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Sample records for beet armyworm lepidoptera

  1. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  2. Corn defense responses to nitrogen availability and subsequent performance and feeding preferences of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-Li; Hardy, Giles; Liu, Zhu-Dong; Wei, Wei; Dai, Hua-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant constitutive defense responses; however, little is known about their effects on plant induced defense patterns and its consequence for insect herbivores. In our experiments, the effects of N availability on growth, nutritional quality (N content, protein/carbohydrate [P:C] ratio, modified gross energy [MGE]), and constitutive phenolics of corn, Zea mays L. were quantified. Moreover, the indirect effects of N fertilization on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner through larval performance and feeding preference were examined. N fertilization increased plant growth, and depressed defense traits by increasing N content and the P:C ratio, as well as decreasing the constitutive concentration of phenolics. Subsequently, beet armyworm showed higher performance and preferentially fed on high-N corn because of its low defense traits. After beet armyworm feeding, high-N corn significantly deterred larval feeding, and had negative effects on the performance of beet armyworm through decreasing P:C ratio and increasing induced phenolics. On the contrary, there were no significant changes in P:C ratio and phenolics in low-N corn after feeding damage. Larval performance and preference were also not affected by induced compounds in low-N corn, which suggested that the expression of induced defense was dependent on N availability. The result indicates that N availability can exert a variety of bottom-up effect on plant defense patterns to influence insect population dynamics, and thereby may represent a source of variation in plant-insect interactions.

  3. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

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    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  4. Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Wietsma, W.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2000-01-01

    The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and

  5. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  6. Use of benzimidazole agar plates to assess fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) feeding on excised maize and sorghum leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is an economically significant pest of sorghum and maize. To screen sorghum and maize germplasm for resistance to fall armyworm feeding, field, greenhouse, or lab bioassays are often utilized individually or in combinatio...

  7. Parasitoids attacking fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sweet corn habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were collected from sweet corn plants (Zea mays L.) in fields located in three south Florida counties. Fields were sampled from 2010 – 2015 during the fall and spring seasons. Larvae were brought back to the laboratory to complete developme...

  8. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) fall armyworm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Franco, Jose G.; Harder, Marcia N.C., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Franco, Suely S.H.; Machi, Andre R., E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One of the most harmful insects the corn culture is the Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), known commonly as fall armyworm, it is would originate of the tropical and subtropical areas of the American continent; its economical importance is due polyphagism, attacking countless grassy, such as corn, sorghum, wheat, barley, rice and pastures. One of the methods more used in the moment is the chemical control that during several applications the insect can turn resistant, then news researches has been made to the control of the insects. Due what was exposed the objective of the research was evaluated the effects of gamma radiation on larvae of S. frugiperda. Insects were rear in artificial diet. Each treatment had 5 repetitions with 20 larvae with 15-20 days of age in the total of 100 larvae per treatment. The larvae were irradiated with doses of gamma radiation of: 0 (control), 50, 100, 200 and 300 Gy, in source of Cobalt-60, type Gammacell-220, at dose rate of 0,508 kGy/hour. After irradiation the insects were keep in room with climatic conditions of 25 ± 5 dec C and 70 ± 5% R.H. Were evaluated the emergence of adults. The results showed that the dose of 300 Gy was the lethal dose to larvae irradiated, and 200 Gy the sterilizing dose to adults. (author)

  11. Toxicity of natural insecticides on the larvae of wheat head armyworm, Dargida diffusa (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Antwi, Frank B

    2016-03-01

    The wheat head armyworm, Dargida (previously Faronta) diffusa (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is widely distributed in North American grasslands and is most common on the Great Plains, where it is often a serious pest of corn and cereal crops. Six commercially available botanical or microbial insecticides used against D. diffusa were tested in the laboratory: Entrust(®) WP (spinosad 80%), Mycotrol(®) ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52), Xpectro(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), and Xpulse(®) OD (Beauveria bassiana GHA+azadirachtin). Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 fold the lowest labelled rates of formulated products were tested for all products, while for Entrust WP additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 fold the label rates were also assessed. Survival rates were determined from larval mortality at 1-9 days post treatment application. We found that among the tested chemicals, Entrust(®) (spinosad) was the most effective, causing 83-100% mortality (0-17% survival rate) at day 3 across all concentrations. The others, in order of efficacy from most to least, were Xpectro(®) (B. bassiana GHA+pyrethrins), Xpulse(®)OD (B. bassiana GHA+azadirachtin), Aza-Direct(®) (azadirachtin), Met52(®) EC (M. brunneum F52), and Mycotrol(®) ESO (B. bassiana GHA). These products and entomopathogenic fungi caused 70-100% mortality (0-30% survivability) from days 7 to 9. The tested products and entomopathogenic fungi can be used in management of D. diffusa. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

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    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  13. Antibiosis among selected paspalum taxa to the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty six accessions of the warm-season perennial grass, Paspalum spp., were evaluated for response to the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), an important pest of turfgrass. In growth chamber, excised clipping studies, P. vaginatum 03-539-31 and P. vaginatum 03-525-22 were the most ...

  14. Flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species of sugar beet and possibilities their control (Transylvania-Romania

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    Muresanu Felicia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors present the obtained results regarding the flight dynamics of some Lepidoptera species in sugar beet crops in Transylvania (the central part of Romania. In order to limit the appearance of mentioned pests to the economic threshold, Trichogramma spp. were obtained in laboratory conditions at ARDS Turda and SBRDS Brasov. The experiments were conducted in production areas on 0,5 ha minimum for each variant. The variants included four Trichogramma species: T. dendrolimi, T. evanescens, T. maidis, T. buesi that were manually released three times: the first release, 10.000 individuals/ha, the second, 120.000 individuals/ha and the third, 150.000 individuals/ha. The first release was performed at the beginning of the Lepidoptera flight, the second at the maximum flight and the third 5 days after the second. The efficiency of T. maidis was between 75-90%, of T. evanescens, it was between 73-88%, of T. dendrolimi, it was between 85-92% and of T. buesi 79-82%. Among the Trichogramma species utilized, T. dendrolimi and T. evanescens were very efficient in the reduction of mentioned pests. Root production was significantly higher compared to the untreated variant, 4,0-4,7 t/ha more were recorded after the application of biological treatments with T. evanescens and T. dendrolimi.

  15. Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in southern Brazil.

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    Burtet, Leonardo M; Bernardi, Oderlei; Melo, Adriano A; Pes, Maiquel P; Strahl, Thiago T; Guedes, Jerson Vc

    2017-12-01

    Maize plants expressing insecticidal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis are valuable options for managing fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, in Brazil. However, control failures were reported, and therefore insecticides have been used to control this species. Based on these, we evaluated the use of Bt maize and its integration with insecticides against FAW in southern Brazil. Early-planted Agrisure TL, Herculex, Optimum Intrasect and non-Bt maize plants were severely damaged by FAW and required up to three insecticidal sprays. In contrast, YieldGard VT Pro, YieldGard VT Pro 3, PowerCore, Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3 showed little damage and did not require insecticides. Late-planted Bt maize plants showed significant damage by FAW and required up to four sprays, with the exceptions of Agrisure Viptera and Agrisure Viptera 3. Exalt (first and second sprays); Lannate + Premio (first spray) and Avatar (second spray); and Karate + Match (first spray) and Ampligo (second spray) were the most effective insecticides against FAW larvae in Bt and non-Bt maize. Maize plants expressing Cry proteins exhibited FAW control failures in southern Brazil, necessitating insecticidal sprays. In contrast, Bt maize containing the Vip3Aa20 protein remained effective against FAW. However, regardless of the insecticide used against FAW surviving on Bt maize, grain yields were similar. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Phenotypic Plasticity, Epigenetic or Genetic Modifications in Relation to the Duration of Cd-Exposure within a Microevolution Time Range in the Beet Armyworm.

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    Maria Augustyniak

    Full Text Available In the case of the pests inhabiting metal polluted or fields where the use of pesticides is common, a natural selection of resistant individuals can occur. This may pose serious problems for humans, agriculture, as well as the economies of many countries. In this study, the hypothesis that multigenerational (120 generations exposure to cadmium of a beet armyworm population could be a selecting factor toward a more efficient DNA protection was verified. The hemocytes of individuals from two culture strains (control and Cd-exposed were treated with H2O2 (a DNA-damaging agent or PBS (reference. The level of DNA damage was assessed using the Comet assay immediately and 5, 15 and 30 min. after the treatment. The immediate result of the contact with H2O2 was that the level of DNA damage in the hemocytes of the insects from both strains increased significantly. However, in the cells of the Cd-exposed individuals, the level of DNA damage decreased over time, while in the cells from the control insects it remained at the same level with no evidence of repair. These results suggest that efficient defense mechanisms may exist in the cells of insects that have prolonged contact with cadmium. Some evolutionary and trade-off aspects of the phenomenon are discussed. In a wider context, comparing the results obtained in the laboratory with field studies may be beneficial for understanding basic mechanisms of the resistance of an organism. To summarize, the high potential for the repair of DNA damage that was observed in the insects from the cadmium strain may confirm the hypothesis that multigenerational exposure to that metal may possibly contribute to the selection of insects that have a wider tolerance to oxidative stress. However, our investigations of polymorphism using AFLP did not reveal differences between the two main insect strains.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

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    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  18. Isolation and DNA barcode characterization of a permanent Telenomus (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) population in Florida that targets fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

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    Telenomus remus Nixon is a platygastrid egg parasite of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), with a history of use as an augmentative biological control agent in Central and South America. Efforts were made in 1975-1977 and again in 1988-1989 to introduce T. remus into the fall ar...

  19. Delimiting strategic zones for the development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on corn in the State of Florida

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    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), cannot survive prolonged periods of freezing temperatures, thereby limiting where it can overwinter in North America. Climate change is anticipated to reduce the frequency of freeze days in Florida over the decades, with the potential consequen...

  20. Laboratory evaluations of Lepidopteran-active soybean seed treatments on survivorship of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) larvae

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    Two anthranilic diamide insecticides, chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole, were evaluated as soybean, Glycine max L., seed treatments for control of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Bioassays were conducted using 2nd instar larvae and plants from both field and greenhouse gr...

  1. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Detection of sister-species in invasive populations of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Uganda

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    Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Kanyesigye, Dalton; Adumo, Stella; Abongosi, Joseph; Ochen, Stephen; Sserumaga, Julius; Alibu, Simon; Abalo, Grace; Asea, Godfrey; Agona, Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    The fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a species native to the Americas. This polyphagous lepidopteran pest was first reported in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe in 2016, but its presence in eastern Africa has not been confirmed via molecular characterisation. In this study, FAW specimens from western and central Uganda were identified based on the partial mtDNA COI gene sequences, with mtDNA COI haplotypes matching those identified in Nigeria and São Tomé. In this study, we sequence an additional partial mtDNA Cyt b gene and also the partial mtDNA COIII gene in Ugandan FAW samples. We detected identical mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for both the mtDNA Cyt b and COI partial genes, while combining the mtDNA COI/Cyt b haplotypes and mtDNA COIII haplotypes enabled a new maternal lineage in the Ugandan corn-preferred FAW samples to be identified. Our results suggested that the African incursions of S. frugiperda involved at least three maternal lineages. Recent full genome, phylogenetic and microsatellite analyses provided evidence to support S. frugiperda as likely consisted of two sympatric sister species known as the corn-preferred and rice-preferred strains. In our Ugandan FAW populations, we identified the presence of mtDNA haplotypes representative of both sister species. It is not known if both FAW sister species were originally introduced together or separately, and whether they have since spread as a single population. Further analyses of additional specimens originally collected from São Tomé, Nigeria and throughout Africa would be required to clarify this issue. Importantly, our finding showed that the genetic diversity of the African corn-preferred FAW species is higher than previously reported. This potentially contributed to the success of FAW establishment in Africa. Furthermore, with the additional maternal lineages detected, there is likely an increase in paternal lineages, thereby increasing

  3. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos; Agassiz, David; Augustin, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    , Madeira and Azores) 21.6%, North America 16.5%, Australasia 7.2% and the neotropics just 5.2%. Th e route for almost all aliens to Europe is via importation of plants or plant products. Most alien Lepidoptera established in Europe are also confi ned to man-made habitats, with 52.5% occuring in parks...

  4. First Report of Outbreaks of the Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J E Smith) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a New Alien Invasive Pest in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goergen, Georg; Kumar, P Lava; Sankung, Sagnia B; Togola, Abou; Tamò, Manuele

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a prime noctuid pest of maize on the American continents where it has remained confined despite occasional interceptions by European quarantine services in recent years. The pest has currently become a new invasive species in West and Central Africa where outbreaks were recorded for the first time in early 2016. The presence of at least two distinct haplotypes within samples collected on maize in Nigeria and São Tomé suggests multiple introductions into the African continent. Implications of this new threat to the maize crop in tropical Africa are briefly discussed.

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O.; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S.; Schneider, M.I.; Smagghe, G.; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F.

    2011-01-01

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC 10 and LC 25 for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC 10 and 60% for the LC 25 was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  6. Lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyphenozide on the development, survival and reproduction of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarate, N.; Diaz, O. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico). Facultad de Agronomia; Martinez, A.M.; Figueroa, J.I.; Pineda, S., E-mail: spineda_us@yahoo.co [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Tarimbaro, Michoacan (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales; Schneider, M.I. [National Council of Scientific and Technical Research (CEPAVE/CCT/CONICET), La Plata (Argentina). Centro de Estudios Parasitologicos y de Vectores. Centro Cientifico Tecnologico; Smagghe, G. [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium). Faculty of Bioscience Engineering. Lab of Agrozoology; Vinuela, E.; Budia, F. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos, Madrid (Spain). Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Agronomos. Proteccion de Cultivos

    2011-01-15

    The lethal and sublethal effects of the ecdysone agonist methoxyphenozide on the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), were investigated by feeding a methoxyphenozide-treated diet to fifth instars until pupation in doses corresponding to the LC{sub 10} and LC{sub 25} for the compound. Larval mortality reached 8% and 26% in the low and high concentration groups, respectively, on the seventh day of the experiment. A progressive larval mortality of 12% for the LC{sub 10} and 60% for the LC{sub 25} was observed before pupation. Treated larvae exhibited lower pupal weights, higher pupal mortality, presence of deformed pupae, and more deformed adults than untreated larvae. The incorporation of methoxyfenozide into the diet had a significant effect on the timing of larval development. The development period for males and females was about seven days longer than the controls for both concentrations tested. In contrast, the compound affected neither pupae nor adult longevity. Finally, S. frugiperda adults that resulted from fifth instars treated with methoxyfenozide were not affected in their mean cumulative number of eggs laid per female (fecundity), nor percentages of eggs hatched (fertility), or the sex ratio. Our results suggest that the combination of lethal and sublethal effects of methoxyfenozide may have important implications for the population dynamics of the fall armyworm. (author)

  7. Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguiar, António M. Franquinho; Karsholt, Ole

    2009-01-01

      Being the first of a series dealing with the entomofauna of the Madeira and Selvagens Islands, this catalogue is a list of all Lepidoptera recorded from this region of Macaronesia, with references to the relevant literature. The checklist includes 37 families, 211 genera and 331 species. 31 spe....... maderensis ssp. maderensis (Bethune-Baker, 1891) (n. syn). Agrotis selvagensis Pinker & Bacallado, 1978 is a synonym of A. lanzarotensis Rebel, 1894 (n. syn) and Agrotis trux spp. maderensis Pinker, 1971 is a synonym of A. trux ssp. trux (Hübner, 1824) (n. syn.)....

  8. African armyworm outbreaks : why do they occur after drought?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The African armyworm, Spodoptera exempta (Walker) (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae), feeds almost exclusively on plants of the families Gramineae and Cyperaceae. It is a severe pest of crops, including maize, sorghum and millet, especially on the eastern side of the African

  9. Susceptibility of field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Florida and Puerto Rico to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue containing single and pyramided Bt genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larval survival of Cry1F-susceptible (FL), -resistant (PR and Cry1F-RR), and -heterozygous (FL x PR and Cry1F-RS) populations of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) to purified Cry1F protein and corn leaf tissue of seven Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn hybrids and five non-Bt corn...

  10. Fall armyworm migration across the Lesser Antilles and the potential for genetic exchanges between North and South American populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important agricultural pest of the Western Hemisphere noted for its broad host range, long distance flight capabilities, and a propensity to develop resistance to pesticides that includes a subset of those used in ...

  11. Trapping fall armyworm in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a noctuid pest of row and vegetable crops throughout the Americas. It has recently invaded Africa and has been identified from almost all sub-Saharan countries. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likel...

  12. Eficiência de produtos vegetais no controle da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Efficience of extracts of plantas in control of fall armyworm in corn Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E.Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Souza Silva Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    . azedarach (aqueous extract 5%, Trichilia pallida Sw. (aqueous extract 5%. The evaluations like percentage of infestation of the fall armyworm per plot, were made three, seven and ten days after the extracts application respectively. It was possible to verify that aqueous extracts of the plants A. indica 2%, T. pallida 5%, Q. amara 2% and M. azedarach 2% and 5% and A. indica oil 1% and 2% with addition of non ionic active tense, don't possess necessary efficiency as the only control method of the fall armyworm S. frugiperda in field conditions. The products begin to affect the development of fall armyworms some days after the ingestion of the powdered leaves, observed in the seven days after the extracts application.

  13. Interação silício com inseticida regulador de crescimento no manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em milho Interaction of silicon with growth regulating insecticide in the management of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in corn plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danila Kelly Pereira Neri

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do silício aplicado via solo e foliar, bem como sua interação com o inseticida regulador de crescimento (lufenuron no manejo de Spodoptera frugiperda em plantas de milho, foi realizado um ensaio em casa-de-vegetação e em laboratório, constando de nove tratamentos com cinco repetições. No laboratório do Departamento de Entomologia da Universidade Federal de Lavras-MG, avaliou-se a preferência das lagartas por folhas destacadas de plantas de milho provenientes dos diferentes tratamentos, bem como o consumo e a mortalidade dessa praga. Em casa-de-vegetação, foram avaliadas a intensidade das injúrias provocadas pelas lagartas nas folhas, utilizando uma escala visual de danos proposta por Davis & Williams (1989, bem como o número e a biomassa das lagartas vivas. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que os tratamentos não afetaram a preferência da lagarta-do-cartucho em teste de livre escolha. A interação silício e lufenuron no manejo de S. frugiperda é positiva em relação ao inseticida isolado, provavelmente devido a resistência mecânica conferida pelo silício as folhas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sprayed silicon via soil and leaf as well as its interaction with growth regulating insecticide (lufenuron in the management of Spodoptera frugiperda on corn plants. The trials were carried out in greenhouse and laboratory conditions and consisting of nine treatments with five replicates. In the laboratory, the preference of fall armyworms on detached leaves of corn plants from different treatments was evaluated, as well as the consumption and mortality of this pest. In the greenhouse, the damage caused by the insect on the leaves were evaluated by using a visual scale of injuries proposed by Davis & Williams (1989. In the greenhouse on the control treatment, both the number and weight of the larval were also determined. According to the results, silicon, the insecticide

  14. Alcohol from sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Verzhbitskaya, V A

    1962-01-01

    The factor which determines the economy in the EtOH industry which uses sugar beets as raw materials is the rapid and complete recovery of the sugar contained in the beets for fermentation purposes. It is best to extract the beets at 70 to 75/sup 0/. Thorough shredding of the beets then need no longer form part of the operation, and the protein compounds, which give rise to fuel oils, are extracted in small amounts only.

  15. Sugar beet breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet is a recent crop developed solely for extraction of the sweetener sucrose. Breeding and improvement of Beta vulgaris for sugar has a rich historical record. Sugar beet originated from fodder beet in the 1800s, and selection has increased sugar content from 4 to 6% then to over 18% today. ...

  16. Atividade inseticida do óleo essencial de pimenta longa (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. sobre lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Insecticidal Activity of Long-pepper essential oil (Piper hispidinervum C. DC. on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos desta pesquisa foram a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas de pimenta longa Piper hispidinervum, e avaliação de seu efeito no comportamento e/ou mortalidade da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado, e posteriormente submetido, à análise por CG-EM e CG. Foram realizados testes de ingestão e contato tópico em lagartas de 1º e 3º ínstar. Os resultados constataram que o óleo essencial de pimenta-longa possui atividade inseticida sobre S. frugiperda, causando redução alimentar e mortalidade, sendo o safrol (82% seu constituinte majoritário. Verificou-se mortalidade no teste de ingestão em lagartas de 1º ínstar com CL50 = 16,2 mg/mL e para lagartas de 3º ínstar a CL50 = 9,4 mg/mL com redução alimentar CD50 = 0,72 mg/mL; e de toxicidade aguda no teste de contato tópico com DL50 = 277,91 μg/lagarta, após o intervalo de tempo de 96 horas, sendo também observados sintomas de neurotoxicidade, como o efeito knock-down.The objectives of this research were to evaluate the chemical composition and bioactivity of the essential oil from the long-pepper leaves (Piper hispidinervum and its effect on the comportment and/or mortality of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda. The essential oil was obtained by steam stream distillation, using the modified Clevenger apparatus, the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC. Tests of ingestion and topical application in fall armyworm of 1 st and 3 rd ínstar were made. The results showed that the long-pepper essential oil has insecticide activity on S. frugiperda, causing mortality and food reduction, and safrole (82% as its majority constituent. Mortality was found in the ingestion test in larvae of 1 st ínstar LC50 = 16.2 mg/mL for larvae of 3 rd ínstar LC50 = 9.4 mg/mL, with reduced food CD50 = 0.72 mg/mL; and

  17. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species.

  18. Response of reproductive traits and longevity of beet webworm to temperature, and implications for migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is a facultative long-distance migratory insect pest of crops in many regions between latitudes 36-55°N. Reproductive performance of L. sticticalis is very sensitive to thermal conditions, such that outbreaks of larvae are clos...

  19. Caracterização química do óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seus efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Essential oil chemical composition from leaves of guava (Psidium guajava L. and its effects on the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Karin Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nesta pesquisa, objetivou-se a obtenção e caracterização do óleo essencial de folhas da goiabeira Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, e seus possíveis efeitos no comportamento da lagarta-do-cartucho do milho Spodoptera frugiperda. O óleo essencial foi obtido pela técnica "arraste a vapor d'água", utilizando-se de um aparelho de Clevenger modificado e submetido, posteriormente, à análise por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a um espectrômetro de massas CG-EM, a fim de investigar sua composição. Para a avaliação dos efeitos do óleo essencial no comportamento das lagartas de 1º ínstar foram testados quatro tratamentos, dois com o óleo essencial na concentração de 0,01% e 0,001%, diluídos em etanol/água 1:1, e duas testemunhas, uma com água e outra com etanol/água 1:1. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que o óleo essencial de folhas de goiabeira apresenta na sua constituição o α-terpineol (0,9%, 1,8-cineol (7,0%, β-cariofileno (7,2% e o óxido de cariofileno (13,8%. Constatou-se, também, que o óleo essencial demonstrou efeito repelente para a lagarta-do-cartucho na concentração de 0,01%.The aim of this research was to obtain and characterize essential oil from leaves of Psidium guajava cv. Pedro Sato, and its possible effects on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda behavior. The essential oil was obtained through steam distillation, by using a modified Clevenger apparatus, and the chemical composition was later analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectroscopy GC-MS. In order to evaluate the essential oil effect on the armyworm of 1st instars behavior, four treatments were tested; two with oil at 0.01 and 0.001 % in ethanol/water 1:1 concentration; two controls with water and the other with ethanol/water 1:1. The results showed that the above analyzed essential oil constituted of á-terpineole (0.9%, 1,8-cineole (7.0%, â-caryophyllene (7.2% and the caryophyllene oxide (13.8%. It was also found that the essential

  20. Estimation of resistance allele frequency to maize incorporated Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2 protein in field populations of the fall army Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from south region of the United State

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South Americas. In the falls of 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were es...

  1. Modeling seasonal migration of fall armyworm moths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, J. K.; Nagoshi, R. N.; Meagher, R. L.; Fleischer, S. J.; Jairam, S.

    2016-02-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is a highly mobile insect pest of a wide range of host crops. However, this pest of tropical origin cannot survive extended periods of freezing temperature but must migrate northward each spring if it is to re-infest cropping areas in temperate regions. The northward limit of the winter-breeding region for North America extends to southern regions of Texas and Florida, but infestations are regularly reported as far north as Québec and Ontario provinces in Canada by the end of summer. Recent genetic analyses have characterized migratory pathways from these winter-breeding regions, but knowledge is lacking on the atmosphere's role in influencing the timing, distance, and direction of migratory flights. The Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to simulate migratory flight of fall armyworm moths from distinct winter-breeding source areas. Model simulations identified regions of dominant immigration from the Florida and Texas source areas and overlapping immigrant populations in the Alabama-Georgia and Pennsylvania-Mid-Atlantic regions. This simulated migratory pattern corroborates a previous migratory map based on the distribution of fall armyworm haplotype profiles. We found a significant regression between the simulated first week of moth immigration and first week of moth capture (for locations which captured ≥10 moths), which on average indicated that the model simulated first immigration 2 weeks before first captures in pheromone traps. The results contribute to knowledge of fall armyworm population ecology on a continental scale and will aid in the prediction and interpretation of inter-annual variability of insect migration patterns including those in response to climatic change and adoption rates of transgenic cultivars.

  2. Developing a pheromone monitoring network in Africa for fall armyworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, was discovered infesting maize in São Tomé and Principe and Nigeria in early 2016. The pest species has since been discovered in almost every country in sub-Saharan Africa. Fall armyworm is migratory in North America, moving in the spring from southern ove...

  3. Effect of gamma irradiation in the pupal stage on the fall armyworm parent and F1 generations reproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Duarte-Aguilar, J.A.; Wiendl, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    To induce sterilization into F 1 generation, pupae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) were irradiated at the age of five days. The radiation source was a Cobalt-60 panoramic irradiator. The pupae were irradiated at the dose-rate of 2.60 kGy/h with doses of 0 (control), 50, 75, 100 and 125 Gy. The hatching of the eggs laid by the adults originated from the irradiated pupae with dose of 125 Gy were 15.0 and 10.0 percent for males and females respectively. Crossing this irradiated parent generation, it could be found that the F 1 generation reached 93.0 percent of hatching for both sexes

  4. Popcorn genotypes resistance to fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Cristina de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate popcorn genotypes for resistance to the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. The experiment used a completely randomized design with 30 replicates. The popcorn genotypes Aelton, Arzm 05 083, Beija-Flor, Colombiana, Composto Chico, Composto Gaúcha, Márcia, Mateus, Ufvm Barão Viçosa, Vanin, and Viviane were evaluated,along with the common maize variety Zapalote Chico. Newly hatched fall armyworm larvae were individually assessed with regard to biological development and consumption of food. The data were subjected to multivariate analyses of variance and genetic divergence among genotypes was evaluated through the clustering methods of Tocher based on generalized Mahalanobis distances and canonical variable analyses. Seven popcorn genotypes, namely, Aelton, Arzm 05 083, Composto Chico, Composto Gaúcha, Márcia, Mateus, and Viviane,were shown to form a cluster (cluster I that had antibiosis as the mechanism of resistance to the pest. Cluster I genotypes and the Zapalote Chico genotype could be used for stacking genes for antibiosis and non-preference resistance.

  5. Inhibition of the Responses to Sex Pheromone of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, Edi A.; Rojas, Julio C.; Gago, Rafael; Guerrero, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Trifluoromethyl ketones reversibly inhibit pheromone-degrading esterases in insect olfactory tissues, affecting pheromone detection and behavior of moth males. In this work, (Z)-9-tetradecenyl trifluoromethyl ketone (Z9-14:TFMK), a closely-related analogue of the pheromone of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was prepared and tested in electroantennogram and field tests as possible inhibitors of the pheromone action. The electroantennogram parameters, amplitude, and the repolarization time of the antennal responses of S. frugiperda males were affected by Z9-14:TFMK vapors. Exposure of male antennae to a stream of air passing through 100 ìg of the ketone produced a significant reduction of the amplitude and an increase of 2/3 repolarization time signals to the pheromone. The effect was reversible and dose-dependent. In the field, the analogue significantly decreased the number of males caught when mixed with the pheromone in 10:1 ratio. The results suggest that Z9-14:TFMK is a mating disruptant of S. frugiperda and may be a good candidate to consider in future strategies to control this pest. PMID:24766416

  6. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Immatures in Maize.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Corrêa Varella

    Full Text Available We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae. Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L. fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  7. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K. D.; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda. PMID:26098422

  8. Mortality Dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Immatures in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Andrea Corrêa; Menezes-Netto, Alexandre Carlos; Alonso, Juliana Duarte de Souza; Caixeta, Daniel Ferreira; Peterson, Robert K D; Fernandes, Odair Aparecido

    2015-01-01

    We characterized the dynamics of mortality factors affecting immature developmental stages of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Multiple decrement life tables for egg and early larval stages of S. frugiperda in maize (Zea mays L.) fields were developed with and without augmentative releases of Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) from 2009 to 2011. Total egg mortality ranged from 73 to 81% and the greatest egg mortality was due to inviability, dislodgement, and predation. Parasitoids did not cause significant mortality in egg or early larval stages and the releases of T. remus did not increase egg mortality. Greater than 95% of early larvae died from predation, drowning, and dislodgment by rainfall. Total mortality due to these factors was largely irreplaceable. Results indicate that a greater effect in reducing generational survival may be achieved by adding mortality to the early larval stage of S. frugiperda.

  9. Natural Distribution of Parasitoids of Larvae of the Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela Murúa, M.; Molina-Ochoa, Jaime; Fidalgo, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the natural distribution of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and to update the knowledge of the incidence of its complex of parasitoids. S. frugiperda, samplings in whorl-stage corn were carried out in provinces of Argentina from 1999 to 2003. S. frugiperda larvae were collected from corn in localities of the provinces of Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, Santiago del Estero, La Rioja, Córdoba, San Luis, Chaco and Misiones. In each locality 30 corn plants were sampled and only larvae located in those plants were collected. The parasitoids that emerged from S. frugiperda larvae were identified and counted. The abundance of the parasitoids and the parasitism rate were estimated. The S. frugiperda parasitoids collected were Campoletis grioti (Blanchard) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Chelonus insularis (Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), Archytas marmoratus (Townsend) (Diptera Tachinidae) and/or A. incertus (Macquart), Ophion sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), Euplectrus platyhypenae Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and Incamyia chilensis (Aldrich) (Diptera Tachinidae). C. grioti was the most abundant and frequent during the five-year survey. Similar diversity of parasitoids was obtained in all the provinces, with the exception of I. chilensis and E. platyhypenae that were recovered only in the province of Salta. In the Northwestern region, in Tucumán, C. grioti and species of Archytas were the most abundant and frequent parasitoids. On the contrary, in Salta and Jujuy Ch. insularis was the parasitoid most abundant and frequently recovered. The parasitism rate obtained in Tucumán, Salta and Jujuy provinces were 21.96%, 17.87% and 6.63% respectively with an average of 18.93%. These results demonstrate that hymenopteran and dipteran parasitoids of S. frugiperda occurred differentially throughout the Argentinian provinces and played an important role on the natural control of the S. frugiperda larval

  10. Mechanism and DNA-based detection of field-evolved resistance to transgenic Bt corn in fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evolution of resistance threatens sustainability of transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The fall armyworm is a devastating pest controlled by transgenic Bt corn producing the Cry1Fa insecticidal protein. However, fall armyworm populations ...

  11. Sugar beet processing into alcohol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Chistyakov, M P; Verzhbitskaya, V A; Tereshchenko, N R

    1963-08-28

    To produce a juice with high sugar content suitable for manufacture of alcohol, sugar beet is subjected to multistage pressing with an extraction following each pressing operation. The solvent in the first extraction is the juice obtained after the second pressing; hot water is used for the second extraction and vinasse for the third. The latter, after pressing, combined with molasses is used for manufacture of yeast.

  12. Synchronized oviposition triggered by migratory flight intensifies larval outbreaks of beet webworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xia Cheng

    Full Text Available Identifying the reproductive consequences of insect migration is critical to understanding its ecological and evolutionary significance. However, many empirical studies are seemingly contradictory, making recognition of unifying themes elusive and controversial. The beet webworm, Loxostege sticticalis L. is a long-range migratory pest of many crops in the northern temperate zone from 36 °N to 55 °N, with larval populations often exploding in regions receiving immigrants. In laboratory experiments, we examined (i the reproductive costs of migratory flight by tethered flight, and (ii the reproductive traits contributing to larval outbreaks of immigrant populations. Our results suggest that the beet webworm does not initiate migratory flight until the 2nd or 3rd night after emergence. Preoviposition period, lifetime fecundity, mating capacity, and egg hatch rate for adults that experienced prolonged flight after the 2nd night did not differ significantly from unflown moths, suggesting these traits are irrelevant to the severity of beet webworm outbreaks after migration. However, the period of first oviposition, a novel parameter developed in this paper measuring synchrony of first egg-laying by cohorts of post-migratory females, for moths flown on d 3 and 5 of adulthood was shorter than that of unflown moths, indicating a tightened time-window for onset of oviposition after migration. The resulting synchrony of egg-laying will serve to increase egg and subsequent larval densities. A dense population offers potential selective advantages to the individual larvae comprising it, whereas the effect from the human standpoint is intensification of damage by an outbreak population. The strategy of synchronized oviposition may be common in other migratory insect pests, such as locust and armyworm species, and warrants further study.

  13. Cyanogenic glycosides in Lotus corniculatus : Their effect upon growth, energy budget, and nitrogen utilization of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Scriber, J

    1978-01-01

    Two genotypes (one cyanogenic and the other acyanogenic) of birds-foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus L., were used to study the effects of cyanogenic glycosides in leaf tissues upon a polyphagous herbivore, the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania Cram. (Lepidoptera). No differences were observed in consumption rate, assimilation efficiency, utilization of plant biomass, or metabolic costs in terms of expended calories between larvae fed acyanogenic or cyanogenic leaves. Similarly no differences were seen in the nitrogen or caloric utilization efficiencies, or in the nitrogen accumulation rate or growth rate of larvae on cyanogenic versus acyanogenic plants. Larval performance and growth on 20-week old plants was generally poorer than on 4 week old plants, however. This was reflected in slower growth, smaller pupal weights, lower nitrogen utilization efficiencies (N.U.E.) and biomass assimilation efficiencies (A.D.) on both the cyanogenic and acyanogenic plants.Although useful as a deterrent to some herbivores, cyanogenesis does not seem to provide an effective defense against this "adapted" herbivore. This study supports current hypotheses of insect/plant coevolution, and suggests that the metabolic costs of processing cyanogenic plant biomass are small in comparison to those imposed by the nutritional status of the plant leaves.

  14. Sex pheromones of the southern armyworm moth: isolation, identification, and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Jones, W A; Aldridge, M H

    1970-10-30

    Two sex pheromones have been isolated from the female southern armyworm moth, Prodenia eridania (Cramer), and identified as cis-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, identical with the sex pheromone of the fall armyworm moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and cis-9,trans-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate.

  15. Feeding deterrence and inhibitory effects of bee balm (Monarda didyma) leaves on fall armyworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)] is a serious pest of many field and horticulture crops. Because of the many advantages for the use of plant-derived pesticides, we tested whether bee balm (Monarda didyma L.) leaves could have feeding deterrence on fall armyworm. When S. frugipe...

  16. Effect of eastern gamagrass on fall armyworm and corn earworm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) are two important corn pests in the southern U.S. states. Effect of the leaves from the corn relative, the Eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides L.) on fall armyworm and corn earworm development ...

  17. Diallel analysis for aflatoxin accumulation and fall armyworm leaf feeding damage in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the major impediments to profitable maize, Zea mays L., production in the southern United States are losses from feeding by fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), and losses from the production and accumulation of aflatoxin in maize grain. The fall armyworm feeds on all above-grou...

  18. Characterization of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    This thesis aimed at characterizing complex mixtures of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides, in order to be able to monitor and optimize the enzymatic saccharification of sugar beet pulp.

    Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with on-line evaporative

  19. A cardioactive peptide from the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, K; Hackett, M; Cirelli, M A; Schegg, K M; Wang, H; Shabanowitz, J; Hunt, D F; Schooley, D A

    1999-01-01

    A cardioactive peptide was isolated from extracts of whole heads of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. This peptide has the sequence ENFAVGCTPGYQRTADGRCKPTF (Mr = 2516.8), determined from both Edman sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry in combination with off-line micropreparative capillary liquid chromatography. This peptide, termed Spoer-CAP23, has excitatory effects on a semi-isolated heart from larval Manduca sexta, causing an inotropic effect at low concentrations of peptide and chronotropic and inotropic effects at high doses. The threshold concentration for stimulatory effects of the synthetic peptide on the semi-isolated heart was about 1 nM, suggesting a physiological role as a neuropeptide.

  20. Diallel crossing among maize populations for resistance to fall armyworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez María del Pilar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the insects infecting the maize (Zea mays L. crop in Brazil, the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, 1797, Lepdoptera: Noctuidae is considered one of the most important because it causes the highest damage to yield. Genetic resistance to the fall armyworm has be an effective control strategy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate new germplasm sources for resistance to the fall armyworm, the key pest for the maize crop in Brazil. A partial diallel design between 20 varieties of Brazilian germplasm and nine exotic and semi-exotic varieties of different origin was used. The 180 crosses and 29 parental varieties along with two commercial checks were evaluated in three locations in the State of São Paulo State (Brasil. Fall armyworm resistance (FAWR under artificial and natural infestations, grain yield (GY, and plant height (PH were analyzed. The populations CMS14C and MIRT, and hybrid São José x MIRT showed the highest resistance, with values of 1.8, 1.7 and 1.4, respectively. Populations PMI9401 and PR91B, and the hybrid CMS14C x (B97xITU had best yields, with 4893, 3858 and 5677 kg ha-1, respectively. Heterosis ranged from -28% to 47% for FAWR and from -21% to 125% for GY, with mean values of -0,43% and 31%, respectively. Genotype by environment interaction was not significant for FAWR. The effects of varieties and heterosis were significant for all traits, showing that both additive and dominance effects may be important as sources of variation. For FAWR, only specific heterosis presented significance, suggesting strong genetic divergence between specific pairs of parental populations. Brasilian populations PMI9302 and São José, and the exotic population PR91B presented high performance per se, and also in croses for FAWR and GY. Crosses PMI9401 x (Cuba110 x EsalqPB1 and São José x MIRT presented high specific heterosis effects for both characters. These populations can be useful to be introgressed in maize

  1. Bacterial Symbionts in Lepidoptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paniaqua Voirol, Luis R.; Frago, Enric; Kaltenpoth, Martin; Hilker, M.; Fatouros, N.E.

    2018-01-01

    The insect’s microbiota is well acknowledged as a “hidden” player influencing essential insect traits. The gut microbiome of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera) has been shown to be highly variable between and within species, resulting in a controversy on the functional relevance of gut microbes in

  2. Fermentation of sugar-beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L; Krishtul, F B

    1956-08-25

    Sugar-beet molasses is fermented with yeast separated from the mash, sterilized, and reactivated. To reduce sugar losses and hasten fermentation, the yeast is removed from the mash as the cells fall to the bottom during the fermentation process.

  3. Genetic basis of allochronic differentiation in the fall armyworm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hänniger, S.; Dumas, P.; Schöfl, G.; Gebauer-Jung, S.; Vogel, H.; Unbehend, M.; Heckel, D.G.; Groot, A.T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Very little is known on how changes in circadian rhythms evolve. The noctuid moth Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) consists of two strains that exhibit allochronic differentiation in their mating time, which acts as a premating isolation barrier between the strains. We

  4. Resistance of corn genotypes to fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Lígia Alves de Paiva, Fernanda Corrêa, Cinthia Luzia Teixeira Silva, Tony de Lima Moura, Franciele Cristina da Silva, Marcio da Silva Araújo, Flávio Gonçalves de Jesus ...

  5. Rac1 mediates cytokine-stimulated hemocyte spreading via prostaglandin biosynthesis in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell spreading is an integral component of insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Cell spreading is accomplished by cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is activated by three major immune mediators, biogenic monoamines, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), and eicosanoids, part...

  6. Detection of beet soil-borne virus and beet virus Q in sugarbeet in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavli, R.; Prins, M.; Skaracis, G.N.

    2010-01-01

    Sugar beet plants with typical rhizomania symptoms were collected from the five major cultivation zones of Greece. The presence of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV), the primary causal agent of the disease, was ascertained by DAS-ELISA in 38 out of 40 fields surveyed and the positive samples

  7. The phytosanitary form and fighting measures diseases and pests of sugar beet from Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timus Asea M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Republic of Moldova. The North and Central regions have good enough pedoclimatic conditions. The genetic potential of sorts and hybrids can be created through the application of modern technologies in order to grow at least 32-35 tons/ha of sugar beet roots. In the Republic of Moldova, sugar beet vegetates between 160 and 180 days in the first year and needs approximately an amount of 2400-2900°C, average of 15.3-15.4°C. Each phenological phase needs different temperatures: at least 4C° is necessary for planting and springing an amount of 650°C is necessary for foliar apparatus; an amount of 1150- 1800°C is necessary to grow the volume of roots and for sugar depositing the average of 2400 to 2600°C is necessary. The mentioned temperatures ensure a normal development of sugar beet plants. If these temperatures fluctuate, the pathogens and pests are stimulated to develop. The most frequent diseases of sugar beet are: Pythium de baryanum Hesse., Aphanomyces cochlioides Dresch. Peronospora schachtii Fuck., Phoma betae Fr. Cercospora beticola Sacc. Erysiphe communis Grev. f. betae Jacz., virosis - Beta virus 2, 3 si 4 etc. The main pests belong to the following categories: Homoptera: Aphis fabae Scop. (fam. Aphididae, Pemphigus fuscicornis Koch. (fam. Pemphigidae Coleoptera: Agriotes sp. (fam. Elateridae, Chaetocnema concinna M. Ch. breviuscula Fld., Cassida nebulosa L. (fam. Chrysomelidae, Atomaria linearis Step. (fam. Cryptophagidae; Bothynoderes punctiventris Germ., Tanymechus dilaticollis Gyll., T. palliatus F., Psalidium maxillosum F. (Curculionidae; Lepidoptera: Agrotis segetum Den. et Schiff., Authographa gamma L. Mamestra (Barathra brassicae L. (Noctuidae, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Pyralidae, Gnorimoschema ocellatella Boyd.; Diptera Pegomyia betae Curtis. (fam. Anthomyidae. Heterodera schachtii Schmidt (Heteroderidae. The most recommended insecticides for fighting the

  8. СHIPS FROM SUGAR BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Priority social problem in the Russian Federation is to provide diverse populations rational healthy diet, taking into account their traditions and economic status. Solving this problem requires the development of processing industries of agriculture on the basis of the improvement of existing and creation of new energy-saving environmentally friendly technologies that can provide deep, if possible without waste, recycling of raw materials. Therefore, the aim of research was the development of technology for production of sugar beet chips. Technology is as follows: sugar beet supplied into the washing machine to remove dirt from its surface. Washed roots inspect on conveyor belts. Next pure sugar beets sent to steam-heat treatment for cleaning the skin. After the beets is subjected to cutting by combining this process with a treatment with an aqueous solution of citric acid. Then he sent for the drying process is completed upon reaching a product of moisture content of 4-5 %. Drying chips feature is that under the high temperature reaction proceeds melanoidins between proteins and sugars present in sugar beet. As a result, the product obtained has the following characteristics: gold-yellow color; absence of a characteristic odor of sugar beet; pleasant sour taste; humidity of 4-5%. Thus, the new technology is relevant, because now the chips are one of the most popular products, ready to eat. A beet chips are rich in dietary fiber (pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose - 4-5 % minerals - macroelements (potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, trace elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese - 0.5-0.6 %, and are the product of a functional food.

  9. RNA interference in Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terenius, Ole; Papanicolaou, Alexie; Garbutt, Jennie S.

    2011-01-01

    in RNAi experiments in Lepidoptera are discussed. The review also points to a need to further investigate the mechanism of RNAi in lepidopteran insects and its possible connection to the innate immune response. Our general understanding of RNAi in Lepidoptera will be further aided in the future as our...... experiments have not been collected in such a way that they are possible to analyze. In this review, we have collected detailed data from more than 150 experiments including all to date published and many unpublished experiments. Despite a large variation in the data, trends that are found are that RNAi...... is particularly successful in the family Saturniidae and in genes involved in immunity. On the contrary, gene expression in epidermal tissues seems to be most difficult to silence. In addition, gene silencing by feeding dsRNA requires high concentrations for success. Possible causes for the variability of success...

  10. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Mladen Pavlečić; Ivna Vrana; Kristijan Vibovec; Mirela Ivančić Šantek; Predrag Horvat; Božidar Šantek

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol ...

  11. Effects of plant phenols of performance of southern armyworm larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, R L; Peterson, S S

    1988-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of two classes of phenols on performance of penultimate instar southern armyworms, Spodoptera eridania. One class consisted of phenols containing a catechol (ortho-dihydroxybenzene) moiety and included chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, and rhamnetin. A second group consisted of the phenolic glycoside salicin and its derivatives salicortin and tremulacin. The compounds were painted onto lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves and fed to larvae for the duration of the fifth instar. Chlorogenic acid and rhamnetin had no deleterious effects; rutin and quercetin caused some mortality and rutin reduced growth rates by decreasing consumption and digestion efficiency. Results showed that ortho-dihydroxybenzene groups may be necessary, but are not sufficient for biological activity. Salicin did not affect larvae; salicortin and tremulacin reduced growth rates primarily by decreasing consumption. These two compounds also caused degenerative lesions in midgut tissues. The presence of a benzoyl ester group in tremulacin accentuates its toxicity, relative to that of salicortin.

  12. Sugar beet leaves: from biorefinery to techno-functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiskini, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet leaves (SBL), which are a side stream of the sugar beets cultivation, are currently left unexploited after sugar beets have been harvested. The general aim of this thesis was to study the biorefinery of SBL, with a special focus on the isolation of proteins. To reach this aim the

  13. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  14. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  15. Sorghum Seed Maturity Affects the Weight and Feeding Duration of Immature Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M.; Whitworth, R. Jeff; McCornack, Brian P.

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed. PMID:24219328

  16. Sorghum seed maturity affects the weight and feeding duration of immature corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soper, Alysha M; Whitworth, R Jeff; McCornack, Brian P

    2013-01-01

    Corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), and fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith, are occasional pests in sorghum, Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Poales: Poaceae), and can be economically damaging when conditions are favorable. Despite the frequent occurrence of mixed-species infestations, the quantitative data necessary for developing yield loss relationships for S. frugiperda are not available. Although these species share similar biological characteristics, it is unknown whether their damage potentials in developing grain sorghum panicles are the same. Using no-choice feeding assays in the laboratory, this study examined larval growth and feeding duration for H. zea and S. frugiperda in the absence of competition. Each species responded positively when exposed to sorghum seed in the soft-dough stage, supporting evidence for the interactions between host-quality and larval growth and development. The results of this study also confirmed the suitability of using laboratory-reared H. zea to develop sorghum yield loss estimates in the field, and provided insights into the biological responses of S. frugiperda feeding on developing sorghum seed.

