthy rats. Male Wistar rats (n = 7) (200 +/- 20 g) were treated with lyophilised powder of table beet root (2 g/kg b.w.) added into the rat chow for 10 days. Five healthy animals served as control. We found significant accumulation of Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn and P in the liver, which was proved by ICP-AES measurements. We suppose that the extreme consumption of table beet root can cause several disturbances not only in cases of healthy patients but, e.g. in patients suffering with metal accumulating diseases, e.g. porphyria cutanea tarda, haemochromatosis or Wilson disease-although moderate consumption may be beneficial in iron-deficiency anaemia and inflammatory bowel diseases.

  5. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  6. Conservation and divergence of autonomous pathway genes in the flowering regulatory network of Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elwafa, Salah F; Büttner, Bianca; Chia, Tansy; Schulze-Buxloh, Gretel; Hohmann, Uwe; Mutasa-Göttgens, Effie; Jung, Christian; Müller, Andreas E

    2011-06-01

    The transition from vegetative growth to reproductive development is a complex process that requires an integrated response to multiple environmental cues and endogenous signals. In Arabidopsis thaliana, which has a facultative requirement for vernalization and long days, the genes of the autonomous pathway function as floral promoters by repressing the central repressor and vernalization-regulatory gene FLC. Environmental regulation by seasonal changes in daylength is under control of the photoperiod pathway and its key gene CO. The root and leaf crop species Beta vulgaris in the caryophyllid clade of core eudicots, which is only very distantly related to Arabidopsis, is an obligate long-day plant and includes forms with or without vernalization requirement. FLC and CO homologues with related functions in beet have been identified, but the presence of autonomous pathway genes which function in parallel to the vernalization and photoperiod pathways has not yet been reported. Here, this begins to be addressed by the identification and genetic mapping of full-length homologues of the RNA-regulatory gene FLK and the chromatin-regulatory genes FVE, LD, and LDL1. When overexpressed in A. thaliana, BvFLK accelerates bolting in the Col-0 background and fully complements the late-bolting phenotype of an flk mutant through repression of FLC. In contrast, complementation analysis of BvFVE1 and the presence of a putative paralogue in beet suggest evolutionary divergence of FVE homologues. It is further shown that BvFVE1, unlike FVE in Arabidopsis, is under circadian clock control. Together, the data provide first evidence for evolutionary conservation of components of the autonomous pathway in B. vulgaris, while also suggesting divergence or subfunctionalization of one gene. The results are likely to be of broader relevance because B. vulgaris expands the spectrum of evolutionarily diverse species which are subject to differential developmental and/or environmental regulation

  7. The antioxidant activity of Beta vulgaris leaf extract in improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory disorders in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Hajihosseini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Medicinal plants have attracted global attention due to their safety as well as their considerable antioxidant content that helps to prevent or ameliorate various disorders including memory impairments. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of beet root (Beta vulgaris leaf extract on scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairments in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10: Control (C, scopolamine 1 mg/kg/day (S, scopolamine+50 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 50, scopolamine+100 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 100 and scopolamine+200 mg/kg B. vulgaris leaf extract (S+B 200. Morris water maze task was used to assess spatial memory. Serum antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde (MDA level were also measured. Results: Group S spent significantly less time in the target quadrant compared to the control group, and the administration of B. vulgaris leaf extract (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly increased this time (p

  8. Estimating plant stem emerging points (PSEPs) of sugar of beets in early growth stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtiby, Henrik; Mosgaard Giselsson, Thomas; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2012-01-01

    Successful intra--row mechanical weed control of sugar beet 
(beta vulgaris) in early growth stages requires precise 
knowledge about location of crop plants.
A computer vision system for locating Plant Stem Emerging Point (PSEP) 
of sugar beet in early growth stages was developed and tested...

  9. Effect of Meloidogyne incognita parasitism on yield and sugar content of sugar beet in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is typically grown as a summer crop for edible sugar production in the north-central and western US, but it could be incorporated as a winter crop into annual cropping systems in the southern US where the sugar would be used for biofuel and plastic production. Sugar beet ...

  10. Effects of Tetraethyl Orthosilicate (TEOS on the Light and Temperature Stability of a Pigment from Beta vulgaris and Its Potential Food Industry Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A. Molina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple and inexpensive modification method using TEOS to increase the UV light, pH and temperature stability of a red-beet-pigment extracted from Beta vulgaris has been proposed. The effects on the molecular structure of betalains were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of betacyanin was verified by UV-Vis spectroscopy and its degradation in modified red-beet-pigment was evaluated and compared to the unmodified red-beet-pigment; performance improvements of 88.33%, 16.84% and 20.90% for UV light, pH and temperature stability were obtained, respectively,. Measurements of reducing sugars, phenol, and antioxidant contents were performed on unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment and losses of close to 21%, 54% and 36%, respectively, were found to be caused by the addition of TEOS. Polar diagrams of color by unmodified and modified red-beet-pigment in models of a beverage and of a yogurt were obtained and the color is preserved, although here is a small loss in the chromaticity parameter of the modified red-beet-pigment.

  11. Assignment tests for variety identification compared to genetic similarity-based methods using experimental datasets from different marker systems in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riek, de J.; Everaert, I.; Esselink, D.; Calsyn, E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2007-01-01

    High genetic variation within sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties hampers reliable classification procedures independent of the type of marker technique applied. Datasets on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, sequence tagged microsatellite sites, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sites

  12. Registration of SR98 sugar beet germplasm with resistances to Rhizoctonia seedling and crown and root rot diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germplasms SR98 (PI 655951) and SR98/2 (659754) are being released as potential pollinators or populations from which to select pollinators for hybrid seed production, and were developed by the USDA-ARS, at East Lansing, MI, in cooperation with the Beet Sugar Developmen...

  13. Efek Sitotoksik Fraksi Etil Asetat Ekstrak Etanol Umbi Bit (Beta Vulgaris L.var Rubra L.) Terhadap Sel T47d Dan Uji Kandungan Kimianya

    OpenAIRE

    Susilowati, Sri; Putri, Iga Dewinta; Budiarti, Aqnes

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the prime cause of women death in various parts of the world. Many research to get breast cancer drug has been widely applied. The aims of this study were to determine the cytotoxic effect of ethyl acetate fraction of ethanolic extract of the beet root (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra L.) on T47D cell line which was the breast cancer cell and test their chemical compound. The extract was made by macerare method, and than it was fractionated by using ethyl acetate. Cyt...

  14. Nutritional and functional potential of Beta vulgaris cicla and rubra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninfali, Paolino; Angelino, Donato

    2013-09-01

    Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris cicla, BVc) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra, BVr) are vegetables of the Chenopodiaceae family, widely consumed in traditional western cooking. These vegetables represent a highly renewable and cheap source of nutrients. They can be cultivated in soils with scarce organic material and little light and water. BVc and BVr have a long history of use in folk medicine. Modern pharmacology shows that BVc extracts possess antihypertensive and hypoglycaemic activity as well as excellent antioxidant activity. BVc contains apigenin flavonoids, namely vitexin, vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside and vitexin-2-O-xyloside, which show antiproliferative activity on cancer cell lines. BVr contains secondary metabolites, called betalains, which are used as natural dyes in food industry and show anticancer activity. In this light, BVc and BVr can be considered functional foods. Moreover, the promising results of their phytochemicals in health protection suggest the opportunity to take advantage of the large availability of this crop for purification of chemopreventive molecules to be used in functional foods and nutraceutical products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payton Mark

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Results Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Conclusion Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV

  16. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus accumulates inside resting spores and zoosporangia of its vector Polymyxa betae BNYVV infects P. betae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Jeanmarie Verchot; Rush, Charles M; Payton, Mark; Colberg, Terry

    2007-04-05

    Plasmodiophorids and chytrids are zoosporic parasites of algae and land plant and are distributed worldwide. There are 35 species belonging to the order Plasmodiophorales and three species, Polymyxa betae, P. graminis, and Spongospora subterranea, are plant viral vectors. Plasmodiophorid transmitted viruses are positive strand RNA viruses belonging to five genera. Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and its vector, P. betae, are the causal agents for rhizomania. Evidence of BNYVV replication and movement proteins associating with P. betae resting spores was initially obtained using immunofluorescence labeling and well characterized antisera to each of the BNYVV proteins. Root cross sections were further examined using immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. BNYVV proteins translated from each of the four genomic and subgenomic RNAs accumulate inside P. betae resting spores and zoospores. Statistical analysis was used to determine if immunolabelling detected viral proteins in specific subcellular domains and at a level greater than in control samples. Virus-like particles were detected in zoosporangia. Association of BNYVV replication and movement proteins with sporangial and sporogenic stages of P. betae suggest that BNYVV resides inside its vector during more than one life cycle stage. These data suggest that P. betae might be a host as well as a vector for BNYVV.

  17. Transcriptome Analysis of Beta macrocarpa and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in Response to Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Fan

    Full Text Available Rhizomania is one of the most devastating diseases of sugar beet. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. Beta macrocarpa, a wild beet species widely used as a systemic host in the laboratory, can be rub-inoculated with BNYVV to avoid variation associated with the presence of the vector P. betae. To better understand disease and resistance between beets and BNYVV, we characterized the transcriptome of B. macrocarpa and analyzed global gene expression of B. macrocarpa in response to BNYVV infection using the Illumina sequencing platform.The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 75,917 unigenes, with an average length of 1054 bp. Based on a BLASTX search (E-value ≤ 10-5 against the non-redundant (NR, NCBI protein, Swiss-Prot, the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases, there were 39,372 unigenes annotated. In addition, 4,834 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also predicted, which could serve as a foundation for various applications in beet breeding. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes revealed that 261 genes were differentially expressed in infected compared to control plants, including 128 up- and 133 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that the changes in the differently expressed genes were mainly enrichment in response to biotic stimulus and primary metabolic process.Our results not only provide a rich genomic resource for beets, but also benefit research into the molecular mechanisms of beet- BNYV Vinteraction.

  18. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-w...

  19. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System’s Beta collection: Southern Morocco expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  20. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System's Beta collection: Southern Morocco collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  1. Biogas production from beta beets dependent on the type; Art- und sortenabhaengige Biogasproduktion aus Beta-Rueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boettcher, Robert [Hochschule Wismar, Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany). Business and Design; Stollberg, Christian; Gerath, Horst; Kanswohl, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Fodder and sugar beet silage as mono-substrate has been studied for their fermentation behaviour in semi-continuous biogas tests according to VDI guideline 4630. Especially the methane formation potential and the maximum loading rate of different beet varieties are in the focus of investigations. It has been shown that sugar beet silage can be used with a lower loading rate in the biogas digester as fodder beet silage. Here, the methane yields of sugar beet silages tend to be higher than the methane yields of the investigated fodder beet silage. The methane yields of the individual beet silage are not depending on the dry matter content of the investigated beets. In the co-fermentation of corn silage and beet silage, the proportion of beet silage at the dry matter content of the feed is crucial for a stable fermentation process. Furthermore sugar beet silage has economic advantages compared to silage from fodder beets due to a higher methane production potential. The deployment costs of sugar beet silage are significantly depending on the variety and choice of silage method and lie at the level of corn silage. In case of a digestion of the beet variety Mosaik as silage the deployment might be underneath the deployment costs of corn silage. (orig.)

  2. Genetic transformation of the sugar beet plastome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Francesca; Wang, Yongxin; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Arcioni, Sergio; Bellucci, Michele

    2009-02-01

    It is very important for the application of chloroplast engineering to extend the range of species in which this technology can be achieved. Here, we describe the development of a chloroplast transformation system for the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris, Sugar Beet Group) by biolistic bombardment of leaf petioles. Homoplasmic plastid-transformed plants of breeding line Z025 were obtained. Transformation was achieved using a vector that targets genes to the rrn16/rps12 intergenic region of the sugar beet plastome, employing the aadA gene as a selectable marker against spectinomycin and the gfp gene for visual screening of plastid transformants. gfp gene transcription and protein expression were shown in transplastomic plants. Detection of GFP in Comassie blue-stained gels suggested high GFP levels. Microscopy revealed GFP fluorescence within the chloroplasts. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sugar beet chloroplast genome; this technology provides new opportunities for the genetic improvement of this crop and for social acceptance of genetically modified sugar beet plants.

  3. Betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase activity in Beta vulgaris L. leaves following copper stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M. León Morales

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of copper stress on betacyanin accumulation and guaiacol peroxidase (GPOD activity in leaves of different age was evaluated in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egyptian plants. In hydroponic culture, plants were treated with 0.3 μM (control, 50 μM, 100 μM, and 250 μM of CuSO4 for 6 days. Copper was taken up and accumulated in old roots but was not translocated to leaves. However in young leaves, the increase of lipid peroxidation and reduction of growth were evident from day 3 of copper exposure; whereas in old leaves, the lipid peroxidation and growth were the same from either copper-treated or control plants. In response to copper exposure, the betacyanin accumulation was evident in young leaves by day 3, and continued to increase until day 6. Betacyanin only were accumulated in old leaves until day 6, but the contents were from 4 to 5 times lower than those observed in young leaves at the same copper concentrations. GPOD activity increased 3.3- and 1.4-fold in young and old leaves from day 3 of copper treatment respectively, but only in the young leaves was sustained at the same level until day 6. Old roots shown betacyanin in the control plants, but the betacyanin level and growth were reduced with the copper exposure. In contrast, young roots emerged by copper effect also accumulated copper and showed the highest betacyanin content of all plant parts assayed. These results indicate that betacyanin accumulation and GPOD activity are defense responses to copper stress in actively growing organs.

  4. Characterisation of alien chromosomes in monosomic additions of Beta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, M.

    1997-01-01

    Wild Beta species of the section Procumbentes carry genes for several valuable agronomical traits, and are considered to be of interest for the breeding of cultivated beet (B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). In

  5. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Ugrinovic; Mirjana Mijatovic; Jasmina Zdravkovic; Zdenka Girek; Djordje Kuzmanovic; Natasa Rasulic; Dragana Josic

    2014-01-01

    The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.), two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and ferti...

  6. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  7. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.). Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence ima...

  8. Rhizoctonia crown and root rot resistance evaluation of Beta PIs in Fort Collins, CO, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) germplasm from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service pre-breeding program at Fort Collins, Colorado were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. There...

  9. The defense substance allicin from garlic permeabilizes membranes of Beta vulgaris, Rhoeo discolor, Chara corallina and artificial lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruhlke, Martin C H; Hemmis, Birgit; Noll, Ulrike; Wagner, Richard; Lühring, Hinrich; Slusarenko, Alan J

    2015-04-01

    Allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) is the major volatile- and antimicrobial substance produced by garlic cells upon wounding. We tested the hypothesis that allicin affects membrane function and investigated 1) betanine pigment leakage from beetroot (Beta vulgaris) tissue, 2) the semipermeability of the vacuolar membrane of Rhoeo discolor cells, 3) the electrophysiology of plasmalemma and tonoplast of Chara corallina and 4) electrical conductivity of artificial lipid bilayers. Garlic juice and chemically synthesized allicin were used and betanine loss into the medium was monitored spectrophotometrically. Rhoeo cells were studied microscopically and Chara- and artificial membranes were patch clamped. Beet cell membranes were approximately 200-fold more sensitive to allicin on a mol-for-mol basis than to dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and approximately 400-fold more sensitive to allicin than to ethanol. Allicin-treated Rhoeo discolor cells lost the ability to plasmolyse in an osmoticum, confirming that their membranes had lost semipermeability after allicin treatment. Furthermore, allicin and garlic juice diluted in artificial pond water caused an immediate strong depolarization, and a decrease in membrane resistance at the plasmalemma of Chara, and caused pore formation in the tonoplast and artificial lipid bilayers. Allicin increases the permeability of membranes. Since garlic is a common foodstuff the physiological effects of its constituents are important. Allicin's ability to permeabilize cell membranes may contribute to its antimicrobial activity independently of its activity as a thiol reagent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genome differentiation among Beta vulgaris crop type populations and its application in dissecting economically important phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four main crop types are recognized with Beta vulgaris: sugar, table, fodder, and leafy chard. Twenty-three populations composed of 25 individuals each were selected to represent the four recognized crop types and capture a wide range of phenotypic crop diversity. Allele frequencies for each populat...

  11. Pre-emergence Damping Off of Beta vulgaris by Rhizopus stolonifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs), a cool temperature zygomycete that can cause a post-harvest rot on sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), also causes pre-emergence damping off in other crops. We are interested in its potential pre-emergence damping off activity in sugarbeet. Sugarbeets are quite susceptible to seedli...

  12. Targeted next-generation sequencing identification of mutations in disease resistance gene anologs (RGAs) in wild and cultivated beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were searched bioinformatically in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome as potential candidates for improving resistance against different diseases. In the present study, Ion Torrent sequencing technology was used to identify mutations in 21 RGAs. The DNA samples o...

  13. Distribution, host plants and natural enemies of sugar beet root aphid (Pemphigus fuscicornis In Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2003-2004, field surveys were realized to observe the distribution of sugar beet aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (K o c h (Sternorrhyncha Pemphigidae in southwestern Slovakia. The research was carried out at 60 different localities with altitudes 112-220 m a. s. l. Sugar beet root aphid was recorded at 30 localities. The aphid was recorded in Slovakia for the first time, but its occurrence was predicted and symptoms and harmfulness overlooked by now. The presence of P. fuscicornis was investigated on roots of various plants from Chenopodiaceae. The most important host plants were various species of lambsquarters (above all Chenopodium album. Furthermore sugar beet (Beta vulgaris provar. altissima, red beet (B. vulgaris provar. conditiva and oraches (Atriplex spp act as host plants. Infestation of sugar beet by P. fuscicornis never exceeded 5% at single locality in Slovakia. Dry and warm weather create presumptions for strong harmfulness. In Slovakia, Chenopodium album is a very important indicator of sugar beet aphid presence allowing evaluation of control requirements. During the study, the larvae of Thaumatomyia glabra (Diptera: Chloropidae were detected as important natural enemies of sugar beet aphid. The species occurred at each location evaluated.

  14. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C; Paulo, Octávio S; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet ( Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris ) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens) are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance.

  15. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance.

  16. Genetic and Genomic Tools to Asssist Sugar Beet Improvement: The Value of the Crop Wild Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Filipa; Frese, Lothar; Castro, Sílvia; Duarte, Maria C.; Paulo, Octávio S.; Loureiro, João; Romeiras, Maria M.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris) is one of the most important European crops for both food and sugar production. Crop improvement has been developed to enhance productivity, sugar content or other breeder's desirable traits. The introgression of traits from Crop Wild Relatives (CWR) has been done essentially for lessening biotic stresses constraints, namely using Beta and Patellifolia species which exhibit disease resistance characteristics. Several studies have addressed crop-to-wild gene flow, yet, for breeding programs genetic variability associated with agronomically important traits remains unexplored regarding abiotic factors. To accomplish such association from phenotype-to-genotype, screening for wild relatives occurring in habitats where selective pressures are in play (i.e., populations in salt marshes for salinity tolerance; populations subjected to pathogen attacks and likely evolved resistance to pathogens) are the most appropriate streamline to identify causal genetic information. By selecting sugar beet CWR species based on genomic tools, rather than random variations, is a promising but still seldom explored route toward the development of improved crops. In this perspective, a viable streamline for sugar beet improvement is proposed through the use of different genomic tools by recurring to sugar beet CWRs and focusing on agronomic traits associated with abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, identification of genomic and epigenomic landscapes associated to adaptive ecotypes, along with the cytogenetic and habitat characterization of sugar beet CWR, will enable to identify potential hotspots for agrobiodiversity of sugar beet crop improvement toward abiotic stress tolerance. PMID:29467772

  17. Starch biosynthetic genes and enzymes are expressed and active in the absence of starch accumulation in sugar beet tap-root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turesson, Helle; Andersson, Mariette; Marttila, Salla; Thulin, Ingela; Hofvander, Per

    2014-04-23

    Starch is the predominant storage compound in underground plant tissues like roots and tubers. An exception is sugar beet tap-root (Beta vulgaris ssp altissima) which exclusively stores sucrose. The underlying mechanism behind this divergent storage accumulation in sugar beet is currently not fully known. From the general presence of starch in roots and tubers it could be speculated that the lack in sugar beet tap-roots would originate from deficiency in pathways leading to starch. Therefore with emphasis on starch accumulation, we studied tap-roots of sugar beet using parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) as a comparator. Metabolic and structural analyses of sugar beet tap-root confirmed sucrose as the exclusive storage component. No starch granules could be detected in tap-roots of sugar beet or the wild ancestor sea beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima). Analyses of parsnip showed that the main storage component was starch but tap-root tissue was also found to contain significant levels of sugars. Surprisingly, activities of four main starch biosynthetic enzymes, phosphoglucomutase, ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase and starch branching enzyme, were similar in sugar beet and parsnip tap-roots. Transcriptional analysis confirmed expression of corresponding genes. Additionally, expression of genes involved in starch accumulation such as for plastidial hexose transportation and starch tuning functions could be determined in tap-roots of both plant species. Considering underground storage organs, sugar beet tap-root upholds a unique property in exclusively storing sucrose. Lack of starch also in the ancestor sea beet indicates an evolved trait of biological importance.Our findings in this study show that gene expression and enzymatic activity of main starch biosynthetic functions are present in sugar beet tap-root during storage accumulation. In view of this, the complete lack of starch in sugar beet tap-roots is enigmatic.

  18. Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing Identification of Mutations in Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Wild and Cultivated Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccanello, Chiara; Pajola, Luca; Biscarini, Filippo; Richards, Chris; Panella, Lee; Hassani, Mahdi; Formentin, Elide; Chiodi, Claudia; Concheri, Giuseppe; Heidari, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Resistance gene analogs (RGAs) were searched bioinformatically in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genome as potential candidates for improving resistance against different diseases. In the present study, Ion Torrent sequencing technology was used to identify mutations in 21 RGAs. The DNA samples of ninety-six individuals from six sea beets (Beta vulgaris L. subsp. maritima) and six sugar beet pollinators (eight individuals each) were used for the discovery of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Target amplicons of about 200 bp in length were designed with the Ion AmpliSeq Designer system in order to cover the DNA sequences of the RGAs. The number of SNPs ranged from 0 in four individuals to 278 in the pollinator R740 (which is resistant to rhizomania infection). Among different groups of beets, cytoplasmic male sterile lines had the highest number of SNPs (132) whereas the lowest number of SNPs belonged to O-types (95). The principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) showed that the polymorphisms inside the gene Bv8_184910_pkon (including the CCCTCC sequence) can effectively differentiate wild from cultivated beets, pointing at a possible mutation associated to rhizomania resistance that originated directly from cultivated beets. This is unlike other resistance sources that are introgressed from wild beets. This gene belongs to the receptor-like kinase (RLK) class of RGAs, and is associated to a hypothetical protein. In conclusion, this first report of using Ion Torrent sequencing technology in beet germplasm suggests that the identified sequence CCCTCC can be used in marker-assisted programs to differentiate wild from domestic beets and to identify other unknown disease resistance genes in beet. PMID:29019931

  19. Influencia de la betarraga (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en el aumento de leucocitos, en ratones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jony Amaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La betarraga es una planta oriunda del Mediterráneo utilizada para fines alimenticios y medicinales. Contiene flavonoides. Objetivos: Determinar la influencia del consumo del extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en el incremento de leucocitos, en el ratón albino. Diseño: Estudio experimental. Lugar: Bioterio de la Institución Educativa 1182. Material biológico: Veinte ratones albinos de la cepa balb/c, machos, de peso promedio 24 g. Intervenciones: Se formó dos grupos, experimental y control, cada uno de diez ratones. Al grupo experimental se le administró vía oral extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta en dosis de 250 mg/kg, volumen de 2 mL, cada cinco horas durante una semana, alternando con nutrientes, y al grupo control solo se le administró nutrientes. Principales medidas de resultados: Recuento de leucocitos. Resultados: Dentro del periodo de acondicionamiento, se observó un ligero incremento en la media de leucocitos del grupo control (3 681 ± 431,1 frente al grupo experimental (3 579 ± 473,5, cuya diferencia no fue significativa. Luego de administrar al grupo experimental el extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta, alternando con sus nutrientes respectivos, se observó diferencia significativa de la media (7 961 ± 275,4 frente al grupo control (3 693 ± 414,7 (t student p<0,05. Conclusiones: En condiciones experimentales, el consumo del extracto de Beta vulgaris var. cruenta incrementó significativamente el número de leucocitos.

  20. Characterization of microRNAs of Beta macrocarpa and their responses to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Ying; Fan, Hui-Yan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant development, defense, and symptom development. Here, 547 known miRNAs representing 129 miRNA families, and 282 potential novel miRNAs were identified in Beta macrocarpa using small RNA deep sequencing. A phylogenetic analysis was performed, and 8 Beta lineage-specific miRNAs were identified. Through a differential expression analysis, miRNAs associated with Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) infection were identified and confirmed using a microarray analysis and stem-loop RT-qPCR. In total, 103 known miRNAs representing 38 miRNA families, and 45 potential novel miRNAs were differentially regulated, with at least a two-fold change, in BNYVV-infected plants compared with that of the mock-inoculated control. Targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs were also predicted by degradome sequencing. These differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in hormone biosynthesis and signal transduction pathways, and enhanced axillary bud development and plant defenses. This work is the first to describe miRNAs of the plant genus Beta and may offer a reference for miRNA research in other species in the genus. It provides valuable information on the pathogenicity mechanisms of BNYVV.

  1. Fungicidal response of a novel natural photosensitizer (Beta vulgaris) on Candida albicans with low-power laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Subhangi; Srivastava, J N; Roy, Sukhdev

    2013-01-01

    We report the efficacy of an aqueous extract of Beta vulgaris as a novel, natural photosensitizer for use in photodynamic therapy against Candidiasis disease. This study evaluates the effect of different laser wavelengths (He–Ne: 633 nm, Nd-YAG: 532 nm), power (17, 27 mW) and duration of exposure (5, 10, 15 min) in combination with the Beta vulgaris natural photosensitizer on the viability of Candida albicans causing Candidiasis disease. Although inhibition was observed in all cases, a maximum of 51.91% inhibition takes place with the combination of Beta vulgaris exposed to 532 nm at 27 mW for 15 min by the Agar well diffusion method. The study is important in optimizing different parameters and designing a low-power, compact, non-invasive and portable device for treatment. (paper)

  2. Crecimiento de plantas de remolacha (beta vulgaris l. var. crosby egipcia) bajo coberturas de color

    OpenAIRE

    Casierra-Posada, Fánor; Pinto-Correa, José Rogelio

    2011-01-01

    La respuesta de las plantas a diferente color en la iluminación, se atribuye a fotorreceptores que conducen a diversas expresiones fenotípicas en diferentes niveles y etapas del desarrollo vegetal. Para determinar si el color de iluminación en que se cultivan las plantas de remolacha (Beta vulgaris L. var. Crosby Egipcia), afecta su crecimiento, rendimiento y calidad, se realizó en Duitama – Colombia, un estudio bajo coberturas de color azul, rojo o transparente. Para conseguir los colores se...

