WorldWideScience

Sample records for bees

  1. Bee poison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee poisoning is caused by a sting from a bee, wasp , or yellow jacket. This article is for ... Bee, wasp, and yellow jacket stings contain a substance called venom. Africanized bee colonies are very sensitive ...

  2. Bee health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lecocq, Antoine

    with a queen bee, based on their health status. Some of the methodological novelty, set-backs and preliminary results are discussed. In the fourth part, the thesis concludes by zooming out of the confines of the inner hive in order to address recent concerns regarding the potential spill-over of honey bee...

  3. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollen Extract, Buckwheat Pollen, Extrait de Pollen d’Abeille, Honeybee Pollen, Honey Bee Pollen, Maize Pollen, Pine Pollen, Polen de Abeja, Pollen, Pollen d'Abeille, Pollen d’Abeille de Miel, Pollen de Sarrasin.

  4. Bee Stings & Their Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    Relevant information concerning bee stings is provided. Possible reactions to a bee sting and their symptoms, components of bee venom, diagnosis of hypersensitivity, and bee sting prevention and treatment are topics of discussion. The possibility of bee stings occurring during field trips and the required precautions are discussed. (KR)

  5. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  6. Bee-Wild about Pollinators!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bonnie; Kil, Jenny; Evans, Elaine; Koomen, Michele Hollingsworth

    2014-01-01

    With their sunny stripes and fuzzy bodies, bees are beloved--but unfortunately, they are in trouble. Bee decline, of both wild bees as well as managed bees like honey bees, has been in the news for the last several years. Habitat loss, diseases, pests, and pesticides have made it difficult for bees to survive in many parts of our world (Walsh…

  7. Generalist Bee Species on Brazilian Bee-Plant Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid de Matos Peixoto Kleinert; Tereza Cristina Giannini

    2012-01-01

    Determining bee and plant interactions has an important role on understanding general biology of bee species as well as the potential pollinating relationship between them. Bee surveys have been conducted in Brazil since the end of the 1960s. Most of them applied standardized methods and had identified the plant species where the bees were collected. To analyze the most generalist bees on Brazilian surveys, we built a matrix of bee-plant interactions. We estimated the most generalist bees det...

  8. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; De Smet, Lina; Meeus, Ivan; Smagghe, Guy; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2014-10-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our results suggest that bee hives represent a putative source of pathogens for other pollinators. Similarly, solitary bees may act as a reservoir of honey bee pathogens. PMID:25196470

  9. One World: Service Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomason, Rhonda

    2009-01-01

    Bees are a vital part of the ecology. People of conscience are a vital part of society. In Nina Frenkel's "One World" poster, the bee is also a metaphor for the role of the individual in a diverse society. This article presents a lesson that uses Frenkel's poster to help early-grades students connect these ideas and explore both the importance of…

  10. Wild bees and pollination

    OpenAIRE

    Pfiffner, Lukas; Müller, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The fact sheet summarizes the current state of academic knowledge on the importance of wild bees in the pollination of wild and cultivated plants. It mentions the known causes for the decline of wild bees, describes the effects of organic farming and lists necessary measures for promotion and protection of the pollinators.

  11. Widespread occurrence of honey bee pathogens in solitary bees

    OpenAIRE

    Ravoet, J.; De Smet, L.; Meeus, I; Smagghe, G.; Wenseleers, Tom; de Graaf, D C

    2014-01-01

    Solitary bees and honey bees from a neighbouring apiary were screened for a broad set of putative pathogens including protists, fungi, spiroplasmas and viruses. Most sampled bees appeared to be infected with multiple parasites. Interestingly, viruses exclusively known from honey bees such as Apis mellifera Filamentous Virus and Varroa destructor Macula-like Virus were also discovered in solitary bees. A microsporidium found in Andrena vaga showed most resemblance to Nosema thomsoni. Our resul...

  12. [Poisoning by bee sting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roodt, Adolfo R; Salomón, Oscar D; Orduna, Tomás A; Robles Ortiz, Luis E; Paniagua Solís, Jorge F; Alagón Cano, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Among the human pathologies produced by venomous animals, bee stings constitute the largest number of accidents in several countries, exceeding the mortality rate caused by other venomous animals such as snakes, spiders or scorpions. The clinical picture after the bee sting may include anaphylaxis or poisoning. The latter is produced by massive attacks and is a serious problem that may put the patient's life at risk. People that are poisoned display hemolysis, rhabdomiolysis and acute renal failure that together with other systemic failures can bring about death. The knowledge of the physiopathological mechanisms involved in the massive attack of bees is crucial for health care professionals as to date we do not have antivenoms with proven clinical efficacy. In this review we include the bee's biological aspects, venom composition and its relation with the occurrence and severity of accidents as well as epidemiological data that can be useful for this type of accidents. PMID:16025987

  13. Wild bees and agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Morandin, Lora

    2005-01-01

    Research in agriculture often focuses on development of new technologies rather than on potential environmental impacts. Pollinators, primarily bees, are essential to agriculture, providing significant yield benefit in over 66% of crop species. Currently, dramatic losses of managed honey bee pollinators in North America along with suspected world-wide losses of wild pollinators are focusing research attention on an impending but still poorly documented pollination crisis. Essential questions ...

  14. Magnetic effect on dancing bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M.; Martin, H.

    1972-01-01

    Bee sensitivity to the earth's magnetic field is studied. Data cover sensitivity range and the use of magnetoreception for orientation purposes. Experimental results indicate bee orientation is aided by gravity fields when the magnetic field is compensated.

  15. Insemination of Honey Bee Queens

    OpenAIRE

    SOJKOVÁ, Lada

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental insemination honey bee queen is in Czech Republic only possibility, how make controlled mating bees. Main significance lies in expanding desirable feature in the bee colony. Instrumental inseminations are thus obtained the required feature, that are the mildness of bees, sitting on the comb, or resistance to disease. Insemination must precede controlled breeding drones and controlled breeding queens. That drones were sexually mature at the time of insemination must be breeding dr...

  16. Sandhills native bee survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report includes the results of a bee survey conducted in Sandhills region of north and south Carolina on May 18th and 19th 2006. Part of the survey was...

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  18. Bumblebees and solitary bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I

    quadrupling the organic arable area. Instead, bumblebees responded to perennial flower resources in the road verge/grassy field border and semi-natural habitats in the landscape. Organically managed arable fields with mostly annual non-crop flowering plants in intensively cultivated landscapes probably played......Summary: The effects of farming system, flower resources and semi-natural habitats on bumblebees and solitary bees in intensively cultivated landscapes in Denmark were investigated in two sets of studies, in 2011 and 2012. The pan trap colour preferences of bumblebees and solitary bees were also...... of dicotyledonous herbs in the flowering stage (quantity) and density of plants containing combined high pollen and nectar amounts (quality). Potential flower and nesting resources (referred to as semi-natural habitats) in the surrounding landscape were assessed using up-to-date, spatially precise...

  19. Improvised Scout Bee Movements in Artificial Bee Colony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Kumar Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the basic Artificial Bee Colony (ABC algorithm, if the fitness value associated with a food source is not improved for a certain number of specified trials then the corresponding bee becomes a scout to which a random value is assigned for finding the new food source. Basically, it is a mechanism of pulling out the candidate solution which may be entrapped in some local optimizer due to which its value is not improving. In the present study, we propose two new mechanisms for the movements of scout bees. In the first method, the scout bee follows a non-linear interpolated path while in the second one, scout bee follows Gaussian movement. Numerical results and statistical analysis of benchmark unconstrained, constrained and real life engineering design problems indicate that the proposed modifications enhance the performance of ABC.

  20. Bee-inspired protocol engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Muddassar

    2008-01-01

    Honey bee colonies demonstrate robust adaptive efficient agent-based communications and task allocations without centralized controls - desirable features in network design. This book introduces a multi path routing algorithm for packet-switched telecommunication networks based on techniques observed in bee colonies.

  1. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  2. Native bees and plant pollination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2004-01-01

    Bees are important pollinators, but evidence suggests that numbers of some species are declining. Decreases have been documented in the honey bee, Apis mellifera (which was introduced to North America), but there are no monitoring programs for the vast majority of native species, so we cannot be sure about the extent of this problem. Recent efforts to develop standardized protocols for bee sampling will help us collect the data needed to assess trends in bee populations. Unfortunately, diversity of bee life cycles and phenologies, and the large number of rare species, make it difficult to assess trends in bee faunas. Changes in bee populations can affect plant reproduction, which can influence plant population density and cover, thus potentially modifying horizontal and vertical structure of a community, microclimate near the ground, patterns of nitrogen deposition, etc. These potential effects of changes in pollination patterns have not been assessed in natural communities. Effects of management actions on bees and other pollinators should be considered in conservation planning.

  3. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must...

  4. Red mason bees cannot compete with honey bees for floral resources in a cage experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Hudewenz, Anika; Klein, Alexandra‐Maria

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intensive beekeeping to mitigate crop pollination deficits and habitat loss may cause interspecific competition between bees. Studies show negative correlations between flower visitation of honey bees (Apis mellifera) and wild bees, but effects on the reproduction of wild bees were not proven. Likely reasons are that honey bees can hardly be excluded from controls and wild bee nests are generally difficult to detect in field experiments. The goal of this study was to investigate whet...

  5. ZigBee-2007 Security Essentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising standard for wireless networks due to its low resource requirements. As in other wireless network standards, security is an important issue and each new version of the ZigBee Specification enhances the level of the ZigBee security. In this paper, we present the...... security essentials of the latest ZigBee Specification, ZigBee-2007. We explain the key concepts, protocols, and computations. In addition, we formulate the protocols using standard protocol narrations. Finally, we identify the key challenges to be considered for consolidating ZigBee....

  6. Cocaine Tolerance in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Eirik Søvik; Jennifer L. Cornish; Barron, Andrew B.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor...

  7. Cocaine tolerance in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik Søvik

    Full Text Available Increasingly invertebrates are being used to investigate the molecular and cellular effects of drugs of abuse to explore basic mechanisms of addiction. However, in mammals the principle factors contributing to addiction are long-term adaptive responses to repeated drug use. Here we examined whether adaptive responses to cocaine are also seen in invertebrates using the honey bee model system. Repeated topical treatment with a low dose of cocaine rendered bees resistant to the deleterious motor effects of a higher cocaine dose, indicating the development of physiological tolerance to cocaine in bees. Cocaine inhibits biogenic amine reuptake transporters, but neither acute nor repeated cocaine treatments caused measurable changes in levels of biogenic amines measured in whole bee brains. Our data show clear short and long-term behavioural responses of bees to cocaine administration, but caution that, despite the small size of the bee brain, measures of biogenic amines conducted at the whole-brain level may not reveal neurochemical effects of the drug.

  8. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT...

  9. Proceedings "… Towards Resilient Honey Bees …"

    OpenAIRE

    Dooremalen, van, C.; Zweep, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Roadmap is a co-creation by Bees@wur and the Dutch government, and the (inter)national researchers participating in the workshop Resilient Honey bees 23-24 November 2015, Castle Hoekelum, Bennekom, The Netherlands

  10. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuce, Baris; Packianather, Michael S; Mastrocinque, Ernesto; Pham, Duc Truong; Lambiase, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem. PMID:26462528

  11. Honey Bees Inspired Optimization Method: The Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Mastrocinque

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimization algorithms are search methods where the goal is to find an optimal solution to a problem, in order to satisfy one or more objective functions, possibly subject to a set of constraints. Studies of social animals and social insects have resulted in a number of computational models of swarm intelligence. Within these swarms their collective behavior is usually very complex. The collective behavior of a swarm of social organisms emerges from the behaviors of the individuals of that swarm. Researchers have developed computational optimization methods based on biology such as Genetic Algorithms, Particle Swarm Optimization, and Ant Colony. The aim of this paper is to describe an optimization algorithm called the Bees Algorithm, inspired from the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, to find the optimal solution. The algorithm performs both an exploitative neighborhood search combined with random explorative search. In this paper, after an explanation of the natural foraging behavior of honey bees, the basic Bees Algorithm and its improved versions are described and are implemented in order to optimize several benchmark functions, and the results are compared with those obtained with different optimization algorithms. The results show that the Bees Algorithm offering some advantage over other optimization methods according to the nature of the problem.

  12. One moment in time : Gene expression analysis of honey bees; nurse bees v.s. foragers

    OpenAIRE

    Rimestad, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees live in complex societies based on a division of labour. The honey bee workers specialise in different tasks throughout their lives, starting off as nurse bees and ending as foragers. The nurse bees and foragers display interesting phenotypic differences that do not have its origins in differences at genotype level, but in differences in gene expression. This thesis presents the results from an expression analysis done on honey bee workers comparing the expression profiles of nu...

  13. Honey bees and bumble bees respond differently to inter- and intra-specific encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Shelley; Cajamarca, Peter; Tarpy, David; Burrack, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Multiple bee species may forage simultaneously at a common resource. Physical encounters among these bees may modify their subsequent foraging behavior and shape pollinator distribution and resource utilization in a plant community. We observed physical encounters between honey bees, Apis mellifera, and bumble bees, Bombus impatiens, visiting artificial plants in a controlled foraging arena. Both species were more likely to leave the plant following an encounter with another bee, but differed...

  14. Helping agricultural pollination & bees in farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Nicholas James

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bees are vital to crop pollination. However, modern agricultural practices are occupying an increasing share of the world's land area and have been heavily linked to declining bee populations. This thesis explores: i) the foraging behaviour of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and its influence on crop pollination, and ii) the impact of current farmland management on bees and other flower visiting insects. Chapter 3 demonstrates, via waggle dance decoding, tha...

  15. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees are one of the most important insects useful to human beings. They provide us with several biological products such as honey and wax, but more importantly carries out the invaluable laborious work of pollination. The honey bee industry in Europe and elsewhere has been plagued by recently introduced pests such as varroa mites and subsequent rise of viruses which has resulted in widespread decline of bee population. Of the numerous pathogens of honey bees that are being studied, viru...

  16. Honey bee genotypes and the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meixner, Marina D; Büchler, Ralph; Costa, Cecilia;

    2014-01-01

    Although knowledge about honey bee geographic and genetic diversity has increased tremendously in recent decades, the adaptation of honey bees to their local environment has not been well studied. The current demand for high economic performance of bee colonies with desirable behavioural...

  17. Gardening for Bees in Hampton Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Norma; Johnson, Latarsha

    2011-01-01

    Lists plants that will grow well in the Hampton Roads area of Virginia, and will serve as good nectar sources for bees. Also lists a few garden and landscaping plants that bees won't visit for nectar, or could be poisonous to bees.

  18. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies...

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Sonoran Desert Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee products have been consumed by mankind since antiquity and their health benefits are becoming more apparent. Bee pollen (pollen collected by honey bees) was collected in the high intensity ultraviolet (UV) Sonoran desert and was analyzed by the anti-2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and...

  20. The Antiquity and Evolutionary History of Social Behavior in Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Cardinal, Sophie; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2011-01-01

    A long-standing controversy in bee social evolution concerns whether highly eusocial behavior has evolved once or twice within the corbiculate Apidae. Corbiculate bees include the highly eusocial honey bees and stingless bees, the primitively eusocial bumble bees, and the predominantly solitary or communal orchid bees. Here we use a model-based approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of eusociality and date the antiquity of eusocial behavior in apid bees, using a recent molecular phy...