  17. Oxidative enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin for emulsion stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Pectin from sugar beet is derived from the sugar beet pulp residue which results when sugar beets are processed for sucrose extraction. The sugar beet pectin has poor gelationability by the classic divalentcation molecular mechanism because of a relatively high acetylation degree and short...... polygalacturonate backbone chain length. However, due to the feruloyl-substitutions on the side chains, the sugar beet pectic polysaccharides can be cross-linked via enzyme catalyzed oxidation. The enzyme kinetics and functionality of such oxidativelycross-linked sugar beet pectin, in relation to stabilizing...... emulsions has recently been investigated in model food emulsions. This paper reviews the pectin chemistry, enzymatic oxidative gelation mechanisms, interaction mechanisms of the sugar beet pectin with the emulsion droplets and explores how the gelation affects the rheology and stability of emulsion systems...

  18. Utilization of sugar beets iin alcohol plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, N M

    1958-01-01

    It is shown that it is easily possible to switch EtOH plants, which have used potatoes as raw material, to sugar beets. The whole regime is presented with respect to volumes, temperatures, amounts, and yields in the various steps.

  19. Mapping sugar beet pectin acetylation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Cabrera, Juan Carlos; Bonnin, Estelle; Quéméner, Bernard; Hellìn, Pilar; Thibault, Jean-François

    2005-08-01

    Homogalacturonan-derived partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates were recovered after enzymatic hydrolysis (endo-polygalacturonase+pectin methyl esterase+side-chain degrading enzymes) of sugar beet pectin followed by anion-exchange and size exclusion chromatography. Around 90% of the GalA and 75% of the acetyl groups present in the initial sugar beet pectin were recovered as homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates, the remaining GalA and acetyl belonging to rhamnogalacturonic regions. Around 50% of the acetyl groups present in sugar beet homogalacturonans were recovered as partly methylated and/or acetylated oligogalacturonates of degree of polymerisation 5 whose structures were determined by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-MSn). 2-O-acetyl- and 3-O-acetyl-GalA were detected in roughly similar amounts but 2,3-di-O-acetylation was absent. Methyl-esterified GalA residues occurred mainly upstream 2-O-acetyl GalA. Oligogalacturonates containing GalA residues that are at once methyl- and acetyl-esterified were recovered in very limited amounts. A tentative mapping of the distribution of acetyl and methyl esters within sugar beet homogalacturonans is proposed. Unsubstituted GalA residues are likely to be present in limited amounts (approximately 10% of total GalA residues), due to the fact that methyl and acetyl groups are assumed to be most often not carried by the same residues.

  20. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field.

  1. Attraction, Feeding Preference, and Performance of Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Two Varieties of Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa-Cancino, Wilmar; Rojas, Julio C; Cruz-Lopez, Leopolodo; Castillo, Alfredo; Malo, Edi A

    2016-04-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest of maize and other crops in the Americas. Studies suggest that modern varieties of maize lost some of their natural defense mechanisms against herbivores during domestication and agricultural selection. In the present study, we evaluated the attraction, feeding preference (host fidelity and consumption rate), and performance of S. frugiperda larvae reared on hybrid (Pioneer P4063W) and landrace (Tuxpeño) varieties of maize. We also evaluated the damage caused by S. frugiperda to Pioneer and Tuxpeño maize plants in the field. We found that fifth-instar larvae were more attracted to Pioneer plants than to Tuxpeño plants in a Y-tube olfactometer. Additionally, the fall armyworm larvae showed more fidelity to Pioneer leaves than to Tuxpeño leaves. However, the larval consumption rate was similar for both types of maize plants. The life cycle of S. frugiperda was significantly longer when the larvae were reared on Tuxpeño leaves than on Pioneer leaves. In the field, the Pioneer variety was infested with more S. frugiperda larvae than the Tuxpeño variety. Thus, our results provide evidence that modern varieties of maize may have lost some of their defensive traits during selective breeding. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Discrimination of genetically modified sugar beets based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Yin, Xianhua; Hu, Fangrong; Hu, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to apply terahertz (THz) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques for discrimination of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM sugar beets. In this paper, the THz spectra of 84 sugar beet samples (36 GM sugar beets and 48 non-GM ones) were obtained by using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) system in the frequency range from 0.2 to 1.2 THz. Three chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS), were employed to classify sugar beet samples into two groups: genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and non-GMOs. The DPLS method yielded the best classification result, and the percentages of successful classification for GM and non-GM sugar beets were both 100%. Results of the present study demonstrate the usefulness of THz spectroscopy together with chemometrics methods as a powerful tool to distinguish GM and non-GM sugar beets.

  3. Strip-till seeder for sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schulze Lammers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strip-till save costs by reducing tillage on the area of sugar beet rows only. The seeding system is characterized by a deep loosening of soil with a tine combined with a share and by following tools generating fine-grained soil as seed bed. In cooperation with the Kverneland company group Soest/Germany a strip tiller combined with precision seeder was designed and tested in field experiments. Tilling and seeding was performed in one path on fields with straw and mustard mulch. Even the plant development was slower as compared to conventional sawn sugar beets the yield was on equivalent level. Further field experiments are planned to attest constant yield, cost and energy efficiency of the seeding system.

  4. THE TECHNOLOGY OF PASTE FROM SUGAR BEET OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We considered a new technology for processing sugar beet into intermediate product for the food industry. Nowadays sugar beet is mainly used for processing into granulated sugar. In the granulated sugar obtaining sugar beet undergoes deep extraction of all nutrients: proteins, minerals, pectin, organic acids, preventing the crystallization process, and then the refined product (granulated sugar with a mass fraction of sucrose not less than 99.75% is obtained. We developed a technology for producing a sugar beet paste, which allows to preserve both sucrose, and almost all useful for human food substances containing in beet. A sugar beet paste is a valuable food product. Carbohydrates, organic acids, minerals, proteins, dietary fibers and vitamins are found in it. The block diagram of a sugar beet paste is given in the article. Technology of obtaining a sugar beet paste was tested under production conditions at the cannery (Joint Stock Company "Sadovoye" Liskinsky district,. Storozhevoe village, Voronezh region. The chemical composition of the paste (Dry Substances = 40% was determined, the degree of meeting of daily requirement for nutrients was calculated. 100 g of the product satisfy the daily requirement for dietary fiber by 42.5%, organic acids by 27.5% potassium by 24.0%, magnesium by 40.0%, iron by 26.7%. The sugar beet paste can be used as a semi-finished product in the confectionery, bakery, food concentrates industry, for products with increased nutritional value, as well as the finished product instead of marmalade and jam.

  5. Response of soybean genotypes against armyworm, Spodoptera litura based on no-choice test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayu, M. S. Y. I.; Krisnawati, A.; Adie, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Armyworm is important polyphagous pest causing economic losses in many agricultural crops including soybean. In Indonesia, there are no soybean varieties which indicated had a resistance against armyworm. The experiment was conducted in Laboratory of Entomology and Green House of Indonesian Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute from March to April 2016. The experiment was arranged using randomized block design with a total of 18 soybean genotypes as a treatment in three replicates. The results showed that the difference of soybean genotypes had a significant effect on the leaf damaged intensity. Based on no-choice test and the leaves damaged intensity compared with resistant check genotypes, there was no genotype indicated resistant against S. litura. Most of the tested genotype showed moderately resistant and others showed susceptible to highly susceptible. Genotypes that indicated as moderately resistant are G 511 H/Anjs-1-1, G 511 H/Arg//Arg///Arg-30-7, G 511 H/Kaba//Kaba///-4-4, G 511 H/Kaba//Kaba///Kaba////Kaba-16-2, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs///Anjs-3-3, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs-1-2, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs-5-5, G 511 H/Anjs/Anjs///Anjs-6-11, and Argomulyo. In conclusion, those nine genotypes indicated have antixenosis resistance against armyworm and can be considered as a source of gene for improving the soybean resistance to armyworm.

  6. Sunn hemp as a ground cover to manage fall armyworm populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and south...

  7. Demonstration using field collections that Argentina fall armyworm populations exhibit strain-specific host plant preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm, is a major economic pest throughout the Western Hemisphere of corn (maize), cotton, sorghum, and a variety of agricultural grasses and vegetable crops. Studies in the United States, the Caribbean, and Brazil demonstrated the existence of two subpopulations ...

  8. Migratory patterns of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in the western hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW) is a serious pest of sweet corn in south Florida and a pest of other vegetable, row, and forage crops in the southeastern, mid-Atlantic, and central U.S. It is a migratory pest, moving north each season from overwintering areas in southern Texas and southern Florida. For the la...

  9. Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Responses to Sorghum bicolor (Poales: Poaceae) Tissues From Lowered Lignin Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Patrick F; Sattler, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    The presence of lignin within biomass impedes the production of liquid fuels. Plants with altered lignin content and composition are more amenable to lignocellulosic conversion to ethanol and other biofuels but may be more susceptible to insect damage where lignin is an important resistance factor. However, reduced lignin lines of switchgrasses still retained insect resistance in prior studies. Therefore, we hypothesized that sorghum lines with lowered lignin content will also retain insect resistance. Sorghum excised leaves and stalk pith Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Poales: Poaceae) from near isogenic brown midrib (bmr) 6 and 12 mutants lines, which have lowered lignin content and increased lignocellulosic ethanol conversion efficiency, were examined for insect resistance relative to wild-type (normal BTx623). Greenhouse and growth chamber grown plant tissues were fed to first-instar larvae of corn earworms, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and fall armyworms Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), two sorghum major pests. Younger bmr leaves had significantly greater feeding damage in some assays than wild-type leaves, but older bmr6 leaves generally had significantly less damage than wild-type leaves. Caterpillars feeding on the bmr6 leaves often weighed significantly less than those feeding on wild-type leaves, especially in the S. frugiperda assays. Larvae fed the pith from bmr stalks had significantly higher mortality compared with those larvae fed on wild-type pith, which suggested that bmr pith was more toxic. Thus, reducing lignin content or changing subunit composition of bioenergy grasses does not necessarily increase their susceptibility to insects and may result in increased resistance, which would contribute to sustainable production. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Beets te laten vertrekken is schier ondenkbaar: Nicolaas Beets en de teologiese kweekschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rinsum, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Nicolaas Beets (1814-1903), author of the famous novel Camera Obscura and of many religiously inspired books and poems, Minister in the Dutch Reformed Church, national renowned theologian in the Netherland, and professor at the theology faculty in Utrecht was called twice (in 1852 and 1853) to

  11. The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, van F.

    1975-01-01

    The ionic balance of the sugar-beet plant was studied by measuring dry weight and chemical composition of every leaf, the crown and the root during the growing season.

    The sugar-beet plant has an almost neutral uptake. The nitrate and sulphate reduction determines the amount of carboxylates

  12. Influence of selected Rhizoctonia solani isolates on sugar beet seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczek Paweł

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available From 2008 to 2010 the levels of sugar beet seedlings infection caused by Rhizoctonia solani were compared in laboratory tests. Seven sugar beet lines were tested: H56, H66, S2, S3, S4, S5 and S6 as well as three control cultivars: Carlos, Esperanza and Janosik. Sugar beet lines with tolerance to rhizoctoniosis and cultivars without tolerance were infected artificially by R. solani isolates: R1, R28a and R28b. These isolates belong to the second anastomosis group (AG, which is usually highly pathogenic to beet roots. The aim of the experiment was to test whether the tolerance of sugar beet genotypes to R. solani AG 2 prevents both root rot, and damping-off of seedlings, induced by the pathogen. Sugar beet lines tolerant to brown root rot in laboratory tests were significantly less sensitive to infection of the seedlings by R. solani AG 2 isolates in comparison to control cultivars. Rhizoctonia solani AG 2 isolates demonstrated considerable differences in pathogenicity against seedlings of sugar beet lines and cultivars. The strongest infection of sugar beet seedlings occurred with the isolate R28b. The greatest tolerance to infection by AG 2 isolates was found for the S5 and S3 breeding lines.

  13. Enzymatic modification of pectic polysaccharides obtained from sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Rhamnogalacturonans and arabinans, purified from an autoclave extract of sugar beet pulp, as well as an acid extracted beet pectin (ABP) were treated with enzymes in order to modify their physico-chemical properties. The enzymes used were arabinofuranosidase B (AF), endo-arabinanase plus

  14. Root rot in sugar beet piles at harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet root rots are not only a concern because of reduced yields, but can also be associated with losses in storage. Our primary sugar beet root rot disease problem in the Amalgamated production area is Rhizoctonia root rot. However, this rot frequently only penetrates a short distance past t...

  15. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Beet Molasses | Keshk | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The yield of the bacterial cellulose (BC) produced from beet molasses was higher than that using glucose as a sole carbon source. The structure of BC produced in presence of beet molasses was studied using IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry. IR spectra show the relative absorbance of CO- C ether linkage (at 1120 ...

  16. Ethanol Production from Different Intermediates of Sugar Beet Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Pavlečić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the production of ethanol from the raw sugar beet juice and raw sugar beet cossettes has been studied. For ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, batch and fed-batch cultivation techniques in the stirred tank bioreactor were used, while batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet cossettes was carried out in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB. In both cases, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as a production microorganism. During batch ethanol production from the raw sugar beet juice, ethanol yield was 59.89 g/L and production efficiency 78.8 %, and in fed-batch process the yield was 92.78 g/L and efficiency 93.4 %. At the same time, ethanol production in HRTB from the raw sugar beet cossettes with inoculum of 16.7 % V/m (raw sugar beet cossettes resulted in the highest ethanol yield of 54.53 g/L and production efficiency of 79.5 %. The obtained results clearly show that both intermediates of sugar beet processing can be successfully used for ethanol production.

  17. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae), parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L F; Brito, R A; Penteado-Dias, A M

    2015-11-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886) using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003) information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  18. Redescription of Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Campopleginae, parasitoid of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Camargo

    Full Text Available Abstract The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae is a voracious pest of numerous crops of economic importance throughout the New World. In Brazil, its larvae are attacked by several species of parasitoid wasps, making them potential candidate as biological control agents against this pest. A survey of the parasitoid fauna on S. frugiperda in maize crops throughout Brazil reveals two species of Campoletis, which are morphologicaly very similar species. In this paper we combine these data with pictures from the type material of C. sonorensis and C. flavicincta, as well as their descriptions to provide a redescription to Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron, 1886 using for this both morphological characters and DNA Barcoding (Hebert et al., 2003 information, in an attempt to help with the correct identification of the taxa to improve biological control studies.

  19. Commercial sugar beet cultivars evaluated for rhizomania resistance and storability in Idaho, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and storage losses are serious sugar beet production problems. To identify sugar beet cultivars with resistance to BNYVV and evaluate storability, 22 commercial cultivars were screened by growing them in a sugar beet field infested with B...

  20. Assessment of beet quality using a refractometric method. Ruebenqualitaetsbewertung mit Hilfe einer refraktometrischen Methode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollach, G; Hein, W; Roesner, G; Berninger, H; Kernchen, W

    1992-04-20

    We tested on 40 beet samples how far it might be possible to assess beet quality using refractometric and densimetric methods. Regarding the parameter molasses non-sugar on beet, a combination of Aluminum defecation and refractometry proved to be almost equivalent to methods based on non-sugar components. As well as for thick juice purity and molasses non-sugar on beet, formulae are given, assuming low Ca molasses, for molasses sugar and corrected sugar, respectively, on beet. By assuming a relative loss between beet and thick juice, very simple relationships were found. Practical tests in beet laboratories have not yet been carried out. (orig.)

  1. Differences between the rhizosphere microbiome of Beta vulgaris ssp. maritima - ancestor of all beet crops - and modern sugar beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin eZachow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and function of the plant microbiome is driven by plant species and prevailing environmental conditions. Effectuated by breeding efforts, modern crops diverge genetically and phenotypically from their wild relatives but little is known about consequences for the associated microbiota. Therefore, we studied bacterial rhizosphere communities associated with the wild beet B. vulgaris ssp. maritima grown in their natural habitat soil from coastal drift lines (CS and modern sugar beets (Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris cultivated in CS and potting soil (PS under greenhouse conditions. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene fingerprints and pyrosequencing-based amplicon libraries revealed plant genotype- and soil-specific microbiomes. Wild beet plants harbor distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs and a more diverse bacterial community than the domesticated sugar beet plants. Although the rhizospheres of both plant genotypes were dominated by Proteobacteria and Planctomycetes, 47.4% of dominant OTUs were additionally detected in the wild beet rhizosphere. Analysis of the cultivable fraction confirmed these plant genotype-specific differences at functional level. The proportion of isolates displayed in vitro activity against phytopathogens was lower for wild beet (≤45.8% than for sugar beet (≤57.5%. Conversely, active isolates from the wild beet exhibited stronger ability to cope with abiotic stresses. From all samples, active isolates of Stenotrophomonas rhizophila were frequently identified. In addition, soil type-specific impacts on the composition of bacterial communities were found: Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Planctomycetes were only detected in plants cultivated in CS; whereas Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria dominated in PS. Overall, in comparison to modern sugar beets, wild beets were associated with taxonomically and functionally distinct microbiomes.

  2. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). A copy of the application and any information submitted...

  4. Overview: Identification characters of Lepidoptera eggs (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth. The egg stage is the least known biological stage of moths and butterflies and there have been very few comparative studies. The purpose of this video is to provide the few, major characteristics of Lepidoptera...

  5. Identification and Characterization of Pathogen-Response Genes (repat) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Serrano, Jose; Galián, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) is one of the most important crop pests in the Americas, causing significant damage to maize, rice and sorghum. The mechanisms that determine its defences against pathogens are particularly relevant for the development of management and control strategies. We used an in silico approach to identify and characterize pathogen response genes (repat) present in different tissue libraries of S. fugiperda. The analyses revealed complete cDNA for nine repat genes; of these, repat15 and repat39 were found in libraries from a specific tissue--the midgut of larvae fed with xenobiotic substances. High expression levels of some genes were found in different libraries: 39 hits in repat30 in challenged hemocytes, 16 hits in repat31 in fat body, 10 hits in repat32 in fat body and 10 in challenged hemocytes, and 10 hits in repat38 in midgut of non-treated larvae and midgut of larvae fed with natural and xenobiotic substances. The genes corresponded to two ontology categories, stress response and immune response, and their phylogenetic relationships, nucleotide similarity, number of amino acid residues and molecular weights agree with what has been described for repat genes. It is noteworthy that proteins encoded by the repat genes of S. frugiperda have important defence functions in other tissues beyond midgut and that their functional categories are likely diverse, as they are related to cell envelope structure, energy metabolism, transport and binding.

  6. Effect of the flavonoid rutin on the biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Roberta Ferreira Borges Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae is a major pest of maize crops in Brazil. The effects of plant metabolites on the biology and behavior of insects is little studied. The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of rutin on the biology of the S. frugiperda by using artificial diets containing rutin. The study evaluated four treatments: regular diet (control group and diets containing 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg g-1 of rutin. The following biological variables parameters of the larvae were evaluated daily: development time (days, larval and pupal weight (g and viability (%, adult longevity and total life cycle (days. A completely randomized experimental design was used with 25 replication. The rutin flavonoid negatively affected the biology of S. frugiperda by prolonging the larval development time, reducing the weight of larvae and pupae and decreasing the viability of the pupae. The addition of different concentrations of rutin prolonged the S. frugiperda life cycle. The use of plant with insecticidal activity has the potential with strategy in IPM.

  7. Producing armyworm (spodoptera sp.) Bioinsecticide based on cysteine protease of red ginger (zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, N. T.; Nur, D. F.; Utami, T. S.; Sahlan, M.; Wijanarko, A.; Hermansyah, H.

    2018-03-01

    Armyworm (Spodoptera sp.) is highly polyphagous defoliator on various horticulture and grain plants. Various chemical insecticides have been created to control it. There is a need to create an eco-friendly and specific insecticide which only affect armyworm’s nervous system. This research investigates cysteine-protease’s enzyme activity of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) which is called zingibain. Its catalytic site matches with residue site in armyworm’s body so it can be used as bioinsecticide raw material which meets the criterias above. Fresh red ginger rhizomes were washed and extracted. The juice was then deposited in low temperature and centrifuged to get rid of its starch content. It was filtrated to remove large contaminants and poured into Potassium Phospate buffer. The liquid was then centrifuged again for 30 minutes before collecting the supernatant. Fresh leaves were then dipped into crude ginger protease extract and fed to fourth instar-armyworms. Leaves dipped into non-diluted extract were barely eaten by armyworm while the 50% and 25% dilution was half eaten and most eaten. The crude red ginger extract was not strong enough to kill them although the research showed its enzymatic activity reaches up to 169 PU. It still needs improvement to be produced as commercial bioinsecticide.

  8. Quantitative studies on resistance to Polymyxa betae and beet necrotic yellow vein virus in beet = Kwantitatief onderzoek naar resistentie tegen Polymyxa betae en het bieterhizomanievirus in de biet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, H.

    1993-01-01

    Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) causes rhizomania in sugar beet. The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae . Rhizomania in sugar beet can cause serious losses in sugar yield. Breeding for resistance is the most promising way to control the

  9. Decolorization of sugar beet distillery effluent using mixed cultures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malgosia

    Sugar beet stillage (W) was enriched with glucose (GLU), salts (S), and yeast extract (YE). Three temperatures were ... processes, which are not efficient in colorant degradation. .... University of Environmental and Life Sciences), the Institute of.

  10. Detecting creeping thistle in sugar beet fields using vegetation indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kazmi, Syed Wajahat Ali Shah; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Nielsen, Jon

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we address the problem of thistle detection in sugar beet fields under natural, outdoor conditions. In our experiments, we used a commercial color camera and extracted vegetation indices from the images. A total of 474 field images of sugar beet and thistles were collected....... Stepwise linear regression selected nine out of 14 features and offered the highest accuracy of 97%. The results of LDA and MD were fairly close, making them both equally preferable. Finally, the results were validated by annotating images containing both sugar beet and thistles using the trained...... classifiers. The validation experiments showed that sunlight followed by the size of the plant, which is related to its growth stage, are the two most important factors affecting the classification. In this study, the best results were achieved for images of young sugar beet (in the seventh week) under...

  11. Working-up of sugar beets and defective wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokmakova, M M

    1959-01-01

    Sugar beets can be prepared for fermentation to EtOH by treating them with boiling H/sub 2/O at 4 atmosphere pressure for 30 minutes. If defective wheat (such as wheat attacked by frost) is added to such beets, time must be increased to 1 hour. During the fermentation the temperature of the liquor obtained is maintained at 23 to 24/sup 0/, it will not foam.

  12. MICROFLORA OF BEET SUGAR PRODUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Sugar beet is one of the strategic crops for food safety of Russia. The lack of specialized warehouse for harvest does not provide storage of roots for a long time. In the case of a thaw roots that have been defrosted unsuitable for processing. Beet and products of its processing is a good object for the development of microorganisms. Permanent microflora of sugar production are: Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and other kinds of microorganisms, leading to a problem processing of beet root and reduced quality of sugar. The most dangerous is the slimy bacteriosis is a bacterial disease beet caused by heterofermentative cocci of Leuconostoc (Leuconostoc mesenteroides, L. dextranicum. Product of the vital activity of microorganisms is dextran, which is synthesized from sucrose as a result of dextrany or mucous fermentation and leads to significant technological problems in processing of infected beet. Improving the efficiency of sugar production is connected with decrease in loss of quality of raw material preparation, storing and processing of sugar beet. At sugar plants use a variety of drugs that suppress the growth of pathogenic microflora, but there comes a rapid adaptation of microorganisms, therefore there is a need to implement new products to prevent damage to roots and improve the quality of produced sugar. To resolve this problem experimentally selected bactericidal drug, defined its rational concentration and conditions for the use in sugar beet production. The use of antibacterial drug in the process of extraction allows to increase the purity of diffusion juice 1.3 %, reduce the protein content in it (12.5 %; with the purity of the pure juice increases by 1.1 %, its color index is reduced by 44.7 %.

  13. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  14. Effects of limited irrigation on root yield and quality of sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Irrigation treatments had a significant effect on sugar yield and its quality. Potassium ... beet plants respond to water stress by an increase in tap- ..... nitrogen fertilization on soluble carbohydrate concentration in sugar beet.

  15. Species and cultivar influences on survival and parasitism of fall armyworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Hanna, W W; Engelke, M C

    2004-12-01

    Interactions between host plant resistance and biological control may benefit or hinder pest management efforts. Turfgrass cultivars have rarely been tested for extrinsic resistance characteristics such as occurrence and performance of beneficial arthropods on plant genotypes with resistance to known turf pests. Parasitism of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), among six turfgrass genotypes was evaluated. The six grasses tested [Sea Isle-1 and 561-79 seashore paspalum, Paspalum vaginatum Swartz; TifSport and TifEagle hybrid Bermuda grass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) x C. transvaalensis (Burtt-Davy); and Cavalier and Palisades zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica von Steudel and Z. matrella (L.) Merrill, respectively] represented a range in resistance to S. frugiperda. Differential recovery of larvae released as first instars reflected this gradient in resistance of Cavalier > or = Palisades > or = TifSport = TifEagle > or = 561- = Sea Isle-1 Larval recovery (percentage of initial number released) was greatest in May, less in July and August, and least in October, probably reflecting the increase in activity of on-site predators and disease pressure. Parasitism of the fall armyworm by the braconid Aleiodes laphygmae Viereck varied among turfgrass genotypes. Parasitism was greatest during July. In total, 20,400 first instars were placed in the field; 2,368 were recovered; 468 parasitoids were subsequently reared; 92.2% were A. laphygmae. In the field, the greatest percentage of reduction in S. frugiperda larvae by A. laphygmae occurred on the armyworm-susceptible seashore paspalums (51.9% on Sea Isle-1 in July). Cotesia marginiventris Cresson and Meteorus sp. also were reared from collected larvae. No parasitoids were reared from larvae collected from resistant Cavalier zoysiagrass. A. laphygmae and C. marginiventris were reared from larvae collected from the other five grass cultivars. No parasitoids of older larvae or pupae were observed.

  16. Ethanol from sugar beet in The Netherlands: energy production and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.W.A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Vries, de S.C.; Brink, van den L.; Visser, de C.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Prospects for ethanol production from sugar beet in The Netherlands have been analysed using measured production data from two experimental farms and literature on beet to ethanol conversion. The analyses include beet cultivation and harvesting, transport to the factory, conversion into ethanol and

  17. Ft. Collins Sugar Beet Germplasm Evaluated for Resistance to Rhizomania and Storability in Idaho, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beet germplasm and commercial check cultivars were evaluated in a sprinkler-irrigated sugar beet field near Kimberly, ID where sugar beet was grown in 2009. The field trial relied on natural inoculum for rhizomania development. The seed was treated with clothianidin (2.1 oz a.i. per 100,000 ...

  18. Future policy options for EU beet production: quotas - yes or no?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.; Helming, J.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abolishment of EU sugar quotas will lead to lower sugar and sugar beet prices in the EU, leading to lower margins for farms. At the same time, expansion of sugar beet growing and processing in a quota-free situation can decrease fixed cost per ha of sugar beet and per kg of sugar, making both sugar

  19. Low level of gene flow from cultivated beets (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤vulgaris¤) into Danish populations of sea beet (¤Beta vulgaris¤ L. ssp. ¤maritima¤ (L.) Arcangeli)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, N.S.; Siegismund, H.R.; Meyer, V.

    2005-01-01

    Gene flow from sugar beets to sea beets occurs in the seed propagation areas in southern Europe. Some seed propagation also takes place in Denmark, but here the crop-wild gene flow has not been investigated. Hence, we studied gene flow to sea beet populations from sugar beet lines used in Danish ...

  20. Synthesis of tritiated sex pheromones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Angel; Feixas, Joan

    1996-01-01

    Synthesis of tritiated sex phenomones of the processionary moth Thaumetopoea pityocampa and the Egyptian armyworm Spodoptera littoralis has been accomplished by a simple route involving tritiated sodium borohydride reduction of the corresponding aldehyde followed by acetylation of the resulting radiolabelled alcohol. The process occurs with high chemical and radiochemical yields and the compounds have been used in pheromone catabolism studies. (author)

  1. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for resistance to fall armyworm and southwestern corn borer leaf-feeding damage in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and southwestern corn borer (SWCB), Diatraea grandiosella Dyar are damaging insect pests of maize resulting in significant yield and economic losses. A previous study identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contribute to reduced leaf-fe...

  2. Evaluation of fall armyworm resistance in maize germplasm lines using visual leaf injury rating and predator survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    After examining ear-colonizing pest resistance, 20 maize lines from the USDA-ARS germplasm enhancement of Maize (GEM) Program were evaluated for whorl-feeding fall armyworm (FAW) (Spodoptera frugiperda) resistance using four maize inbred lines as the resistant and susceptible controls. Both FAW inju...

  3. Using satellite multispectral imagery for damage mapping armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in maize damage at a regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armyworm, as a destructive insect for maize, causes wide range of damage in both China and U.S. in recent years. To obtain the spatial distribution of damage area and assess the damage severity, a fast and accurate loss assessment method is of great importance for effective management. This study, t...

  4. Analysis of strain distribution, migratory potential, and invasion history of fall armyworm populations in northern Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a noctuid moth pest endemic throughout the Western Hemisphere that has recently become widespread in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likelihood of further dispersal, pu...

  5. Biogas from sugar beet press pulp as substitute of fossil fuel in sugar beet factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, L; Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H; Prendl, L

    2008-01-01

    Sugar beet press pulp (SBP) accumulates as a by-product in sugar factories and it is generally silaged or dried to be used as animal food. Rising energy prices and the opening of the European Union sugar market has put pressure on the manufacturers to find alternatives for energy supply. The aim of this project was to develop a technology in the treatment of SBP that would lead to savings in energy consumption and would provide a more competitive sugar production from sugar beets. These goals were met by the anaerobic digestion of SBP for biogas production. Lab-scale experiments confirmed the suitability of SBP as substrate for anaerobic bacteria. Pilot-scale experiments focused on process optimization and procedures for a quick start up and operational control. Both single-stage and two-stage process configurations showed similar removal efficiency. A stable biogas production could be achieved in single-stage at a maximum volumetric loading rate of 10 kgCSB/(m(3) x d). Degradation efficiency was 75% for VS and 72% for COD. Average specific gas production reached 530 NL/kgCOD(SBP) or 610 NL/kgVS(SBP). (CH(4): 50 to 53%). The first large-scale biogas plant was put into operation during the sugar processing period 2007 at a Hungarian sugar factory. Digesting approximately 50% of the SBP (800 t/d, 22%TS), the biogas produced could substitute about 40% of the natural gas required for the thermal energy supply within the sugar processing. Copyright IWA Publishing 2008.

  6. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoping; Reisig, Dominic; Miao, Jin; Gould, Fred; Huang, Fangneng; Feng, Hongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target species of transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) that expresses single and pyramided Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin. In 2014, S. frugiperda were collected from a light trap in North Carolina, and a total of 212 F1/F2 isofemale lines of S. frugiperda were screened for resistance to Bt and non-Bt corn. All of the 212 isolines were susceptible to corn tissue expressing Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, Cry1F + Cry1A.105 + Cry2Ab, and Cry1F + Cry1Ab + Vip3Aa20. Growth rate bioassays were performed to isolate non-recessive Bt resistance alleles. Seven individuals out of the 212 isofemale lines carried major non-recessive alleles conferring resistance to Cry1F. A pooled colony was created from the seven individuals. This colony was 151.21 times more resistant to Cry1F than a known-susceptible population and was also resistant to Cry1A.105, but was not resistant to Cry2Ab and Vip3Aa20. The results demonstrate that field populations of S. frugiperda collected from North Carolina are generally susceptible to Cry1F, but that some individuals carry resistant alleles. The data generated in this study can be used as baseline data for resistance monitoring.

  7. Phylogenetic relationships and the occurrence of interspecific recombination between beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and Beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska-Makulska, Anna; Hasiow-Jaroszewska, Beata; Szyndel, Marek S; Herrbach, Etienne; Bouzoubaa, Salah; Lemaire, Olivier; Beuve, Monique

    2015-02-01

    Samples containing two viruses belonging to the genus Polerovirus, beet chlorosis virus (BChV) and beet mild yellowing virus (BMYV), were collected from French and Polish sugar beet fields. The molecular properties of 24 isolates of BChV and BMYV were investigated, and their genetic diversity was examined in the coat protein (CP)- and P0-encoding genes. For the first time, we have demonstrated that beet polerovirus populations include recombinants between BChV and BMYV containing breakpoints within the CP gene. Moreover, a partial correlation between geographic origin and phylogenetic clustering was observed for BMYV isolates.

  8. Analysis of Rhizoctonia solani isolates associated with sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... root to the depth of 2 to 2.5 cm with a sterilized spatula, and 2.5 cm3 of barley grain ... species are rotated with sugar beet in Serbian conditions, 5 field ... Hyphae were examined on a compound microscope at 400 ×, while the ...

  9. Adsorption of sugar beet herbicides to Finnish soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, Sari; Siimes, Katri; Laitinen, Pirkko; Rämö, Sari; Oinonen, Seija; Eronen, Liisa

    2004-04-01

    Three sugar beet herbicides, ethofumesate, phenmedipham and metamitron, are currently used on conventional sugar beet cultivation, while new varieties of herbicide resistant (HR) sugar beet, tolerant of glyphosate or glufosinate-ammonium, are under field testing in Finland. Little knowledge has so far been available on the adsorption of these herbicides to Finnish soils. The adsorption of these five herbicides was studied using the batch equilibrium method in 21 soil samples collected from different depths. Soil properties like organic carbon content, texture, pH and partly the phosphorus and oxide content of the soils were tested against the adsorption coefficients of the herbicides. In general, the herbicides studied could be arranged according to their adsorption coefficients as follows: glyphosate>phenmedipham>ethofumesate approximately glufosinate-ammonium>metamitron, metamitron meaning the highest risk of leaching. None of the measured soil parameters could alone explain the adsorption mechanism of these five herbicides. The results can be used in model assessments of risk for leaching to ground water resulting from weed control of sugar beet in Finland.

  10. Enzymatic Browning in Sugar Beet Leaves (Beta vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Anne; Kiskini, Alexandra; Hilgers, Roelant; Marinea, Marina; Wierenga, Peter Alexander; Gruppen, Harry; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2017-01-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves of 8 month (8m) plants showed more enzymatic browning than those of 3 month (3m). Total phenolic content increased from 4.6 to 9.4 mg/g FW in 3m and 8m, respectively, quantitated by

  11. Investigation of Copper Sorption by Sugar Beet Processing Lime Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the western United States, sugar beet processing for sugar recovery generates a lime-based waste product (~250,000 Mg yr-1) that has little liming value in the region’s calcareous soils. This area has recently experienced an increase in dairy production, with dairi...

  12. Short Communication Assessing the ability of fodder beet ( Beta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was carried out to determine the sodium (Na) absorption ability of halophytic fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L. ʽBrigadierʼ) irrigated with water enriched to Na levels found in winery wastewater. Treatments comprised (1) soil without plants irrigated with untreated water or (2) Na-enriched water, and (3) fodder ...

  13. Inhibition of beet molasses alcoholic fermentation by lactobacilli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Essia Ngang, J.J.; Letourneau, F.; Wolniewicz, E.; Villa, P. (Amiens Univ., 80 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Cinetique)

    1990-08-01

    Alcohol production rate decreases as the concentration of bacterial contaminants increases. In complex medium, such as beet molasses, an alternative mechanism can be used by homofermentative lactic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Lactic acid and associated products, especially acetic acid, are liberated into the medium. The inhibition induced by these metabolites was reinforced by the presence of viable lactobacilli. (orig.).

  14. Sugar beet genotype effect on potential of bioethanol production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation on ethanol production were intensively related to the chemical composition of root, especially sugar content, potassium impurity, syrup purity and some characteristics such as root dry matter and root length. Bioethanol production was enhanced by increasing the sugar content and root yield in sugar beet. Sugar ...

  15. Biohydrogen production from beet molasses by sequential dark and photofermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgür, E.; Mars, A.E.; Peksel, B.; Louwerse, A.; Yücel, M.; Gündüz, U.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Eroglu, I.

    2010-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production using renewable resources is a promising possibility to generate hydrogen in a sustainable way. In this study, a sequential dark and photofermentation has been employed for biohydrogen production using sugar beet molasses as a feedstock. An extreme thermophile

  16. Ethanol production from tropical sugar beet juice | Marx | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Starch and sugar resources have been extensively researched to find a suitable renewable source of energy to supplement the world's ever increasing demand for energy while also abating global warming by stemming the addition of earthbound carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Sugar beet has been used as a source ...

  17. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Study of sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rysanek Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet viruses transmitted by Polymyxa betae are very widespread in the Czech Republic. Beet soil-borne virus (BSBV is present in almost all fields used for sugar beet growing, beet virus Q (BVQ is present in about 50% of fields but beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV is present in some limited regions only. It means that mixed infections of sugar beet by at least two viruses are quite common in the field. P. betae also occurs in almost all fields where sugar beet is now grown. Only two populations of P. betae not transmitting any virus were found. Cystosori of P. betae can harbour viruses without loosing infectivity for a very long time. We were able to detect these viruses in plants grown in soil stored dry for 12 years. BNYVV can cause serious yield losses under mideuropean conditions reaching up to 50% of sugar yield, whereas harmfulness BSBV and BVQ is questionable, because they also occur in fields with no problems concerning sugar beet growing. The host range of these viruses was studied. Both infect all types of beet (sugar fodder, red beet, mangold and spinach and usually are detectable in root system only. Other chenopodiaceous plants are infected only by some virus strains. These strains are also able to spread into above-ground parts of plants.

  19. POTENTIATION OF COPAÍBA OIL-RESIN WITH SYNTHETIC INSECTICIDES TO CONTROL OF FALL ARMYWORM

    OpenAIRE

    ALMEIDA, WALDIANE ARAÚJO DE; SILVA, IGOR HONORATO LEDUÍNO DA; SANTOS, ANA CLÁUDIA VIEIRA DOS; BARROS JÚNIOR, AURÉLIO PAES; SOUSA, ADALBERTO HIPÓLITO DE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The control of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. SMITH) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) has been carried out mainly with pyrethroids and organophosphates insecticides. The continuous and indiscriminate use of synthetic insecticides, for decades, has led to the selection of resistant populations and has caused concerns for human health and the environment. An alternative is the use of botanical insecticides, including through the mixtures with synthetic insecticides. This study aimed to investiga...

  20. Induction by carrot allelochemicals of insecticide-metabolising enzymes in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Evans, C K; Bonetti, S; Zalkow, L H

    1984-01-01

    Carrot foliage monoterpenes induce cytochrome P-450 up to 2.9-fold, NADPH cytochrome c (P-450) reductase up to 1.6-fold, NADPH-oxidation up to 3.8-fold, aldrin epoxidation up to 1.5-fold in southern armyworm larval midgut tissues when incorporated in their diet at 0.2% for 3 days. Stigmasterol and ergosterol did not substantially induce microsomal oxidase activities and significantly inhibited GSH S-aryltransferase activity and sulfotransferase activity. Coumarin did not substantially affect microsomal oxidase and sulfotransferase activity but is the most potent inducer of GSH S-aryltransferase activity, increasing this activity 7-fold. None of the chemicals is acutely toxic to the sixth instar larvae or affect the larval weight gain except coumarin which significantly depressed the maximal body weight attained.

  1. Effect of curtovirus species competitiveness in host plants on transmission and incidence of Beet severe curly top virus and Beet mild curly top virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curly top disease, caused by viruses in the genus Curtovirus, causes significant economic losses for sugarbeet and other crops throughout the western United States. Recent studies demonstrated the two most abundant curtovirus species in the US are Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV) and Beet mild c...

  2. Consumption and utilization of experimentally altered corn by southern armyworm: Iron, nitrogen, and cyclic hydroxamates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuwoto, S; Scriber, J M

    1985-11-01

    The effects of differential leaf water, leaf nitrogen and cyclic hydroxamate (DIMBOA) concentrations in corn seedlings were analyzed for a polyphagous insect, the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cram.). Six different combinations of nutrients and allelochemicals [DIMBOA = 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy(2H)-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one] were generated using two corn genotypes (WF9 and CI3IA) and three fertility regimes (complete nutrient, Fe-deficient, and N-deficient solutions) in the University Biotron. Poorest larval growth was observed in the low-nitrogen treatments (1.2% and 1.7% leaf N) and was the result of both low consumption rates and high metabolic costs (low efficiency of conversion of digested food, ECD). Fastest growth rates were observed forthe larvae fed leaves from the high-nitrogen treatments (4.6% and 4.4% leaf N). It is noteworthy that these treatments also contained the highest concentration of cyclic hydroxamates, which are generally believed to be the primary defensive chemicals mediating resistance against the European corn borer,Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner). If these hydroxamates do have any deleterious or costly effects (perhaps accounting for a large portion of metabolic expenditures), the high digestibility of the leaf tissue and the increased consumption rates more than compensate, resulting in rapid growth (growth rate = consumption rate × approximate digestibility × efficiency of conversion of the digested food). These studies illustrate that variation in key nutrients and allelochemicals within a single plant species (Zea mays L.) may have significantly different effects upon various potential leaf-chewing caterpillars, such as these armyworms versus corn borers (which cannot handle the cyclic hydroxamates, even if provided with young nutritious leaf tissues).

  3. Flora and Fauna in Roundup Tolerant Fodder Beet Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Pedersen, Marianne Bruus

    English and Danish summary. Foreword: For demonstration purposes Monsanto, DLF-Trifolium, and Danisco Seed, in collaboration with The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, established field plots with glyphosate tolerant fodder beets on a number of farms all over Denmark in 1999 and 2000. The Nati......English and Danish summary. Foreword: For demonstration purposes Monsanto, DLF-Trifolium, and Danisco Seed, in collaboration with The Danish Agricultural Advisory Centre, established field plots with glyphosate tolerant fodder beets on a number of farms all over Denmark in 1999 and 2000...... tilfælde øges ved at reducere doseringen, uden at det går ud over roeudbyttet. Sprøjtning med insekticid forringer imidlertid vilkårene for faunaen og kan derved ophæve de fordele, der kan være ved dyrkning af RR-roer. Udenlandske undersøgelser tyder dog på, at der er mindre behov...

  4. Enzymatic gelation of sugar beet pectin in food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergsøe, Merete Norsker; Jensen, Mette; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2000-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin is a food ingredient with specific functional properties. It may form gels by an oxidative cross-linking of ferulic acid. In the present study, the gel forming properties of three oxidative enzymes were examined in different food relevant conditions. The enzymes chosen were two...... laccases and one peroxidase. The textural properties of the produced gels were measured on a texture analyser. The influence of sugar, salt and protein were analysed. Finally, the enzymatic gelation was studied in three food products with added sugar beet pectin. These were black currant juice, milk...... and chopped heat-treated meat emulsion. The addition of salt resulted in softer, less stiff and chewy, and less adhesive gels. Generally speaking, sugar addition increased the hardness but at high concentration the gels were very brittle. However, Young's modulus was lower in gels containing sugar than...

  5. Nonsensical choices? Fall armyworm moths choose seemingly best or worst hosts for their larvae, but neonate larvae make their own choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C Rojas

    Full Text Available Selecting optimal host plants is critical for herbivorous insects, such as fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, an important maize pest in the Americas and Africa. Fall armyworm larvae are presumed to have limited mobility, hence female moths are presumed to be largely responsible for selecting hosts. We addressed host selection by fall armyworm moths and neonate and older (3rd-instar larvae, as mediated by resistance and herbivory in maize plants. Thus, we compared discrimination among three maize cultivars with varying degrees of resistance to fall armyworm, and between plants subjected or not to two types of herbivory. The cultivars were: (i susceptible, and deficient in jasmonic acid (JA production and green leaf volatiles (GLV emissions (inbred line B73-lox10; (ii modestly resistant (B73, and; (iii highly resistant (Mp708. The herbivory types were: (i ongoing (= fall armyworm larvae present, and; (ii future (= fall armyworm eggs present. In choice tests, moths laid more eggs on the highly resistant cultivar, and least on the susceptible cultivar, though on those cultivars larvae performed poorest and best, respectively. In the context of herbivory, moths laid more eggs: (i on plants subject to versus free of future herbivory, regardless of whether plants were deficient or not in JA and GLV production; (ii on plants subject versus free of ongoing herbivory, and; (iii on plants not deficient in compared to deficient in JA and GLV production. Neonate larvae dispersed aerially from host plants (i.e. ballooned, and most larvae colonized the modestly resistant cultivar, and fewest the highly resistant cultivar, suggesting quasi-directional, directed aerial descent. Finally, dispersing older larvae did not discriminate among the three maize cultivars, nor between maize plants and (plastic model maize plants, suggesting random, visually-oriented dispersal. Our results were used to assemble a model of host selection by fall armyworm moths and

  6. Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescure, J.P.; Bourlet, P.

    A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions. About 88% of the pulp substrat can be converted into gas and a volumic load of 7 kg.m/sup 3/ of dry solids was converted in 24 hours. Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. It was not tested with high loads, but bioconversion rate was about 75%.

  7. Review on sugar beet salt stress studies in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayamim, S.; Noshad, H.; Jahadakbar, M. R.; Fotuhi, K.

    2017-07-01

    Increase of saline lands in most regions of the world and Iran, limit of production increase based on land enhancement and also threat of saline water and soils for crop production make related researches and production of salt tolerant variety to be more serious. There have been many researches about salt stress in Sugar Beet Seed Institute of Iran (SBSI) during several years. Accordingly, the new screening methods for stress tolerance to be continued based on these researches. Previous researches in SBSI were reviewed and results concluded to this study which is presented in this article in three categories including: Agronomy, Breeding and Biotechnology. In agronomy researches, suitable planting medium, EC, growth stage and traits for salinity tolerance screening were determined and agronomic technique such as planting date, planting method and suitable nutrition for sugar beet under salt stress were introduced. Sand was salinizied by saline treatments two times more than Perlit so large sized Perlit is suitable medium for saline studies. Sugar beet genotypes screening for salt tolerance and should be conducted at EC=20 in laboratory and EC= 16 dS/M in greenhouse. Although sugar beet seed germination has been known as more susceptible stage to salinity, it seems establishment is more susceptible than germination in which salinity will cause 70-80% decrease in plant establishment. Measurements of leaves Na, K and total carbohydrate at establishment stage would be useful for faster screening of genotypes, based on high and significant correlation of these traits at establishment with yield at harvest time. In breeding section, SBSI genotypes with drought tolerance background would be useful for salinity stress studies and finally there is a need for more research in the field of biotechnology in Iran.