  3. Complex Self-Incompatibility Systems in Ranunculus acris L. and Beta vulgaris L

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundqvist, A.; Østerbye, U.; Larsen, K.

    1973-01-01

    -genes acting on the haploid pollen grain be matched in the pistil. This type of incompatibility system was previously considered to be unique for the grasses. However, whereas two S-loci with such complementary interaction have been established in the grasses, there are at least three S-loci in Ranunculus...... acris, and in Beta vulgaris there are at least four. The observations strongly support the theory of the incompatibility genes being ancient constituents of the breeding systems of the angiosperms. Most probably a complex type of incompatibility control was already present at the presumed common...

  4. Ethylene is differentially regulated during sugar beet germination and affects early root growth in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Van de Poel, Bram; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P

    2014-10-01

    By integrating molecular, biochemical, and physiological data, ethylene biosynthesis in sugar beet was shown to be differentially regulated, affecting root elongation in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a close relation between ethylene production and seedling growth of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yet the exact function of ethylene during this early developmental stage is still unclear. While ethylene is mostly considered to be a root growth inhibitor, we found that external 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) regulates root growth in sugar beet in a concentration-dependent manner: low concentrations stimulate root growth while high concentrations inhibit root growth. These results reveal that ethylene action during root elongation is strongly concentration dependent. Furthermore our detailed study of ethylene biosynthesis kinetics revealed a very strict gene regulation pattern of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), in which ACS is the rate liming step during sugar beet seedling development.

  5. Population development of beet cyst nematodes and their damage potential to sugar beets under different temperature regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Bart Vandenbossche; Björn Niere; Stefan Vidal

    2011-01-01

    _Heterodera schachtii_, the white beet cyst nematode, is considered as one of the most important nematode pests on sugar beet and is present in most sugar-beet growing areas. The yellow beet cyst nematode, _Heterodera betae_, is less prevalent but has also been found damaging beet crops. However, knowledge about the damage potential and population dynamics of the yellow beet cyst nematode is limited. The amount of damage inflicted by nematodes is dependent on different factors. An important f...

  6. Effects of beetroot (Beta vulgaris) preparations on the Maillard reaction products in milk and meat-protein model systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rackauskienea, I.; Pukalskas, A.; Rimantas Venskutonis, P.; Fiore, A.M.; Troise, A.D.; Fogliano, V.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of beetroots (Beta vulgaris) on the formation of Maillard reaction (MR) products possessing health, nutritional and sensory implications were studied. The effect of dried beetroot juice on the formation of Ne-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) and Ne-(2-furoylmethyl)-L-lysine (furosine) was

  7. In vitro Effects of Beet Root Juice on Stimulated and Unstimulated Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christiana Winkler; Barbara Wirleitner; Katharina Schroecksnadel

    2005-01-01

    Intake of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants is suggested to reduce the incidence of cancer and coronary heart disease in humans. Exceptional antioxidant activity of beet root extracts has been reported. Likewise in animal models, e.g., extracts of red beetroot Beta vulgaris var. rubra revealed significant tumor inhibitory effects. Red beetroot concentrate is universally permitted as a food ingredient. In this study, effects of a commercially available beetroot juice on freshly ...

  8. Response of sugar beet to humic substances and foliar fertilization with potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Wilczewski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. requires fertile soils with high biological activity, rich in minerals and organic nutrients. Biological properties of soil, such as enzymatic and microbial activity, can be effectively improved through the application of humic substances. This enables an increase in growth dynamics and, consequently, in the yield. The aim of this study was to assess sugar beet germination, depending on the soil application of the humic preparation Humistar (12% of humic acids, 3% of fulvic acids as well as to assess the yield of sugar beet storage roots and the content of sugar in these storage roots, depending on soil applications of Humistar and/or foliar application of potassium fertilizer Drakar (31% K2O, 3% N. The field experiment was conducted in the soil classified as Mesic Typic Hapludalfs. Soil application of Humistar contributed to a reduction in sugar beet germination, measured as % of plants germinated within 14 days after sowing. However, the growth of plants in soil with Humistar was more intensive than in the control. A significant, positive influence of Humistar and Drakar on the yield of sugar beet roots has been found. Application of the two treatments did not produce better results than the use of each of them separately. Sugar content in roots was not affected by experimental factor. The study showed that both soil application of humic substances and the use of foliar potassium fertilizer can improve the yield of sugar beet and, consequently, increase the biological yield of sugar from storage roots.

  9. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  10. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorathiya, L M; Patel, M D; Tyagi, K K; Fulsoundar, A B; Raval, A P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  11. Isolation and stabilization of dark red food dye from beta vulgaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisa, A.U.; Firdous, S.; Ijaz, N.

    2006-01-01

    Natural highly coloured dark red pigment was isolated from Beta vulgaris. In paste and powdered form. Total colouring matter of the concentrated colour was 1.86% and 4.5%, respectively, for the paste and powdered forms, calculated as betanine. Sodium benzoate (0.01%) was used as the stabilizer for paste, while silicon dioxide (2%) was added in addition to sodium benzoate (0.01%) for storage of the red colour in powdered form. Other parameters that may influence the stability of the colour, such as pH temperature and relative humidity, were studied. Toxicity evaluation, and lead and arsenic levels were determined. The addition of stabilizers, like citric acid, ascorbic acid, EDTA and sodium chloride, were also investigated, none of which showed useful effect. (author)

  12. Haplotype Variation of Flowering Time Genes of Sugar Beet and Its Wild Relatives and the Impact on Life Cycle Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Höft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Beta vulgaris encompasses wild and cultivated members with a broad range of phenological development. The annual life cycle is commonly found in sea beets (ssp. maritima from Mediterranean environments which germinate, bolt, and flower within one season under long day conditions. Biennials such as the cultivated sugar beet (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as well as sea beets from northern latitudes require prolonged exposure to cold temperature over winter to acquire floral competence. Sugar beet is mainly cultivated for sugar production in Europe and is likely to have originated from sea beet. Flowering time strongly affects seed yield and yield potential and is thus a trait of high agronomic relevance. Besides environmental cues, there are complex genetic networks known to impact life cycle switch in flowering plants. In sugar beet, BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 are major flowering time regulators. In this study, we phenotyped plants from a diversity Beta panel encompassing cultivated and wild species from different geographical origin. Plants were grown under different day length regimes with and without vernalization. Haplotype analysis of BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 was performed to identify natural diversity of these genes and their impact on flowering. We found that accessions from northern latitudes flowered significantly later than those from southern latitudes. Some plants did not flower at all, indicating a strong impact of latitude of origin on life cycle. Haplotype analysis revealed a high conservation of the CCT-, REC-, BBX-, and PEBP-domains with regard to SNP occurrence. We identified sequence variation which may impact life cycle adaptation in beet. Our data endorse the importance of BTC1 in the domestication process of cultivated beets and contribute to the understanding of distribution and adaption of Beta species to different life cycle regimes in response to different environments. Moreover, our data provide a

  13. Haplotype Variation of Flowering Time Genes of Sugar Beet and Its Wild Relatives and the Impact on Life Cycle Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höft, Nadine; Dally, Nadine; Hasler, Mario; Jung, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The species Beta vulgaris encompasses wild and cultivated members with a broad range of phenological development. The annual life cycle is commonly found in sea beets (ssp. maritima) from Mediterranean environments which germinate, bolt, and flower within one season under long day conditions. Biennials such as the cultivated sugar beet (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) as well as sea beets from northern latitudes require prolonged exposure to cold temperature over winter to acquire floral competence. Sugar beet is mainly cultivated for sugar production in Europe and is likely to have originated from sea beet. Flowering time strongly affects seed yield and yield potential and is thus a trait of high agronomic relevance. Besides environmental cues, there are complex genetic networks known to impact life cycle switch in flowering plants. In sugar beet, BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 are major flowering time regulators. In this study, we phenotyped plants from a diversity Beta panel encompassing cultivated and wild species from different geographical origin. Plants were grown under different day length regimes with and without vernalization. Haplotype analysis of BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 was performed to identify natural diversity of these genes and their impact on flowering. We found that accessions from northern latitudes flowered significantly later than those from southern latitudes. Some plants did not flower at all, indicating a strong impact of latitude of origin on life cycle. Haplotype analysis revealed a high conservation of the CCT-, REC-, BBX-, and PEBP-domains with regard to SNP occurrence. We identified sequence variation which may impact life cycle adaptation in beet. Our data endorse the importance of BTC1 in the domestication process of cultivated beets and contribute to the understanding of distribution and adaption of Beta species to different life cycle regimes in response to different environments. Moreover, our data provide a resource for

  14. Ensiled sugar beets as dietary component and their effect on preference and dry matter intake by goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Katrin; Reimink, Anke; Messerschmidt, Ulrike; Südekum, Karl-Heinz

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the influence of ensiled sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) on preference and short-time dry matter (DM) intake of goats. Whole sugar beets were ensiled either without any silage additive (sugar beet silage (SBS)) or with a chemical additive (6 l/t) containing 85% formic and propionic acids (treated sugar beet silage (TBS)) and were chopped after ensiling. The influence of different proportions of SBS (0%, 6.25%, 12.5%, 18.75% and 25% of dietary DM) and TBS (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of DM) in partial mixed rations on short-time DM intake by goats (adult Saanen type wethers; n = 10) was studied in two separate, independent trials. Preference behaviour was investigated by offering the goats two different experimental diets per day and offer each possible combination of them (n = 10) once throughout the trial. On this basis, the mean DM intake (within 30 min and 3 h) of each experimental diet was determined. Both sugar beet silages showed good fermentation quality with low pH. By using the chemical silage additive, the production of ethanol was reduced and considerable amounts of sugar were preserved. In the short-term preference experiment, increasing concentrations of sugar beet silage in the ration increased DM intake (p < 0.05) in a linear way with a strong preference for those diets containing high amounts of sugar beet silage. Initial DM intake after 30 min was 4-5 fold increased for diets containing the highest beet concentration. It is assumed that the preference was positively influenced by sugar and sweet taste or the associated higher concentration of metabolisable energy.

  15. Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddes Kavala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Thyroid disorders may affect all of the organ systems of the body and they are also highly associated with a wide variety of skin disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function abnormalities and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV and to determine the association between thyroid disorders and clinical involvement and systemic corticosteroid treatment in patients with PV. Methods. The study consisted of eighty patients with PV and eighty healthy individuals. Thyroid functions (fT3, fT4, and TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO, and anti-thyroglobulin (anti-Tg antibodies were investigated in both groups. Primary thyroid disease (PTD was diagnosed with one or more of the following diagnostic criteria: (i positive antithyroid antibodies, (ii primary thyroid function abnormalities. Results. Significant changes in the serum thyroid profile were found in 16% (13/80 of the PV group and 5% (4/80 of the control group. Positive titers of antithyroid antibodies (anti-TPO and anti-Tg were observed in 7 patients (9% with PV and one in the control group (1,2%. Hashimoto thyroiditis was diagnosed in 9% of PV patients and it was found to be more prevalent in the mucosal form of PV. PTD was found in 13 of (%16 PV patients which was significantly high compared to controls. PTD was not found to be associated with systemic corticosteroid use. Free T3 levels were significantly lower in PV group compared to the control group and free T4 levels were significantly higher in PV group compared to the controls. Conclusions. PV may exist together with autoimmune thyroid diseases especially Hashimoto thyroiditis and primer thyroid diseases. Laboratory work-up for thyroid function tests and thyroid autoantibodies should be performed to determine underlying thyroid diseases in patients with PV.

  16. Identification of Rhizopus stolonifer as a Pre-emergence Seedling Disease Pathogen of Beta vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus stolonifer, a common soil borne fungus in Michigan, is a known root rot pathogen on mature sugar beet. In 2008, Rs was isolated from a sugar beet seed lot showing consistently low germination rates in both the field and lab, and Rs was morphologically identified on malt extract agar. Much o...

  17. Characterization of a Beta vulgaris PGIP defense gene promoter in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein (BvPGIP) genes were cloned from a sugar beet breeding line F1016 with increased tolerance to the sugar beet root maggot. Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins are cell wall leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins with crucial roles in development, pathogen defense an...

  18. Uji Sitotoksisitas Ekstrak Metanol Umbi Bit (Beta Vulgaris L. Var. Rubra L.) Terhadap Cell Line T47d

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfa, Elya; susilowati, sri; budiarti, aqnes

    2015-01-01

    Therapy failure of breast cancer as a consequence of cell resistention has encouraged the effort to develop a cancer medicine including herbal medicine. Based on some research, it can be concluded that there is antioxydant and anticancer activity from beetroot involved with betasianin and betasantin substance that belong to flavonoid compound. The purpose of this research was to find the effect cytotoxic of methanolic extract of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra L.) on cell line T47D whic...

  19. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Josef Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.. In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L. compared to maize (Zea mays L. as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential

  20. Crop Rotational Effects on Yield Formation in Current Sugar Beet Production – Results From a Farm Survey and Field Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Heinz-Josef; Trimpler, Kerrin; Jacobs, Anna; Stockfisch, Nicol

    2018-01-01

    In Europe, the framework for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production was subject to considerable changes and for the future it is expected that sugar beet cultivation might concentrate around the sugar factories for economic reasons. Based on data from a national sugar beet farmers’ survey and multi-year crop rotation trials, the effects of cropping interval (number of years in between two subsequent sugar beet crops) and of preceding crops on sugar yield were elucidated under current Central European management conditions. The dominating sugar beet cropping interval was ≥4 years in the farm survey with pronounced differences between regions. However, the cropping intervals 2, 3, and ≥4 years did not affect the sugar yield. Therefore, significant differences in sugar yield between regions were assumed to be caused by multiple interactions between year, site, and farmers’ skills. Throughout Germany, the dominating preceding crops in sugar beet cultivation were winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the field trials, the sugar yield was 5% higher after pea (Pisum sativum L.) compared to maize (Zea mays L.) as preceding crop, while differences between the preceding crops pea and winter wheat, and wheat and maize were not significant. Repeated measurements of canopy development and leaf color during the growing season revealed a higher N-availability after pea as preceding crop. However, decreased growth after maize was not completely compensated for by high N-fertilizer doses. Overall, the causes for the differences in sugar yield between the preceding crops remained open. The results do not support concerns about substantial yield losses in sugar beet production due to a reduction in the cropping interval from 3 to 2 years. Nevertheless, short rotations with maize and sugar beet might increase the risk of Rhizoctonia solani crown and root rot infestation. Leguminous crops such as pea offer the potential for higher

  1. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  2. Epigenomics and bolting tolerance in sugar beet genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébrard, Claire; Peterson, Daniel G; Willems, Glenda; Delaunay, Alain; Jesson, Béline; Lefèbvre, Marc; Barnes, Steve; Maury, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris altissima), bolting tolerance is an essential agronomic trait reflecting the bolting response of genotypes after vernalization. Genes involved in induction of sugar beet bolting have now been identified, and evidence suggests that epigenetic factors are involved in their control. Indeed, the time course and amplitude of DNA methylation variations in the shoot apical meristem have been shown to be critical in inducing sugar beet bolting, and a few functional targets of DNA methylation during vernalization have been identified. However, molecular mechanisms controlling bolting tolerance levels among genotypes are still poorly understood. Here, gene expression and DNA methylation profiles were compared in shoot apical meristems of three bolting-resistant and three bolting-sensitive genotypes after vernalization. Using Cot fractionation followed by 454 sequencing of the isolated low-copy DNA, 6231 contigs were obtained that were used along with public sugar beet DNA sequences to design custom Agilent microarrays for expression (56k) and methylation (244k) analyses. A total of 169 differentially expressed genes and 111 differentially methylated regions were identified between resistant and sensitive vernalized genotypes. Fourteen sequences were both differentially expressed and differentially methylated, with a negative correlation between their methylation and expression levels. Genes involved in cold perception, phytohormone signalling, and flowering induction were over-represented and collectively represent an integrative gene network from environmental perception to bolting induction. Altogether, the data suggest that the genotype-dependent control of DNA methylation and expression of an integrative gene network participate in bolting tolerance in sugar beet, opening up perspectives for crop improvement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Stabilized Conversion Efficiency and Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells from Beta vulgaris Pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Martínez, Angel Ramon; Estévez, Miriam; Vargas, Susana; Rodríguez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs), based on TiO2 and assembled using a dye from Beta vulgaris extract (BVE) with Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS), are reported. The dye BVE/TEOS increased its UV resistance, rendering an increase in the cell lifetime; the performance of these solar cells was compared to those prepared with BVE without TEOS. The efficiency η for the solar energy conversion was, for BVE and BVE/TEOS, of 0.89% ± 0.006% and 0.68% ± 0.006% with a current density Jsc of 2.71 ± 0.003 mA/cm2 and 2.08 ± 0.003 mA/cm2, respectively, using in both cases an irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at 25 °C. The efficiency of the BVE solar cell dropped from 0.9 ± 0.006 to 0.85 ± 0.006 after 72 h of operation, whereas for the BVE/TEOS, the efficiency remained practically constant in the same period of time. PMID:23429194

  4. Nutritional Content and Antioxidant Properties of Pulp Waste from Daucus carota and Beta vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamala, B N; Jamuna, P

    2010-12-01

    This study reports the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of pulp waste from two vegetables, carrot (Daucus carota) and beetroot (Beta vulgaris). Different in vitro assays used for determining antioxidant potential of extracts of pulp wastes were: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method. Total polyphenols, tannins and antioxidative components such as vitamin C, total carotenoids and β-carotene were analysed in the samples. The moisture content of samples ranged from 79 - 84%. The protein content was high in beetroot (13.23 mg/100g) and low in carrot (6.21mg/100g). Total polyphenols were higher in methanol extracts of samples (220-250 mg/100g) compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. The antioxidant activity determined by the DPPH method exhibited 40% and 78% activity in methanol extracts of carrot and beetroot pulp waste (20 mg) respectively. Overall, the results suggest that carrot and beetroot pulp wastes can be exploited for their nutrients and antioxidant components and used for value addition in food formulations. Hence, these results pave the way for utilisation of bio-wastes from the food industry.

  5. Metagenomic Analysis of the Bacterial Community Associated with the Taproot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Okubo, Takashi; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Megumi; Kakizaki, Kaori; Hanzawa, Eiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Asanome, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Fukuyo; Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Ikeda, Seishi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed a metagenome of the bacterial community associated with the taproot of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in order to investigate the genes involved in plant growth-promoting traits (PGPTs), namely 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), N2 fixation, phosphate solubilization, pyrroloquinoline quinone, siderophores, and plant disease suppression as well as methanol, sucrose, and betaine utilization. The most frequently detected gene among the PGPT categories encoded β-1,3-glucanase (18 per 105 reads), which plays a role in the suppression of plant diseases. Genes involved in phosphate solubilization (e.g., for quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase), methanol utilization (e.g., for methanol dehydrogenase), siderophore production (e.g. isochorismate pyruvate lyase), and ACC deaminase were also abundant. These results suggested that such PGPTs are crucially involved in supporting the growth of sugar beet. In contrast, genes for IAA production (iaaM and ipdC) were less abundant (~1 per 105 reads). N2 fixation genes (nifHDK) were not detected; bacterial N2 -fixing activity was not observed in the 15N2 -feeding experiment. An analysis of nitrogen metabolism suggested that the sugar beet microbiome mainly utilized ammonium and nitroalkane as nitrogen sources. Thus, N2 fixation and IAA production did not appear to contribute to sugar beet growth. Taxonomic assignment of this metagenome revealed the high abundance of Mesorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Streptomyces, suggesting that these genera have ecologically important roles in the taproot of sugar beet. Bradyrhizobium-assigned reads in particular were found in almost all categories of dominant PGPTs with high abundance. The present study revealed the characteristic functional genes in the taproot-associated microbiome of sugar beet, and suggest the opportunity to select sugar beet growth-promoting bacteria. PMID:25740621

  6. Root rot diseases of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L as affected by defloliation intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugar beet re-growth after water stress defoliation on root rots of three cultivars (Europa, Rival Corsica, which were spring sown in Thessaly, central Greece, for two growing seasons (2003-04. At the beginning of July, sugar beets were subjected to water deficit with irrigation withholding. A month later, three defoliation levels (control - C, moderate - MD, severe - SD and irrigation were applied. Thus, sugar beets were forced to re-grow and three harvests (15, 30 and 40 days after defoliation - DAD were conducted. Rotted roots per hectare were counted and pathogens were identified. Data were analyzed as a four-factor randomized complete block design with years, defoliation levels, sampling times and cultivars as main factors. The number of rotted roots was increased with the defoliation level and was significantly higher for SD sugar beets (3748 roots ha–1. No significant differences were found between C and MD treatments (1543 and 2116 roots ha–1, respectively. Rival was the most susceptible cultivar to root rots. Sugar beets were more susceptible to rotting 15 and 40 DAD (2778 and 2998 roots ha–1. The causal agents of root rots were the fungi, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus stolonifer, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani.

  7. Molecular characterization of the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii) resistance locus Hs1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.

    1995-01-01

    The white beet cyst nematode (BCN), Heterodera schachtii Schm. is a serious pest in sugar beet ( B. vulgaris L.) cultivation and is widely distributed throughout most of the beet-growing areas in the world (Cooke 1987). The economical losses due to

  8. Responses of Sugar Beet Roots to Iron Deficiency. Changes in Carbon Assimilation and Oxygen Use

    OpenAIRE

    López-Millán, Ana Flor; Morales Iribas, Fermín; Andaluz, Sofía; Gogorcena Aoiz, Yolanda; Abadía Bayona, Anunciación; Rivas, Javier de las; Abadía Bayona, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Different root parts with or without increased iron-reducing activities have been studied in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient control sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Monohil hybrid). The distal root parts of iron-deficient plants, 0 to 5 mm from the root apex, were capable to reduce Fe(III)-chelates and contained concentrations of flavins near 700 μm, two characteristics absent in the 5 to 10 mm sections of iron-deficient plants and the whole root of iron-sufficient plants. Flavin-containing r...

  9. Evaluation of beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. leaves during its developmental stages: a chemical composition study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyana Batoqui França Biondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Beetroot leaves (Beta vulgaris L. are commonly cut off and discarded before using its bulb due to lack of knowledge of how to use them. Aiming at using these leaves, in the present study, in natura and dehydrated beetroot leaves were chemically characterized in terms of fatty acid composition, proximate composition, minerals, total phenolic compounds (TPC, and antioxidant activity by DPPH• in different stages (60, 80, and 100 days of development. The beetroot leaves showed significant levels of protein and lipids in all developmental stages, and all proximate composition nutrients decreased during these maturation stages; the highest content was observed at 60 days. The Fe content decreased during the developmental stages (from 342.75 to 246.30 mg.kg-1, while the content of K increased (from 13,367.64 to 20,784.90 mg.kg-1. With regard to to fatty acid composition, linolenic acid was present in the greatest quantity, and it increase up to 2.58 mg.g-1 (in natura and 40.11 mg.g-1 (dehydrated at 100 days of development. The n-6/n-3 ratios were low in all stages. The TPC and antioxidant activity by DPPH• changed during the developmental stages. The TPC was highest in the 100-day dehydrated leaves (15.27±0.12 mg GAE.g-1 FW, and the 50% inhibition of DPPH• (IC50 89.52 µg.mL-1 were better in the 60-day in natura leaves. This study shows that all developmental stages produced satisfactory results, and therefore, these leaves can be reused as food. The antioxidant activity and the chemical constituents, mainly the ω-3fatty acid, increased during the stages of development.

  10. Effect of Plant Age on the Quantity and Quality of Proteins Extracted from Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Vissers, Anne; Vincken, Jean Paul; Gruppen, Harry; Wierenga, Peter Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the developmental stage (e.g., young, mature, or senescent) of leaves on their chemical composition have been described in the literature. This study focuses on the variation in chemical composition and quantity and quality of proteins extracted from leaves due to variation in plant

  11. INVESTIGATION of RED BEET [Beta vulgaris L. (subsp. rapaf. rubra )] JUICE PROTEINS for VITAMIN B12 BINDING

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ö. GENCER ÖNDER, A. GÜNEL, M. ENGİNÜN, A. OGAN, H. KARŞILAYAN KUZU, S. DEMİR

    2013-01-01

    Bu çalışmada %20-70 amonyum sülfat doygunluğunda çöktürülen kırmızı pancar suyunun çözünür proteinlerinin, B12 vitamini ile etkileşimleri spektorofotometrik olarak incelenmiştir. Dışarıdan Bı2 vitamini katıldıktan sonra %20'lik amonyum sülfat doygunluğunda çöktürülen proteinleri 260 nm'de maksimum absorpsiyonu anlamlı bir şekilde arttı ve 247 nm'ye kaydı. Bu dalga boyundaki kaymanın B]2 vitamini İle bağlanmadan ötürü olabileceğinden şüphelenilmiştir. Yarışmalı bağlanma, radyoiz...

  12. Characterization of fresh Beta vulgaris from Santiago del Estero (Argentina). Nutrient and caroteniod content of stem and leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Sara Macías de; Montenegro, Mariana A.; Arregui, Teresa; Pinto, M. Inés Sánchez de; Nazareno, Mónica A.; Mishima, Beatriz López de

    2003-01-01

    Se realizaron estudios de caracterización integral de acelga (Beta vulgaris, var. cycla) cultivada en la Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Por tratarse de un vegetal de importante consumo regional, se realizó la determinación de sus constituyentes básicos, minerales y pigmentos para conocer los valores nutricionales que aporta este alimento en nuestra región. Se analizaron comparando hoja y tallo: humedad, cenizas, proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono utilizables, fibra dietaria ...

  13. [Effects of bioactive molecules of Beta vulgaris L. ssp. esculenta var. rubra on metastatic prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyirády, Péter; Sárdi, Eva; Beko, Gabriella; Szucs, Miklós; Horváth, András; Székely, Edit; Szentmihályi, Klára; Romics, Imre; Blázovics, Anna

    2010-09-12

    Several reports are known about the effects of nutrition supplements in the improvement of quality of life of patients with tumor, however, the physiological background remains largely unknown. Table beet affects numerous biochemical reactions, enzymes and metabolic-synthesis. Natural table beet product come from commercial service was given twice 10 g daily for 1 month for 24 patients (mean age 68+/-8 years) with hormone-resistant and metastatic prostate cancer treated with taxan chemotherapy, who report themselves first, mean 3,6+/-2,8 years ago with their complains. 18 men's data were amenable after treatment for evaluation. In addition to routine laboratory examination values of HbA1c, 9 cytokines and levels of 3 growth factors, the global parameters of redox-homeostasis, few elements of their metal-ions, Zn- and level of free protoporfirin, trans-metilating processes before and 1 month after treatment were determined. In most of the patients, favorable impact of beet was enforced and significantly high levels of Zn- and free protoporfirin decreased; furthermore, trans-metilating processes fastened. According to results, it seems that moderate and permanent consumption of table beet product affects the life expectancy of patients favorably; however, due to the increasing values of EGF, medical control is necessary for patients with prostate cancer treated by chemotherapy.