  1. Improvised Scout Bee Movements in Artificial Bee Colony

    OpenAIRE

    Tarun Kumar Sharma; Millie Pant

    2014-01-01

    In the basic Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, if the fitness value associated with a food source is not improved for a certain number of specified trials then the corresponding bee becomes a scout to which a random value is assigned for finding the new food source. Basically, it is a mechanism of pulling out the candidate solution which may be entrapped in some local optimizer due to which its value is not improving. In the present study, we propose two new mechanisms for the movements ...

  2. The plight of the bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, M.; Mader, E.; Vaughan, M.; Euliss, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    The loss of biodiversity is a trend that is garnering much concern. As organisms have evolved mutualistic and synergistic relationships, the loss of one or a few species can have a much wider environmental impact. Since much pollination is facilitated by bees, the reported colony collapse disorder has many worried of widespread agricultural fallout and thus deleterious impact on human foodstocks. In this Feature, Spivak et al. review what is known of the present state of bee populations and provide information on how to mitigate and reverse the trend. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  3. From silkworms to bees: Diseases of beneficial insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The diseases of the silkworm (Bombyx mori) and managed bees, including the honey bee (Apis mellifera), bumbles bees (Bombus spp.), the alfalfa leafcutting bee (Megachile rotundata), and mason bees (Osmia spp.) are reviewed, with diagnostic descriptions and a summary of control methods for production...

  4. Chronic bee paralysis virus and Nosema ceranae experimental co-infection of winter honey bee workers (Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. In this study winter worker bees were experimentally infected using three different experiments. Bees were inoculated orally or topically with CBPV to evaluate the l...

  5. Hey! A Bee Stung Me!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding on pollen and honey, wasps eat animal food, other insects, or spiders. They are not fuzzy like bees, ... Wear shoes outdoors. Don't disturb hives or insect nests. Don't wear sweet-smelling perfume, ... food when eating outdoors. Be careful when outside with ...

  6. Sickness Behavior in Honey Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazlauskas, Nadia; Klappenbach, Martín; Depino, Amaicha M.; Locatelli, Fernando F.

    2016-01-01

    During an infection, animals suffer several changes in their normal physiology and behavior which may include lethargy, appetite loss, and reduction in grooming and general movements. This set of alterations is known as sickness behavior and although it has been extensively believed to be orchestrated primarily by the immune system, a relevant role for the central nervous system has also been established. The aim of the present work is to develop a simple animal model to allow studying how the immune and the nervous systems interact coordinately during an infection. We administered a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the thorax of honey bees to mimic a bacterial infection, and then we evaluated a set of stereotyped behaviors of the animals that might be indicative of sickness behavior. First, we show that this immune challenge reduces the locomotor activity of the animals in a narrow time window after LPS injection. Furthermore, bees exhibit a loss of appetite 60 and 90 min after injection, but not 15 h later. We also demonstrate that LPS injection reduces spontaneous antennal movements in harnessed animals, which suggests a reduction in the motivational state of the bees. Finally, we show that the LPS injection diminishes the interaction between animals, a crucial behavior in social insects. To our knowledge these results represent the first systematic description of sickness behavior in honey bees and provide important groundwork for the study of the interaction between the immune and the neural systems in an insect model. PMID:27445851

  7. Autogrooming by resistant honey bees challenged with individual tracheal mites

    OpenAIRE

    Danka, Robert; Villa, José

    2003-01-01

    Autogrooming responses of resistant and susceptible strains of honey bees were measured when bees were challenged by placing adult female tracheal mites on their thoraces. Marked, young adult workers of the two strains of bees were added to colonies in observation hives. We transferred a single, live, adult, female mite onto the mesoscutum of a marked bee, monitored the bee for seven minutes and then removed it and searched for the mite. Greater proportions of resistant bees autogroomed, and ...

  8. Do managed bees drive parasite spread and emergence in wild bees?

    OpenAIRE

    Graystock, Peter; Blane, Edward J; McFrederick, Quinn S.; Goulson, Dave; Hughes, William O. H.

    2015-01-01

    Bees have been managed and utilised for honey production for centuries and, more recently, pollination services. Since the mid 20th Century, the use and production of managed bees has intensified with hundreds of thousands of hives being moved across countries and around the globe on an annual basis. However, the introduction of unnaturally high densities of bees to areas could have adverse effects. Importation and deployment of managed honey bee and bumblebees may be responsible for parasite...

  9. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Honeybee Queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amiri, Esmaeil; Meixner, Marina; Büchler, Ralph;

    2014-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is known as a disease of worker honey bees. To investigate pathogenesis of the CBPV on the queen, the sole reproductive individual in a colony, we conducted experiments regarding the susceptibility of queens to CBPV. Results from susceptibility experiment showed a...... similar disease progress in the queens compared to worker bees after infection. Infected queens exhibit symptoms by Day 6 post infection and virus levels reach 1011 copies per head. In a transmission experiment we showed that social interactions may affect the disease progression. Queens with forced...... contact to symptomatic worker bees acquired an overt infection with up to 1011 virus copies per head in six days. In contrast, queens in contact with symptomatic worker bees, but with a chance to receive food from healthy bees outside the cage appeared healthy. The virus loads did not exceed 107 in the...

  10. Differential sensitivity of honey bees and bumble bees to a dietary insecticide (imidacloprid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, James E; Page, Christopher J; Uygun, Mehmet B; Holmbergh, Marie; Li, Yueru; Wheeler, Jonathan G; Laycock, Ian; Pook, Christopher J; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel; Smirnoff, Nick; Tyler, Charles R

    2012-12-01

    Currently, there is concern about declining bee populations and the sustainability of pollination services. One potential threat to bees is the unintended impact of systemic insecticides, which are ingested by bees in the nectar and pollen from flowers of treated crops. To establish whether imidacloprid, a systemic neonicotinoid and insect neurotoxin, harms individual bees when ingested at environmentally realistic levels, we exposed adult worker bumble bees, Bombus terrestris L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), and honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), to dietary imidacloprid in feeder syrup at dosages between 0.08 and 125μg l(-1). Honey bees showed no response to dietary imidacloprid on any variable that we measured (feeding, locomotion and longevity). In contrast, bumble bees progressively developed over time a dose-dependent reduction in feeding rate with declines of 10-30% in the environmentally relevant range of up to 10μg l(-1), but neither their locomotory activity nor longevity varied with diet. To explain their differential sensitivity, we speculate that honey bees are better pre-adapted than bumble bees to feed on nectars containing synthetic alkaloids, such as imidacloprid, by virtue of their ancestral adaptation to tropical nectars in which natural alkaloids are prevalent. We emphasise that our study does not suggest that honey bee colonies are invulnerable to dietary imidacloprid under field conditions, but our findings do raise new concern about the impact of agricultural neonicotinoids on wild bumble bee populations. PMID:23044068

  11. Host Range Expansion of Honey Bee Black Queen Cell Virus in the Bumble Bee, Bombus huntii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee viruses display a host range that is not restricted to their original host, European honey bees, Apis mellifera. Here we provide the first evidence that Black Queen Cell Virus (BQCV), one of the most prevalent honey bee viruses, can cause an infection in both laboratory-reared and field-co...

  12. Comparative Analyses of Proteome Complement Between Worker Bee Larvae of High Royal Jelly Producing Bees (A. m. ligustica) and Carniolian Bees (A. m. carnica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian; LI Jian-ke

    2009-01-01

    This study is to compare the protein composition of the high royal jelly producing bee (A. m. ligustica) with that of Carniolian bee (A. m. carnica) during their worker larval developmental stage. The experiment was carried out by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that significant higher numbers of total proteins (283) were detected in larvae of high royal jelly producing bees (Jelly bee) than those of Camiolian bees (152) on 2-d-old larvae. Among them, 110 proteins were presented on both strains of bee larvae, whereas 173 proteins were specific to larvae of Jelly bees, and 42 proteins were exclusive to Carniolian larvae. However, on the 4th d, a significant higher number of total proteins (290) were detected in larvae of Jelly bees than those of Camiolian bees (240), 163 proteins resolved to both bee larvae, and 127 proteins were specific to Jelly bees and 77 proteins to Camiolian bees. Until the 6th d, also a significant higher number of total proteins (236) were detected in larvae of Jelly bees than those of Carniolian bees (180), 132 proteins were constantly expressed in two bee larvae, whereas 104 and 48 proteins are unique to Jelly bee and Camiolian bee larvae, respectively. We tentatively concluded that the metabolic rate and gene expression of Jelly bees larvae is higher than those of Carniolian bees based proteins detected as total proteins and proteins specific to each stage of two strains of bee larvae. Proteins constantly expressed on 3 stages of larval development with some significant differences between two bee strains, and proteins unique to each stage expressed differences in term of quality and quantity, indicating that larval development needed house keeping and specific proteins to regulate its growth at different development phage, but the expression mold is different between two strains of larval development.

  13. Pathogen Webs in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Cornman, R Scott; Tarpy, David R.; Chen, Yanping; Jeffreys, Lacey; Lopez, Dawn; Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Jay D. Evans

    2012-01-01

    Recent losses in honey bee colonies are unusual in their severity, geographical distribution, and, in some cases, failure to present recognized characteristics of known disease. Domesticated honey bees face numerous pests and pathogens, tempting hypotheses that colony collapses arise from exposure to new or resurgent pathogens. Here we explore the incidence and abundance of currently known honey bee pathogens in colonies suffering from Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), otherwise weak colonies, ...

  14. Bee sting after seizure and ischemic attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aynur Yurtseven

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Insect bites, bee stings are the most frequently encountered. Often seen after bee stings usually only local allergic reactions. Sometimes with very serious clinical condition may also be confronted. Of this rare clinical findings; polyneuritis, parkinsonism, encephalitis, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, myocardial infarction, pulmonary edema, hemorrhage, hemolytic anemia and renal disease has. Here a rare convulsions after a bee sting is presented.

  15. Bee Queen Breeding Methods - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Patruica

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The biological potential of a bee family is mainly generated by the biological value of the queen. Whether we grow queens widely or just for our own apiaries, we must consider the acquisition of high-quality biological material, and also the creation of optimal feeding and caring conditions, in order to obtain high genetic value queens. Queen breeding technology starts with the setting of hoeing families, nurse families, drone-breeding families – necessary for the pairing of young queens, and also of the families which will provide the bees used to populate the nuclei where the next queens will hatch. The complex of requirements for the breeding of good, high-production queens is sometimes hard to met, under the application of artificial methods. The selection of breeding method must rely on all these requirements and on the beekeeper’s level of training.

  16. Collective thermoregulation in bee clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Ocko, Samuel A; Mahadevan, L.

    2014-01-01

    Swarming is an essential part of honeybee behaviour, wherein thousands of bees cling onto each other to form a dense cluster that may be exposed to the environment for several days. This cluster has the ability to maintain its core temperature actively without a central controller, and raises the question of how this is achieved. We suggest that the swarm cluster is akin to an active porous structure whose functional requirement is to adjust to outside conditions by varying its porosity to co...

  17. To Bee or Not to Be : Critical Floral Resources of Wild-Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, the development of strategies to prevent or slow the loss of biodiversity has become an important task for ecologists. In most terrestrial ecosystems wild-bees play a key role as pollinators of herbs, shrubs and trees. The scope of this thesis was to study 1) pollinator effectiveness of specialist bees vs. generalist flower-visitors, 2) critical floral resources for wild-bees, and 3) methods to estimate the size of wild-bee populations. The wild-bee species Andrena hattorfi...

  18. Bumble bee fauna of Palouse Prairie: survey of native bee pollinators in a fragmented ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, T D; Looney, C; Strange, J P; Bosque-Pérez, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bumble bees, Bombus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae:), are dominant pollinators in the northern hemisphere, providing important pollination services for commercial crops and innumerable wild plants. Nationwide declines in several bumble bee species and habitat losses in multiple ecosystems have raised concerns about conservation of this important group. In many regions, such as the Palouse Prairie, relatively little is known about bumble bee communities, despite their critical ecosystem functions. Pitfall trap surveys for ground beetles in Palouse prairie remnants conducted in 2002-2003 contained considerable by-catch of bumble bees. The effects of landscape context, remnant features, year, and season on bumble bee community composition were examined. Additionally, bees captured in 2002-2003 were compared with historic records for the region to assess changes in the presence of individual species. Ten species of bumble bee were captured, representing the majority of the species historically known from the region. Few detectable differences in bumble bee abundances were found among remnants. Community composition differed appreciably, however, based on season, landscape context, and elevation, resulting in different bee assemblages between western, low-lying remnants and eastern, higherelevation remnants. The results suggest that conservation of the still species-rich bumble bee fauna should take into account variability among prairie remnants, and further work is required to adequately explain bumble bee habitat associations on the Palouse. PMID:23902138

  19. Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Sébastien C.; Tiedeken, Erin Jo; Simcock, Kerry L.; Derveau, Sophie; Mitchell, Jessica; Softley, Samantha; Stout, Jane C.; Wright, Geraldine A.

    2015-05-01

    The impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on insect pollinators is highly controversial. Sublethal concentrations alter the behaviour of social bees and reduce survival of entire colonies. However, critics argue that the reported negative effects only arise from neonicotinoid concentrations that are greater than those found in the nectar and pollen of pesticide-treated plants. Furthermore, it has been suggested that bees could choose to forage on other available flowers and hence avoid or dilute exposure. Here, using a two-choice feeding assay, we show that the honeybee, Apis mellifera, and the buff-tailed bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, do not avoid nectar-relevant concentrations of three of the most commonly used neonicotinoids, imidacloprid (IMD), thiamethoxam (TMX), and clothianidin (CLO), in food. Moreover, bees of both species prefer to eat more of sucrose solutions laced with IMD or TMX than sucrose alone. Stimulation with IMD, TMX and CLO neither elicited spiking responses from gustatory neurons in the bees' mouthparts, nor inhibited the responses of sucrose-sensitive neurons. Our data indicate that bees cannot taste neonicotinoids and are not repelled by them. Instead, bees preferred solutions containing IMD or TMX, even though the consumption of these pesticides caused them to eat less food overall. This work shows that bees cannot control their exposure to neonicotinoids in food and implies that treating flowering crops with IMD and TMX presents a sizeable hazard to foraging bees.

  20. Biological effects of ultraviolet irradiation on bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of natural solar and artificial ultraviolet irradiation on developing bees was studied. Lethal exposures to irradiation at different stages of development were determined. The influence of irradiation on the variability of the morphometric features of bees was revealed. 5 refs., 1 fig

  1. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-15

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  2. The Plight of the Honey Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockridge, Emma

    2010-01-01

    The decline of colonies of honey bees across the world is threatening local plant biodiversity and human food supplies. Neonicotinoid pesticides have been implicated as a major cause of the problem and are banned or suspended in several countries. Other factors could also be lowering the resistance of bees to opportunist infections by, for…

  3. Allee effects and colony collapse disorder in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose a mathematical model to quantify the hypothesis that a major ultimate cause of Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) in honey bees is the presence of an Allee effect in the growth dynamics of honey bee colonies. In the model, both recruitment of adult bees as well as mortality of adult bees have...

  4. Assessing grooming behavior of Russian honey bees toward Varroa destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The grooming behavior of Russian bees was compared to Italian bees. Overall, Russian bees had significantly lower numbers of mites than the Italian bees with a mean of 1,937 ± 366 and 5,088 ± 733 mites, respectively. This low mite population in the Russian colonies was probably due to the increased ...