  8. Capture and use of solar radiation, water, and nitrogen by sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggard, K W; Qi, A; Ober, E S

    2009-01-01

    Sugar beet is spring-sown for sugar production in most sugar beet-growing countries. It is grown as a vegetative crop and it accumulates yield (sugar) from very early in its growth cycle. As long as the sugar beet plants do not flower, the sugar accumulation period is indefinite and yield continues to increase. This paper reviews the success of the sugar beet crop in capturing and using solar radiation, water and mineral nitrogen resources. The prospects for improved resource capture and therefore increased sugar yield are also considered, particularly the potential to increase solar radiation interception in the future by sowing the crop in the autumn.

  9. Flocculent killer yeast for ethanol fermentation of beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Kazuhito; Shimoii, Hitoshi; Sato, Shun' ichi; Saito, Kazuo; Tadenuma, Makoto

    1987-09-25

    When ethanol is produced using beet molasses, the concentration of ethanol is lower than that obtained using suger cane molasses. Yeast strain improvement was conducted to enhance ethanol production from beet molasses. The procedures and the results are as follows: (1) After giving ethanol tolerance to the flocculent yeast, strain 180 and the killer yeast, strain 909-1, strain 180-A-7, and strain 909-1-A-4 were isolated. These ethanol tolerant strains had better alcoholic fermentation capability and had more surviving cells in mash in the later process of fermentation than the parental strains. (2) Strain H-1 was bred by spore to cell mating between these two ethanol tolerant strains. Strain H-1 is both flocculent and killer and has better alcoholic fermentation capability than the parental strains. (3) In the fermentation test of beet molasses, strain H-1 showed 12.8% of alcoholic fermentation capability. It is equal to that of sugar cane molasses. Fermentation with reused cells were also successful. (5 figs, 21 refs)

  10. The addition of sugar beet to ethanol pathway in GHGenius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Developed by Natural Resources Canada, the GHGenius model is used to estimate the life cycle emissions of primary greenhouse gases (GHGs) as well as the criteria pollutants from combustion sources. The model can be used to analyze the emissions from conventional and alternatively fuelled combustion engines and fuel cell powered trucks and vehicles, as well as light duty powered electric vehicles. Over 140 vehicle and fuel combinations can be used. This paper examined the effects of adding energy used to produce materials consumed in the production of alternative fuels in GHGenius energy balance calculations, as well as vehicle emission calculations on a carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) eq/GJ of fuel consumed basis. This paper also examined the addition of sugar beet ethanol pathways to GHGenius. Energy balances were obtained and a number of process improvements to sugar beet ethanol processing were examined as sensitivity cases. GHGenius was used to calculate the energy consumption of each stage in the production cycle. Estimates included the energy required to produce the chemicals used in the ethanol processing procedure. Results were then compared with results obtained from gasoline, corn and wheat ethanols. Results of the study showed that energy balances were lower than corn or wheat ethanol. Feedstock transmission and processing requirements were also higher due to the higher moisture content of the feedstock. The results of several European studies considering the use of sugar beet ethanol were also included. 17 tabs., 9 figs

  11. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  12. Resistance to Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias (Diptera: Ulidiidae) in sweet corn derived from exogenous and endogenous genetic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuessly, G S; Scully, B T; Hentz, M G; Beiriger, R; Snook, M E; Widstrom, N W

    2007-12-01

    Field trials using Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Euxesta stigmatias Loew (Diptera: Ulidiidae) were conducted to evaluate resistance and potential damage interactions between these two primary corn, Zea mays L., pests against Lepidoptera-resistant corn varieties derived from both endogenous and exogenous sources. The endogenous source of resistance was maysin, a C-glycosyl flavone produced in high concentrations in varieties 'Zapalote Chico 2451' and 'Zapalote Chico sh2'. The exogenous resistance source was the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)11 gene that expresses Cry1A(b) insecticidal protein found in 'Attribute GSS-0966'. Damage by the two pests was compared among these resistant varieties and the susceptible 'Primetime'. Single-species tests determined that the Zapalote Chico varieties and GSS-0966 effectively reduced S. frugiperda larval damage compared with Primetime. E. stigmatias larval damage was less in the Zapalote Chico varieties than the other varieties in single-species tests. E. stigmatias damage was greater on S. frugiperda-infested versus S. frugiperda-excluded ears. Ears with S. frugiperda damage to husk, silk and kernels had greater E. stigmatias damage than ears with less S. frugiperda damage. Reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of nonpollinated corn silk collected from field plots determined that isoorientin, maysin, and apimaysin plus 3'-methoxymaysin concentrations followed the order Zapalote Chico sh2 > Zapalote Chico 2451 > Attribute GSS-0966 = Primetime. Chlorogenic acid concentrations were greatest in Zapalote Chico 2451. The two high maysin Zapalote Chico varieties did as well against fall armyworm as the Bt-enhanced GSS-0966, and they outperformed GSS-0966 against E. stigmatias.

  13. Molecular Characterization of a Lysozyme Gene and Its Altered Expression Profile in Crowded Beet Webworm (Loxostege sticticalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Kong

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that insects living in high-density populations exhibit an increase in immune function to counter a higher risk of disease. This phenomenon, known as density-dependent prophylaxis, has been experimentally tested in a number of insect species. Although density-dependent prophylaxis is especially prevalent in insects exhibiting density-dependent phase polyphenism, the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Our previous study demonstrated that the antibacterial activity of lysozyme is important for this process in the beet webworm Loxostege sticticalis. In this study, a lysozyme cDNA from L. sticticalis was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA is 1078 bp long and contains an open reading frame of 426 bp that encodes 142 amino acids. The deduced protein possesses structural characteristics of a typical c-type lysozyme and clusters with c-type lysozymes from other Lepidoptera. LsLysozyme was found to be expressed throughout all developmental stages, showing the highest level in pupae. LsLysozyme was also highly expressed in the midgut and fat body. Elevated LsLysozyme expression was observed in L. sticticalis larvae infected by Beauveria bassiana and in larvae reared under crowding conditions. In addition, the expression level of LsLysozyme in infected larvae reared at a density of 10 larvae per jar was significantly higher compared to those reared at a density of l or 30 larvae per jar. These results suggest that larval crowding affects the gene expression profile of this lysozyme. This study provides additional insight into the expression of an immune-associated lysozyme gene and helps us to better understand the immune response of L. sticticalis under crowding conditions.

  14. 21 CFR 173.320 - Chemicals for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-sugar and beet-sugar mills. 173.320 Section 173.320 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills. Agents for controlling microorganisms in cane-sugar and beet-sugar mills may be safely used in accordance with the following conditions: (a) They are...

  15. High resolution melting (HRM) analysis in sugar beet: identification of SNP markers associated to Fusarium resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. cause severe damage in many agricultural crops including sugar beet. Sugar beet needs to be protected from these soil borne pathogens to guarantee an optimal sugar yield in the field. The genetic control is the key to overcoming this disease. Identification of single nucleotide polymor...

  16. Foliar application effects of beet vinasse on rice yield and chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, M.; Garcia-Martinez, A. M.; Benitez, C.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Bautista, J.; Parrado, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an account of rice (oriza sativa cv. Puntal) yield quality parameters as influenced by the foliar application of an industrial byproduct (beet vinasse). Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Subsp.vurgaris) vinasse is a product of great agricultural interest, because of its organic matter content, N and K concentrations. (Author)

  17. The feasibility of direct processing of sugar beets in Slovenia: a quick scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.; Smit, A.L.; Bakker, Tom; Jager, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a quick scan of the economic feasibility of direct processing of sugar beet for ethanol production in Slovenia, using the Betaprocess technology. The outcome is that given the prices for sugar, sugar beets, ethanol and other relevant arable crops that are expected to prevail

  18. Pectic substances from sugar beet pulp : structural features, enzymatic modification, and gel formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.

    1997-01-01

    Pectic substances are present in high proportions in sugar beet pulp. This by-product is therefore a potential raw material for the pectin industry. However, sugar beet pectin has poor physico-chemical properties compared with pectins from other sources. In order to improve these properties, pectins

  19. Steam explosion and fermentation of sugar beets from Southern Florida and the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar beets have recently gained interest for cultivation in southern Florida for their economic potential as cattle feed, a feedstock for ethanol production and their use to improve the quality of water via soil nutrient accumulation. Sugar beets grown in southern Florida, Minnesota and Nebraska we...

  20. Reduction of soil tare by improved uprooting of sugar beet : a soil dynamic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.

    2001-01-01

    The relative amount of soil in sugar beet lots, called soil tare, should be reduced to curtail the cost and negative aspects of soil tare. Highest soil tare occurs in beet lots harvested out of wet clay soil. The main problem is that commonly-used share lifters press the soil against the

  1. Soil dynamics of the origination of soil tare during sugar beet lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Koolen, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    High soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil after uprooting with share lifters is usually attributed to the fact that the soil becomes sticky due to mechanical impact during uprooting. Results of field experiments have shown good potential for obtaining low soil tare of sugar beet on wet clay soil

  2. Yield Estimation of Sugar Beet Based on Plant Canopy Using Machine Vision Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Latifaltojar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop yield estimation is one of the most important parameters for information and resources management in precision agriculture. This information is employed for optimizing the field inputs for successive cultivations. In the present study, the feasibility of sugar beet yield estimation by means of machine vision was studied. For the field experiments stripped images were taken during the growth season with one month intervals. The image of horizontal view of plants canopy was prepared at the end of each month. At the end of growth season, beet roots were harvested and the correlation between the sugar beet canopy in each month of growth period and corresponding weight of the roots were investigated. Results showed that there was a strong correlation between the beet yield and green surface area of autumn cultivated sugar beets. The highest coefficient of determination was 0.85 at three months before harvest. In order to assess the accuracy of the final model, the second year of study was performed with the same methodology. The results depicted a strong relationship between the actual and estimated beet weights with R2=0.94. The model estimated beet yield with about 9 percent relative error. It is concluded that this method has appropriate potential for estimation of sugar beet yield based on band imaging prior to harvest

  3. First report of DMI insensitive Cercospora beticola on sugar beet in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), caused by the fungal pathogen Cercospora beticola, is an economically important foliar disease of sugar beet in Ontario, Canada and worldwide. Fungicides are an important tool in the control of CLS. The first demethylation inhibitor (DMI) fungicide for sugar beet was regi...

  4. The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol from sugar cane, sugar beet and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2009-01-01

    Sugar cane and sugar beet are used for sugar for human consumption. In the US, maize is used, amongst others, for the sweetener High Fructose Maize Syrup (HFMS). Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are also important for bio-ethanol production. The growth of crops requires water, a scarce resource. The

  5. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin: Kinetics and rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugar beet pectin (SBP) is a marginally utilized co-processing product from sugar production from sugar beets. In this study, the kinetics of oxidative gelation of SBP, taking place via enzyme catalyzed cross-linking of ferulic acid moieties (FA), was studied using small angle oscillatory...

  6. Comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beet by polarimetric and isotope dilution methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malec, K; Szuchnik, A [Institute of Nuclear Research, Warsaw (Poland); Rydel, S; Walerianaczyk, E [Instytut Przemyslu Cukrowniczego, Warsaw (Poland)

    1976-01-01

    The comparative determination of sucrose content in sugar beets has been investigated by following methods: polarimetric, direct isotope dilution and double carrier-isotope dilution analysis. Basing upon the obtained results it has been ascertained, that in the case of worse quality beets the polarimetric determinations differ greatly from isotopic data.

  7. Epidemiology of rhizomania disease of sugar beet = Epidemiologie van rhizomanie bij suikerbiet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuitert, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhizomania disease of sugar beet is caused by beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV). The virus is transmitted by the soil-borne fungus Polymyxa betae. The disease can cause severe losses in sugar yield, depending on the level of infestation in the soil, the

  8. 100 years of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Лейбович

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In given article the historical way of development of selection of sugar beet at the Ivanivska research-selection station is opened. For 100 years of selection work at station by scientific employees are created and introduced into manufacture over 20 grades of sugar beet.

  9. Detection of beet necrotic yellow vein virus in Pakistan using bait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Northwestern plains of Pakistan are the major sugar beet producing region in the country, providing an important alternative to sugar cane for sugar production when sugar cane is absent in the fields. We surveyed this region for four consecutive years and found that Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is prevalent ...

  10. Effects of Celangulin IV and V From Celastrus angulatus Maxim on Na+/K+-ATPase Activities of the Oriental Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Feng, Mingxing; Ji, Yufei; Wu, Wenjun; Hu, Zhaonong

    2016-01-01

    Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is an important target for the development of botanical pesticide as it is responsible for transforming chemical energy in ATP to osmotic work and maintaining electrochemical Na(+ )and K(+ )gradients across the cell membrane of most animal cells. Celangulin IV (C-IV) and V (C-V), which are isolated from the root bark of Celastrus angulatus, are the major active ingredients of this insecticidal plant. The activities of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were investigated by ultramicro measuring method to evaluate the effects of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities of the brain from the fifth Mythimna separata larvae and to discuss the insecticidal mechanism of C-IV and C-V. Results indicate that inhibitory activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase by C-IV and C-V possess an obvious concentration-dependent in vitro. Compared with C-IV, the inhibition of C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase was not striking. In vivo, at a concentration of 25 mg/liter, the inhibition ratio of C-IV on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity from the brain in narcosis and recovery period was more remarkable than that of C-V. Furthermore, the insects were fed with different mixture ratios of C-IV and C-V. The inhibition extent of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity was corresponded with the dose of C-IV. However, C-V had no notable effects. This finding may mean that the mechanism of action of C-IV and C-V on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were different. Na(+)/K -ATPase may be an action target of C-IV and C-V. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  11. Analysis and functional annotation of expressed sequence tags from the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping; Dong, Yinghua; Thodima, Venkata; Clem, Rollie J; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2006-01-01

    Background Little is known about the genome sequences of lepidopteran insects, although this group of insects has been studied extensively in the fields of endocrinology, development, immunity, and pathogen-host interactions. In addition, cell lines derived from Spodoptera frugiperda and other lepidopteran insects are routinely used for baculovirus foreign gene expression. This study reports the results of an expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing project in cells from the lepidopteran insect S. frugiperda, the fall armyworm. Results We have constructed an EST database using two cDNA libraries from the S. frugiperda-derived cell line, SF-21. The database consists of 2,367 ESTs which were assembled into 244 contigs and 951 singlets for a total of 1,195 unique sequences. Conclusion S. frugiperda is an agriculturally important pest insect and genomic information will be instrumental for establishing initial transcriptional profiling and gene function studies, and for obtaining information about genes manipulated during infections by insect pathogens such as baculoviruses. PMID:17052344

  12. Antioxidant enzyme level response to prooxidant allelochemicals in larvae of the southern armyworm moth, Spodoptera eridania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritsos, C A; Ahmad, S; Elliott, A J; Pardini, R S

    1990-01-01

    Larvae of the southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania, are highly polyphagous feeders which frequently encounter and feed upon plants containing high levels of prooxidant allelochemicals. While ingestion of moderate quantities of prooxidants can be tolerated by these larvae, ingestion of larger quantities can result in toxicity. Studies were conducted to assess the role of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) in the protection of S. eridania against redox active prooxidant plant allelochemicals. Dietary exposure of mid-fifth-instar larvae to either quercetin (a flavonoid) or xanthotoxin (a photoactive furanocoumarin), which generate superoxide radical, and singlet oxygen, respectively, resulted in an increase in SOD levels. CAT levels increased in all groups of S. eridania including control insects. This may have been due to the sudden exposure to food following an extended fast of 18 h (to insure that larvae would not reject the diet because of the prooxidants' bitter taste) with an eventual lowering of CAT values with time. GR activities did not significantly change except for a slight inhibition at the highest prooxidant concentrations used at 12-h post-ingestion. The data from these studies suggest that SOD responds to prooxidant challenges in these insects and together with CAT and GR contributes to the insect's defense against potentially toxic prooxidant compounds.

  13. A Molecular View of Autophagy in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Romanelli, Davide; Casati, Barbara; Franzetti, Eleonora; Tettamanti, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characteri...

  14. EFFECT OF FERTILIZATION ON THE YIELD OF RED BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sh. Gaplaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment has revealed that application of green manure and mulching of seedlings by organic matters and zeolite-containing clay increases the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, and improves agro-physical parameters of soil. As consequence the yield of red beet has increased up to 14-34%, the root weight has increased up to 11-16 g, and the standard output has increased up to 3-7%. The improvement of biochemical and phytosanitary quality of roots was revealed.

  15. Beet western yellows virus infects the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sissi; Biteau, Flore; Mignard, Benoit; Marais, Armelle; Candresse, Thierry; Theil, Sébastien; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Hehn, Alain

    2016-08-01

    Although poleroviruses are known to infect a broad range of higher plants, carnivorous plants have not yet been reported as hosts. Here, we describe the first polerovirus naturally infecting the pitcher plant Nepenthes mirabilis. The virus was identified through bioinformatic analysis of NGS transcriptome data. The complete viral genome sequence was assembled from overlapping PCR fragments and shown to share 91.1 % nucleotide sequence identity with the US isolate of beet western yellows virus (BWYV). Further analysis of other N. mirabilis plants revealed the presence of additional BWYV isolates differing by several insertion/deletion mutations in ORF5.

  16. Soil tare and relative soil adherence after uprooting sugar beet by a share lifter, a driven rotary-shoe lifter and a grab lifter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, G.D.; Klooster, J.J.; Sprong, M.C.; Verwijs, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    The soil tare of sugar beet from wet clay soils should be reduced to lower the cost and prevent some negative effects of soil tare. Commonly used share lifters press the soil onto the sugar beet and, thereafter, the soil adheres strongly to the beet and is difficult to remove from the beet by

  17. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Four Crop Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordy, John W; Leonard, B Rogers; Blouin, David; Davis, Jeffrey A; Stout, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA), benzothiadiazole (BTH), gibberellic acid (GA), harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA) are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (FAW) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker)], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  18. Comparative Effectiveness of Potential Elicitors of Plant Resistance against Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae in Four Crop Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Gordy

    Full Text Available Feeding by insect herbivores activates plant signaling pathways, resulting in the enhanced production of secondary metabolites and other resistance-related traits by injured plants. These traits can reduce insect fitness, deter feeding, and attract beneficial insects. Organic and inorganic chemicals applied as a foliar spray, seed treatment, or soil drench can activate these plant responses. Azelaic acid (AA, benzothiadiazole (BTH, gibberellic acid (GA, harpin, and jasmonic acid (JA are thought to directly mediate plant responses to pathogens and herbivores or to mimic compounds that do. The effects of these potential elicitors on the induction of plant defenses were determined by measuring the weight gains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (FAW (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae on four crop plants, cotton, corn, rice, and soybean, treated with the compounds under greenhouse conditions. Treatment with JA consistently reduced growth of FAW reared on treated cotton and soybean. In contrast, FAW fed BTH- and harpin-treated cotton and soybean tissue gained more weight than those fed control leaf tissue, consistent with negative crosstalk between the salicylic acid and JA signaling pathways. No induction or inconsistent induction of resistance was observed in corn and rice. Follow-up experiments showed that the co-application of adjuvants with JA failed to increase the effectiveness of induction by JA and that soybean looper [Chrysodeixis includens (Walker], a relative specialist on legumes, was less affected by JA-induced responses in soybean than was the polyphagous FAW. Overall, the results of these experiments demonstrate that the effectiveness of elicitors as a management tactic will depend strongly on the identities of the crop, the pest, and the elicitor involved.

  19. Co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilgin, M.; Deveci Duranay, N.; Pehlivan, D.

    2010-01-01

    Today, worldwide studies have been undertaken on the biomass usage and co-conversion of biomass and coal to seek out alternative fuels for supplying energy in an environmental friendly way. The objective of this work is to study co-pyrolysis of lignite and sugar beet pulp in 50/50 (wt./wt.) ratio of blend pellets, to elucidate their thermal behaviour under pyrolysis conditions and to assess major decomposition products in terms of their yields. A special chamber, which has enabled very fast heating rates, was used in the pyrolysis experiments carried at 600 deg. C. The results were interpreted in the light of liquid, solid and gaseous yields, resulting from thermal decomposition, and kinetics of thermogravimetric analysis. Proximate volatile matter and ash contents of the blends were different compared to those found by using individual values. Sugar beet pulp decomposed faster within a relatively narrow temperature range than lignite and underwent a significant shrinkage during pyrolysis. It was found that the chars left behind after the flash pyrolysis of these pellets at 600 deg. C have substantial amounts of volatile matter that would evolve upon further heating.

  20. ROOT YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET INVESTIGATED HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research of the production values of 10 sugar beet hybrids was conducted at the location Dalj from 2009-2012. Hybrids included in the experiment are owned by four selection houses and represented in wide production. Weather conditions in the years of investigation differed greatly. One was an average, one with increased, and two with small amounts of rainfall in relation to long-term average. Monthly air temperatures during the vegetation were increased in all four years. Root yield and quality of sugar beet varied considerably depending on the year and the hybrid. The best hybrid on the average of the investigation, by the highest root, was Severina (86.66 t ha-1. Three more hybrids: Coyote, Boomerang and Predator are in the same range. There are no significant differences in this indicator. Hybrid Colonia KWS (15.40% had the highest content of sugar in the root and Asketa, Gazeta, Severina and Protecta with no significant differences. Hybrid Colonia KWS was known for the low content of AmN and Na. Sugar yield, significantly higher than other hybrids in the study, has been realized with hybrids Severina (11.05 t ha-1 and Colonia KWS (10.78 t ha-1.

  1. Effect of low gamma ray doses on sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Oudat, M.

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of presowing irradiation simulation on sugar beet seeds in two regions (Deir Elzour and Damascus) and for three successive cropping seasons (1986-1989). Those seeds were irradiated with gamma radiation doses varying from 0.005 to 0.050 kGy in the first region, and from 0.005 to 0.025 kGy in the second region. Results showed that doses varying from 0.005 to 0.05 kGy in Deir Elzour gave a mean yield increase varying from 17.4% to 22.6%. However, doses varying from 0.005 to 0.025 in Damascus gave an increase of the same parameter between 19.5% and 23.8%. The best results for pure sugar yield increase obtained for a dose of 0.015 kGy (27.1% in Deir Elzour and 31.9% in Damascus). Yields on the farm level obtained from presowing irradiated seeds showed an increase in sugar beets when using 0.015 kGy gamma radiation dose. (author)

  2. Development of Beet Sugar Production in Ryazan Region in the Context of Ensuring Food Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansurov Ruslan Evgenyevich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on the current state of the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region in the context of the need of improving its efficiency. The study let the author determine that currently the beet sugar subcomplex of Ryazan region does not ensure domestic demand in sand sugar. However, there are reserves of providing more efficient use of soil and climate capacity as well as the productivity potential of the region. When applying the technology of field beet piling, the period of sugar production at sugar factories may be extended up to 200 days. At this, up to 51 thousand tons of sand sugar can be produced. This amount will completely cover the annual demand for sugar in Ryazan region. In order to further study the feasibility of this approach, zoning was carried out and let allocate the zones of beet seeding. As a result, it was determined that a number of areas are far removed from the place of treatment, and in terms of transportation costs minimization the sugar beet cultivation in these areas is not rational. As an alternative, the author proposes to consider the possibility of building a new sugar factory in Ryazhsky district with the processing capacity of 1,000 tons of sugar beet per day. Taking this into account, the recommended acreage of sugar beet by districts and zones of raw material supply were obtained through corresponding calculations.

  3. Problems of Development and Increase of Economic Efficiency of Sugar Beet Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomashevska Olga A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the studying of the trends of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production (using the example of agricultural enterprises of Rokytne district of Kyiv region and an attempt to outline the directions for improvement of the situation in the sugar beet industry. As a result of the research, the dynamics of development and economic efficiency of sugar beet production at farms of Rokytne district of Kyiv region is analyzed, and the break-even volume of sugar beet production by agrarian enterprises of Kiev region and an individual enterprise of Rokytne district is determined. Particular attention is paid to the dynamics of profitability of sugar beet production in the period from 2011 to 2015. The main problems hindering the development of sugar beet production are identified, namely, the lack of sales channels and high production costs. Prospects for further research in this area are to increase the economic efficiency of sugar beet production and find ways to develop this sector, provided that the production is properly organized, the manufacturing process is followed, the fertilizers are properly used, the seeds are chosen correctly, advanced technologies and high-performance equipment are applied, etc.

  4. INFLUENCE VARIOUS REAGENTS ON THE MOLECULAR DIFFUSION INDEX OF SUCROSE FROM BEET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Food products from vegetable raw materials play a special role in the food industry. Sugar is one of the strategically important products. The significance of its is great due to its wide use in confectionery, bakery, liquor, canning, biochemical, pharmaceutical and other branches of human activity. Effective development of the domestic sugar industry depends on the terms of competition with European partners. Production of granulated sugar includes a significant amount of energy-intensive and technologically complex operations, one of which is the extraction of sucrose from beet chips by means of hot countercurrent extraction. The most important criterion for the extraction process efficiency evaluation is the coefficient of molecular diffusion. The efficiency of using of beet chips thermo chemical processing before extraction depending on the quality of processed beet was investigated. It was found out that when using a low quality beet the diffusion coefficient decreases compared to healthy beet. The use of solutio ns of some salts for beet chips heat treatment has an overall positive effect on the diffusion coefficient. A method for recovering sucrose from beet with the use of compounds of Al2(SO4, Ca(SO4, and (NH42SO4 as the extractants was proposed. It was found out that beet samples treatment with solutions of proposed salts provides a sucrose smooth transition from the pores of sugar beet tissue into the extractant due to intense convective washout. It is caused by the high degree of tissue cells plasmolysis achieved in its processing with solutions of proposed reagents. The results obtained indicate a significant increase of the sucrose diffusion coefficient in the ammonium sulfate solution used as the extractant.

  5. Cry1F resistance in fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda: single gene versus pyramided Bt maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fangneng; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Meagher, Robert L; Reisig, Dominic D; Head, Graham P; Andow, David A; Ni, Xinzi; Kerns, David; Buntin, G David; Niu, Ying; Yang, Fei; Dangal, Vikash

    2014-01-01

    Evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes is a serious threat to the sustainability of this technology. However, field resistance related to the reduced efficacy of Bt maize has not been documented in any lepidopteran pest in the mainland U.S. after 18 years of intensive Bt maize planting. Here we report compelling evidence of field resistance in the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), to Cry1F maize (TC 3507) in the southeastern region of the U.S. An F2 screen showed a surprisingly high (0.293) Cry1F resistance allele frequency in a population collected in 2011 from non-Bt maize in south Florida. Field populations from non-Bt maize in 2012-2013 exhibited 18.8-fold to >85.4-fold resistance to purified Cry1F protein and those collected from unexpectedly damaged Bt maize plants at several locations in Florida and North Carolina had >85.4-fold resistance. In addition, reduced efficacy and control failure of Cry1F maize against natural populations of S. frugiperda were documented in field trials using Cry1F-based and pyramided Bt maize products in south Florida. The Cry1F-resistant S. frugiperda also showed a low level of cross-resistance to Cry1A.105 and related maize products, but not to Cry2Ab2 or Vip3A. The occurrence of Cry1F resistance in the U.S. mainland populations of S. frugiperda likely represents migration of insects from Puerto Rico, indicating the great challenges faced in achieving effective resistance management for long-distance migratory pests like S. frugiperda.

  6. New findings on the biogas production from sugar beets; Neue Erkenntnisse zur Biogasproduktion aus Zuckerrueben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Hinnerk; Schlaefer, Ottmar; Sievers, Michael [CUTEC-Institut GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Trommler, Marcus; Postel, Jan [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany); Felde, Andreas von; Harling, Hinrich; Rother, Beate [KWS Saat AG, Einbeck (Germany); Franke, Henning; Tkocz, Lisa [INPUT Ingenieure GmbH, Sehnde (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Main purpose of the project is the process improvement to acquire the full potential of sugar beet based biomethane production. This covers the optimization of breeding and cultivation, as well as improvements of the overall logistic and production process. The project results show that breeding of regional adapted sugar beets can lead to higher yields in cultivation as well as technical enhancements within the biogas production chain can lower the production costs. Both approaches are part of an overall optimization of sugar beets for biomethane production. Project findings indicate a competitive position in comparison to biomethane based on different agricultural feedstock. (orig.)

  7. Comparative molecular analyses of invasive fall armyworm in Togo reveal strong similarities to populations from the eastern United States and the Greater Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda, J.E. Smith) is a major and ubiquitous noctuid pest of agricultural in the Western Hemisphere. Infestations have recently been identified in several locations in Africa, indicating its establishment in the Eastern Hemisphere where it poses an immediate and si...

  8. Using intron sequence comparisons in the triose-phosphate isomerase gene to study the divergence of the fall armyworm host strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Noctuid moth, Spodoptera frugiperda (the fall armyworm), is endemic to the Western Hemisphere and appears to be undergoing sympatric speciation to produce two subpopulations that differ in their choice of host plants. The diverging “rice strain” and “corn strain” are morphologically indistinguis...

  9. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.

  10. Hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanidae: Lepidoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Yack, Jayne E; Spence, Andrew J

    2003-01-01

    This study presents anatomical and physiological evidence for a sense of hearing in hooktip moths (Drepanoidea). Two example species, Drepana arcuata and Watsonalla uncinula, were examined. The abdominal ears of drepanids are structurally unique compared to those of other Lepidoptera and other...... to the dorsal chamber. The ear is tuned to ultrasonic frequencies between 30 and 65 kHz, with a best threshold of around 52 dB SPL at 40 kHz, and no apparent difference between genders. Thus, drepanid hearing resembles that of other moths, indicating that the main function is bat detection. Two sensory cells...

  11. Sex pheromone of the baldcypress leafroller (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian T. Sullivan; Jeremy D. Allison; Richard A. Goyer; William P. Shepherd

    2015-01-01

    The baldcypress leafroller, Archips goyerana Kruse (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a specialist on Taxodium distichum (L.) Richard and has caused serious defoliation in swamps of southeastern Louisiana, accelerating decline of baldcypress forests concurrently suffering from nutrient depletion, prolonged flooding, and saltwater...

  12. Recovery Effects of Oral Administration of Glucosylceramide and Beet Extract on Skin Barrier Destruction by UVB in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tokudome

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified glucosylceramide from beet extract (beet GlcCer and beet extract containing an equal amount of GlcCer were administered orally to ultra violet B (UVB-irradiated mice, and differences in the protective effects against skin barrier dysfunction caused by UVB irradiation were compared. In the beet GlcCer group, epidermal thickening and the decrease in stratum corneum (SC ceramide content caused by UVB irradiation were reduced. In the group that was orally administered beet extract containing glucosylceramide, effects similar to those in the beet GlcCer group were observed. Oral administration of beet GlcCer had no obvious effects against an increase in TEWL or decrease in SC water content after UVB irradiation, but there was improvement in the beet extract group. Oral administration of beet GlcCer is effective in improving skin barrier function in UVB-irradiated mice. Beet extract contains constituents other than GlcCer that are also effective in improving skin barrier function.

  13. First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available First record of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae in Chile. The presence of Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera, Pieridae is reported for the first time in Chile, from the Azapa valley, Arica.Primeiro registro de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas (Lepidoptera, Pieridae no Chile. A presença de Phoebis argante chincha Lamas, 1976 (Lepidoptera; Pieridae é mencionada pela primeira vez para o Chile, no vale de Azapa, Arica.

  14. The ultrasound-assisted sugar extraction from sugar beet cossettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasiak, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ultrasound-assisted water extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes. The ultrasound bath device (25 kHz, 200 W) was used. The sonication accelerated sugar diffusion at both temperatures 18 deg C and 77.6 deg C and gave the higher level of dry matter content SS (4-6 percent) and sugar content CK (7-22 percent) in juice. The SS and CK depended on time of exposition, time and temperature of extraction. In particular, the effects of 5 min ultrasound-assisted extraction were equal to 20 min extraction in traditional conditions. The shorter time, lower temperature, higher efficiency and purity of juice could be the effects of sugar extraction with ultrasound. The change of thickness of diffusion membrane, microflows in tissue as well as it's environment caused by ultrasound was the reason of acceleration of sugar extraction

  15. Energy usage in Beet Suger Factories. Sockerfabrikens energianvaendning; En systemstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltborg, G

    1990-02-01

    A computer program has been developed in order to simulate the energy consumption of beet sugar factories, for various plant configurations. The program is divided into five block units: Extraction and Juice purification, Juice concentration, Crystallization, Drying and finally the Power House. Each block consists of different modules, for example, a heat exchanger, an evaporator, a turbine and a dryer. The purpose of this project was to simulate some different system configurations of a sugar factory, whereby both new and previously used process technologies were utilized. The following parts of the process have been particularly emphasized: Power House - gas turbine, waste heat boiler. Drying - low-temperature dryer, steam dryer. Evaporation - vapour recompression. Crystallization - vapour recompression, continuous system. The different plant configurations have been compared to a reference factory, which is designed according to current technology used in a modern and well balanced Swedish factory. The comparisons are based upon the total power consumption as well as the total annual energy costs. Eleven different plant configurations were studied. The maximum power reduction is 36%, relative to the reference factory. The dissertation also contains an experimental study of a low-temperature drying process. The drying characteristics of pressed beet pulp were studied in a specially designed rotary dryer pilot plant. A number of parameters were varied i.e. the solid moisture content, air velocity, temperature and rotational speed. The results are given in terms of an apparent volumetric heat-transfer coefficient, determined from measured data. A mathematical model was established to determine the residence time of the material in the rotary dryer at different air velocities. (45 refs.).

  16. Competition and critical periods in spring sugar beet cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansilla Martínez José

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High yields with low costs require that sugar beets be kept free of weeds, during critical periods, using labor or chemical treatments. Since the critical periods for this crop in Castilla - La Mancha (Spain are unknown, the first goal of this study was to determine the effect of early and late competition on yield. The second goal was to determine the critical periods, while taking into consideration the semiarid climatic conditions of this region. Two irrigation farms located in the province of Albacete are dedicated to sugar beet cultivation. These two farms were chosen to carry out the tests March (140,000-150,000 seeds ∙ ha-1 and harvested in October. Two simultaneous and complementary experiments were carried out in each year and farm. Two scenarios were considered with eight different treatments each. In the first one (With Weeds Until - WWU, plots were infested by weeds up to a certain date. In the second one (Free of Weeds Until - FWU, plots were kept free of weeds up to a certain date. For each test, a randomised experimental blocked field was designed and there were four repetitions, each of them containing eight elemental plots (12 m2. Each plot was weeded by hand or weeds were left to grow till a definite date.The results indicated that a 1% loss of yield was reached in the early competition after 14 days, while a loss of 5% was reached after a period of 41 days after it was infested. The results also indicated that in late competition, if a crop is kept clean for 124 days and it is infested afterwards, a 1% loss is reached. However, the loss increases to 5% if the plot is kept clean for 111 days. For a 1% loss the critical period is 110 days and 70 days for a 5% loss.

  17. BELVEDERE® Extra – a new high performance- herbicide in beets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donati, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat, chamomile, mercury, foolsparsleey and volunteer rapes are only some of the most important weeds in fooder and sugar beets. For the control of classical weed societies farmers can fall back on a limited number of active ingredients. Generally, Phenmedipham (PMP, Desmedipham (DMP and Ethofumesate are the basis of a spray sequence. They are complemented with other active ingredients depending on the specific weed situation. The newly formulated BELVEDERE® Extra combines the three mentioned active ingredients in an optimal ratio. Hence, the herbicide covers a very broad weed spectrum with an excellent efficacy on Common lambsquarters, cleavers, ladysthumb and wild buckwheat. BELVEDERE® EXTRA is a liquid, selective, and systemic herbicide. It is formulated as suspoemulsion so that a high efficacy is achieved while preserving a very good selectivity. The product allows for flexible control of leaf activity as an additive (e.g. OLEO FC is appended. Ethofumesate, which is mainly effective via the roots of the plant, belongs to a different HRAC group than Phenmedipham and Desmedipham. The high concentration of 200 g/L Ethofumesate leads to an effective resistance management especially regarding Fathen and other important weeds. Since 23rd of September 2013 BELVEDERE® extra is registered for post emergence splitting application (3 applications against annual dicotyledonous weeds. The maximum application rate per treatment is 1,3 L/ha. In combination with GOLTIX® TITAN® (Metamitron + Quinmerac or Goltix® Gold (Metamitron the weed spectrum is broadened. Basically, a timely application whose application rates are adapted to the location is essential for a good efficacy of beet herbicides.

  18. Ethanol fermentation of beet molasses by a yeast resistant to distillery waste water and 2-deoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadenuma, Makoto; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shun' ichi; Moriya, Kazuhito; Saito, Kazuo [National Research Inst. of Brewing, Tokyo, Japan Hokkaido Sugar Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan) Sendai Regional Taxation Bureau, Sendai (Japan)

    1989-05-25

    A flocculent killer yeast, strain H-1 selected for ethanol fermentation of beet molasses, has a tendency to lose its viability in distillery waste water (DWW) of beet molasses mash after ethanol fermentation. Through acclimations of strain H-1 in DWW, strain W-9, resistant to DWW, was isolated. Strain M-9, resistant to 2-deoxyglucose was further isolated through acclimations of strain W-9 in medium containing 150 ppm 2-deoxyglucose. A fermentaion test of beet molasses indicated that the ethanol productivity and suger consumption were improved by strain M-9 compared with the parental strain H-1 and strain W-9. The concentration of ethanol produced by strain M-9 was 107.2 g/1, and concentration of residual sugars, which were mainly composed of sucrose and fructose, were lower than those produced by the parental strain H-9 and strain W-9 at the end of fermentation of beet molasses. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. In vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan oligosaccharides and partially methyl-esterified/acetylated

  20. Economics of the complex utilization of raw materials in the production of alcohol from beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelikman, G F

    1959-01-01

    Yields of the by-products in the fermentation of beet molasses, such as liquid CO/sub 2/, bakers' and feed yeasts, glycerol and products from the wastes, and the money to be gained from their recovery are discussed.

  1. In Vitro fermentability of sugar beet pulp derived oligosaccharides using human and pig fecal inocula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Aguirre, M.; Venema, K.; Bosch, G.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro fermentation characteristics of different classes of sugar beet pectic oligosaccharides (SBPOS) were studied using human and pig fecal inocula. The SBPOS consisted mainly of partially acetylated rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides and partially methyl esterified/acetylated

  2. Sugar beet molasses: Properties and applications in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarić Ljubiša Ć.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Molasses is an important by-product of sugar beet or sugar cane refining industry and it was one of the first sweeteners used in human nutrition. Sugar cane molasses has unique characteristics that can make it suitable for application in food industry, especially in confectionery and bakery products. On the other hand, sugar beet molasses has not had greater application in the human diet, primarily because of its strong smell and taste of the beet, which makes it unattractive for consumption. Since recent investigations showed that sugar beet molasses can be used as a hypertonic solution in osmotic dehydration of different materials of plant and animal origin, the objective of this work was to review recently studied sugar beet molasses in terms of its applications in osmotic dehydrations of fruits and vegetables. Previous studies showed that sugar beet molasses is an excellent medium for osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables (apple, carrot, plum, etc. primarily due to a high content of dry matter (80%, w/w and specific nutrient content. An important advantage of using sugar beet molasses as a hypertonic solution is an enrichment of the dehydrated material in minerals and vitamins, which penetrate from molasses into the plant tissue. Concentration of sugar beet molasses solution and immersion time had the biggest influence on the process of osmotic dehydration of fruit and vegetables, while the temperature of the solution was the least influential parameter. The effect of immersion time on the kinetics of osmotic dehydration in sugar beet molasses increases with an increase in concentration of hypertonic solution. Fruit and vegetables dehydrated in sugar beet molasses had a higher dry matter content compared to samples treated in sucrose solutions. Besides, application of sugar beet molasses in osmotic dehydration of fruits and vegetables had some other advantages such as lower cost of molasses compared to sugar and its liquid aggregate

  3. Sugar beet for bioethanol production: An approach based on environmental agricultural outputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar-Ordóñez, Melania; Pérez-Hernández, Pedro P.; Martín-Lozano, José M.

    2013-01-01

    The EU imports both bioethanol and the raw material needed to produce it. Thirty percent of bioethanol is produced from sugar beets in the EU. However, sugar beet cultivated area and yields have fallen due to the 2006 sugar regime reform. Given the potential uncertainty about the future for sugar beet farmers, biofuels may represent an alternative market. This paper analyses potential contribution to the efficiency, in terms of environmental output, of the sugar beet crop both when production is oriented toward bioethanol and regarding the use of input. An empirical application is performed in Spain by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The results show that 4% of farms have full technical efficiency, while the rest have an average efficiency of 55.9%. The figures show that inputs can be reduced over 40%, and also show the low average level of input-use efficiency. In addition, it cannot be said that there is a relationship between efficiency and farm scale. The consideration of aspects such as the environmental advantages of using sugar beet production for bioethanol can open new lines of action to support this crop in the EU. In addition, boosting sugar beet production may reduce potential dependency on importation. - Highlights: ► Analysing environmental outputs from agricultural input use and production orientation to bioethanol. ► DEA is applied to model farms’ efficiency in GHG emission and nitrous oxides emissions. ► A very low level of efficiency is found in sugar beet farms. ► Efficiency increase should be supported to reduce fertilizers and pesticides. ► Environmental advantages of addressing sugar beet to bioethanol open new lines to support crops

  4. Effect of rare earth elements on the distribution of photosynthate in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Baozhang; Yang Yuchang; Meng Xianju; Wang Yuefeng; Bai Song

    1995-01-01

    The effect of rare earth elements on the distribution of photosynthate in sugar beet was studied. The results indicated that rare earth elements stimulated CO 2 assimilation, increased the ratio of root and tops (R/T), improved the distribution of photosynthate and stimulated the transport of organic matter from leaf to root of sugar beet plant. The treatment with 0.05% was shown to have the most significant effect among all the treatments

  5. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  6. Potassium efficiency of wheat and sugar beet evaluated under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Dessougi, H. I.; Claassen, N.; Steingrobe, B.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potassium (K) efficiency of wheat and sugar beet under field conditions and to identify the varying mechanisms or factors behind their efficiency. Data were obtained from a long term fertilizer experiment, on a K (fixing) sandy clay loam in Bavaria, southern Germany, in which K fertilization rates varied from 0 to 1000 kg K ha - 1 year - 1 with the last K application in 1986. In 2003, sugar beet and spring wheat were sown on March 13 t h and April 4 t h respectively. At 4 and 5 harvests for wheat and sugar beet, respectively, random samples of shoots, roots and soil of each species from the unfertilized (-K) and the highest fertilizer level of 1000 kg K ha - 1 (+K) treatments were analyzed. Sugar beet and wheat had similar K efficiency producing 76% and 80% beet and grain yield on unfertilized compared with fertilized treatments, respectively. As compared to wheat, sugar beet had a higher internal K requirement, two times higher shoots growth rate (GRs), 34% to 48% of the wheat root length (RL), and consequently a larger GR/RL, that is higher demand for K uptake on the roots. However, sugar beet showed an exceptionally high uptake efficiency of the single roots or influx, which was 5 times higher in unfertilized treatments, as compared with wheat. Wheat K efficiency was attributed to a higher utilization efficiency or lower internal requirement, slow growing shoots and a large root system. Further investigations are necessary to study the mechanism by which sugar beet was able to achieve a higher influx than wheat.(Author)

  7. The economics of sugar beets in biogas production; Vergaerung von Zuckerrueben in Biogasanlagen. Lohnt sich das?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Stefan; Doehler, Helmut [Kuratorium fuer Technik und Bauwesen in der Landwirtschaft e.V. (KTBL), Darmstadt (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The economics of employing sugar beets for biogas production were investigated using a calculation model based on the currently available data. Taken into account were all steps of the chain from cultivation, conditioning and conservation to the influences in the biogas plant. Only by calculating with very good assumptions for the fermentation of sugar beets, they can constitute an economical alternative to the use of silo maize as a fermentation substrate. (orig.)

  8. Effect of Azotobacter croococcum on productive traits and microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzevski Janja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of three different inoculation methods with selected Azotobacter chroococcum strains on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, as well as on the total number of microorganisms and azotobacter in rhizosphere. The results of this two-year study showed that effectiveness of the tested inoculation methods in increasing root yield and sugar content varies greatly, depending on year and azotobacter strains. Effectiveness of inoculation methods was not largely impacted by year on granulated sugar. Achieved granulated sugar yield was significantly higher by using pre-sowing azotobacter application, than by using seed inoculation. A significantly increased number of microorganisms in sugar beet rhizosphere was determined, not only by using pre-sowing azotobacter application but also by using sugar beet seed inoculation. Pre-sowing azotobacter application and inter-row cultivation both caused an equal increase in the number of these bacteria in sugar beet rhizosphere (42.2% and 46.9%. Use of sugar beet seed inoculation caused an increase of 33.7% in the number of azotobacter. In order to achieve higher effectiveness in applying azotobacter on productive and technological traits of sugar beet, and considering determined interaction between a certain year, an inoculation method and a strain, it is necessary for future research to focus on determining efficiency of these strains when they are in a mixture.

  9. Integrated Bioethanol Fermentation/Anaerobic Digestion for Valorization of Sugar Beet Pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Berlowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of waste biomass are generated in sugar factories from the processing of sugar beets. After diffusion with hot water to draw the sugar from the beet pieces, a wet material remains called pulp. In this study, waste sugar beet pulp biomass was enzymatically depolymerized, and the obtained hydrolyzates were subjected to fermentation processes. Bioethanol, biomethane, and biohydrogen were produced directly from the substrate or in combined mode. Stillage, a distillery by-product, was used as a feedstock for anaerobic digestion. During biosynthesis of ethanol, most of the carbohydrates released from the sugar beet pulp were utilized by a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ethanol Red, and Scheffersomyces stipitis LOCK0047 giving 12.6 g/L of ethanol. Stillage containing unfermented sugars (mainly arabinose, galactose and raffinose was found to be a good substrate for methane production (444 dm3 CH4/kg volatile solids (VS. Better results were achieved with this medium than with enzymatic saccharified biomass. Thermal pre-treatment and adjusting the pH of the inoculum resulted in higher hydrogen production. The largest (p < 0.05 hydrogen yield (252 dm3 H2/kg VS was achieved with sugar beet stillage (SBS. In contrast, without pre-treatment the same medium yielded 35 dm3 H2/kg VS. However, dark fermentation of biohydrogen was more efficient when sugar beet pulp hydrolyzate was used.