  14. Flavins secreted by roots of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris enable mining of ferric oxide via reductive mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisó-Terraza, Patricia; Rios, Juan J; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Álvarez-Fernández, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is abundant in soils but generally poorly soluble. Plants, with the exception of Graminaceae, take up Fe using an Fe(III)-chelate reductase coupled to an Fe(II) transporter. Whether or not nongraminaceous species can convert scarcely soluble Fe(III) forms into soluble Fe forms has deserved little attention so far. We have used Beta vulgaris, one among the many species whose roots secrete flavins upon Fe deficiency, to study whether or not flavins are involved in Fe acquisition. Flavins secreted by Fe-deficient plants were removed from the nutrient solution, and plants were compared with Fe-sufficient plants and Fe-deficient plants without flavin removal. Solubilization of a scarcely soluble Fe(III)-oxide was assessed in the presence or absence of flavins, NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) or plant roots, and an Fe(II) trapping agent. The removal of flavins from the nutrient solution aggravated the Fe deficiency-induced leaf chlorosis. Flavins were able to dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide in the presence of NADH. The addition of extracellular flavins enabled roots of Fe-deficient plants to reductively dissolve an Fe(III)-oxide. We concluded that root-secretion of flavins improves Fe nutrition in B. vulgaris. Flavins allow B. vulgaris roots to mine Fe from Fe(III)-oxides via reductive mechanisms. © 2015 CSIC New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Comparison of Spinach Sex Chromosomes with Sugar Beet Autosomes Reveals Extensive Synteny and Low Recombination at the Male-Determining Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Satoshi; Yago, Takumi; Iwabuchi, Keisuke; Hirakawa, Hideki; Suzuki, Yutaka; Onodera, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea, 2n = 12) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, 2n = 18) are important crop members of the family Chenopodiaceae ss Sugar beet has a basic chromosome number of 9 and a cosexual breeding system, as do most members of the Chenopodiaceae ss. family. By contrast, spinach has a basic chromosome number of 6 and, although certain cultivars and genotypes produce monoecious plants, is considered to be a dioecious species. The loci determining male and monoecious sexual expression were mapped to different loci on the spinach sex chromosomes. In this study, a linkage map with 46 mapped protein-coding sequences was constructed for the spinach sex chromosomes. Comparison of the linkage map with a reference genome sequence of sugar beet revealed that the spinach sex chromosomes exhibited extensive synteny with sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9. Tightly linked protein-coding genes linked to the male-determining locus in spinach corresponded to genes located in or around the putative pericentromeric and centromeric regions of sugar beet chromosomes 4 and 9, supporting the observation that recombination rates were low in the vicinity of the male-determining locus. The locus for monoecism was confined to a chromosomal segment corresponding to a region of approximately 1.7Mb on sugar beet chromosome 9, which may facilitate future positional cloning of the locus. © The American Genetic Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The Role of Auxin-Ethylene Crosstalk in Orchestrating Primary Root Elongation in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abts, Willem; Vandenbussche, Bert; De Proft, Maurice P.; Van de Poel, Bram

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established in Arabidopsis and other species that ethylene inhibits root elongation through the action of auxin. In sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) ethylene promotes root elongation in a concentration dependent manner. However, the crosstalk between ethylene and auxin remains unknown during sugar beet seedling development. Our experiments have shown that exogenously applied auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) also stimulates root elongation. We also show that auxin promotes ethylene biosynthesis leading to longer roots. We have further demonstrated that the auxin treatment stimulates ethylene production by redirecting the pool of available 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) toward ethylene instead of malonyl-ACC (MACC) resulting in a prolonged period of high rates of ethylene production and subsequently a longer root. On the other hand we have also shown that endogenous IAA levels were not affected by an ACC treatment during germination. All together our findings suggest that the general model for auxin-ethylene crosstalk during early root development, where ethylene controls auxin biosynthesis and transport, does not occur in sugar beet. On the contrary, we have shown that the opposite, where auxin stimulates ethylene biosynthesis, is true for sugar beet root development. PMID:28424722

  17. Colonization study of gfp-tagged Achromobacter marplatensis strain in sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Li, Chun; Yang, HongMei; Zhang, Tao; Gao, Yan; Chu, Min; Zeng, Jun; Lin, Qing; OuTiKuEr; Li, YuGuo; Huo, Xiangdong; Lou, Kai

    2017-04-01

    This study details the introduction of a gfp marker into an endophytic bacterial strain (Achromobacter marplatensis strain 17, isolated from sugar beet) to monitor its colonization of sugar beet (Beta. vulgaris L.). Stability of the plasmid encoding the gfp was confirmed in vitro for at least 72 h of bacterial growth and after the colonization of tissues, under nonselective conditions. The colonization was observed using fluorescence microscopy and enumeration of culturable endophytes in inoculated sugar beet plants that grew for 10 or 20 days. gfp-Expressing strains were re-isolated from the inner tissues of surface-sterilized roots and stems of inoculated plants, and the survival of the Achromobacter marplatensis 17:gfp strain in plants 20 days after inoculation, even in the absence of selective pressure, suggests that it is good colonizer. These results also suggest that this strain could be a useful tool for the delivery of enzymes or other proteins into plants. In addition, the study highlights that sugar beet plants can be used effectively for detailed in vitro studies on the interactions between A. marplatensis strain 17 and its host, particularly if a gfp-tagged strain of the pathogen is used.

  18. EFEKTIVITAS EKSTRAK BUAH Beta vulgaris L. (BUAH BIT DENGAN BERBAGAI FRAKSI PELARUT TERHADAP MORTALITAS LARVA Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-08-01

    potency a bit higher than other solvents. Keywords: B. vulgaris L., Aedes aegypti, larvacide Abstrak. Pengendalian vektor DBD banyak dilakukan dengan menggunakan insektisida nabati.  Insektisida nabati dari ekstrak daun maupun buah tanaman yang  mengandung senyawa alkaloid, saponin, flavonoid, tanin, triterpenoid, dan polifenol dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif pengendalian Ae. aegypti secara hayati. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui efektivitas larvasida dari ekstrak buah bit (Beta vulgaris L. terhadap larva Ae. aegypti. Bahan yang digunakan buah bit (Beta vulgaris L. yang bagian buah digiling dan dikeringkan hingga berbentuk serbuk. Serbuk kering sebanyak 800 g diekstraksi oleh 70% methanol dengan metoda perkolasi dengan sesekali pengadukan selama 3 hari. Ekstrak dipekatkan dengan menggunakan evaporator. Residu yang tersisa sebanyak 60g dilarutkan dengan aquades dan diekstraksi kembali dengan dietil eter, kloroform, dan etil asetat. Tiap fraksi ekstrak dikeringkan dengan natrium sulfat anhidrat dan pelarutnya didestilasi. Ekstrak tersebut diuji kualitatif untuk mengetahui kandungan metabolit sekundernya. Uji larvasida  dilakukan dengan melarutkan tiap ekstrak dalam dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO pada konsentrasi 0,1; 0,5 dan 1%. Larva yang digunakan yaitu larva Ae. aegypti umur tujuh hari. Kematian larva dihitung setiap hari selama tujuh hari untuk menentukan efek kontak. Pengujian dilakukan pada suhu 27 ± 1°C dengan merendam 25 larva di tiap konsentrasi ekstrak dengan volume 50 mL dan dilakukan tiga kali ulangan. Data yang diperoleh selanjutnya di analisa dengan uji beda. Hasil penelitian menunjukan ekstrak buah bit mengandung senyawa flavonoid, alkoloid, sterol, triterpen, saponin dan tanin.   Kematian tertinggi pada konsentrasi 1% pada ekstrak methanol yaitu 82,5%, sedangkan kematian terendah dengan konsentrasi 0,1% ektrak fraksi dietil eter. Ekstrak buah bit yang dilarutkan dalam berbagai fraksi pelarut belum efektif sebagai larvasida sampai pada

  19. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity and space-time dynamics in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Tao; Sun, Jian; Lou, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Plants harbors complex and variable microbial communities. Endophytic bacteria play an important function and potential role more effectively in developing sustainable systems of crop production. To examine how endophytic bacteria in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) vary across both host growth period and location, PCR-based Illumina was applied to revealed the diversity and stability of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet on the north slope of Tianshan mountain, China. A total of 60.84 M effective sequences of 16S rRNA gene V3 region were obtained from sugar beet samples. These sequences revealed huge amount of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in sugar beet, that is, 19-121 OTUs in a beet sample, at 3 % cutoff level and sequencing depth of 30,000 sequences. We identified 13 classes from the resulting 449,585 sequences. Alphaproteobacteria were the dominant class in all sugar beets, followed by Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria. A marked difference in the diversity of endophytic bacteria in sugar beet for different growth periods was evident. The greatest number of OTUs was detected during rossette formation (109 OTUs) and tuber growth (146 OTUs). Endophytic bacteria diversity was reduced during seedling growth (66 OTUs) and sucrose accumulation (95 OTUs). Forty-three OTUs were common to all four periods. There were more tags of Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria in Shihezi than in Changji. The dynamics of endophytic bacteria communities were influenced by plant genotype and plant growth stage. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first application of PCR-based Illumina pyrosequencing to characterize and compare multiple sugar beet samples.

  20. Determination of Mineral Constituents, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Qualities of Cleome gynandra, Compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mack Moyo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables, Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl−1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC assays. Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher for B. vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05 exhibited by C. gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of C. gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to the diet and contributing toward the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security.

  1. Determination of Mineral Constituents, Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Qualities of Cleome gynandra, Compared to Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Mack; Amoo, Stephen O.; Aremu, Adeyemi O.; Gruz, Jiri; Šubrtová, Michaela; Jarošová, Monika; Tarkowski, Petr; Doležal, Karel

    2018-01-01

    The study compared mineral, chemical and antioxidant qualities of Cleome gynandra, a wild leafy vegetable, with two widely consumed commercial vegetables, Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris. Mineral nutrients were quantified with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), phenolic compounds using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS) and β-carotene and vitamin C using high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA). The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 2,2–diphenyl−1–picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. Cleome gynandra had highest concentrations of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and flavonoids; whereas sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper and β-carotene were higher for B. vulgaris. The significantly higher antioxidant activity (P ≤ 0.05) exhibited by C. gynandra in comparison to the two commercial vegetables may be due to its significantly high levels of vitamin C and phenolic acids. These findings on the mineral, chemical and antioxidant properties of C. gynandra provide compelling scientific evidence of its potential in adding diversity to the diet and contributing toward the daily nutritional requirements of millions of people for food and nutritional security. PMID:29354633

  2. Vascular movement of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Beta macrocarpa is probably dependent on an RNA 3 sequence domain rather than a gene product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, E; Guilley, H; Tamada, T; Richards, K E; Jonard, G

    1998-02-01

    RNAs 1 and 2 of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) carry the functions enabling viral RNA replication, cell-to-cell movement, virus assembly and vascular movement of the virus in the systemic host Spinacea oleracea. In Beta macrocarpa, on the other hand, BNYVV RNA 3 is required for vascular movement. Replication-competent RNA 3 transcripts carrying various point mutations and deletions were coinnoculated with RNAs 1 and 2 to young leaves of B. macrocarpa and the ability of the virus to multiply on the inoculated leaves and to invade the plant systemically was examined. None of the RNA 3 mutants tested interfered with virus multiplication in the inoculated leaves. Point mutations designed to specifically block or truncate translation of the ORFs of the two known RNA 3 gene products, P25 and N, did not interfere with vascular movement. Vascular movement was not inhibited by deletions eliminating the short 5'-proximal ORF on RNA 3 (ORF A) or by point mutations blocking putative translation of the short 5'-proximal ORF (ORF S) on RNA 3sub, a subgenomic RNA derived from RNA 3. On the other hand, deletions in a 'core region' encompassing nucleotides 1033-1257 of RNA 3 completely blocked vascular movement of the virus while removal of sequences flanking the core region lowered its efficiency. The observations suggest that some feature of the RNA 3 sequence rather than an RNA-3 coded protein is important for vascular movement of BNYVV in B. macrocarpa.

  3. Antifungal activity of the ribosome-inactivating protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) against the green mould Penicillium digitatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citores, Lucía; Iglesias, Rosario; Gay, Carolina; Ferreras, José Miguel

    2016-02-01

    The ribosome-inactivating protein BE27 from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves is an apoplastic protein induced by signalling compounds, such as hydrogen peroxide and salicylic acid, which has been reported to be involved in defence against viruses. Here, we report that, at a concentration much lower than that present in the apoplast, BE27 displays antifungal activity against the green mould Penicillium digitatum, a necrotrophic fungus that colonizes wounds and grows in the inter- and intracellular spaces of the tissues of several edible plants. BE27 is able to enter into the cytosol and kill fungal cells, thus arresting the growth of the fungus. The mechanism of action seems to involve ribosomal RNA (rRNA) N-glycosylase activity on the sarcin-ricin loop of the major rRNA which inactivates irreversibly the fungal ribosomes, thus inhibiting protein synthesis. We compared the C-terminus of the BE27 structure with antifungal plant defensins and hypothesize that a structural motif composed of an α-helix and a β-hairpin, similar to the γ-core motif of defensins, might contribute to the specific interaction with the fungal plasma membranes, allowing the protein to enter into the cell. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  4. Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erbasol, Isil; Bozdag, Gonensin Ozan; Koc, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux...... in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species....... of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional...

  5. Electron spin resonance studies of ionic permeability properties of thylakoid membranes of Beta vulgaris and Avicennia germinans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, M.C.; Mehlhorn, R.J.; Terry, N.; Packer, L.

    1985-01-01

    Measurement of intrathylakoid aqueous volumes by electron spin resonance spectroscopy was used to study ionic permeability properties of thylakoid membranes isolated from Beta vulgaris L. and Avicennia germinans L. The thylakoids behaved as perfect osmometers in the presence of sorbitol and betaine. Thylakoids exposed to hypertonic solutions of NaCl and KCl shrank and subsequently swelled, requiring 10 minutes to regain their original volume. The initial influx rate calculated from the kinetics of changes in intrathylakoid volume in response to 450 millimolar gradients of NaCl and KCl was 2.3 x 10/sup -13/ moles per square centimeter per second. These data show that the passive permeability to NaCl and KCl was low.

  6. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Ralf; van Dusschoten, Dagmar; Bühler, Jonas; Schurr, Ulrich; Jahnke, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris) as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage, or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress. PMID:25278947

  7. Belowground plant development measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI: exploiting the potential for non-invasive trait quantification using sugar beet as a proxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf eMetzner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both structural and functional properties of belowground plant organs are critical for the development and yield of plants but, compared to the shoot, much more difficult to observe due to soil opacity. Many processes concerning the belowground plant performance are not fully understood, in particular spatial and temporal dynamics and their interrelation with environmental factors. We used Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a noninvasive method to evaluate which traits can be measured when a complex plant organ is monitored in-vivo while growing in the soil. We chose sugar beet (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as a model system. The beet consists mainly of root tissues, is rather complex regarding tissue structure and responses to environmental factors, and thereby a good object to test the applicability of MRI for 3D phenotyping approaches. Over a time period of up to 3 months, traits such as beet morphology or anatomy were followed in the soil and the effect of differently sized pots on beet fresh weight calculated from MRI data was studied. There was a clear positive correlation between the pot size and the increase in fresh weight of a sugar beet over time. Since knowledge of the development of internal beet structures with several concentric cambia, vascular and parenchyma rings is still limited, we consecutively acquired 3D volumetric images on individual plants using the MRI contrast parameter T2 to map the development of rings at the tissue level. This demonstrates that MRI provides versatile protocols to non-invasively measure plant traits in the soil. It opens new avenues to investigate belowground plant performance under adverse environmental conditions such as drought, nutrient shortage or soil compaction to seek for traits of belowground organs making plants more resilient to stress.

  8. Beet yellows virus: the importance of being different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolja, Valerian V

    2003-03-01

    SUMMARY Taxonomic relationship: Type member of the genus Closterovirus, family Closteroviridae. A member of the alphavirus-like supergroup of positive-strand RNA viruses. Physical properties: Virions are flexuous filaments of approximately 1300 nm in length and approximately 12 nm in diameter that are made up of a approximately 15.5 kb RNA and five proteins. The major capsid protein forms virion body of helical symmetry that constitutes approximately 95% of the virion length. The short virion tail is assembled by the minor capsid protein, Hsp70-homologue, approximately 64-kDa protein, and approximately 20-kDa protein. Viral proteins: The 5'-most ORFs 1a and 1b encode leader proteinase and RNA replicase. The remaining ORFs 2-8 are expressed by subgenomic mRNAs that encode 6-kDa membrane protein, Hsp70 homologue, approximately 64-kDa protein, minor and major capsid proteins, approximately 20-kDa protein, and approximately 21-kDa protein, respectively. Hosts: The principal crop plants affected by Beet yellows virus (BYV) are sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and spinach (Spinacea oleracea). In addition, BYV was reported to infect approximately 120 species in 15 families. Most suitable propagation species are Nicotiana benthamiana, Tetragonia expansa, and Claytonia perfoliata.

  9. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  10. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  11. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 μmol m -2 s -1 ) or high PAR (HL; 800 μmol m -2 s -1 ). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F v /F max and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.)

  12. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-01-01

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]) or high PAR (HL; 800 [mu]mol m[sup -2]s[sup -1]). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F[sub v]/F[sub max] and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  13. Effects of ultraviolet radiation on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Beta vulgaris and Helianthus annuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagopoulos, I.

    1992-12-31

    It is believed that increased levels of ultraviolet B-radiation (UV-B;280-320 nm) will result in serious threat to plant. In the present study the effects of UV (particularly UV-B) were studied on chlorophyll fluorescence, ultraweak luminescence (UL) and plant growth. Parameters related to light emission were determined, and the effects of UV-B on hypocotyl elongation and levels of free IAA were examined. The plants were grown in greenhouse or in growth chambers and exposed to short or long term UV-B simulating different levels of ozone depletion. Short exposure of Hibiscus leaves to UV resulted in a gradual increase in both UL and peroxidase activity followed by a decline after 72 h and a decrease in variable chlorophyll fluorescence. The action of UV-B on sugar beet plants depended on light quality and irradiance and infection by Cercospora beticola Sacc. The interaction between UV-B and the disease resulted in a large reduction of dry weight and enhanced UL. The lowest Chl a and growth was found in plants grown under low irradiance and exposed to UV-B supplemented with UV-A (320-400 nm). UVB also inhibited photosystem II, increased UL and peroxidase activity. Under relatively high PAR, UV-B increased dry weight of laminae and UL but no effect on Chl content. Sugar beet plants grown with light depleted in the 320-400 nm region of the spectrum and exposed to UV-B died. Low levels of UV-B did neither affected hypocotyl elongation nor amounts of free IAA in sunflower plants grown under low (LL; 143 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}) or high PAR (HL; 800 {mu}mol m{sup -2}s{sup -1}). Three times more daily UV-B increased the amount of free IAA, but inhibited hypocotyl elongation. Higher F{sub v}/F{sub max} and F690/F735, Chl a and carotenoids were found in plants exposed to low UV-B. Indeed, UV-B can be harmful but may also have enhancing effects on plants. (au) (114 refs.).

  14. System dynamics approach for modeling of sugar beet yield considering the effects of climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Lia; Islam, Md Saiful

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for computation of yields and to investigate the dependency of yields on some major climatic parameters, i.e. temperature and rainfall, for Beta vulgaris subsp. (sugar beet crops) under future climate change scenarios. A system dynamics model was developed which takes account of the effects of rainfall and temperature on sugar beet yields under limited irrigation conditions. A relationship was also developed between the seasonal evapotranspiration and seasonal growing degree days for sugar beet crops. The proposed model was set to run for the present time period of 1993-2012 and for the future period 2013-2040 for Lethbridge region (Alberta, Canada). The model provides sugar beet yields on a yearly basis which are comparable to the present field data. It was found that the future average yield will be increased at about 14% with respect to the present average yield. The proposed model can help to improve the understanding of soil water conditions and irrigation water requirements of an area under certain climatic conditions and can be used for future prediction of yields for any crops in any region (with the required information to be provided). The developed system dynamics model can be used as a supporting tool for decision making, for improvement of agricultural management practice of any region. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effectivity of Beta vulgaris L. Extract with various Solvent Fractions to Aedes aegypti Larval Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutiara Widawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue vector control is mostly done by using plant-based insecticides. Insecticides from the vegetable and fruit extracts of the leaves of plants that contain compounds alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids, and polyphenols can be used as an alternative to naturally control Ae. aegypti. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the B. vulgaris L. extract larvacide against larvae of Ae. aegypti. The materials that been used was B. vulgaris L. fruit parts which was milled and dried to become a powder form. 800 g of dry powder was extracted by 70% methanol by percolation method with occasional stirring for 3 days. The extract was concentrated using an evaporator. 60 g remaining residue was dissolved in distilled water and re-extracted with diethyl ether, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. Each fraction extract was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and the solvent was distilled. The extract was tested qualitatively to determine the content of secondary metabolites. Larvacide test performed by dissolving each extracts in dimetilsulphoxide (DMSO at concentrations of 0.1, 0.5 and 1%. The larvae used was larval of Ae. aegypti age of seven days. Death larvae counted every day for seven days to determine the effect of the contact. Tests carried out at a temperature of 27±1°C by immersing 25 larvae at each concentration of the extract with 50 mL volume and three replications was performed. The data obtained were analyzed further with different test. The results showed that fruit extract contains flavonoids, alkoloid, sterols, triterpenes, saponins and tannins. Highest mortality happened which was 82.5% and the lowest mortality happened with a concentration of 0.1% diethyl ether extract fraction. The extracts that are dissolved in various solvent fractions have not been effective as a larvacide until the highest concentration which was 1%. Methanol and polar solvent extracts of the fruit has a larvacide potency a bit

  17. Short- and long-term changes in sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. gene expression due to postharvest jasmonic acid treatment - Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Silva de Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonic acid is a natural plant hormone that induces native defense responses in plants. Sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L. root unigenes that were differentially expressed 2 and 60 days after a postharvest jasmonic acid treatment are presented. Data include changes in unigene expression relative to water-treated controls, unigene annotations against nonredundant (Nr, Swiss-Prot, Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG protein databases, and unigene annotations with Gene Ontology (GO terms. Putative defense unigenes are compiled and annotated against the sugarbeet genome. Differential gene expression data were generated by RNA sequencing. Interpretation of the data is available in the research article, “Jasmonic acid causes short- and long-term alterations to the transcriptome and the expression of defense genes in sugarbeet roots” (K.K. Fugate, L.S. Oliveira, J.P. Ferrareze, M.D. Bolton, E.L. Deckard, F.L. Finger, 2017 [1]. Public dissemination of this dataset will allow further analyses of the data.

  18. PROTEOMIC PROFILE REVEALS THE DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY OF LEAF PROTEINS IN SPINACH (BETA VULGARIS VAR. ALL GREEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Ghosh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf is a source organ that serves dual function in photosynthesis and transpiration. As a primary interface between plant and ecosystem, it performs a range of biological processes from carbon assimilation and metabolite partitioning to plant productivity. Basic features of the leaf functionality are conserved in angiosperms exhibiting common and unique characteristics. Spinach has been the model crop for studying leaf function, primarily photosynthesis. It is a reservoir of several hundreds of primary and secondary biomolecules. To better understand the molecular basis for photochemical reaction and metabolic partitioning, we developed leaf proteome of Indian spinach (Beta vulgaris var. all green. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 639 proteins exhibiting discrete molecular features and functions, including photosynthesis, transpiration, gaseous exchange, transport, redox status, cell defense, and floral induction besides the presence of proteins with unknown function. This represents the first comprehensive foliage proteome of green leafy vegetable. Together, this work provides important insights into the molecular networks underlying spinach leaf biological processes.

  19. Evaluation of Dicentrarchus labrax Meats and the Vegetable Quality of Beta vulgaris var. cicla Farmed in Freshwater and Saltwater Aquaponic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Nozzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to exploit the euryhaline nature of commercially attractive species for their cultivation in freshwater aquaponic systems. This approach may increase the profitability of aquaponic production in coastal countries where the consumption of marine fish is traditional and of commercial relevance. For this purpose, juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax were reared in an aquaponic freshwater (AFW system and an aquaponic saltwater (ASW system (salinity 20 ppt, in combination with chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla seedlings, a salt tolerant plant. At the end of the trial, nitrate and phosphate concentration in water significantly increased in the ASW system, suggesting that the ability of B. vulgaris to absorb these substances was limited by salinity. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry revealed that the concentration of some oligoelements such as Fe remained lower with respect to the concentration in the freshwater hydroponic solution, in both AFW and ASW. FTIR-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on plants showed that growth at high salinity affected their lipid content. In the case of fish, freshwater had no effects on mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acid profiles, although saturated fatty acids were significantly decreased in D. labrax reared in AFW. Our results demonstrates that it is possible to increase aquaponic profitability by farming D. labrax juveniles in an aquaponic freshwater system together with Beta vulgaris, obtaining good quality products.

  20. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  1. Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chunquan; Wang, Yuguang; Gu, Dan; Nan, Jingdong; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the sugar beet M14. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in M14 under salt stress, a subtractive cDNA library was generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). A total of 36 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed. One of the genes, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS), is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a precursor of polyamines. To determine the potential role of SAMS in salt tolerance, we isolated BvM14-SAMS2 from the salt-tolerant sugar beet M14. The expression of BvM14-SAMS2 in leaves and roots was greatly induced by salt stress. Overexpression of BvM14-SAMS2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced salt and H2O2 tolerance. Furthermore, we obtained a knock-down T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSAMS3, which shares the highest homology with BvM14-SAMS2. Interestingly, the mutant atsam3 showed sensitivity to salt and H2O2 stress. We also found that the antioxidant system and polyamine metabolism play an important role in salt and H2O2 tolerance in the BvM14-SAMS2-overexpressed plants. To our knowledge, the function of the sugar beet SAMS has not been reported before. Our results have provided new insights into SAMS functions in sugar beet. PMID:28420190

  2. Overexpression of S-Adenosyl-l-Methionine Synthetase 2 from Sugar Beet M14 Increased Arabidopsis Tolerance to Salt and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunquan Ma

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a unique germplasm that contains genetic materials from Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss, and shows tolerance to salt stress. Our study focuses on exploring the molecular mechanism of the salt tolerance of the sugar beet M14. In order to identify differentially expressed genes in M14 under salt stress, a subtractive cDNA library was generated by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. A total of 36 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed. One of the genes, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase (SAMS, is the key enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM, a precursor of polyamines. To determine the potential role of SAMS in salt tolerance, we isolated BvM14-SAMS2 from the salt-tolerant sugar beet M14. The expression of BvM14-SAMS2 in leaves and roots was greatly induced by salt stress. Overexpression of BvM14-SAMS2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced salt and H2O2 tolerance. Furthermore, we obtained a knock-down T-DNA insertion mutant of AtSAMS3, which shares the highest homology with BvM14-SAMS2. Interestingly, the mutant atsam3 showed sensitivity to salt and H2O2 stress. We also found that the antioxidant system and polyamine metabolism play an important role in salt and H2O2 tolerance in the BvM14-SAMS2-overexpressed plants. To our knowledge, the function of the sugar beet SAMS has not been reported before. Our results have provided new insights into SAMS functions in sugar beet.