  5. Optimizing ZigBee Security using Stochastic Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming;

    ZigBee is a fairly new but promising wireless sensor network standard that offers the advantages of simple and low resource communication. Nevertheless, security is of great concern to ZigBee, and enhancements are prescribed in the latest ZigBee specication: ZigBee-2007. In this technical report...

  6. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila G. Dantas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field, catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze, depression (forced swimming test and apomorphine-induced stereotypy. Haloperidol, imipramine and diazepam were administered alone (positive control or as a pre-treatment (haloperidol.The bee venom reduced motor activity and promoted cataleptic effect, in a similar manner to haloperidol.These effects were decreased by the pretreatment with haloperidol. Both melittin and bee venom decreased the apomorphine-induced stereotypies. The data indicated the antipsychotic activity of bee venom and melittin in a murine model.

  7. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozkar, Cansu Ö; Kence, Meral; Kence, Aykut; Huang, Qiang; Evans, Jay D

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World's most important centers of apiculture, harboring five subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library) remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. Sixty megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp.), neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae), Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus), Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly). We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees. PMID:25852743

  8. Metatranscriptomic analyses of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansu Ozge Tozkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees face numerous biotic threats from viruses to bacteria, fungi, protists, and mites. Here we describe a thorough analysis of microbes harbored by worker honey bees collected from field colonies in geographically distinct regions of Turkey. Turkey is one of the World’s most important centers of apiculture, harboring 5 subspecies of Apis mellifera L., approximately 20% of the honey bee subspecies in the world. We use deep ILLUMINA-based RNA sequencing to capture RNA species for the honey bee and a sampling of all non-endogenous species carried by bees. After trimming and mapping these reads to the honey bee genome, approximately 10% of the sequences (9-10 million reads per library remained. These were then mapped to a curated set of public sequences containing ca. 60 megabase-pairs of sequence representing known microbial species associated with honey bees. Levels of key honey bee pathogens were confirmed using quantitative PCR screens. We contrast microbial matches across different sites in Turkey, showing new country recordings of Lake Sinai virus, two Spiroplasma bacterium species, symbionts Candidatus Schmidhempelia bombi, Frischella perrara, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, Lactobacillus spp., neogregarines, and a trypanosome species. By using metagenomic analysis, this study also reveals deep molecular evidence for the presence of bacterial pathogens (Melissococcus plutonius, Paenibacillus larvae, Varroa destructor-1 virus, Sacbrood virus, Apis filamentous virus and fungi. Despite this effort we did not detect KBV, SBPV, Tobacco ringspot virus, VdMLV (Varroa Macula like virus, Acarapis spp., Tropilaeleps spp. and Apocephalus (phorid fly. We discuss possible impacts of management practices and honey bee subspecies on microbial retinues. The described workflow and curated microbial database will be generally useful for microbial surveys of healthy and declining honey bees.

  9. The effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte, localized fat accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ki Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom to the primary cultured preadipocyte, adipocytes, and localized fat tissue. Methods : Decreased preadipocyte proliferation and decreased lipogenesis are mechanisms to reduce obesity. So, preadipocytes and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures using Sprague-Dawley Rats and treated with 0.01-1mg/㎖ Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom. And porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom according to the dosage dependent variation are investigated the histologic changes after injection of these Pharmacopuncture. Result : Following results were obtained from the preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte and histologic investigation of fat tissue. 1. Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation depend on concentration. 2. Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH significantly. 3. Bee Venom was not showed the effect of lipolysis, but Sweet Bee Venom was increased in low dosage and decreased in high dosage. 4. Investigated the histologic changes in porcine fat tissue after treated Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom, we knew that these Pharmacopuncture was activated nonspecific lysis of cell membranes depend on concentration. Conclusion : These results suggest that Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom efficiently induces decreased proliferation of preadipocyte and lipolysis in adipose tissue

  10. Pulsed mass recruitment by a stingless bee, Trigona hyalinata.

    OpenAIRE

    Nieh, James C.; Contrera, Felipe A L; Nogueira-Neto, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    Research on bee communication has focused on the ability of the highly social bees, stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) and honeybees (Apidae, Apini), to communicate food location to nest-mates. Honeybees can communicate food location through the famous waggle dance. Stingless bees are closely related to honeybees and communicate food location through a variety of different mechanisms, many of which are poorly understood. We show that a stingless bee, Trigona hyalinata, uses a pu...

  11. Management of corneal bee sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmjoo H

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Razmjoo1,2, Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1,2,4, Peyman Roomizadeh1,3, Zahra Mohammadi1,2, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,41Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS; 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, IUMS; 3Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, IUMS; 4Isfahan Ophthalmology Research Center (IORC, Feiz Hospital, IUMS, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Corneal bee sting is an uncommon environmental eye injury that can result in various ocular complications with an etiology of penetrating, immunologic, and toxic effects of the stinger and its injected venom. In this study we present our experience in the management of a middle-aged male with a right-sided deep corneal bee sting. On arrival, the patient was complaining of severe pain, blurry vision with acuity of 160/200, and tearing, which he had experienced soon after the injury. Firstly, we administered conventional drugs for eye injuries, including topical antibiotic, corticosteroid, and cycloplegic agents. After 2 days, corneal stromal infiltration and edema developed around the site of the sting, and visual acuity decreased to 100/200. These conditions led us to remove the stinger surgically. Within 25 days of follow-up, the corneal infiltration decreased gradually, and visual acuity improved to 180/200. We suggest a two-stage management approach for cases of corneal sting. For the first stage, if the stinger is readily accessible or primary dramatic reactions, including infiltration, especially on the visual axis, exist, manual or surgical removal would be indicated. Otherwise, we recommend conventional treatments for eye injuries. Given this situation, patients should be closely monitored for detection of any worsening. If the condition does not resolve or even deteriorates, for the second stage, surgical removal of the stinger under local or generalized anesthesia is indicated.Keywords: bee sting, stinger, cornea, removal, management, surgery

  12. Enhanced production of parthenocarpic cucumbers pollinated with stingless bees and Africanized honey bees in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Braga Malheiros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crops have different levels of dependence on pollinators; this holds true even for cultivars of the same species, as in the case of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. The aim of this research was to assess the attractiveness of flowers of three Japanese parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars and evaluate the importance of Africanized bees (Apis mellifera, and the Brazilian native stingless bees, Jataí (Tetragonisca angustula and Iraí (Nannotrigona testaceicornis on fruit production. Several parameters, including frequency of bee visits to flowers as well as duration of nectar collection and fruit set were examined; additionally, fruit weight, length and diameter were evaluated. Three greenhouses located in Ribeirão Preto, SP, were used for planting three cucumber cultivars (Hokushin, Yoshinari and Soudai. The female flowers were more attractive than male flowers; however, Jataí bees were not observed visiting the flowers. The Africanized and the Iraí bees collected only nectar, with a visitation peak between 10 and 12h. Visits to female flowers had a longer duration than visits to male flower visits in all three cultivars. Africanized bee colonies declined due to loss of bees while in the greenhouse; the native stingless bee colonies did not suffer these losses. When bees were excluded, fruit set was 78%; however, when bees had access to the flowers, fruit set was significantly (19.2% higher. Fruit size and weight did not differ with and without bees. This demonstrates that even in parthenocarpic cucumber cultivars, which do not require pollination in order to from fruits, fruit production is significantly increased by bee pollination.

  13. Synergistic effects of non-Apis bees and honey bees for pollination services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal; Kremen, Claire; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2013-03-01

    In diverse pollinator communities, interspecific interactions may modify the behaviour and increase the pollination effectiveness of individual species. Because agricultural production reliant on pollination is growing, improving pollination effectiveness could increase crop yield without any increase in agricultural intensity or area. In California almond, a crop highly dependent on honey bee pollination, we explored the foraging behaviour and pollination effectiveness of honey bees in orchards with simple (honey bee only) and diverse (non-Apis bees present) bee communities. In orchards with non-Apis bees, the foraging behaviour of honey bees changed and the pollination effectiveness of a single honey bee visit was greater than in orchards where non-Apis bees were absent. This change translated to a greater proportion of fruit set in these orchards. Our field experiments show that increased pollinator diversity can synergistically increase pollination service, through species interactions that alter the behaviour and resulting functional quality of a dominant pollinator species. These results of functional synergy between species were supported by an additional controlled cage experiment with Osmia lignaria and Apis mellifera. Our findings highlight a largely unexplored facilitative component of the benefit of biodiversity to ecosystem services, and represent a way to improve pollinator-dependent crop yields in a sustainable manner. PMID:23303545

  14. Why are African honey bees and not European bees invasive? Pollen diet diversity in community experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Rogel Villanueva-G.,; Roubik, David

    2004-01-01

    We studied resource use and competition by varieties of a honey bee, Apis mellifera, through re-introducing European A. m. ligustica in experimental apiaries in a habitat 'saturated' by African (or hybrid African and European) honey bees that naturally colonized forest in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Over 171 pollen species comprised honey bee diets. The Morisita-Horn similarity index (highest similarity = 1.0) between the two honey bee races was 0.76 for pollen use and, from the average ...

  15. Seed coating with a neonicotinoid insecticide negatively affects wild bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundlöf, Maj; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Fries, Ingemar; Hederström, Veronica; Herbertsson, Lina; Jonsson, Ove; Klatt, Björn K; Pedersen, Thorsten R; Yourstone, Johanna; Smith, Henrik G

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has therefore introduced a moratorium on three neonicotinoids as seed coatings in flowering crops that attract bees. The moratorium has been criticized for being based on weak evidence, particularly because effects have mostly been measured on bees that have been artificially fed neonicotinoids. Thus, the key question is how neonicotinoids influence bees, and wild bees in particular, in real-world agricultural landscapes. Here we show that a commonly used insecticide seed coating in a flowering crop can have serious consequences for wild bees. In a study with replicated and matched landscapes, we found that seed coating with Elado, an insecticide containing a combination of the neonicotinoid clothianidin and the non-systemic pyrethroid β-cyfluthrin, applied to oilseed rape seeds, reduced wild bee density, solitary bee nesting, and bumblebee colony growth and reproduction under field conditions. Hence, such insecticidal use can pose a substantial risk to wild bees in agricultural landscapes, and the contribution of pesticides to the global decline of wild bees may have been underestimated. The lack of a significant response in honeybee colonies suggests that reported pesticide effects on honeybees cannot always be extrapolated to wild bees. PMID:25901681

  16. ZigBee : A Promising Wireless Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Kaur Sahota

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high cost of laying the wired networks andincreasing demand for mobility, the wireless network has gainedpopularity in recent times in residential, commercial andindustrial applications. Several wireless technologies haveemerged ranging from short, medium and long distances.Presently, Bluetooth, Infrared and Wireless Local Area Network(WLAN are some of the most widely used wirelesscommunication technologies. These technologies had somelimitations like short battery life, high power dissipation, highdata rate, complex, etc. ZigBee emerges as a powerful wirelessnetwork technology which overcomes these shortcomings ofother wireless technologies. The paper reviews different aspectsof ZigBee network: ZigBee architecture, Devices, RoutingProtocol, Forming and Joining a ZigBee Network.

  17. Gut microbial communities of social bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Waldan K; Moran, Nancy A

    2016-06-01

    The gut microbiota can have profound effects on hosts, but the study of these relationships in humans is challenging. The specialized gut microbial community of honey bees is similar to the mammalian microbiota, as both are mostly composed of host-adapted, facultatively anaerobic and microaerophilic bacteria. However, the microbial community of the bee gut is far simpler than the mammalian microbiota, being dominated by only nine bacterial species clusters that are specific to bees and that are transmitted through social interactions between individuals. Recent developments, which include the discovery of extensive strain-level variation, evidence of protective and nutritional functions, and reports of eco-physiological or disease-associated perturbations to the microbial community, have drawn attention to the role of the microbiota in bee health and its potential as a model for studying the ecology and evolution of gut symbionts. PMID:27140688

  18. Field-Level Sublethal Effects of Approved Bee Hive Chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jennifer A.; Hood, W. Michael; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Delaplane, Keith S.

    2013-01-01

    In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate) and Check Mite+ (coumaphos) and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals. PMID:24204638

  19. Field-level sublethal effects of approved bee hive chemicals on Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Berry

    Full Text Available In a study replicated across two states and two years, we tested the sublethal effects on honey bees of the miticides Apistan (tau fluvalinate and Check Mite+ (coumaphos and the wood preservative copper naphthenate applied at label rates in field conditions. A continuous covariate, a colony Varroa mite index, helped us disambiguate the effects of the chemicals on bees while adjusting for a presumed benefit of controlling mites. Mite levels in colonies treated with Apistan or Check Mite+ were not different from levels in non-treated controls. Experimental chemicals significantly decreased 3-day brood survivorship and increased construction of queen supercedure cells compared to non-treated controls. Bees exposed to Check Mite+ as immatures had higher legacy mortality as adults relative to non-treated controls, whereas bees exposed to Apistan had improved legacy mortality relative to non-treated controls. Relative to non-treated controls, Check Mite+ increased adult emergence weight. Although there was a treatment effect on a test of associative learning, it was not possible to statistically separate the treatment means, but bees treated with Apistan performed comparatively well. And finally, there were no detected effects of bee hive chemical on colony bee population, amount of brood, amount of honey, foraging rate, time required for marked released bees to return to their nest, percentage of released bees that return to the nest, and colony Nosema spore loads. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine sublethal effects of bee hive chemicals applied at label rates under field conditions while disambiguating the results from mite control benefits realized from the chemicals. Given the poor performance of the miticides at reducing mites and their inconsistent effects on the host, these results defend the use of bee health management practices that minimize use of exotic hive chemicals.

  20. Experimental Study on the comparison of antibacterial and antioxidant effects between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong chul An

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to compare antibacterial activities and free radical scavenging activity between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom in which the allergy-causing enzyme is removed. Methods : To evaluate antibacterial activities of the test samples, gram negative E. coli and gram positive St. aureus were compared using the paper disc method. For comparison of the antioxidant effects, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS assay were conducted. Results : 1. Antibacterial activity against gram negative E. coli was greater in the Sweet Bee Venom group than the Bee Venom group. 2. Antibacterial activity against gram positive St. aureus was similar between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom groups. 3. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of the Bee Venom group showed 2.8 times stronger than that of the Sweet Bee Venom group. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation of the Bee Venom group showed 782 times greater than that of the Sweet Bee Venom group. Conclusions : The Bee Venom group showed outstanding antibacterial activity against gram positive St. aureus, and allergen-removed Sweet Bee Venom group showed outstanding antibacterial activity against both gram negative E. coli and gram positive St. aureus. For antioxidant effects, the Bee Venom was superior over the Sweet Bee Venom and the superiority was far more apparent for lipid peroxidation.

  1. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    OpenAIRE

    N. Lomova; S. Narizhnyi; O. Snizhko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studi...

  2. Mass envenomations by honey bees and wasps.

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter, R S; Visscher, P.K.; Camazine, S

    1999-01-01

    Stinging events involving honey bees and wasps are rare; most deaths or clinically important incidents involve very few stings (< 10) and anaphylactic shock. However, mass stinging events can prove life-threatening via the toxic action of the venom when injected in large amounts. With the advent of the Africanized honey bee in the southwestern United States and its potential for further spread, mass envenomation incidents will increase. Here we review the literature on mass stinging events in...

  3. Octopamine modulates honey bee dance behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Andrew B.; Maleszka, Ryszard; Robert K. Vander Meer; Robinson, Gene E.