  10. Proteomic Profiling of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris Leaves during Rhizomania Compatible Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly M. Webb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomania, caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, severely impacts sugar beet (Beta vulgaris production throughout the world, and is widely prevalent in most production regions. Initial efforts to characterize proteome changes focused primarily on identifying putative host factors that elicit resistant interactions with BNYVV, but as resistance breaking strains become more prevalent, effective disease control strategies will require the application of novel methods based on better understanding of disease susceptibility and symptom development. Herein, proteomic profiling was conducted on susceptible sugar beet, infected with two strains of BNYVV, to clarify the types of proteins prevalent during compatible virus-host plant interactions. Total protein was extracted from sugar beet leaf tissue infected with BNYVV, quantified, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. A total of 203 proteins were confidently identified, with a predominance of proteins associated with photosynthesis and energy, metabolism, and response to stimulus. Many proteins identified in this study are typically associated with systemic acquired resistance and general plant defense responses. These results expand on relatively limited proteomic data available for sugar beet and provide the ground work for additional studies focused on understanding the interaction of BNYVV with sugar beet.

  11. Life cycle analysis for bioethanol production from sugar beet crops in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foteinis, Spyros; Kouloumpis, Victor [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece); Tsoutsos, Theocharis, E-mail: theocharis.tsoutsos@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, GR 73100 Chania (Greece)

    2011-09-15

    The main aim of this study is to evaluate whether the potential transformation of the existing sugar plants of Northern Greece to modern bioethanol plants, using the existing cultivations of sugar beet, would be an environmentally sustainable decision. Using Life Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment, all processes for bioethanol production from sugar beets were analyzed, quantitative data were collected and the environmental loads of the final product (bioethanol) and of each process were estimated. The final results of the environmental impact assessment are encouraging since bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production for the use of the same quantity of sugar beets. If the old sugar plants were transformed into modern bioethanol plants, the total reduction of the environmental load would be, at least, 32.6% and a reduction of more than 2 tons of CO{sub 2}e/sugar beet of ha cultivation could be reached. Moreover bioethanol production was compared to conventional fuel (gasoline), as well as to other types of biofuels (biodiesel from Greek cultivations). - Highlights: > Bioethanol production gives better results than sugar production from sugar beets. > In most cases, sugar beets, as an already industrialized plant has organizational virtues. > Bioethanol could be a sustainable independent way of energy production, alternative to biodiesel.

  12. A Molecular View of Autophagy in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Romanelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metamorphosis represents a critical phase in the development of holometabolous insects, during which the larval body is completely reorganized: in fact, most of the larval organs undergo remodeling or completely degenerate before the final structure of the adult insect is rebuilt. In the past, increasing evidence emerged concerning the intervention of autophagy and apoptosis in the cell death processes that occur in larval organs of Lepidoptera during metamorphosis, but a molecular characterization of these pathways was undertaken only in recent years. In addition to developmentally programmed autophagy, there is growing interest in starvation-induced autophagy. Therefore we are now entering a new era of research on autophagy that foreshadows clarification of the role and regulatory mechanisms underlying this self-digesting process in Lepidoptera. Given that some of the most important lepidopteran species of high economic importance, such as the silkworm, Bombyx mori, belong to this insect order, we expect that this information on autophagy will be fully exploited not only in basic research but also for practical applications.

  13. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato A Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS. These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results

  14. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of organophosphate and pyrethroid resistance in the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Renato A; Omoto, Celso; Field, Linda M; Williamson, Martin S; Bass, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is an economically important pest of small grain crops that occurs in all maize growing regions of the Americas. The intensive use of chemical pesticides for its control has led to the selection of resistant populations, however, to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance have not been characterised. In this study the mechanisms involved in the resistance of two S. frugiperda strains collected in Brazil to chlorpyrifos (OP strain) or lambda-cyhalothrin (PYR strain) were investigated using molecular and genomic approaches. To examine the possible role of target-site insensitivity the genes encoding the organophosphate (acetylcholinesterase, AChE) and pyrethroid (voltage-gated sodium channel, VGSC) target-site proteins were PCR amplified. Sequencing of the S. frugiperda ace-1 gene identified several nucleotide changes in the OP strain when compared to a susceptible reference strain (SUS). These result in three amino acid substitutions, A201S, G227A and F290V, that have all been shown previously to confer organophosphate resistance in several other insect species. Sequencing of the gene encoding the VGSC in the PYR strain, identified mutations that result in three amino acid substitutions, T929I, L932F and L1014F, all of which have been shown previously to confer knockdown/super knockdown-type resistance in several arthropod species. To investigate the possible role of metabolic detoxification in the resistant phenotype of the OP and PYR stains all EST sequences available for S. frugiperda were used to design a gene-expression microarray. This was then used to compare gene expression in the resistant strains with the susceptible reference strain. Members of several gene families, previously implicated in metabolic resistance in other insects were found to be overexpressed in the resistant strains including glutathione S-transferases, cytochrome P450s and carboxylesterases. Taken together these results provide

  15. Safety of life activity and environmental friendliness in beet processing department of a beet-sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of processing of a beet is characterized by a variety of dangerous and harmful production factors. To maintain the optimal values of microclimate in beet processing department carried out installation of systems of ventilation and heating. To implement the protection measures for impacts include the use of low-power equipment; the attenuation of the noise in the way of its propagation by means of sound insulation; maintenance equipment; install equipment on vibration isolation bases. Electrical safety in industrial environments by the appropriate design of electrical installations, technical means and means of protection, organizational and technical measures. For protection against static electricity use of protective grounding. The safe operation of lifting and handling equipment is provided by the audit of the reliability and strength of their structural elements, as well as ropes, lifting devices. To reduce the harmful impact of the use of the Department of toxic substances into the running, you must use individual protection equipment: special clothing, anti-dust respirators. Of technical means of protection used in the supply and exhaust ventilation, are also used cyclones. To protect surface and groundwater from effluent applied field of filtration, aeration tanks, biofilters. The amount of emissions into the atmosphere can reduce the reduction of steam consumption for technological needs. For dust removal in dusty offices with equipment install the cyclone. One of the measures to prevent the explosion is to install explosion protection. For fire in a sugar factory used fire boards, fire hoses, automatic water extinguishing systems, steam and gas fire. All facilities and process plant should be provided with primary fire extinguishing means. Place them in conspicuous places, readily accessible at any time. In addition, the company is required to lay special network of fire water. Thus, security and compliance with of

  16. Theory of the interaction of flat sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bulgakov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet leaves now are very widely used for livestock feeding, as an organic fertiliser, and also as a raw material for the production of biogas. Therefore the harvest of the sugar beet tops (including leaves can be considered as current task for the sugar beet growing system. Modern technologies involve harvest of the tops of sugar beet in two stages: flat basic cut and collecting of the entire green mass at higher altitude and the subsequent cutting of the heads of root crops from the residues. Therefore, topical issues of the sensing of the heads of sugar beet roots arranged in rows, are related to the majority of the sugar beet toppers, cleaners of the sugar beet heads, leaves cutters and, digging up working bodies of some designs. The aim of this study is theoretical determination the optimum design and kinematic parameters of a new sensing mechanism of the sugar beet heads located in the soil on the basis of the theory of interaction of flat passive swath board sensing organ with the sugar beet heads during their topping when located in the soil. In the study there are used methods of creation of mathematical models of functioning of the agricultural machines and their working bodies with the using of main provisions of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, programming and numerical calculations on the PC. In this paper, there is presented a theoretical study of the interaction of passive sensing organ with the head of the sugar beet root when there are located residues of the leaves on a root head spherical surface in the form of short elastic rods. Thus, for such an interaction of the sensing organ and the head of sugar beet root head there is taken into account elastic-damping properties of the sugar beet leaves residues. In the study there was first of all developed a new design of the topper for sugar beet heads with the use of a flat swath board sensing organ, there was developed the equivalent scheme of the interaction of the

  17. Defensive behaviors of the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata in response to different parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jincheng; Meng, Ling; Li, Baoping

    2017-01-01

    This study examined defensive behaviors of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae varying in body size in response to two parasitoids varying in oviposition behavior; Microplitis mediator females sting the host with the ovipositor after climbing onto it while Meteorus pulchricornis females make the sting by standing at a close distance from the host. Mythimna separata larvae exhibited evasive (escaping and dropping) and aggressive (thrashing) behaviors to defend themselves against parasitoids M. mediator and M. pulchricornis . Escaping and dropping did not change in probability with host body size or parasitoid species. Thrashing did not vary in frequency with host body size, yet performed more frequently in response to M. mediator than to M. pulchricornis . Parasitoid handling time and stinging likelihood varied depending not only on host body size but also on parasitoid species. Parasitoid handling time increased with host thrashing frequency, similar in slope for both parasitoids yet on a higher intercept for M. mediator than for M. pulchricornis . Handling time decreased with host size for M. pulchricornis but not for M. mediator . The likelihood of realizing an ovipositor sting decreased with thrashing frequency of both small and large hosts for M. pulchricornis , while this was true only for large hosts for M. mediator . Our results suggest that the thrashing behavior of M. separata larvae has a defensive effect on parasitism, depending on host body size and parasitoid species with different oviposition behaviors.

  18. Defensive behaviors of the Oriental armyworm Mythimna separata in response to different parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincheng Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined defensive behaviors of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae larvae varying in body size in response to two parasitoids varying in oviposition behavior; Microplitis mediator females sting the host with the ovipositor after climbing onto it while Meteorus pulchricornis females make the sting by standing at a close distance from the host. Mythimna separata larvae exhibited evasive (escaping and dropping and aggressive (thrashing behaviors to defend themselves against parasitoids M. mediator and M. pulchricornis. Escaping and dropping did not change in probability with host body size or parasitoid species. Thrashing did not vary in frequency with host body size, yet performed more frequently in response to M. mediator than to M. pulchricornis. Parasitoid handling time and stinging likelihood varied depending not only on host body size but also on parasitoid species. Parasitoid handling time increased with host thrashing frequency, similar in slope for both parasitoids yet on a higher intercept for M. mediator than for M. pulchricornis. Handling time decreased with host size for M. pulchricornis but not for M. mediator. The likelihood of realizing an ovipositor sting decreased with thrashing frequency of both small and large hosts for M. pulchricornis, while this was true only for large hosts for M. mediator. Our results suggest that the thrashing behavior of M. separata larvae has a defensive effect on parasitism, depending on host body size and parasitoid species with different oviposition behaviors.

  19. Purification and characterization of NADPH--cytochrome c reductase from the midgut of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, D L; Hetnarski, K; Wilkinson, C F

    1979-09-01

    1. NADPH-cytochrome c reductase was solubilized with bromelain and purified about 400-fold from sucrose/pyrophosphate-washed microsomal fractions from southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania) larval midguts. 2. The enzyme has a mol.wt. of 70 035 +/- 1300 and contained 2 mol of flavin/mol of enzyme consisting of almost equimolar amounts of FMN and FAD. 3. Aerobic titration of the enzyme with NADPH caused the formation of a stable half-reduced state at 0.5 mol of NADPH/mol of flavin. 4. Kinetic analysis showed that the reduction of cytochrome c proceeded by a Bi Bi Ping Pong mechanism. 5. Apparent Km values for NADPH and cytochrome c and Ki values for NADP+ and 2'-AMP were considerably higher for the insect reductase than for the mammalian liver enzyme. 6. These are discussed in relation to possible differences in the active sites of the enzymes.

  20. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  1. Phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalstig, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and transport data support a symplastic pathway for phloem unloading in developing leaves of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. Klein E, multigerm). The sulfhydryl inhibitor parachloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) inhibited uptake of [ 14 C]-sucrose added to the free space of developing leaves, but did not affect import of [ 14 C]-sucrose during steady-state 14 CO 2 labeling of a source leaf. The passively-transported xenobiotic sugar, [ 14 C]-L-glucose did not readily enter mesophyll cells when supplied through the cut end of the petiole of a sink leaf as determined by whole leaf autoradiography. In contrast, [ 14 C]-L-glucose translocated through the phloem from a mature leaf, rapidly entered mesophyll cells, and was evenly distributed between mesophyll and veins. Autoradiographs of developing leaves following a pulse of 14 CO 2 to a source leaf revealed rapid passage of phloem translocated into progressively higher order veins as the leaf developed. Entry into V order veins occurred during the last stage of import through the phloem. Import into developing leaves was inhibited by glyphosate (N-phosphomethylglycine), a herbicide which inhibits the aromatic amino acid pathway and hence protein synthesis. Glyphosate also stopped net starch accumulation in sprayed mature leaves, but did not affect export of carbon from treated leaves during the time period that import into developed leaves was inhibited

  2. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maung, Thein A.; Gustafson, Cole R.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm 3 y -1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm 3 y -1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $400 m -3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m -3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m -3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm 3 y -1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm 3 y -1 and 0.038 hm 3 y -1 ethanol plants are $400 m -3 and $450 m -3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a

  3. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  4. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015–0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red (S. cerevisiae) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield. PMID:27722169

  5. Effect of residual nitrogen and fertilizer nitrogen on sugar beet production in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veikko Brummer

    1974-09-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary determinations for NO3- and NH4-N in topsoil from nitrogen field experiments are discussed. The amounts of residual nitrogen as well as the dates and depth for sampling are considerd in order to investigate the need of fertilizer-N for continuous sugar beet. Tops ploughed down as manure increased the available soil nitrogen by about 50 kg/ha. In practice nitrogen from fertilizer and farmyard manure given to previous beet crops seems to accumulate in the beet soils of Finland. The concentrations of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in topsoil were low in the spring of 1972 and 1973. NO3-N increased in topsoil during the early summer, and the highest concentrations were found at the beginning of July. Starting from the middle of July the amount of NH4-N began to increase both in topsoil and in subsoil. With increasing amounts of nitrogen in the topsoil the sugar content decreases continuously. Also the α-amio N content of beets correlates with the soil nitrogen. There is experimental evidence that 150 180 kg/ha nitrate nitrogen in topsoil (residual + fertilizer N in early July gives the best economic result. The effects of fertilizer and accumulated soil nitrogen on the sugar beet quality together with som other experimental data have been statistically analysed. Regression coefficients indicated that both forms of nitrogen affected the suger content, the α-amino N concentration and clear juice purity, in a similar way.

  6. Biochemical characterisation and dietary fibre analysis of sugar beet supplemented cookies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasha, I.; Jahangir, M.F.; Akhter, S.; Manzoor, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned to utilize sugar beet powder as a rich source of dietary fibre in cookies. Purposely, five treatments namely T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 4%, 8%, 12%, 16% and 20% sugar beet powder addition in wheat flour were chosen to estimate fibre, antioxidant profiling and engineering properties of cookies. Results showed an increased content of all above mentioned parameters. With the increment in sugar beet powder addition in treatments, dietary fibre analysis have shown that total dietary fibre (TDF), insoluble dietary fibre (IDF) and soluble dietary fibre (SDF) have depicted increasing trend with maximum for T5 for all dietary fibre types. Significant results were obtained for in vitro antioxidant studies including total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH that showed increasing trend with T1 0.6 mg GAE/g and maximum values for T5 with 2.0 mg GAE/g for TPC and for DPPH with T5 being maximum value of 1.7% and minimum for T1 with 1.3%. T5 treatment with 20% sugar beet gave best physicochemical results but disturbed sensory properties while T3 with 12% sugar beet powder showed good physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Therefore, T3 with 12% level is considered as the best source of dietary fibre in bakery products and can be considered as the prospective choice to address metabolic syndromes. (author)

  7. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Sugar Beet Pulp for Efficient Bioethanol Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berłowska, Joanna; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Balcerek, Maria; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Dziugan, Piotr; Kręgiel, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp, a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Pressure-thermal pretreatment was applied to sugar beet pulp suspended in 2% w/w sulphuric acid solution at a ratio providing 12% dry matter. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max (Novozymes) enzyme preparations (0.015-0.02 mL/g dry matter). Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red ( S. cerevisiae ) (1 g/L) and Pichia stipitis (0.5 g/L), applied sequentially. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. A 6 h interval for enzymatic activation between the application of enzyme preparations and inoculation with Ethanol Red further improved the fermentation performance, with the highest ethanol concentration reaching 26.9 ± 1.2 g/L and 86.5 ± 2.1% fermentation efficiency relative to the theoretical yield.

  8. Somaclonal variation of sugar beet resistant to pathogenic root rot Fusarium oxysporum var. orthoceras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urazaliev Kairat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. - one of the most important crop in the world. In Kazakhstan, it is a traditional and major source of domestic sugar. The industry of cultivation and production of sugar beet is one of the priority areas of agricultural development of the country. In this paper, we studied the regeneration ability of different genotypes of sugar beet explants on selective media with the culture filtrate of the pathogen fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. From the roots and shoots of sugar beet the pathogen Fusarium root rot was isolated. Was obtained pure cultures of the isolated pathogen. As a result, of morphological and cultural descriptions, as well as microbiological analysis it was revealed that the isolated pathogen is Fusarium Oxysporum. The results showed the pathogenicity of the fungus. For regeneration in vitro of the sugar beet genotypes resistant to the pathogen the culture media was optimized to the culture filtrate of the fungus F. oxysporum var. orthoceras. The frequency of shoot regeneration, depending on the genotype, was 1,0-12,5 %. On these explants the multiple shoot formations were observed.

  9. Stability of bioactive compounds in minimally processed beet according to the cooking methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Arruda RAMOS

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study aimed to determine the functional propriety of fresh beets under different cooking methods through the quantification of bioactives compounds. Beets were chosen for uniformity of size, color and absence of defects. They were thoroughly washed in running water to remove dirt, manually peeled with a knife, sliced through a stainless-steel food processor (5 mm slicing disc and submitted to four different cooking methods: steaming, pressure, oven-baked and hot-water immersion. Analysis were performed in both uncooked and cooked beets to evaluate antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains. The experiment was completely randomized design (CRD. Data were subjected to analysis of variance (F test and means were compared by Tukey test (p < 0.05. Oven-baked beets preserve most of the bioactive coumpouds, maintaining better levels of carotenoids, flavonoids, betacyanin and betaxanthin than the other cooking methods. The antioxidant activity was similar between the treatments, except in the pressure. Moreover, different cooking methods did not affect phenolic compounds concentration in beets.

  10. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. F2 screen for resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ab2-maize in field populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the southern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Ni, Xinzhi; Head, Graham P; Price, Paula A; Meagher, Robert L; Kerns, David; Levy, Ronnie; Yang, Xiangbing; Huang, Fangneng

    2016-07-01

    The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a target pest of transgenic maize and cotton expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins in both North and South America. In 2013 and 2014, a total of 215 F2 two-parent families of S. frugiperda were established using single-pair mating of field individuals collected from seven locations in four states of the southern U.S.: Texas, Louisiana, Georgia, and Florida. The objective of the investigation was to detect resistance alleles in field populations to Cry2Ab2, a common Bt protein produced in transgenic maize and cotton. For each F2 family, 128 F2 neonates were screened on leaf tissue of Cry2Ab2 maize plants in the laboratory. A conservative estimate of the frequency of major Cry2Ab2 resistance alleles in S. frugiperda from the four states was 0.0023 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0003-0.0064. In addition, six families were considered to likely possess minor resistance alleles at a frequency of 0.0082 with a 95% credibility interval of 0.0033-0.0152. One F2 family from Georgia (GA-15) was confirmed to possess a major resistance allele to the Cry2Ab2 protein. Larvae from this family survived well on whole maize plants expressing Cry2Ab2 protein and demonstrated a significant level (>15-fold) of resistance when fed with the same protein incorporated in a meridic diet. The detection of the major resistance allele along with the relatively abundant minor resistance alleles revealed in this study may have important implications for resistance management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Histopathology and the lethal effect of Cry proteins and strains of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner in Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith Caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Knaak

    Full Text Available Among the phytophagous insects which attack crops, the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae is particularly harmful in the initial growth phase of rice plants. As a potential means of controlling this pest, and considering that the entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner demonstrates toxicity due to synthesis of the Cry protein, the present study was undertaken to evaluate this toxic effect of B. thuringiensis thuringiensis 407 (pH 408 and B. thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 on S. frugiperda. The following method was used. Both bacterial strains were evaluated in vitro in 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars, by means of histopathological assays. The Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins, codified by the respective strains of B. thuringiensis, were evaluated in vivo by bioassays of 1st instar S. frugiperda caterpillars in order to determine the Mean Lethal Concentration (LC50. The results of the histopathological analysis of the midget of S. frugiperda caterpillars demonstrate that treatment with the B. thuringiensis thuringiensis strain was more efficient, because the degradations of the microvilosities started 9 hours after treatment application (HAT, while in the B. thuringiensis kurstaki the same effect was noticed only after 12 HAT. Toxicity data of the Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac proteins presented for the target-species LC50 levels of 9.29 and 1.79 μg.cm-2 respectively. The strains and proteins synthesised by B. thuringiensis thuringiensis and B. thuringiensis kurstaki are effective in controlling S. frugiperda, and may be used to produce new biopesticides or the genes may be utilised in the genetic transformation of Oryza sativa L.

  13. Metabolome profiling to understand the defense response to sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) to Rhizoctonia solani AG 2-2 IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizoctonia crown and root rot, caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn AG 2-2 IIIB, is an important disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). The molecular processes that mediate sugar beet resistance to R. solani are largely unknown and identifying the metabolites associated with R. solani infection ma...

  14. Effects of Pre-Converted Nitrite from Red Beet and Ascorbic Acid on Quality Characteristics in Meat Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid on color development in meat emulsions. The pH of meat emulsions containing red beet extract decreased with an increase in the amount of extract added. The redness of the treated meat emulsions was higher than that of the control with no added nitrite or fermented red beet extract (pmeat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract only was lower than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (pmeat emulsions treated with fermented red beet extract were higher than in that treated with both fermented red beet extract and ascorbic acid (pmeat emulsions tested. Treatment T2, containing nitrite and ascorbic acid, had the highest overall acceptability score (pnitrite from red beet extract and 0.05% ascorbic acid (p>0.05). The residual nitrite content of the meat emulsions treated with ascorbic acid was lower than in those treated without ascorbic acid (pnitrite for the stability of color development in meat emulsions. PMID:28515652

  15. Isolation of DNA markers linked to a beet cyst nematode resistamce locus in Beta patellaris and Beta procumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Sandal, N.N.; Lange, W.; Bock, de T.S.M.; Krens, F.A.; Marcker, K.A.; Stiekema, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    In cultivated beet no useful level of resistance of the beet cyst nematode (BCN) Heterodera schachtii Schm. has been found, unlike the situation in wild species of the section Procumbentes. Stable introgression of resistance genes from the wild species into Beta vulgaris has not been achieved, but

  16. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  17. Distribution and harmfulness of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker at sugar beet fields in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth Peter

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2002-2004, field surveys of field dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck e r in croplands were done in southwestern Slovakia. From among 150 localities surveyed, 80 were found infested by the field dodder. Within crop plants, C. campestris infested sugar beet (Beta vulgaris, alfalfa (Medicago sativa tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, potato (Solanum tuberosum, lentil (Lens esculenta, parsley (Pastinaca sativa and onion (Allium cepa. Besides the crops, 18 weed species were also recorded. The species from the genus Polygonum (Polygonaceae were the most important and acted as a significant reservoir of field dodder in cropland. C. campestris was not found in cold climatic regions with altitude higher than 240 m. The impact of field dodder infestation on sugar beet yield was studied during the year of 2004 in two localities (Šalov and Žitavce in southwestern Slovakia. The presence of field dodder markedly reduced both, quantity and quality of sugar beet yield. Weight of heavily infested beets was reduced from 21.6 to 37.4% and sugar content from 12.0 to 15.2%. Such decline of both parameters was also recorded when field dodder was removed together with leaves of sugar beet during growing season at the end of July. The aim of the infested leaves removal was to decrease mass of field dodder seeds. Although the leaf area of sugar beet regenerates, the decrease of quality and quantity was observed. The decline was the same at both localities, no matter whether the fields were irrigated (Šalov or not (Žitavce.

  18. Cold-inhibited phloem translocation in sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grusak, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental studies were undertaken on a simplified single source leaf-single sink leaf, or single source leaf-double sink leaf sugar beet system to investigate the responsive nature of the long-distance phloem translocation system to localized cooling perturbations on the source leaf petiole. Experiments were performed by using a steady state [ 14 C]-labelling system for the source leaf, and translocation into the sink leaf (leaves) was monitored with a Geiger-Mueller system. A specially designed Peltier apparatus enabled cooling of the source petiole to 1 0 C (or other desired temperatures) at various positions on the petiole, over different lengths, and at different rates of cooling. Initial experiment were designed to test the predictions of a mathematical recovery model of translocation inhibited by cold. The results did not support the mathematical model, but did suggest that vascular anastomoses may be involved in the recovery response. Selective petiolar incision/excision experiments showed that anastomoses were capable of re-establishing translocation following a disruption of flow. Studies with two monitored sink levels suggested that the inhibition to slow-coolings was not due to reduced translocation through the cooled source petiole region, but rather, was due to a repartitioning of flow among the terminal sinks (sink leaves and hypocotyl/crown region above the heat-girdled root). This repartitioning occurred via a redirection of flow through the vascular connections in the crown region of the plant, and appeared to be promoted by rapid, physical signals originating from the cooled region of the petiole

  19. Control of sugar beet powdery mildew with strobilurin fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaoglanidis George S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae is a major foliar disease of sugar beet in areas with dry and relatively warm weather conditions throughout the world. In the present study, four fungicides belonging to the relatively new class of strobilurin fungicides, azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl pyraclostrobin and trifloxystrobin were evaluated in three different application doses (100, 150 and 200 mg a.i. ha–1 during 2003-2004 for the control of the disease. Among the four strobilurin fungicides tested trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl were the most effective with control efficiency values higher than 94% compared to the control treatment even when applied at lower application dose of 100 mg a.i. ha–1. Azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin showed a poor to modest activity against the disease even when applied at the highest application dose of 200 μg a.i. ha–1. Disease severity, in terms of AUDPC values was significantly correlated to decreased root yield, while no significant correlation existed among disease severity and sugar content of the roots or sucrose yield. In addition, the efficiency of tank mixtures of four strobilurin fungicides applied at 100 μg a.i. ha–1 with two sterol demethylation - inhibiting fungicides (DMIs, difenoconazole and cyproconazole applied at 62.5 and 25 mg a.i. ha–1, respectively, was evaluated. The mixtures of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to the single application of each mixture partner, while the tank mixtures of trifloxystrobin and kresoxim-methyl with either difenoconazole or cyproconazole provided a better control efficiency compared to single application of difenoconazole or cyproconazole and similar control efficiency compared to the efficiency obtained by single application of the strobilurin fungicides.

  20. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  1. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON RED BEET YIELD IN VARIOUS ZONES OF THE FORE-CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  2. Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesław Nowakowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilisation of total solar radiation energy in the photosynthetic production of radish, red beet and bean is expressed as per cent of solar radiation accumulated in the carbon of -the dry mass per 1 cm2 of the assimilation surface area. Utilisation of this energy ranges from 2.6 to 8.4 per cent in radish, from 1.7 to 7.5 per cent in beet and from 1.9 to 4.9 per cent in bean.

  3. Kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed cross-linking of feruloylated arabinan from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Arnous, Anis; Holck, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    the kinetics of HRP catalyzed cross-linking of FA esterified to α-(1,5)-linked arabinans are affected by the length of the arabinan chains carrying the feruloyl substitutions. The kinetics of the HRP-catalyzed cross-linking of four sets of arabinan samples from sugar beet pulp, having different molecular...... weights and hence different degrees of polymerization, were monitored by the disappearance of FA absorbance at 316 nm. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS analysis confirmed that the sugar beet arabinans were feruloyl-substituted, and HPLC analysis verified that the amounts of diFAs increased when FA levels decreased...

  4. Research on ethanol production and use from sugar beet in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icoez, Erkan; Mehmet Tugrul, K.; Icoez, Ebru; Saral, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases such as CO 2 , CO, CH 4 and NO X from fossil fuel use are implicated in climate change. The use of bioethanol is one means to reduce fossil fuel use and emissions of greenhouse gases. This study investigated research to produce ethanol from sugar beet and use as fuel in Turkey. The calculated demand for bioethanol amounted to some 220,000 m 3 where a 5% ethanol mix in petrol was used. Turkey has the potential to produce 30 million ton of sugar beet, which is sufficient to meet the bioethanol demand. (author)

  5. Conservation losses in the course of ensiling sugar beet for biogas production; Konservierungsverluste bei der Silierung von Zuckerrueben fuer die Biogasgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Andrea; Scholtissek, Maika [BAG Budissa Agroservice GmbH, Kleinbautzen (Germany); Auerbach, Horst [ADDCON EUROPE GmbH, Bonn (Germany); Herbes, Carsten [NAWARO BioEnergie AG, Leipzig (Germany); Weissbach, Friedrich

    2011-07-01

    In a joined research project of several companies a procedure for conservation of sugar beet was developed. Model experiments were carried out for this purpose. The conception of the procedure tested was the ensiling of whole sugar beets in large plastic bags, after the surface of the individual beets is treated with an antimycotic preservative. Chopping of the beets is done after the storage in the bags. In the course of these experiments, a method was developed and tested which enables the determination of the conservation losses expressed as losses of the methane forming potential. This method is also suitable to evaluate other procedures of sugar beet conservation and storage. (orig.)

  6. The influence of the extraction parameters on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Branislav V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing demand for better quality and cheaper products put on the need to industry to balance between the two kinds of needs, which are the reduction of production costs and to ensure a high quality product. This is the case with dried sugar beet pulp as a byproduct of sugar refining process. One of the possibilities to reduce energy consumption is savings in the process of thermal dehydration in the process of the conventional drying of pulp. Pulp drying is one third of total energy consumption in the sugar factory. Acidification of water extraction result in pulp that could be pressed better and in other hand in the juice with less non-sucrose compounds. Keeping the extraction process under certain conditions, directly affects on the quality of the extracted pulp and on effects of their further processing. This paper examines the impact of the extraction parameters of sugar from sugar beet and agents of acidification for water extraction (sulphurous acid, hydrogen peroxide on the quality of dried sugar beet pulp. Extraction of sugar from sugar beet cossettes by hydrogen peroxide at pH 5.5 to 8.5 does not cause changes in mechanical properties of sugar beet cossettes and in water retention coefficient, but increases the brightness of dried sugar beet pulp for about 5-7 units, which solubility in water does not depend on the applied concentration of extracting agents, but increases in dependence on the duration of the extraction. Sugar beet pulp extracted at pH 11.0 has reduced strength, they are highly hydrated, and under the force they lose their shape, binding a larger amount of water thus reducing the effect of their pressing. The changes in microstructure were probably accompanied by segmenting the linear parts of macromolecules and are reflected in the increase of water retention capacity and increase the solubility of dried sugar beet pulp for two to three times. Under the same conditions of extraction, sulphurous acid produces similar

  7. Sporamin-mediated resistance to beet cyst nematodes (Heterodera schachtii Schm.) is dependent on trypsin inhibitory activity in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Daguang; Thurau, Tim; Tian, Yanyan; Lange, Tina; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Jung, Christian

    2003-04-01

    Sporamin, a sweet potato tuberous storage protein, is a Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor. Its capability of conferring insect-resistance on transgenic tobacco and cauliflower has been confirmed. To test its potential as an anti-feedant for the beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii Schm.), the sporamin gene SpTI-1 was introduced into sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. Twelve different hairy root clones expressing sporamin were selected for studying nematode development. Of these, 8 hairy root clones were found to show significant efficiency in inhibiting the growth and development of the female nematodes whereas 4 root clones did not show any inhibitory effects even though the SpTI-1 gene was regularly expressed in all of the tested hairy roots as revealed by northern and western analyses. Inhibition of nematode development correlated with trypsin inhibitor activity but not with the amount of sporamin expressed in hairy roots. These data demonstrate that the trypsin inhibitor activity is the critical factor for inhibiting growth and development of cyst nematodes in sugar beet hairy roots expressing the sporamin gene. Hence, the sweet potato sporamin can be used as a new and effective anti-feedant for controlling cyst nematodes offering an alternative strategy for establishing nematode resistance in crops.

  8. Seed Transmission of Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Curly Top Iran Virus in a Local Cultivar of Petunia in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabestani, Ameneh; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Izadpanah, Keramat; Tabein, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2–78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR. Presence of BCTV in seed extracts of petunia local cultivar was confirmed by PCR and IC-PCR, followed by sequencing. Agroinoculation of curly top free petunia plants with a BCTV infectious clone resulted in BCTV infection of plants and their developed seeds. These results show the seed infection and transmission of BCTV in a local cultivar of petunia. Similar experiments performed with BCTIV showed that this virus is also seed transmissible in the same cultivar of petunia, although with a lower rate (8.8–18.5%). Seed transmission of curly top viruses may have significant implications in the epidemiology of these viruses. PMID:29035342

  9. Lonomia obliqua Walker (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: hemostasis implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviane Maggi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary In southern Brazil, since 1989, several cases of accidents produced by unwilling contact with the body of poisonous caterpillars of the moth species Lonomia obliqua Walker, 1855 (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae, were described. L. obliqua caterpillars have gregarious behavior and feed on leaves of host trees during the night, staying grouped in the trunk during the day, which favors the occurrence of accidents with the species. This caterpillar has the body covered with bristles that on contact with the skin of individuals, breaks and release their contents, inoculating the venom into the victim. The basic constitution of the venom is protein and its components produce physiological changes in the victim, which include disturbances in hemostasis. Hemorrhagic syndrome associated with consumption coagulopathy, intravascular hemolysis and acute renal failure are some of the possible clinical manifestations related to poisoning by L. obliqua. Specific laboratory tests for diagnosis of poisoning have not been described previously. The diagnosis of poisoning is made based on the patient's medical history, clinical manifestations, erythrocyte levels, and, primarily, parameters that evaluate blood coagulation. Treatment is performed with the use of supportive care and the administration of specific hyperimmune antivenom. Poisoning can be serious and even fatal.

  10. Male secondary sexu al characters in Aphnaeinae wings (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bálint, Zsolt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Male secondary sexual characters have been discovered on the hindwing verso of genera Aphnaeus Hübner, [1819], Cigaritis Donzel, 1847, Lipaphnaeus Aurivillius, 1916 and Pseudaletis Druce, 1888 representing the Palaeotropical subfamily Aphnaeinae Lycaenidae: Lepidoptera. Relevant wing parts are illustrated, described, and some observations on the organs are briefly annotated. With an appendix and 14 figures.

  11. Clepsis dumicolana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), new to the Belgian fauna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Prins, W.; Baugnée, J.-Y.

    2008-01-01

    On 17 August 2008 a specimen of Clepsis dumicolana (Zeller, 1847) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) was caught at Liège, leg. J.-Y. Baugnée. It was resting on Hedera helix, in the vicinity of the Kennedy bridge. During the following days, about 40 specimens were seen in two localities of the slope to the

  12. Fauna Simalurensis. Lepidoptera Rhopalocera: fam. Satyridae, Morphidae & Nymphalidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eecke, van R.

    1913-01-01

    Continuing the enumeration of the Lepidoptera from Simalur and neighbouring islets, collected by Mr. Edw. Jacobson, I have to notice only one new form of Cethosia and of Acca among a number of 16 species of Nymphalidae. The Satyridae were represented by one species and the Morphidae by two.

  13. Identification to Lepidoptera Superfamily-under the microscope (Insecta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are 160,000 species of described Lepidoptera, or moths and butterflies, on Earth, although it is estimated that the number is closer to 500,000 species. Many moths from all over the world are intercepted at U.S. ports on a wide variety of economically important commodities. The purpose of t...

  14. Conservation of silk genes in Trichoptera and Lepidoptera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yonemura, N.; Mita, K.; Tamura, T.; Sehnal, František

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2009), s. 641-653 ISSN 0022-2844 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5007402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : silk evolution * Trichoptera * Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.323, year: 2009

  15. Redescubrimiento de Mimoniades baroni (Godman & Salvin, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Lamas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el redescubrimiento de Mimoniades baroni (Godman & Salvin, 1895 (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae: Pyrrhopyginae, en Cajamarca, Perú. La especie no había sido registrada desde su descripción original, hace casi 110 años.

  16. A provisional annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    A biodiversity inventory of the Lepidoptera of Pico Bonito National Park and vicinity, in the Department of Atlantida of northern Honduras, has been initiated and will be conducted to obtain baseline data. We present a revised checklist of Honduran butterfly species (updated from the initial 1967 l...

  17. Experimental handling of sugar beets in the alcohol plant at Lipetsk. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, B K

    1958-01-01

    After introducing several technical improvements in the plant layout (flow scheme presented), especially in the cutting units which shred the beets, it is easily possible now by fermenting with strain XII or strain M to attain production with an EtOH of 87.2% by volume, which contains 0.05% andehydes, 254 mg/1 ester, and 21 mg/1 acid.

  18. A high efficiency technique for the generation of transgenic sugar beets from stomatal guard cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Riksen-Bruinsma, T.; Weyens, G.; Rosquin, I.J.; Denys, R.N.; Evans, I.J.; Lathouwers, J.E.; LefObvre, M.P.; Dunwell, J.M.; Tunen, van A.; Krens, F.A.

    1996-01-01

    An optimized protocol has been developed for the efficient and rapid genetic modification of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L). A polyethylene glycol- mediated DNA transformation technique could be applied to protoplast populations enriched specifically for a single totipotent cell type derived from

  19. Regional characteristics of market production of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Simo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the trends in the development of industrial crop production in the case of sugar beet and sunflower in Serbia from 1976 to 2013. Grouping of regions (4 regions without Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija and districts (25 districts in Serbia in 2013, according to the characteristics of land capacity, production of sugar beet and sunflower and level of development, was carried out by cluster analysis. Based on the median value of the important characteristics of available land capacity, production volume and economic development in municipalities, I-distance method were ranked districts in Serbia from 1 to 25. Similarities between the sugar beet and sunflower production regions in Serbia were determined by the method of complete-linkage clustering, and the results were presented in the dendrogram. According to data for 2013 it was found that 99.8% of sugar beet production and 93.9% of sunflower production in Serbia comes from the Vojvodina region. The average yields per hectare for analyzed crops in the areas of the Vojvodina region, on average, were by up to 10% higher compared to the yields in Serbia. According to the characteristics of land capacity and production, areas of the Vojvodina region belong to the highest rank 1-7, while according to the characteristics of the development level, these areas belong to rank 2-13.

  20. Effects of partial replacement of barley with sugar beet pulp on pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixteen Zel ewes (BW = 37 ± 3.10 kg) were used in a completely randomized design to determine the effects of partial replacement of barley grain with beet pulp (BP), during late pregnancy and early lactation, on litter weight, lamb's daily gain, milk yield and milk composition. Dietary treatments were initiated approximately ...

  1. Root infection of sugar beet by Cercospora beticola in a climate chamber and in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijssen, J.; Schneider, J.H.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Sugar beet root infection by Cercospora beticola, the causal agent of Cercospora leaf spot (CLS), was studied in a climate chamber and in the field. In the climate chamber, root incubation of susceptible seedlings with a conidial suspension resulted in disease incidences that were significantly

  2. Enhancement of soil suppressiveness against Rhizoctonia solani in sugar beet by organic amendments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Schilder, M.T.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of different organic soil amendments on disease suppression to Rhizoctoniasolani AG 2-2IIIB was tested in a bio-assay with sugar beet as a test plant. Lysobacter populations in soil were quantified as a possible mechanism for disease suppression. Disease spread through the bio-assay

  3. Arabinose and ferulic acid rich pectic polysaccharides extracted from sugar beet pulp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Beldman, G.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Arabinose and ferulic acid rich polysaccharides were extracted from sugar beet pulp using two extraction methods: a sequential extraction with H2O (2 times), NaOH/EDTA (2 times), and 4 M NaOH (2 times; method A) and a sequential extraction in which the NaOH/EDTA extraction was replaced by an

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet

  5. Molecular markers for improving control of soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in sugar beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB) is an important pathogen of sugar beet worldwide causing leaf yellowing and vascular discoloration. The use of tolerant varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing this disease. In this study, a large germplasm collection,comprised of 29 sugar be...

  6. Dr C. Beets (1916-1995) and the 'Rijksmuseum van Geologie en Mineralogie'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkler Prins, C.F.

    1996-01-01

    Dr Cornelis Beets, internationally renowned specialist of Indonesian Cainozoic molluscs, died on the 28th of July 1995. Born April 25, 1916, he read geology at Leiden University and obtained his PhD in 1941 on a geological study of the Turin Hills (Italy). When working on his PhD, he had already

  7. Tagging of resistance gene(s) to rhizomania disease in sugar beet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... plasmodiophoride-like fungus, Polymyxa betae Keskin. (1964) (Tamada and Richard, 1992). Source of resistance to rhizomania were found in Holly sugar beet company source (Lewellen, 1987). Resistance in Holly is simply inherited by a single dominant gene(Rz1). (Lewellen et al., 1987; Scholten et al., ...

  8. Effects of Water Stress on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of the Sugar Beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Kai-hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of water stress and rewatering on sugar beet yield and its corresponding photosynthetic parameters, and to provide the basis of water management for the sugar beet fields, pool experiments in an artificial proof canopy were set up to observe changes of beet net photosynthetic rate(Pn, transpiration rate(Tr, water use efficiency(WUE and stomatal limitation (Ls, intercellular CO2 oncentration(Ci, and PSⅡ maximum quantum yield(Fv/Fm. The results indicated that the diurnal variation of Tr and Pn in CK treatment (whole growth period replenishment at different times near "unimodal" type; and water shortage treatments presented "twin peaks" change. Diurnal transpiration capacity(DTC under water stress at sugar accumulation stage reduced by 70.16%~74.81% and diurnal photosynthetic capacity(DPC was 63.48%~69.96% lower than that of CK, while diurnal water use efficiency(WUEd increased by 19.28%~22.39%. Rehydration helped Tr and Pn recovery, but did not reach unstressed levels. Ls changes under extremely dry environment had a midday trough "twin peaks" feature, and Ci was at "double-dip" in consistent with the timing of Ls; Water stress inhibited and inactivated photochemical reaction center of midday PSⅡ. Water stress led to irreversible decrease in the Pn and Tr, and prolonged the Pn inefficient period, which become the important factor of influencing the sugar beet yield.

  9. Effect of Irrigation Methods, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Sugar Beet Yield and Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Abudlkareem, J.

    2007-01-01

    The experiment was conducted at a research station near Adlib. Two irrigation methods, sprinkler irrigation and drip fertigation, two phosphorus rates and four nitrogen rates 0, 70, 140 and 210 kg N/ha were tested. All N fertilizers were injected for drip irrigation or broadcasted for the sprinkler-irrigated treatments in six equally split applications. Neutron probe Results revealed that the introduction of drip fertigation was not proved to be a water saving relative to sprinkler irrigation. Dry matter production was slightly increased for the drip-fertigated treatments relative to sprinkler irrigated treatments. Nitrogen use efficiency was not improved under drip fertigation relative to that of sprinkler irrigation. Application of phosphorus fertilizer improved sugar beet yield as well as N uptake. No significant differences in sugar beet yield were observed due to the application of N fertilizer under drip fertigation. On the other hand, there was a trend toward increasing sugar beet yield grown under sprinkler irrigation. Drip fertigation had no negative effects on sugar content and other related properties, furthermore some of those properties were enhanced due to the employment of drip fertigation. Field water-use efficiency followed a similar trend and was increased under sprinkler irrigation relative to drip-fertigation for sugar beet yield parameter.

  10. Optimisation of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds, antioxidants, and anthocyanins from sugar beet molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Yi; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimise experimental conditions for ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of functional components from sugar beet molasses. The central composite design (CCD) was used for the optimisation of extraction parameters in terms of total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities and anthocyanins. Result suggested the optimal conditions obtained by RSM for UAE from sugar beet molasses were as follows: HCl concentration 1.55-1.72 mol/L, ethanol concentration 57-63% (v/v), extraction temperature 41-48 °C, and extraction time 66-73 min. In the optimal conditions, the experimental total phenolic contents were 17.36 mg GAE/100mL, antioxidant activity was 16.66 mg TE/g, and total anthocyanins were 31.81 mg/100g of the sugar beet molasses extract, which were well matched the predicted values. Teen compounds, i.e. gallic acid, vanillin, hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, catechin, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin-3-O-glucuronide and ferulic acid were determined by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS in sugar beet molasses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Multilocus analysis using putative fungal effectors to describe a population of Fusarium oxysporum from sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Paul A; Kuwitzky, Brett; Hanson, Mia; Webb, Kimberly M

    2014-08-01

    Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) Fusarium yellows is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae and can lead to significant reductions in root yield, sucrose percentage, juice purity, and storability. F. oxysporum f. sp. betae can be highly variable and many F. oxysporum strains isolated from symptomatic sugar beet are nonpathogenic. Identifying pathogenicity factors and their diversity in the F. oxysporum f. sp. betae population could further understanding of how this pathogen causes disease and potentially provide molecular markers to rapidly identify pathogenic isolates. This study used several previously described fungal effector genes (Fmk1, Fow1, Pda1, PelA, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Rho1, Sge1, Six1, Six6, Snf1, and Ste12) as genetic markers, in a population of 26 pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum originally isolated from symptomatic sugar beet. Of the genes investigated, six were present in all F. oxysporum isolates from sugar beet (Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Snf1, and Ste12), and seven were found to be dispersed within the population (Pda1, PelD, Pep1, Prt1, Sge1, Six1, and Six6). Of these, Fmk1, Fow1, PelA, Rho1, Sge1, Snf1, and Ste12 were significant in relating clade designations and PelD, and Prt1 were significant for correlating with pathogenicity in F. oxysporum f. sp. betae.

  12. Root rot symptoms in sugar beet lines caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum may cause both Fusarium yellows and Fusarium root rot diseases with severe yield losses in cultivated sugar beet worldwide. These two diseases cause similar foliar symptoms but different root response and have been proposed to be due to two distinct F. oxyspo...

  13. Project 722: Seedling diseases of sugar beet – diversity and host interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In five years of testing, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium spp. were commonly isolated from infected field-isolated diseased sugar beet seedlings. Which fungus is more commonly isolated from seedlings has varied over the seasons. For example, R. solani was the most frequently isolated pathogen in 201...

  14. Effect of nitrogen dressings on growth and development of sugar-beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houba, V.J.G.

    1973-01-01

    The growth and development of sugar-beet with different nitrogen dressings was studied by measurement of leaf area and of dry weight and chemical composition (inorganic cations and anions) of several plant parts during the growth season.