  3. Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the expression of Th17, Treg, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guo-Xin; Li, Xin-Zhong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on the expression of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were investigated. 38 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in the stable state were selected as the treatment group that was treated twice a week for eight weeks. Another 38 healthy persons were chosen as the control group. Before and after treatment, the percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in the patients’ peripheral blood were detected using flow cytometry, the content of TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the patients’ sera were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the extent and severity of lesions were determined by weighing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). After laser treatment, the percentage of Th17 cells, the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the level of IL-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the same patients before the treatment (P  blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

  4. A new RNASeq-based reference transcriptome for sugar beet and its application in transcriptome-scale analysis of vernalization and gibberellin responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris sp. vulgaris) crops account for about 30% of world sugar. Sugar yield is compromised by reproductive growth hence crops must remain vegetative until harvest. Prolonged exposure to cold temperature (vernalization) in the range 6°C to 12°C induces reproductive growth, leading to bolting (rapid elongation of the main stem) and flowering. Spring cultivation of crops in cool temperate climates makes them vulnerable to vernalization and hence bolting, which is initiated in the apical shoot meristem in processes involving interaction between gibberellin (GA) hormones and vernalization. The underlying mechanisms are unknown and genome scale next generation sequencing approaches now offer comprehensive strategies to investigate them; enabling the identification of novel targets for bolting control in sugar beet crops. In this study, we demonstrate the application of an mRNA-Seq based strategy for this purpose. Results There is no sugar beet reference genome, or public expression array platforms. We therefore used RNA-Seq to generate the first reference transcriptome. We next performed digital gene expression profiling using shoot apex mRNA from two sugar beet cultivars with and without applied GA, and also a vernalized cultivar with and without applied GA. Subsequent bioinformatics analyses identified transcriptional changes associated with genotypic difference and experimental treatments. Analysis of expression profiles in response to vernalization and GA treatment suggested previously unsuspected roles for a RAV1-like AP2/B3 domain protein in vernalization and efflux transporters in the GA response. Conclusions Next generation RNA-Seq enabled the generation of the first reference transcriptome for sugar beet and the study of global transcriptional responses in the shoot apex to vernalization and GA treatment, without the need for a reference genome or established array platforms. Comprehensive bioinformatic analysis identified

  5. Synergistic cytotoxicity of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract with doxorubicin in human pancreatic, breast and prostate cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Rao, G Subba; Ramachandran, Cheppail; Iida, Akira; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2013-06-26

    Although a wide variety of cytotoxic plant extracts and phytochemicals are known to act synergistically with anticancer drug doxorubicin (D), their clinical application is hindered by safety concerns of such combination therapy. Our earlier studies showed that red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract (B), approved by Food and Drug Administration and European Union as red food color E162, reduced multi-organ tumor formations in various animal models when administered in drinking water. This led us to postulate that a long-term daily exposure to low doses of B through diet might be safe and sufficient to produce cancer chemopreventive effect in humans. Further, our recent comparative cytotoxic investigation with B and D in several human cancer cell lines indicated their potential for synergistic activity. Since B is considered safe for human use with no known toxicity, we conducted the present study to evaluate its synergistic antiproliferative activity with D against pancreatic (PaCa), breast (MCF-7) and prostate (PC-3) tumor cells of human origin. Different concentrations of B and D (0.29-290 μg/ml) and in various combinations (B:D ratio = 1:0, 1:1, 5:1, 1:5 and 0:1) were tested for cytotoxic effects against the three cancer cells. The viability of cells was assessed after 72 h incubation with various combinations of B and D using the trypan-blue staining method. The cytotoxic data were analyzed by the combination index method of Chou and Talalay to establish synergy between B and D. The results indicated that an overall positive reduction in drug concentration was achieved by D when combined with B in its cytotoxicity profile in the three human cancer cells tested. The synergistic cytotoxicity was best when the B:D ratio of 1:5 was used in PaCa cells at IC50, IC75 and IC90 dose levels and in MCF-7 cells at IC90 dose level. These results warrant further studies on the potential of red beetroot extract-doxorubicin combination in treating human cancers.

  6. Responses of Sugar Beet Roots to Iron Deficiency. Changes in Carbon Assimilation and Oxygen Use1

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Millán, Ana Flor; Morales, Fermín; Andaluz, Sofía; Gogorcena, Yolanda; Abadía, Anunciación; Rivas, Javier De Las; Abadía, Javier

    2000-01-01

    Different root parts with or without increased iron-reducing activities have been studied in iron-deficient and iron-sufficient control sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Monohil hybrid). The distal root parts of iron-deficient plants, 0 to 5 mm from the root apex, were capable to reduce Fe(III)-chelates and contained concentrations of flavins near 700 μm, two characteristics absent in the 5 to 10 mm sections of iron-deficient plants and the whole root of iron-sufficient plants. Flavin-containing root tips had large pools of carboxylic acids and high activities of enzymes involved in organic acid metabolism. In iron-deficient yellow root tips there was a large increase in carbon fixation associated to an increase in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity. Part of this carbon was used, through an increase in mitochondrial activity, to increase the capacity to produce reducing power, whereas another part was exported via xylem. Root respiration was increased by iron deficiency. In sugar beet iron-deficient roots flavins would provide a suitable link between the increased capacity to produce reduced nucleotides and the plasma membrane associated ferric chelate reductase enzyme(s). Iron-deficient roots had a large oxygen consumption rate in the presence of cyanide and hydroxisalycilic acid, suggesting that the ferric chelate reductase enzyme is able to reduce oxygen in the absence of Fe(III)-chelates. PMID:11027736

  7. Aggregation Behavior and a Putative Aggregation Pheromone in Sugar Beet Root Maggot Flies (Diptera: Ulidiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmert, Susan Y.; Tindall, Kelly; Ding, Hongjian; Boetel, Mark A.; Rajabaskar, D.; Eigenbrode, Sanford D.

    2017-01-01

    Male-biased aggregations of sugar beet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), flies were observed on utility poles near sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. [Chenopodiaceae]) fields in southern Idaho; this contrasts with the approximately equal sex ratio typically observed within fields. Peak observation of mating pairs coincided with peak diurnal abundance of flies. Volatiles released by individual male and female flies were sampled from 08:00 to 24:00 hours in the laboratory using solid-phase microextraction and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Eleven compounds were uniquely detected from males. Three of these compounds (2-undecanol, 2-decanol, and sec-nonyl acetate) were detected in greater quantities during 12:00–24:00 hours than during 08:00–12:00 hours. The remaining eight compounds uniquely detected from males did not exhibit temporal trends in release. Both sexes produced 2-nonanol, but males produced substantially higher (ca. 80-fold) concentrations of this compound than females, again peaking after 12:00 hours. The temporal synchrony among male aggregation behavior, peak mating rates, and release of certain volatile compounds by males suggest that T. myopaeformis flies exhibit lekking behavior and produce an associated pheromone. Field assays using synthetic blends of the putative aggregation pheromone showed evidence of attraction in both females and males. PMID:28423428

  8. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  9. Uptake and incorporation of iron in sugar beet chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solti, Adám; Kovács, Krisztina; Basa, Brigitta; Vértes, Attila; Sárvári, Eva; Fodor, Ferenc

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplasts contain 80-90% of iron taken up by plant cells. Though some iron transport-related envelope proteins were identified recently, the mechanism of iron uptake into chloroplasts remained unresolved. To shed more light on the process of chloroplast iron uptake, trials were performed with isolated intact chloroplasts of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris). Iron uptake was followed by measuring the iron content of chloroplasts in the form of ferrous-bathophenantroline-disulphonate complex after solubilising the chloroplasts in reducing environment. Ferric citrate was preferred to ferrous citrate as substrate for chloroplasts. Strong dependency of ferric citrate uptake on photosynthetic electron transport activity suggests that ferric chelate reductase uses NADPH, and is localised in the inner envelope membrane. The K(m) for iron uptake from ferric-citrate pool was 14.65 ± 3.13 μM Fe((III))-citrate. The relatively fast incorporation of (57)Fe isotope into Fe-S clusters/heme, detected by Mössbauer spectroscopy, showed the efficiency of the biosynthetic machinery of these cofactors in isolated chloroplasts. The negative correlation between the chloroplast iron concentration and the rate of iron uptake refers to a strong feedback regulation of the uptake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Yasuyo; Okazaki, Kazuyuki; Kikuchi, Jun; Ikeda, Seishi

    2017-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O)-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS) or orthogonal PLS (OPLS) analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs) of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance) from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level) before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort. PMID:28134762

  11. NMR-Based Metabolic Profiling of Field-Grown Leaves from Sugar Beet Plants Harbouring Different Levels of Resistance to Cercospora Leaf Spot Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyo Sekiyama

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot (CLS is one of the most serious leaf diseases for sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. worldwide. The breeding of sugar beet cultivars with both high CLS resistance and high yield is a major challenge for breeders. In this study, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolic profiling of field-grown leaves for a subset of sugar beet genotypes harbouring different levels of CLS resistance. Leaves were collected from 12 sugar beet genotypes at four time points: seedling, early growth, root enlargement, and disease development stages. 1H-NMR spectra of foliar metabolites soluble in a deuterium-oxide (D2O-based buffer were acquired and subjected to multivariate analyses. A principal component analysis (PCA of the NMR data from the sugar beet leaves shows clear differences among the growth stages. At the later time points, the sugar and glycine betaine contents were increased, whereas the choline content was decreased. The relationship between the foliar metabolite profiles and resistance level to CLS was examined by combining partial least squares projection to latent structure (PLS or orthogonal PLS (OPLS analysis and univariate analyses. It was difficult to build a robust model for predicting precisely the disease severity indices (DSIs of each genotype; however, GABA and Gln differentiated susceptible genotypes (genotypes with weak resistance from resistant genotypes (genotypes with resistance greater than a moderate level before inoculation tests. The results suggested that breeders might exclude susceptible genotypes from breeding programs based on foliar metabolites profiled without inoculation tests, which require an enormous amount of time and effort.

  12. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  13. Repeat Composition of CenH3-chromatin and H3K9me2-marked heterochromatin in Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kowar, T.; Zakrzewski, F.; Macas, Jiří; Koblížková, Andrea; Viehoever, P.; Weisshaar, B.; Schmidt, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 120 (2016) ISSN 1471-2229 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Centromere * CenH3 * H3K9me2 * Heterochromatin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.964, year: 2016

  14. 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hermann, K.; Meinhard, J.; Dobrev, Petre; Linkies, A.; Pešek, Bedřich; Heß, B.; Macháčková, Ivana; Fischer, U.; Leubner-Metzger, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 11 (2007), s. 3047-3060 ISSN 0022-0957 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : abscisic acid (ABA) * ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A) * 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.917, year: 2007

  15. Analysis of soil characteristics, soil management and sugar yield on top and averagely managed farms growing sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanse, B.; Vermeulen, G.D.; Tijink, F.G.J.; Koch, H.J.; Märlander, B.

    2011-01-01

    Within the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project, soil management and soil characteristics were investigated as possible causes of yield differences in fields between 26 ‘type top’ and 26 ‘type average’ growers, ‘top’ and ‘average’ performance being based on past yield data. Growers were pairwise

  16. Enhanced Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation by Transgenic Sugar Beets Expressing Streptococcus thermophilus StGCS-GS in the Presence of Cd, Zn and Cu Alone or in Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dali; An, Zhigang; Mao, Zijun; Ma, Longbiao; Lu, Zhenqiang

    2015-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a promising means of ameliorating heavy metal pollution through the use of transgenic plants as artificial hyperaccumulators. A novel Streptococcus thermophilus γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase-glutathione synthetase (StGCS-GS) that synthesizes glutathione (GSH) with limited feedback inhibition was overexpressed in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), yielding three transgenic lines (s2, s4 and s5) with enhanced tolerance to different concentrations of cadmium, zinc and copper, as indicated by their increased biomass, root length and relative growth compared with wild-type plants. Transgenic sugar beets accumulated more Cd, Zn and Cu ions in shoots than wild-type, as well as higher GSH and phytochelatin (PC) levels under different heavy metal stresses. This enhanced heavy metal tolerance and increased accumulation were likely due to the increased expression of StGCS-GS and consequent overproduction of both GSH and PC. Furthermore, when multiple heavy metal ions were present at the same time, transgenic sugar beets overexpressing StGCS-GS resisted two or three of the metal combinations (50 μM Cd-Zn, Cd-Cu, Zn-Cu and Cd-Zn-Cu), with greater absorption in shoots. Additionally, there was no obvious competition between metals. Overall, the results demonstrate the explicit role of StGCS-GS in enhancing Cd, Zn and Cu tolerance and accumulation in transgenic sugar beet, which may represent a highly promising new tool for phytoremediation. PMID:26057126

  17. Pengaruh Perbandingan Bubur Buah Sirsak (Annona muricata L.) dengan Bubur Bit (Beta vulgaris) dan Konsentrasi Gum Arab terhadap Mutu Fruit Leather

    OpenAIRE

    Rini, Putri Septia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to find the effect of ratio of soursop with beet pulps and several arabic gum concentration on the quality of mixture soursop and beet fruit leather. This research was conducted at the Laboratory of Food Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, using completely randomized design with two factors, i.e. :ratio of soursop with beet pulps (P) : (90% : 10% ; 80% : 20% ; 70% : 30% ; 60% : 40%; 50% : 50%) and arabic gum concentration (S): ...

  18. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  19. Quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics of sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 in response to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Jinna; Koh, Jin; Dufresne, Craig; Yang, Na; Qi, Shishi; Zhang, Yongxue; Ma, Chunquan; Duong, Benjamin V; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying

    2016-06-30

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress affecting plant growth, development and agriculture productivity. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of salt stress tolerance will provide valuable information for effective crop engineering and breeding. Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 obtained from the intercross between Beta vulgaris L. and Beta corolliflora Zoss exhibits tolerance to salt stress. In this study, the changes in the M14 proteome and phosphoproteome induced by salt stress were analyzed. We report the characteristics of the M14 plants under 0, 200, and 400mM NaCl using label-free quantitative proteomics approaches. Protein samples were subjected to total proteome profiling using LC-MS/MS and phosphopeptide enrichment to identify phosphopeptides and phosphoproteins. A total of 2182 proteins were identified and 114 proteins showed differential levels under salt stress. Interestingly, 189 phosphoproteins exhibited significant changes at the phosphorylation level under salt stress. Several signaling components associated with salt stress were found, e.g. 14-3-3 and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Fifteen differential phosphoproteins and proteins involved in signal transduction were tested at the transcriptional level. The results revealed the short-term salt responsive mechanisms of the special sugar beet M14 line using label-free quantitative phosphoproteomics. Sugar beet monosomic addition line M14 is a special germplasm with salt stress tolerance. Analysis of the M14 proteome and phosphoproteome under salt stress has provided insight into specific response mechanisms underlying salt stress tolerance. Reversible protein phosphorylation regulates a wide range of cellular processes such as transmembrane signaling, intracellular amplification of signals, and cell-cycle control. This study has identified significantly changed proteins and phosphoproteins, and determined their potential relevance to salt stress response. The knowledge gained can be

  20. Changes in the proteomic and metabolic profiles of Beta vulgaris root tips in response to iron deficiency and resupply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez-Fernández Ana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants grown under iron deficiency show different morphological, biochemical and physiological changes. These changes include, among others, the elicitation of different strategies to improve the acquisition of Fe from the rhizosphere, the adjustment of Fe homeostasis processes and a reorganization of carbohydrate metabolism. The application of modern techniques that allow the simultaneous and untargeted analysis of multiple proteins and metabolites can provide insight into multiple processes taking place in plants under Fe deficiency. The objective of this study was to characterize the changes induced in the root tip proteome and metabolome of sugar beet plants in response to Fe deficiency and resupply. Results Root tip extract proteome maps were obtained by 2-D isoelectric focusing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and approximately 140 spots were detected. Iron deficiency resulted in changes in the relative amounts of 61 polypeptides, and 22 of them were identified by mass spectrometry (MS. Metabolites in root tip extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-MS, and more than 300 metabolites were resolved. Out of 77 identified metabolites, 26 changed significantly with Fe deficiency. Iron deficiency induced increases in the relative amounts of proteins and metabolites associated to glycolysis, tri-carboxylic acid cycle and anaerobic respiration, confirming previous studies. Furthermore, a protein not present in Fe-sufficient roots, dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine (DMRL synthase, was present in high amounts in root tips from Fe-deficient sugar beet plants and gene transcript levels were higher in Fe-deficient root tips. Also, a marked increase in the relative amounts of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs was observed in Fe-deficient plants, and a further increase in these compounds occurred upon short term Fe resupply. Conclusions The increases in DMRL synthase and in RFO sugars were the major changes induced by Fe

  1. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  2. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet = Epidemiologie van rhizomanie bij suikerbiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the

  3. The most important pathogens transmitted by sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic fungi and viruses transmitted by sugar beet seed represent a complex group of organisms. Detection of these pathogens is an important issue in sugar beet protection. Their identification is a difficult task because the most available methods rely on the growth characteristics morphological and biochemical criteria. Three domestic and eight foreign sugar beet varieties, from Germany, Italy and Greece were included in the investigation. Seed health testing was performed in laboratory and in field conditions. During the trials, the following methods were used: blotter method, agar plate method and ELISA test for viruses. Seeds were incubated in "Conviron" aparatus at 22°C which is suitable for sporulation of different kind of fungi (light and temperature were adjustable. The appereance of following fungi was noted during incubation: Pleospora bjoerlingii (Phoma betae, Fusarium spp., Pythium spp. Aphanomyces cochlioides and Cercospora beticola. Viruses tested by ELISA test were beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV and beet yellows virus (BYV. Viruses were tested in sugar beet seedlings grown in laboratory conditions and on leaves of individual plants from the field. The disease index was calculated on the basis of intensity of infection of plants for Cercospora beticola and Phoma betae according to Mc Kinney's formula. Results were presented by graphs, tables and original photos.

  4. Chemical Composition and Biological Studies of the Essential Oil from Aerial Parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. Growing in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardi-Bergaoui, Afifa; Ben Nejma, Aymen; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia; Flamini, Guido; Ascrizzi, Roberta; Ben Jannet, Hichem

    2017-10-01

    The chemical composition, antioxidant, cytotoxic, anticholinesterase and anti-tyrosinase activities of the hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of Beta vulgaris subsp. maritime (L.) Arcang. from Tunisia have been evaluated. The chemical composition of the oil (yield 0.037% [w/w]), determined by GC-FID and GC/MS is reported for the first time. Twenty five components, accounting for 98.1% of the total oil have been identified. The oil was characterized by a high proportion of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (39.2%), followed by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (30.3%) and one apocarotenoids (26.3%). The main compounds were γ-irone (26.3%), α-cadinol (12.1%), T-cadinol (10.6%), bicyclogermacrene (10.4%) and δ-cadinene (6.0%). The isolated oil was tested for its antioxidant activity using the DPPH · , ABTS +· , catalase, and paraoxonase assays and also for its cytotoxic, anticholinesterase, and anti-tyrosinase activities. The essential oil exhibited high antioxidant activity (IC 50  = 0.055 ± 0.006 mg/ml) and important result oncatalase (524.447 ± 2.58 Units/mg protein). Furthermore, it exerted a significant cytotoxic effect against A549 cell line, with IC 50  = 42.44 ± 1.40 μg/ml. The results indicate that the essential oil of B. vulgaris subsp. maritima (L.) Arcang. aerial parts may be used in future as an alternative to synthetic antioxidant agents, with potential application in the food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  5. Further characterization of the red beet plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase using GTP as an alternative substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.E.; Schueler, S.B.; Briskin, D.P.

    1990-01-01

    The GTP-driven component of Ca 2+ uptake in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plasma membrane vesicles was further characterized to confirm its association with the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -translocating ATPase and assess its utility as a probe for this transport system. Uptake of 45 Ca 2+ in the presence of GTP demonstrated similar properties to those previously observed for red beet plasma membrane vesicles utilizing ATP with respect to pH optimum sensitivity to orthovanadate, dependence on Mg:substrate concentration and dependence on Ca 2+ concentration. Calcium uptake in the presence of GTP was also strongly inhibited by erythrosin B, a potent inhibitor of the plant plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase. Furthermore, after treatment with EGTA to remove endogenous calmodulin, the stimulation of 45 Ca 2+ -uptake by exogeneous calmodulin was nearly equivalent in the presence of either ATP or GTP. Taken together these results support the proposal that GTP-driven 45 Ca 2+ uptake represents the capacity of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -translocating ATPase to utilize this nucleoside triphosphate as an alternative substrate. When plasma membrane vesicles were phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]GTP, a rapidly turning over, 100 kilodalton phosphorylated peptide was observed which contained an acyl-phosphate linkage. While it is proposed that this peptide could represent the catalytic subunit of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase, it is noted that this molecular weight is considerably lower than the 140 kilodalton size generally observed for plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPases present in animal cells

  6. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Leufen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.. Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence imaging system. The analysis of chlorophyll content and osmotic potential served as reference. Based on our results, the fluorescence indices “Nitrogen Balance Index” and “Simple Fluorescence Ratio” responded quite sensitively to drought stress and mildew infection. Moreover, the blue-to-far-red fluorescence ratio revealed significant stress-induced alterations in the plant physiology. In all, fluorescence indices might be used as single or combined indices for successful stress sensing. However, a robust stress differentiation by using only one fluorescence ratio could not be accomplished.

  7. Ichthyosis vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common ichthyosis ... Ichthyosis vulgaris is one of the most common of the inherited skin disorders. It may begin in ... Ichthyosis vulgaris can be bothersome, but it rarely affects your overall health. The condition usually disappears during ...

  8. Pemphigus vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000882.htm Pemphigus vulgaris To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an autoimmune disorder of the ...

  9. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Beta vulgaris L., root yield, sugar yield, regression. RÉSUMÉ Le sucre est extrait des racines de la betterave (Beta vulgaris L.) en plus d'autres sources. Trois paramètres économiques importants sont souvent considérés notamment le rendement en racines, la concentration en sucre et le rendement en sucre.

  10. Cloning and functional analyses of a gene from sugar beet up-regulated upon cyst nematode infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samuelian, S.; Kleine, M.; Spira, C.P.; Klein Lankhorst, R.M.; Jung, C.

    2004-01-01

    The cDNA-AFLP technique was used to isolate sugar beet genes up-regulated upon infection with the beet cyst nematode Heterodera schachtii. Hairy root cultures were obtained from resistant plants carrying a Beta procumbens translocation as well as from a non-resistant control. mRNA was isolated from

  11. Saline irrigation and Zn amendment effect on Cd phytoavailability to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown on a long-term amended agricultural soil: a human risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez-González, J C; López-Chuken, U J; Guzmán-Mar, J L; Flores-Banda, F; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L

    2014-05-01

    Crops, particularly in the Northeast region of Mexico, have to cope with increasing soil salinization due to irrigation. Chloride (Cl(-)) concentration has been strongly related to enhance cadmium (Cd) uptake by plants due to increased solubility in the soil solution. The effect of irrigation with slightly saline water from a local well was evaluated in this work on the accumulation and translocation of Cd in Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in soil historically amended with stabilized sewage sludge under a regime of phosphorus and zinc fertilization. A factorial pot experiment was conducted with two phosphate fertilizer levels (PF, 0 and 80 kg ha(-1) dry soil, respectively), two Zn levels (0 and 7 kg ha(-1) dry soil), and two sources of water for irrigation deionized water (DW) and slightly saline well water (WW) from an agricultural site. Additionally, a human risk assessment for Cd ingestion from plants was assessed. Results showed that Cl(-) salinity in the WW effectively mobilized soil Cd and increased its phytoavailability. A higher level of Cd was found in roots (46.41 mg kg(-1)) compared to shoots (10.75 mg kg(-1)). Although the total content of Cd in the edible parts of the Swiss chard irrigated with WW exceeded permissible recommended consumption limit, bioavailable cadmium in the aboveground parts of the plant in relation to the total cadmium content was in the range from 8 to 32 %. Therefore, human health risks might be overestimated when the total concentration is taken into account.

  12. Pasinler İlçesi (Erzurum’nde Şeker Pancarı (Beta vulgaris Bitkilerinden İzole Edilen Fusarium spp. ve Patojeniteleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk KARYAĞDI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Pasinler ilçesi (Erzurum’nde şeker pancarı (Beta vulgaris L. bitkilerinden izole edilen Fusarium türlerini ve patojenitelerini belirlemek amacıyla 2009 yılında yürütülmüştür. Şeker pancarı bitkisinden yapılan izolasyon çalışmaları sonucunda 194 Fusarium izolatı elde edilmiştir. Çalışmada elde edilen izolatların %37,63’ü F. equiseti, %31,44’ü F. oxysporum, %13,92’i F. acuminatum, %10,82’si F. solani, %4,12’si F. heterosporum, %1,55’i F. avenaceum ve %0,52’si F. graminearum olarak saptanmıştır. Yapılan patojenite testlerinde F. acuminatum (P2-8A1, F. equiseti (P1-6, F. heterosporum (P10-30, F. oxysporum (P8-24, P9-36 ve F. solani (P8-2 izolatları en yüksek hastalık şiddeti oluşturmuştur. F. acuminatum ve F. graminearum için şeker pancarı bitkisi, Türkiye’de yeni konukçu kaydı olarak belirlenmiştir.

  13. Cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) extract compared to doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in the human prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapadia, Govind J; Azuine, Magnus A; Rao, G Subba; Arai, Takanari; Iida, Akira; Tokuda, Harukuni

    2011-03-01

    Previous cancer chemoprevention studies from our laboratories and by other investigators have demonstrated that the extract of red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.), the FDA approved red food color E162, can be effective in suppressing the development of multi-organ tumors in experimental animals. To further explore this finding, we have compared the cytotoxic effect of the red beetroot extract with anticancer drug, doxorubicin (adriamycin) in the androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) and in the well-established estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). This red colored anticancer antibiotic was selected for comparative cytotoxic study because its chemical structure with a planar configuration of an aromatic chromophore attached to a sugar molecule is remarkably similar to that of betanin, the beetroot extract constituent primarily responsible for its red color. Both doxorubicin and the beetroot extract exhibited a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect in the two cancer cell lines tested. Although the cytotoxicity of the beetroot extract was significantly lower when compared to doxorubicin, it continued to decrease the growth rate of the PC-3 cells (3.7% in 3 days vs. 12.5% in 7 days) when tested at the concentration of 29 µg/ml. In contrast, doxorubicin, at the same concentration level, completely inhibited the growth of the PC-3 cells in three days. Similarly, comparative studies in the normal human skin FC and liver HC cell lines showed that the beetroot extract had significantly lower cytotoxic effect than doxorubicin (8.6% vs. 100%, respectively, at 29 µg/ml concentration of each, three-day test period). The results suggest that betanin, the major betacyanin constituent, may play an important role in the cytotoxicity exhibited by the red beetroot extract. Further studies are needed to evaluate the chemopreventive potentials of the beetroot extract when used alone or in combination with doxorubicin to mitigate the toxic side

  14. Influence of the tannic and gallic acids on stability of betacyanins from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. crude extract. INFLUÊNCIA DOS ÁCIDOS TÂNICO E GÁLICO NA ESTABILIDADE DE BETACIANINAS DO EXTRATO BRUTO DE BETERRABA VERMELHA (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. DRUNKLER

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of e natural colorants in the food industry is limited because to its low stability under preparation, processing and storage conditions. Techniques for natural colorant’s stabilization, such as copigmentation, have been used frequently in scientific researches. The betacyanins that belong to the groups of the betalain presents in the red beetroot and are used as colorant in food. Tannic and gallic acids were used in this study as a copigment of betacyanin crude extract from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.. Betacyanin stability was investigated with and without tannic and gallic acid under different storage conditions in 70% ethanol extract: concentrations of 0.925g/100mL and 0.462g/100mL, pH values 5.00±0.05 and 6.80±0.05 at temperature of 25±1ºC, in the dark and in the presence of oxygen. Results revealed that pH and tannic and gallic acid addition (p<0.05 increased significantly the betacyanins half-life time. The tannic and gallic acids provided significant increase in stability of the betacyanins pigments at both concentrations evaluated, at pH value of 5.00 ± 0.05, tannic acid being more effective.