    2007-01-01

    Honey bees communicate the location and desirability of valuable forage sites to their nestmates through an elaborate, symbolic “dance language.” The dance language is a uniquely complex communication system in invertebrates, and the neural mechanisms that generate dances are largely unknown. Here we show that treatments with controlled doses of the biogenic amine neuromodulator octopamine selectively increased the reporting of resource value in dances by forager bees. Oral and topical octopa...

  4. Large Carpenter Bees as Agricultural Pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    Tamar Keasar

    2010-01-01

    Large carpenter bees (genus Xylocopa) are wood-nesting generalist pollinators of broad geographical distribution that exhibit varying levels of sociality. Their foraging is characterized by a wide range of food plants, long season of activity, tolerance of high temperatures, and activity under low illumination levels. These traits make them attractive candidates for agricultural pollination in hot climates, particularly in greenhouses, and of night-blooming crops. Carpenter bees have demonstr...

  5. Repellent foraging scent recognition across bee families

    OpenAIRE

    Gawleta, Nadine; Zimmermann, Yvonne; Eltz, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Honeybees and bumblebees avoid probing flowers that have been recently depleted by conspecifics, presumably repelled by odours deposited by the previous visitor (foraging scent marks). Here we show that females of the solitary wool-carder bee Anthidium manicatum (Megachilidae) discriminate against previously visited inflorescences (Stachys officinalis), and that discrimination is equally strong regardless of whether the previous visitor is conspecific or belongs to a different bee family (Bom...

  6. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  7. Behavior genetics: Bees as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The honeybee Apis mellifera (Apidae) is a model widely used in behavior because of its elaborate social life requiring coordinate actions among the members of the society. Within a colony, division of labor, the performance of tasks by different individuals, follows genetically determined physiological changes that go along with aging. Modern advances in tools of molecular biology and genomics, as well as the sequentiation of A. mellifera genome, have enabled a better understanding of honeybee behavior, in particular social behavior. Numerous studies show that aspects of worker behavior are genetically determined, including defensive, hygienic, reproductive and foraging behavior. For example, genetic diversity is associated with specialization to collect water, nectar and pollen. Also, control of worker reproduction is associated with genetic differences. In this paper, I review the methods and the main results from the study of the genetic and genomic basis of some behaviors in bees.

  8. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Tan

    Full Text Available Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera, to other important bee species.

  9. Imidacloprid Alters Foraging and Decreases Bee Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ken; Chen, Weiwen; Dong, Shihao; Liu, Xiwen; Wang, Yuchong; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 µg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, honey bees (Apis cerana) showed no aversion to a feeder with a hornet predator, and 1.8 fold more bees chose the dangerous feeder as compared to control bees. Control bees exhibited significant predator avoidance. We also give the first evidence that foraging by A. cerana workers can be inhibited by sublethal concentrations of the pesticide, imidacloprid, which is widely used in Asia. Compared to bees collecting uncontaminated nectar, 23% fewer foragers returned to collect the nectar with 40 µg/L imidacloprid. Bees that did return respectively collected 46% and 63% less nectar containing 20 µg/L and 40 µg/L imidacloprid. These results suggest that the effects of neonicotinoids on honey bee decision-making and other advanced cognitive functions should be explored. Moreover, research should extend beyond the classic model, the European honey bee (A. mellifera), to other important bee species. PMID:25025334

  10. Winter survival of individual honey bees and honey bee colonies depends on level of Varroa destructor infestation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coby van Dooremalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived winter bees on the lifespan of individual bees and the survival of bee colonies during winter. Colonies treated earlier in the season to reduce V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees were expected to have longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mite infestation was reduced using acaricide treatments during different months (July, August, September, or not treated. We found that the number of capped brood cells decreased drastically between August and November, while at the same time, the lifespan of the bees (marked cohorts increased indicating the transition to winter bees. Low V. destructor infestation levels before and during the transition to winter bees resulted in an increase in lifespan of bees and higher colony survival compared to colonies that were not treated and that had higher infestation levels. A variety of stress-related factors could have contributed to the variation in longevity and winter survival that we found between years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study contributes to theory about the multiple causes for the recent elevated colony losses in honey bees. Our study shows the correlation between long lifespan of winter bees and colony loss in spring. Moreover, we show that colonies treated earlier in the season had reduced V. destructor infestation during the development of winter bees resulting in longer bee lifespan and higher colony survival after winter.

  11. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia M. Bernauer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens. Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems.

  12. Colonies of Bumble Bees (Bombus impatiens) Produce Fewer Workers, Less Bee Biomass, and Have Smaller Mother Queens Following Fungicide Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, Olivia M; Gaines-Day, Hannah R; Steffan, Shawn A

    2015-01-01

    Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possible culprit contributing to bee declines. Even fungicides, generally considered safe for bees, have been shown to disrupt honey bee development and impair bumble bee behavior. Little is known, however, how fungicides may affect bumble bee colony growth. We conducted a controlled cage study to determine the effects of fungicide exposure on colonies of a native bumble bee species (Bombus impatiens). Colonies of B. impatiens were exposed to flowers treated with field-relevant levels of the fungicide chlorothalonil over the course of one month. Colony success was assessed by the number and biomass of larvae, pupae, and adult bumble bees. Bumble bee colonies exposed to fungicide produced fewer workers, lower total bee biomass, and had lighter mother queens than control colonies. Our results suggest that fungicides negatively affect the colony success of a native bumble bee species and that the use of fungicides during bloom has the potential to severely impact the success of native bumble bee populations foraging in agroecosystems. PMID:26463198

  13. POLLUTION MONITORING OF PUGET SOUND WITH HONEY BEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    To show that honey bees are effective biological monitors of environmental contaminants over large geographic areas, beekeepers of Puget Sound, Washington, collected pollen and bees for chemical analysis. From these data, kriging maps of arsenic, cadmium, and fluoride were genera...

  14. Application of Bees Algorithm in Multi-Join Query Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Alamery; Ahmad Faraahi; H. Haj Seyyed Javadi; Sadegh Nourossana; Hossein Erfani

    2012-01-01

    Multi-join query optimization is an important technique for designing and implementing database management system. It is a crucial factor that affects the capability of database. This paper proposes a Bees algorithm that simulates the foraging behavior of honey bee swarm to solve Multi-join query optimization problem. The performance of the Bees algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization algorithm are compared with respect to computational time and the simulation result indicates that Bees algorit...

  15. A Survey on the Applications of Bee Colony Optimization Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Arvinder Kaur; Shivangi Goyal

    2011-01-01

    In this paper an overview of the areas where the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) and its variants are applied have been given. Bee System was identified by Sato and Hagiwara in 1997 and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) was identified by Lucic and Teodorovic in 2001. BCO has emerged as a specialized class of Swarm Intelligence with bees as agents. It is an emerging field for researchers in the field of optimization problems because it provides immense problem solving scope for combinatorial and...

  16. A HONEY BEE SWARM INTELLIGENCE ALGORITHM FOR COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Amol V. Zade; Dr. R. M. Tugnayat

    2015-01-01

    A particular intelligent behavior of a honey bee swarm, foraging behavior, is considered and a new artificial bee colony algorithm simulating this behavior of real honey bees for solving multidimensional and multimodal optimization problems. A new optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm has been described. The proposed algorithm can be used for solving Traveling salesman problem and other applications. The proposed research work combines the ene...

  17. Imidacloprid alters foraging and decreases bee avoidance of predators

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Tan; Weiwen Chen; Shihao Dong; Xiwen Liu; Yuchong Wang; Nieh, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Concern is growing over the effects of neonicotinoid pesticides, which can impair honey bee cognition. We provide the first demonstration that sublethal concentrations of imidacloprid can harm honey bee decision-making about danger by significantly increasing the probability of a bee visiting a dangerous food source. Apis cerana is a native bee that is an important pollinator of agricultural crops and native plants in Asia. When foraging on nectar containing 40 μg/L (34 ppb) imidacloprid, hon...

  18. The bees algorithm: Modelling nature to solve complex optimisation problems

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Duc; Le-Thi, Hoai; Castellani, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The Bees Algorithm models the foraging behaviour of honey bees in order to solve optimisation problems. The algorithm performs a kind of exploitative neighbourhood search combined with random explorative search. This paper describes the Bees Algorithm and presents two application examples: the training of neural networks to predict the energy efficiency of buildings, and the solution of the protein folding problem. The Bees Algorithm proved its effectiveness and speed, and obtained very compe...

  19. Studies on Biological Development of Hybrid Bees Families

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Pârvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta-Elena Simion; Carmen Bergheş; Adriana Amfim

    2010-01-01

    It has made a study concerning the biological development of hybrid bee’s families (Italian x Carpathian) comparative with Carpathian bee’s families. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The following parameters were studied: the queen bee prolificacy, the flight intensity during harvesting, the flight intensity during bad weather the irascibility, the behaviour of the bees during the survey and the predisposition to swarming. At the hybrid families, queen bee prolificacy and the rate ...

  20. Production of ''no-sting bee'' species by external irradiation and elucidation of the genetic mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various mutants in bees were observed by gamma-ray irradiation. No-sting bee appeared in some of colonies of an irradiated mature queen bee. The characteristic form and quality of no-sting bee appeared in next generation bee groups. Artificial inseminations of the queen bee were carried out. Mutation parts of the gene were analyzed by using adjusted DNA in samples of wild bees and no-sting bees. A change of band pattern in the no-sting bee was observed much more than the one in the wild bee. Mutation of the genome DNA was cleared by gamma irradiation. Apparent difference of gene amplification between the wild bees and no-sting bees were detected by using gene primer (RAPD). Polymorphism phenomena in the mutant of no-sting bee were observed in comparison with in the wild bee. (M. Suetake)

  1. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa m

  2. 29 CFR 780.123 - Raising of bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raising of bees. 780.123 Section 780.123 Labor Regulations... Raising of Livestock, Bees, Fur-Bearing Animals, Or Poultry § 780.123 Raising of bees. The term “raising of * * * bees” refers to all of those activities customarily performed in connection with...

  3. Creating and Evaluating Artificial Domiciles for Bumble Bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golick, Douglas A.; Ellis, Marion D.; Beecham, Brady

    2006-01-01

    Bumble bees are valuable pollinators of native and cultivated flora. Despite our knowledge of bumble bee nest site selection, most efforts to attract bumble bees to artificial domiciles have been met with limited success. Creating and evaluating artificial domiciles provides students an opportunity to investigate a real problem. In this lesson,…

  4. The honey bee parasite Nosema ceranae: transmissible via food exchange?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Smith

    Full Text Available Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cages were separated by one screen, food could be passed between the older bees and the young bees, but when separated by two screens, food could not be passed between the two cages. Young uninfected bees were also kept isolated in cages, as a solitary control. After 4 days of exposure to the older bees, and 10 days to incubate infections, young bees were more likely to be infected in the 1-Screen Test treatment vs. the 2-Screen Test treatment (P=0.0097. Young bees fed by older bees showed a 13-fold increase in mean infection level relative to young bees not fed by older bees (1-Screen Test 40.8%; 2-Screen Test 3.4%; Solo Control 2.8%. Although fecal-oral transmission is still possible in this experimental design, oral-oral infectivity could help explain the rapid spread of N. ceranae worldwide.

  5. Trap-nests for stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Menezes, Cristiano; Egea Soares, Ademilson Espencer; Imperatriz Fonseca, Vera Lucia

    2013-01-01

    Most stingless bee species build their nests inside tree hollows. In this paper, we present trap-nest containers which simulate nesting cavities so as to attract swarms of stingless bees. Although regularly used by stingless bee beekeepers in Brazil, this technique to obtain new colonies has not yet

  6. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Coby van Dooremalen; Lonne Gerritsen; Bram Cornelissen; van der Steen, Jozef J. M.; Frank van Langevelde; Tjeerd Blacquière

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to survive until the next spring. We investigated in two subsequent years the effects of different levels of V. destructor infestation during the transition from short-lived summer bees to long-lived w...

  7. Social apoptosis in honey bee superorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Paul; Lin, Zheguang; Buawangpong, Ninat; Zheng, Huoqing; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Eusocial insect colonies form superorganisms, in which nestmates cooperate and use social immunity to combat parasites. However, social immunity may fail in case of emerging diseases. This is the case for the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, which switched hosts from the Eastern honeybee, Apis cerana, to the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and currently is the greatest threat to A. mellifera apiculture globally. Here, we show that immature workers of the mite's original host, A. cerana, are more susceptible to V. destructor infestations than those of its new host, thereby enabling more efficient social immunity and contributing to colony survival. This counterintuitive result shows that susceptible individuals can foster superorganism survival, offering empirical support to theoretical arguments about the adaptive value of worker suicide in social insects. Altruistic suicide of immature bees constitutes a social analogue of apoptosis, as it prevents the spread of infections by sacrificing parts of the whole organism, and unveils a novel form of transgenerational social immunity in honey bees. Taking into account the key role of susceptible immature bees in social immunity will improve breeding efforts to mitigate the unsustainably high colony losses of Western honey bees due to V. destructor infestations worldwide. PMID:27264643

  8. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daughenbaugh, Katie F; Martin, Madison; Brutscher, Laura M; Cavigli, Ian; Garcia, Emma; Lavin, Matt; Flenniken, Michelle L

    2015-06-01

    Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV) group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV), and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels. PMID:26110586

  9. Honey Bee Infecting Lake Sinai Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie F. Daughenbaugh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are critical pollinators of important agricultural crops. Recently, high annual losses of honey bee colonies have prompted further investigation of honey bee infecting viruses. To better characterize the recently discovered and very prevalent Lake Sinai virus (LSV group, we sequenced currently circulating LSVs, performed phylogenetic analysis, and obtained images of LSV2. Sequence analysis resulted in extension of the LSV1 and LSV2 genomes, the first detection of LSV4 in the US, and the discovery of LSV6 and LSV7. We detected LSV1 and LSV2 in the Varroa destructor mite, and determined that a large proportion of LSV2 is found in the honey bee gut, suggesting that vector-mediated, food-associated, and/or fecal-oral routes may be important for LSV dissemination. Pathogen-specific quantitative PCR data, obtained from samples collected during a small-scale monitoring project, revealed that LSV2, LSV1, Black queen cell virus (BQCV, and Nosema ceranae were more abundant in weak colonies than strong colonies within this sample cohort. Together, these results enhance our current understanding of LSVs and illustrate the importance of future studies aimed at investigating the role of LSVs and other pathogens on honey bee health at both the individual and colony levels.

  10. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  11. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina De Smet

    Full Text Available The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies.