    For a correct interpretation of the data, the losses in

  15. Application of generalized Hough transform for detecting sugar beet plant from weed using machine vision method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Bakhshipour Ziaratgahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. as the second most important world’s sugar source after sugarcane is one of the major industrial crops. The presence of weeds in sugar beet fields, especially at early growth stages, results in a substantial decrease in the crop yield. It is very important to efficiently eliminate weeds at early growing stages. The first step of precision weed control is accurate detection of weeds location in the field. This operation can be performed by machine vision techniques. Hough transform is one of the shape feature extraction methods for object tracking in image processing which is basically used to identify lines or other geometrical shapes in an image. Generalized Hough transform (GHT is a modified version of the Hough transform used not only for geometrical forms, but also for detecting any arbitrary shape. This method is based on a pattern matching principle that uses a set of vectors of feature points (usually object edge points to a reference point to construct a pattern. By comparing this pattern with a set pattern, the desired shape is detected. The aim of this study was to identify the sugar beet plant from some common weeds in a field using the GHT. Materials and Methods Images required for this study were taken at the four-leaf stage of sugar beet as the beginning of the critical period of weed control. A shelter was used to avoid direct sunlight and prevent leaf shadows on each other. The obtained images were then introduced to the Image Processing Toolbox of MATLAB programming software for further processing. Green and Red color components were extracted from primary RGB images. In the first step, binary images were obtained by applying the optimal threshold on the G-R images. A comprehensive study of several sugar beet images revealed that there is a unique feature in sugar beet leaves which makes them differentiable from the weeds. The feature observed in all sugar beet plants at the four

  16. Efficient somatic embryogenesis in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, C.L.; Chen, D. F.; Kubaláková, Marie; Zhang, J.; Scott, N. W.; Elliott, M. C.; Slater, A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2008), s. 209-221 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Sugar beet * somatic embryogenesis * culture medium Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008

  17. Biodegradable composites from polyester and sugar beet pulp with antimicrobial coating for food packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totally biodegradable, double-layered antimicrobial composite Sheets were introduced for food packaging. The substrate layers of the sheets were prepared from poly (lactic acid) (PLA) and sugar beet pulp (SBP) or poly (butylene adipate-co-terephthalate (PBAT) and SBP by a twin-screw extruder. The ac...

  18. Prospects of utilization of sugar beet carbohydrates for biological hydrogen production in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.; Vrije, de G.J.; Urbaniec, K.; Koukios, E.G.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced through dark anaerobic fermentation using carbohydrate-rich biomass, and through photofermentation using the organic acids produced from dark fermentation. Sugar beet is an ideal energy crop for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU due to its environmental profile

  19. Prebiotic potential of pectins and pectic oligosaccharides derived from lemon peel wastes and sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez, Belén; Gullón, Beatriz; Yáñez, Remedios; Schols, Henk; Alonso, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) and lemon peel wastes (LPW) were used to obtain two mixtures of pectic oligosaccharides (denoted as SBPOS and LPOS, respectively). Oligogalacturonides in LPOS showed a larger molecular weight, higher degree of methylation and lower degree of acetylation than the ones in

  20. Allelopathic effects of barley straw on germination and seedling growth of corn, sugar beet and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad taghi naseri poor yazdi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of barley straw and root on germination and growth of maize, sugar beet, and sunflower were investigated under glasshouse and laboratory experiments in Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2006. The glasshouse experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications, treatments included: 0, 200, 400, 600 g/m² of grounded barley straw and also 0 and 50 g/m2 barley root. A laboratory experiment was carried out in order to study the effect of different concentrations of barley water extracts on germination and seedling characteristics of corn, sugar beet and sunflower. Treatments in laboratory trial included 0, 33, 50 and 100 percent of barley extracts. Results showed that leaf area of corn was significantly affected by barley straw treatments. Shoot dry matter and seed weight per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf , stem weights , plant per plant in corn , leaf and tuber weight in sugar beet and leaf, stem weights, plant height, head diameter, head weight and seed weight in sunflower were significantly higher in treatment of 50g/m² barley roots. Crop seed germination decreased with increasing the amount of barley straw. The best germination response to barley extract was observed in corn. Maize radicle weight was significantly decreased with increasing concentration of barley water extract.

  1. 75 FR 29969 - Environmental Impact Statement; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Sugar Beet Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... glyphosate affect the socioeconomic value of food or feed or its nutritional quality? What are the impacts, if any, on food or feed socioeconomic value or its nutritional quality from the use of glyphosate... of establishing, growing, harvesting, and marketing sugar beet, including selling prices and premiums...

  2. Role of potassium and nitrogen on sugar concentration of sugar beet

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sugar is obtained from root of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) in addition to other sources. Three important economic parameters are often considered and these are root yield, sugar concentration in root juice and total sugar yield. All the three are affected by cropping period and use of fertilisers. Existing literature suggests the ...

  3. Molecular evidence for the occurrence of beet western yellows virus on chickpea in Morocco.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortass, M.; Wilk, van der F.; Heuvel, van de J.F.J.M.; Goldbach, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A luteovirus isolate infecting chickpea in Morocco was experimentally transmitted by Myzus persicae to Physalis floridana, on which it produced mild symptoms. When tested in western blots against antisera to known legume luteoviruses, this isolate reacted strongly to beet western yellows virus

  4. Properties of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase and its relationship to microsomal mixed-function oxidation in the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L B; Wilkinson, C F

    1975-07-01

    1. Activity of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase was measured in the midgut and other tissues of the last larval instar of the southern armyworm (Spodoptera eridania Cramer, formerly Prodenia eridania Cramer). 2. Optimum conditions for measuring the activity were established with respect to all variables involved and considerable differences from those reported for mammalian enzyme preparations were found. 3. Maximum activity (20 nmol/h per mg of protein) occurs 18-24 h after the fifth moult and thereafter decreases to trace amounts as the larvae age and approach pupation. 4. Synthetase activity was rapidly induced by oral administration (in the diet) of pentamethylbenzene, phenobarbital, diethyl 1,4-dihydro-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine-3, 5-dicarboxylate, and 2-allyl-2-isopropylacetamide. 5. Puromycin inhibited the induction of synthetase by pentamethylbenzene. 6. Induction of 5-aminolaevulinate synthetase correlated well with the induction of microsomal N-demethylation of p-chloro-N-methylaniline, except for phenobarbital, which induced the microsomal oxidase relatively more than the synthetase.

  5. Analysis of strain distribution, migratory potential, and invasion history of fall armyworm populations in northern Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Rodney N; Goergen, Georg; Tounou, Kodjo Agbeko; Agboka, Komi; Koffi, Djima; Meagher, Robert L

    2018-02-27

    Fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) is a noctuid moth pest endemic throughout the Western Hemisphere that has recently become widespread in sub-Saharan Africa. There is a strong expectation of significant damage to African maize crop yield and a high likelihood of further dispersal, putting the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere at risk. Specimens from multiple locations in six countries spanning the northern portion of the infested region were analyzed for genetic markers. The similarity of haplotypes between the African collections was consistent with a common origin, but significant differences in the relative frequency of the haplotypes indicated limitations in migration. The mitochondrial marker frequently used to identify two host strains appears to be compromised, making uncertain previous reports that both strains are present in Africa. This more extensive study confirmed initial indications based on Togo populations that Florida and the Greater Antilles are the likely source of at least a subset of the African infestation and further suggest an entry point in western Africa. The origin of a second subgroup is less clear as it was rarely found in the collections and has a haplotype that has not yet been observed in the Western Hemisphere.

  6. MacoNPV baculovirus midgut-specific gene expression during infection of the bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donly, B. Cameron, E-mail: Cam.Donly@agr.gc.ca [London Research and Development Centre, AAFC, London, ON (Canada); Kaplanoglu, Emine [London Research and Development Centre, AAFC, London, ON (Canada); Theilmann, David A. [Summerland Research and Development Centre, AAFC, Summerland, BC (Canada); Baldwin, Doug; Sieminska, Edyta; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Erlandson, Martin A. [Saskatoon Research and Development Centre, AAFC, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2016-12-15

    Baculoviruses have two forms, occlusion derived virus (ODV) which is responsible for primary infection in host midgut tissue and budded virus (BV), which infects all other host tissues during secondary infection. This study examined the primary infection by ODV of midgut cells of bertha armyworm Mamestra configurata fourth instar larvae and measured the expression of viral genes over a time course of infection. Both digital PCR and RNA sequencing methods showed the profile of transcription to be different from those produced by AcMNPV BV infection of in vitro cell cultures. This included having unique collections of genes expressed early, as well as much greater late gene expression of p6.9 and much reduced expression of polh and p10. These differences likely reflect characteristics unique to the critical step of in vivo midgut cell infection, and provide insights into the processes that regulate viral gene expression in different host tissues. -- Highlights: •The transcriptome of MacoNPV ODV in larval midgut was measured by RNA-seq and digital PCR. •The earliest genes expressed included fusion protein, hoar, and me53. •p6.9 was highly expressed late but polH and p10 were less so. •These patterns are unique from BV of other baculoviruses in tissue culture cells.

  7. MacoNPV baculovirus midgut-specific gene expression during infection of the bertha armyworm, Mamestra configurata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donly, B. Cameron; Kaplanoglu, Emine; Theilmann, David A.; Baldwin, Doug; Sieminska, Edyta; Hegedus, Dwayne D.; Erlandson, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses have two forms, occlusion derived virus (ODV) which is responsible for primary infection in host midgut tissue and budded virus (BV), which infects all other host tissues during secondary infection. This study examined the primary infection by ODV of midgut cells of bertha armyworm Mamestra configurata fourth instar larvae and measured the expression of viral genes over a time course of infection. Both digital PCR and RNA sequencing methods showed the profile of transcription to be different from those produced by AcMNPV BV infection of in vitro cell cultures. This included having unique collections of genes expressed early, as well as much greater late gene expression of p6.9 and much reduced expression of polh and p10. These differences likely reflect characteristics unique to the critical step of in vivo midgut cell infection, and provide insights into the processes that regulate viral gene expression in different host tissues. -- Highlights: •The transcriptome of MacoNPV ODV in larval midgut was measured by RNA-seq and digital PCR. •The earliest genes expressed included fusion protein, hoar, and me53. •p6.9 was highly expressed late but polH and p10 were less so. •These patterns are unique from BV of other baculoviruses in tissue culture cells.

  8. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  9. Sexual crossing of thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica improved enzymatic degradation of sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Zhou, Miaomiao; van der Horst, Sjors; Theelen, Bart; de Vries, Ronald P; van den Brink, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Enzymatic degradation of plant biomass requires a complex mixture of many different enzymes. Like most fungi, thermophilic Myceliophthora species therefore have a large set of enzymes targeting different linkages in plant polysaccharides. The majority of these enzymes have not been functionally characterized, and their role in plant biomass degradation is unknown. The biotechnological challenge is to select the right set of enzymes to efficiently degrade a particular biomass. This study describes a strategy using sexual crossing and screening with the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora heterothallica to identify specific enzymes associated with improved sugar beet pulp saccharification. Two genetically diverse M. heterothallica strains CBS 203.75 and CBS 663.74 were used to generate progenies with improved growth on sugar beet pulp. One progeny, named SBP.F1.2.11, had a different genetic pattern from the parental strains and had improved saccharification activity after the growth on 3 % sugar beet pulp. The improved SBP saccharification was not explained by altered activities of the major (hemi-)cellulases. Exo-proteome analysis of progeny and parental strains after 7-day growth on sugar beet pulp showed that only 17 of the 133 secreted CAZy enzymes were more abundant in progeny SBP.F1.2.11. Particularly one enzyme belonging to the carbohydrate esterase family 5 (CE5) was more abundant in SBP.F1.2.11. This CE5-CBM1 enzyme, named as Axe1, was phylogenetically related to acetyl xylan esterases. Biochemical characterization of Axe1 confirmed de-acetylation activity with optimal activities at 75-85 °C and pH 5.5-6.0. Supplementing Axe1 to CBS 203.75 enzyme set improved release of xylose and glucose from sugar beet pulp. This study identified beneficial enzymes for sugar beet pulp saccharification by selecting progeny with improved growth on this particular substrate. Saccharification of sugar beet pulp was improved by supplementing enzyme mixtures with a previously

  10. Closing the Yield Gap of Sugar Beet in the Netherlands-A Joint Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanse, Bram; Tijink, Frans G J; Maassen, Jurgen; van Swaaij, Noud

    2018-01-01

    The reform of the European Union's sugar regime caused potential decreasing beet prices. Therefore, the Speeding Up Sugar Yield (SUSY) project was initiated. At the start, a 3 × 15 target was formulated: in 2015 the national average sugar yield in the Netherlands equals 15 t/ha (60% of the sugar beet potential) and the total variable costs 15 euro/t sugar beet, aspiring a saving on total variable costs and a strong increase in sugar yield. Based on their average sugar yield in 2000-2004, 26 pairs of "type top" (high yielding) and "type average" (average yielding) growers were selected from all sugar beet growing regions in the Netherlands. On the fields of those farmers, all measures of sugar beet cultivation were investigated, including cost calculation and recording phytopathological, agronomical and soil characteristics in 2006 and 2007. Although there was no significant difference in total variable costs, the "type top" growers yielded significantly 20% more sugar in each year compared to the "type average" growers. Therefore, the most profitable strategy for the growers is maximizing sugar yield and optimizing costs. The difference in sugar yield between growers could be explained by pests and diseases (50%), weed control (30%), soil structure (25%) and sowing date (14%), all interacting with each other. The SUSY-project revealed the effect of the grower's management on sugar yield. As a follow up for the SUSY-project, a growers' guide "Suikerbietsignalen" was published, Best Practice study groups of growers were formed and trainings and workshops were given and field days organized. Further, the benchmarking and feedback on the crop management recordings and the extension on variety choice, sowing performance, foliar fungi control and harvest losses were intensified. On the research part, a resistance breaking strain of the Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus (BNYVV) and a new foliar fungus, Stemphylium beticola , were identified and options for control were

  11. Adensamento da beterraba no manejo de plantas daninhas Increased beet density in weed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito do adensamento da semeadura na capacidade de supressão da cultura da beterraba sobre a comunidade infestante. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de 12 períodos semanais crescentes de convivência e controle das plantas daninhas, a partir da segunda semana após a semeadura, submetidos a duas densidades populacionais da cultura (40 e 50 plantas m-2. Avaliou-se o acúmulo de massa seca pelas plantas daninhas em cada período e a estimativa da época e extensão dos períodos críticos de interferência das plantas daninhas em função da produtividade comercial da cultura. Observou-se menor acúmulo de massa seca pelas plantas daninhas quando a cultura foi adensada, sendo a diferença média no acúmulo de 17 e 30% para períodos de convivência e controle, respectivamente. O período crítico de prevenção à interferência foi menor na cultura adensada (11 dias em relação à não-adensada (22 dias. O adensamento de semeadura da cultura da beterraba proporcionou aumento na capacidade de supressão da cultura sobre a comunidade infestante, afetando o crescimento e a época e extensão dos períodos críticos de interferência das plantas daninhas, podendo ser usado como ferramenta eficaz no manejo da flora invasora.The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of increased beet density on the capacity of beet plants to suppress weeds. The treatments were twelve weedy and weed-free increased periods submitted to two beet plant densities (40 and 50 plants m-2. Extension of weed interference was one week and time evaluation started in the second week after sowing. Weed dry mass accumulation for each period and estimate of time and extension of weed interference critical periods based on beet marketable yield were evaluated. Less weed dry mass accumulation was observed for increased beet density. The average percent difference of weed dry mass accumulation between densities was 17 and 30% under

  12. Effect of mixed 60Co γ-rays and rare earth elements on sugar content and yield of beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianzhong; Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Hao Yuhuai; Ma Dongyan

    2004-01-01

    The effect on sugar content and yield of beet was studied by using 60 Co γ-ray and rare earth elements (REE) to treat seeds of beet. The results indicated that 60 Co γ-ray of 50 Gy and seed-soaking in 750 g/hm 2 of farm REE could improve the root growth of beet, raise the sugar content of beetroot by 11.9% and yield by 13.5% compared to that of CK. The differences reached the significant level. (authors)

  13. Effect of mixed 60Co γ-rays and rare earth elements on sugar content and yield of beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jianzhong; Yi Huying; Yu Hongbin; Hao Yuhuai

    2004-01-01

    The effect on sugar content and yield of beet was studied by using 60 Co γ-ray and rare earth elements (REE) to treat seeds of beet. The results indicated that 60 Co γ-ray of 50 Gy and seed-soaking in 750 g/hm 2 of farm REE could improve the root growth of beet, raise the sugar content of beetroot by 11.9% and yield by 13.5% compared to that of CK. The differences reached the significant level

  14. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  15. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  16. Removing undesirable color and boosting biological activity in red beet extracts using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung Woo; Chung, Byung Yeoup; Lee, In Chul

    2011-01-01

    Red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is a traditional and popular vegetable distributed in many part of the world and has been used as a natural colorant in many dairy products, beverages, candies and cattle products. Red beet roots contain two groups of betalain pigments, redviolet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betalains possess several biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, and anticancer properities. Recent trend of using natural products in industries tends toward multifunctional, high quality, and highpriced value foods and cosmetics. To meet the needs of consumers, cosmetics, medicine, and foods should contain the proper amount of natural products. Although the color removal processes such as filtration and absorption by clay are still useful, these procedures are difficult, time-consuming and costly. To overcome this problem, the radiation technology has emerged as a new way. Radiation technology has been applied to the decomposition and decoloration of pigment and is an efficient technique for inactivating pathogens, removing undesirable color in biomaterial extracts and improving or maintaining biological activities. Gamma-irradiation and electron beamirradiation techniques in previous reports were applied in order to remove any undesirable color and to improve or maintain biological activities of various extracts such as green tea leaves, licorice root, and S. chinensis fruits. Latorre et al. reported that betacyanin concentration decreased with the irradiation dose and significantly, in 35%, after 2.0 kGy of gamma-ray, whereas betaxathin concentration increased (about 11%-ratio with respect to control) after 1 kGy but decreased (about 19%) after 2 kGy. However, they did not try to analysis for completed removal of red beet pigments. Therefore, it is necessary to find the optimum irradiation dose for entirely removing red pigments in red beet. The aim of this work was to address the effects of the color removal and

  17. Early detection of sugar beet pathogen Ramularia beticola in leaf and air samples using qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Thies Marten; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Hansen, Anne Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative PCR method (qPCR) was developed for the detection and quantification of Ramularia beticola causing Ramularia leaf spot in sugar beet. R. beticola specific primers were designed based on the internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS2). The assay was applied on DNA extracted from...... spores trapped on tape from Burkard spore traps placed in an artificially inoculated sugar beet field trial and in two sugar beet fields with natural infections. R. beticola DNA was detected at variable amounts in the air samples 14 to 16 days prior to first visible symptoms. R. beticola DNA was detected...... in air samples from fields with natural infection at significant and increasing levels from development of the first symptoms, indicating that spore production within the crop plays a major role in the epidemic development of the disease. Sugar beet leaves sampled from the inoculated field trial were...

  18. 76 FR 62339 - Domestic Sugar Program-2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Domestic Sugar Program--2011-Crop Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... the fiscal year (FY) 2012 State sugar marketing allotments and company allocations to sugarcane and...

  19. Trophic ecology of Lepidoptera larvae associated with woody vegetation in a savanna ecosystem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholtz, CH

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of a Lepidoptera community and deals with the trophic ecology of the 27 species of foliage-feeding Lepidoptera on the eight dominant woody plants in the Burkea africana-Eragrostis pallens savanna...

  20. Brachymeria pandora (Crawford (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae: a new parasitoid of Historis odius (Fabricius (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The first record of parasitism of Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae on Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil is presented.Apresenta-se o primeiro registro de parasitismo de Brachymeria pandora (Crawford, 1914 (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae em Historis odius (Fabricius, 1775 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  1. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae: first record from Chile and a newly documented host plant. Strepsicrates smithiana Walsingham, 1892 (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae is recorded for the first time from Chile. Male and female adults were reared from leaf-tying larvae collected on Myrica pavonis (Myricaceae, which is a new host plant record for S. smithiana.

  2. A new skipper species for Peru: Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Cerdeña, José Alfredo; Huamaní, Erick; Delgado, Rómulo; Lamas, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Se registra por primera vez para Perú al raro hespérido Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previamente citado de Ecuador y Bolivia. The rare skipper Dalla granites (Mabille, 1898) (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae), previously cited from Ecuador and Bolivia is reported for the first time in Peru.

  3. Fluorescence Indices for the Proximal Sensing of Powdery Mildew, Nitrogen Supply and Water Deficit in Sugar Beet Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Using potted sugar beet plants we aimed to investigate the suitability of four fluorescence indices to detect and differentiate the impact of nitrogen supply, water deficit and powdery mildew in two sugar beet cultivars (Beta vulgaris L.). Plants were grown inside a polytunnel under two nitrogen levels combined with water deficit or full irrigation. Changes in plant physiology were recorded at two physiological stages with a multiparametric handheld fluorescence sensor and a fluorescence ima...

  4. Applying Adaptive Agricultural Management & Industrial Ecology Principles to Produce Lower- Carbon Ethanol from California Energy Beets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiades, Anthy Maria

    The life cycle assessment of a proposed beet-to-ethanol pathway demonstrates how agricultural management and industrial ecology principles can be applied to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, minimize agrochemical inputs and waste, provide ecosystem services and yield a lower-carbon fuel from a highly land-use efficient, first-generation feedstock cultivated in California. Beets grown in California have unique potential as a biofuel feedstock. A mature agricultural product with well-developed supply chains, beet-sugar production in California has contracted over recent decades, leaving idle production capacity and forcing growers to seek other crops for use in rotation or find a new market for beets. California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) faces risk of steeply-rising compliance costs, as greenhouse gas reduction targets in the transportation sector were established assuming commercial volumes of lower-carbon fuels from second-generation feedstocks -- such as residues, waste, algae and cellulosic crops -- would be available by 2020. The expected shortfall of cellulosic ethanol has created an immediate need to develop lower-carbon fuels from readily available feedstocks using conventional conversion technologies. The life cycle carbon intensity of this ethanol pathway is less than 28 gCO2e/MJEthanol: a 72% reduction compared to gasoline and 19% lower than the most efficient corn ethanol pathway (34 gCO2e/MJ not including indirect land use change) approved under LCFS. The system relies primarily on waste-to-energy resources; nearly 18 gCO2e/MJ are avoided by using renewable heat and power generated from anaerobic digestion of fermentation stillage and gasification of orchard residues to meet 88% of the facility's steam demand. Co-products displace 2 gCO2e/MJ. Beet cultivation is the largest source of emissions, contributing 15 gCO 2e/MJ. The goal of the study is to explore opportunities to minimize carbon intensity of beet-ethanol and investigate the potential

  5. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vittorio Vonella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  6. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  7. Non-thermal Production of Natural betalain Colorant Concentrate from Red Beet Extract by Using the Osmotic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Amirasgari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Red beet extract concentrate can be used as a natural colorant in food products; however, destructive effects of thermal methods to produce juice concentrate decrease nutritional value in the final product. Materials and Methods: In this study, red beet extract was concentrated using osmotic distillation method, and the best pretreatment was evaluated to increase the efficiency of the concentration process. Also changes in some physicochemical properties such as betacyanins and betaxanthins contents, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red beet juice were evaluated by both the membrane and thermal concentration methods. Results: The results showed that the best concentration efficiency was obtained after pretreatment of the fresh juice with centrifugation at 1699 G for 17 min. Evaluation of the effect of both the membrane and thermal concentration processes on the physicochemical properties of juice showed that the membrane method did not change betacyanin and betaxanthin contents, total phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of the red beet extract. However, these properties decreased with the thermal concentration method by 26, 15, 11 and 13%, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results, osmotic distillation can produce red beet concentrate with more nutritional value than the concentrate produced with thermal method. Keywords: Membrane, Natural betalain colorant, Osmotic distillation, Red beet

  8. Nuclear receptors HR96 and ultraspiracle from the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), developmental expression and induction by xenobiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Maeva; Audant, Pascaline; Feyereisen, René; Le Goff, Gaëlle

    2013-05-01

    The fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda is a major polyphagous pest in agriculture and little is known on how this insect can adapt to the diverse and potentially toxic plant allelochemicals that they ingest or to insecticides. To investigate the involvement of nuclear receptors in the response of S. frugiperda to its chemical environment, we cloned SfHR96, a nuclear receptor orthologous to the mammalian xenobiotic receptors, pregnane X receptor (PXR) and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). We also cloned ultraspiracle (USP), the ortholog of retinoid X receptor (RXR) that serves as partner of dimerization of PXR and CAR. Cloning of SfUSP revealed the presence of two isoforms, SfUSP-1 and SfUSP-2 in this species, that differ in their N-terminal region. The expression of these receptors as well as the ecdysone receptor was studied during specific steps of development in different tissues. SfHR96 was constitutively expressed in larval midgut, fat body and Malpighian tubules throughout the last two instars and pupal stage, as well as in Sf9 cells. EcR and SfUSP-2 showed peaks of expression before larval moults and during metamorphosis, whereas SfUSP-1 was mainly expressed in the pre-pupal stage. Receptor induction was followed after exposure of larvae or cells to 11 chemical compounds. SfHR96 was not inducible by the tested compounds. EcR was significantly induced by the 20-hydroxyecdysone agonist, methoxyfenozide, and SfUSP showed an increase expression when exposed to the juvenile hormone analog, methoprene. The cloning of these nuclear receptors is a first step in understanding the important capacities of adaptation of this insect pest. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA barcodes of caterpillars (Lepidoptera) from Papua New Guinea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miller, S. E.; Hrček, Jan; Novotný, Vojtěch; Weiblen, G. D.; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 1 (2013), s. 107-109 ISSN 0013-8797 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0115 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; U.S. National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.479, year: 2013

  10. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera

    OpenAIRE

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems ...

  11. The richness and diversity of Lepidoptera species in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The family Nymphalidae was the most dominant one in the parc with 32.48%. The diversity index (H' and H'max) and the equitability (E) calculated for the 6 types of habitats is H'= 2,74 bits, H'max = 4,09 bits and E = 0,67 bits, meaning that the Lepidoptera species are at equilibrium with the different types of habitat which ...

  12. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  13. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloylated pectic polysaccharides from sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz

    beet pulp as a potential starting material for production of pectin derived products which could help maintain the competitiveness of the sugar beet based industry. The overall objective of this study has been focusing on understanding the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative crosslinking......-linked by HRP catalysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to form ferulic acid dehydrodimers (diFAs). The composition of the substrate was analyzed by HPAEC, HPLC and MALDI-TOF, confirming the structural make up of the arabinan-oligosaccharide (Arabinose: 2.9- 3.4 mmol?g-1 DM; FA: 2.5-7.0 mg?g-1 DM......, identically composed, oil-in-water emulsion systems to study the effect of different methods of emulsion preparation on the emulsion stability in the presence of SBP and the kinetics of enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP. The result shows that the different methods of emulsion preparation affect...

  14. Retrospection concerning the sugar beet protection on Fundulea zone, district Calarasi, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doncila Anton I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper represents a synthesis concerning sugar beet protection in the specific conditions (soil and climatic of Fundulea zone. The presented aspects refer to the beet diseases, pests and weeds (primary and secondary concerning economic importance since these organisms are continually limiting root and sugar yields. At the same time, it refers to the present control possibilities, the aim being the efficiancy and environmental demands. The basis of the synthesis are main data and results obtained at the Institute (in experimental fields and demonstration plots, during 1982-2003 (the Institute was founded in 1981 about natural infections and infestations without treatments. It contains three parts (pathogens, pests, weeds and has original pictures enclosed in the annex: some symptoms of pathogen and pests attacks, weed control and other aspects such as herbicides fitotoxity strangled roots, Cuscuta as a parasitic plant etc.

  15. Nutritional value of biofuel residues from beet evaluated in sows and sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J.V.; Hvelplund, T.; Fernandez, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    sugar (Angus) and fodder (Colosse) beets as feed for pigs and ruminants. The pulp was prepared by a cold mechanical pressing. Two digestibility experiments were carried out according to the difference method. In experiment 1, 30 sows were housed individually in metabolic cages for 12 d, and urine......An alternative substrate in the biogas or bioethanol production may be the sugar containing juice obtained after fractionation of beets into a juice used for fermentation and into a pulp used for feeding. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the fresh pulp of top and root from...... and feces were collected during the last 7 d. The daily ration consisted of either root or top pulp combined with a basal diet. In experiment 2, 25 wethers were housed individually, and feces were collected during the last 7 d of the experiment. The daily ration was either root or top pulp combined with hay...

  16. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  17. Qualitative TLC determination of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sugar-beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BILJANA D. SKRBIC

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The presence of polycyclic or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in sugar-beet from a local sugar factory in the district of Vojvodina. The sugar-beet was cultivated on areas near roads with intensive traffic. The procedure for the preparation and determination of these compounds included saponification of the sample, several liquid–liquid extraction systems and a silica gel column clean-up. The purified sample solution was analysed by thin layer chromatography (TLC on silica gel with cyclohexane as the developing solvent. Benzo(bfluoranthene and benzo(aanthracene and/or benzo(apyrene were detected at concentrations greater than the allowed limits in food.

  18. Adsorption of cellulases onto sugar beet shreds and modeling of the experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivetić Darjana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the adsorption of cellulases onto sugar beet shreds. The experiments were carried out using untreated, as well as dried and not dried dilute acid and steam pretreated sugar beet shreds at different initial enzyme loads. Both dilute acid and steam pretreatment were beneficial in respect of cellulases adsorption providing 8 and 9 times higher amounts of adsorbed proteins, respectively, in comparison to the results obtained with the untreated substrate. Although the use of higher solids load enabled by drying of pretreated substrates, could be beneficial for process productivity, at the same time it decreases the adsorption of enzymes. The obtained experimental data were fitted to five adsorption models, and the Langmuir model having the lowest residual sum of squares was used for the determination of adsorption parameters which were used to calculate the strength of cellulases binding to the substrates.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31002

  19. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Xu

    Full Text Available Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  20. Betaine and beet molasses enhance L-lactic acid production by Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Xu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid is an important chemical with various industrial applications, and it can be efficiently produced by fermentation, in which Bacillus coagulans strains present excellent performance. Betaine can promote lactic acid fermentation as an effective osmoprotectant. Here, positive effect of betaine on fermentation by B. coagulans is revealed. Betaine could enhance lactic acid production by protecting l-LDH activity and cell growth from osmotic inhibition, especially under high glucose concentrations and with poor organic nitrogen nutrients. The fermentation with 0.05 g/L betaine could produce 17.9% more lactic acid compared to the fermentation without betaine. Beet molasses, which is rich in sucrose and betaine, was utilized in a co-feeding fermentation and raised the productivity by 22%. The efficient lactic acid fermentation by B. coagulans is thus developed by using betaine and beet molasses.

  1. Hyper sausage neuron: Recognition of transgenic sugar-beet based on terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong; Chen, Tao; Du, Yong; Xin, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for identification of terahertz (THz) spectral of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) based on Hyper Sausage Neuron (HSN), and THz transmittance spectra of some typical transgenic sugar-beet samples are investigated to demonstrate its feasibility. Principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract features of the spectrum data, and instead of the original spectrum data, the feature signals are fed into the HSN pattern recognition, a new multiple weights neural network (MWNN). The experimental result shows that the HSN model not only can correctly classify different types of transgenic sugar-beets, but also can reject identity non similar samples in the same type. The proposed approach provides a new effective method for detection and identification of GMOs by using THz spectroscopy.

  2. Feruloylated and Nonferuloylated Arabino-oligosaccharides from Sugar Beet Pectin Selectively Stimulate the Growth of Bifidobacterium spp. in Human Fecal in Vitro Fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Lorentzen, Andrea; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The side chains of the rhamnogalacturonan I fraction in sugar beet pectin are particularly rich in arabinan moieties, which may be substituted with feruloyl groups. In this work the arabinan-rich fraction resulting from sugar beet pulp based pectin production was separated by Amberlite XAD...... feruloylated arabino-oligosaccharides from sugar beet pulp and an initial indication of the potentially larger bifidogenic effect of relatively long-chain arabino-oligosaccharides as opposed to short-chain arabino-oligosaccharides....

  3. A unique guild of Lepidoptera associated with the glacial relict populations of Labrador tea (Ledum palustre Linnaeus, 1753) in Central European peatlands (Insecta: Lepidoptera)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 166 (2014), s. 319-327 ISSN 0300-5267 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Insecta * Lepidoptera * relict peat bogs Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.435, year: 2014

  4. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woestmann, Luisa; Saastamoinen, Marjo

    2016-10-01

    The importance of trans-generational effects in shaping an individuals' phenotype and fitness, and consequently even impacting population dynamics is increasingly apparent. Most of the research on trans-generational effects still focuses on plants, mammals, and birds. In the past few years, however, increasing number of studies, especially on maternal effects, have highlighted their importance also in many insect systems. Lepidoptera, specifically butterflies, have been used as model systems for studying the role of phenotypic plasticity within generations. As ectotherms, they are highly sensitive to environmental variation, and indeed many butterflies show adaptive phenotypic plasticity in response to environmental conditions. Here, we synthesize what is known about trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera, compile evidence for different environmental cues that are important drivers of trans-generational effects, and point out which offspring traits are mainly impacted. Finally, we emphasize directions for future research that are needed for better understanding of the adaptive nature of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera in particular, but potentially also in other organisms.

  5. Impact of Lateral Transfers on the Genomes of Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Drezen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transfer of DNA sequences between species regardless of their evolutionary distance is very common in bacteria, but evidence that horizontal gene transfer (HGT also occurs in multicellular organisms has been accumulating in the past few years. The actual extent of this phenomenon is underestimated due to frequent sequence filtering of “alien” DNA before genome assembly. However, recent studies based on genome sequencing have revealed, and experimentally verified, the presence of foreign DNA sequences in the genetic material of several species of Lepidoptera. Large DNA viruses, such as baculoviruses and the symbiotic viruses of parasitic wasps (bracoviruses, have the potential to mediate these transfers in Lepidoptera. In particular, using ultra-deep sequencing, newly integrated transposons have been identified within baculovirus genomes. Bacterial genes have also been acquired by genomes of Lepidoptera, as in other insects and nematodes. In addition, insertions of bracovirus sequences were present in the genomes of certain moth and butterfly lineages, that were likely corresponding to rearrangements of ancient integrations. The viral genes present in these sequences, sometimes of hymenopteran origin, have been co-opted by lepidopteran species to confer some protection against pathogens.

  6. The mitochondrial genome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Tianrong; Li, Lei; Yao, Chengyi; Wang, Yayu; Zou, Zhiwen; Wang, Jing; Xia, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We present the complete mitogenome of Cethosia biblis (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in this article. The mitogenome was a circle molecular consisting of 15,286 nucleotides, 37 genes, and an A + T-rich region. The order of 37 genes was typical of insect mitochondrial DNA sequences described to date. The overall base composition of the genome is A (37.41%), T (42.80%), C (11.87%), and G (7.91%) with an A + T-rich hallmark as that of other invertebrate mitochondrial genomes. The start codon was mainly ATA in most of the mitochondrial protein-coding genes such as ND2, COI, ATP8, ND3, ND5, ND4, ND6, and ND1, but COII, ATP6, COIII, ND4L, and Cob genes employing ATG. The stop codon was TAA in all the protein-coding genes. The A + T region is located between 12S rRNA and tRNA(M)(et). The phylogenetic relationships of Lepidoptera species were constructed based on the nucleotides sequences of 13 PCGs of mitogenomes using the neighbor-joining method. The molecular-based phylogeny supported the traditional morphological classification on relationships within Lepidoptera species.

  7. Attempts at improving citric acid fermentation by Aspergillus niger in beet-molasses medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adham, N.Z. [National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt). Products Dept.

    2002-08-01

    Natural oils with high unsaturated fatty acids content when added at concentrations of 2% and 4% (v/v) to beet molasses (BM) medium caused a considerable increase in citric acid yield from Aspergillus niger. The fermentation capacities were also examined for production of citric acid using BM-oil media under different fermentation conditions. Maximum citric acid yield was achieved in surface culture in the presence of 4% olive oil after 12 days incubation. (author)

  8. Rhizoctonia root rot (Rhizoctoni solani K ü h n of sugar beet in province Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojšin Vera B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet root rot appears regularly each year, but its intensity depends on agro ecological conditions. The predominant causers of root rot in Vojvodina are fungi from Fusarium genus and species Macrophomina phaseolina. Over the last couple of years, more intense occurrence of Rhizoctonia root rot has been observed. Rhizoctonia solani, the causal agent of root rot is present in sugar beet fields. During 2000-2005, on the territory of Vojvodina, the frequency of Rhizoctonia solani in phytopathological isolations from rotted sugar beet roots was between 0,0-18,2%. The intensity of the disease depends on localities, agro ecological conditions and genotypes. Symptoms of Rhizoctonia root rot were registered at some localities in all regions of Vojvodina: Srem, Banat and Bačka. The disease appearance is above all local. It occurs in small patches, on heavy, non-structured soil and on depressed wet parts of plots. Individual diseased plants can be found during July. Brown rot appears on sugar beet roots, with dried tissue on surface, which is present on the tail as well as on the middle part and the head of root. Tissues with described symptoms are deeper regarding the healthy part of root. On vertical root section, the necrotic changes are clearly visible comparing to tissue section without symptoms. The heavily infected tissue forms fissures on roots in most cases. Besides the above-mentioned symptoms on roots, the plant wilting and leaf handle necrosis as well as leaf dying are also observed. When rot spreads to the whole root head, plants quickly die.

  9. Application of Glycine, Tufool and Salicylic Acid in Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. under Drought Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kheirkhah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sugar beet is one of strategic products to supply sugar in water limited areas of Iran. Thus, proper managements to supply enouph water in production of sugar beet is very important. To evaluate the effects of some anti stress substances like salicylic acid, tyuful and glycine to irritigate the effect of early water deficit on suger beet, an experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Research Farm of Fariman Sugar Factory in 2013. Treatments consisted of control (without using anti stress substances, with three concentration of salicylic acid (0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM, tyuful with three concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 liter per thousand and glycine with three concentration (1, 2 and 3 liters per thousand. The results showed that the effects of anti-stress materials significantly affected the sugar content, root yield, white sugar yield and harmful nitrogen. Highest sugar content (15.65%, root yield (83.82 t.ha-1 and white sugar percentage (11.15% were obtained by using tyuful 1.5 lit/1000. While, the lowest levels of these characters were obtained from control (not using anti stress substances. Maximum harmful nitrogen was produced in control treatment (4.38 and highest level of alkalinity with mean of 3.49 was observed by using 3 lit/1000 of glycine. Our results showed that all of the anti stress substances had positive effects on sugar beet under drought stress condition.

  10. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović Jelena M.; Šćiban Marina B.; Antov Mirjana G.; Kukić Dragana V.; Vasić Vesna M.

    2015-01-01

    Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with...

  11. Assessment of Cultivation Method for Energy Beet Based on LCA Method

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chunfeng; Liu, Feng; Zu, Yuangang; Meng, Qingying; Zhu, Baoguo; Wang, Nannan

    2014-01-01

    In order to establish a supply system for energy resource coupled with the environment, the production technology of sugar beets was explored as a biological energy source. The low-humic andosol as the experimental soil, the panting method was direct planting, and cultivation technique was minimum tillage direct planting method. The control was conventional tillage transplant and no tillage direct planting. The results demonstrated that data revealed that the energy cost of no tillage and a d...

  12. The Effect of Ultrasonic Waves on Sugar Extraction and Mechanical Properties of Sugar Beet

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    K Hedayati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, which can be extracted from sugar cane and sugar beet, is one of the most important ingredients of food. Conducting more research to increase the extraction efficiency of sugar is necessary due to high production of sugar beet and its numerous processing units in northern Khorasan province. In this research, the effect of temperature, time and the frequency of ultrasonic waves on mechanical properties of sugar beet and its extraction rate of sugar in moisture content of 75% were studied. In this regard, an ultrasonic bath in laboratory scale was used. The studied parameters and their levels were frequency in three levels (zero, 25 and 45 KHz, temperature in three levels (25, 50 and 70 ° C and the imposed time of ultrasonic waves in three levels (10, 20 and 30 min. Samples were prepared using planned experiments and the results were compared with control sugar beet samples. A Saccharimeter was used to measure the concenteration of sugar in samples. Two different types of probe including semi-spherical end and the other one with sharpened edges were used to measure mechanical properties. The studied parameters of frequency, temperature and time showed significant effect on sugar extraction and their resulted effect in optimized levels revealed up to 56% increase in sugar extraction compared with control samples. The obtained values of elastic modulus and shear modulus showed a decreasing trend. The obtained values of total energy of rupture, the total energy of shear, the maximum force of rupture, and the yield point of rupture showed an increasing trend. The frequency had no significant effect on the yield point of rupture and shear force.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF BACTERIOSTATIC PROPERTIES OF CHLORINATED COMPOUNDS FOR BEET-SUGAR INDUSTRY

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    N. G. Kulneva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. One of the major causes of decline in the quality of granulated sugar is bacterial contamination of sugar beet. This is due to the fact that the beet-sugar industry is a good object for the development of different groups of microorganisms. The main sources of infection of products of sugar manufacture can be soil, water, air, packaging, packaging materials, vehicles, clothing, equipment. The higher the beet contamination with the microorganisms, the more they decompose sucrose and secrete metabolic byproducts. In this regard, there is a need to reduce the negative impact of various groups of microorganisms and to minimize the loss of sucrose from decomposition. In accordance with the problem given the studies to determine the bacteriostatic properties of chlorinated compounds for sugar production were carried out. We used the cultivated fluid colonized with a pure culture of Leuconostoc mesenteroides and reagent treated as an object of study. In the experiments, we determined the accumulation of biomass of L. mesenteroides with nephelometric method by measuring the optical density of bacterial suspension. It was found out that after 24 hours of bacterial culturing the level of optical density in the control and active acidity were considerably higher compared with the sample treated with germicide. The number of microorganisms in the nutrient medium was determined by Vinogradsky-Shulgina-Brid’s. According to the study in the control is 1,7*10^16, in experiment with the introduction of the chlorinated compound it is 5,8*10^14. The experimental results show that the investigated chlorinated compound has bacteriostatic action against grampositive cocci saprophytic of L. mesenteroides and can be recommended for use in a sugar beet production.

  14. Genetic value pollenizer lines of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. altissima Doell.

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    А. О. Яценко

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The features of sugar beet polygerm seed populations were studied. The ways of creation of combinationaluable pollenizers line –– component hybrid on sterile base were improve. The environment conditions had influenced on reaction of different types of genic interactions in specific sets of hybrids. The positive effects of interaction is a part of heterosis effects. It is proved that plasticity and stability effect depend on environment condition where genotype realization occurs.

  15. Descriptive parameters for revealing substitution patterns of sugar beet pectins using pectolytic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoroza, C; Buchholt, H C; Gruppen, H; Schols, H A

    2014-01-30

    Enzymatic fingerprinting was applied to sugar beet pectins (SBPs) modified by either plant or fungal pectin methyl esterases and alkali catalyzed de-esterification to reveal the ester distributions over the pectin backbone. A simultaneous pectin lyase (PL) treatment to the commonly used endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PG) degradation showed to be effective in degrading both high and low methylesterified and/or acetylated homogalaturonan regions of SBP simultaneously. Using LC-HILIC-MS/ELSD, we studied in detail all the diagnostic oligomers present, enabling us to discriminate between differently prepared sugar beet pectins having various levels of methylesterification and acetylation. Furthermore, distinction between commercially extracted and de-esterified sugar beet pectin having different patterns of substitution was achieved by using novel descriptive pectin parameters. In addition to DBabs approach for nonmethylesterified sequences degradable by endo-PG, the "degree of hydrolysis" (DHPG) representing all partially saturated methylesterified and/or acetylated galacturonic acid (GalA) moieties was introduced as a new parameter. Consequently, the description DHPL has been introduced to quantify all esterified unsaturated GalA oligomers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. System dynamics approach for modeling of sugar beet yield considering the effects of climatic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Lia; Islam, Md Saiful

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a system dynamics model for computation of yields and to investigate the dependency of yields on some major climatic parameters, i.e. temperature and rainfall, for Beta vulgaris subsp. (sugar beet crops) under future climate change scenarios. A system dynamics model was developed which takes account of the effects of rainfall and temperature on sugar beet yields under limited irrigation conditions. A relationship was also developed between the seasonal evapotranspiration and seasonal growing degree days for sugar beet crops. The proposed model was set to run for the present time period of 1993-2012 and for the future period 2013-2040 for Lethbridge region (Alberta, Canada). The model provides sugar beet yields on a yearly basis which are comparable to the present field data. It was found that the future average yield will be increased at about 14% with respect to the present average yield. The proposed model can help to improve the understanding of soil water conditions and irrigation water requirements of an area under certain climatic conditions and can be used for future prediction of yields for any crops in any region (with the required information to be provided). The developed system dynamics model can be used as a supporting tool for decision making, for improvement of agricultural management practice of any region. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Ethanol fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilized onto sugar beet pulp

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    Vučurović Vesna M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural adhesion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae onto sugar beet pulp (SBP is a very simple and cheap immobilization method for retaining high cells density in the ethanol fermentation system. In the present study, yeast cells were immobilized by adhesion onto SBP suspended in the synthetic culture media under different conditions such as: glucose concentration (100, 120 and 150 g/l, inoculum concentration (5, 10 and 15 g/l dry mass and temperature (25, 30, 35 and 40°C. In order to estimate the optimal immobilization conditions the yeast cells retention (R, after each immobilization experiment was analyzed. The highest R value of 0.486 g dry mass yeast /g dry mass SBP was obtained at 30°C, glucose concentration of 150 g/l, and inoculum concentration of 15 g/l. The yeast immobilized under these conditions was used for ethanol fermentation of sugar beet molasses containing 150.2 g/l of reducing sugar. Efficient ethanol fermentation (ethanol concentration of 70.57 g/l, fermentation efficiency 93.98% of sugar beet molasses was achieved using S. cerevisiae immobilized by natural adhesion on SBP. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31002

  18. Occurence, spread and possibilities of invasive weeds control in sugar beet

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    Konstantinović Branko I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Floristically rich and diverse weed comunity of sugar beet is in our country represented by 150 weed species. They are not all equaly significant in weediness of this crop. Only a limited number of them participate in weed comunity composition. These are: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic., Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Convolvulus arvensis L., Cynodon dactylon (L Pers. Digitaria sanguinalis (L Scop., Hibiscus trionum L., Rubus caesius L. Echinochloa crus-gall L., Polygonum aviculare L., P. lapathifolium L., P. persicaria L., Setaria glauca (L P. B., S. viridis (L P. B., Solanum nigrum L. and Sorghum halepense (L Pers. In shooting period up to 4-8 weeks upon emergence, sugar beet is under the haviest harmfull inluence of weeds, especially invasive ones such as: Abuthilon theophrasti Medic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Cirsium arvense (L Scop., Iva xanthifolia L. Sorghum halepense (L Pers. and Xanthium strumarium L. Sugar beet growing requires intensive cultural practices, i.e. basic and additional tillage and cultivation. Due to the widening of weed problems, frequent herbicide use in several applications is needed in the longer time period.

  19. Traffic effects on soil compaction and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproot quality parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, F.; Pezzuolo, A.; Cillis, D.; Chiumenti, A.; Sartori, L.