    O uso dos corantes naturais na indústria alimentícia é limitado em função de sua baixa estabilidade frente às condições de preparação, processamento e estocagem. Técnicas de estabilização de corantes naturais, tais como a copigmentação, vem encontrando destaque em pesquisas científicas. As betacianinas (coloração vermelha violeta, pertencentes ao grupo de pigmentos naturais denominados betalaínas, são as que predominam na beterraba vermelha (Beta vulgaris L., sendo utilizadas como corante em alimentos. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a estabilidade de betacianinas em extrato de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L. etanólico a 70% adicionadas dos ácidos orgânicos tânico e gálico, nas

  15. The impact of no-tillage cultivation and white mustard as a cover crop on weed infestation and yield of carrot and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borowy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In a two-year field experiment, no-tillage cultivation using white mustard (Sinapis alba L. ‘Bardena’, 30 kg ha−1, as a cover crop did not influence emergence of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ‘Czerwona Kula REW’ and had a favorable effect on emergence of carrot (Daucus carota L. ‘Berlikumer 2 – Perfekcja REW’. However, further growth of both vegetables was significantly slower under no-tillage cultivation. Both vegetables produced a higher yield of roots and the diameter of these roots was bigger under conventional cultivation. The effect of cultivation method on the content of total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in carrot and red beet leaves varied, while the content of dry matter, monosaccharides and total sugars was significantly higher in the roots of both vegetables harvested under no-tillage cultivation. The number of weeds growing on no-tilled plots covered with mustard mulch 4 weeks after seed sowing was lower by about 75%, but their fresh weight was higher more than 6 times in comparison to that under conventional cultivation. This was caused by the emergence of wintering and winter hardy weeds in places not covered by mustard plants in the autumn of the year preceding the cultivation of vegetables. Next year, they started to grow in the early spring and some of them produced a considerable amount of fresh weight and attained the flowering stage in the middle of April.

  16. Isolation and characterization of protoplasts and vacuoles from sugar beet leaf mesophyll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinina, I.M.; Kudryavtseva, L.F.; Burakhanova, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper describes methods for isolation of protoplasts and vacuoles from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaf mesophyll. Protoplasts were isolated by the enzymatic method in two stages. The yield of protoplasts in the crude suspension attained 3-10 units from 1g of fresh tissue mass. Two methods of purifying the crude protoplast suspension are compared in the paper, the indicated methods employing gradients of Percoll (method 1) and Ficoll (method 2). The final yield comprised 4.5-9.0-10.5 protoplasts from 1g of fresh tissue mass after purification method 1 and 6.0-10.5-1.2-10 protoplasts after method 2. The photosynthesis rate in such protoplasts under optimal conditions comprised 75-100 μmoles of CO 2 h per mg of chlorophyll as compared with 100-130 μmoles in leaf blade disks. The two methods were used to obtain vacuoles, method 1 involving osmotic lysis of protoplasts (the yield constituting 6-15% of vacuoles of the protoplasts taken) and method 2 consisting of ultracentrifugation in a Ficoll gradient (giving a yield of 25-45%). As was monitored microscopically and from the absence of activity of extravacuolar enzymes (NADH-cytochrome-c reductase and cytochrome-c oxidase), vacuoles free of foreign impurities were obtained in both cases. The time needed to obtain protoplasts from leaf tissue comprised 2-3 h, whereas 1.5-2 h was needed to obtain vacuoles from protoplasts

  17. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M. Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person −1 day −1 ) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person −1 day −1

  18. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  19. Coupling Spore Traps and Quantitative PCR Assays for Detection of the Downy Mildew Pathogens of Spinach (Peronospora effusa) and Beet (P. schachtii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Anchieta, Amy; McRoberts, Neil; Koike, Steven T.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Voglmayr, Hermann; Choi, Young-Joon; Thines, Marco; Martin, Frank N.

    2016-01-01

    Downy mildew of spinach (Spinacia oleracea), caused by Peronospora effusa, is a production constraint on production worldwide, including in California, where the majority of U.S. spinach is grown. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for detection of airborne inoculum of P. effusa in California. Among oomycete ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences examined for assay development, the highest nucleotide sequence identity was observed between rDNA sequences of P. effusa and P. schachtii, the cause of downy mildew on sugar beet and Swiss chard in the leaf beet group (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were detected between P. effusa and P. schachtii in the 18S rDNA regions for design of P. effusa- and P. schachtii-specific TaqMan probes and reverse primers. An allele-specific probe and primer amplification method was applied to determine the frequency of both P. effusa and P. schachtii rDNA target sequences in pooled DNA samples, enabling quantification of rDNA of P. effusa from impaction spore trap samples collected from spinach production fields. The rDNA copy numbers of P. effusa were, on average, ≈3,300-fold higher from trap samples collected near an infected field compared with those levels recorded at a site without a nearby spinach field. In combination with disease-conducive weather forecasting, application of the assays may be helpful to time fungicide applications for disease management. PMID:24964150

  20. A horizontally transferred tRNA(Cys) gene in the sugar beet mitochondrial genome: evidence that the gene is present in diverse angiosperms and its transcript is aminoacylated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitazaki, Kazuyoshi; Kubo, Tomohiko; Kagami, Hiroyo; Matsumoto, Takuma; Fujita, Asami; Matsuhira, Hiroaki; Matsunaga, Muneyuki; Mikami, Tetsuo

    2011-10-01

    Of the two tRNA(Cys) (GCA) genes, trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA, previously identified in mitochondrial genome of sugar beet, the former is a native gene and probably a pseudo-copy, whereas the latter, of unknown origin, is transcribed into a tRNA [tRNA(Cys2) (GCA)]. In this study, the trnC2-GCA sequence was mined from various public databases. To evaluate whether or not the trnC2-GCA sequence is located in the mitochondrial genome, the relative copy number of its sequence to nuclear gene was assessed in a number of angiosperm species, using a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The trnC2-GCA sequence was found to exist sporadically in the mitochondrial genomes of a wide range of angiosperms. The mitochondrial tRNA(Cys2) (GCA) species from sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), spinach (Spinacea oleracea) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were found to be aminoacylated, indicating that they may participate in translation. We also identified a sugar beet nuclear gene that encodes cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, which is dual-targeted to mitochondria and plastids, and may aminoacylate tRNA(Cys2) (GCA). What is of particular interest is that trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA co-exist in the mitochondrial genomes of eight diverse angiosperms, including spinach, and that the spinach tRNA(Cys1) (GCA) is also aminoacylated. Taken together, our observations lead us to surmise that trnC2-GCA may have been horizontally transferred to a common ancestor of eudicots, followed by co-existence and dual expression of trnC1-GCA and trnC2-GCA in mitochondria with occasional loss or inactivation of either trnC-GCA gene during evolution. © 2011 The Authors. The Plant Journal © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Input Quality in the Sugar Beet Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Boland, Michael A.; Marsh, Thomas L.

    2006-01-01

    Using 23 years of data (1978-2000), this study examines seven vertically integrated sugar beet plants representing three different companies in the United States. The objective of this research is to identify the marginal costs of producing sugar beets for vertically integrated sugar beet processors as a way of determining the cost savings from higher quality sugar beets. In doing so, we account for quality differences in the sugar beet input that are used to manufacture the refined sugar out...

  2. Gamma rays as an effective tool for removing undesirable color without adverse changes in biological activities of red beet extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, In Chul; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy root were used to investigate the removal of color and improvement of biological activity for enhanced industrial applications. The extracts were exposed to gamma rays ranging from 2.5 to 30 kGy. The red beet hairy root is composed of two major red-colorants, betanin and isobetanin. Gamma ray radiation at 5 kGy remarkably reduced the levels of the major colorants by 94% and the reddish color was eliminated by doses greater than 10 kGy. Color removal was likely due to the gamma ray radiolysis of ethanol. Although details on the mechanism responsible for the decay of the chromophore have not been entirely determined, our results suggest that the free radicals that are produced during this process are capable of destroying the chromophore group in isobetanin, thus bleaching the substrate solution. In spite of the degradation of the major colorants, the biological activities of constituents of the extract such as DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition were negligibly affected by the gamma ray radiation up to 20 kGy. The antioxidant activity was 92.7% in control samples and 90.0-92.0% in irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy), and a slight decrease to 87.5% was observed for gamma ray radiation at 30 kGy. In addition, tyrosinase inhibition activity has also the same pattern; the activity is slightly increased from 50.7% of control to 49.1-52.8% of irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy) with a 46.8% at 30 kGy.

  3. Chemotaxonomy of iridoids in Linaria vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiso, Marcella; Tassone, Grazia; Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2007-11-01

    The phytochemical analysis of the extracts of Linaria vulgaris, has allowed to underline an iridoidic pattern similar to that of the other Linaria plants, with the presence of antirrinoside, antirride, 6-beta-idrossiantirride, 10-beta-glucosilaucubina and a new iridoidic compound, whose structure was demonstrated to be that of 4-carboxy-boonein.

  4. Study of epithelial differentiation and protein expression of keratinocyte-mesenchyme stem cell co-cultivation on electrospun nylon/B. vulgaris extract composite scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Soleimani, Masoud; Vossoughi, Manuchehr; Ranjbarvan, Parviz; Hamedi, Shokoh; Zamanlui, Soheila; Mahmoudifard, Matin

    2017-06-01

    Employing of the composite electrospun scaffold containing herbal extract in conjugation with co-culturing of cells can open up new window to the design of efficient biomaterials for skin tissue regeneration. Here, we introduce the synergistic effect of composite electrospun nanofibrous scaffold of nylon66 loaded with Beta vulgaris (B. vulgaris) (extract of beet roots, a plants whose widely used in Iranian folk medicine as wound healing medicine) and co-culture of mesenchymal stem-cells (MSCs)-human keratinocyte (H-keratino) differentiation towards epithelial lineage. In vitro biocompatibility was examined through MTT assay and epithelial differentiation checked by real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry (ICC) assay after co-culturing of MSCs and H-keratino on proposed scaffold. Significant enhancement in cell proliferation was detected after cell culturing on the composite type of electrospun scaffold containing B. vulgaris. Moreover, after 14days of co-culturing process, gene expression results revealed that both composite and non-composite nylon66 electrospun scaffold promote epithelial differentiation compared to mono-cell culturing of H-keratino in terms of several markers as Cytokeratin 10, Cytokeratin 14 and Involucrin and ICC of some dermal proteins like Cytokeratin 14 and Loricrin. To the best of our knowledge, findings of this study will introduce new way for the generation of novel biomaterials for the development of current skin tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  6. Pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Tamgadge

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic autoimmune mucocutaneous disease that initially manifests in the form of intraoral lesions, which spread to other mucous membranes and the skin. The etiology of pemphigus vulgaris is still unknown, although the disease has attracted considerable interest. The pemphigus group of disease is characterized by the production of autoantibodies against intercellular substances and is thus classified as autoimmune diseases. Most patients are initially misdiagnosed and improperly treated for months or even years. Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early diagnosis and treatment, since this in turn determines the prognosis and course of the disease. This article presents a case report with unknown etiology along with an overview of the disease.

  7. 29 CFR 780.815 - Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sugar beets, sugar-beet molasses, sugarcane, or maple sap. 780.815 Section 780.815 Labor Regulations... Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup... Quantities § 780.815 Basic conditions of exemption; second part, processing of sugar beets, sugar-beet...

  8. Genome analysis of the sugar beet pathogen Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2IIIB revealed high numbers in secreted proteins and cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberg, Daniel; Andersson, Louise; Tzelepis, Georgios; Rupp, Oliver; Blom, Jochen; Jelonek, Lukas; Pühler, Alfred; Fogelqvist, Johan; Varrelmann, Mark; Schlüter, Andreas; Dixelius, Christina

    2016-03-17

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) is a crop cultivated for its high content in sugar, but it is vulnerable to many soil-borne pathogens. One of them is the basidiomycete Rhizoctonia solani. This fungal species has a compatibility system regulating hyphal fusions (anastomosis). Consequently, R. solani species are categorized in anastomosis groups (AGs). AG2-2IIIB isolates are most aggressive on sugar beet. In the present study, we report on the draft genome of R. solani AG2-2IIIB using the Illumina technology. Genome analysis, interpretation and comparative genomics of five sequenced R. solani isolates were carried out. The draft genome of R. solani AG2-2IIIB has an estimated size of 56.02 Mb. In addition, two normalized EST libraries were sequenced. In total 20,790 of 21,980 AG2-2IIIB isotigs (transcript isoforms) were mapped on the genome with more than 95 % sequence identity. The genome of R. solani AG2-2IIIB was predicted to harbor 11,897 genes and 4908 were found to be isolate-specific. R. solani AG2-2IIIB was predicted to contain 1142 putatively secreted proteins and 473 of them were found to be unique for this isolate. The R. solani AG2-2IIIB genome encodes a high number of carbohydrate active enzymes. The highest numbers were observed for the polysaccharide lyases family 1 (PL-1), glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH-43) and carbohydrate estarase family 12 (CE-12). Transcription analysis of selected genes representing different enzyme clades revealed a mixed pattern of up- and down-regulation six days after infection on sugar beets featuring variable levels of resistance compared to mycelia of the fungus grown in vitro. The established R. solani AG2-2IIIB genome and EST sequences provide important information on the gene content, gene structure and transcriptional activity for this sugar beet pathogen. The enriched genomic platform provides an important platform to enhance our understanding of R. solani biology.

  9. The CHH motif in sugar beet satellite DNA: a modulator for cytosine methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Falk; Schubert, Veit; Viehoever, Prisca; Minoche, André E; Dohm, Juliane C; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Weisshaar, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Methylation of DNA is important for the epigenetic silencing of repetitive DNA in plant genomes. Knowledge about the cytosine methylation status of satellite DNAs, a major class of repetitive DNA, is scarce. One reason for this is that arrays of tandemly arranged sequences are usually collapsed in next-generation sequencing assemblies. We applied strategies to overcome this limitation and quantified the level of cytosine methylation and its pattern in three satellite families of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) which differ in their abundance, chromosomal localization and monomer size. We visualized methylation levels along pachytene chromosomes with respect to small satellite loci at maximum resolution using chromosome-wide fluorescent in situ hybridization complemented with immunostaining and super-resolution microscopy. Only reduced methylation of many satellite arrays was obtained. To investigate methylation at the nucleotide level we performed bisulfite sequencing of 1569 satellite sequences. We found that the level of methylation of cytosine strongly depends on the sequence context: cytosines in the CHH motif show lower methylation (44-52%), while CG and CHG motifs are more strongly methylated. This affects the overall methylation of satellite sequences because CHH occurs frequently while CG and CHG are rare or even absent in the satellite arrays investigated. Evidently, CHH is the major target for modulation of the cytosine methylation level of adjacent monomers within individual arrays and contributes to their epigenetic function. This strongly indicates that asymmetric cytosine methylation plays a role in the epigenetic modification of satellite repeats in plant genomes. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tagging of resistance gene(s) to rhizomania disease in sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... plasmodiophoride-like fungus, Polymyxa betae Keskin. (1964) (Tamada and Richard, 1992). Source of resistance to rhizomania were found in Holly sugar beet company source (Lewellen, 1987). Resistance in Holly is simply inherited by a single dominant gene(Rz1). (Lewellen et al., 1987; Scholten et al., ...

  11. 7 CFR 1435.304 - Beet and cane sugar allotments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beet and cane sugar allotments. 1435.304 Section 1435... For Sugar § 1435.304 Beet and cane sugar allotments. (a) The allotment for beet sugar will be 54.35... overall allotment quantity. (c) A sugar beet processor allocated a share of the beet sugar allotment may...

  12. Changes in iron and organic acid concentrations in xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of iron-deficient Beta vulgaris plants in response to iron resupply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi, Ajmi; Morales, Fermín; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of Fe resupply on the composition of the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid of Fe-deficient sugar beet plants were investigated. Experiments were carried out in growth chambers with plants grown in hydroponics, and Fe resupply to Fe-deficient plants was carried out by adding 45muM Fe(III)-EDTA to the nutrient solution. In the short term (within 24h), Fe resupply caused marked changes in the xylem sap and apoplastic fluid composition and in leaf physiological parameters when de novo chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis was still beginning. Major changes included: (i) 10- and 5-fold increases in Fe concentrations in apoplastic fluid and xylem sap, respectively; (ii) marked decreases in the concentrations of organic acids in apoplastic fluid, but not in xylem sap and (iii) large decreases in the citrate/Fe ratios, both in apoplastic fluid and in xylem sap. Two to four days after Fe resupply, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid Fe and organic acid concentrations and pH reached values similar to those obtained in Fe-sufficient leaves. Leaf mesophyll ferric chelate-reductase (FC-R) activities and photosynthetic rates increased gradually during recovery from Fe deficiency. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Ichthyosis vulgaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Godoy-Gijon, E; Elias, P M

    2013-01-01

    -deficient skin, and epidemiological studies have found higher levels of hand eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, nickel sensitization and serum vitamin D levels. When relevant, individuals should be informed about an increased risk of developing dermatitis when repeatedly or continuously exposed to nickel...... or irritants. Moreover, with our current knowledge, individuals with ichthyosis vulgaris should be protected against neonatal exposure to cats to prevent atopic dermatitis and should abstain from smoking to prevent asthma. Finally, they should be advised against excessive exposure to factors that decrease skin...

  14. The use of the short-lived radioisotopes 11C and 13N to study nitrogen uptake and photosynthate translocation in fodder beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, G.S.; Minchin, P.E.H.

    1983-01-01

    Following discussions at the Nitrogen Balance Workshop held at Massey University, May 1980, on the use of the 10 min half-life isotope nitrogen-13, it was decided to carry out collaborative experiments with Dr K.M. Goh from Lincoln College. These were concerned with the mechanism of the effect of sodium chloride on the uptake of nitrate and ammonium ions by beet (Beta vulgaris L) plants. In this report we firstly summarize briefly some of the relevant literature then report on the experiments carried out to November 1982. The initial experiments used nitrogen-13 to investigate, with hydroponically grown plants, the effect of sodium chloride on the uptake by roots, and the transport to leaves, of nitrogen-13 applied to the roots as nitrate or as ammonium ions. After failing to find any response to NaCl in these experiments, it was decided to determine whether there was any effect of NaC1 on the transport of carbon-11 labelled photosynthates from the leaves. Production of this preliminary report is a first step to assessing the next phase, if any of this investigation

  15. Cambios en las propiedades de suelo de huerta y rendimiento de Beta Vulgaris var. Cicla (l por el uso de enmiendas orgánicas Changes in horticultural soil properties and yield responses of Beta Vulgaris var. Cicla (l to organic amendment applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina V Comese

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa sustentable para los residuos generados en la agricultura es su utilización como enmiendas en la producción hortícola. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de distintos tipos y cantidades de enmiendas orgánicas de compost-lombricompuesto (LC y harina de hueso (HH en la producción de acelga y su impacto en las propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo. El trabajo se realizó en la huerta orgánica urbana de la Facultad de Agronomía UBA (FAUBA, en un suelo Argiudol típico. Del suelo fueron analizadas: carbono orgánico (CO, carbono orgánico particulado (COP, densidad aparente (DA, fósforo extractable (Pe, pH, conductividad eléctrica (CE, capacidad de intercambio catiónico (CIC. En el cultivo se determinó: rendimiento de materia seca (MS y nutrientes en materia seca (N-P-K mg kg MS-1. Los resultados indicaron diferencias en algunas variables edáficas, rendimiento del cultivo y contenido de nutrientes absorbidos en materia seca vegetal. En el suelo, el COP, la CIC, el Pe y la CE aumentaron con los tratamientos de LC y LC HH. La combinación de lombricompuesto y harina de hueso, ambos en doble dosis, resultó ser la mejor enmienda para el mantenimiento de las propiedades del suelo y productividad del cultivo de acelga.A sustainable approach to dealing with waste generated in agriculture is its application in horticultural production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying different types and quantities of organic amendments, compostvermicompost (LC and bone meal (HH, in the production of beet and its impact on soil physical and chemical properties. The experiment was conducted in the urban organic vegetable garden at the Facultad de Agronomía-UBA (FAUBA in a Typical Argiudoll. Soil organic carbon (CO, particulate organic carbon (COP, bulk density (DA, extractable phosphorus (Pe, pH, electrical conductivity (EC and cation exchange capacity (CEC were evaluated. Dry

  16. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative light scattering

  17. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  18. Postharvest Rhizopus rot on sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizopus species have been reported as a minor post-harvest rot on sugar beet, particularly under temperatures above 5 deg C. In 2010, Rhizopus was isolated from beets collected from Michigan storage piles in February at a low frequency. However, recent evidence from Michigan has found a high incide...

  19. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sanette

    2012-07-05

    Jul 5, 2012 ... South Africa has been limited by the large production of sugarcane in tropical areas. Recent trials in the ... It was concluded from the results of this research that bioethanol can be produced economically from tropical sugar beet .... sugar beet molasses as well as the effect of initial sugar concentration ...

  20. Acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Tuchayi, Sara; Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Ganceviciene, Ruta; Dessinioti, Clio; Feldman, Steven R; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2015-09-17

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease - rather than a natural part of the life cycle as colloquially viewed - of the pilosebaceous unit (comprising the hair follicle, hair shaft and sebaceous gland) and is among the most common dermatological conditions worldwide. Some of the key mechanisms involved in the development of acne include disturbed sebaceous gland activity associated with hyperseborrhoea (that is, increased sebum production) and alterations in sebum fatty acid composition, dysregulation of the hormone microenvironment, interaction with neuropeptides, follicular hyperkeratinization, induction of inflammation and dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immunity. Grading of acne involves lesion counting and photographic methods. However, there is a lack of consensus on the exact grading criteria, which hampers the conduction and comparison of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating treatments. Prevention of acne relies on the successful management of modifiable risk factors, such as underlying systemic diseases and lifestyle factors. Several treatments are available, but guidelines suffer from a lack of data to make evidence-based recommendations. In addition, the complex combination treatment regimens required to target different aspects of acne pathophysiology lead to poor adherence, which undermines treatment success. Acne commonly causes scarring and reduces the quality of life of patients. New treatment options with a shift towards targeting the early processes involved in acne development instead of suppressing the effects of end products will enhance our ability to improve the outcomes for patients with acne.

  1. Disease detection in sugar beet fields: a multi-temporal and multi-sensoral approach on different scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlein, Anne-Katrin; Hillnhütter, Christian; Mewes, Thorsten; Scholz, Christine; Steiner, Ulrike; Dehne, Heinz-Willhelm; Oerke, Erich-Christian

    2009-09-01

    Depending on environmental factors fungal diseases of crops are often distributed heterogeneously in fields. Precision agriculture in plant protection implies a targeted fungicide application adjusted these field heterogeneities. Therefore an understanding of the spatial and temporal occurrence of pathogens is elementary. As shown in previous studies, remote sensing techniques can be used to detect and observe spectral anomalies in the field. In 2008, a sugar beet field site was observed at different growth stages of the crop using different remote sensing techniques. The experimental field site consisted of two treatments. One plot was sprayed with a fungicide to avoid fungal infections. In order to obtain sugar beet plants infected with foliar diseases the other plot was not sprayed. Remote sensing data were acquired from the high-resolution airborne hyperspectral imaging ROSIS in July 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 39 and from the HyMap sensor systems in August 2008 at sugar beet growth stage 45, respectively. Additionally hyperspectral signatures of diseased and non-diseased sugar beet plants were measured with a non-imaging hand held spectroradiometer at growth stage 49 in September. Ground truth data, in particular disease severity were collected at 50 sampling points in the field. Changes of reflection rates were related to disease severity increasing with time. Erysiphe betae causing powdery mildew was the most frequent leaf pathogen. A classification of healthy and diseased sugar beets in the field was possible by using hyperspectral vegetation indices calculated from canopy reflectance.

  2. Detection of beet soil-borne virus and beet virus Q in sugarbeet in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Prins, M.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Sugar beet plants with typical rhizomania symptoms were collected from the five major cultivation zones of Greece. The presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the primary causal agent of the disease, was ascertained by DAS-ELISA in 38 out of 40 fields surveyed and the positive samples

  3. Effect of benzyladenine and hydroxybenzyladenosine on gas exchange of bean and sugar beet leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Rulcová, J.; Vomáčka, L.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2001), s. 523-528 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/0534 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Beta vulgaris * cytokinins * net photosynthetic rate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2001

  4. Rehydration of Sugar Beet Plants after Water Stress: Effect of Cytokinins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vomáčka, L.; Pospíšilová, Jana

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2003), s. 57-62 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/0534; GA ČR GA522/02/1099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : benzyladenine * Beta vulgaris * chlorophyll Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.919, year: 2003

  5. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  6. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  7. Pollen dispersal in sugar beet production fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmency, Henri; Klein, Etienne K; De Garanbé, Thierry Gestat; Gouyon, Pierre-Henri; Richard-Molard, Marc; Muchembled, Claude

    2009-04-01

    Pollen-mediated gene flow has important implications for biodiversity conservation and for breeders and farmers' activities. In sugar beet production fields, a few sugar beet bolters can produce pollen as well as be fertilized by wild and weed beet. Since the crop, the wild beets, and the weed beets are the same species and intercross freely, the question of pollen flow is an important issue to determine the potential dispersal of transgenes from field to field and to wild habitats. We report here an experiment to describe pollen dispersal from a small herbicide-resistant sugar beet source towards male sterile target plants located along radiating lines up to 1,200 m away. Individual dispersal functions were inferred from statistical analyses and compared. Pollen limitation, as expected in root-production fields, was confirmed at all the distances from the pollen source. The number of resistant seeds produced by bait plants best fitted a fat-tailed probability distribution curve of pollen grains (power-law) dependent on the distance from the pollen source. A literature survey confirmed that power-law function could fit in most cases. The b coefficient was lower than 2. The number of fertilized flowers by background (herbicide-susceptible) pollen grains was uniform across the whole field. Airborne pollen had a fertilization impact equivalent to that of one adjacent bolter. The individual dispersal function from different pollen sources can be integrated to provide the pollen cloud composition for a given target plant, thus allowing modeling of gene flow in a field, inter-fields in a small region, and also in seed-production area. Long-distance pollen flow is not negligible and could play an important role in rapid transgene dispersal from crop to wild and weed beets in the landscape. The removing of any bolting, herbicide-resistant sugar beet should be compulsory to prevent the occurrence of herbicide-resistant weed beet, thus preventing gene flow to wild

  8. Utilization of pectin extracted sugar beet pulp for composite application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) is the residue left after beet sugar extraction. SBP contains ~25% pectin and is an important source for pectin. However, sugar beet pectin does not have good gel-forming properties and complete extraction of pectin is not typically performed due to the low quality of the galac...