  12. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y; Moritz, Robin F A; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called "BeeDoctor", was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. "BeeDoctor" is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. "BeeDoctor" was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the "BeeDoctor", virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  13. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Barrett Anthony; Stiegler, Martin; Klein, Arno; Tautz, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns. PMID:25029445

  14. Nosematose injuries to queen bees progeny - worker bees - following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of the effect of the queen bee exposure to Co60 gamma radiation of different doses on the resistance of the honeybees to nosematosis. The bioassay consists in a whole-body single irradiation of the queen bees at the GUBEH-800 gamma-irradiation plant with the dose rate 476 r/min (Co60). The scheme of the experiments is described. The investigations have demonstrated that under equal living conditions the bees of the same age incubated in the beehive exhibit different susceptibility to nosematosis. In the case of seven days old bees after the exposure of the queen bee to 1500 r dose the general nosematosis injury has dropped sharply as compared to the progeny of the bees produced prior to irradiation. The bees' organism at this age is actively resisting the disease and also compensating for the injured tissue functions caused by irradiation. The experiments have been conducted on determining the optimal radiation doses affecting the disease progress

  15. Mapping sleeping bees within their nest: spatial and temporal analysis of worker honey bee sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett Anthony Klein

    Full Text Available Patterns of behavior within societies have long been visualized and interpreted using maps. Mapping the occurrence of sleep across individuals within a society could offer clues as to functional aspects of sleep. In spite of this, a detailed spatial analysis of sleep has never been conducted on an invertebrate society. We introduce the concept of mapping sleep across an insect society, and provide an empirical example, mapping sleep patterns within colonies of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.. Honey bees face variables such as temperature and position of resources within their colony's nest that may impact their sleep. We mapped sleep behavior and temperature of worker bees and produced maps of their nest's comb contents as the colony grew and contents changed. By following marked bees, we discovered that individuals slept in many locations, but bees of different worker castes slept in different areas of the nest relative to position of the brood and surrounding temperature. Older worker bees generally slept outside cells, closer to the perimeter of the nest, in colder regions, and away from uncapped brood. Younger worker bees generally slept inside cells and closer to the center of the nest, and spent more time asleep than awake when surrounded by uncapped brood. The average surface temperature of sleeping foragers was lower than the surface temperature of their surroundings, offering a possible indicator of sleep for this caste. We propose mechanisms that could generate caste-dependent sleep patterns and discuss functional significance of these patterns.

  16. Winter Survival of Individual Honey Bees and Honey Bee Colonies Depends on Level of Varroa destructor Infestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, van C.; Gerritsen, L.J.M.; Cornelissen, B.; Steen, van der J.J.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Blacquiere, T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recent elevated winter loss of honey bee colonies is a major concern. The presence of the mite Varroa destructor in colonies places an important pressure on bee health. V. destructor shortens the lifespan of individual bees, while long lifespan during winter is a primary requirement to s

  17. First Complete Genome Sequence of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus Isolated from Honey Bees (Apis mellifera) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Beibei; Hou, Chunsheng; Deng, Shuai; Zhang, Xuefeng; Chu, Yanna; Yuan, Chunying; Diao, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) is a serious viral disease affecting adult bees. We report here the complete genome sequence of CBPV, which was isolated from a honey bee colony with the symptom of severe crawling. The genome of CBPV consists of two segments, RNA 1 and RNA 2, containing respective overlapping fragments. PMID:27491983

  18. Collective thermoregulation in bee clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocko, Samuel A; Mahadevan, L

    2014-02-01

    Swarming is an essential part of honeybee behaviour, wherein thousands of bees cling onto each other to form a dense cluster that may be exposed to the environment for several days. This cluster has the ability to maintain its core temperature actively without a central controller. We suggest that the swarm cluster is akin to an active porous structure whose functional requirement is to adjust to outside conditions by varying its porosity to control its core temperature. Using a continuum model that takes the form of a set of advection-diffusion equations for heat transfer in a mobile porous medium, we show that the equalization of an effective 'behavioural pressure', which propagates information about the ambient temperature through variations in density, leads to effective thermoregulation. Our model extends and generalizes previous models by focusing the question of mechanism on the form and role of the behavioural pressure, and allows us to explain the vertical asymmetry of the cluster (as a consequence of buoyancy-driven flows), the ability of the cluster to overpack at low ambient temperatures without breaking up at high ambient temperatures, and the relative insensitivity to large variations in the ambient temperature. Our theory also makes testable hypotheses for the response of the cluster to external temperature inhomogeneities and suggests strategies for biomimetic thermoregulation. PMID:24335563

  19. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  20. Predictive markers of honey bee colony collapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dainat

    Full Text Available Across the Northern hemisphere, managed honey bee colonies, Apis mellifera, are currently affected by abrupt depopulation during winter and many factors are suspected to be involved, either alone or in combination. Parasites and pathogens are considered as principal actors, in particular the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, associated viruses and the microsporidian Nosema ceranae. Here we used long term monitoring of colonies and screening for eleven disease agents and genes involved in bee immunity and physiology to identify predictive markers of honeybee colony losses during winter. The data show that DWV, Nosema ceranae, Varroa destructor and Vitellogenin can be predictive markers for winter colony losses, but their predictive power strongly depends on the season. In particular, the data support that V. destructor is a key player for losses, arguably in line with its specific impact on the health of individual bees and colonies.

  1. Study on Bee venom and Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to study Bee venom and Pain, We searched Journals and Internet. The results were as follows: 1. The domestic papers were total 13. 4 papers were published at The journal of korean acupuncture & moxibustion society, 3 papers were published at The journal of korean oriental medical society, Each The journal of KyoungHee University Oriental Medicine and The journal of korean sports oriental medical society published 1 papers and Unpublished desertations were 3. The clinical studies were 4 and the experimental studies were 9. 2. The domestic clinical studies reported that Bee venom Herbal Acupuncture therapy was effective on HIVD, Subacute arthritis of Knee Joint and Sequale of sprain. In the domestic experimental studies, 5 were related to analgesic effect of Bee vnom and 4 were related to mechanism of analgesia. 3. The journals searched by PubMed were total 18. 5 papers were published at Pain, Each 2 papers were published at Neurosci Lett. and Br J Pharmacol, and Each Eur J Pain, J Rheumatol, Brain Res, Neuroscience, Nature and Toxicon et al published 1 paper. 4. In the journals searched by PubMed, Only the experimental studies were existed. 8 papers used Bee Venom as pain induction substance and 1 paper was related to analgesic effects of Bee venom. 5. 15 webpage were searched by internet related to Bee Venom and pain. 11 were the introduction related to arthritis, 1 was the advertisement, 1 was the patient's experience, 1 was the case report on RA, 1 was review article.

  2. Yoghurt enrichment with natural bee farming products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lomova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bee pollen is a unique and unparalleled natural bioactive substances source. Using it in conjunction with the popular functional fermented milk product -yogurt will expand its product range and increase the biological value. Materials and Methods. Dried bee pollen’s moisture determination was made by gravimetry methods, based on the sample weight loss due to desiccation, until constant weight was reached.Test and control yogurt samples were studied by applying standard techniques for milk and milk products set forth in the regulations of Ukraine. Results and discussion. It is found that bee pollen pellet drying to a moisture content of 2 -4%, increases the flow rate of powder almost by 90%. The sample having moisture content of 2% will have a bulk density exceeding 12.5% compared to the sample having moisture content of 10%. Raw output will also increase by 3.7%. By contrast, apparent density and weight fraction of losses decreases, which has a positive impact on pollen efficiency of use and distribution in bulk yogurt. Moreover, the weight fraction of losses decreases by fourfold (4.6% vs. 1%. It was experimentally determined that pollen can deteriorate microbiological characteristics of yogurt. It was proved that treatment of crushed bee pollen pellet sample with ultraviolet allows improving yogurt microbiological safety indicators. Namely, to reduce the presence of coli-forms to 0, mould –to 10 CFU/cm³. Conclusions. The proposed bee pollen pellet treatment method will improve the technological and microbiological characteristics of pollen powder. This provides for yoghurt production biotechnology using bee farming products.

  3. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrinello Hughes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera, pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the influence of pollen nutrients on the transcriptome of worker bees parasitized by the mite Varroa destructor, known for suppressing immunity and decreasing lifespan. The 4 experimental groups (control bees without a pollen diet, control bees fed with pollen, varroa-parasitized bees without a pollen diet and varroa-parasitized bees fed with pollen were analyzed by performing a digital gene expression (DGE analysis on bee abdomens. Results Around 36, 000 unique tags were generated per DGE-tag library, which matched about 8, 000 genes (60% of the genes in the honey bee genome. Comparing the transcriptome of bees fed with pollen and sugar and bees restricted to a sugar diet, we found that pollen activates nutrient-sensing and metabolic pathways. In addition, those nutrients had a positive influence on genes affecting longevity and the production of some antimicrobial peptides. However, varroa parasitism caused the development of viral populations and a decrease in metabolism, specifically by inhibiting protein metabolism essential to bee health. This harmful effect was not reversed by pollen intake. Conclusions The DGE-tag profiling methods used in this study proved to be a powerful means for analyzing transcriptome variation related to nutrient intake in honey bees. Ultimately, with such an approach, applying genomics tools to nutrition research, nutrigenomics promises to offer a better understanding of how nutrition influences body homeostasis and may help reduce

  4. Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus and Nosema ceranae Experimental Co-Infection of Winter Honey Bee Workers (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Gregorc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV is an important viral disease of adult bees which induces significant losses in honey bee colonies. Despite comprehensive research, only limited data is available from experimental infection for this virus. In the present study winter worker bees were experimentally infected in three different experiments. Bees were first inoculated per os (p/o or per cuticle (p/c with CBPV field strain M92/2010 in order to evaluate the virus replication in individual bees. In addition, potential synergistic effects of co-infection with CBPV and Nosema ceranae (N. ceranae on bees were investigated. In total 558 individual bees were inoculated in small cages and data were analyzed using quantitative real time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR. Our results revealed successful replication of CBPV after p/o inoculation, while it was less effective when bees were inoculated p/c. Dead bees harbored about 1,000 times higher copy numbers of the virus than live bees. Co-infection of workers with CBPV and N. ceranae using either method of virus inoculation (p/c or p/o showed increased replication ability for CBPV. In the third experiment the effect of inoculation on bee mortality was evaluated. The highest level of bee mortality was observed in a group of bees inoculated with CBPV p/o, followed by a group of workers simultaneously inoculated with CBPV and N. ceranae p/o, followed by the group inoculated with CBPV p/c and the group with only N. ceranae p/o. The experimental infection with CBPV showed important differences after p/o or p/c inoculation in winter bees, while simultaneous infection with CBPV and N. ceranae suggesting a synergistic effect after inoculation.

  5. Pharmacological evaluation of bee venom and melittin

    OpenAIRE

    Camila G. Dantas; Tássia L.G.M. Nunes; Tâmara L.G.M. Nunes; Ailma O. da Paixão; Francisco P. Reis; Waldecy de L. Júnior; Juliana C. Cardoso; Kátia P. Gramacho; Gomes, Margarete Z

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the pharmacological effects of bee venom and its major component, melittin, on the nervous system of mice. For the pharmacological analysis, mice were treated once with saline, 0.1 or 1.2 mg/kg of bee venom and 0.1 mg/kg of melittin, subcutaneously, 30 min before being submitted to behavioral tests: locomotor activity and grooming (open-field), catalepsy, anxiety (elevated plus-maze), depression (forced swimming test) and apomorphine-induced stereot...

  6. Acute paralysis viruses of the honey bee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunsheng; Hou; Nor; Chejanovsky

    2014-01-01

    <正>The alarming decline of honey bee(Apis mellifera)colonies in the last decade drove the attention and research to several pathogens of the honey bee including viruses.Viruses challenge the development of healthy and robust colonies since they manage to prevail in an asymptomatic mode and reemerge in acute infections following external stresses,as well as they are able to infect new healthy colonies(de Miranda J R,et al.,2010a;de Miranda J R,et al.,2010b;Di Prisco G,et al.,2013;Nazzi F,et al.,2012;Yang X L,et al.,2005).

  7. Käynninvalvonnan ZigBee-solmu

    OpenAIRE

    Sarjamo, Tomi

    2010-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön aiheena on käynninvalvontaan soveltuva ZigBee-solmu. Työn tavoitteena on suunnitella Metropolia Ammattikorkeakoululle ZigBee-pohjainen langattoman sensoriverkon anturisolmu käynnin- ja kunnonvalvonnan erilaisiin sovelluksiin. Anturisolmuun integroitiin kiihtyvyysanturi ja liitännät analogi- ja digitaalituloille sekä paristojen avulla tapahtuva virransyöttö ulkoiselle kiihtyvyysanturille. Työssä käytettiin VTI:n 3D-kiihtyvyysanturia, joka mittaa, kuinka paljon esimerk...

  8. Iridovirus and microsporidian linked to honey bee colony decline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J Bromenshenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010 Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD, again devastated honey bee colonies in the USA, indicating that the problem is neither diminishing nor has it been resolved. Many CCD investigations, using sensitive genome-based methods, have found small RNA bee viruses and the microsporidia, Nosema apis and N. ceranae in healthy and collapsing colonies alike with no single pathogen firmly linked to honey bee losses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used Mass spectrometry-based proteomics (MSP to identify and quantify thousands of proteins from healthy and collapsing bee colonies. MSP revealed two unreported RNA viruses in North American honey bees, Varroa destructor-1 virus and Kakugo virus, and identified an invertebrate iridescent virus (IIV (Iridoviridae associated with CCD colonies. Prevalence of IIV significantly discriminated among strong, failing, and collapsed colonies. In addition, bees in failing colonies contained not only IIV, but also Nosema. Co-occurrence of these microbes consistently marked CCD in (1 bees from commercial apiaries sampled across the U.S. in 2006-2007, (2 bees sequentially sampled as the disorder progressed in an observation hive colony in 2008, and (3 bees from a recurrence of CCD in Florida in 2009. The pathogen pairing was not observed in samples from colonies with no history of CCD, namely bees from Australia and a large, non-migratory beekeeping business in Montana. Laboratory cage trials with a strain of IIV type 6 and Nosema ceranae confirmed that co-infection with these two pathogens was more lethal to bees than either pathogen alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings implicate co-infection by IIV and Nosema with honey bee colony decline, giving credence to older research pointing to IIV, interacting with Nosema and mites, as probable cause of bee losses in the USA, Europe, and Asia. We next need to characterize the IIV and Nosema that we detected and develop management practices to reduce honey

  9. Differential insecticide susceptibility of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata and the honey bee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Sarto, Mário; Oliveira, Eugênio; Guedes,Raul; Campos, Lúcio

    2014-01-01

    International audience The toxicity of three insecticides frequently used in Neotropical tomato cultivation (abamectin, deltamethrin, and methamidophos) was estimated on foragers of the Neotropical stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Lep.) and the honey bee Apis mellifera (L.). Our results showed that the susceptibility varied significantly with the type of exposure (ingestion, topical, or contact), and there were significant differences between species. While M. quadrifasciata was usua...

  10. BeeDoctor, a versatile MLPA-based diagnostic tool for screening bee viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lina De Smet; Jorgen Ravoet; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Tom Wenseleers; Mueller, Matthias Y.; Moritz, Robin F.A.; Dirk C de Graaf

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for...

  11. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by ...

  12. Can We Disrupt the Sensing of Honey Bees by the Bee Parasite Varroa destructor?

    OpenAIRE

    Nurit Eliash; Nitin Kumar Singh; Yosef Kamer; Govardhana Reddy Pinnelli; Erika Plettner; Victoria Soroker

    2014-01-01

    Background The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa – honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of vola...

  13. Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees

    OpenAIRE

    Litman, Jessica R.; Danforth, Bryan N.; Eardley, Connal D.; Praz, Christophe J.

    2012-01-01

    Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in bees remain poorly explored. Bees are thought to have originated from apoid wasps during the Mid-Cretaceous, a period that coincides with the appeara...

  14. Wing Shape of Four New Bee Fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila) Provides Insights to Bee Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Nel, André; Engel, Michael S.; De Meulemeester, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Bees (Anthophila) are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils o...