    2017-09-01

    Soil compaction is a critical issue in agriculture having a significant influence on crop growth. Sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) is accounted as a crop susceptible to compaction. Reduction of leaf area, final yield, and root quality parameters are reported in compacted soils. The most obvious visual indicator of topsoil compaction is root depth affected by agricultural tractor and machinery traffic up on the soil. Such indicators are mainly correlated to initial soil condition, tyre features, and number of passages. Monitoring and controlling frequency and position of machine traffic across the field, in such a way that passages are completed on specific, well-defined tracks, can assist with minimization of compaction effects on soil. The objective of the present work was to analyze the subsoil compaction during the growing period of sugar beet with different farming approaches including controlled traffic passages and random traffic. To this end, tests were carried out following each agro technical operation using penetrometer readings in order to monitor the state of cone-index after each step. In addition, at the harvesting time, root quality parameters were analyzed with particular attention to length and regularity of the taproot, total length, circumference, mass, and above-ground biomass. Such parameters were usefully implemented in order to evaluate the effects of controlled traffic passages compared to the random traffic in a cultivation of sugar beet. Results highlight how an increase in crop yield, derived from samples monitored, higher than 10% can be expected with implementation of a careful traffic management.

  20. Noninvasive presymptomatic detection of Cercospora beticola infection and identification of early metabolic responses in sugar beet

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    Hans-Peter Mock

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5-99.9 % in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defence response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively-produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data.

  1. Genetic determination of high productivity in experimental hybrid combinations of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

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    М. О. Корнєєва

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Creation of experimental sugar beet hybrid combinations of high sugar yield values and defining gene­tic determination of their heterotic effect. Methods. Diallel crossing and topcrossing, genetic analysis of quantitative traits. Results. The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of sugar beet heterotic hybrid combinations for «sugar yield» trait created on the basis of two pollinator lines to be genetically valuable for productivity elements, CMS lines and single-cross sterile hybrids with the use of diallel and topcrossing system of controlled hybridization. The share of parental components’ effect and their interaction in CMS hybrids variability for productivity was determined. Expediency of heterotic forecasting based on high combining ability lines was substabtiated. Promising high-yielding sugar beet combinations were selected that exceeded the group standard by 4.1–16.3%. Conclusions. The theory of genetic balance by M. V. Turbin was confirmed. Such hybrids as [CMS 5OT 4]MGP 1 (116.3%, [CMS 1OT 2]MGP 1 (112.5% and [CMS 3OT 5]MGP 1 (113.2% were recognized as the best for their productivity, MGP 1 and MGP 2 lines – as the best for their combining ability.

  2. Simulation of water management for fodder beet to reduce yield losses under late season drought

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    T. Noreldin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to calibrate CropSyst model for fodder beet grown under full and late season drought and to use the simulation results to analyze the relationship between irrigation amount and yield, as well as in water management to reduce yield losses under full and late season drought. For this reason, two field experiments were implemented at El-Serw Agricultural Research Station in Demiatte governorate, during 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons. Two irrigation treatments were studied: full irrigation and late season drought. The model was calibrated using the data obtained from the two seasons. Results indicated that the reduction in fodder beet yield under late season drought was 11 and 12% in 2011/12 and 2012/13 growing seasons, respectively. Calibration of CropSyst revealed that the percentage of difference between measured and predicted values were low in both growing seasons. The results also indicated that changing irrigation schedule after examining water stress index under full and late season drought led to increase in fodder beet yield, as well as water and land productivity. Thus, CropSyst model can give insight into when to apply irrigation water to minimize yield losses under late season drought.

  3. Economic feasibility of the sugar beet-to-ethylene value chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Jeroen; Biesheuvel, Kees; De Kok, Ad; Pelt, Henk; Ruitenbeek, Matthijs; Spork, Ger; Tange, Jan; Wevers, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    As part of a long-term strategy toward renewable feedstock, a feasibility study into options for the production of bioethylene by integrating the sugar beet-to-ethanol-to-ethylene value chain. Seven business cases were studied and tested for actual economic feasibility of alternative sugar-to-ethanol-to-ethylene routes in comparison to fossil-fuel alternatives. An elaborate model was developed to assess the relevant operational and financial aspects of each business case. The calculations indicate that bioethylene from sugar beet is not commercially viable under current market conditions. In light of expected global energy and feedstock prices it is also reasonable to expect that this will not change in the near future. To consider biorenewable sources as starting material, they need to be low in cost (compared to sugar beets) and also require less capital and energy-intensive methods for the conversion to chemicals. In general, European sugar prices will be too high for many chemical applications. Future efforts for in sugar-to-chemicals routes should, therefore, focus on integrated process routes and process intensification and/or on products that contain a significant part of the original carbohydrate backbone. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. State of weed infestation and features of sugar beet protection in Belarus

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    Soroka Sergey Vladimirovich

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes of phytosanitary situation recently taking place in sugar beet crops in the Republic of Belarus are shown. It is noticed that in the crop agrocoenosises there is a high infestation level caused by Japanese barnyard millet (Echinochloa crus-galli (L Pal. Beauv, field sowthistle (Sonchus arvensis L, chickweed (Stellaria media (L Vill, quick grass (Agropyron repens (L Pal Beauv, matricary (Matricaria perforate Merat, creeping thistle (Circium arvense (L scop, marsh woundwort (Stachus palustris L wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L, bristle stem hemp nettle (Galeopsis tetrahit L, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L, field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis (L Hill, shepherd's purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris (L Med etc. Due to non-observance of preventive and separate agrotechnical techniques especially in spring-summer period, such weeds as bedstraw (Galium aparine L, white campion (Melandrium album (Mill Garcke, green amaranthus (Amaranthus retroflexus L started to appear in the crops. To protect sugar beet effectively, two variants of herbicides application are proposed. The first one - a combined, one stipulating soil action herbicides application before planting or before sugar beet seedlings emergence and on seedlings - to carry out two treatment by post-emergence preparations. The second variant, a split post- -emergence herbicide application (two-three times spraying on growing weeds at small application rates. In the next 5-6 years, a combined method will be of a primary importance in the conditions of the Republic.

  6. Arabidopsis thaliana Remorins Interact with SnRK1 and Play a Role in Susceptibility to Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus

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    Seungmin Son

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Remorins, a family of plant-specific proteins containing a variable N-terminal region and conserved C-terminal domain, play a role in various biotic and abiotic stresses, including host-microbe interactions. However, their functions remain to be completely elucidated, especially for the Arabidopsis thaliana remorin group 4 (AtREM4. To elucidate the role of remorins in Arabidopsis, we first showed that AtREM4s have typical molecular characteristics of the remorins, such as induction by various types of biotic and abiotic stresses, localization in plasma membrane and homo- and hetero-oligomeric interaction. Next, we showed that their loss-of-function mutants displayed reduced susceptibility to geminiviruses, Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Severe Curly Top Virus, while overexpressors enhanced susceptibility. Moreover, we found that they interacted with SnRK1, which phosphorylated AtREM4.1, and were degraded by the 26S proteasome pathway. These results suggest that AtREM4s may be involved in the SnRK1-mediated signaling pathway and play a role as positive regulators of the cell cycle during geminivirus infection.

  7. Biological characteristics of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenopetra: Eulophidae in the hosts Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Vanessa Rodrigues Ferreira Calado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Trichospilus diatraeae Cherian & Margabandhu, 1942 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a pupal endoparasitoid of lepidoptera and it has been studied as a potential agent for biological control of pests. For developing techniques to breed parasitoids, there is a need to choose the appropriate alternative host, thus, this article aims to evaluate the biological characteristics of T. diatraeae with regard to the hosts Bombyx mori Linneaus (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae and Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae, in laboratory. Twelve pupae of B. mori and twelve pupae of D. saccharalis, within 72 and 24 h of life, respectively, were exposed to parasitism by 21 female parasitoids at 25 ± 1°C, with relative humidity 70 ± 10% and photophase of 14 h. Life-cycle duration (egg – adult of T. diatraeae was 19.44 ± 0.12 days in pupae of D. saccharalis and 18.00 ± 0.05 days in pupae of B. mori, the emergence of parasitoid progeny was 66.60% in pupae of D. saccharalis, and 75.00% in pupae of B. mori. The progeny of T. diatraeae was 354.50 ± 43.21 per pupa of D. saccharalis and 469.11 ± 15.19 per pupa of B. mori. Trichospilus diatraeae showed suitability to the host and its ability to parasitize various hosts.

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Beta macrocarpa and Identification of Differentially Expressed Transcripts in Response to Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus Infection.

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    Huiyan Fan

    Full Text Available Rhizomania is one of the most devastating diseases of sugar beet. It is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV transmitted by the obligate root-infecting parasite Polymyxa betae. Beta macrocarpa, a wild beet species widely used as a systemic host in the laboratory, can be rub-inoculated with BNYVV to avoid variation associated with the presence of the vector P. betae. To better understand disease and resistance between beets and BNYVV, we characterized the transcriptome of B. macrocarpa and analyzed global gene expression of B. macrocarpa in response to BNYVV infection using the Illumina sequencing platform.The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 75,917 unigenes, with an average length of 1054 bp. Based on a BLASTX search (E-value ≤ 10-5 against the non-redundant (NR, NCBI protein, Swiss-Prot, the Gene Ontology (GO, Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG databases, there were 39,372 unigenes annotated. In addition, 4,834 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also predicted, which could serve as a foundation for various applications in beet breeding. Furthermore, comparative analysis of the two transcriptomes revealed that 261 genes were differentially expressed in infected compared to control plants, including 128 up- and 133 down-regulated genes. GO analysis showed that the changes in the differently expressed genes were mainly enrichment in response to biotic stimulus and primary metabolic process.Our results not only provide a rich genomic resource for beets, but also benefit research into the molecular mechanisms of beet- BNYV Vinteraction.

  9. The Effect of Solarization and Manure in Controlling Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Heterodera schachtii Schmidt

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    mehdi Nasr Esfahani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii Schmidt is the major disease of sugar beet worldwide, causing considerable damages, and even death of the plants, in the infested fields. There are several suggested methods of controls, which may have its own difficulties to be taken into consideration. To avoid the use of nematicides, and reduced the risk of chemical hazards in the environment, any sorts of nonchemical management is incorrigible. However, any method of management must be safe, large scale application and economical. Thus, in this manuscript, polyethylene sheaths were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. And, also, the incorporation of the farm yards manure was taken into consideration too. Therefore, the field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Isfahan province, Iran, to determine the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Material and Methods. Transparent Polyethylene sheaths of 2microns were used to solarize and or disinfection of the infested soils to H. schachtii. The fresh farm yards manure for 40 tons per hector for the incorporation was taken into consideration. The field experiments were carried out in infected sugar beet growing regions, where, there was a heavy infestation to the sugar beet nematodes, Jey and Ghahab of Isfahan, Isfahan province, Iran, for determination of the effects of soil solarization alone and or along with undecomposed farm yard manure on sugar beet cyst nematode, H. schachtii. Treatments were consisted of soil solarization with transparent polyethylene sheets, fresh yard manure, integration of soil solarization with farm yard manure and untreated, control and or ckecks in a randomized block design in three replications each in an infested field conditions, in the

  10. Haplotype Variation of Flowering Time Genes of Sugar Beet and Its Wild Relatives and the Impact on Life Cycle Regimes

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    Nadine Höft

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The species Beta vulgaris encompasses wild and cultivated members with a broad range of phenological development. The annual life cycle is commonly found in sea beets (ssp. maritima from Mediterranean environments which germinate, bolt, and flower within one season under long day conditions. Biennials such as the cultivated sugar beet (B. vulgaris ssp. vulgaris as well as sea beets from northern latitudes require prolonged exposure to cold temperature over winter to acquire floral competence. Sugar beet is mainly cultivated for sugar production in Europe and is likely to have originated from sea beet. Flowering time strongly affects seed yield and yield potential and is thus a trait of high agronomic relevance. Besides environmental cues, there are complex genetic networks known to impact life cycle switch in flowering plants. In sugar beet, BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 are major flowering time regulators. In this study, we phenotyped plants from a diversity Beta panel encompassing cultivated and wild species from different geographical origin. Plants were grown under different day length regimes with and without vernalization. Haplotype analysis of BTC1, BvBBX19, BvFT1, and BvFT2 was performed to identify natural diversity of these genes and their impact on flowering. We found that accessions from northern latitudes flowered significantly later than those from southern latitudes. Some plants did not flower at all, indicating a strong impact of latitude of origin on life cycle. Haplotype analysis revealed a high conservation of the CCT-, REC-, BBX-, and PEBP-domains with regard to SNP occurrence. We identified sequence variation which may impact life cycle adaptation in beet. Our data endorse the importance of BTC1 in the domestication process of cultivated beets and contribute to the understanding of distribution and adaption of Beta species to different life cycle regimes in response to different environments. Moreover, our data provide a

  11. Transcript profiles uncover temporal and stress-induced changes of metabolic pathways in germinating sugar beet seeds

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    Windhövel Andrea

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With a cultivation area of 1.75 Mio ha and sugar yield of 16.7 Mio tons in 2006, sugar beet is a crop of great economic importance in Europe. The productivity of sugar beet is determined significantly by seed vigour and field emergence potential; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits. Both traits exhibit large variations within sugar beet germplasm that have been difficult to ascribe to either environmental or genetic causes. Among potential targets for trait improvement, an enhancement of stress tolerance is considered because of the high negative influence of environmental stresses on trait parameters. Extending our knowledge of genetic and molecular determinants of sugar beet germination, stress response and adaptation mechanisms would facilitate the detection of new targets for breeding crop with an enhanced field emergence potential. Results To gain insight into the sugar beet germination we initiated an analysis of gene expression in a well emerging sugar beet hybrid showing high germination potential under various environmental conditions. A total of 2,784 ESTs representing 2,251 'unigenes' was generated from dry mature and germinating seeds. Analysis of the temporal expression of these genes during germination under non-stress conditions uncovered drastic transcriptional changes accompanying a shift from quiescent to metabolically active stages of the plant life cycle. Assay of germination under stressful conditions revealed 157 genes showing significantly different expression patterns in response to stress. As deduced from transcriptome data, stress adaptation mechanisms included an alteration in reserve mobilization pathways, an accumulation of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and detoxification enzymes. The observed transcriptional changes are supposed to be regulated by ABA-dependent signal transduction pathway. Conclusion This study

  12. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorathiya, L M; Patel, M D; Tyagi, K K; Fulsoundar, A B; Raval, A P

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50%) of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  13. Classification of sugar beet and volunteer potato reflection spectra with a neural network and statistical discriminant analysis to select discriminative wavelengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, A.T.; Hofstee, J.W.; Zande, van de J.C.; Meuleman, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the reflectance properties of volunteer potato and sugar beet and to assess the potential of separating sugar beet and volunteer potato at different fields and in different years, using spectral reflectance characteristics. With the ImspectorMobile,

  14. Effect of sugar beet tubers as a partial replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes in lean period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Sorathiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sugar beet tubers as a replacer to green fodder on production performance and economics of lactating Surti buffaloes. Materials and Methods: This trial was conducted at the Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari. Twenty lactating Surti buffaloes in a changeover experimental design were selected to assess the effects of replacing green fodder with sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. tubers on production performance, economics of feeding sugar beet and blood biochemical profile. Half (50% of the hybrid Napier was replaced with sliced sugar beet tubers in the ration of experimental animals. Results: Partial replacement of hybrid Napier with that of sugar beet tubers numerically improved dry matter intake, milk yield, 4% fat corrected milk and milk composition parameters such as fat, solid non-fat, protein and lactose, but not significantly. The blood parameters were in normal range and non-significant except that of glucose and triglycerides, which were increased in the sugar beet group. Replacing sugar beet tubers also proved to be cost-effective with improved net profit around Rs. 6.63/day. Conclusion: It can be concluded that 50% hybrid Napier fodder can be replaced with sugar beet tubers without any adverse effect on animal production performance, milk composition blood biochemical profile and economics of feeding.

  15. Population genetic diversity and genetic structure of Spodoptera exigua around the Bohai Gulf area of China based on mitochondrial DNA signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L-H; Wang, X-Y; Lei, J-J

    2016-09-30

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest that causes major losses in some main crop-producing areas of China. To control this pest effectively, it is necessary to investigate its population genetic diversity and genetic structure around the Bohai Gulf area of China. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes, COI (578 bp) and Cytb (724 bp), to investigate its genetic diversity. We obtained 622 COI sequences and 462 Cytb sequences from 23 populations, and 28 and 73 haplotypes, respectively, were identified. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (COI: Hd = 0.267 ± 0.023, Pi = 0.00082 ± 0.00010; Cytb: Hd = 0.689 ± 0.018, Pi = 0.00255 ± 0.00029) for the total populations were observed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses indicated no distinct geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Overall, this study revealed that there was significant differentiation among the populations (COI: F ST = 0.158, P neutrality test results, showed a recent population expansion of the beet armyworm around the Bohai Gulf area of China.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genomes of five skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and phylogenetic reconstruction of Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Wang, Ah Rha; Park, Jeong Sun; Kim, Iksoo

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced mitogenomes of five skippers (family Hesperiidae, Lepidoptera) to obtain further insight into the characteristics of butterfly mitogenomes and performed phylogenetic reconstruction using all available gene sequences (PCGs, rRNAs, and tRNAs) from 85 species (20 families in eight superfamilies). The general genomic features found in the butterflies also were found in the five skippers: a high A+T composition (79.3%-80.9%), dominant usage of TAA stop codon, similar skewness pattern in both strands, consistently length intergenic spacer sequence between tRNA(Gln) and ND2 (64-87 bp), conserved ATACTAA motif between tRNA(Ser (UCN)) and ND1, and characteristic features of the A+T-rich region (the ATAGA motif, varying length of poly-T stretch, and poly-A stretch). The start codon for COI was CGA in four skippers as typical, but Lobocla bifasciatus evidently possessed canonical ATG as start codon. All species had the ancestral arrangement tRNA(Asn)/tRNA(Ser (AGN)), instead of the rearrangement tRNA(Ser (AGN))/tRNA(Asn), found in another skipper species (Erynnis). Phylogenetic analyses using all available genes (PCGs, rRNAS, and tRNAs) yielded the consensus superfamilial relationships ((((((Bombycoidea+Noctuoidea+Geometroidea)+Pyraloidea)+Papilionoidea)+Tortricoidea)+Yponomeutoidea)+Hepialoidea), confirming the validity of Macroheterocera (Bombycoidea, Noctuoidea, and Geometroidea in this study) and its sister relationship to Pyraloidea. Within Rhopalocera (butterflies and skippers) the familial relationships (Papilionidae+(Hesperiidae+(Pieridae+((Lycaenidae+Riodinidae)+Nymphalidae)))) were strongly supported in all analyses (0.98-1 by BI and 96-100 by ML methods), rendering invalid the superfamily status for Hesperioidea. On the other hand, current mitogenome-based phylogeny did not find consistent superfamilial relationships among Noctuoidea, Geometroidea, and Bombycoidea and the familial relationships within Bombycoidea between analyses, requiring further

  17. In vitro metabolism of a linear furanocoumarin (8-methoxypsoralen, xanthotoxin) by mixed-function oxidases of larvae of black swallowtail butterfly and fall armyworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Studies were made of the comparative in vitro metabolism of ( 14 C)xanthotoxin and( 14 C)aldrin by homogenate preparations of midguts and bodies (carcass minus digestive tract and head) of last-stage larvae of the black swallowtail butterfly (Papilio polyxenes Fabr.) and the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith)). The two substrates were metabolized by 10,000g supernatant microsomal preparations from both species. Evidence gained through the use of a specific inhibitor and cofactor indicated that mixed-function microsomal oxidases were major factors in the metabolism and that the specific activity of this enzyme system was considerably higher in midgut preparations from P. polyxenes than in similar preparations from S. frugiperda. Aldrin was metabolized 3-4 times faster by P. polyxenes, and xanthotoxin 6-6.5 times faster

  18. Aukštaitijos nacionalinio parko dieniniai drugiai (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera)

    OpenAIRE

    Baltakienė, Violeta

    2014-01-01

    Magistro darbe pateikti Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke dieninių drugių (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) faunos tyrimų rezultatai. Tyrimo metu aptikta 70 dieninių drugių rūšių. Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke 2002 metais buvo vykdomi tyrimai, užregistruotos 78 dieninių drugių rūšys (Švitra, Dapkus 2002). Tyrimų rezultatuose palyginta dieninių drugių faunos sudėtis Lietuvoje ir Aukštaitijos nacionaliniame parke. Pateikiama trumpa kiekvienos šeimos charakteristika ir apibūdintos aptiktos rūšys. N...

  19. De valkruidmineervlinder Digitivalva arnicella in Nederland: herontdekking en behoud (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Koster, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of Digitivalva arnicella in the Netherlands: rediscovery and conservation (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae: Acrolepiinae) Digitivalva arnicella (Heyden, 1863), previously only known from two localities before 1902, has been rediscovered in eight localities in the northern part of the

  20. POPULATION SYNCHRONY WITHIN AND AMONG LEPIDOPTERA SPECIES IN RELATION TO WEATHER, PHYLOGENY, AND LARVEL PHENOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. The population dynamics of native herbivore species in central Appalachian deciduous forests were studied by analysing patterns of synchrony among intra- and interspecific populations and weather. 2. Spatial synchrony of 10 Lepidoptera species and three weather variables (min...

  1. Long-Term Analysis for Harvest Erosion Caused by Sugar Beet Production in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selen DEVİREN SAYGIN

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability of soil resources is under significant threat due to the accelerated anthropogenic pressures at the historical expansion of human population. In this context, soil erosion is defined as a limiting factor for human interests in terms of ecosystem services. As an erosion type, harvest erosion occurs by harvesting of the taproot and tuberous root plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L., potato (Solanum tuberosum L., carrot (Daucus carota L. and chicory (Cichorium intybus L., has begun to take attention in recent years. The objective of this study was to estimate soil loss due to harvest erosion and to economically analyze the transport of plant nutrients between 1999 and 2016 from sugar beet growing areas in Turkey. For this aim, the compiled data of 25 different sugar factories throughout Turkey were obtained from Türkşeker and soil loss estimations were performed and economically analyzed. According to the results, average soil loss rate was calculated as 3.41 Mg ha-1y-1 for the studied period (1999-2016. That means annually an average of 716983 Mg soil removed from the Türkşeker sugar beet production areas. This result indicated that harvest erosion represents only 0.9% of soil lost by water erosion in Turkey. But, if tolerable soil loss value considered as “1 Mg ha-1 y-1”, calculated soil loss values are above this critical value for all the factories. In addition, economic assessments of soil losses showed that costs are to be more than US $10 000 annually on the 60% of the factories due to removal of plant nutrients with harvest process. And, annually US $419 433 investment must be made to recover all these losses. Conclusively, harvest erosion as an ignored erosion type must be emphasized to the economic sustainability of natural resources in fragile ecosystems such as our country.

  2. Effect of Cuscuta campestris parasitism on the physiological and anatomical changes in untreated and herbicide-treated sugar beet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saric-Krsmanovic, Marija M; Bozic, Dragana M; Radivojevic, Ljiljana M; Umiljendic, Jelena S Gajic; Vrbnicanin, Sava P

    2017-11-02

    The effects of field dodder on physiological and anatomical processes in untreated sugar beet plants and the effects of propyzamide on field dodder were examined under controlled conditions. The experiment included the following variants: N-noninfested sugar beet plants (control); I - infested sugar beet plants (untreated), and infested plants treated with propyzamide (1500 g a.i. ha -1 (T 1 ) and 2000 g a.i. ha -1 (T 2 )). The following parameters were checked: physiological-pigment contents (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total carotenoids); anatomical -leaf parameters: thickness of epidermis, parenchyma and spongy tissue, mesophyll and underside leaf epidermis, and diameter of bundle sheath cells; petiole parameters: diameter of tracheid, petiole hydraulic conductance, xylem surface, phloem cell diameter and phloem area in sugar beet plants. A conventional paraffin wax method was used to prepare the samples for microscopy. Pigment contents were measured spectrophotometrically after methanol extraction. All parameters were measured: prior to herbicide application (0 assessment), then 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application (DAA). Field dodder was found to affect the pigment contents in untreated sugar beet plants, causing significant reductions. Conversely, reduction in the treated plants decreased 27% to 4% for chlorophyll a, from 21% to 5% for chlorophyll b, and from 28% to 5% for carotenoids (T 1 ). Also, in treatment T 2, reduction decreased in infested and treated plants from 19% to 2% for chlorophyll a, from 21% to 2% for chlorophyll b, from 23% to 3% for carotenoids and stimulation of 1% and 2% was observed 28 and 35 DAA, respectively. Plants infested (untreated) by field dodder had lower values of most anatomical parameters, compared to noninfested plants. The measured anatomical parameters of sugar beet leaves and petiole had significantly higher values in noninfested plants and plants treated with propyzamide than in untreated plants. Also, the

  3. Technical and economic assessments of storage techniques for long-term retention of industrial-beet sugar for non-food industrial fermentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ramirez, Juan Manuel

    Industrial beets may compete against corn grain as an important source of sugars for non-food industrial fermentations. However, dependable and energy-efficient systems for beet sugar storage and processing are necessary to help establish industrial beets as a viable sugar feedstock. Therefore, technical and economic aspects of beet sugar storage and processing were evaluated. First, sugar retention was evaluated in whole beets treated externally with either one of two antimicrobials or a senescence inhibitor and stored for 36 wk at different temperature and atmosphere combinations. Although surface treatment did not improve sugar retention, full retention was enabled by beet dehydration caused by ambient air at 25 °C and with a relative humidity of 37%. This insight led to the evaluation of sugar retention in ground-beet tissue ensiled for 8 wk at different combinations of acidic pH, moisture content (MC), and sugar:solids. Some combinations of pH ≤ 4.0 and MC ≤ 67.5% enabled retentions of at least 90%. Yeast fermentability was also evaluated in non-purified beet juice acidified to enable long-term storage and partially neutralized before fermentation. None of the salts synthesized through juice acidification and partial neutralization inhibited yeast fermentation at the levels evaluated in that work. Conversely, yeast fermentation rates significantly improved in the presence of ammonium salts, which appeared to compensate for nitrogen deficiencies. Capital and operating costs for production and storage of concentrated beet juice for an ethanol plant with a production capacity of 76 x 106 L y-1 were estimated on a dry-sugar basis as U.S. ¢34.0 kg-1 and ¢2.2 kg-1, respectively. Storage and processing techniques evaluated thus far prove that industrial beets are a technically-feasible sugar feedstock for ethanol production.

  4. Effect of Seed Priming on Sugar Beet Root Yield under Low Irrigation and Presence of Weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali absalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The success of sugar beet as a crop depends on predictable seed germination, early seedling establishment and the rapid development of a leaf canopy which is able to utilize the available solar radiation efficiently. Seed priming has become a common practice to increase the rate and uniformity of field germination and emergence in many important crop plants in unfavorable conditions. Hydro-priming is a simple method of priming treatment that is used of distilled water as priming medium. Humic acid has been used for treatment before seed planting. Washing sugar beet seeds with water also affects the germination and seedling establishment through the elimination of inhibitory compounds on the seed coat. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of seed priming with different methods at different times and concentrations on germination of sugar beet. Materials and Methods In the spring of 1393, a field trial was conducted simultaneously in two regions of the Jovain and Jajarm. The experimental was conducted as split plot (split-split plot in randomized complete block design with three replications.The main factor was irrigation with four levels of 100, 90, 80 and 70% water, sub-plots are including different methods of priming: control, priming with running water for 48 hours, priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid, priming with running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and priming with running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym, sub-sub plots are including weeds competition with (absence and presence of weeds. Results and Discussion The results for two regions showed that by reducing the amount of irrigation water sugar beet root yield significantly reduced. Results show that the effect of priming treatment of running water for 48 hours + Seed-start and running water for 48 hours + Humic acid + Fulzym to have achieved the highest sugar beet root yield for two areas. The result of the interaction effect showed

  5. In vitro gynogenesis in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.: effects of ovule culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Barański

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of factors affecting gynogenic response of red beet ovules is discussed. The ovule response frequencies were the highest in the following conditions: N6 (Chu 1975 mineral salts, 0.5 mg/l IAA, 0.2 mg/l BA, 27 or 32oC. The influence of genotype of donor plants was confirmed and it was found that the ovules excised from cultivar plants have a greater gynogenic ability than the ovules of hybrids or inbred lines.

  6. Influence of frequent magnetic field on chlorophyll content in leaves of sugar beet plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochalska, M.

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophyll content in plant leaves is correlated with the yield and nitrogen content in plants. Non-destructive investigations of chlorophyll content in leaves of 3 varieties of sugar beet grown from seeds revealed that a low frequent magnetic field, acting independently or in combination with other methods of seed improvement, increased chlorophyll content in leaves of the investigated plants. The treatment with the magnetic field increased nitrogen content in the examined plants. The effect was not connected with environmental conditions during vegetation seasons. (author)

  7. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  8. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) parasitóides de larvas de Lepidoptera associadas a Croton floribundus Spreng (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciana Bueno dos Reis; Dias Filho, Manoel Martins; Fernandes, Marcelo Adorna; Penteado-Dias, Angelica Maria

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) were obtained during an inventory of Lepidoptera larvae caught feeding in the wild on Croton floribundus (Euphorbiaceae). The Lepidoptera larvae were collected from host plants along trails inside three preserved forest areas in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Fifteen different species of Ichneumonidae belonging to five subfamilies (Banchinae, Campopleginae, Cremastinae, Mesochorinae and Metopiinae) were obtained. Seven species of Ichneu...

  9. DIVERSIDADE DE LEPIDOPTERA EM UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL EM MUZAMBINHO, MINAS GERAIS

    OpenAIRE

    Dirlene Aparecida de Andrade; Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring Lepidoptera populations provides important information to assess the dynamics and ecological changes in ecosystems. In this work, it was evaluated and characterized the Lepidoptera fauna of forest fragment of the IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho, MG state. Throughout 12 months, 590 Individuals of 69 species belonging to 10 families were captured. The most abundant family was Nymphalidae (73.56% of subjects). The most abundant ...

  10. An Assessment of Urea-Formaldehyde Fertilizer on the Diversity of Bacterial Communities in Onion and Sugar Beet

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Seishi; Suzuki, Keijiro; Kawahara, Makoto; Noshiro, Masao; Takahashi, Naokazu

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a urea-formaldehyde (UF) fertilizer on bacterial diversity in onion bulbs and main roots of sugar beet were examined using a 16S rRNA gene clone library. The UF fertilizer markedly increased bacterial diversity in both plants. The results of principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that nearly 30% of the variance observed in bacterial diversity in both the onion and sugar beet was attributed to the fertilization conditions and also that the community structures in both pla...

  11. The effect of copper ions, aluminum ions and their mixtures on separation of pectin from the sugar beet juice

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanin, Tatjana A.; Mišljenović, Nevena M.; Koprivica, Gordana B.; Jevrić, Lidija R.; Grbić, Jasna P.

    2013-01-01

    In sugar industry there is a problem of the presence of undesirable macromolecules compounds such as pectin in sugar beet juice. The affinity of calcium ions commonly used in the sugar industry for the removal of pectin from the sugar beet juice is relatively small. Coagulation and precipitation of pectin can be performed by process of discharging that is chemically induced. Compounds with di- and trivalent cations such as pure CuSO4, Al2(SO4)3 or their mixtures can be applied for clari...

  12. Characterization of a new antifungal non-specific lipid transfer protein (nsLTP) from sugar beet leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, A K; Brunstedt, J; Madsen, M T

    2000-01-01

    A novel protein (IWF5) comprising 92 amino acids has been purified from the intercellular washing fluid of sugar beet leaves using cation exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Based on amino acid sequence homology, including the presence of eight...... cysteines at conserved positions, the protein can be classified as a member of the plant family of non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs). The protein is 47% identical to IWF1, an antifungal nsLTP previously isolated from leaves of sugar beet. A potential site for N-linked glycosylation present...

  13. Real-Time Blob-Wise Sugar Beets VS Weeds Classification for Monitoring Fields Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioto, A.; Lottes, P.; Stachniss, C.

    2017-08-01

    UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  14. Effects of zinc toxicity on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagardoy, R; Morales, F; López-Millán, A-F; Abadía, A; Abadía, J

    2009-05-01

    The effects of high Zn concentration were investigated in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) plants grown in a controlled environment in hydroponics. High concentrations of Zn sulphate in the nutrient solution (50, 100 and 300 microm) decreased root and shoot fresh and dry mass, and increased root/shoot ratios, when compared to control conditions (1.2 microm Zn). Plants grown with excess Zn had inward-rolled leaf edges and a damaged and brownish root system, with short lateral roots. High Zn decreased N, Mg, K and Mn concentrations in all plant parts, whereas P and Ca concentrations increased, but only in shoots. Leaves of plants treated with 50 and 100 microm Zn developed symptoms of Fe deficiency, including decreases in Fe, chlorophyll and carotenoid concentrations, increases in carotenoid/chlorophyll and chlorophyll a/b ratios and de-epoxidation of violaxanthin cycle pigments. Plants grown with 300 microm Zn had decreased photosystem II efficiency and further growth decreases but did not have leaf Fe deficiency symptoms. Leaf Zn concentrations of plants grown with excess Zn were high but fairly constant (230-260 microg.g(-1) dry weight), whereas total Zn uptake per plant decreased markedly with high Zn supply. These data indicate that sugar beet could be a good model to investigate Zn homeostasis mechanisms in plants, but is not an efficient species for Zn phytoremediation.

  15. Effect of thermal and high pressure processing on stability of betalain extracted from red beet stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Cláudia Destro; Ismail, Marliya; Cassini, Aline Schilling; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Farid, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    Red beet stalks are a potential source of betalain, but their pigments are not widely used because of their instability. In the present work, the applicability of high pressure processing (HPP) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatment was investigated to improve betalain stability in extracts with low and high concentrations. The HPP was applied at 6000 bar for 10, 20 and 30 min and HTST treatment was applied at 75.7 °C for 80 s, 81.1 °C for 100 s and 85.7 °C for 120 s, HPP treatment did not show any improvement in the betalain stability. In turn, the degradation rate of the control and the HTST thermal treatment at 85.7 °C for 120 s of the sample with high initial betalain concentration were 1.2 and 0.4 mg of betanin/100 ml of extract per day respectively. Among the treatments studied, HTST was considered the most suitable to maintain betalain stability from red beet stalks.

  16. The disease prevalence and severity of Cercospora leaf spot in sugar beet cultivations in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Handan ALTINOK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cercospora leaf spot disease (Cercospora beticola Sacc., is one of the most economically important fungal diseases in sugar beet growing. Under appropriate climatic conditions, the disease can reach epidemic levels. Although some fungicides exist for disease control, resistance development by pathogen against fungicides is creating difficulties. Besides, use of resistant varieties which is considered as the most efficient and environment-friendly method is adversely affected by pathogen’s ability to exhibit high genetic variations and varying resistance levels against different races of pathogen restricts the success of resistance breeding studies. In order to reveal status of this disease in Kayseri province, surveys were conducted in 2010 and 2011 in sugar beet growing areas and disease prevalence and severity were determined. Approximately, 1500 da area in 90 fields were examined and about 700 da of this area found as infected with Cercospora leaf spot disease in both years of the survey. Highest disease prevalence and severity were found as 80 % and 45 %, respectively, in Sarıoğlan district, which is followed by central district, Develi and Bünyan. Among surveyed districts, lowest prevalence and severity were detected as approx. 65 % and 35 %, respectively, in Yeşilhisar.

  17. Performance of methods for estimation of table beet water requirement in Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella P. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Optimization of water use in agriculture is fundamental, particularly in regions where water scarcity is intense, requiring the adoption of technologies that promote increased irrigation efficiency. The objective of this study was to evaluate evapotranspiration models and to estimate the crop coefficients of beet grown in a drainage lysimeter in the Agreste region of Alagoas. The experiment was conducted at the Campus of the Federal University of Alagoas - UFAL, in the municipality of Arapiraca, AL, between March and April 2014. Crop evapotranspiration (ETc was estimated in drainage lysimeters and reference evapotranspiration (ETo by Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods. The Hargreaves-Samani method presented a good performance index for ETo estimation compared with the Penman-Monteith-FAO method, indicating that it is adequate for the study area. Beet ETc showed a cumulative demand of 202.11 mm for a cumulative reference evapotranspiration of 152.00 mm. Kc values determined using the Penman-Monteith-FAO 56 and Hargreaves-Samani methods were overestimated, in comparison to the Kc values of the FAO-56 standard method. With the obtained results, it is possible to correct the equations of the methods for the region, allowing for adequate irrigation management.

  18. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  19. Utilization of concentrate after membrane filtration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa-Rygielska, Joanna; Pietrzak, Witold; Regiec, Piotr; Stencel, Piotr

    2013-04-01

    The subject of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the concentrate obtained after membrane ultrafiltration of sugar beet thin juice for ethanol production and selection of fermentation conditions (yeast strain and media supplementation). Resulting concentrate was subjected to batch ethanol fermentation using two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Ethanol Red and Safdistill C-70). The effect of different forms of media supplementation (mineral salts: (NH4)2SO4, K2HPO4, MgCl2; urea+Mg3(PO4)2 and yeast extract) on the fermentation course was also studied. It was stated that sugar beet juice concentrate is suitable for ethanol production yielding, depending on the yeast strain, ca. 85-87 g L(-1) ethanol with ca. 82% practical yield and more than 95% of sugars consumption after 72 h of fermentation. Nutrients enrichment further increased ethanol yield. The best results were obtained for media supplemented with urea+Mg3(PO4)2 yielding 91.16-92.06 g L(-1) ethanol with practical yield ranging 84.78-85.62% and full sugars consumption. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Alkali-aided enzymatic viscosity reduction of sugar beet mash for novel bioethanol production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srichuwong, Sathaporn; Arakane, Mitsuhiro; Fujiwara, Maki; Zhang, Zilian; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tokuyasu, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol fermentation of fresh sugar beet mash (SBM) could give a benefit on reducing energy input for sugar diffusion, juice separation, and water evaporation as used in conventional practices, thus offering promise as a low energy process. Actions of cell-wall degrading enzymes provide a mash with low viscosity, which can be easily fermented to ethanol. However, a several-fold higher enzyme loading was required for viscosity reduction of SBM compared with that of potato mash. In this study, the use of dilute alkali treatment (0.025-0.15 N NaOH, 25 o C, 1 h) in enhancing enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was evaluated. The results showed that higher NaOH concentration enhanced demethylation and deacetylation of SBM, resulting in greater performances of the enzymes on reducing viscosity. Efficient enzymatic viscosity reduction of SBM was observed with the 0.1 N NaOH treatment. On the other hand, untreated SBM was highly resistant to viscosity reduction, even though a 20-fold more enzyme loading was used. The resulting mash containing 12-13% (w/v) sucrose yielded 7-8% (v/v) ethanol after 24 h of fermentation (90% efficiency). Accordingly, alkali treatment can be applied for facilitating the use of fresh sugar beet for ethanol production.

  1. Molecular characterization of UV-treated sugar beet somaclones using RFLP markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levall, M.W.; Bengtsson, K.; Nilsson, N.-O.; Hjerdin, A.; Hallden, C.

    1994-01-01

    Sugar beet plants regenerated from UV-treated calluses were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis to determine the extent of somaclonal variation occurring at the DNA level. In total, 50 random sugar beet DNA sequences were used to screen 42 somaclones for genetic alterations. Three polymorphisms were detected among the 7 644 alleles analysed. From these data a mutation frequency of 0.03 ± 0.02% per allele was estimated. This frequency is in agreement with similar studies of somaclonal DNA variation using molecular markers and lies in the upper range of the spontaneous gene mutation frequencies found in plants. The two probegenotype combinations showing independent polymorphisms, were further analysed using the restriction enzymes Bam HI, Eco RI, Eco RV and Hind III. Both polymorphisms are likely to result from structural rearrangements rather than from point mutations. Differences in methylation among 10 of the investigated somaclones were tested for by comparing Hpa II and Msp I generated RFLP patterns. The somaclones showed extensive methylation, but no differences in their degree of methylation. Cytological analysis revealed 34 diploid, 8 tetraploid, but no aneuploid plants. (author)

  2. Genome-enabled predictions for binomial traits in sugar beet populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biscarini, Filippo; Stevanato, Piergiorgio; Broccanello, Chiara; Stella, Alessandra; Saccomani, Massimo

    2014-07-22

    Genomic information can be used to predict not only continuous but also categorical (e.g. binomial) traits. Several traits of interest in human medicine and agriculture present a discrete distribution of phenotypes (e.g. disease status). Root vigor in sugar beet (B. vulgaris) is an example of binomial trait of agronomic importance. In this paper, a panel of 192 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) was used to genotype 124 sugar beet individual plants from 18 lines, and to classify them as showing "high" or "low" root vigor. A threshold model was used to fit the relationship between binomial root vigor and SNP genotypes, through the matrix of genomic relationships between individuals in a genomic BLUP (G-BLUP) approach. From a 5-fold cross-validation scheme, 500 testing subsets were generated. The estimated average cross-validation error rate was 0.000731 (0.073%). Only 9 out of 12326 test observations (500 replicates for an average test set size of 24.65) were misclassified. The estimated prediction accuracy was quite high. Such accurate predictions may be related to the high estimated heritability for root vigor (0.783) and to the few genes with large effect underlying the trait. Despite the sparse SNP panel, there was sufficient within-scaffold LD where SNPs with large effect on root vigor were located to allow for genome-enabled predictions to work.

  3. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar-beet roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R.

    1987-01-01

    Unlike in mature sugar-beet roots, sucrose is assumed to be hydrolyzed by a wall-bound invertase prior to uptake by immature roots. To test this hypothesis, they used a sucrose analog, 1'fluorosucrose which is recognized by the carrier but is a poor substrate for invertases. Asymmetrically labeled sucrose ( 3 H-fructose) 1'fluorosucrose ( 14 C-glucose) were applied at 10 mM ( 3 H/ 14 C=1) to an attached source leaf. After 6 h, sugars from plant parts in the translocation path were separated on HPLC. 14 C-1'fluorosucrose was translocated and accumulated in the root at a higher rate than 3 H-sucrose due to greater metabolism of 3 H-sucrose in the shoot (indicated by the presence of 3 H in hexose fractions and loss of asymmetry). In the root 25% of the 3 H-sucrose was hydrolyzed to hexoses whereas no 14 C was detected in hexose fractions. The data indicate that despite high cell-wall invertase and cytoplasmic sucrose synthase activities, young sugar-beet roots import and store sucrose without hydrolysis. Therefore, the function of a group translocator at the tonoplast is unclear

  4. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1982-03-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M/sub 4/ generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets.

  5. Induction of cytoplasmic male sterility by gamma-ray and chemical mutagens in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    Male sterile plants appeared in the population of N cytoplasm sugar beet strains, H-19 and H-2002, when their dry seeds were exposed to 50 kR gamma-ray, and the male sterility was maintained up to the M 4 generation through the mother plants. Cytoplasmic inheritance was confirmed by the reciprocal crossings between plants with normal phenotype from gamma-strains (progeneis of the male mutants which transmitted male sterility through the mother plants) and H-19 or H-1001. The crossing experiments suggested that various kinds of cytoplasm were induced by gamma-ray irradiation, and that different nuclear genes were responsible for the respective cytoplasms. A specific relationship between the pollen restoring genes and the sterile cytoplasms was established, and was named ''one set of pollen restoring genes for one cytoplasm''. It is probable that the cytoplasmic mutation occurred in normal cytoplasm strains and the specific combination between the altered cytoplasm and the recessive nuclear gene produced male sterility. Ethyl methane sulphonate, ethidium bromide, acriflavine and streptomycin were also effective in inducing cytoplasmic mutation in sugar beets. (Kaihara, S.)

  6. Effect of processing on antioxidant potential and total phenolics content in beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorivaldo da Silva Raupp

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of beet is associated with non-nutritive constituents, such as phenolic compounds. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effect of two different heat-processing techniques (drying and canned on the antioxidant potential (ABTS and phenolics content of beets. A forced air circulation dehydrator was used for the drying. Drying at high temperatures (100 + 90 °C/5.6 hours; 90 °C/6 hours increased the antioxidant potential of the processed products while mild drying conditions decreased it (80 °C/6 hours; 100 + 70 °C/6 hours or had no effect on it (70 °C/7 hours; 100 + 80 °C/6 hours. For the canned products, the antioxidant potential did not differ according to the pH (4.2 to 3.8 for any of the four acids tested. Some processing methods influenced the antioxidant potential of the processed products, and this was also dependent on changes in the total phenolics content.

  7. Biochemical characterization of the plasma membrane H+ - ATPase from red beet (Beta vulgaris) hypocotyl tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleski, N.A.

    1986-01-01

    Several biochemical techniques including selective solubilization followed by gel filtration or various types of affinity chromatography, and antibody production were employed in an attempt to purify the plasma membrane H + - ATPase from red beet hypocotyl tissue. While the enzyme could not be purified using any of these methods, it was possible to successfully conduct a more detailed biochemical analysis of the H + - ATPase. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were determined using N,N'dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and a H + - ATPase antibody. When plasma membrane vesicles were incubated with 20 μM [ 14 C]-DCCD at 0 C, a single 97,000 dalton protein was apparent on a fluorograph. A close correlation between [ 14 C]-DCCD labelling of the 97,000 dalton protein and the extent of ATPase inhibition over a range of DCCD concentrations suggests that this 97,000 dalton protein is a component of the plasma membrane H + - ATPase. An antibody raised against the plasma membrane H + - ATPase of Neurospora crassa cross-reacted with the 97,000 dalton DCCD-binding protein, further supporting the identity of this protein. Immunoblots of two dimensional gels of red beet plasma membrane vesicles indicated the isoelectric point of the enzyme to be pH 6.5

  8. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  9. Yield of glyphosate-resistant sugar beets and efficiency of weed management systems with glyphosate and conventional herbicides under German and Polish crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichterlein, Henrike; Matzk, Anja; Kordas, Leszek; Kraus, Josef; Stibbe, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    In sugar beet production, weed control is one of the most important and most expensive practices to ensure yield. Since glyphosate-resistant sugar beets are not yet approved for cultivation in the EU, little commercial experience exists with these sugar beets in Europe. Experimental field trials were conducted at five environments (Germany, Poland, 2010, 2011) to compare the effects of glyphosate with the effects of conventional weed control programs on the development of weeds, weed control efficiency and yield. The results show that the glyphosate weed control programs compared to the conventional methods decreased not only the number of herbicide applications but equally in magnitude decreased the dosage of active ingredients. The results also showed effective weed control with glyphosate when the weed covering was greater and sugar beets had a later growth stage of four true leaves. Glyphosate-resistant sugar beets applied with the glyphosate herbicide two or three times had an increase in white sugar yield from 4 to 18 % in comparison to the high dosage conventional herbicide systems. In summary, under glyphosate management sugar beets can positively contribute to the increasingly demanding requirements regarding efficient sugar beet cultivation and to the demands by society and politics to reduce the use of chemical plant protection products in the environment.