  9. 7 CFR 457.109 - Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. 457.109 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.109 Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions. The Sugar Beet Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years in countries with...

  10. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  11. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  12. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  13. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) in sugar beet

    OpenAIRE

    Nagl Nevena; Atanasov Ivan; Rusanov Krasimir; Paunović Svetlana; Kovačev Lazar; Atanasov Atanas

    2005-01-01

    Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on me...

  14. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  15. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  16. Multicentric lupus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandra S

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available A 60 year old female patient presented with disseminated tuberculosis. She had multicentric lupus vulgaris and her joints, bones, lymph nodes and lungs were also affected. Haematogenous dissemination was because of her poor health.

  17. BOLTING OF RED BEET: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Burenin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of study of the collection accessions of red beet with different level of bolting resistance are presented. Nature of inheritance of this trait in progeny, and also its connection with other biological and economically valuable characters and properties is shown. Bolting resistant accessions and possibility of its use in breeding are described. The promising initial material is selected and recommended. The most rational solution of the bolting problems in the beet is the development of resistant varieties and hybrids. For this purpose, the early-spring and under-winter planting are used, as well as the seed germination at low (30C temperatures. The availability of the various initial material studied by modern methods of researches plays a key role. When the collection accessions of beet were studied in the VIR Polar branch (The Murmansk Region, the following genotypes were identified: 1 – non bolting, 2 – weak bolting (less than 10% of bolting plants, 3 – moderately bolting (10-50%, and 4 – high bolting (more than 50% of bolting plants. As a result of screening of a gene pool, the genetic sources of bolting resistance of beet were identified. At its crossing with bolting accessions the dominance of the trait «bolting» and monogenic nature of its inheritance are confirmed. For the purpose of beet breeding for bolting resistance, the symphycarpous varieties characterized by complex biological and agronomic characters (increased yield, cold tolerance, quality of production and resistance to blackleg are the most usable. The cultivars Banko from Sweden (donor, Podzimnyaya A-0474 (VNIISSOK and Polyarnaya ploskaya-249 (Polar branch VIR are recommended as a genetic sources of bolting resistance.

  18. Genome-enabled predictions for binomial traits in sugar beet populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Broccanello, Chiara; Stella, Alessandra; Saccomani, Massimo

    2014-07-22

    Genomic information can be used to predict not only continuous but also categorical (e.g. binomial) traits. Several traits of interest in human medicine and agriculture present a discrete distribution of phenotypes (e.g. disease status). Root vigor in sugar beet (B. vulgaris) is an example of binomial trait of agronomic importance. In this paper, a panel of 192 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used to genotype 124 sugar beet individual plants from 18 lines, and to classify them as showing "high" or "low" root vigor. A threshold model was used to fit the relationship between binomial root vigor and SNP genotypes, through the matrix of genomic relationships between individuals in a genomic BLUP (G-BLUP) approach. From a 5-fold cross-validation scheme, 500 testing subsets were generated. The estimated average cross-validation error rate was 0.000731 (0.073%). Only 9 out of 12326 test observations (500 replicates for an average test set size of 24.65) were misclassified. The estimated prediction accuracy was quite high. Such accurate predictions may be related to the high estimated heritability for root vigor (0.783) and to the few genes with large effect underlying the trait. Despite the sparse SNP panel, there was sufficient within-scaffold LD where SNPs with large effect on root vigor were located to allow for genome-enabled predictions to work.

  19. 40 CFR 409.10 - Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SUGAR PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Beet Sugar Processing Subcategory § 409.10 Applicability; description of the beet sugar processing subcategory. The... processing of sugar beets for the production of sugar. ...

  20. Lupus vulgaris of external nose

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B. Usha

    2008-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  1. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  2. Effects of pre-treatments with abscisic acid and/or benzyladenine on gas exchange of French bean, sugar beet, and maize leaves during water stress and after rehydration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Baťková, P.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 3 (2004), s. 395-399 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/02/1099 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Beta vulgaris * net photosynthetic rate * Phaseolus vulgaris Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2004

  3. Meiose analyses of sugar beet triploids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mezei Snežana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During the seed crop growing there can be also problems with uncontrolled pollination if in the previous years there was seed shedding during the harvest, which can cause growth and flowering of diploid, triploid and tetraploid plants and that can present serious problem for the next sugar beet seed crop. Meiosis of triploid hybrids is irregular and can result in development of gametes with different chromosome number. Sugar beet triploids in metaphase I have 9 univalents and 9 bivalents and therefore can be source of aneuploid gametes. After cytological analysis that was performed on 2124 meiocytes, in 14.64% different types of irregularities were detected, such as dislocated chromosomes and chromosome bridges.

  4. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  5. PRODUCTION VALUES OF INVESTIGATED SUGAR BEET HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pospišil

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Production values of 43 experimental and recognized sugar beet hybrids were conducted on the Zagreb location in the period 2003-2005. The trials included hybrids from six breeding institutions that sell sugar beet seed in the Republic of Croatia. Research results have revealed significant differences in yields and root quality among inve- stigated sugar beet hybrids. However, the results of a large number of hybrids were equal in value; namely, the dif- ference between them was within the statistically allowable deviation. The hybrids KW 0148 HR and Buda in 2003, Sofarizo and Takt were distinguished by high sugar yields in 2004, whereas Merak, Impact and Europa in 2005. The highest root yields were recorded for hybrids Dioneta, Buda and KW 0148 HR in 2003, Sofarizo, Takt, HI 0191 and Dorotea in 2004, Impact and SES 2371 in 2005. The highest root sugar contents were determined in hybrids Zita and Evelina in 2003, Cyntia, Diamant and Belinda in 2004, and Merak, Belinda and Cyntia in 2005.

  6. Psoriasiform lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Rao, L Lakshmana; Ethirajan, N; Dhanlaklshmi, M

    2008-04-01

    Tuberculosis is a major public health problem in both developing and developed countries. Cutaneous Tuberculosis constitutes a minor proportion of extra-pulmonary manifestations of Tuberculosis. Lupus Vulgaris (LV) is one of the clinical variants of Cutaneous Tuberculosis. A case of a large plaque type psoriasiform lesion of lupus vulgaris on the thigh, of 15 years' duration, in an 18-year-old girl is reported. This case highlights the ignorance level among the patients and consequent failure to avail proper anti-tuberculous treatment despite campaign in print and audio visual media.

  7. Lupus vulgaris on keloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man presented with multicentric lupus vulgaris on keloids over chest, axilla, neck and back for last 6 months. He had pulmonary tuberculosis. All the laboratory investigations were in favour of clinical diagnosis. The patient responded to antituberculosis therapy.

  8. Acne vulgaris: endocriene aspecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekkers, O. M.; Thio, B. H.; Romijn, J. A.; Smit, J. W. A.

    2006-01-01

    Androgens play an important part in the development of acne vulgaris. Androgen levels in patients with acne are higher than those in controls and people with the androgen insensitivity syndrome do not develop acne. Local factors other than androgen plasma levels, also play a part in the development

  9. Sonography of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortsman, Ximena; Claveria, Pedro; Valenzuela, Fernando; Molina, Maria Teresa; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sonographic morphology of the clinical and subclinical pathology of facial acne vulgaris. We studied patients with facial acne vulgaris diagnosed by certified dermatologists, and using a standardized protocol for sonographic examinations, we sequentially described the sonographic pathomorphologic characteristics. Lesions of particular interest to the referring clinician were also analyzed separately. Additionally, acne involvement was staged clinically and sonographically (SOS-Acne) using morphologic definitions of the relevant lesions and predefined scoring systems for gradation of the severity of acne lesions. A total of 245 acne lesions in 20 consecutive patients were studied. Sonographic abnormalities consisted of pseudocysts, folliculitis, fistulas, and calcinosis. Most conditions were subclinical and mostly due to lesion extensions deep into the dermis and hypodermis (52% of pseudocysts and 68% of fistulas). The statistical concordance between acne severity scores assigned by two separate clinicians was strong (κ = 0.8020), but the corresponding sonographic scores generally showed more severe and clinically occult involvement. Facial acne vulgaris often involves deeper tissues, beyond the reach of the spatially restricted clinical examination; these subclinical conditions can be detected and defined with sonography. Additionally, acne vulgaris is amenable to sonographic scoring.

  10. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-10-04

    Oct 4, 2015 ... Mt Sinai J Med 2001;. 68(4-5):268–78. 17. Toth GG, Jonkman MF. Therapy of pemphigus. Clin Dermatol 2001;19(6):761–7. 18. Lever WF, Schaumburg-Lever G. Treatment of pemphigus vulgaris. Results obtained in 84 patients between 1961 and 1982. Arch. Dermatol 1984;120(1):44–7.

  11. Possible root infection of Cercospora betiicola in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    A potential primary infection site of the foliar pathogen Cercospora beticola in sugar beet is described. Sugar beet seedlings of the susceptible cv. Auris were grown in a standard soil for 14 days. A monoconidial culture of a C. beticola isolate was grown to produce conidia. In experiment 1, roots

  12. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  13. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet : the one Euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.; Tollens, E.

    2002-01-01

    The decision whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is one subject to flexibility, uncertainty and irreversibility. The case of herbicide tolerant sugar beet is analysed. Reassessed is whether the 1998 de facto moratorium of the EU on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a

  14. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Beet Molasses | Keshk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced from beet molasses was higher than that using glucose as a sole carbon source. The structure of BC produced in presence of beet molasses was studied using IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. IR spectra show the relative absorbance of CO- C ether linkage (at 1120 ...

  15. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  16. Biodiversity versus transgenic sugar beet: the one euro question

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demont, M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Tollens, E.

    2004-01-01

    The decision on whether to release transgenic crops in the EU is subject to irreversibility, uncertainty and flexibility. We analyse the case of herbicide-tolerant sugar beet and assess whether the EU's 1998 de facto moratorium on transgenic crops for sugar beet was correct from a cost-benefit

  17. Advances in development of transgenic resistance to beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagl Nevena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragments of viral cDNA containing the coat protein gene of beet necrotic yellow vein virus were cloned in plant transformation vector pCAMBIA3301M with the bar gene as selectable marker. Vector pC3301MCPL carrying coat protein gene with leader sequence, and pC3301MCPS with coat protein gene, were used in Agrobacterium - mediated transformation of sugar beet. The transformation method used was based on the fact that sugar beet develops axillary shoots in in vitro conditions, when placed on media with citokinins. Since this ability is not genotype or ploidy dependant it is widely used for sugar beet vegetative multiplication. Sterile seedlings, with removed cotyledons and lower half of hypocotyl, were used as starting material. After transformation ex-plants were put on micropropagation medium with cephotaxime and phosphinotricyn (ppt, where axillary shoots started to develop. Since concentration of ppt was not selective enough, after two subcultivations it was increased twofold. Only one sample, transformed with pC3301MCPS preserved morphogenetic potential for micropropagatio, and it was tested for presence of COS fragment and bar gene bz PCR with soecific primers.

  18. Mechanical properties of sugar beet root during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedomová, Šárka; Kumbár, Vojtěch; Pytel, Roman; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2017-10-01

    This paper is an investigation via two experimental methods, of the textural properties of sugar beet roots during the storage period. In the work, sugar beet roots mechanical properties were evaluated during the post-harvest period - 1, 8, 22, 43, and 71 days after crop. Both experimental methods, i.e. compression test and puncture test, suggest that the failure strength of the sugar beet root increases with the storage time. The parameters obtained using the puncture test, are more sensitive to the storage duration than those obtained by way of the compression test. We also found that such mechanical properties served as a reliable tool for monitoring the progress of sugar beet roots storage. The described methods could also be used to highlight important information on sugar beet evolution during storage.

  19. Experimental sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 31 experimental cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with...

  20. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 22 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  1. Lupus vulgaris: difficulties in diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Julia; Caccetta, Tony Philip; Tait, Clare

    2013-05-01

    Lupus vulgaris is one of the most common forms of cutaneous tuberculosis. It presents a diagnostic challenge due to its paucibacillary nature. This is a report of a case of a delayed diagnosis of lupus vulgaris, presenting as perianal and peristomal plaques, followed by a review of the diagnostic tools for lupus vulgaris and their limitations. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal of Dermatology © 2012 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Pemphigus vulgaris in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzberg, Kelsey W; Gero, Melanie J; Ragsdale, Bruce D

    2014-10-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old woman who was diagnosed with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) during pregnancy. The patient presented with widespread blistering dermatitis and associated burning and pruritus. At 6 weeks' gestation the patient was admitted to the hospital to expedite her diagnosis and initiate treatment. A skin biopsy revealed suprabasal acantholysis, and direct immunofluorescence demonstrated diffuse intercellular IgG in the epidermis and basal intercellular C3, which confirmed the diagnosis of PV. Treatment with corticosteroids was instituted after discussions with the patient about possible adverse effects to the fetus. Pemphigus vulgaris is rare in pregnancy and active PV presents potential threats of fetal spread and transient lesion production, which is associated with increased mortality and morbidity in the fetus. Our patient had active PV and required treatment throughout her pregnancy. The pregnancy progressed to premature delivery of the neonate without skin lesions or apparent complications.

  3. PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS IN WOMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Ayu Rima Mahadewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pemfigus vulgaris merupakan penyakit autoimun yang memberikan manifestasi bulayang bersifat kronik. Lokalisasi dari bula tersebut yaitu pada mukokutaneus. Dilaporkankasus seorang wanita berumur 28 tahun dengan keluhan utama gelembung berair padakulit seluruh tubuh dan mengeluarkan cairan serta menyebabkan gatal tanpa rasa nyeri.Efloresensi berupa makula hiperpigmentasi yang multipel berbentuk geografika denganukuran 3x4 cm sampai 10x15 cm dan erosi soliter berbentuk bulat dengan ukurandiameter 2 cm yang ditutupi krusta coklat kehitaman. Hasil biopsi kulit menggambarkanmorfologi pemfigus. Terapi farmakologis yang diberikan yaitu dexamethasone 1,5 mg-1mg- 0 mg, hydrocortisone 2,5%, chloramphenicol 2%, dan loratadine 1x10mg. Hasilpengobatan belum dapat dievalusi dan prognosis dari pasien dubious. pemfigus vulgaris, autoimun, bula

  4. Lung and lupus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mukta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs . This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  5. Lung and lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukta, V; Jayachandran, K

    2011-04-01

    Lupus vulgaris is chronic, postprimary, paucibacillary cutaneous tuberculosis found in individuals with moderate immunity and high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Eighty percent of the lesions are on the head and neck. We present the case of a 38 year old lady who was admitted with complaints of worsening breathlessness and low grade fever of one month duration. Examination showed multiple, nontender skin ulcers on bilateral lumbar areas, two oozing serosanguinous discharge and others scarred in the centre. Respiratory system examination and chest X-ray revealed right sided pleural effusion. On investigation, pleural fluid was tuberculous in nature. Skin biopsy from the edge of ulcer was also suggestive of tuberculosis. Patient is doing well on antituberculous drugs. This case highlights the importance of cutaneous manifestations of systemic disease and is an example of the unusual presentation of lupus vulgaris in a case of pleural effusion.

  6. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  7. Defective DNAs of beet curly top virus from long-term survivor sugar beet plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Judith; Jeske, Holger

    2014-04-01

    Long-term surviving sugar beet plants were investigated after beet curly top virus infection to characterize defective (D) viral DNAs as potential symptom attenuators. Twenty or 14 months after inoculation, 20 D-DNAs were cloned and sequenced. In contrast to known D-DNAs, they exhibited a large range of sizes. Deletions were present in most open reading frames except ORF C4, which encodes a pathogenicity factor. Direct repeats and inverted sequences were observed. Interestingly, the bidirectional terminator of transcription was retained in all D-DNAs. A model is presented to explain the deletion sites and sizes with reference to the viral minichromosome structure, and symptom attenuation by D-DNAs is discussed in relation to RNA interference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of sugar beet powdery mildew with strobilurin fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoglanidis George S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae is a major foliar disease of sugar beet in areas with dry and relatively warm weather conditions throughout the world. In the present study, four fungicides belonging to the relatively new class of strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were evaluated in three different application doses (100, 150 and 200 mg a.i. ha–1 during 2003-2004 for the control of the disease. Among the four strobilurin fungicides tested trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were the most effective with control efficiency values higher than 94% compared to the control treatment even when applied at lower application dose of 100 mg a.i. ha–1. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a poor to modest activity against the disease even when applied at the highest application dose of 200 μg a.i. ha–1. Disease severity, in terms of AUDPC values was significantly correlated to decreased root yield, while no significant correlation existed among disease severity and sugar content of the roots or sucrose yield. In addition, the efficiency of tank mixtures of four strobilurin fungicides applied at 100 μg a.i. ha–1 with two sterol demethylation - inhibiting fungicides (DMIs, difenoconazole and cyproconazole applied at 62.5 and 25 mg a.i. ha–1, respectively, was evaluated. The mixtures of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to the single application of each mixture partner, while the tank mixtures of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to single application of difenoconazole or cyproconazole and similar control efficiency compared to the efficiency obtained by single application of the strobilurin fungicides.

  9. Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer-Gallego, Pedro Pablo; Navarro Peris, Albert Josep; Laguna Lumbreras, Emilio; Mateo Sanz, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN: Se describe una nueva subespecie de Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov., caracterizada por presentar un hábito postrado, tallos estoloníferos, decumbentes y radicantes, hojas muy estrechas y una floración otoñal. ABSTRACT: Thymus vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. (Lamiaceae). A new subspecies of Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae); Th. vulgaris subsp. mansanetianus subsp. nov. is described. This new subspecies is characterized by its prost...

  10. Strongylus vulgaris and colic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Jacobsen, Stine; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    not address its role as risk factor for colic in horse populations. This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study among equine patients referred to the University of Copenhagen Large Animal Hospital during 2009-2011. Every referred colic case was matched with a patient of the same type (pony......, warmblooded, coldblooded), age, gender, and admitted in the same month and year, but for problems unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. Serum samples were analyzed for antibodies to migrating S. vulgaris larvae using a recently developed ELISA. Three case definitions were used; colic sensu latum (n=274...

  11. Maturing of different types ok sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Nikola

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of sugar and non-sugar (K, Na and amino N depend on environmental conditions and cultural practices applied. At the same time, these traits are an important characteristic of every cultivar. A number of parameters are used to determine the technological maturity of sugar beet, but the main ones are sugar content and sugar utilization percentage, which is affected by the non-sugars. In the present study, the monitoring of root yield and the yield of the above-ground plant parts and the analysis of root quality were done at 15-day intervals starting on July 1 and ending on September 16, 1999. Used in the study were four cultivars and two experimental hybrids of sugar beet. The cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20 proved ultra sugary (on the last lifting date, they had sugar contents 16.28% and 16.54%, respectively. Going from the first to the last lifting date, the K and Na contents of all the cultivars decreased, especially in the cultivar Crvenka mz and the experimental hybrid NS Hy 20. In all of the cultivars. the ammo N content increased until the fourth lifting date (August 16, when it started to decrease. One hundred and fifty days into the growing season, thanks to their high sugar content and low level of non-sugars (especially K and Na, the cultivar Crvenka mz and the hybrid NS Hy 20 had considerably better technological characteristics than the other cultivars. The aforementioned characteristics of Crvenka mz and NS Hy 20 make these two genotypes more suitable for early lifting dates than the other cultivars. .

  12. Structural confirmation of oligosaccharides newly isolated from sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar beet molasses is a viscous by-product of the processing of sugar beets into sugar. The molasses is known to contain sucrose and raffinose, a typical trisaccharide, with a well-established structure. Although sugar beet molasses contains various other oligosaccharides as well, the structures of those oligosaccharides have not been examined in detail. The purpose of this study was isolation and structural confirmation of these other oligosaccharides found in sugar beet molasses. Results Four oligosaccharides were newly isolated from sugar beet molasses using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and carbon-Celite column chromatography. Structural confirmation of the saccharides was provided by methylation analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionaization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR measurements. Conclusion The following oligosaccharides were identified in sugar beet molasses: β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 6-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named β-planteose, α-D-galactopyranosyl-(1- > 1-β-D-fructofuranosyl-(2 1-α-D-glucopyranoside (named1-planteose, α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 6-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (theanderose, and β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1- > 3-α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 2-β-D-fructofuranoside (laminaribiofructose. 1-planteose and laminaribiofructose were isolated from natural sources for the first time.

  13. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-15

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. BETA digital beta radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikov, N.V.; Kosinov, G.A.; Fedorov, Yu.N.

    1989-01-01

    Portable transportable digital beta radiometer providing for measuring beta-decay radionuclide specific activity in the range from 5x10 -9 up to 10 -6 Cu/kg (Cu/l) with error of ±25% is designed and introduced into commercial production for determination of volume and specific water and food radioactivity. The device specifications are given. Experience in the BETA radiometer application under conditions of the Chernobyl' NPP 30-km zone has shown that it is convenient for measuring specific activity of the order of 10 -8 Cu/kg, and application of a set of different beta detectors gives an opportunity to use it for surface contamination measurement in wide range of the measured value

  15. Antimicrobial multiple resistance index, minimum inhibitory concentrations, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producers of Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris strains isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Zappa

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Proteus spp. are opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria associated with diverse clinical diseases in domestic animals. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals are often misdiagnosed or considered contaminants in microbiological cultures rather than a primary agent of disease. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animals are typically restricted to case reports, retrospective studies, or surveillance of other microorganisms. The present study investigated multiple antibiotic resistance indices, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, and ESBL production in 73 strains of Proteus mirabilis (n = 69 and Proteus vulgaris (n = 4 isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations. In dogs, the pathogen was most commonly associated with cystitis (48.21, enteritis (21.42%, otitis (14.29%, and conjunctivitis (3.57%. In bovines, the microorganism was predominant in cases of enteritis (22.22%, abscess (11.11%, otitis (11.11%, omphalitis (11.11%, and peritonitis (11.11%, and in organ fragments (11.11%. In equines (50.0% and cats (100.0%, diarrhea was the main clinical sign. In vitro standard disk diffusion assay showed that the most effective antimicrobials against the isolates were imipenem (98.63, norfloxacin (95.89, amikacin (95.89, levofloxacin (90.41, ceftriaxone (87.64, and florfenicol (87.67. In contrast, the isolates commonly showed resistance to novobiocin (95.89, azithromycin (57.53, and trimethropim/sulfamethoxazole (39.73. Among the 73 isolates, the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin according to MICs was 87.67%, 86.30%, 84.93%, and 82.19%, respectively. The MIC50 values of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were, respectively, 1.0, 0.004, 0.03, and 1.0 µg/mL. Thirty-three strains (45.21% showed a antimicrobial multiple resistance index of ? 0.3. Multidrug resistance profiles of isolates were observed most frequently

  16. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  17. Nail manifestations in pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahali Juliana Burihan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail involvement in pemphigus vulgaris is rare. We describe 5 patients with pemphigus vulgaris presenting nail involvement. In this disease, nail manifestations present, by order of frequency, as chronic paronychia, onychomadesis, onycholysis, Beau's lines and trachyonychia. All our 5 cases presented with paronychia, and 1 of them also had Beau's lines. Treatment with prednisone and/or cyclophosphamide controlled mucocutaneous and nail manifestations in all cases.

  18. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar beet growing and processing more efficient. Besides, lower sugar price levels will make Europe a more attractive continent for investments by sugar-based industries.

  19. Structural and Financial Characteristics of U.S. Sugar Beet Farms. Agricultural Economic Report Number 584.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauson, Annette L.; Hoff, Frederic L.

    This report analyzes production and financial characteristics of sugar beet producers in seven regions. Section 1 examines the structural characteristics of U.S. sugar beet producers. Sugar beet production; land use, tenure, irrigation, and livestock enterprises are considered. Section 2 discusses production costs, including cost estimates,…

  20. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  1. Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Brink, van den L.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and

  2. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  3. Interaction of Rhizoctonia solani and Rhizopus stolonifer Causing Root Rot of Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, growers in Michigan and other sugar beet production areas of the United States have reported increasing incidence of root rot with little or no crown or foliar symptoms in sugar beet with Rhizoctonia crown and root rot. In addition, Rhizoctonia-resistant beets have been reported wit...

  4. Foliar insecticides for the control of curly top in Idaho sugar beet, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top caused by Beet curly top virus (BCTV) is a widespread disease problem vectored by the beet leafhopper in semiarid sugar beet production areas. Host resistance is the primary defense against this problem, but resistance in commercial cultivars is only low to intermediate. The neonicotiono...

  5. Effect of sugar beet root aphid, Pemphigus fuscicornis (Homoptera: Pemphigidae), on sugar beet yield and quality in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, M

    2007-10-01

    Pemphigus fuscicornis (Koch) is a pest of sugar beet root in warm and dry regions of Iran. This belongs to the Middle East and south east of Asia fauna. Nymphs establish colonies in root sutures and feed heavily which cause wilting and yellowing in beet near harvest. This study was conducted to determine infestation indices, damage occurrence and the necessity for control measures of this pest. Nymph colonies were monitored in different experimental fields that were planted with commonly used monogerm variety Afshari and then five infested places were selected. Damaged root specimens were sampled from five foci and ranked for infestation, yield and sugar concentration. Results indicated that there were no significant differences in weight, sugar concentration and impurities between indices 1, 2, 3 and none infested beets. Only the sugar concentration of indices 4 showed significant differences with zero infested beets. In the other hand, no specimens were found with the highest population density index (indices 5). Therefore, the sugar beet root aphid populations did not reach to the level of economic damage in these experimental fields. Thus, the control measures such as chemical application and use of resistant varieties may be used when the colonies density increases to the indices four and five throughout the foci in such fields.

  6. Composition of Coccinelid communities in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalji Ragheb A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of the results obtained during a long- -term investigations conducted on the distribution of aphidophagous coccinellid species and their quantitative and qualitative structure in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina. Composition of coccinellid communities and the annual changes in abundance of species are influenced by many variable environmental factors, but also by the prey availability during the season. Chemical treatments against flea beetles in May or/and against noctuid larvae in late July and the type of the adjacent crops may also affect the quantitative composition of adults coccinellid on sugar beet fields. During the season adults coccinellid are more abundant than larvae. The qualitative structure of coccinellid communities in sugar beet fields is not different than those from other field crops. These communities consist mainly of Coccinella septempunctata L.; Semiadalia undecimnotata Schn.; Propylaea quatuordecimpunctata L.; Hippodamia (Adonia variegata Goeze and Hippodamia tredecimpunctata L. Other species are present in a small fractions.