  15. Bees' subtle colour preferences: how bees respond to small changes in pigment concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papiorek, Sarah; Rohde, Katja; Lunau, Klaus

    2013-07-01

    Variability in flower colour of animal-pollinated plants is common and caused, inter alia, by inter-individual differences in pigment concentrations. If and how pollinators, especially bees, respond to these small differences in pigment concentration is not known, but it is likely that flower colour variability impacts the choice behaviour of all flower visitors that exhibit innate and learned colour preferences. In behavioural experiments, we simulated varying pigment concentrations and studied its impact on the colour choices of bumblebees and honeybees. Individual bees were trained to artificial flowers having a specific concentration of a pigment, i.e. Acridine Orange or Aniline Blue, and then given the simultaneous choice between three test colours including the training colour, one colour of lower and one colour of higher pigment concentration. For each pigment, two set-ups were provided, covering the range of low to middle and the range of middle to high pigment concentrations. Despite the small bee-subjective perceptual contrasts between the tested stimuli and regardless of training towards medium concentrations, bees preferred neither the training stimuli nor the stimuli offering the highest pigment concentration but more often chose those stimuli offering the highest spectral purity and the highest chromatic contrast against the background. Overall, this study suggests that bees choose an intermediate pigment concentration due to its optimal conspicuousness. It is concluded that the spontaneous preferences of bees for flower colours of high spectral purity might exert selective pressure on the evolution of floral colours and of flower pigmentation.

  16. Sequence and expression pattern of the germ line marker vasa in honey bees and stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Donato Tanaka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Queens and workers of social insects differ in the rates of egg laying. Using genomic information we determined the sequence of vasa, a highly conserved gene specific to the germ line of metazoans, for the honey bee and four stingless bees. The vasa sequence of social bees differed from that of other insects in two motifs. By RT-PCR we confirmed the germ line specificity of Amvasa expression in honey bees. In situ hybridization on ovarioles showed that Amvasa is expressed throughout the germarium, except for the transition zone beneath the terminal filament. A diffuse vasa signal was also seen in terminal filaments suggesting the presence of germ line cells. Oocytes showed elevated levels of Amvasa transcripts in the lower germarium and after follicles became segregated. In previtellogenic follicles, Amvasa transcription was detected in the trophocytes, which appear to supply its mRNA to the growing oocyte. A similar picture was obtained for ovarioles of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata, except that Amvasa expression was higher in the oocytes of previtellogenic follicles. The social bees differ in this respect from Drosophila, the model system for insect oogenesis, suggesting that changes in the sequence and expression pattern of vasa may have occurred during social evolution.

  17. HomePort ZigBee Adapter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Smedegaard, Jacob Haubach; Hansen, Rene

    the existing tool, Homeport, to act as a middleware and bridge between ConLAN's existing network and the ZigBee network. This report primarily discusses three possible solutions for constructing this bridge and current status on the implementation of a Develco SmartAMM and Zigbee stack for HomePort....

  18. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  19. Phylogenetic analysis of honey bee behavioral evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffiudin, Rika; Crozier, Ross H

    2007-05-01

    DNA sequences from three mitochondrial (rrnL, cox2, nad2) and one nuclear gene (itpr) from all 9 known honey bee species (Apis), a 10th possible species, Apis dorsata binghami, and three outgroup species (Bombus terrestris, Melipona bicolor and Trigona fimbriata) were used to infer Apis phylogenetic relationships using Bayesian analysis. The dwarf honey bees were confirmed as basal, and the giant and cavity-nesting species to be monophyletic. All nodes were strongly supported except that grouping Apis cerana with A. nigrocincta. Two thousand post-burnin trees from the phylogenetic analysis were used in a Bayesian comparative analysis to explore the evolution of dance type, nest structure, comb structure and dance sound within Apis. The ancestral honey bee species was inferred with high support to have nested in the open, and to have more likely than not had a silent vertical waggle dance and a single comb. The common ancestor of the giant and cavity-dwelling bees is strongly inferred to have had a buzzing vertical directional dance. All pairwise combinations of characters showed strong association, but the multiple comparisons problem reduces the ability to infer associations between states between characters. Nevertheless, a buzzing dance is significantly associated with cavity-nesting, several vertical combs, and dancing vertically, a horizontal dance is significantly associated with a nest with a single comb wrapped around the support, and open nesting with a single pendant comb and a silent waggle dance. PMID:17123837

  20. BEES, HONEY AND HEALTH IN ANTIQUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    In antiquity bees and honey had a very special significance. Honey was indeed considered to drip from heaven as the food of the gods. As an infant Zeus was fed on honey in the cave of Dicte, by bees and the beautiful Melissa, whose name became the Greek word for “bee”. When the ancient Romans wished you luck they said “May honey drip on you!” and for the Israelites Palestine was a “land of milk and honey” (Forbes 1957:85-87. In his Georgics Vergil likened the inhabitants of the new Golden Age to an orderly swarm of bees (Johnson 1980:90-105, and the word “honeymoon” probably derived from the ancient custom of newlyweds to drink mead (honey-wine for a month after their wedding (Hajar 2002:5-6. Allsop and Miller state that even today honey is popularly associated with warmth, nostalgia, goodness and flattery (1996:513-520.

    In this study the origins of apiculture (bee-keeping and the status and uses of honey in antiquity are analysed – with emphasis on its assumed value as a health promoting agent.

  1. Testing Honey Bees' Avoidance of Predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jesse Wade; Nieh, James C.; Goodale, Eben

    2012-01-01

    Many high school science students do not encounter opportunities for authentic science inquiry in their formal coursework. Ecological field studies can provide such opportunities. The purpose of this project was to teach students about the process of science by designing and conducting experiments on whether and how honey bees (Apis mellifera)…

  2. Reproduction in eusocial bees (Apidae: Apini, Meliponini)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinh, T.X.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents some key aspects of the regulation and the mechanisms of colony reproduction in honeybees and stingless bees. Special attention is paid to key questions about how the production of males, gynes and swarms takes place, and what intranidal and extranidal factors are related to the

  3. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday's Enemy Becomes Today's Friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gihyun; Bae, Hyunsu

    2016-02-01

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases including asthma, Parkinson's disease, and drug-induced organ inflammation. It is critical to evaluate the beneficial and adverse effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 because this enzyme is known to be the major allergen of bee venom that can cause anaphylactic shock. For many decades, efforts have been made to avoid its adverse effects. At high concentrations, exposure to bee venom group III sPLA2 can result in damage to cellular membranes and necrotic cell death. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge about the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2 on several immunological diseases and described the detailed mechanisms of bee venom group III sPLA2 in regulating various immune responses and physiopathological changes. PMID:26907347

  4. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara D Leonhardt

    Full Text Available Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spec., revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia. Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association.

  5. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Behrends

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summer bees to six months (winter bees. We studied whether in honey bees, extreme longevity leads to a decline in cognitive functions. Six-month-old winter bees were conditioned either to odours or to tactile stimuli. Afterwards, long-term memory and discrimination abilities were analysed. Winter bees were kept under different conditions (flight /no flight opportunity to test for effects of foraging activity on learning performance. Despite their extreme age, winter bees did not display an age-related decline in learning or discrimination abilities, but had a slightly impaired olfactory long-term memory. The opportunity to forage indoors led to a slight decrease in learning performance. This suggests that in honey bees, unlike in most other animals, age per se does not impair associative learning. Future research will show which mechanisms protect winter bees from age-related deficits in learning.

  6. Microbial communities of three sympatric Australian stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara D; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial symbionts of insects have received increasing attention due to their prominent role in nutrient acquisition and defense. In social bees, symbiotic bacteria can maintain colony homeostasis and fitness, and the loss or alteration of the bacterial community may be associated with the ongoing bee decline observed worldwide. However, analyses of microbiota associated with bees have been largely confined to the social honeybees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus spec.), revealing--among other taxa--host-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB, genus Lactobacillus) that are not found in solitary bees. Here, we characterized the microbiota of three Australian stingless bee species (Apidae: Meliponini) of two phylogenetically distant genera (Tetragonula and Austroplebeia). Besides common plant bacteria, we find LAB in all three species, showing that LAB are shared by honeybees, bumblebees and stingless bees across geographical regions. However, while LAB of the honeybee-associated Firm4-5 clusters were present in Tetragonula, they were lacking in Austroplebeia. Instead, we found a novel clade of likely host-specific LAB in all three Australian stingless bee species which forms a sister clade to a large cluster of Halictidae-associated lactobacilli. Our findings indicate both a phylogenetic and geographical signal of host-specific LAB in stingless bees and highlight stingless bees as an interesting group to investigate the evolutionary history of the bee-LAB association. PMID:25148082

  7. Propagating and Managing orcahrd Mason Bees, Osmia spp. (Hymenoptera: Megachildae) for Pollinating Cultivated Blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, we present a brief overview of our bee trap-nesting study as well as information about propagating and managing mason bees for blueberry pollination, especially the bee species Osmia ribifloris....

  8. The bee microbiome: Impact on bee health and model for evolution and ecology of host-microbe interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, Robert S.; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health.

  9. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Philipp; Kwong, Waldan K; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R Scott; Dainat, Jacques; de Miranda, Joachim R; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Song, Se Jin; Schwarz, Ryan S; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Dainat, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health. PMID:27118586

  10. The Bee Microbiome: Impact on Bee Health and Model for Evolution and Ecology of Host-Microbe Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Waldan K.; McFrederick, Quinn; Anderson, Kirk E.; Barribeau, Seth Michael; Chandler, James Angus; Cornman, R. Scott; Dainat, Jacques; Doublet, Vincent; Emery, Olivier; Evans, Jay D.; Farinelli, Laurent; Flenniken, Michelle L.; Granberg, Fredrik; Grasis, Juris A.; Gauthier, Laurent; Hayer, Juliette; Koch, Hauke; Kocher, Sarah; Martinson, Vincent G.; Moran, Nancy; Munoz-Torres, Monica; Newton, Irene; Paxton, Robert J.; Powell, Eli; Sadd, Ben M.; Schmid-Hempel, Paul; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Schwarz, Ryan S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As pollinators, bees are cornerstones for terrestrial ecosystem stability and key components in agricultural productivity. All animals, including bees, are associated with a diverse community of microbes, commonly referred to as the microbiome. The bee microbiome is likely to be a crucial factor affecting host health. However, with the exception of a few pathogens, the impacts of most members of the bee microbiome on host health are poorly understood. Further, the evolutionary and ecological forces that shape and change the microbiome are unclear. Here, we discuss recent progress in our understanding of the bee microbiome, and we present challenges associated with its investigation. We conclude that global coordination of research efforts is needed to fully understand the complex and highly dynamic nature of the interplay between the bee microbiome, its host, and the environment. High-throughput sequencing technologies are ideal for exploring complex biological systems, including host-microbe interactions. To maximize their value and to improve assessment of the factors affecting bee health, sequence data should be archived, curated, and analyzed in ways that promote the synthesis of different studies. To this end, the BeeBiome consortium aims to develop an online database which would provide reference sequences, archive metadata, and host analytical resources. The goal would be to support applied and fundamental research on bees and their associated microbes and to provide a collaborative framework for sharing primary data from different research programs, thus furthering our understanding of the bee microbiome and its impact on pollinator health. PMID:27118586

  11. On the Performance of the Predicted Energy Efficient Bee-Inspired Routing (PEEBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Imane M. A. Fahmy; Laila Nassef; Hesham A. Hefny

    2014-01-01

    The Predictive Energy Efficient Bee Routing PEEBR is a swarm intelligent reactive routing algorithm inspired from the bees food search behavior. PEEBR aims to optimize path selection in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network MANET based on energy consumption prediction. It uses Artificial Bees Colony ABC Optimization model and two types of bee agents: The scout bee for exploration phase and the forager bee for evaluation and exploitation phases. PEEBR considers the predicted mobile nodes battery residual ...

  12. Parasite-host interactions between the Varroa mite and the honey bee

    OpenAIRE

    Calis, J.N.M.

    2001-01-01

    IntroductionVarroa mites as parasites of honey beesVarroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000), is the most important pest of European races of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., weakening bees and vectoring bee diseases (Matheson, 1993). Over the past decades it has spread all over the world and control measures are required to maintain healthy honey bee colonies.Originally, this mite only occurred in colonies of the Eastern honey bee, Apis cerana Fabr., in Asia. Varroa destructor wa...

  13. Enhanced Bee Colony Algorithm for Complex Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Suriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization problems are considered to be one kind of NP hard problems. Usually heuristic approaches are found to provide solutions for NP hard problems. There are a plenty of heuristic algorithmsavailable to solve optimization problems namely: Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, etc. The basic Bee Colony algorithm, a population based search algorithm, is analyzed to be a novel tool for complex optimization problems. The algorithm mimics the food foraging behavior of swarmsof honey bees. This paper deals with a modified fitness function of Bee Colony algorithm. The effect of problem dimensionality on the performance of the algorithms will be investigated. This enhanced Bee Colony Optimization will be evaluated based on the well-known benchmark problems. The testing functions like Rastrigin, Rosenbrock, Ackley, Griewank and Sphere are used to evaluavate the performance of the enhanced Bee Colony algorithm. The simulation will be developed on MATLAB.

  14. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Nielsen, Steen L.; Kryger, Per

    2013-01-01

    honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10......Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in...... subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be...

  15. Magnetic Sensing through the Abdomen of the Honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao-Hung; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Jiang, Joe-Air; Yang, En-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees have the ability to detect the Earth's magnetic field, and the suspected magnetoreceptors are the iron granules in the abdomens of the bees. To identify the sensing route of honey bee magnetoreception, we conducted a classical conditioning experiment in which the responses of the proboscis extension reflex (PER) were monitored. Honey bees were successfully trained to associate the magnetic stimulus with a sucrose reward after two days of training. When the neural connection of the ventral nerve cord (VNC) between the abdomen and the thorax was cut, the honey bees no longer associated the magnetic stimulus with the sucrose reward but still responded to an olfactory PER task. The neural responses elicited in response to the change of magnetic field were also recorded at the VNC. Our results suggest that the honey bee is a new model animal for the investigation of magnetite-based magnetoreception. PMID:27005398

  16. Honey Bees, Satellites and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaias, W.

    2008-05-01

    Life isn't what it used to be for honey bees in Maryland. The latest changes in their world are discussed by NASA scientist Wayne Esaias, a biological oceanographer with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. At Goddard, Esaias has examined the role of marine productivity in the global carbon cycle using visible satellite sensors. In his personal life, Esaias is a beekeeper. Lately, he has begun melding his interest in bees with his professional expertise in global climate change. Esaias has observed that the period when nectar is available in central Maryland has shifted by one month due to local climate change. He is interested in bringing the power of global satellite observations and models to bear on the important but difficult question of how climate change will impact bees and pollination. Pollination is a complex, ephemeral interaction of animals and plants with ramifications throughout terrestrial ecosystems well beyond the individual species directly involved. Pollinators have been shown to be in decline in many regions, and the nature and degree of further impacts on this key interaction due to climate change are very much open questions. Honey bee colonies are used to quantify the time of occurrence of the major interaction by monitoring their weight change. During the peak period, changes of 5-15 kg/day per colony represent an integrated response covering thousands of hectares. Volunteer observations provide a robust metric for looking at spatial and inter-annual variations due to short term climate events, complementing plant phenology networks and satellite-derived vegetation phenology data. In central Maryland, the nectar flows are advancing by about -0.6 d/y, based on a 15 yr time series and a small regional study. This is comparable to the regional advancement in the spring green-up observed with MODIS and AVHRR. The ability to link satellite vegetation phenology to honey bee forage using hive weight changes provides a basis for applying satellite

  17. Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: a Premature Verdict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Cane

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies directly address the consequences of habitat fragmentation for communities of pollinating insects, particularly for the key pollinator group, bees (Hymenoptera: Apiformes. Bees typically live in habitats where nesting substrates and bloom are patchily distributed and spatially dissociated. Bee studies have all defined habitat fragments as remnant patches of floral hosts or forests, overlooking the nesting needs of bees. Several authors conclude that habitat fragmentation is broadly deleterious, but their own data show that some native species proliferate in sampled fragments. Other studies report greater densities and comparable diversities of native bees at flowers in some fragment size classes relative to undisrupted habitats, but find dramatic shifts in species composition. Insightful studies of habitat fragmentation and bees will consider fragmentation, alteration, and loss of nesting habitats, not just patches of forage plants, as well as the permeability of the surrounding matrix to interpatch movement. Inasmuch as the floral associations and nesting habits of bees are often attributes of species or subgenera, ecological interpretations hinge on authoritative identifications. Study designs must accommodate statistical problems associated with bee community samples, especially non-normal data and frequent zero values. The spatial scale of fragmentation must be appreciated: bees of medium body size can regularly fly 1–2 km from nest site to forage patch. Overall, evidence for prolonged persistence of substantial diversity and abundances of native bee communities in habitat fragments of modest size promises practical solutions for maintaining bee populations. Provided that reserve selection, design, and management can address the foraging and nesting needs of bees, networks of even small reserves may hold hope for sustaining considerable pollinator diversity and the ecological services pollinators provide.