  10. Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: a new parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae: um novo parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélcio R. Gil-Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae is recorded as parasitoid of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare & LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae é registrado como parasitóide de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

  11. Combined HILIC-ELSD/ESI-MSn enables the separation, identification and quantification of sugar beet pectin derived oligomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoroza, C.A.; Cord-Landwehr, S.; Leijdekkers, A.G.M.; Moerschbacher, B.M.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2012-01-01

    The combined action of endo-polygalacturonase (endo-PGII), pectin lyase (PL), pectin methyl esterase (fungal PME) and RG-I degrading enzymes enabled the extended degradation of methylesterified and acetylated sugar beet pectins (SBPs). The released oligomers were separated, identified and quantified

  12. Modified sugar beet pectin induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via interaction with the neutral sugar side-chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pectins extracted from a variety of sources and modified with heat and/or pH have previously been shown to exhibit activity towards several cancer cell lines. However, the structural basis for the anti-cancer activity of modified pectin requires clarification. Sugar beet and citrus pectin extracts h...

  13. 75 FR 60715 - Domestic Sugar Program-FY 2010 and FY 2011 Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... marketing allotment and the associated production history will be transferred from MDFC to WSG, effective... Cane Sugar and Beet Sugar Marketing Allotments and Company Allocations AGENCY: Commodity Credit... publish the modifications to the fiscal year 2010 (FY 2010) State sugar marketing allotments and company...

  14. PIEteR : a field specific bio-economic production model for decision support in sugar beet growing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A.B.

    1996-01-01


    To support decisions in sugar beet growing, a model, PIEteR, was developed. It simulates growth and production of the crop in a field specific way, making a tailor-made approach in decision taking possible.

    PIEteR is based on causal regression analysis of Dutch data of mostly

  15. Estádio de adaptação de Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae em hospedeiros alternativos Fitness stage of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae on alternative hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Gisele Brasil Boregas

    2013-03-01

    -de-açúcar.The main target pest on maize is the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, which, by their seasonal and geographical distribution is one of the most damaging species in tropical regions of America. The objective was the evaluation of S. frugiperda fitness stage on 17 host plant species, cultivated or wild, most common in the Brazilian agro ecosystem. The plants were cultivated in five planting times, between 2006 and 2008, using corn as standard of comparison. Newly hatched larvae of S. frugiperda were individualized and confined in 50 mL plastic pots, where they were fed with new leaves of each host. Food was replaced every other day with fresh leaf sections of each plant host. Four biological variables were evaluated and used to estimate the Fitness Index (FI. The initial larval survival ranged from 100% on maize to 46% on rice. The larval period ranged from 12.6 days on maize to 27.1 days on bahiagrass. The pupa biomass ranged from 173.1 mg on burgrass to 294.2 mg on maize. The fitness index, calculated on the base of S. frugiperda fitness on each host ranged from 17.43 on maize cultivated at time I to 1.46 on sugarcane cultivated at time III. In order to correct the time effect on S. frugiperda fitness stage on hosts, the Relative Fitness Index (RFI was calculated in relation to maize crop. According to this index, the host rank to S. frugiperda fitness was in decreasing order: grain sorghum, johnson grass, millet, guinea grass, peanut, bread grass, surinam grass, green amaranth, wheat, soybean, cotton, bean, rice, burgrass, bahiagrass and sugarcane.

  16. Effect of Cuscuta (Dodder on Quality and Quantity Traits of Sugar Beet in Chenaran, Khorasan Razavi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sh Amirmoradi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dodder is an annual parasitic plant that has not chlorophyll. This parasitic plant can attach to many field crops such as sugar beet. Also this parasite consumes some water, nutrients and assimilates from plants which result in decreasing of quality and quantity of crops yield. This study carried out in Chenaran county, Khorasan Razavi province, in order to evaluation of damage effects of dodder on qualitative and quantitative traits of sugar beet in 2006. Three fields which naturally formerly have infested by dodder, selected in three locations (Ghezlar, Masi Hazrati and Moghan. Sowing date was nearly in April in all fields. At the harvest time, in November, in each field 20 sample of sugar beet roots separately were harvested. Harvest area of each sample was 8m2. Each sample selected from spots which indicated nearly 80-100 percentage infestation. Observations were paired samples and then 20 samples of uninfested spots (with zero percentage infestation at neighboring rows of infested spots with the same area (8m2 were harvested. Samples were analyzed with qualitative and quantitative standard methods. Obtained data were analyzed by SAS Software with t test and samples compaired in pairwise comparisons. Results indicated that dodder in all sugar beet fields reduced root yield (RY, sugar content(SC, sugar yield (SY, white sugar content (WSC, yield, white sugar yield (WSY, 15.07% , 1.06 Unit, 20.35 %, 7.40 %, 1.89 Unit and 17.73%, respectively. Root potassium content and harmful nitrogen content on field infested spots reduced (8.55% and 8.02 % respectively, but Na content increased 24.3% and molasses Sugar content (MS increased 11.16 %. Conclusion from this experiment showed that dodder damage and its harmful effects were highly significant in all farms in Chenaran. Therefore consideration of field sanitation related to attachment of dodder to sugar beet is completely necessary. Also it had better consider methods of dodder control

  17. Lepidoptera outbreaks in response to successional changes after the passage of Hurricane Hugo in Puerto Rico Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres

    1992-01-01

    Fifteen species of Lepidoptera occurred in large numbers in spring and early summer after the passage of Hurricane Hugo over the north-east of Puerto Rico. Spodoptera eridania (Noctuidae) was the most common of the larvae and fed on 56 plant species belonging to 31 families. All the Lepidoptera fed on early successional vegetation. Some of the plants represent new host...

  18. Studies on the radicidation of natural food colorants. Effects of irradiation with γ-ray and electron beam on functional properties of beet red colorant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Yutaka; Tada, Mikiro

    2002-01-01

    For the practical use of radicidation, we studied on the effects of γ-ray and electron beam on functional properties of beet red colorant, natural colors with low heat stability and high possibility of microbe contamination. Neither γ-ray or electron beam had any significant influence on color contents and color tone of red beet products at less than 10 kGy of irradiation for the practical use. Influence of moisture content at level of less than 20% in powdered product was not observed. The results suggest that both γ-ray and electron beam irradiation is significantly effective in decontamination of powdered beet red products. (author)

  19. Occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi and parasitic nematodes on Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae collected in Central Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall armyworm larvae (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) were collected from whorl-stage cornfields, between the V2 and V4 stages, in 22 localities of Central, Chiapas, México, called "La Frailesca" during late June 2009 to determine the occurrence of native entomopathogens and parasitic nema...

  20. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  1. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizarro, Isabel; Gómez-Gómez, Milagros; León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo; Palacios, M. Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person"−"1 day"−"1) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person"−"1 day"−"1. Therefore

  2. Bioaccessibility and arsenic speciation in carrots, beets and quinoa from a contaminated area of Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizarro, Isabel [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Gómez-Gómez, Milagros [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); León, Jennifer; Román, Domingo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Antofagasta, 02800 Antofagasta (Chile); Palacios, M. Antonia, E-mail: palacor@ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-15

    Consumption of vegetables grown in arsenic (As)-contaminated soils is an important exposure route to the element for humans. The present study is focused on locally-grown, frequently-consumed vegetables, such as carrots (Daucus carota), beets (Beta vulgaris) and quinoa (Chenopodium) from the As-polluted Chiu Chiu area in Northern Chile. The latter region is affected both by As discharge from copper mining activity and natural As contamination, leading to a high As content in local food and water. For the selected vegetables, the following aspects were investigated: i) Their total As, Cu, Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn content; ii) Arsenic speciation in the edible part of the vegetables by liquid chromatography inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS) analysis; iii) Arsenic bioaccessibility in the vegetables during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; iv) Arsenic species present in the extracts obtained from in vitro gastrointestinal digestion; and v) Arsenic dietary exposure estimates for the assessment of the risk posed by the vegetables consumption. A significant degree of As contamination was found in the vegetables under study, their metal content having been compared with that of similar Spanish uncontaminated products. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion of the studied vegetables led to quantitative extraction of As from carrots and beets, whereas efficiency was about 40% for quinoa. For carrots, only As(III) and As(V) species were found, being their concentration levels similar. In the case of quinoa, around 85% of the element was present as As(V). For beets, inorganic As(V) and unknown overlapped As species (probably arsenosugars) were found. No significant transformation of the original As species was observed during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. Arsenic dietary exposure values obtained for the three vegetables (0.017–0.021 μg As person{sup −1} day{sup −1}) were much lower than the JFCFA's safety limit of 50 μg As person{sup −1} day

  3. Characteristics of on-demand biogas production by using sugar beet silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sharif; Kazda, Marian

    2017-08-01

    On-demand electricity generation can be achieved by just-in-time biogas production instantly utilized in co-generation units. For this goal, easily degradable substrates like sugar beet silage have a high potential. Potential for on-demand biogas production from co-digestion of sugar beet silage (SS) with grass silage (GS) was evaluated in two experiments at organic loading rates (OLRs) of 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 and 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , respectively. Each experiment was fed with intermittent feeding system at 8 hrs interval at the same feedstock ratios (volatile solids based) of GS:SS-1:0, 3:1 and 1:3, respectively. Modelling by Gaussian equation was performed in order to understand the effects of SS on biogas production. Addition of sugar beet silage led to maximum biogas production within a short time, but it differed significantly depending on feedstock ratios and OLRs, respectively. At OLR 1.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 , during mono fermentation of grass silage maximum biogas production rate of 0.27 l N hr -1 was reached at 2.74 hrs. Production rate did not change at feedstock ratio of GS:SS-3:1 but increased to 0.64 l N hr -1 at GS:SS-1:3 within a shorter time span (1.58 hrs). On the contrary, at OLR of 2.5 kgVS m -3 day -1 time span between feedstock input and maximum biogas production did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) among the reactors. Biogas production rates were 0.60 l N hr -1 within 2.27 hrs and 0.82 l N hr -1 within 2.30 hrs at GS:SS-3:1 and GS:SS-1:3, respectively. Surprisingly, there was no time lag between maximum biogas and methane production rates, irrespectively of OLR. This implies that once the whole microbial community is adapted to intermittent substrate input, the metabolic products are instantly utilized through the all steps of anaerobic substrate degradation. Applying this finding opens new perspectives for on-demand biogas energy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modelling of the canopy photosynthesis in intercropping with lettuce, rocket, radish, coriander and red beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíza Gomes de Paiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, many combinations of plants in intercropping have been demonstrating agronomic viability due to the increase of production per unity of area and greater use of natural resources. However, the knowledge and the proper choice of crops that will be part of the system are necessary to reach achievement, so that there is mutual interaction between them. The study had the purpose of evaluate the productivity of lettuce (Elba intercropped with coriander (Verdão, rocket (Cultivada, beet (Early Wonder or radish (Crimson Gigante. The experiment was conducted in the experimental area of the CCTA/UFCG, Pombal/PB, from September 2013 to July 2014. Nine treatments were assessed (4 intercropping and 5 monocultures, installed in randomized blocks with four replications. The amalgamation of lettuce with crops of coriander, rocket, radish or beet did not affected negatively its profitability. The intercropping of lettuce and beet presented the greater productive efficiency and efficient use of land, demonstrated by the increased production of both crops in this association. Modelagem do dossel fotossintético em sistemas consorciados com alface, rúcula, rabanete, coentro e beterrabaResumo: Nos últimos anos muitas combinações de plantas em cultivo consorciado têm demonstrado viabilidade agronômica devido ao aumento de produção por unidade de área e maior aproveitamento de recursos naturais, no entanto, para que esse sistema alcance sucesso é necessário a escolha adequada das culturas que irão fazer parte do mesmo, de maneira que haja interação mútua entre elas. Com o objetivo de avaliar a produtividade da cultura da alface (‘Elba’ em consórcio com coentro (‘Verdão’, rúcula (‘Cultivada’, rabanete (‘Crimson Gigante’, or beterraba (‘Early Wonder’ foi realizado o experimento na área experimental do CCTA/UFCG, em Pombal, PB, no período de setembro de 2013 a julho de 2014. Foram avaliados 9 tratamentos (4

  5. Effects of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids on the larvae of polyphagous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James S; Feeny, Paul

    1983-06-01

    Six benzylisoquinoline alkaloids were fed to the larvae of three polyphagous Lepidoptera species: Hyphantria cunea, Spodoptera eridania, and Lymantria dispar. Exposure of last instar larvae to alkaloid-containing diets over a 24-h period resulted in reduced feeding rates and reduced growth efficiencies. Lymantria dispar larvae reared from eggs on alkaloid diets took longer to reach the fifth instar, attained lower larval weights, and showed reduced survivorship. The benzylisoquinolines tested were not equally effective as toxins or feeding inhibitors. Some produced dramatic effects while others produced no effects. The relative responses of the three caterpillar species to the six alkaloids were similar. Those benzylisoquinolines with a methylene-dioxyphenyl (1,3-benzodioxole) group were consistently the most toxic or repellent while laudanosine, a relatively simple benzylisoquinoline, was generally innocuous. Available host records indicate that benzylisoquinoline-containing plants are avoided by the larvae of these moth species.

  6. Hyperspectral optical imaging of two different species of lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukusic Pete

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we report a hyperspectral optical imaging application for measurement of the reflectance spectra of photonic structures that produce structural colors with high spatial resolution. The measurement of the spectral reflectance function is exemplified in the butterfly wings of two different species of Lepidoptera: the blue iridescence reflected by the nymphalid Morpho didius and the green iridescence of the papilionid Papilio palinurus. Color coordinates from reflectance spectra were calculated taking into account human spectral sensitivity. For each butterfly wing, the observed color is described by a characteristic color map in the chromaticity diagram and spreads over a limited volume in the color space. The results suggest that variability in the reflectance spectra is correlated with different random arrangements in the spatial distribution of the scales that cover the wing membranes. Hyperspectral optical imaging opens new ways for the non-invasive study and classification of different forms of irregularity in structural colors.

  7. The second Afrotropical Lepidoptera Workshop in Uganda – A contribution to the Lepidoptera fauna of Kibale National Park and the Mpanga Forest Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baron, T.; Akite, P.; Barnett, M.; Collins, S. C.; Dobson, J.; Fric, Zdeněk; Henning, G.; Kühne, L.; Mey, W.; Ochse, M.; Przybylowicz, L.; Sáfián, S.; Schutte, R.; Selb, H.; Ward, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 2 (2017), s. 77-105 ISSN 0013-8843 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Uganda * Lepidoptera * Afrotropical Region https://www.dropbox.com/s/qqt4jqut03sljqi/Baron_2017_Uganda.pdf?dl=0

  8. Effect of operating conditions on the development of microflora in the fermentation of beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzburskaya, F M; Zaprudnova, E P

    1955-01-01

    The process of beet-molasses fermentation for making industrial alcohol is influenced by a series of conditions among which are: the quality of the wort, the temperature of fermentation, the amount of the products formed by the activity of the yeast, and the microflora of the mass. The scope of the present work covers the influence of the following: (a) the concentation and the acidity of the wort; (b the alcohol content of the fermenting material; (c) the amount of starting yeast added; (d) the temperature maintained. Results are shown condensed in 23 plots. They are summarized by the authors as optimum conditions for fermentation: high concentrations of wort, a high concentration of alcohol in the early stages of fermentation,and high amounts of starting yeast.

  9. Molecular size estimation of plasma membrane β-glucan synthase from red beet root

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan, M.E.; Eiberger, L.L.; Wasserman, B.P.

    1986-01-01

    Cellulose and cell wall β-D-glucans in higher plants are thought to be synthesized by the plasma membrane enzyme, β-glucan synthase. This enzyme has never been purified to homogeneity, hence its subunit composition is unknown. Partial purification of red beet root glucan synthase by glycerol density gradient centrifugation followed by SDS-PAGE yielded a highly enriched subunit of 68 kDa. Radiation inactivation of plasma membranes gave a molecular size the 450 kDa for the holoenzyme complex. This suggests that glucan synthase consists of 6 to 7 subunits and confirms electron microscope studies showing that glucan synthases exist as multi-subunit complexes embedded within the membrane

  10. The effect of glyphosate on import into a sink leaf of sugar beet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Wenjang; Geiger, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    The basis for glyphosate inducted limitation of carbon import into developing leaves was studied in sugar beet. To separate the effects of the herbicide on export from those on import, glyphosate was supplied to a developing leaf from two exporting source leaves which fed the sink leaf. Carbon import into the sink leaf was determined by supplying 14 CO 2 to a third source leaf which also supplies carbon to the monitored sink leaf. Import into the sink leaf decreased within 2 to 3 h after glyphosate application, even though photosynthesis and export in the source leaf supplying 14 C were unaffected. Reduced import into the sink leaf was accompanied by increased import by the tap root. Elongation of the sink leaf was only slightly decreased following arrival of glyphosate. Photosynthesis by the sink leaf was not inhibited. The results to data support the view that import is slowed by the inhibition of synthesis of structural or storage compounds in the developing leaves

  11. Field estimation of the utilization coefficient of added inorganic nitrogen by sugar-beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindemann, Y.; Guiraud, G.; Christmann, J.; Auge, G.

    1981-07-01

    Fertilization with mineral nitrogen labelled with the 15 isotope permits, in the crop, the estimation of both: - the real utilization coefficient of N fertilizer, - the uptake of the available N issued from organic matter. In 1979, such an experiment was carried out on sugar beet in Beauce on a long term field experiment including 7 N.P.K. treatments with 4 repetitions. Each plot was divided into 2 parts to constitute a treatment N=0 for the estimation of the apparent utilization coefficient. In addition, 4 microplots (size: 8 m 2 ) received a labelled fertilizer for the measurement of the actual coefficients. The results obtained show the incoherence of the apparent coefficients, which are higher than 100%. The real coefficients are from 40 to 80%. Thus, the balance sheet for the input and output of mineral nitrogen is established precisely. The gross mineralization can be much more important than the net mineralization [fr

  12. Stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of sugar beet pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abang Zaidel, Dayang Norulfairuz; Chronakis, Ioannis S.; Meyer, Anne S.

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme catalyzed oxidative cross-linking of feruloyl groups can promote gelation of sugar beet pectin (SBP). It is uncertain how the enzyme kinetics of this cross-linking reaction are affected in emulsion systems and whether the gelation affects emulsion stability. In this study, SBP (2.5% w...... larger average particle sizes than the emulsions in which the SBP was homogenized into the emulsion system during emulsion preparation (referred as Mix B). Mix B type emulsions were stable. Enzyme catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP helped stabilize the emulsions in Mix A. The kinetics of the enzyme...... catalyzed oxidative gelation of SBP was evaluated by small angle oscillatory measurements for horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (EC 1.11.1.7) and laccase (EC 1.10.3.2) catalysis, respectively. HRP catalyzed gelation rates, determined from the slopes of the increase of elastic modulus (G0) with time, were higher...

  13. Bioethanol Production from Raw Juice as Intermediate of Sugar Beet Processing: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Popov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was used for selecting optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction in cultivation media based on raw juice from sugar beet in order to produce ethanol. Optimal fermentation time and initial sugar mass fraction for ethanol production in batch fermentation by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells under anaerobic conditions at the temperature of 30 °C and agitation rate of 200 rpm were estimated to be 38 h and 12.30 % by mass, respectively. For selecting optimal conditions for industrial application, further techno-economic analysis should be performed by using the obtained mathematical representation of the process (second degree polynomial model. The overall fermentation productivity of five different types of yeast was examined and there is no significant statistical difference between them.

  14. Sugar beet growth in a changing climate: past, present and future trends in southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Pascal; Fuchs, Hans-Joachim; Lang, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In the study, single factors and their impact on sugar beet cultivation against the background of past and projected climate change are being analyzed. The database consists of climate data by the German Weather Service and 1x1 km interpolated INTERMET raster data. Impact models were run to assess possible future trends using climate projection data of the REgional MOdel (REMO), emission scenario A1B, Run 1, data stream 2 for Germany, daily resolution, without bias correction, 10x10 km raster (n=150) (MPI on behalf of UBA 2006). Compared periods were: B:1971 2000; K:2021-2050; L:2071-2100. Agronomic data were collected from the field books of regional trials from 1974 2014 (n=448). Moreover, a business survey of regional farmers was carried out and evaluated. Impact models to predict timing for sowing, the date of field emergence and row closure, were derived from these data. The ontogenesis was simulated using a linear, temperature-based leaf-growth model. Sowing shifted forward by 7,3 days in regional field trials from 1974 2014. Progress-oriented, risk-tolerant farmers start sowing 10-14 days earlier compared to 1980. Recently, sowing is being conducted on average on 21 March in southwest Germany. For period K, 17 March, and for period L, 2 March is being projected as the average future sowing date while the same late frost risk applies compared to present climatic conditions. Shifting forward the sowing date with spring warming and, thus, exploiting the associated yield potential is the most promising agronomic adaptation strategy to the projected climate change on the farm level. In connection to earlier sowing, the field emergence tendentially shifted forward by 14 days in the field trials. Assuming sowing on 15 March, projection results show an advance of field emergence form 7 April in period B to 3 April in period L. Row closure in field trials in average shifted forward by 19,6 days. For period L, 29 May and thus, an earlier row closure of 9 days compared

  15. Pulsed electric field-assisted modification of pectin from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Wang, Zhong-he

    2013-02-15

    This current work is concerned with the modification of sugar beet pulp (SBP) pectin assisted by pulsed electric filed (PEF) without solvent. Pectin-arachates with degree of esterification (DE) ranging from 49 to 84 were prepared in one-step modification. The results showed that the DE of pectin derivatives increased significantly with the PEF intensity from 18 to 30 kV cm((1) and total specific energy input from 124 to 345 J mL((1). Evidence of modification of pectin was provided by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction patterns and NMR spectra. Thermogravimetric investigation of modified pectin indicated a higher thermal stability than the untreated one. Results revealed that PEF technology is a promising method for industrial manufacture of pectin derivatives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentation of galactose when preparing alcohol from the molasses from sugar beets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, M

    1959-01-01

    A number of yeast strains (referred to by Soviet code-name only), which ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose, raffinose, and (or) melibose in beet molasses, will also ferment the galactose contained therein if they are raised first on a medium containing galactose, KH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 3/, and MgSO/sub 4/ at pH 5.5. This was experimentally proved by aid of 2-dimensional paper chromatography; the chromatograms were developed at 18/sup 0/ from samples which were removed once every 24 hours from the fermentation liquor. Depending upon the strains used the galactose would disappear from the mash in 3 to 5 days. These experiments could never be continued longer than 5 days, as by that time the ethanol content of the mash was too high to allow any further assimilation of the galactose by the yeasts.

  17. Rational production scheme for utilization of sugar-beet molasses in the alcohol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malchenko, A L

    1959-01-01

    Continuously operating equipment is described and the mode of operation is presented. When processed under the described conditions, each long ton of fermented sugar-beet molasses will produce 315 l EtOH, 9.2 l ester-aldehyde fraction, 1 l fusel oil, 150 kg liquid CO/sub 2/, and 45 kg bakers' yeast. Each long ton of stillage will give 20 kg betaine-HCl, 15 to 20 kg glutamic acid, 17 kg glycerol, and 65 kg salt mixture which has approximately the following composition: K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ 35, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ 15, K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ 5, and KCl 5 kg.

  18. Evaluation of weed control methods on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. yield at different levels of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AliAsghar Chitband

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weed competition is one of the major factors which limit sugar beet production in the world. Weed – crop interactions are based on competition for water, nutrients and light and allelopathic effects may also play a small role. In sugar beet weed interference, all these factors are important too, but the light is of prime importance. Due to the fact that a lot of weeds can grow above the sugar beet canopy and reduce the amount of photosynthetic radiation reaching the crop, these weeds are stronger competitors compared to smaller weeds. In much sugar beet growing areas dicot weeds of the families Chenopodiaceae, Asteraceae, Brassicaceae and Polygonaceae are of major importance. The monocots are less important compared to dicot weeds. Competition from uncontrolled annual weeds that emerge within 8 weeks of sowing or within 4 weeks of the crop reaching the two-leaf stage can reduce root yields by 26–100% .Weeds that emerge 8 weeks after sowing, and particularly after the sugar beet plants have eight or more leaves, are less likely to affect yield. Although tractor hoeing and hand labour are still used in many production areas, herbicides have been the primary method of weed control in sugar beet. The effectiveness of pre-emergence residual herbicides decreases with reductions in rainfall or soil wet content. Therefore, less than 10 % of the total sugar beet crop is treated with pre-emergence herbicides. The remaining 90 % depends solely on a selection of post-emergence herbicides to maintain season-long weed control. The major herbicides are phenmedipham, chloridazon, metamitron. Mixtures of post-emergence, broad spectrum herbicides have to be applied to control the wide range of weed species in sugar beet crops. Materials and Methods: To study the effects of weeds control by hand weeding and herbicides combination with two selective herbicides at different levels of nitrogen application on sugar beet yield and quality

  19. Analysis of the Transcriptome of the Infective Stage of the Beet Cyst Nematode, H. schachtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Fosu-Nyarko

    Full Text Available The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a major root pest that significantly impacts the yield of sugar beet, brassicas and related species. There has been limited molecular characterisation of this important plant pathogen: to identify target genes for its control the transcriptome of the pre-parasitic J2 stage of H. schachtii was sequenced using Roche GS FLX. Ninety seven percent of reads (i.e., 387,668 with an average PHRED score > 22 were assembled with CAP3 and CLC Genomics Workbench into 37,345 and 47,263 contigs, respectively. The transcripts were annotated by comparing with gene and genomic sequences of other nematodes and annotated proteins on public databases. The annotated transcripts were much more similar to sequences of Heterodera glycines than to those of Globodera pallida and root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.. Analysis of these transcripts showed that a subset of 2,918 transcripts was common to free-living and plant parasitic nematodes suggesting that this subset is involved in general nematode metabolism and development. A set of 148 contigs and 183 singletons encoding putative homologues of effectors previously characterised for plant parasitic nematodes were also identified: these are known to be important for parasitism of host plants during migration through tissues or feeding from cells or are thought to be involved in evasion or modulation of host defences. In addition, the presence of sequences from a nematode virus is suggested. The sequencing and annotation of this transcriptome significantly adds to the genetic data available for H. schachtii, and identifies genes primed to undertake required roles in the critical pre-parasitic and early post-parasitic J2 stages. These data provide new information for identifying potential gene targets for future protection of susceptible crops against H. schachtii.

  20. Growth and chlorophyll fluorescence under salinity stress in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Abbas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR, Syria, at Der EzZour Agricultural Research Center, from 2008-2010, to examine the effect of salt conditions on some growth attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence in 10 Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar beet plants were irrigated with saline water, having electrical conductivity ranged from 8.6-10 dS.m-1during first year and 8.4-10.4 dS.m-1 during second year. A randomized completely block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that all studied growth attributes, leaf area, leaf number, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate were decreased in salinity stress conditions compared to the controlled state. The findings indicated that salinity caused a decrement of light utilizing through increased values of fluorescence origin (fo, decreased values of fluorescence maximum (fm, and maximum yield of quantum in photosystem-II (fv/fm. Genotypes differed significantly in all studied attributes except in leaf number. Under salt conditions, Brigitta (monogerm achieved an increase in net assimilation rate, while Kawimera (multigerm achieved the lowest decrement in quantum yield in photosystem-II. Further studies are necessary to correlate the yield with yield components under similar conditions to determine the most tolerant genotype.International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1 2014: 1-9 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9937

  1. Characteristics and mechanisms of hexavalent chromium removal by biochar from sugar beet tailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Xiaoling; Ma, Lena Q.; Li Yuncong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Biochar from sugar beet tailing effectively removed Cr(VI) from solution. → Most of the Cr on the biochar was Cr(III). → Cr(VI) removal was via electrostatic attraction to biochar. → Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) ion and complexation between Cr(III) ion and biochar function groups were also important. → The maximum sorption capacity of biochar for Cr(VI) was123 mg/g. - Abstract: Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions using biochar from sugar beet tailing (SBT) was investigated as a function of pH, contact time, and biochar mass via batch experiments. The surface characteristics of SBT biochar before and after Cr(VI) sorption was investigated with scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies showed that most of the Cr bound to SBT biochar was Cr(III). These results indicated that the electrostatic attraction of Cr(VI) to positively charged biochar surface, reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) ion, and complexation between Cr(III) ion and SBT's function groups were probably responsible for Cr(VI) removal by SBT biochar. An initial solution with a pH of 2.0 was most favorable for Cr(VI) removal. The sorption process can be described by the pseudo-second order equation and Langmuir isotherm. The maximum sorption capacity for Cr(VI) was 123 mg/g under an acidic medium, which was comparable to other low-cost sorbents.

  2. Impact of spring warming on sowing times of cereal, potato and sugar beet in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. KAUKORANTA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Historical data were used to determine if the warm springs experienced in recent decades have influenced time of sowing of spring cereals (barley, wheat and oats, potato and sugar beet in Finland. The start of the thermal growing season was used to represent all climatic factors affecting sowing time. Regional anomalies in sowing and start of growing season were computed for the years 1965–2007. The start of the growing season was 2–2.8 days earlier per decade, with a steeper increase since 1980. Sugar beet sowing advanced 2.5 (since 1980 5.2 and potato planting 3.4 (since 1980 4.5 days per decade, more than expected solely due to earlier starts to the growing season. Sowing of spring cereals advanced 0.6, 0.7 and 1.7 days per decade in the east, north and west respectively (since 1980 1.0, 1.9 and 3.1, with statistically significant trend (p < 0.01 in the west. Earlier sowings can be largely explained by warmer springs, but the trend was not as steep as that for the growing season. This has however not led to increased temperatures during early vegetative phases and thus faster development and increased drought or pest risk, which would have reduced the positive effects of earlier sowing on yield potential. Earlier sowing detected in the west can be explained by changes in spring temperatures, but may also result from economic and technological development. Farmers seem to have adequately adjusted their field activities to the changes in spring temperatures.;

  3. Selection in vitro for UV-tolerant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) somaclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levall, M.W.; Bornman, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    With a reduced stratospheric ozone concentration, the generation of UV-tolerant plants may be of particular importance. Among different crop plants there is large variation in sensitivity to UV-B radiation. This study was undertaken to investigate the possibilities of using somaclonal variation and selection in vitro for improving UV-B tolerance in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Sugar beet callus was exposed to UV radiation (280–320 nm, 0.863–5.28 kJ m -2 day -1 , unweighted) and resultant shoots were selected from surviving cells. After establishment of the plants, they were grown under either visible radiation (114 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR) or with the addition of UV radiation (6.3 kJ m -2 day -1 biologically effective UV-B). Screening of regenerants in vivo for tolerance to UV radiation was undertaken 10 months after termination of the UV selection pressure. Screening was done visually and by using a number of physiological parameters, including chlorophyll fluorescence induction, ultraweak luminescence, pigment analysis and total content of UV-screening pigments. A clear difference between the unselected and the UV-selected somaclones was observed when visually studying the UV damage and other leaf injury. The observations were supported by the ultraweak luminescence measurements. Unselected plants showed significantly greater damage when subjected to subsequent UV radiation as compared to the selected plants. The clones subjected to UV selection pressure displayed a significantly higher concentration of UV-screening pigments under subsequent UV radiation. The unselected plants under subsequent UV treatment showed a lower carotenoid concentration when compared to selected plants. However, no significant difference between treatments was found for chlorophyll a/b, or F/Fmax, a measure of photosynthetic quantum yield

  4. MANAGING PRODUCT SAFETY SYSTEM HACCP ON THE EXAMPLE OF BEET-SUGAR PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golybin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective safety management system of food production in all industrialized countries in the world recognized by the system based on the principles of HACCP. In Russia, the conformity assessment carried out by the HACCP system certification. The essence of the HACCP system is to identify and control the critical points. Critical Control Point – this is the stage of the process, which is subject to control for hazard identification and risk management in order to avoid the production of unsafe products. Implementation of HACCP system allows to tighten and coordinate the quality control system, which will improve the competitiveness of the products produced in the sugar market in Russia and abroad. In the early stages of food production HACCP system to prevent the occurrence of danger. It is based on the preventive approach to ensuring quality and safety in the production process, and can also be used in the development of new products. HACCP system is based on seven main principles to ensure the implementation and management of the system in production. 1. Creation of a working group of the coordinator and the technical secretary and various consultants. 2. Information on materials and products, in this case of sugar beet and sugar. 3. Information about the production. 4. Risk analysis of the available chemical, physical and microbiological factors. To determine the critical control points according to the results obtained for each factor is determined by a special chart the extent of its accounting. The need to consider the potential hazard is determined by the order in which area it has got. 5. The production program of mandatory preliminary activities in the production of sugar. 6. Determination of critical control points. 7. Making worksheets HACCP. It is shown that the use of HACCP in sugar beet production has several advantages.

  5. Assignment tests for variety identification compared to genetic similarity-based methods using experimental datasets from different marker systems in sugar beet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riek, de J.; Everaert, I.; Esselink, D.; Calsyn, E.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Vosman, B.

    2007-01-01

    High genetic variation within sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties hampers reliable classification procedures independent of the type of marker technique applied. Datasets on amplified fragment length polymorphisms, sequence tagged microsatellite sites, and cleaved amplified polymorphic sites

  6. The effect of organic fertilizers on population dynamics of sugar beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii 1871

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Helalat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Organic Manure on Sugar Beet Cyst Nematode Population Densities of Heterodera schachtii Schmidt 1871 Introduction. Sugar beet cyst nematode (SBCN, Hederodera schachtii Schmidt. 1871, marked as one of the most damaging disease of sugar beet worldwide. It's also an important disease of sugar beet in Isfahan Province, and causing plenty of an irreversible damage. Thus, the nematode infested fields for cultivation in the province and the country is to be threatened. This nematode has a wide host range, over 218 plant species from 95 genera, belonging to 23 families, including field crops, ornamentals and weeds as hosts, which have been identified and introduced so far. The SBCN management's strategies are a long term crop rotation, use of catch crops, early planting and the use of nematicides. In general, the best method reported to control SBCN is a 3 to 7-year rotation with non-host plants. In addition, incorporation of farm manure into the soil had a positive effect in controlling potato golden cyst nematode. Testing on vermicomposting and non-organic fertilizers revealed that, free-living nematodes in the population index were highest in the vermicompost treatments than non-organic fertilizers. Materials and methods. The initial population of SBCN in the infested soil was determined, before the treatment of the selected field. Then, 200 g. of soil were selected, out of several samples collected from every plots, which was air dried and in the file system using Fenwick, the cysts were extracted. Eggs and the second larvae in the soil and end up in a 200 g. of soil were calculated accordingly. All the organic matters, including, poultry manure at 10, 20 and 40 t/ha compost fertilizer by municipality of Isfahan wastes, vermicompost, waste cabbage leaves and farm manure (cow manure were employed. Reproductive factors and the percent decrease and or increase in SBCN populations in each treatment were calculated relative to the initial

  7. Study of the production of ethanol from sugar beets for use as a motor fuel. Final report, February 1, 1980-April 30, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, H W

    1981-04-27

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  8. Evidence for a blockwise distribution of acetyl groups onto homogalacturonans from a commercial sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralet, Marie-Christine; Crépeau, Marie-Jeanne; Bonnin, Estelle

    2008-06-01

    Commercial acid-extracted sugar beet pectin was extensively hydrolysed using an endo-polygalacturonase (AnPGI from Aspergillus niger or AnPGII from A. niger or FmPG from Fusarium moniliforme) in combination with Aspergillus aculeatus pectin methyl-esterase (AaPME). The homogalacturonan-derived oligogalacturonates released were quantified by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography and their structure determined by mass spectrometry. The different endo-polygalacturonases exhibited variable tolerance towards acetyl groups. AnPGI was the most active and FmPG the less. A hypothetical homogalacturonan was constructed using the AnPGI-recovered oligogalacturonates as building blocks and the validity of the model was checked taking into account FmPG observed requirements and hydrolysis products. A blockwise repartition of the acetyl groups onto sugar beet pectin homogalacturonan is proposed.

  9. Hydrogen production from sugar beet juice using an integrated biohydrogen process of dark fermentation and microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Hafez, Hisham; Lee, Hyung-Sool

    2015-12-01

    An integrated dark fermentation and microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) process was evaluated for hydrogen production from sugar beet juice. Different substrate to inoculum (S/X) ratios were tested for dark fermentation, and the maximum hydrogen yield was 13% of initial COD at the S/X ratio of 2 and 4 for dark fermentation. Hydrogen yield was 12% of initial COD in the MEC using fermentation liquid end products as substrate, and butyrate only accumulated in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production from the integrated biohydrogen process was 25% of initial COD (equivalent to 6 mol H2/mol hexoseadded), and the energy recovery from sugar beet juice was 57% using the combined biohydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Process model and economic analysis of ethanol production from sugar beet raw juice as part of the cleaner production concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučurović, Damjan G; Dodić, Siniša N; Popov, Stevan D; Dodić, Jelena M; Grahovac, Jovana A

    2012-01-01

    The batch fermentation process of sugar beet processing intermediates by free yeast cells is the most widely used method in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina for producing ethanol as fuel. In this study a process and cost model was developed for producing ethanol from raw juice. The model can be used to calculate capital investment costs, unit production costs and operating costs for a plant producing 44 million l of 99.6% pure ethanol annually. In the sensitivity analysis the influence of sugar beet and yeast price, as well as the influence of recycled biomass on process economics, ethanol production costs and project feasibility was examined. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that the raw material costs have a significant influence on the expenses for producing ethanol. Also, the optimal percentage of recycled biomass turned out to be in the range from 50% to 70%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. REAL-TIME BLOB-WISE SUGAR BEETS VS WEEDS CLASSIFICATION FOR MONITORING FIELDS USING CONVOLUTIONAL NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Milioto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs are becoming an important tool for field monitoring and precision farming. A prerequisite for observing and analyzing fields is the ability to identify crops and weeds from image data. In this paper, we address the problem of detecting the sugar beet plants and weeds in the field based solely on image data. We propose a system that combines vegetation detection and deep learning to obtain a high-quality classification of the vegetation in the field into value crops and weeds. We implemented and thoroughly evaluated our system on image data collected from different sugar beet fields and illustrate that our approach allows for accurately identifying the weeds on the field.

  12. New Generation of Resistant Sugar Beet Varieties for Advanced Integrated Management of Cercospora Leaf Spot in Central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Vogel; Johannes Vogel; Christine Kenter; Carsten Holst; Bernward Märländer

    2018-01-01

    Cercospora leaf spot (CLS) epidemics in sugar beet have been increasing in recent years causing higher use of fungicides. Concomitantly, the availability of effective fungicides is at risk because of resistance development in the fungus, the lack of new active ingredients as well as restrictive approval practices. A key option for an integrated management of CLS is cultivation of resistant varieties. Because of the yield penalty in resistant varieties, acceptance in commercial practice so far...

  13. The choice of rational parameters of beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Drannikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet pulp is the main sugar industry by-product obtained with traditional production technology. It has high nutritional qualities, but in its raw form it turns sour quickly so it must be preserved. One of the most common methods is drying. Drying of the beet pulp with superheated vapor of reduced pressure in the pulsating vibro-boiling layer allows to improve the quality of the finished product by lowering of the drying agent temperature, thereby retaining a significant amount of nutrients in the initial product. To study the kinetic and hydrodynamic dependencies of the drying process, an experimental apparatus was developed that makes it possible to obtain the most accurate and reproducible results. In the course of the work, a lot of experiments were carried out. Drying curves, drying rate curves and heating curves were made based on these experiments results. According to the nature of the changes the corresponding conclusions were drawn. To study the interaction of various factors affecting the beet pulp drying process, the mathematical methods of experiment planning are applied. A mathematical description of this process can be obtained empirically. At the same time, its mathematical model has the form of a regression equation, determined by statistical methods on the basis of experiments. As a result of statistical processing of experimental data, regression equations were obtained that adequately describe the beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer in the experimental apparatus. With reference to this drying apparatus, such technological modes of its operation were determined that ensure a minimum specific energy consumption of the drying process per kilogram of evaporated moisture and the maximum drying chamber moisture stress.

  14. The influence of crop density and harvesting time on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars

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    Filipović Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the influence of crop density and harvesting time on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars has been analyzed. During three year research conducted on soil of carbonate chernozem on loess terrace on experimental field of Institute Tamiš in Pančevo. Method of completely random block system in four repetitions we're analyzed the influence of crop density (80.000 plants per ha, 100.000 plants per ha and 120.000 plants per ha and harvesting time (10th Sept, 01st Oct and 20th Oct on yield and quality of various sugar beet cultivars of different technological type (Esprit N - type, Belinda Z - type and Chiara NE - type. Increase in crop density had very little effect on increase on sugar beet yield. The yield was considerably increased in the period between the first harvesting date and the second. The highest yield of consumable sugar was obtained of cultivars of N - type Esprit and lower yield was obtained of cultivars of Z - type (Belinda. .

  15. Properties of Two Novel Esterases Identified from Culture Supernatant of Penicillium purpurogenum Grown on Sugar Beet Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleas, Gabriela; Callegari, Eduardo; Sepulveda, Romina; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Penicillium purpurogenum grows on a variety of natural carbon sources, such as sugar beet pulp, and secretes to the medium a large number of enzymes that degrade the carbohydrate components of lignocellulose. Sugar beet pulp is rich in pectin, and the purpose of this work is to identify novel esterases produced by the fungus, which may participate in pectin degradation. Partially purified culture supernatants of the fungus grown on sugar beet pulp were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Peptides thus identified, which may be part of potential esterases were probed against the proteins deduced from the fungal genome sequence. The cDNAs of two putative esterases identified were expressed in Pichia pastoris and their properties studied. One of these enzymes, named FAET, is a feruloyl esterase, while the other, PE, is classified as a pectin methyl esterase. These findings add to our knowledge of the enzymology of pectin degradation by Penicillium purpurogenum, and define properties of two novel esterases acting on de-esterification of pectin. Their availability may be useful as tools for the study of pectin structure and degradation.

  16. Effect of Saline Water on Yield and Nitrogen Acquisition by Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) Using 15N Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadalla, A. M.; Galal, Y. G. M.; Abdel Aziz, A.; Hamdy, A.

    2007-01-01

    Sugar beet growth response to the interactive effects of salinity and N-fertilization was investigated using 15N tracer technique under greenhouse condition. Data showed that dry matter yield of sugar beet shoots and roots were frequently affected by N and water regime. Total N uptake by leaves was increased under almost water salinity treatments in spite of increasing salinity levels. It appears that in case of W I , N I I the N-uptake by roots was significantly decreased along with raising salinity levels from 4 to 8 dS/m. The portions of N derived from fertilizer (whole plant) showed that the trend was affected by salinity level of irrigation water, and fertilization treatments. The highest amount of N derived from fertilizer was obtained with the 4 dS/m level under N I I with the two water regimes. The efficient use of fertilizer-N was slightly but positively affected by raising salinity levels of irrigation water. Sugar percent was increased with increasing salinity levels of irrigation water under both N I and N I I treatments, but it was higher in case of N I than NII under different salinity levels. Generally, Irrigation with saline water in combination with water regime of 75-80% of field capacity and splitting nitrogen technique are better for enhancement of sugar beet production grown under such adverse conditions

  17. Fenton reagent and titanium dioxide nanoparticles as antifungal agents to control leaf spot of sugar beet under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Amany

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, foliar sprays of Fenton solutions (Fenton reaction, Fenton-like reaction and Fenton complex, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and the recommended fungicide (chlorothalonil were estimated in the control of sugar beet leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola under field conditions in two growing seasons. In addition, the impacts of these treatments on some crop characters (leaf dry weight, root fresh weight, soluble solid content, sucrose content and purity of sugar were examined. Biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to an untreated control were utilized to assess the toxicity of the examined curative agents. Overall, chlorothalonil and Fenton complex were the most effective treatments for disease suppression in both tested seasons followed by Fenton-like reagent, Fenton’s reagent and TiO2, respectively. Growth and yield characters of treated sugar beet significantly increased in comparison to an untreated control. There were mild or no (biochemical and histological changes in the livers and kidneys of treated rats compared to the control. Fenton solutions and TiO2 may offer a new alternative for leaf spot control in sugar beet.

  18. The butterfly fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod Region inventarisation experience (Insecta: Lepidoptera and its use for the regional Red Data Book building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav K. Korb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussed is an inventory of the Lepidoptera fauna of the Nizhny Novgorod region, its current status and prospects of its study. At the moment 1412 species of Lepidoptera are known from this area, but according to preliminary estimates the total number of species of Lepidoptera in this area amounts probably between 1800 and 2000. The necessity of the inclusion of 66 species of Lepidoptera in the Red Data Book of the Nizhny Novgorod region (approximately 4.5% of its current fauna and about 3.2% of its expected fauna is discussed. The necessity of the exception of 49 species of Lepidoptera by the Red Data Book of Nizhny Novgorod region is shown. The prospects for the protection of the Lepidoptera fauna within this area are discussed. Proposed is the usage of the IUCN status criteria for regional Red List with their modification in the area of the species.