  7. Sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Cox, Ginnefer O; Eklund, Emily J; Ickes, Chelsea M; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-09-01

    Research concerning the sensory properties of beet and cane sugars is lacking in the scientific literature. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine whether a sensory difference was perceivable between beet and cane sugar sources in regard to their (1) aroma-only, (2) aroma and taste without nose clips, and (3) taste-only with nose clips, and to characterize the difference between the sugar sources using descriptive analysis. One hundred panelists evaluated sugar samples using a tetrad test. A significant difference (P cane sugar sources when evaluated by aroma-only and taste and aroma without nose clips. However, there was no difference when tasted with nose clips. To characterize the observed differences, ten trained panelists identified and quantified key sensory attributes of beet and cane sugars using descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance indicated significant differences (P sugar samples for 8 of the 10 attributes including: off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aroma, fruity and burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth, sweet aftertaste, and burnt sugar aftertaste. The sensory profile of beet sugar was characterized by off-dairy, oxidized, earthy, and barnyard aromas and by a burnt sugar aroma-by-mouth and aftertaste, whereas cane sugar was characterized by a fruity aroma-by-mouth and sweet aftertaste. This study shows that beet and cane sugar sources can be differentiated by their aroma and provides a sensory profile characterizing the differences. As sugar is used extensively as a food ingredient, sensory differences between beet and cane sugar sources once incorporated into different product matrices should be studied as a next step. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. TO SUBSTANTIATION OF COMBINE WHEELED CHASSIS FOR BEET HARVESTING EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Tajanowskij

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a current scientific and technical problem pertaining to creation of multi-bridge wheeled chassis for highly efficient modular sugar beet harvesters of large cargo capacity and, in particular, to selection of main parameters of chassis and wheeled drive. Such machines are designed for operation under complicated soil and climatic conditions during sugar beet harvesting. Methodological rules and regulations have been developed for solution of problems pertaining to scientifically sunstantiated selection of a manufactured or developed wheeled chassis model, building-block parameters of a working device and a chassis, rational control algorithm of the unit running system while using a specified (domestic or foreign semi-mounted equipment for beet harvesting. While solving the problem theoretical provisions for wheeled vehicles regarding specific features of a wheeled chassis for modular sugar beet harvesters with extensive mechanical or hydrostatic wheel drive of a multi-bridge propulsion system have been developed in the paper. Calculated and theoretical expressions for determination of main parameters for a wheeled chassis have been obtained and they include physical quantities of operational conditions that explicitly determine its working process. Such approach has made it possible to realize the obtained expressions as a software application which is suitable for analysis of main parameters in respect of the investigated harvester chassis and rational parameters of a branch wheel drive and also for a complete set of tires in the case when a sugar beet harvester is designed on the basis of wheeled chassis according to the selected scheme. Investigations have theoretical significance and represent practical interest for development spesialists of new modular multi-bridge sugar beet harvesters.

  9. Manejo de plantas daninhas em beterraba com metamitron e sua persistência em Argissolo Weed control in table beet with metamitron and its persistence in Ultisol-Kandiucults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Deuber

    2004-01-01

    ízes do tipo comercial em maior número e com mais biomassa de matéria fresca.In order to study weed control efficiency and soil persistence, a field experiment was carried out in Ultisol-Kandiucult with table beet (Beta vulgaris L. cultivar Tall Top. The treatments were: metamitron applied in pre-emergence at 2,8; 3,5 and 4,2 kg.ha-1 a.i, plus two controls, one weeded and another always with weeds, in a randomized block design with four replications. Weed control and selectivity were evaluated at 28 and 70 days and persistence in soil at 0, 21, 49 and 70 days after treatments (DAA, with bioassays using lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cultivar Elisa Crespa. The main weeds occuring in the trial were Eleusine indica (L. Gaertn, Galinsoga parviflora Cav. and Coronopus dydimus (L. Sm. Metamitron at the applied rates was apparently selective to table beets, considering the leaves. G. parviflora and C. dydimus were efficiently controlled with any of the applied rates up to 70 DAA. E. indica was well controlled until 28 DAA with all rates and until 70 DAA only with 3,5 and 4,2 kg.ha-1. Residual activity for 2,8 and 3,5 kg, lasted until 70 DAA, but for 4,2 kg it was longer. Chemical weed control improved yield with an increase on table beet roots of commercial type.

  10. Phaseolus vulgaris - recalcitrant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2014-11-15

    Since the ability to genetically engineer plants was established, researchers have modified a great number of plant species to satisfy agricultural, horticultural, industrial, medicinal or veterinary requirements. Almost thirty years after the first approaches to the genetic modification of pulse crops, it is possible to transform many grain legumes. However, one of the most important species for human nutrition, Phaseolus vulgaris, still lacks some practical tools for genomic research, such as routine genetic transformation. Its recalcitrance towards in vitro regeneration and rooting significantly hampers the possibilities of improvement of the common bean that suffers from many biotic and abiotic constraints. Thus, an efficient and reproducible system for regeneration of a whole plant is desired. Although noticeable progress has been made, the rate of recovery of transgenic lines is still low. Here, the current status of tissue culture and recent progress in transformation methodology are presented. Some major challenges and obstacles are discussed and some examples of their solutions are presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Signalling pathways in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoguang; Ishii, Norito; Ohata, Chika; Furumura, Minao; Hashimoto, Takashi

    2014-03-01

    Acantholysis in pemphigus vulgaris is induced by binding of autoantibodies to desmoglein 3 (Dsg3). The roles of signalling pathways on development of acantholysis have recently been extensively studied. In the study by Sayar et al., recently published in Exp Dermatol, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling was activated in both in vivo and in vitro pemphigus vulgaris experimental models. However, while EGFR inhibitors suppressed activity of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) linearly, they suppressed activity of c-Myc and acantholysis in a non-linear, V-shaped relationship. These findings indicated complicated interactions among EGFR, p38MAPK and c-Myc in pemphigus vulgaris pathology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Caracterización de acelga fresca de Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Comparación del contenido de nutrientes en hoja y tallo. Evaluación de los carotenoides presentes Characterization of fresh Beta vulgaris from Santiago del Estero (Argentina. Nutrient and caroteniod content of stem and leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Macías de Costa

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron estudios de caracterización integral de acelga (Beta vulgaris, var. cycla cultivada en la Provincia de Santiago del Estero, Argentina. Por tratarse de un vegetal de importante consumo regional, se realizó la determinación de sus constituyentes básicos, minerales y pigmentos para conocer los valores nutricionales que aporta este alimento en nuestra región. Se analizaron comparando hoja y tallo: humedad, cenizas, proteínas, grasas, hidratos de carbono utilizables, fibra dietaria total, contenido de clorofila y carotenoides. En cuanto a minerales, se determinaron calcio, magnesio, sodio, potasio, manganeso, zinc, hierro, fósforo y boro. Se encontraron diferencias en los aportes de minerales, proteínas, grasas y fibra entre hoja y tallo, así como también el contenido de carotenoides exclusivamente en las hojas. Los resultados marcan importantes diferencias en el contenido energético y en su valor provitamínico A entre la hoja y el tallo de este vegetal, mostrando que este último es una parte aprovechable de la planta, recomendable en dietas hipocalóricas.An integrated characterization study of Swiss chard grown in Santiago del Estero, Argentina, was carried out. As Swiss chard is a vegetable of important regional consumption, the determination of its basic constituents, minerals and pigments was done to appraise the nutritional value offered by this food in our area. Moisture, ash content, proteins, fats, available carbohydrates, total dietary fiber, chlorophylls and carotenoids were analysed, comparing the leaves and the stems. As to minerals, calcium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, zinc, iron, phosphorous, potassium, and boron were determined. Differences in the concentration of minerals, proteins, fats and fiber between the leaves and the stems were found, as well as the carotenoid content mainly in the leaves. These findings revealed important differences in energy content and provitamin A value, showing that the stem

  13. Pharmacognostic Evaluation of Bambusa vulgaris Var. vulgaris Leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated the pharmacognostic characters and toxicity of the aqueous ethanolic extract of Bambusa vulgaris leaf in male wistar rats. The microscopy of the leaf revealed diagnostic characters such as anomocytic stomata, sinuous epidermal cells, numerous prisms of calcium oxalate crystals and covering ...

  14. Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essia Ngang, J.J.; Letourneau, F.; Wolniewicz, E.; Villa, P. (Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Cinetique)

    1990-08-01

    Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli. (orig.).

  15. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  16. Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates associated with sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3University of Idaho, Twin Falls Research and Extension Centre, CSI Evergreen Building 315 Falls Avenue, East Twin. Falls, 83301 ID, USA. Accepted 31 October, 2011. Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most important sugar beet pathogens worldwide with anastomosis groups (AGs) 2-2 and 4 as the most ...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF SUGAR BEET SUBCOMPLEX BASED ON INNOVATIVE PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kazaryan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the problems of development of sugar market in Russia are raised. The situation in the CFO (the largest Russian region for the production of sugar beet factory is considered. The strengths and weaknesses of the processes occurring in this area are highlighted, the directions of development of the improvement of in-novation activity AIC are proposed.

  18. Options of sugar beet pretreatment for hydrogen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grabarczyk, R.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vaccari, G.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is expected to play a major role in covering the future energy demand. To make its future uses sustainable, hydrogen should be produced from renewable resources, for example by bacterial fermentation of biomass-derived feedstocks. Sugar beet is recognised as one of the most interesting raw

  19. Alternaria leaf spot of sugar beet: factors associated with risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increased incidence and severity of Alternaria leaf spot has been observed in Michigan and other growing regions. In the past, Alternaria leaf spot in sugar beet has been a minor foliar disease issue in the United States and management of this disease usually has not been required. If seve...

  20. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  1. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  2. Decolorization of sugar beet distillery effluent using mixed cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malgosia

    mixed cultures of bacteria of the genus Bacillus ... The colour of sugar beet stillage is produced mainly by two groups of colorants: melanoidins (from the. Maillard .... anaerobic treatment, and also to the removal of synthetic pigments. The cultures used in the reported studies contained cyanobacteria (Kalavathi et al., 2001);.

  3. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile

  4. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  5. Management of Pemphigus Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholera, Mimansa; Chainani-Wu, Nita

    2016-06-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a chronic, autoimmune, vesiculobullous disease. As a result of the relative rarity of PV, published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are limited, which makes it difficult to evaluate the efficacy of different treatment regimens in this disease. This also precludes conduct of a meta-analysis. English-language publications describing treatment outcomes of patients with PV were identified by searches of electronic databases through May 2015, and additionally by review of the bibliography of these publications. A total of 89 papers, which included 21 case reports, 47 case series, 8 RCTs, and 13 observational studies, were identified. The findings from these publications, including information on disease course and prognosis, medications used, treatment responses, and side effects, are summarized in the tables and text of this review. Prior to availability of corticosteroid therapy, PV had a high fatality rate. Early publications from the 1970s reported high-dose, prolonged corticosteroid use and significant associated side effects. Later reports described use of corticosteroids along with steroid-sparing adjuvants, which allows a reduction in the total dose of corticosteroids and a reduction in observed mortality and morbidity. For the majority of patients in these reports, a long-term course on medications lasting about 5-10 years was observed; however, subgroups of patients requiring shorter courses or needing longer-term therapy have also been described. Early diagnosis of PV and early initiation of treatment were prognostic factors. In recent publications, commonly used initial regimens include corticosteroids in combination with mycophenolate or azathioprine; whereas, for patients with inadequate response to these regimens, adjuvants such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) or rituximab are used. The review findings emphasize the importance of early diagnosis, early initiation of treatment, and use of steroid-sparing adjuvants to

  6. CO-PROCESSING BEET AND CANE RAW SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many sugar factories of the Russian Federation sugar and white sugar is produced not only from sugar beet, but also from raw sugar. To do this, the technological scheme of the plants provide mostly separate processing beet and raw sugar. This paper proposes a joint processing. With the aim of improving the quality of syrup, improving the filtration properties of the juice II saturation with joint processing beet and raw sugar was proposed clarification raw sugar to conduct the filtered juice I saturation with the addition of bleach in the amount of 0.05-0.10 % by weight of raw sugar and fine clay powder in the amount of 0.3-0.5 % by weight of raw sugar. Introduction chlorine is in the process of clarification raw sugar partly to carry out the depolymerization of highmolecular compounds, including polysaccharide dextran, and to adsorb the resulting fragments of high molecular compounds and pigments on fine particles of clay powder. Similar results were obtained when changing the costs of expanded clay powder. At a flow rate less than 0.3 %, there is a lack of adsorption of the surface to remove the degradation products of high -molecular compounds, which degrades the quality characteristics of the mixture of woodworking and furniture production of raw sugar and juice I carbon ation, and at a rate clay powder more than 0.5 % is irrational, since the cleaning effect is increased slightly. Suggested ways of coprocessing beet and raw sugar allow without significant cost effective processing of raw sugar factories. When beet low techn ological quality of these methods will increase the cleanliness of the production of sugar solutions and improve conditions for obtaining sugar of standard quality with the normative content of sucrose in molasses.

  7. Bambusa vulgaris and Raffia bambusa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2016-12-02

    Dec 2, 2016 ... Preliminary studies in some parts of Ghana by the authors showed a consistent ... 2 Resources and Methods Used. 2.1 Materials. The roots of B. vulgaris and R. bambusa (Fig. 1) were harvested from wetlands in south-western. Ghana. In the first ... Bamboo Obtained by Courtesy of. Openclipart.org).

  8. Lupus Vulgaris Following Bcg Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Pandhi

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of lupus vulgaris developing at the site of BCG vaccination are reported. All the patients had lesions starting before the age of 15 years. Clinically and histologically the lesions ′were indistinguishable from spontaneous lupus vulgarism Treatment with streptomycin and isonicotinic acid hydrazide for 1 year produced complete resolution of lesions.

  9. Porokeratosis Masquerading As Lupus Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das Sudip

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis is a specific disorder of kerstinization characterized histologically by cornoid lamella. Lesions of porokeratosis present varied features, often mimicking other dermatological disorders. Herein, we report a case of porokeratosis of Mibelli presenting with verrucous lesions simulating lupus vulgaris.

  10. Speculative Betas

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison Hong; David Sraer

    2012-01-01

    We provide a model for why high beta assets are more prone to speculative overpricing than low beta ones. When investors disagree about the common factor of cash-flows, high beta assets are more sensitive to this macro-disagreement and experience a greater divergence-of-opinion about their payoffs. Short-sales constraints for some investors such as retail mutual funds result in high beta assets being over-priced. When aggregate disagreement is low, expected return increases with beta due to r...

  11. Effect of curtovirus species competitiveness in host plants on transmission and incidence of Beet severe curly top virus and Beet mild curly top virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus, causes significant economic losses for sugarbeet and other crops throughout the western United States. Recent studies demonstrated the two most abundant curtovirus species in the US are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild c...

  12. Disseminated lupus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Taru; Ramchander; Shrihar, Rashmi; Gupta, Tanvi Pal; Aggarwal, Shilpi

    2011-01-01

    follicular plugging and multiple epithelioid cell granulomas, rimmed by lymphocytes in the deeper portion of the dermis, mainly peri-appendageal. Stain for acid-fast bacteria was negative. Cultures from the skin lesions were negative. The patient was diagnosed as having lupus vulgaris with multiple lesions of varying morphology at different sites with pulmonary tuberculosis and healed lymph node involvement.

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant activities and phenolic content of Berberis vulgaris L. and Berberis croatica Horvat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zovko Koncić, M; Kremer, D; Karlović, K; Kosalec, I

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extracts of roots, twigs and leaves of common barberry (Berberis vulgaris L.) and Croatian barberry (Berberis croatica Horvat) were studied. All the extracts were found to possess some radical-scavenging and antioxidant activities, as determined by scavenging effect on the DPPH free radical, reducing power and beta-carotene-linoleic acid model system. With the exception of the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test, antioxidant activity correlated well with the content of main plant antioxidants, phenols and flavonols, which suggests an important role of these compounds in overall antioxidant activity of investigated plant organs. The antioxidant activity varied mostly in relation to the organ, while no significant statistically differences were found between B. vulgaris and B. croatica. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evapotranspiração e coeficientes de cultivo da beterraba orgânica sob cobertura morta de leguminosa e gramínea Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of beet in organic mulch of grass and legume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionízio H Oliveira Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As práticas agrícolas que maximizam a produtividade e o uso da água são de vital importância para a agricultura. Assim, foram testados três tipos de manejo do solo com objetivo de determinar a evapotranspiração (ETc e os coeficientes de cultivo (kc da beterraba. Os tipos de manejo foram a utilização de coberturas mortas vegetais, denominadas capim cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium e solo sem cobertura morta em área experimental do SIPA (Sistema Integrado de Produção Orgânica localizado em Seropédica, Brasil. A lâmina de irrigação foi estimada com base no balanço de água no solo, cujo monitoramento foi realizado com a técnica da TDR. As ETc acumuladas para a cultura da beterraba foram 59,41; 55,31 e 119,62 mm, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi obtida por meio do modelo de Penamn-Monteith. Os valores médios de kc obtidos para as fases inicial, média e final de desenvolvimento foram de 0,39; 0,42 e 1,02; 0,79; 0,76 e 1,18; e 0,56; 0,61 e 0,84, respectivamente, para capim cameroon, gliricídia e solo sem cobertura morta. O uso da cobertura do solo com gramínea ou leguminosa minimizou de forma expressiva a demanda hídrica da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris.Agricultural practices that maximize productivity and water use are of vital importance to farming. Thus, three different soil managements were used in order to determine the evapotranspiration (ETc and crop coefficients (kc of beet in the experimental area of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, located in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The used managements consisted of cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum, gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium and bare soil. The irrigation depth was estimated based on the soil water balance in order to restore the amount of water until soil moisture corresponded to field capacity, monitored by a TDR

  15. Efeitos da lixiviação e salinidade da água sobre um solo salinizado cultivado com beterraba Effects of leaching and water salinity on a saline soil cultivated with sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Ferreira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos de cinco lâminas de lixiviação e quatro níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação sobre a salinidade de um Neossolo Flúvico e a produtividade da cultura da beterraba (Beta vulgaris L. foram estudados em lisímetros de drenagem. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em arranjo fatorial com quatro níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (1,0, 2,0, 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, a 25 °C e cinco lâminas de lixiviação equivalente a 0,25, 0,50, 0,75, 1,00 e 1,25 do volume de poros do solo ou 53, 106, 159, 206 e 248 mm, respectivamente, no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Os componentes avaliados foram a produtividade da cultura e as salinidades no solo e no lixiviado. Os resultados obtidos mostraram incrementos da salinidade no lixiviado com o decréscimo das lâminas de lixiviação. Os maiores índices de salinidade no perfil do solo, ao final do ciclo da cultura, corresponderam aos tratamentos que receberam as menores lâminas de lixiviação e condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação. A produtividade total da beterraba e a produção das raízes com diâmetros maiores que 3, 4, 5, 6 e 7 cm, não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e lâminas de lixiviação.The effects of five leaching depths and four salinity levels of the irrigation water on the salinity of a Neossol Fluvent and the productivity of sugar beet crop were studied using drainage lysimeters. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four replications, the treatments being displayed in a factorial scheme with four electrical conductivity levels of the irrigation water (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25 °C and five leaching depths equivalent to 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 of the soil pores volume or 53, 106, 159, 206 e 248 mm, respectively. The crop productivity and the salinity of soil and leachate were evaluated. The results showed increased salinity in the leachate

  16. Yield performance of four beetroot ( Beta vulgaris l.) varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    varieties compared with the local variety under open field conditions in Seychelles. ... with root yield being 39.7 % and 33.1 % higher than the popular variety 'Detroit' in both years respectively. Hence the variety 'Crosby' was recommended as a potential replacement for 'Detroit'. Agro-Science Vol. 7 (2) 2008: pp. 139-142 ...

  17. Extensive keloid formation after pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, Eric Y; Workwick, Scott

    2015-11-18

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an immunobullous disease characterized by intraepidermal blister formation. These blisters eventually rupture, leaving erosions that are slow to heal, often leaving hyperpigmented patches, but no scars. We describe a case of a 67- year-old man with pemphigus vulgaris who suffered severe keloidal scarring after the pemphigus lesions became infected. His keloids were treated with intralesional corticosteroids with some improvement. Pemphigus vulgaris, a process confined to the epidermis, may lead to scarring in predisposed individuals, particularly if infection occurs.

  18. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić, Ljubiša Ć.; Filipčev, Bojana V.; Šimurina, Olivera D.; Plavšić, Dragana V.; Šarić, Bojana M.; Lazarević, Jasmina M.; Milovanović, Ivan Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Molasses is an important by-product of sugar beet or sugar cane refining industry and it was one of the first sweeteners used in human nutrition. Sugar cane molasses has unique characteristics that can make it suitable for application in food industry, especially in confectionery and bakery products. On the other hand, sugar beet molasses has not had greater application in the human diet, primarily because of its strong smell and taste of the beet, which makes it unattractive for consumption....

  19. RESEARCH OF QUALITY, SAFETY AND CONTENT OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF FOOD RED BEET

    OpenAIRE

    Gorash E. Y.; Victorova E. P.; Kupin G. A.; Aleshin V. N.; Lisovoy V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of research of quality, safety and content of biologically active substances of food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety, grown in the Krasnodar region in 2014. On the basis of the research carried out it was established, that there are carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids and mineral substances in the food red beet roots of Bordo 237 variety. Food red beet roots are a source of dietary fibers (pectin, protopectin, hemicelluloses and cellulose), possessing antit...

  20. RED BEET VARIETIES OF VNIISSOK’S BREEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fedorova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine red beet varieties of the VNIISSOK’s breeding are described in the article. The methods of its development, maintenance, utilization in the breeding programs are presented. The cultivars «Bordo odnosemyanaya», «Nezhnosty», «Lyubava», «Gaspadinya» are the sources of the separately fruiting. The breeding of red beet based on fertility and cytoplasmic male sterility is conducted. The best sources for heterosis are cv. «Nezhnosty», «Odnorostkovaya», «Lyubava», «Gaspadinya». The best sources for early-ripening are cv. «Nesravnennaya A-463», «Gribovskaya ploskaya», «Podzimnyaya A-474». Because of the high adaptability, the cv. «Bordo 237» can be recommended for breeding programs in all regions of Russia. The volume of sales and seed production of these varieties are shown.

  1. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    was formed which bound the meat pieces together thereby making the product sliceable. However, in two of the food products some unwanted side effects were observed. The enzymes did not only catalyse the cross-linking, but also oxidised the anthocyanins in the black currant juice and short chained fatty acids......Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...

  2. THE METHOD OF DETERMINING THE RUNTIME PROJECT PORTFOLIO SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Васильович СИДОРЧУК

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The determining method of runtime project portfolio of sugar beet harvesting is grounded. The method is based on consideration of the probability components of the project environment. The main components affecting these startups of project portfolio are determined. Their value – amount of the harvest are determined too. The creation needs of statistical simulation model application to account the probability agrometeorological conditions impact on the project-technological (harvesting works and effective startup of appropriate portfolios projects are proved. It notes that the availability of statistical models of the soil physical maturity completion time and duration of fine and inclement periods of the autumn-winter period, and knowledge of the daily rate of sugar beet harvesting, is the main database for statistical simulation modeling of these projects.

  3. Malignant change in lupus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Girdhar

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases developed squamous cell carcinoma over the lupus vulgaris lesions. The first patient was a, 14 year male with a gradually developing painless, hypertrophic lesion just below the left knee for 6 years. Four years later a cauliflower growth developed over it. He was on antitubercular therapy for 3 months without any improvement. The second patient was 42 year male with a painless, growing lesion behind the right knee for 25 years. About 9 months back a rapidly progressive painful ulcerated mass developed over it which used to bleed easily o n slight trauma. Histopathological findings in both the cases were compatible with lupus vulgaris and squamous cell carcinoma. None of the cases had recurrence following excision and subsequent antitubercular therapy.

  4. Lupus vulgaris associated with Scrofuloderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Preet Tuli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lupus vulgaris is a rare manifestation of tuberculosis. It is even rarer for it to complicate scrofuloderma. We report a case of a 27-year-old man who had undergone a successful treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis presenting with scrofuloderma with lesions of lupus on the overlying skin. The Mantoux test was positive and initial chest X-ray did not show any active features of tuberculosis. Discharge from the lesion stained positive for acid fast bacilli. Multiple fine needle aspirations were inconclusive. However the histopathology of biopsied lesion revealed tuberculoid granuloma with Langhans giant cells. TThe patient improved with antitubercular therapy. We are presenting this case as a rare coexistence of scrofuloderma with lupus vulgaris.

  5. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  6. Enzyme production by anaerobic fermentation of beet pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, K.; Arntz, H.J.

    1988-03-01

    The detailed analysis of hydrolysis of beet pulp by anaerobic mixed cultures showed that a wide range of extracellular enzymes can be found. Notably pectinases, pectin lyases, arabanases, galactanases and cellulases are secreted. Under appropriate conditions high levels of enzyme concentrations can be observed. Intermediate accumulation of oligosaccharides makes probable well known mechanisms of enzyme induction and repression. A two stage system with membrane filtration and ultrafiltration allowed for convenient production of concentrated stable enzyme solutions.

  7. Composition of Coccinelid communities in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina

    OpenAIRE

    Thalji Ragheb A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a synthesis of the results obtained during a long- -term investigations conducted on the distribution of aphidophagous coccinellid species and their quantitative and qualitative structure in sugar beet fields in Vojvodina. Composition of coccinellid communities and the annual changes in abundance of species are influenced by many variable environmental factors, but also by the prey availability during the season. Chemical treatments against flea beetles in May or/and again...

  8. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  9. The addition of sugar beet to ethanol pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the GHGenius model is used to estimate the life cycle emissions of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as the criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The model can be used to analyze the emissions from conventional and alternatively fuelled combustion engines and fuel cell powered trucks and vehicles, as well as light duty powered electric vehicles. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used. This paper examined the effects of adding energy used to produce materials consumed in the production of alternative fuels in GHGenius energy balance calculations, as well as vehicle emission calculations on a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) eq/GJ of fuel consumed basis. This paper also examined the addition of sugar beet ethanol pathways to GHGenius. Energy balances were obtained and a number of process improvements to sugar beet ethanol processing were examined as sensitivity cases. GHGenius was used to calculate the energy consumption of each stage in the production cycle. Estimates included the energy required to produce the chemicals used in the ethanol processing procedure. Results were then compared with results obtained from gasoline, corn and wheat ethanols. Results of the study showed that energy balances were lower than corn or wheat ethanol. Feedstock transmission and processing requirements were also higher due to the higher moisture content of the feedstock. The results of several European studies considering the use of sugar beet ethanol were also included. 17 tabs., 9 figs

  10. Oral Pemphigus Vulgaris: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpita, Rai; Monica, Arora; Venkatesh, Naikmasur; Atul, Sattur; Varun, Malhotra

    2015-10-01

    Pemphigus is a potentially life threatening autoimmune disease that causes blisters and erosions of the skin and the mucous membrane. The epithelial lesions are a result of auto-antibodies that react with desmosomal glycoproteins that are present on the cell surface of the keratinocyte. The autoimmune reaction against these glycoproteins causes a loss of cell to cell adhesion, resulting in the formation of intraepithelial bullae. Eighty to ninety percent of patients with pemphigus vulgaris develop oral lesions and in 60% of cases oral lesions are the first sign. Timely recognition and therapy of oral lesion is critical as it may prevent skin involvement. If treatment is instituted during this time, the disease is easier to control and the chance for an early remission of the disorder is enhanced. This case report describes the case of a patient who complained of ulcers of the mouth and difficulty in swallowing since 20 days, who was diagnosed as having Pemphigus vulgaris. Due to early diagnosis, lower doses of medication for a shorter period of time could control the disease. Dental professionals must be sufficiently familiar with the clinical manifestations of pemphigus vulgaris to ensure early diagnosis and treatment which in turn determines the prognosis and course of the disease.