  18. A Clustering Approach Using Cooperative Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Wenping Zou; Yunlong Zhu; Hanning Chen; Xin Sui

    2010-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. This paper presents an extended ABC algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Article Bee Colony (CABC), which significantly improves the original ABC in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique; therefore, the CABC could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first the CABC algorit...

  19. A Simple and Efficient Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yunfeng Xu; Ping Fan; Ling Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) is a new population-based stochastic algorithm which has shown good search abilities on many optimization problems. However, the original ABC shows slow convergence speed during the search process. In order to enhance the performance of ABC, this paper proposes a new artificial bee colony (NABC) algorithm, which modifies the search pattern of both employed and onlooker bees. A solution pool is constructed by storing some best solutions of the current swarm. New can...

  20. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of honey bee pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Forsgren, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Bees are crucial for maintaining biodiversity by pollination of numerous plant species. The European honey bee, Apis mellifera, is of great importance not only for the honey they produce, but also as vital pollinators of agricultural and horticultural crops. The economical value of pollination has been estimated to be several billion dollars, and pollinator declines are a global biodiversity threat. Hence, honey bee health has great impact on the economy, food production and biodiversity worl...

  1. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Ivanišová; Miroslava Kačániová; Helena Frančáková; Jana Petrová; Jana Hutková; Valeryii Brovarskyi; Serhii Velychko; Leonora Adamchuk; Zuzana Schubertová; Janette Musilová

    2015-01-01

    Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2...

  2. Pesticide Residues and Bees – A Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo; Koichi Goka

    2014-01-01

    Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative i...

  3. Varroa-Virus Interaction in Collapsing Honey Bee Colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Roy M; NIELSEN, STEEN L.; Per Kryger

    2013-01-01

    Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI) and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV)) were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries) under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies), pyrethroid (9 colonies) and untreated (3 colonies). Approximately 200 bees were ...

  4. Studies on Bee Venom and Its Medical Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mahmoud Abdu Al-Samie Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    Use of honey and other bee products in human treatments traced back thousands of years and healing properties are included in many religious texts including the Veda, Bible and Quran. Apitherapy is the use of honey bee products for medical purposes, this include bee venom, raw honey, royal jelly, pollen, propolis, and beeswax. Whereas bee venom therapy is the use of live bee stings (or injectable venom) to treat various diseases such as arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus, sciatica, low back pain, and tennis elbow to name a few. It refers to any use of venom to assist the body in healing itself. Bee venom contains at least 18 pharmacologically active components including various enzymes, peptides and amines. Sulfur is believed to be the main element in inducing the release of cortisol from the adrenal glands and in protecting the body from infections. Contact with bee venom produces a complex cascade of reactions in the human body. The bee venom is safe for human treatments, the median lethal dose (LD50) for an adult human is 2.8 mg of venom per kg of body weight, i.e. a person weighing 60 kg has a 50% chance of surviving injections totaling 168 mg of bee venom. Assuming each bee injects all its venom and no stings are quickly removed at a maximum of 0.3 mg venom per sting, 560 stings could well be lethal for such a person. For a child weighing 10 kg, as little as 93.33 stings could be fatal. However, most human deaths result from one or few bee stings due to allergic reactions, heart failure or suffocation from swelling around the neck or the mouth. As compare with other human diseases, accidents and other unusual cases, the bee venom is very safe for human treatments.

  5. Kin discrimination by worker honey bees in genetically mixed groups

    OpenAIRE

    Breed, Michael D.; Butler, Linda; Stiller, Tammy M.

    1985-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in a genetically mixed assemblage of worker honey bees, individual workers would behave differently toward unfamiliar sisters than toward unfamiliar nonsisters. Groups of worker honey bees of mixed genetic composition were assembled by collecting pupae from separate colonies and placing the worker bees together on eclosion. A total of 10 workers, 5 from each of two kin groups, were used to form each group. When the workers were 5 days old, a worker of one of the ...

  6. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Peter W. H.

    2015-01-01

    Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789) mimicry complex visiting ...

  7. Microbiota associated with pollen, bee bread, larvae and adults of solitary bee Osmia cornuta (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozo, J; Berić, T; Terzić-Vidojević, A; Stanković, S; Fira, D; Stanisavljević, L

    2015-08-01

    Using cultivation-dependant method, we isolated 184 strains from fresh and old bee bread, pollen, larvae and adults of solitary bee Osmia cornuta. The 16S rDNA sequencing of 79 selected isolates gave the final species-specific identification of strains. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that microbiota isolated from five different sources were represented with 29 species within three different phyla, Firmicutes with 25 species, Actinobacteria with only one species and Proteobacteria with three species of Enterobacteriaceae. Bacterial biodiversity presented with Shannon-Wiener index (H') was highest in the alimentary tract of adults and old bee bread (H' = 2.43 and H' = 2.53, respectively) and in the same time no dominance of any species was scored. On the contrary, results obtained for Simpson index (D) showed that in pollen samples the dominant species was Pantoea agglomerans (D = 0.42) while in fresh bee bread that was Staphylococcus sp. (D = 0.27). We assume that microbial diversity detected in the tested samples of solitary bee O. cornuta probably come from environment. PMID:25895542

  8. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhenghua; Pan, Dongdong; Teichroew, Jonathan; An, Jiandong

    2016-01-01

    Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L.) and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover) and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover) in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s) to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity. PMID:26765140

  9. The Potential Influence of Bumble Bee Visitation on Foraging Behaviors and Assemblages of Honey Bees on Squash Flowers in Highland Agricultural Ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghua Xie

    Full Text Available Bee species interactions can benefit plant pollination through synergistic effects and complementary effects, or can be of detriment to plant pollination through competition effects by reducing visitation by effective pollinators. Since specific bee interactions influence the foraging performance of bees on flowers, they also act as drivers to regulate the assemblage of flower visitors. We selected squash (Cucurbita pepo L. and its pollinators as a model system to study the foraging response of honey bees to the occurrence of bumble bees at two types of sites surrounded by a high amount of natural habitats (≥ 58% of land cover and a low amount of natural habitats (≤ 12% of land cover in a highland agricultural ecosystem in China. At the individual level, we measured the elapsed time from the departure of prior pollinator(s to the arrival of another pollinator, the selection of honey bees for flowers occupied by bumble bees, and the length of time used by honey bees to explore floral resources at the two types of sites. At the community level, we explored the effect of bumble bee visitation on the distribution patterns of honey bees on squash flowers. Conclusively, bumble bee visitation caused an increase in elapsed time before flowers were visited again by a honey bee, a behavioral avoidance by a newly-arriving honey bee to select flowers occupied by bumble bees, and a shortened length of time the honey bee takes to examine and collect floral resources. The number of overall bumble bees on squash flowers was the most important factor explaining the difference in the distribution patterns of honey bees at the community level. Furthermore, decline in the number of overall bumble bees on the squash flowers resulted in an increase in the number of overall honey bees. Therefore, our study suggests that bee interactions provide an opportunity to enhance the resilience of ecosystem pollination services against the decline in pollinator diversity.

  10. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, A.; A. SICEANU

    2003-01-01

    The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For ea...

  11. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF VARIOUS QUEEN BEES MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern queens maintenance systems are based on the use of artificial insemination, queens’ maintenance in the so called „queens bank” , in this way assuring an increased economic efficiency in beekeeping. This study aimed to compare the economic efficiency of the implementation of A.I. to various queen bees maintenance systems. Three alternatives have been taken into account: V1-a queen bee in a cage together with her bees, V2- a queen bank system and V3 – a queen bee in a nucleus. For each queen bee maintenance alternative have been evaluated the most important indicators such as: expenses, incomes, profit, number of marketable inseminated and selected queen bees, honey production, cost/queen, revenue/queen, profit/queen, profit rate. The most effective alternative was the queen bank system assuring 2,400 marketable queen bees and 20 kg honey delivered yearly, USD 12,442 incomes, USD 3,400 expenses, USD 9,042 profit, that is USD 3.77/queen bee and 265.72 % profit rate under the condition as A.I. costs are just USD 1,058, representing 31.1 % of total queen bees maintenance costs.

  12. Application of Bees Algorithm in Multi-Join Query Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Alamery

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-join query optimization is an important technique for designing and implementing database management system. It is a crucial factor that affects the capability of database. This paper proposes a Bees algorithm that simulates the foraging behavior of honey bee swarm to solve Multi-join query optimization problem. The performance of the Bees algorithm and Ant Colony Optimization algorithm are compared with respect to computational time and the simulation result indicates that Bees algorithm is more effective and efficient.

  13. Polygonal Approximation Using an Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chien Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A polygonal approximation method based on the new artificial bee colony (NABC algorithm is proposed in this paper. In the present method, a solution is represented by a vector, and the objective function is defined as the integral square error between the given curve and its corresponding polygon. The search process, including the employed bee stage, the onlooker bee stage, and the scout bee stage, has been constructed for this specific problem. Most experiments show that the present method when compared with the DE-based method can obtain superior approximation results with less error norm with respect to the original curves.

  14. 468 Urticarial Vasculitis After Bee-sting Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, June-Hyuk; Park, Sung Woo; Jang, An-Soo; Kim, DoJin; Park, Choon-Sik

    2012-01-01

    Background Bee-sting therapy is one of the oriental traditional medical therapies. Some chemical components of bee venom have been known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, traditional therapists use one chemical component (e.g. Apitoxin) for injection therapy using a syringe, instead of sting method with bee itself as to be known traditional method. 31-year-old woman had a lower back pain because of mild HIVD in lumbar spine for 5 months. She had bee-sting therapies for several time...

  15. Invasion of Varroa mites into honey bee brood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Boot, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa-jacobsoni is one of the most serious pests of Western honey bees, Apis mellifera. The mites parasitize adult bees, but reproduction only occurs while parasitizing on honey bee brood. Invasion into a drone or a worker cell is therefore a crucial step in the life of Varroa mites. In this thesis, individual mites, the population of mites and characteristics of honey bee brood cells have been studied in relation to invasion behaviour. In addition, a simple model has been...

  16. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chaeweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300 or sexual difference (P = 0.163. Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.

  17. Comparative bioacoustical studies on flight and buzzing of neotropical bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Burkart

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of bees is typically accompanied by the humming sound of their flight. Bees of several tribes are also capable of pollen collecting by vibration, known as buzzing behaviour, which produces a buzzing sound, different from the flight sound. An open question is whether bee species have species-specific buzzing patterns or frequencies dependent of the bees' morphology or are capable to adjust their indivudual buzzing sound to optimize pollen return. The investigations to approach this issue were performed in northeastern Brazil near Recife in the state of Pernambuco. We present a new field method using a commercially available portable system able to record the sound of bees during flight and buzzing at flowers. Further, we describe computer linguistical algorithms to analyse the frequency of the recorded sound sequences. With this method, we recorded the flight and buzzing sequences of 59 individual bees out of 12 species visiting the flowers of Solanum stramoniifolium and S. paniculatum. Our findings demonstrate a typical frequency range for the sounds produced by the bees of a species. Our statistical analysis shows a strong correlation of bee size and flight frequency and demonstrate that bee species use different frequency patterns.

  18. Nutrigenomics in honey bees: digital gene expression analysis of pollen's nutritive effects on healthy and varroa-parasitized bees.

    OpenAIRE

    Parrinello Hughes; Dantec Christelle; Alaux Cédric; Le Conte Yves

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition is a major factor affecting animal health, resistance to disease and survival. In honey bees (Apis mellifera), pollen, which is the main dietary source of proteins, amino acids and lipids, is essential to adult bee physiological development while reducing their susceptibility to parasites and pathogens. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pollen's nutritive impact on honey bee health remained to be determined. For that purpose, we investigated the inf...

  19. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  20. Do bees like Van Gogh's Sunflowers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittka, Lars; Walker, Julian

    2006-06-01

    Flower colours have evolved over 100 million years to address the colour vision of their bee pollinators. In a much more rapid process, cultural (and horticultural) evolution has produced images of flowers that stimulate aesthetic responses in human observers. The colour vision and analysis of visual patterns differ in several respects between humans and bees. Here, a behavioural ecologist and an installation artist present bumblebees with reproductions of paintings highly appreciated in Western society, such as Van Gogh's Sunflowers. We use this unconventional approach in the hope to raise awareness for between-species differences in visual perception, and to provoke thinking about the implications of biology in human aesthetics and the relationship between object representation and its biological connotations.

  1. Study on Bee venom and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Hyoung-Seok Yun; Young-Suk Kim; Jae-Dong Lee

    2000-01-01

    In order to study Bee venom and Pain, We searched Journals and Internet. The results were as follows: 1. The domestic papers were total 13. 4 papers were published at The journal of korean acupuncture & moxibustion society, 3 papers were published at The journal of korean oriental medical society, Each The journal of KyoungHee University Oriental Medicine and The journal of korean sports oriental medical society published 1 papers and Unpublished desertations were 3. The clinical studies were...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available honey bee Apis mellifera Arthropoda Apis_mellifera_L.png Apis_mellifera_NL.png Apis_mellife...ra_S.png Apis_mellifera_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=L h...ttp://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellife...ra&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Apis+mellifera&t=NS ...

  3. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrini, Claudio; Mutinelli, Franco; Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health. PMID:27182604

  4. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Porrini

    Full Text Available In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47-69% in 2009 and from 30-60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health.

  5. Can we disrupt the sensing of honey bees by the bee parasite Varroa destructor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurit Eliash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is considered to be one of the most significant threats to apiculture around the world. Chemical cues are known to play a significant role in the host-finding behavior of Varroa. The mites distinguish between bees from different task groups, and prefer nurses over foragers. We examined the possibility of disrupting the Varroa--honey bee interaction by targeting the mite's olfactory system. In particular, we examined the effect of volatile compounds, ethers of cis 5-(2'-hydroxyethyl cyclopent-2-en-1-ol or of dihydroquinone, resorcinol or catechol. We tested the effect of these compounds on the Varroa chemosensory organ by electrophysiology and on behavior in a choice bioassay. The electrophysiological studies were conducted on the isolated foreleg. In the behavioral bioassay, the mite's preference between a nurse and a forager bee was evaluated. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that in the presence of some compounds, the response of the Varroa chemosensory organ to honey bee headspace volatiles significantly decreased. This effect was dose dependent and, for some of the compounds, long lasting (>1 min. Furthermore, disruption of the Varroa volatile detection was accompanied by a reversal of the mite's preference from a nurse to a forager bee. Long-term inhibition of the electrophysiological responses of mites to the tested compounds was a good predictor for an alteration in the mite's host preference. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate the potential of the selected compounds to disrupt the Varroa--honey bee associations, thus opening new avenues for Varroa control.