  19. Evaluation of the fermentation of high gravity thick sugar beet juice worts for efficient bioethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Sugar beet and intermediates of sugar beet processing are considered to be very attractive feedstock for ethanol production due to their content of fermentable sugars. In particular, the processing of the intermediates into ethanol is considerably facilitated because it does not require pretreatment or enzymatic treatment in contrast to production from starch raw materials. Moreover, the advantage of thick juice is high solid substance and saccharose content which eliminates problems with the storability of this feedstock. Results The objective of this study were to investigate bioethanol production from thick juice worts and the effects of their concentration, the type of mineral supplement, as well as the dose of yeast inoculum on fermentation dynamics and ethanol yield. The obtained results show that to ensure efficient ethanolic fermentation of high gravity thick juice worts, one needs to use a yeast strain with high ethanol tolerance and a large amount of inoculum. The highest ethanol yield (94.9 ± 2.8% of the theoretical yield) and sugars intake of 96.5 ± 2.9% were obtained after the fermentation of wort with an extract content of 250 g/kg supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate (0.3 g/L of wort) and inoculated with 2 g of Ethanol Red dry yeast per L of wort. An increase in extract content in the fermentation medium from 250 g/L to 280 g/kg resulted in decreased efficiency of the process. Also the distillates originating from worts with an extract content of 250 g/kg were characterized by lower acetaldehyde concentration than those obtained from worts with an extract content of 280 g/kg. Conclusions Under the favorable conditions determined in our experiments, 38.9 ± 1.2 L of 100% (v/v) ethyl alcohol can be produced from 100 kg of thick juice. The obtained results show that the selection of process conditions and the yeast for the fermentation of worts with a higher sugar content can improve the economic performance of the

  20. Studying the effectiveness of re-hydration on productivity in a sugar beet workers among farmers in West Azarbaijan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heat-related illnesses are major causes of morbidity in the world. Workers who are exposed to extreme heat are not be able to activate their compensatory mechanisms and their health will consequently be at risk. Heat stress due to its impact on work performance increases the likelihood of worker disease and injuries and it also affect productivity. During sugar beet harvest, farmers from about 8 am to 4 pm, are exposed to sunlight and excessive heat. Therefore, preventive measures are essential in order to protect the health of farmers and improve productivity. The aim of this project as to study the effectiveness of the rehydration to reduce heat stress and increasing productivity during sugar beet harvest, conducted in 2012.   .Material and Method: in this project, 20 farmers from sugar beet farmers were studied during summer season, from 8 am to 4 pm in West Azarbaijan- Boukan city where the average temperature and relative humidity were 29.85 0C and 41%, respectively during sugar beet harvest. Selection criteria were defined as working more than 50% of the day’s working schedule and to have worked for at least 10 days of the follow-up period. Individual characteristics and water consumption rate during the work shift and also Production output data by farmers were recorded at the end of the working day. Environmental parameters using a portable monitoring device was measured and recorded and finally, the collected data was used for analysis using spss software version 20.   .Results: WBGT-TWA index for four the period of the time from morning to afternoon obtained 27.39 0C, as it was greater than the allowable thresholds. Ten workers receive 6-7 L of liquid and harvest production was significantly increased among those who are better hydrated (P=0.005, from 5 to 7 tons of harvest sugar beet per any worker per day, against lower 5 tons for farmers without drinking enough water.  . Conclusion: Farmers productivity can be

  1. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  2. The nutrient value of Imbrasia belina Lepidoptera: Saturnidae (madora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigbinde, A O; Adamolekun, B

    1998-05-01

    To determine the pattern of consumption of Imbrasia belina (madora) and other edible insects and also compare the nutrient values of madora larvae and two of its variants (Anaphe venata and Cirina forda) to those of some conventional sources of protein. University of Zimbabwe. 100 workers who admitted to a history of entomophagy. Popularity score of madora compared with those of other edible insects and approximate compositions of nutrients in the larvae compared with standard proteins. Most respondents (65%) were introduced to entomophagy by their parents. Termites were the most frequently consumed, followed by madora. More respondents ate insects because of their perceived nutritional value than because of their relative availability. There was no association of entomophagy with significant side effects. The protein, fat and mineral contents of the larvae were superior to those of beef and chicken. There were no major differences in the nutrient composition of the three Lepidoptera variants. The high nutrient value and low cost of these larvae make them an important protein supplement, especially for people in the low income group.

  3. DNA barcodes identify Central Asian Colias butterflies (Lepidoptera, Pieridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiho, Juha; Ståhls, Gunilla

    2013-12-30

    A majority of the known Colias species (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, Coliadinae) occur in the mountainous regions of Central-Asia, vast areas that are hard to access, rendering the knowledge of many species limited due to the lack of extensive sampling. Two gene regions, the mitochondrial COI 'barcode' region and the nuclear ribosomal protein RpS2 gene region were used for exploring the utility of these DNA markers for species identification. A comprehensive sampling of COI barcodes for Central Asian Colias butterflies showed that the barcodes facilitated identification of most of the included species. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on parsimony and Neighbour-Joining recovered most species as monophyletic entities. For the RpS2 gene region species-specific sequences were registered for some of the included Colias spp. Nevertheless, this gene region was not deemed useful as additional molecular 'barcode'. A parsimony analysis of the combined COI and RpS2 data did not support the current subgeneric classification based on morphological characteristics.

  4. Potential Positive Effects of Pesticides Application on (Walker (Lepidoptera: Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Qing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the pink stem borer (PSB Sesamia inferens (Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae has become a rice pest in some rice-producing regions. The cause of this shift from secondary to major pest is unknown. The major purpose of this study was to examine the effect of five commonly used pesticides in rice fields on reproduction of PSB and on biochemical substances of rice plants. The results showed that the weight of pupae developed from 1st instar larvae treated with 2 mg/L triazophos and the number of eggs laid by emerged females from the treatment were significantly greater than those of the control, increasing by 26.2% and 47%, respectively. In addition, a nontarget insecticide, pymetrozine 100 mg/L, and a target insecticide, chlorantraniliprole 2 mg/L, stimulated reproduction of PSB. Biochemical measurement showed that foliar sprays of these pesticides resulted in significant reductions of contents of resistant substances, flavonoids and phenolic acids, in rice plants. For example, flavonoids and phenolic acids of rice plants treated with triazophos reduced by 48.5% and 22.4%, respectively, compared to the control. Therefore, we predicted that the application of some pesticides, eg triazophos and chlorantraniliprole, may be the cause of the increase in the population numbers of PSB in rice fields.

  5. Morphological outcomes of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahner, Joshua P; Lucas, Lauren K; Wilson, Joseph S; Forister, Matthew L

    2015-01-01

    The genitalia of male insects have been widely used in taxonomic identification and systematics and are potentially involved in maintaining reproductive isolation between species. Although sexual selection has been invoked to explain patterns of morphological variation in genitalia among populations and species, developmental plasticity in genitalia likely contributes to observed variation but has been rarely examined, particularly in wild populations. Bilateral gynandromorphs are individuals that are genetically male on one side of the midline and genetically female on the other, while mosaic gynandromorphs have only a portion of their body developing as the opposite sex. Gynandromorphs might offer unique insights into developmental plasticity because individuals experience abnormal cellular interactions at the genitalic midline. In this study, we compare the genitalia and wing patterns of gynandromorphic Anna and Melissa blue butterflies, Lycaeides anna (Edwards) (formerly L. idas anna) and L. melissa (Edwards) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), to the morphology of normal individuals from the same populations. Gynandromorph wing markings all fell within the range of variation of normal butterflies; however, a number of genitalic measurements were outliers when compared with normal individuals. From these results, we conclude that the gynandromorphs' genitalia, but not wing patterns, can be abnormal when compared with normal individuals and that the gynandromorphic genitalia do not deviate developmentally in a consistent pattern across individuals. Finally, genetic mechanisms are considered for the development of gynandromorphism in Lycaeides butterflies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  6. Biology and control of the raspberry crown borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKern, Jacquelyn A; Johnson, Donn T; Lewis, Barbara A

    2007-04-01

    This study explored the biology of raspberry crown borer, Pennisetia marginata (Harris) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), in Arkansas and the optimum timing for insecticide and nematode applications. The duration of P. marginata's life cycle was observed to be 1 yr in Arkansas. Insecticide trials revealed that bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, metaflumizone, and metofluthrin efficacy were comparable with that of azinphosmethyl, the only labeled insecticide for P. marginata in brambles until 2005. Applications on 23 October 2003 for plots treated with bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, and azinphosmethyl resulted in >88% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 3 November 2004 of metaflumizone, metofluthrin, and bifenthrin resulted in >89% reduction in larvae per crown. Applications on 7 April 2005 for metofluthrin, imidacloprid, bifenthrin, metaflumizone, and benzoylphenyl urea resulted in >64% reduction in the number of larvae per crown. Applications on 6 May 2004 did not reduce larval numbers. The optimum timing for treatments was found to be between October and early April, before the larvae tunneled into the crowns of plants. Applying bifenthrin with as little as 468 liters water/ha (50 gal/acre) was found to be as effective against larvae as higher volumes of spray. Nematode applications were less successful than insecticides. Nematode applications of Steinernemafeltiae, Steinernema carpocapsae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora reduced larvae counts per plant by 46, 53, and 33%, respectively.

  7. The navel orangeworm, Amyelois transtilla (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) discovered in northeastern Mexico feeding on Sapindaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), the navel orangeworm, is an important pest of a wide variety fruits and their seeds. We discovered and report for the first time A. transitella feeding on Sapindaceae in wild populations of U. speciosa (Endl.) in northeastern Mexico. We provid...

  8. Effects of elevated CO2 leaf diet on gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) respiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita R. Foss; William J. Mattson; Terry M. Trier

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of CO2 affect plant growth and leaf chemistry, which in turn can alter host plant suitability for insect herbivores. We examined the suitability of foliage from trees grown from seedlings since 1997 at Aspen FACE as diet for the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae: paper birch (...

  9. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  10. Reproduction, longevity and survival of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screened potted cactus plants (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.) containing pairs of adult male and female cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), were placed in a cactus field in St. Marks, Florida to measure oviposition patterns under field-realistic conditions. Results...

  11. First record of Citheronia regalis (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) feeding on Cotinus obovatus (Anacardiaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graves, Gary R.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The regal moth (Citheronia regalis F.; Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) is reported for the first time feeding on foliage of the American smoketree (Cotinus obovatus Raf.; Anacardiaceae), an endemic tree with a relictual distribution on calcareous soils in the southern United States. This record...

  12. Postharvest irradiation treatment for quarantine control of the invasive Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of irradiation on egg, larval, and pupal development in European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), were examined. Eggs, neonates, third instars, fifth instars, and early and late stage pupae were irradiated at target doses of 50, 100, 150, or 200 Gy or left untr...

  13. Host range of Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae), and potential for biological control of Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Ramadan; K. T. Murai; T. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Secusio extensa (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) was evaluated as a potential biological control agent for Madagascar fireweed, Senecio madagascariensis (Asteraceae), which has invaded over 400 000 acres of rangeland in the Hawaiian Islands and is toxic to cattle and horses. The moth was introduced from southeastern Madagascar...

  14. THE PROTECTED SPECIES OF LEPIDOPTERA IN THE LANDSCAPE RESERVE ‘ZVANETS’ (BELARUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Kulak, A. V.; Yakovlev, R. V.

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the data on distribution, population, habitats and phenology of 16 species of lepidopteran insects (Insecta: Lepidoptera), inhabiting the landscape reserve “Zvanets” (Belarus, Brest region) and listed in the Red Book of the Republic of Belarus: Rhyparioides metelkana, Pericallia matronula, Callimorpha dominula, Arytrura musculus, Diachrysia zosimi, Chariaspilates formosaria, Scopula caricaria, Gagitodes sagittata, Lycaena dispar, Euphydryas aurinia, Eu. maturna, Melitaea ...

  15. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.; Via, Allegra; Brandã o, Marcelo M.; Tramontano, Anna; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  16. Large-Scale Evolutionary Patterns of Host Plant Associations in the Lepidoptera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menken, S.B.J.; Boomsma, J.J.; van Nieukerken, E.J.

    2010-01-01

    We characterized evolutionary patterns of host plant use across about 2500 species of British Lepidoptera, using character optimization and independent phylogenetic contrasts among 95 operational taxa, and evaluated the extent to which caterpillars are monophagous, use woody host plants, and feed...

  17. Eurema brigitta (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) – a new record of butterfly for Socotra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Rindoš, Michal; Hula, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 221-225 ISSN 0374-1036 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Rhopalocera * Papilionoidea Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2016 https://www.biotaxa.org/AEMNP/article/view/35064

  18. Extrafloral nectar feeding by Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Vila

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Adults of the dry area specialist Strymon jacqueline Nicolay & Robbins, 2005 (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Eumaeini are here recorded feeding on extrafloral nectar of the large cactus Neoraimondia arequipensis var. gigantea (Werdermann & Backeberg Ritter. The significance of these observations is discussed in relation to lycaenid survival in a xeric environment, pollination and mate location.

  19. The first record of the butterfly Memphis d. dia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Córdoba-Alfaro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Memphis diain Costa Rica (Godman & Salvin, 1884 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Charaxinae is reported herein, based on a specimen collected El Rodeo (09 ° 54’ 76.6”N; 84 ° 16’ 89.5”W on April 4, 2012.

  20. Mass migration of Chrysodeixis chalcites (Esper, 1789) in Tenerife, Canary Islands (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitzer, Karel; Jaroš, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 125 (2004), s. 19-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS5007015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Noctuidae * Chrysodeixis chalcites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  1. Sighting of Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae in West Bengal, eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Roy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tawny Palmfly butterfly, Elymnias panthera (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, is a Malayan species that is also known from the Nicobar Islands. Here we report sighting of E. panthera from the Bethuadahari Wildlife Sanctuary in West Bengal, eastern India. This is the first sighting of the species from mainland India, and is a possible range extension of the species into northeastern India.

  2. Cucullia umbratica (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a new European noctuid in North America

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    Louis Handfield

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of a noctuid new for North America, Cucullia umbratica (Linnaeus, 1758 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, is reported from the Magdalen Islands (Quebec, Canada. A male and a female from the Islands are illustrated as well as specimens of the superficially similar species Cucullia intermedia Speyer, 1870. The male genitalia of both species are illustrated.

  3. Phylogeography of Koramius charltonius (Gray, 1853) (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae): a case of too many poorly circumscribed subspecies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Faltýnek Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-191 ISSN 0342-7536 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Koramius charltonius * Lepidoptera * Central Asia Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) in the Palaearctic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, H.; Lieshout, N.; van Ginkel, W.E.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The small ermine moth genus Yponomeuta (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae) contains 76 species that are specialist feeders on hosts from Celastraceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and several other plant families. The genus is a model for studies in the evolution of phytophagous insects and their

  5. PECULIARITIES OF THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE NOCTUIDAE (LEPIDOPTERA, NOCTUIDAE OF THE ISLAND OF CHECHEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Abdurakhmanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the species composition of the noctuidae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae of the island of Chechen of the North-West Caspian sea, their spatial distribution,  dissemination  and analysis of the most common and indigenous species.

  6. Digestive peptidase evolution in holometabolous insects led to a divergent group of enzymes in Lepidoptera

    KAUST Repository

    Dias, Renata O.

    2015-03-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Trypsins and chymotrypsins are well-studied serine peptidases that cleave peptide bonds at the carboxyl side of basic and hydrophobic l-amino acids, respectively. These enzymes are largely responsible for the digestion of proteins. Three primary processes regulate the activity of these peptidases: secretion, precursor (zymogen) activation and substrate-binding site recognition. Here, we present a detailed phylogenetic analysis of trypsins and chymotrypsins in three orders of holometabolous insects and reveal divergent characteristics of Lepidoptera enzymes in comparison with those of Coleoptera and Diptera. In particular, trypsin subsite S1 was more hydrophilic in Lepidoptera than in Coleoptera and Diptera, whereas subsites S2-S4 were more hydrophobic, suggesting different substrate preferences. Furthermore, Lepidoptera displayed a lineage-specific trypsin group belonging only to the Noctuidae family. Evidence for facilitated trypsin auto-activation events were also observed in all the insect orders studied, with the characteristic zymogen activation motif complementary to the trypsin active site. In contrast, insect chymotrypsins did not seem to have a peculiar evolutionary history with respect to their mammal counterparts. Overall, our findings suggest that the need for fast digestion allowed holometabolous insects to evolve divergent groups of peptidases with high auto-activation rates, and highlight that the evolution of trypsins led to a most diverse group of enzymes in Lepidoptera.

  7. On the status and position of Melitaea minerva var. palamedes Groum-Grshimailo, 1890 (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korb, S. K.; Fric, Zdeněk; Bartoňová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 177 (2017), s. 17-22 ISSN 0300-5267 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36098G Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Lepidoptera * Nymphalidae * Melitaea palamedes Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 0.264, year: 2016

  8. Review of Lepidoptera with trophic relationships to Picea abies (L. in the conditions of Czechia

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    Modlinger Roman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trophic relationships of Lepidoptera (Insecta occurring in the territory of Czechia to the Norway spruce (Picea abies L. was evaluated on the basis of the excerption and critical evaluation of literature. Each species was classified into the following categories – spruce as the host plant, regular development on spruce, narrow trophic relationship, indirect relationship and episodical occurrence. The particular taxa were also characterized according to their distribution and the form of larval life was specified. The development on spruce was documented in 96 species of Lepidoptera, which represented less than 3% of taxa belonging to this group and being reported from Czechia. Of that, spruce was a common host plant for 67 species, 23 species were polyphagous and might develop on spruce, and 6 species belonged to soil species damaging spruce roots, mainly in forest nurseries. Among the species of Lepidoptera, which regularly develop on spruce in the Czech conditions, 55 species were classified. As narrow specialists with special trophic relationship to spruce, 33 taxa could be considered. There were 15 spruce species with forestry importance, which were able to outbreak their populations regularly or irregularly. Among spruce species it was possible to classify 16 taxa as rare. The provided information on Lepidoptera with trophic relationship to spruce is applicable also for other Central European areas. Besides the species with importance for forest pest management, also rare taxa, which can become endangered by climate change or by forest management, were indicated.

  9. Disruption of Darna pallivitta (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae) by conventional and mobile pheromone deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettle caterpillar, Darna pallivitta (Moore) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), is an invasive pest with established populations on three Hawai’ian islands. Indigenous to Southeast Asia, D. pallivitta caterpillars defoliate ornamentals and pose a human health hazard due to urticating hairs that can cause p...

  10. Effect of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) host plants on life-history parameters of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dannon, A.E.; Tamo, M.; Agboton, C.; Huis, van A.; Dicke, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four host plant species of the herbivore Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on development time, longevity, fecundity and sex ratio of the parasitoid Apanteles taragamae Viereck (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was investigated under laboratory conditions. The larvae were

  11. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; van Nieukerken, E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  12. A global phylogeny of leafmining Ectoedemia moths (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae): exploring host plant family shifts and allopatry as drivers of speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenweerd, C.; Nieukerken, van E.J.; Menken, S.B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Host association patterns in Ectoedemia (Lepidoptera: Nepticulidae) are also encountered in other insect groups with intimate plant relationships, including a high degree of monophagy, a preference for ecologically dominant plant families (e.g. Fagaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, and

  13. Combination phenyl propionate/pheromone traps for monitoring navel orangeworm (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in almonds in the vicinity of mating disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerosol mating disruption is used for management of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in an increasing portion of California almonds and pistachios. This formulation suppresses pheromone monitoring traps far beyond the treatment block, potentially complicating...

  14. Evidence of multiple/cross resistance to Bt and organophosphate insecticides in Puerto Rico population of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu Cheng; Blanco, Carlos A; Portilla, Maribel; Adamczyk, John; Luttrell, Randall; Huang, Fangneng

    2015-07-01

    Fall armyworm (FAW) is a damaging pest of many economic crops. Long-term use of chemical control prompted resistance development to many insecticide classes. Many populations were found to be significantly less susceptible to major Bt toxins expressed in transgenic crops. In this study, a FAW strain collected from Puerto Rico (PR) with 7717-fold Cry1F-resistance was examined to determine if it had also developed multiple/cross resistance to non-Bt insecticides. Dose response assays showed that the PR strain developed 19-fold resistance to acephate. Besides having a slightly smaller larval body weight and length, PR also evolved a deep (2.8%) molecular divergence in mitochondrial oxidase subunit II. Further examination of enzyme activities in the midgut of PR larvae exhibited substantial decreases of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aminopeptidase (APN), 1-NA- and 2-NA-specific esterase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities, and significant increases of PNPA-specific esterase and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities. When enzyme preparations from the whole larval body were examined, all three esterase, GST, trypsin, and chymotrypsin activities were significantly elevated in the PR strain, while ALP and APN activities were not significantly different from those of susceptible strain. Data indicated that multiple/cross resistances may have developed in the PR strain to both Bt toxins and conventional insecticides. Consistently reduced ALP provided evidence to support an ALP-mediated Bt resistance mechanism. Esterases and GSTs may be associated with acephate resistance through elevated metabolic detoxification. Further studies are needed to clarify whether and how esterases, GSTs, and other enzymes (such as P450s) are involved in cross resistance development to Bt and other insecticide classes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Combinatorial control of gene expression in Aspergillus niger grown on sugar beet pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Joanna E; Lubbers, Ronnie J M; Peng, Mao; Battaglia, Evy; Visser, Jaap; de Vries, Ronald P

    2017-09-27

    Aspergillus niger produces an arsenal of extracellular enzymes that allow synergistic degradation of plant biomass found in its environment. Pectin is a heteropolymer abundantly present in the primary cell wall of plants. The complex structure of pectin requires multiple enzymes to act together. Production of pectinolytic enzymes in A. niger is highly regulated, which allows flexible and efficient capture of nutrients. So far, three transcriptional activators have been linked to regulation of pectin degradation in A. niger. The L-rhamnose-responsive regulator RhaR controls the production of enzymes that degrade rhamnogalacturonan-I. The L-arabinose-responsive regulator AraR controls the production of enzymes that decompose the arabinan and arabinogalactan side chains of rhamnogalacturonan-II. The D-galacturonic acid-responsive regulator GaaR controls the production of enzymes that act on the polygalacturonic acid backbone of pectin. This project aims to better understand how RhaR, AraR and GaaR co-regulate pectin degradation. For that reason, we constructed single, double and triple disruptant strains of these regulators and analyzed their growth phenotype and pectinolytic gene expression in A. niger grown on sugar beet pectin.

  16. Processing of beet-sugar molasses in the acetone-butyl alcohol industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalesskaya, M I; Logotkin, I S; Marfina, A M; Gus' kova, N P; Chekasina, E V

    1958-01-01

    Possibility of partial replacement of flour by beet-sugar molasses (I) in acetone-BuOH fermentation was investigated on a commercial scale. Detailed regimes of experiments carried out in two trials were given. Yields of fermentation (kg/1000 kg starch of mash) were: 125.3, 214.4, and 31.5 of acetone, BuOH and EtOH, respectively, for pure flour-mash; 123.3, 215.3, and 28.7 of acetone, BuOH, and EtOH, respectively, at 10% flour replaced by I; 127.8, 205.9, and 51.8, respectively, at 50% flour replaced by I; and 120.17, 216.48, and 42.3, respectively, at 62% flour replaced by I. Inoculum, grown in the seed-mash containing flour only, was not mixed with fermentor-mash until the stage of acid production by the inoculum was reached. During the fermentation of mashes in which 62% flour was replaced by I, a slight foaming was observed.

  17. The use of sugar beet pulp lignin for the production of vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Aazam; Mizani, Maryam; Honarvar, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to produce vanillin from sugar beet pulp by lignin oxidation and evaluate the effect of process parameters (temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, reaction time, CuSO 4 as a catalyst) on the yield of vanillin. Purification and separation of vanillin from pressurized extract was carried out by organic solvent and crystallization. HPLC, FT-IR, H NMR, GC/MS and DSC methods were performed to approve the vanillin crystal. Results showed that production of vanillin was significantly affected by four parameters, and an optimal conditions for production of vanillin was found 4.3bar for an oxygen partial pressure under a temperature of 156°C and duration of time 30min without CuSO 4 , corresponding to 1439.3mg/100g vanillin. Thermal property of syntesis vanillin was coincide to DSC pure vanillin curve but there were differences in ΔH° f and ΔH c . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  19. Treatment of sugar beet extraction juice stillage by natural coagulants extracted from common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prodanović Jelena M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery wastewaters have a great pollution potential, and pollution caused by them is one of the most critical environmental issues. This study is concerned with the coagulation efficiency of a new, environmental friendly, natural coagulant extracted from common bean seeds in the primary treatment of distillery wastewater in the bioethanol production from sugar beet juice. Active coagulation components were extracted from ground seeds of common bean with 0.5 mol/L NaCl. The obtained raw extract was used as a coagulant. The coagulation efficiency was measured by jar test at different pH values of wastewater, and a decrease in organic matter content was determined. The experiments confirmed that natural coagulant from common bean could be successfully used for the treatment of extraction juice distillery wastewater. The highest coagulation efficiencies were achieved at the pH 5.2 with a coagulant dose of 30 mL/L, and at the pH 8.5 with a coagulant dose of 5 mL/L, and they were 64.71% and 68.75% respectively. These encouraging results indicate that natural coagulant from common bean seeds is a potential alternative to conventional chemical coagulant/flocculant agents for treatment of wastewaters.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43005

  20. PRODUCTIVITY OF SUGAR BEET LINES AND THEIR CROSSES DEPENDING ON PLOIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Kristek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Five diploid (2n=2x=18 cms lines, 2 tetraploid (2n=4x=36 and 2 diploid pollinators, as well as 10 diploid and 10 triploid (2n=3x=27 sugar beet hybrids, given by the crossing of investigated cms lines and pollinators were investigated in the field trials. Two triploid hybrids, widespread in sugarbeet production, were sown as standards – Os Sana and Iva. The trials were conducted on two localities (Osijek and Đakovo during the two years (2002 and 2003. There was a difference between years in weather conditions and between localities in terms of type and features of soil. First year of the investigation was humid and warm and the second was dry and hot. Osijek locality was characterized by chernozem-meadow type soil and Đakovo by loessial pseudoglei. The best average root yield was achieved between the investigated genotypes by the triploid hybrid 15 (58.09 t/ha and the hybrids 11, 13 and standard 31. As for the content and utilization of sugar, the standard 31 achieved best results (15.15% followed by the standard hybrids 15, 18, 17 and 11. The best sugar yield was achieved by hybrid 15 (7.08 t/ha, followed by hybrids 13, 11, 10 and 18.

  1. Quality improvement of gluten-free bread based on soybean and enriched with sugar beet molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimurina Olivera D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to improve the quality of gluten-free bread made with high content of soy flour and enriched with sugar beet molasses by incorporating ingredients with a potential to simultaneously enhance the nutritional quality of the breads. The following ingredients were used: pea protein isolate, pea fibre and chia seeds. The chosen ingredients exerted positive effects on bread quality. They promoted volume increase and crumb softening. In this respect, the most effective ingredients were pea protein isolate (at 1% supplementation level, pea fibre (at up to 2% supplementation level and chia seeds (at 1% supplementation level. The sensory analysis revealed that pea fibre and chia addition at 1 and 2% supplementation level provided bread with higher scores regarding overall acceptance, crumb texture and taste. At 1% supplementation level, there was not found statistically significant difference in sensory attributes of bread supplemented with pea protein isolate in comparison to the control. However, pea protein isolate was found to strongly diminish bread taste at 4% supplementation level due to presence of beany taste.

  2. Efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii from sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Infante, Celia; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; Lucas, Susana; García-Cubero, María Teresa

    2015-08-01

    Sugar beet pulp (SBP) has been investigated as a promising feedstock for ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii. Although lignin content in SBP is low, a pretreatment is needed to enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation yields. Autohydrolysis at pH 4 has been selected as the best pretreatment for SBP in terms of sugars release and acetone and butanol production. The best overall sugars release yields from raw SBP ranged from 66.2% to 70.6% for this pretreatment. The highest ABE yield achieved was 0.4g/g (5.1g/L of acetone and 6.6g/L butanol) and 143.2g ABE/kg SBP (62.3g acetone and 80.9g butanol) were obtained when pretreated SBP was enzymatically hydrolyzed at 7.5% (w/w) solid loading. Higher solid loadings (10%) offered higher acetone and butanol titers (5.8g/L of acetone and 7.8g/L butanol). All the experiments were carried out under not-controlling pH conditions reaching about 5.3 in the final samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Leaching of the Neonicotinoids Thiamethoxam and Imidacloprid from Sugar Beet Seed Dressings to Subsurface Tile Drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettstein, Felix E; Kasteel, Roy; Garcia Delgado, Maria F; Hanke, Irene; Huntscha, Sebastian; Balmer, Marianne E; Poiger, Thomas; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2016-08-24

    Pesticide transport from seed dressings toward subsurface tile drains is still poorly understood. We monitored the neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and thiamethoxam from sugar beet seed dressings in flow-proportional drainage water samples, together with spray applications of bromide and the herbicide S-metolachlor in spring and the fungicides epoxiconazole and kresoxim-methyl in summer. Event-driven, high first concentration maxima up to 2830 and 1290 ng/L for thiamethoxam and imidacloprid, respectively, were followed by an extended period of tailing and suggested preferential flow. Nevertheless, mass recoveries declined in agreement with the degradation and sorption properties collated in the groundwater ubiquity score, following the order bromide (4.9%), thiamethoxam (1.2%), imidacloprid (0.48%), kresoxim-methyl acid (0.17%), S-metolachlor (0.032%), epoxiconazole (0.013%), and kresoxim-methyl (0.003%), and indicated increased leaching from seed dressings compared to spray applications. Measured concentrations and mass recoveries indicate that subsurface tile drains contribute to surface water contamination with neonicotinoids from seed dressings.

  4. Yield response of cotton, maize, soybean, sugar beet, sunflower and wheat to deficit irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirda, C.; Kanber, R.; Tulucu, K.

    1995-01-01

    Results of several field experiments on deficit irrigation programmes in Turkey are discussed. Deficit irrigation of sugar beet with water stress imposed (i e.,irrigation omitted)during ripening,stage saved nearly 22 % water, yet with no significant yield decrease. An experiment, conducted in Turkey Region, the European part of Turkey,and aimed at studying water production functions of sunflower(i e,yield vs water consumption), revealed that water stress imposed at either head forming or seed filling stags influence yield the least , and 40 % savings of irrigation water supply , compared with traditional practices in the region, can be achieved without significant yield reduction. Water stress imposed at vegetative and flowering stages of maize hindered the yield most significantly. The results showed that deficit irrigation can be a feasible option under limited supply of irrigation if stress occurs during yield formation stage. A four year field experiments aiming at developing deficit irrigation strategies for soybean showed that soybean was at the most sensitive to water stress during flowering and pod filling stages, and irrigation during these stages would ensure high yields. Results of experiments on cotton showed that irrigations omitted during yield formation stage did not significantly hinder the yield. Similarly wheat give good yield response if irrigated at booting,heading and milking stages, depending on w heather conditions. In areas where rainfall at planting is limited, supplementary irrigation during this period can ensure good establishment of wheat crop. 1 tab; 9 figs; 59 refs (Author)

  5. Improved sugar beet pectin-stabilized emulsions through complexation with sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyang; Fang, Yapeng; Phillips, Glyn O; Al-Assaf, Saphwan

    2013-02-13

    The study investigates the complexes formed between sodium caseinate (SC) and sugar beet pectin (SBP) and to harness them to stabilize SBP emulsions. We find that both hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions are involved in the complexation. In SC/SBP mixed solution, soluble SC/SBP complexes first form on acidification and then aggregate into insoluble complexes, which disassociate into soluble polymers upon further decreasing pH. The critical pH's for the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes and disappearance of insoluble complexes are designated as pH(c), pH(φ), and pH(d), respectively. These critical pH values define four regions in the phase diagram of complexation, and SC/SBP emulsions were prepared in these regions. The results show that the stability of SBP-stabilized emulsion is greatly improved at low SC/SBP ratios and acidic pH's. This enhancement can be attributed to an increase in the amount of adsorbed SBP as a result of cooperative adsorption to sodium caseinate. Using a low ratio of SC/SBP ensured that all caseinate molecules are completely covered by adsorbed SBP chains, which eliminates possible instability induced by thermal aggregation of caseinate molecules resulting from stress acceleration at elevated temperatures. A mechanistic model for the behavior is proposed.

  6. Involvement of C4 protein of beet severe curly top virus (family Geminiviridae in virus movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunling Teng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet severe curly top virus (BSCTV is a leafhopper transmitted geminivirus with a monopartite genome. C4 proteins encoded by geminivirus play an important role in virus/plant interaction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To understand the function of C4 encoded by BSCTV, two BSCTV mutants were constructed by introducing termination codons in ORF C4 without affecting the amino acids encoded by overlapping ORF Rep. BSCTV mutants containing disrupted ORF C4 retained the ability to replicate in Arabidopsis protoplasts and in the agro-inoculated leaf discs of N. benthamiana, suggesting C4 is not required for virus DNA replication. However, both mutants did not accumulate viral DNA in newly emerged leaves of inoculated N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis, and the inoculated plants were asymptomatic. We also showed that C4 expression in plant could help C4 deficient BSCTV mutants to move systemically. C4 was localized in the cytosol and the nucleus in both Arabidopsis protoplasts and N. benthamiana leaves and the protein appeared to bind viral DNA and ds/ssDNA nonspecifically, displaying novel DNA binding properties. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that C4 protein in BSCTV is involved in symptom production and may facilitate virus movement instead of virus replication.

  7. Continuous ethanol production from sugar beet molasses using an osmotolerant mutant strain of zymomonas mobilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.C.; Baratti, J.C. (Univ. de Provence, Marseille (France). Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)

    1992-01-25

    In conventional alcohol fermentation processes using yeast species, the substrate cost represents a major fraction of the total production cost. Therefore, it may be very attractive to use the bacterium Zymomonas mobilis, since it has shown higher ethanol yields than yeasts when grown on a glucose-based medium. A report is made on the use of mutant strain of Zymomonas mobilis for ethanol production from hydrolyzed sugar beet molasses in a two-stage continuous culture which showed high ethanol yield and an ethanol concentration sufficiently high for economical recovery. A single stage continuous culture was first operated in an attempt to reduce the formation of sorbitol. Further on, a second fermentor was added with additional substrate feeding to increase the effluent ethanol concentration. An ethanol concentration of 59.9g/l was obtained at 97% sugar conversion and at high ethanol yield. The volumetric ethanol productivity was superior to that of batch fermentation but inferior to that of a single-stage continuous system with the same medium. However, the ethanol concentration was increased to a level acceptable for economical recovery. 18 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Electric double layer and electrokinetic potential of pectic macromolecules in sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljanin Tatjana A.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrokinetic potential is an important property of colloidal particles and, regarding the fact that it is a well defined and easily measurable property, it is considered to be a permanent characteristic of a particular colloidal system. In fact, it is a measure of electrokinetic charge that surrounds the colloidal particle in a solution and is in direct proportion with the mobility of particles in an electric field. Gouy-Chapman-Stern-Graham's model of electric double layer was adopted and it was proven experimentally that the addition of Cu++ ions to sugar beet pectin caused a reduction in the negative electrokinetic potential proportional to the increase of Cu++ concentration. Higher Cu++ concentrations increased the proportion of cation specific adsorption (Cu++ and H+ with regard to electrostatic Coulombic forces. Consequently, there is a shift in the shear plane between the fixed and diffuse layers directed towards the diffuse layer, i.e. towards its compression and decrease in the electrokinetic potential or even charge inversion of pectin macromolecules.

  9. Effect of Different Sugar Beet Pulp Pretreatments on Biogas Production Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemiński, Krzysztof; Kowalska-Wentel, Monika

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp (SBP) pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2.5-mm particles resulted in the cumulative biogas productivity of 617.2 mL/g volatile solids (VS), which was 20.2 % higher compared to the biogas yield from the not pretreated SBP, and comparable to that from not ground, enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The highest cumulative biogas productivity, 898.7 mL/g VS, was obtained from the ground, thermal-pressure pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed SBP. The latter pretreatment variant enabled to achieve the highest glucose concentration (24.765 mg/mL) in the enzymatic hydrolysates. The analysis of energy balance showed that the increase in the number of SBP pretreatment operations significantly reduced the gain of electric energy.

  10. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingshun Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis.

  11. Genetic variation among the male sterile cytoplasms induced by gamma irradiation in sugar beets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Tetsuo; Kinoshita, Toshiro; Takahashi, Man-emon

    1976-01-01

    In sugar beets, cytoplasmic male sterility was induced artificially by radiation treatment. In the present study, four kinds of male sterile strain made from the strain H-2002 with normal cytoplasms were used, and the mode of inheritance of the sterility maintained by these strains was confirmed. Also the hereditary mechanism of pollen fructification recovery was studied, and the newly induced heterotypic property of sterile cytoplasms was examined in comparison with naturally found sterile strains. In each of four produced strains, the male sterility was inherited down to M 4 lines stably through mother plants, and it was presumed that the sterility was caused by highly stable cytoplasmic mutation. In each strain, two pairs of nuclear genes took part in the recovery of pollen fructification, but the mode of action of two genes was different. As the result of mating for verification with O type strain to S cytoplasm strain, it seemed that at least the function as O type was not shown to three strains of γ-60, γ-114 and γ-165, and in the sterile cytoplasms of these three strains, the action of fructification recovery genes different from X and Z arose. It was presumed that the genes of X locus did not take effect in these induced cytoplasms. The possibility that at least four kinds of male sterile cytoplasms different from S were induced from normal cytoplasms by artificial mutation was proved indirectly. (Kako, I.)

  12. Intercropped red beet and radish with green bean affected microbial communities and nodulation by indigenous rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ugrinovic

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intercropping green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. with red beet (Beta vulgaris L. var. rubra and radish (Raphanus sativus L., two non-legume plants, on the plants’ yields, as well as the effect on occurrence and enumeration of microorganisms in the rhizosphere was studied. The intercrop efficacy evaluation, using Land equivalent ratio, revealed values above 1.0 for all intercropped treatments. Diversity of rhizobia from green bean nodules under different intercropping and fertilizing conditions was observed. On the basis of morphological and biochemical characteristics, 67 out of 158 isolates from green bean roots were selected as rhizobia (42.4%, confirmed by detection of 780 bp nifH gene fragments in nifH-PCR, and then clustered in 27 phenotype patterns. Production of exopolysaccharide succinoglycan was observed in 23 rhizobial isolates, while 6 were detected to solubilize tricalcium phosphate. Screening of genetic diversity using (GTG5-PCR fingerprinting showed presence of six different patterns on the 92% similarity level.

  13. Drought Impact Is Alleviated in Sugar Beets (Beta vulgaris L.) by Foliar Application of Fullerenol Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borišev, Milan; Borišev, Ivana; Župunski, Milan; Arsenov, Danijela; Pajević, Slobodanka; Ćurčić, Živko; Vasin, Jovica; Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, significant efforts have been made to decrease the effects of drought stress on plant productivity and quality. We propose that fullerenol nanoparticles (FNPs, molecular formula C60(OH)24) may help alleviate drought stress by serving as an additional intercellular water supply. Specifically, FNPs are able to penetrate plant leaf and root tissues, where they bind water in various cell compartments. This hydroscopic activity suggests that FNPs could be beneficial in plants. The aim of the present study was to analyse the influence of FNPs on sugar beet plants exposed to drought stress. Our results indicate that intracellular water metabolism can be modified by foliar application of FNPs in drought exposed plants. Drought stress induced a significant increase in the compatible osmolyte proline in both the leaves and roots of control plants, but not in FNP treated plants. These results indicate that FNPs could act as intracellular binders of water, creating an additional water reserve, and enabling adaptation to drought stress. Moreover, analysis of plant antioxidant enzyme activities (CAT, APx and GPx), MDA and GSH content indicate that fullerenol foliar application could have some beneficial effect on alleviating oxidative effects of drought stress, depending on the concentration of nanoparticles applied. Although further studies are necessary to elucidate the biochemical impact of FNPs on plants; the present results could directly impact agricultural practice, where available water supplies are often a limiting factor in plant bioproductivity.

  14. Contrasting patterns of evolutionary constraint and novelty revealed by comparative sperm proteomic analysis in Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Emma; Forsythe, Desiree; Borziak, Kirill; Karr, Timothy L; Walters, James R; Dorus, Steve

    2017-12-02

    Rapid evolution is a hallmark of reproductive genetic systems and arises through the combined processes of sequence divergence, gene gain and loss, and changes in gene and protein expression. While studies aiming to disentangle the molecular ramifications of these processes are progressing, we still know little about the genetic basis of evolutionary transitions in reproductive systems. Here we conduct the first comparative analysis of sperm proteomes in Lepidoptera, a group that exhibits dichotomous spermatogenesis, in which males produce a functional fertilization-competent sperm (eupyrene) and an incompetent sperm morph lacking nuclear DNA (apyrene). Through the integrated application of evolutionary proteomics and genomics, we characterize the genomic patterns potentially associated with the origination and evolution of this unique spermatogenic process and assess the importance of genetic novelty in Lepidopteran sperm biology. Comparison of the newly characterized Monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) sperm proteome to those of the Carolina sphinx moth (Manduca sexta) and the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) demonstrated conservation at the level of protein abundance and post-translational modification within Lepidoptera. In contrast, comparative genomic analyses across insects reveals significant divergence at two levels that differentiate the genetic architecture of sperm in Lepidoptera from other insects. First, a significant reduction in orthology among Monarch sperm genes relative to the remainder of the genome in non-Lepidopteran insect species was observed. Second, a substantial number of sperm proteins were found to be specific to Lepidoptera, in that they lack detectable homology to the genomes of more distantly related insects. Lastly, the functional importance of Lepidoptera specific sperm proteins is broadly supported by their increased abundance relative to proteins conserved across insects. Our results identify a burst of genetic novelty

  15. A new LED lamp for the collection of nocturnal Lepidoptera and a spectral comparison of light-trapping lamps

    OpenAIRE

    Brehm, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Most nocturnal Lepidoptera can be attracted to artificial light sources, particularly to those that emit a high proportion of ultraviolet radiation. Here, I describe a newly developed LED lamp set for the use in the field that is lightweight, handy, robust, and energy efficient. The emitted electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to the peak sensitivity in most Lepidoptera eye receptors (ultraviolet, blue and green). Power LEDs with peaks at 368 nm (ultraviolet), 450 nm (blue), 530 nm (green), a...

  16. First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available First host plant records for Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas (Lepidoptera, Geometridae in the coastal valleys of northern Chile. The trees Haplorhus peruviana Engl. and Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae are mentioned as the first host plant records for the little known native moth Iridopsis hausmanni Vargas, 2007 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae in the coastal valleys of the northern Chilean Atacama Desert. This is also the first record of Anacardiaceae as host plant for a Neotropical species of Iridopsis Warren, 1894.

  17. Antibiosis in Soybean Genotypes and the Resistance Levels to Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, B H S; Silva, A G; Janini, J C; Boica Júnior, A L

    2014-12-01

    The southern armyworm (SAW) Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) is one of the most common armyworm species defoliating soybeans. Preliminary screening trials have indicated that some soybean genotypes exhibit resistance to SAW. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the development of SAW larvae fed on ten soybean genotypes in order to identify genotypes with antibiosis-type resistance. Neonate SAW larvae were daily fed with young leaves collected from plants at the vegetative growth stages V4-V5. Larval development and survival were recorded. Genotypes PI 227687 and PI 227682 delayed larval, pupal, and larva-adult development and yielded larvae with the lowest weight and survival and pupae with the lowest weight. Genotypes IAC 100 and DM 339 also negatively affected larval and pupal development and larval survival but at a lower level. Based on our results, the soybean lines PI 227687 and PI 227682 could be used as sources of genes for soybean breeding programs aiming to develop high yield, SAW-resistant cultivars. Moreover, further trials must be carried out under field conditions to validate if the commercial cultivars IAC 100 and DM 339, which expressed moderate levels of antibiosis-type resistance in the laboratory, are effective in suppressing SAW larvae populations.

  18. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of aerobic biodegradation of sugar beet distillery stillage: Removal of pollution load and biogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lutosławski

    Full Text Available Abstract Beet stillage is a high-strength effluent from the production of ethanol from sugar beet. A large annual volume of sugar beet stillage requires finding new effective ways for its utilization. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the efficiency of aerobic biodegradation of beet stillage. Biodegradation was carried out for 168 hours in a stirred-tank reactor with a working volume of 5 L at 27°C, 36°C, 45°C, 54°C and 63°C. All experiments were performed at uncontrolled pH, aeration of 1.0 vvm and of 900 rpm. The effectiveness of biodegradation was determined by the extent of removal of SCODsum (COD determined after suspended solids separation and theoretical COD of betaine, BOD5 and TOC. Studies have shown that, under mesophilic conditions, the extents of reduction of SCODsum, BOD5 and TOC were statistically significantly (p≤0.05 higher than under thermophilic conditions. Within the range of 27-36°C, the highest reduction in SCODsum (79.2-79.9%, BOD5 (98.4-99% and TOC (76.1-77.3% was obtained. Additionally, at the temperature of 36°C, the highest reduction in total nitrogen (56.4% and total phosphorus (58% was achieved. Aerobic biodegradation allows for efficient treatment of sugar beet distillery stillage (preferably at 36°C.

  19. Bacterial Symbionts in Lepidoptera: Their Diversity, Transmission, and Impact on the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Paniagua Voirol

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The insect’s microbiota is well acknowledged as a “hidden” player influencing essential insect traits. The gut microbiome of butterflies and moths (Lepidoptera has been shown to be highly variable between and within species, resulting in a controversy on the functional relevance of gut microbes in this insect order. Here, we aim to (i review current knowledge on the composition of gut microbial communities across Lepidoptera and (ii elucidate the drivers of the variability in the lepidopteran gut microbiome and provide an overview on (iii routes of transfer and (iv the putative functions of microbes in Lepidoptera. To find out whether Lepidopterans possess a core gut microbiome, we compared studies of the microbiome from 30 lepidopteran species. Gut bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae families were the most widespread across species, with Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus being the most common genera. Several studies indicate that habitat, food plant, and age of the host insect can greatly impact the gut microbiome, which contributes to digestion, detoxification, or defense against natural enemies. We mainly focus on the gut microbiome, but we also include some examples of intracellular endosymbionts. These symbionts are present across a broad range of insect taxa and are known to exert different effects on their host, mostly including nutrition and reproductive manipulation. Only two intracellular bacteria genera (Wolbachia and Spiroplasma have been reported to colonize reproductive tissues of Lepidoptera, affecting their host’s reproduction. We explore routes of transmission of both gut microbiota and intracellular symbionts and have found that these microbes may be horizontally transmitted through the host plant, but also vertically via the egg stage. More detailed knowledge about the functions and plasticity of the microbiome in Lepidoptera may provide novel leads

  20. New insights on Lepidoptera of Southern Italy with description of the male of Coenotephria antonii Hausmann 2011 (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Infusino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Italy is of particular biogeographic interest due to the location at the center of the Mediterranean Basin and its great environmental heterogeneity. Despite the faunistic interest of this territory, many insect taxa are still little investigated. Among insects, Lepidoptera have a relatively well known fauna, significantly increased in recent years, but there are still some gaps of knowledge in several habitats. The aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of the Macrolepidoptera of Southern Italy, focusing our study in Calabria, and to offer some thoughts on the role played by the Mediterranean mountain forests for the biodiversity conservation. Samplings were carried out in three mountainous areas of Calabria (Pollino Massif, Sila Massif and Serre Mountains in May-November 2015 and in April-November 2016, using UV-LED light traps. We found ten species of high faunistic interest. Three species, Nebula senectaria, Perizoma lugdunaria and Acasis appensata, were for the first time recorded from Southern Italy, while seven were for the first time recorded from Calabria: Coenotephria antonii, Thera obeliscata, Triphosa dubitata, Trichopteryx carpinata, Asteroscopus sphinx, Lithophane semibrunnea and Sideridis reticulata. Of great interest was the discovery of the first male certainly attributable to Coenotephria antonii, endemic of Southern Italy, here described for the first time. The results exposed confirm that the fauna of Southern Italy is of great conservation value, hosting endemisms and several relict populations of European and Asiatic species with differentiated genetic lineages highly vulnerable to the climate change expected for the coming decades.