  11. Leaf phenolics and seaweed tannins : analysis, enzymatic oxidation and non-covalent protein binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne M.

    2017-01-01

    Upon extraction of proteins from sugar beet leaves (Beta vulgaris L.) and oarweed (Laminaria digitata) for animal food and feed purposes, endogenous phenolics and proteins can interact with each other, which might affect the protein’s applicability. Sugar beet leaf proteins might become

  12. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  13. Distribution and Rate of Movement of the Curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (Family Geminiviridae) in the Beet Leafhopper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Maria J; Gilbertson, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    ABSTRACT A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method for the detection of the curtovirus Beet mild curly top virus (BMCTV, previously named the Worland strain of Beet curly top virus) was developed and used to investigate the BMCTV-beet leafhopper interaction. Using PCR and a BMCTV-specific primer pair, an approximately 1.1-kb BMCTV DNA fragment was amplified from adult leafhoppers and from the organs involved in circulative transmission: the digestive tract, hemolymph, and salivary glands. The temporal distribution of BMCTV in the leafhopper was determined using insects given acquisition access periods (AAPs) ranging from 1 to 48 h on BMCTV-infected shepherd's purse plants. BMCTV was detected in the digestive tract after all AAPs, in the hemolymph after AAPs of 3 h or greater, and in the salivary glands after AAPs of 4 h or greater. The amount of virus detected in the hemolymph and salivary glands increased with AAP length. The virus persisted for up to 30 days in leafhoppers (given a 3-day AAP on BMCTV-infected plants) maintained on corn plants, a nonhost for BMCTV, but transovarial transmission was not detected. These results are consistent with a persistent but nonpropagative mode of circulative transmission.

  14. Autoimmunity to desmocollin 3 in pemphigus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuming; Nagler, Arielle R; Farber, Sara A; Choi, Eun Jung; Jackson, Lauren H; Leiferman, Kristin M; Ishii, Norito; Hashimoto, Takashi; Amagai, Masayuki; Zone, John J; Payne, Aimee S

    2010-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a blistering disease associated with autoantibodies to the desmosomal adhesion protein, desmoglein 3. Genetic deficiency of desmoglein 3 in mice mimics autoimmunity to desmoglein 3 in pemphigus vulgaris, with mucosal-dominant blistering in the suprabasal layer of the epidermis. Mice with an epidermal-specific deletion of desmocollin 3, the other major desmosomal cadherin isoform expressed in the basal epidermis, develop suprabasal blisters in skin that are histologically identical to those observed in pemphigus vulgaris, suggesting that desmocollin 3 might be a target of autoantibodies in some pemphigus vulgaris patients. We now demonstrate that desmocollin 3 is an autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris, illustrated in a patient with mucosal-dominant blistering. Six of 38 pemphigus vulgaris and one of 85 normal serum samples immunoprecipitate desmocollin 3 (P = 0.003). Incubation of patient IgG with human keratinocytes causes loss of intercellular adhesion, and adsorption with recombinant desmocollin 3 specifically prevents this pathogenic effect. Additionally, anti-desmocollin 3 sera cause loss of keratinocyte cell surface desmocollin 3, but not desmoglein 3 by immunofluorescence, indicating distinct cellular pathogenic effects in anti-desmocollin and anti-desmoglein pemphigus, despite their identical clinical presentations. These data demonstrate that desmocollin 3 is a pathogenic autoantigen in pemphigus vulgaris and suggest that pemphigus vulgaris is a histological reaction pattern that may result from autoimmunity to desmoglein 3, desmocollin 3, or both desmosomal cadherins.

  15. Pemphigus Vulgaris with Solitary Toxic Thyroid Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Alfishawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pemphigus vulgaris is an autoimmune vesiculobullous disease, affecting the skin and mucous membranes. It is reported to be associated with other autoimmune diseases including autoimmune thyroid diseases. However we report herein a case of pemphigus vulgaris associated with autonomous toxic nodule. Case Presentation. A 51-year-old woman was evaluated for blisters and erosions that develop on her trunk, face, and extremities, with a five-year history of progressively enlarging neck mass, and a past medical history of pemphigus vulgaris seven years ago. The condition was associated with palpitation, dyspnea, and heat intolerance. Thyroid function tests and thyroid scan were compatible with the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis due to autonomous toxic nodule. Exacerbation of pemphigus vulgaris was proved by skin biopsy from the patient which revealed histologic picture of pemphigus vulgaris. Conclusion. Autoimmune thyroid diseases are reported to associate pemphigus vulgaris. To our knowledge, this case is the first in the English literature to report association between pemphigus vulgaris and autonomous toxic nodule and highlights the possibility of occurrence of pemphigus vulgaris with a nonautoimmune thyroid disease raising the question: is it just a coincidence or is there an explanation for the occurrence of both conditions together?

  16. Sporotrichoid lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Anshul; Tiwari, Siddhi; Mathur, Deepak K; Bhargava, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common presentation of cutaneous tuberculosis in India and can present as papular, nodular, plaque, ulcerative, vegetating, and tumid forms. Unusual variants include the frambesiform, gangrenous, ulcerovegetating, lichen simplex chronicus, myxomatous, and sporotrichoid types. We describe a rare sporotrichoid presentation of lupus vulgaris on the leg of a 28-year-old female of 12 years duration.

  17. Lupus vulgaris with squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motswaledi, Mojakgomo Hendrick; Doman, Chantal

    2007-12-01

    Tuberculosis is still a significant problem in developing countries. Cutaneous forms of tuberculosis account for approximately 10% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of true infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or because of tuberculids. Tuberculids are immunological reactions to haematogenously spread antigenic components of M. tuberculosis. True cutaneous tuberculosis may be because of inoculation or haematogenous spread of M. tuberculosis to the skin. Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of true cutaneous tuberculosis. Other forms of true cutaneous tuberculosis are tuberculous chancre, tuberculosis verrucosa cutis, scrofuloderma, periorificial tuberculosis and miliary tuberculosis of the skin. Lupus vulgaris is usually chronic and progressive. It occurs in patients with moderate to high immunity against M. tuberculosis as evidenced by strongly positive tuberculin test. Long-standing cases of lupus vulgaris may be complicated by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We describe a patient who had undiagnosed lupus vulgaris for 35 years until she developed SCC on the lesion of lupus vulgaris.

  18. Feruloyl Oligosaccharides from Cell Walls of Suspension-Cultured Spinach Cells and Sugar Beet Pulp : STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tadashi, ISHII; Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1994-01-01

    Cell walls of suspension-cultured spinach cells and sugar beet pulp were separately hydrolyzed with Driselase. A feruloyl arabinobiose was isolated from both spinach cells and sugar beet. Four feruloyl oligosaccharides were obtained from sugar beet. The four oligosaccharides were characterized by NMR spectroscopy, methylation analysis and FAB-MS.

  19. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing... marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and sugar beet processors, which apply to all... sector. CCC distributed the FY 2012 beet sugar allotment of 5,139,472 STRV (54.35 percent of the OAQ...

  20. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  1. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for biorefinery

  2. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Young-Boong

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (p

  3. Characterization of cell wall degrading enzymes from Chrysosporium lucknowense C1 and their use to degrade sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kühnel, S.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: Pectin, arabinan, biorefinery, mode of action, branched arabinose oligomers, ferulic acid esterase, arabinohydrolase, pretreatment

    Sugar beet pulp is the cellulose and pectin-rich debris remaining after sugar extraction from sugar beets. In order to use sugar beet pulp for

  4. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity of verticillium dahliae isolates from sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of the disease, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms in Idaho was conducted in 2007...

  5. Pathogenicity, vegetative compatibility, and genetic diversity in verticillium dahliae from sugar beet and historical strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verticillium wilt of sugar beet is a disease problem that has received very little attention in the literature, but has been reported to reduce sucrose production and purity. To improve our understanding of Verticillium wilt, a survey of sugar beet plants with wilt symptoms (leaves with yellow or n...

  6. Detection of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Pakistan using bait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Northwestern plains of Pakistan are the major sugar beet producing region in the country, providing an important alternative to sugar cane for sugar production when sugar cane is absent in the fields. We surveyed this region for four consecutive years and found that Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is prevalent ...

  7. Soil dynamics of the origination of soil tare during sugar beet lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Koolen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    High soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil after uprooting with share lifters is usually attributed to the fact that the soil becomes sticky due to mechanical impact during uprooting. Results of field experiments have shown good potential for obtaining low soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil

  8. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    OpenAIRE

    А. С. Лейбович; Д. В. Борисов; А. В. Кулик

    2009-01-01

    In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  9. First report of DMI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugar beet in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is an economically important foliar disease of sugar beet in Ontario, Canada and worldwide. Fungicides are an important tool in the control of CLS. The first demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide for sugar beet was regi...

  10. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis in sugar beet: identification of SNP markers associated to Fusarium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. cause severe damage in many agricultural crops including sugar beet. Sugar beet needs to be protected from these soil borne pathogens to guarantee an optimal sugar yield in the field. The genetic control is the key to overcoming this disease. Identification of single nucleotide polymor...

  11. Yield Estimation of Sugar Beet Based on Plant Canopy Using Machine Vision Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Latifaltojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield estimation is one of the most important parameters for information and resources management in precision agriculture. This information is employed for optimizing the field inputs for successive cultivations. In the present study, the feasibility of sugar beet yield estimation by means of machine vision was studied. For the field experiments stripped images were taken during the growth season with one month intervals. The image of horizontal view of plants canopy was prepared at the end of each month. At the end of growth season, beet roots were harvested and the correlation between the sugar beet canopy in each month of growth period and corresponding weight of the roots were investigated. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the beet yield and green surface area of autumn cultivated sugar beets. The highest coefficient of determination was 0.85 at three months before harvest. In order to assess the accuracy of the final model, the second year of study was performed with the same methodology. The results depicted a strong relationship between the actual and estimated beet weights with R2=0.94. The model estimated beet yield with about 9 percent relative error. It is concluded that this method has appropriate potential for estimation of sugar beet yield based on band imaging prior to harvest

  12. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  13. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  14. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp : structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  15. The most important sugar beet pests in Ukraine and integral measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Vitaly P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The report delivers the origins of the insect complex formation on sugar beet fields in Ukraine. Biological, ethological and ecological peculiarities of the most numerous pest species have been shown. Regularities of many-year dynamics of pests, the problems of phytosanitary state of agrocenosis of sugar beet fields and conceptual grounds of pest control in contemporary conditions have been substantiated.

  16. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  17. Filamentous fungi associated to Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Acosta-Suárez

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland is a species of a great economic importance and in the conservation of soils. Nevertheless, little information exists on the microbial communities associated to its plantations, and their impact on the soil. For that reason it is necessary to identify the cultivable filamentous fungi to understand their roll and contribution to the development of this forest species and their impact in the environment. Considering these criteria the current work had as objectives to quantify, to characterize, to identify and to conserve filamentous fungi in soils cultivated with Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex. Wendland. Samples from three soils with plantations of Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland, yagruma (Cecropia peltata L. and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis L. as well as soil without any crop, used as control, were collected for the microbiological analysis. Decimal dilutions of soil were done in Rose Agar Bengal culture medium for strain isolation. The cultural and morphologic characteristics were described. The amount of filamentous fungi oscillated between 103 and 105ufc/g in Bambusa vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland, similar to the previous registered in plants of yagruma, eucalyptus and in the soil without any crop. A total of 13 generous were identified: Aspergillus, Botryotrichum, Cephalosporium., Cladosporium, Cunningamella, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pythium, Pyrenochaeta, Rhizoctonia, Trichocladium and Trichoderma. It was demonstrated that the communities of fungi in plantations of B. vulgaris var. vulgaris Schrader ex Wendland are diverse. Key word: bamboo, filamentous fungi, rhizosphere

  18. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  19. Lupus vulgaris of the auricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojat Eftekhari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays despite decrease in the tuberculosis (TB incidence around the world with standard anti tubercular treatment, atypical forms of TB is increasing due to extensive use of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune diseases and increasing prevalence of HIV infection, so early diagnosis of pulmonary and extra pulmonary TB in these patients is very important. Cutaneous TB could be a great imitator and confused with other granulomatous lesions. It has different morphological patterns. Lupus vulgaris (LV is the most common type of cutaneous TB which usually involves head and neck. We present herein a case of LV in auricular region without apparent systemic involvement.

  20. Beet fed as such or ensiled with maize and fresh potatoes in diets for finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucqué, C V; Fiems, L O; Cottyn, B G

    1994-01-01

    The use of beet for beef production after ensiling together with maize was studied in two experiments involving 112 and 114 White-blue bulls. In the first experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of maize and fodder beet (II) or sugar beet (III) (ratio: 2/1, DM-basis). In the second experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of 0.67 maize and 0.33 sugar beet (II) or maize silage and fresh sugar beet (ratio: 2/1, DM basis) (III) or fresh sugar beet and potatoes afterwards at 4% of the live weight and maize silage (IV). From day 113 onwards, mixed silage was also fed to group III and sugar beet were replaced by raw potatoes in group IV. The basic diet was always supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of the live weight. In experiment 1 live weight gain was slightly but not significantly higher for the mixed silages, although daily net energy intake per kg metabolic weight was higher. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among groups. Mixed silages yielded more fat in the carcass. In the second experiment initial growth rates were not significantly affected by the use of sugar beet or mixed silages. Afterwards, they were increased in comparison with maize silage. Also in this experiment, daily net energy intake was increased by sugar beet, or by potatoes. Energy efficiency did not differ among groups. This experiment did not show significant differences for the carcass composition. However, EUROP fatness score was higher for diets containing one third sugar beet. Most meat quality parameters were not affected by the diets. Only the lightness was different between III and IV.

  1. Beta Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may not work as effectively for people of African heritage and older people, especially when taken without ... conditions/high-blood-pressure/in-depth/beta-blockers/ART-20044522 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  2. [Preliminary analysis of bitter substances in spica of Prunella vulgaris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xin; Xi, Meng-Qian; Guo, Qiao-Sheng; Han, Huan-Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Wei; Zheng, Rong-bo; Huang, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Huan-Rong

    2014-02-01

    Volatile oil components and the contents and types of amino acid in spica of Prunella vulgaris were analysed by GC-MS and amino acid analyzer. Esters, fatty acids, aromatic hydrocarbon, ketone and several alcohol compounds were identified by mass spectrum comparison. In these ingredients, beta-ionone smelled aroma of cedar, raspberry, nerolidol showed weak sweet soft orange blossom flavor, neroli tasted sweet and fresh, nerolidol tasted sweet with light aroma of wood, hexadecanal showed a weak aroma of flowers and wax, alpha-sinensal had rich and fresh sweet orange flavor. To some extent, these types of aromatic substances can affect the taste of herbal tea or decoction made of Spica Prunellae. Among amino acids detected, natural amino acids accounted for a larger proportion, and those natural amino acids showed bitterness, slight bitterness, sourness (freshness), sweetness, slight sweetness, sourness (slight freshness). The results indicated that bitter and slightly bitter amino acids have the greatest impacts on the sense of Spica Prunellae.

  3. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  4. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...... for vegetation extraction (CIVE) offered the highest average accuracy, above 90%. The feature set was reduced to four important indices following a PCA analysis, but the classification accuracy was similar to that obtained by only combining ExG and GB which was around 95%, still better than an individual index...

  5. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  6. Management strategies for acne vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney KM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristen M Whitney1, Chérie M Ditre21Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Skin Enhancement Center and Cosmetic Dermatology, Department of Dermatology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USADate of preparation: 30th November 2010Conflicts of interest: None declaredClinical question: What are the most effective treatment(s for mild, moderate, severe, and hormonally driven acne?Results: Mild acne responds favorably to topical treatments such as benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, and a low-dose retinoid. Moderate acne responds well to combination therapy comprising-topical benzoyl peroxide, antibiotics, and/or retinoids, as well as oral antibiotics in refractory cases and oral contraceptive pills for female acne patients. Severe nodulocystic acne vulgaris responds best to oral isotretinoin therapy. In female patients with moderate to severe acne, facial hair, loss of scalp hair and irregular periods, polycystic ovarian syndrome should be considered and appropriate treatment with hormonal modulation given. Adjunctive procedures can also be considered for all acne patients.Implementation: Pitfalls to avoid when treating acne: treatment of acne in women of childbearing age; familiarization of all acne treatments in order to individualize management for patients; indications for specialist referral.Keywords: acne vulgaris, benzoyl peroxide, retinoids, antibiotics, light and laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, photopneumatic therapy, chemical peels

  7. Beets for biogas. News from the laboratory and practice; Rueben fuer Biogas. Neues aus Labor und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeche, Ulrike [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany). Vertrieb Zuckerruebe Deutschland und Oesterreich; Schaffner, Sebastian

    2011-07-01

    Being a multi-talented crop, sugar beets are increasingly convincing biogas plant owners with their positive properties. In a mixture of substrates, they are a perfect partner for biogas production as they can push gas yield. In breeding, the experts mainly focus on increasing dry matter yield. There is a close correlation with sugar yield. The market already offers a multitude of highly performing sugar beet varieties for most diverse cropping conditions. The beets are harvested and transported from the field to the biogas plant with harvesting and transport technology which has proved its efficiency for many years. Other than harvested for other purposes, sugar beet for biogas production are stripped of their leaves instead of being topped. Stocking sugar beet at the biogas plant is a quite demanding issue. Sugar beets may be stocked as ensiled, whole beet, as pulp, or as crushed beet in mixed silage. There is a whole range of most diverse storage and crushing concepts. When used as a substrate for biogas production, sugar beet mostly need to be cleaned and stones need to be discarded before feeding the beets into the digester. In the meanwhile, the market offers a large choice of cleaning technique to pave the ways for sugar beets as a substrate. (orig.)

  8. Extensive keloidal healing of pemphigus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Neena

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Bullae of pemphigus vulgaris heal without scarring. We here report a patient of pemphigus vulgaris whose lesions healed with a one-month history of extensive flaccid bullae and uninfected erosions on the trunk and extremities along with superficial erosions in the oral mucosa. The clinical suspicion of pemphigus vulgaris was confirmed by histopathological and immunohistological examination. Pulse therapy with monthly parenteral dexamethasone and cyclophosphamide pulse was instituted. The cutaneous lesions on healing formed extensive keloidal scars despite high dose of monthly corticosteroid therapy.

  9. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vijay K; Aggarwal, Kamal; Jain, Sarika; Singh, Sunita

    2009-07-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis occurring in previously sensitized individuals with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity. Various forms including plaque, ulcerative, hypertrophic, vegetative, papular, and nodular forms have been described. A 30-year-old male patient presented with a very large hypertrophic lupus vulgaris lesion over left side of chest since 22 years. Histopathological examination showed granulomatous infiltration without caseation necrosis. The Mantoux reaction was strongly positive. Hypertrophic lupus vulgaris of such a giant size and that too at an unusual site is extremely rare and hence is being reported.

  10. USDA-ARS germplasm evaluated for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot in Fort Collins, CO, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six sugar beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris) germplasm from the USDA-Agricultural Research Service pre-breeding program at Fort Collins, Colorado were screened for resistance to Rhizoctonia crown and root rot (RCRR) at the Colorado State University ARDEC facility in Fort Collins, CO. There...

  11. Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid in the food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Edward; McLaughlin, Theresa; Winant, Richard C; Sanchez, Agustin; Eckart, Michael; Krasinska, Karolina M; Chien, Allis

    2009-01-01

    Azetidine-2-carboxylic acid (Aze) 1 is a non-protein amino acid present in sugar beets and in table beets (Beta vulgaris). It is readily misincorporated into proteins in place of proline 2 in many species, including humans, and causes numerous toxic effects as well as congenital malformations. Its role in the pathogenesis of disease in humans has remained unexplored. Sugar beet agriculture, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, has become widespread during the past 150 years, and now accounts for nearly 30% of the world's supply of sucrose. Sugar beet byproducts are also used as a dietary supplement for livestock. Therefore, this study was undertaken as an initial survey to identify Aze-containing links in the food chain. Herein, we report the presence of Aze 1 in three sugar beet byproducts that are fed to farm animals: sugar beet molasses, shredded sugar beet pulp, and pelleted sugar beet pulp.

  12. Does information about sugar source influence consumer liking of products made with beet and cane sugars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanus, Brittany L; Schmidt, Shelly J; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2014-11-01

    Beet sugar contains an off-aroma, which was hypothesized to generate expectations on the acceptability of a product made with beet sugar. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the impact of information about the sugar source (beet vs. cane) on the overall liking of an orange-flavored beverage. One hundred panelists evaluated an orange-flavored powdered beverage mix and beverage made with beet and cane sugars using a 5-phase testing protocol involving a tetrad test and hedonic ratings performed under blind and informed conditions. Tetrad test results indicated that there was a significant difference (P beet sugar and cane sugar; however, no difference was found between the beverage made with beet sugar and cane sugar. Hedonic ratings revealed the significance of information conditions on the panelists evaluation of sugar (F = 24.67, P sugar source information in a beverage product. Based on concerns with the use of beet sugar expressed in the popular press, there may be a subgroup of the population that has a preconceived bias about sugar sources due to their prior experiences and knowledge and, thus, would be influenced by labels indicating the sugar source used in a product. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Theory of Vibrations of Sugar Beet Leaf Harvester Front-Mounted on Universal Tractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulgakov Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harvest and transport of sugar beet leaves during harvesting can be considered a current task in the area of sugar beet growing system development. A rotary sugar beet leaf cutting mechanism is used for achieving the significant increase in the harvester forward speed during harvest. This leads to intensive vibrations of the topping mechanism in the longitudinal vertical plane causing the decrease of harvest quality. Therefore, it is necessary to analytically determine the effect of kinematic and design parameters of the sugar beet topping mechanism front-mounted on the tractor and to discover the value of the amplitude of oscillations in the longitudinal vertical plane of its sugar beet topping mechanism. We have constructed a mathematical model of the estimated motion of this machine by means of dynamics equations in Lagrange II-kind form. A system consisting of two non-linear differential equations was obtained by developing the equivalent scheme of selected generalized coordinates and by performing the necessary mathematical transformations. This system describes the vibrations of the sugar beet topping mechanism in the longitudinal vertical plane. The optimal design and kinematic parameters of the sugar beet topper mechanism front-mounted on the tractor were determined by means of our own software and numerical solution of the differential equation system, which allows the reduction of mentioned vibrations.

  14. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  15. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  16. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  17. INFLUENCE VARIOUS REAGENTS ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION INDEX OF SUCROSE FROM BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products from vegetable raw materials play a special role in the food industry. Sugar is one of the strategically important products. The significance of its is great due to its wide use in confectionery, bakery, liquor, canning, biochemical, pharmaceutical and other branches of human activity. Effective development of the domestic sugar industry depends on the terms of competition with European partners. Production of granulated sugar includes a significant amount of energy-intensive and technologically complex operations, one of which is the extraction of sucrose from beet chips by means of hot countercurrent extraction. The most important criterion for the extraction process efficiency evaluation is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. The efficiency of using of beet chips thermo chemical processing before extraction depending on the quality of processed beet was investigated. It was found out that when using a low quality beet the diffusion coefficient decreases compared to healthy beet. The use of solutio ns of some salts for beet chips heat treatment has an overall positive effect on the diffusion coefficient. A method for recovering sucrose from beet with the use of compounds of Al2(SO4, Ca(SO4, and (NH42SO4 as the extractants was proposed. It was found out that beet samples treatment with solutions of proposed salts provides a sucrose smooth transition from the pores of sugar beet tissue into the extractant due to intense convective washout. It is caused by the high degree of tissue cells plasmolysis achieved in its processing with solutions of proposed reagents. The results obtained indicate a significant increase of the sucrose diffusion coefficient in the ammonium sulfate solution used as the extractant.

  18. Utilização de água salina e condicionador de solo na produção de beterraba no semi-árido brasileiro Effect of saline water and soil conditioner on sugar beet yield in the Brazilian semi-arid region

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    Gilberto G. Cordeiro

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Campo Experimental da Embrapa Semi-Árido em Petrolina - PE, no primeiro semestre de 1997 com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de salinidade da água de irrigação e do condicionador de solo Sper Sal (ácido polimaléico na produção de beterraba (Beta vulgaris L., cultivar Early Wonder. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: água com condutividade elétrica de 0,1 (água do Rio São Francisco - testemunha 4 e 8 dS/m e água com condutividade elétrica 0,1, 4 e 8 dS/m mais Sper Sal, com parcelas de 2 m². Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as produtividades variaram de 20,2 a 65,4 t/ha para os tratamentos irrigados com água salina mais Sper Sal e água do Rio São Francisco, respectivamente. Não se verificou diferença significativa na produtividade quando do uso de água com níveis de salinidade de 4 e 8 dS/m, cujas produtividades foram 29,4 e 26,3 t/ha respectivamente. Nos tratamentos com Sper Sal, observou-se que na concentração salina de 4 dS/m, o condicionador de solo demonstrou ser mais eficiente, em relação à concentração de 8 dS/m.An experiment was carried out at an experimental field in Embrapa Semi-arid, Petrolina - PE, during the first semester of 1997, with the objective of evaluating the effect of different irrigation water salinity levels, with and without the soil conditioner Sper Sal (polymaleic acid, on the yield of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., cv. Early Wonder. The experiment was set up in complete randomized block design, with four replications. Six treatments were tested: water with electrical conductivity of 0.1 (control, 4 and 8 dS/m, and the levels of electrical conductivity cited above plus Sper salt. The size of the plots was 2m². The results obtained showed that the yield varied from 20.2 to 65.4 t/ha, respectively, for irrigation treatments of saline with Sper Sal and water from the S

  19. Lupus vulgaris with tuberculosis verrucosa cutis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available 26 years old male presented with two large plaques of lupus vulgaris and a lesion of tuberculosis verrucosa cutis on the right thigh and foot, respectively. Both the lesions were confirmed by histopathological examinations.

  20. [Childhood pemphigus vulgaris, a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellelli, Ana G; Mantero, Natalia M; Rueda, María L; Navacchia, Daniel; Cao, Gabriel; De Lillo, Leonardo; Grees, Susana A

    2016-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a chronic disease that is characterized by flaccid blisters and erosions, caused by immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against epidermal components. It is highly unusual in the pediatric population; it represents the 1.4 - 2.9% of the total cases. We present a case of pemphigus vulgaris in a 12 year old girl, which has implied a challenge both in its diagnosis and in its treatment. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.