  6. The Status of Honey Bee Health in Italy: Results from the Nationwide Bee Monitoring Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Laura; Granato, Anna; Laurenson, Lynn; Roberts, Katherine; Gallina, Albino; Silvester, Nicholas; Medrzycki, Piotr; Renzi, Teresa; Sgolastra, Fabio; Lodesani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In Italy a nation-wide monitoring network was established in 2009 in response to significant honey bee colony mortality reported during 2008. The network comprised of approximately 100 apiaries located across Italy. Colonies were sampled four times per year, in order to assess the health status and to collect samples for pathogen, chemical and pollen analyses. The prevalence of Nosema ceranae ranged, on average, from 47–69% in 2009 and from 30–60% in 2010, with strong seasonal variation. Virus prevalence was higher in 2010 than in 2009. The most widespread viruses were BQCV, DWV and SBV. The most frequent pesticides in all hive contents were organophosphates and pyrethroids such as coumaphos and tau-fluvalinate. Beeswax was the most frequently contaminated hive product, with 40% of samples positive and 13% having multiple residues, while 27% of bee-bread and 12% of honey bee samples were contaminated. Colony losses in 2009/10 were on average 19%, with no major differences between regions of Italy. In 2009, the presence of DWV in autumn was positively correlated with colony losses. Similarly, hive mortality was higher in BQCV infected colonies in the first and second visits of the year. In 2010, colony losses were significantly related to the presence of pesticides in honey bees during the second sampling period. Honey bee exposure to poisons in spring could have a negative impact at the colony level, contributing to increase colony mortality during the beekeeping season. In both 2009 and 2010, colony mortality rates were positively related to the percentage of agricultural land surrounding apiaries, supporting the importance of land use for honey bee health. PMID:27182604

  7. General Stress Responses in the Honey Bee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naïla Even

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.

  8. Effects of stingless bee and honey bee propolis on four species of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnesi, A P; Aquino-Ferreira, R; De Jong, D; Bastos, J K; Soares, A E E

    2009-01-01

    We examined the antibacterial activities of several types of propolis, including Africanized honey bee green propolis and propolis produced by meliponini bees. The antibacterial activity of green propolis against Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus was superior to that of Melipona quadrifasciata and Scaptotrigona sp propolis. Only two samples of propolis (green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis) were efficient against Escherichia coli. Melipona quadrifasciata propolis was better than green propolis and Scaptotrigona sp propolis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We concluded that these resins have potential for human and veterinary medicine. PMID:19554760

  9. Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Romina; Bartomeus, Ignasi; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Garratt, Michael P D; Howlett, Brad G; Winfree, Rachael; Cunningham, Saul A; Mayfield, Margaret M; Arthur, Anthony D; Andersson, Georg K S; Bommarco, Riccardo; Brittain, Claire; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Chacoff, Natacha P; Entling, Martin H; Foully, Benjamin; Freitas, Breno M; Gemmill-Herren, Barbara; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Griffin, Sean R; Gross, Caroline L; Herbertsson, Lina; Herzog, Felix; Hipólito, Juliana; Jaggar, Sue; Jauker, Frank; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Kleijn, David; Krishnan, Smitha; Lemos, Camila Q; Lindström, Sandra A M; Mandelik, Yael; Monteiro, Victor M; Nelson, Warrick; Nilsson, Lovisa; Pattemore, David E; Pereira, Natália de O; Pisanty, Gideon; Potts, Simon G; Reemer, Menno; Rundlöf, Maj; Sheffield, Cory S; Scheper, Jeroen; Schüepp, Christof; Smith, Henrik G; Stanley, Dara A; Stout, Jane C; Szentgyörgyi, Hajnalka; Taki, Hisatomo; Vergara, Carlos H; Viana, Blandina F; Woyciechowski, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Wild and managed bees are well documented as effective pollinators of global crops of economic importance. However, the contributions by pollinators other than bees have been little explored despite their potential to contribute to crop production and stability in the face of environmental change. Non-bee pollinators include flies, beetles, moths, butterflies, wasps, ants, birds, and bats, among others. Here we focus on non-bee insects and synthesize 39 field studies from five continents that directly measured the crop pollination services provided by non-bees, honey bees, and other bees to compare the relative contributions of these taxa. Non-bees performed 25-50% of the total number of flower visits. Although non-bees were less effective pollinators than bees per flower visit, they made more visits; thus these two factors compensated for each other, resulting in pollination services rendered by non-bees that were similar to those provided by bees. In the subset of studies that measured fruit set, fruit set increased with non-bee insect visits independently of bee visitation rates, indicating that non-bee insects provide a unique benefit that is not provided by bees. We also show that non-bee insects are not as reliant as bees on the presence of remnant natural or seminatural habitat in the surrounding landscape. These results strongly suggest that non-bee insect pollinators play a significant role in global crop production and respond differently than bees to landscape structure, probably making their crop pollination services more robust to changes in land use. Non-bee insects provide a valuable service and provide potential insurance against bee population declines. PMID:26621730

  10. Impacts of Austrian Climate Variability on Honey Bee Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switanek, Matt; Brodschneider, Robert; Crailsheim, Karl; Truhetz, Heimo

    2015-04-01

    Global food production, as it is today, is not possible without pollinators such as the honey bee. It is therefore alarming that honey bee populations across the world have seen increased mortality rates in the last few decades. The challenges facing the honey bee calls into question the future of our food supply. Beside various infectious diseases, Varroa destructor is one of the main culprits leading to increased rates of honey bee mortality. Varroa destructor is a parasitic mite which strongly depends on honey bee brood for reproduction and can wipe out entire colonies. However, climate variability may also importantly influence honey bee breeding cycles and bee mortality rates. Persistent weather events affects vegetation and hence foraging possibilities for honey bees. This study first defines critical statistical relationships between key climate indicators (e.g., precipitation and temperature) and bee mortality rates across Austria, using 6 consecutive years of data. Next, these leading indicators, as they vary in space and time, are used to build a statistical model to predict bee mortality rates and the respective number of colonies affected. Using leave-one-out cross validation, the model reduces the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) by 21% with respect to predictions made with the mean mortality rate and the number of colonies. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo test is used to establish that the model's predictions are statistically significant at the 99.9% confidence level. These results highlight the influence of climate variables on honey bee populations, although variability in climate, by itself, cannot fully explain colony losses. This study was funded by the Austrian project 'Zukunft Biene'.

  11. ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ON NATIVE BEES BY THE INVASIVE AFRICANIZED HONEY BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUBIK DAVID

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT

    Very little effort has been made to investigate bee population dynamics among intact wilderness areas. The presence of newly-arrived feral Africanized honey bee (AHB, Apis mellifera (Apidae, populations was studied for 10-17 years in areas previously with few or no escaped European apiary honey bees. Here I describe and interpret the major results from studies in three neotropical forests: French Guiana, Panama and Yucatan, Mexico (5° to 19° N. latitude. The exotic Africanized honey bees did not produce a negative effect on native bees, including species that were solitary or highly eusocial. Major differences over time were found in honey bee abundance on flowers near habitat experiencing the greatest degree of disturbance, compared to deep forest areas. At the population level, sampled at nest blocks, or at flower patches, or at light traps, there was no sudden decline in bees after AHB arrival, and relatively steady or sinusoidal population dynamics. However, the native bees shifted their foraging time or floral species. A principal conclusion is that such competition is silent, in floristically rich habitats, because bees compensate behaviorally for competition. Other factors limit their populations.

    Key words: Africanized honey bee, native bees, competition, population dynamics, neotropical forests

    RESUMEN Pocos estudios han considerado la dinámica de poblaciones de abejas en bosques o hábitats no alterados por el hombre. La presencia de abejas silvestres Africanizadas de Apis mellifera (Apidae fue estudiado por 10-17 años en áreas previamente sin esta especie. Aquí presento e interpreto resultados de tres bosques neotropicales: Guyana Francesa, Panamá y Yucatán, México (5° a 19° N. latitud. La abeja Africanizada exótica no produjo efecto negativo en las abejas nativas, incluyendo especies altamente sociales y solitarias. Diferencias mayores a través del tiempo fueron encontradas en

  12. Bee Hunt! Ecojustice in Practice for Earth's Buzzing Biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael P.; Pickering, John

    2010-01-01

    The Bee Hunt! project and curriculum are designed with cultural and environmental sensitivity in mind. In this project, K-12 students develop their awareness and understanding of science and investigate North American pollinator declines. Bees, butterflies, and other pollinators are integrally connected to the pollination of the world's crops for…

  13. Parasite infection accelerates age polyethism in young honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Kryger, Per; Nieh, James C

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are important pollinators and their health is threatened worldwide by persistent exposure to a wide range of factors including pesticides, poor nutrition, and pathogens. Nosema ceranae is a ubiquitous microsporidian associated with high colony mortality. We used lab micro-colonies of honey bees and video analyses to track the effects of N. ceranae infection and exposure on a range of individual and social behaviours in young adult bees. We provide detailed data showing that N. ceranae infection significantly accelerated the age polyethism of young bees, causing them to exhibit behaviours typical of older bees. Bees with high N. ceranae spore counts had significantly increased walking rates and decreased attraction to queen mandibular pheromone. Infected bees also exhibited higher rates of trophallaxis (food exchange), potentially reflecting parasite manipulation to increase colony infection. However, reduction in queen contacts could help bees limit the spread of infection. Such accelerated age polyethism may provide a form of behavioural immunity, particularly if it is elicited by a wide variety of pathogens. PMID:26912310

  14. Detecting population admixture in honey bees of Serbia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedic, Nebojsa; Francis, Roy Mathew; Stanisavljevic, Ljubisa;

    2014-01-01

    morphometrics and 122 bees were successfully analysed using 24 DNA microsatellite markers. A combination of methods including multivariate statistics and assignment tests (frequency-based and Bayesian) revealed the honey bees of this region to resemble the subspecies Apis mellifera macedonica, Apis mellifera...

  15. Urbanization Increases Pathogen Pressure on Feral and Managed Honey Bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Youngsteadt

    Full Text Available Given the role of infectious disease in global pollinator decline, there is a need to understand factors that shape pathogen susceptibility and transmission in bees. Here we ask how urbanization affects the immune response and pathogen load of feral and managed colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus, the predominant economically important pollinator worldwide. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we measured expression of 4 immune genes and relative abundance of 10 honey bee pathogens. We also measured worker survival in a laboratory bioassay. We found that pathogen pressure on honey bees increased with urbanization and management, and the probability of worker survival declined 3-fold along our urbanization gradient. The effect of management on pathogens appears to be mediated by immunity, with feral bees expressing immune genes at nearly twice the levels of managed bees following an immune challenge. The effect of urbanization, however, was not linked with immunity; instead, urbanization may favor viability and transmission of some disease agents. Feral colonies, with lower disease burdens and stronger immune responses, may illuminate ways to improve honey bee management. The previously unexamined effects of urbanization on honey-bee disease are concerning, suggesting that urban areas may favor problematic diseases of pollinators.

  16. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    were ground-nesting polylectic solitary species that are known to forage in the family Rosaceae, to which strawberry belong, which indicate that the bees sampled are a source of pollination in strawberries (I, II). Furthermore, the high proportion of polylectic bees found in Danish strawberry fields...

  17. Socialized Medicine: Individual and communal disease barriers in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bees are attacked by numerous parasites and pathogens toward which they present defenses. In this review, we will briefly introduce the many pathogens and parasites afflicting honey bees, highlighting the biologies of specific taxonomic groups mainly as they relate to virulence and possible de...

  18. Patterns of widespread decline in North American bumble bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining abundance and range shifts of bumble bee (Bombus) species have been observed in Europe and Asia. However, the status of North America’s bumble bee species has been largely unstudied. Recent reports based on local or regional observations suggest that parallel declines are taking place in N...

  19. Patterns of widespread decline in North America bumble bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining abundance and range shifts of bumble bee (Bombus) species have been observed in Europe and Asia. However, the status of North America’s bumble bee species has been largely unstudied. Recent reports based on local or regional observations suggest that parallel declines are taking place in N...

  20. Bees associate colour cues with differences in pollen rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Elizabeth; de Ibarra, Natalie Hempel

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to the wealth of knowledge concerning sucrose-rewarded learning, the question of whether bees learn when they collect pollen from flowers has been little addressed. The nutritional value of pollen varies considerably between species, and it may be that bees learn the features of flowers that produce pollen best suited to the dietary requirements of their larvae. It is still unknown, however, whether a non-ingestive reward pathway for pollen learning exists, and how foraging bees sense differences between pollen types. Here we adopt a novel experimental approach testing the learning ability of bees with pollen rewards. Bumblebees were reared under controlled laboratory conditions. To establish which pollen rewards are distinguishable, individual bees were given the choice of collecting two types of pollen, diluted to varying degrees with indigestible α-cellulose. Bees preferentially collected a particular pollen type, but this was not always the most concentrated sample. Preferences were influenced by the degree of similarity between samples and also by the period of exposure, with bees more readily collecting samples of lower pollen concentration after five trials. When trained differentially, bees were able to associate an initially less-preferred contextual colour with the more concentrated sample, whilst their pollen preferences did not change. Successful learning of contextual cues seems to maintain pollen foraging preferences over repeated exposures, suggesting that fast learning of floral cues may preclude continuous sampling and evaluation of alternative reward sources, leading to constancy in pollen foraging. PMID:24855678

  1. The colony environment modulates sleep in honey bee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eban-Rothschild, Ada; Bloch, Guy

    2015-02-01

    One of the most important and evolutionarily conserved roles of sleep is the processing and consolidation of information acquired during wakefulness. In both insects and mammals, environmental and social stimuli can modify sleep physiology and behavior, yet relatively little is known about the specifics of the wake experiences and their relative contribution to experience-dependent modulation of sleep. Honey bees provide an excellent model system in this regard because their behavioral repertoire is well characterized and the environment they experience during the day can be manipulated while keeping an ecologically and sociobiologically relevant context. We examined whether social experience modulates sleep in honey bees, and evaluated the relative contribution of different social signals. We exposed newly emerged bees to different components of their natural social environment and then monitored their sleep behavior in individual cages in a constant lab environment. We found that rich waking experience modulates subsequent sleep. Bees that experienced the colony environment for 1 or 2 days slept more than same-age sister bees that were caged individually or in small groups in the lab. Furthermore, bees placed in mesh-enclosures in the colony, that prevented direct contact with nestmates, slept similarly to bees freely moving in the colony. These results suggest that social signals that do not require direct or close distance interactions between bees are sufficiently rich to encompass almost the entire effect of the colony on sleep. Our findings provide a remarkable example of social experience-dependent modulation of an essential biological process. PMID:25524987

  2. Parasite-host interactions between the Varroa mite and the honey bee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calis, J.N.M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduction

    Varroa mites as parasites of honey bees

    Varroa destructor (Anderson & Trueman, 2000), is the most important pest of European races of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera L., weakening bees and vectoring bee diseases (Matheson, 1993). Over the past decades it has spread

  3. Comparative testing of different methods for evaluation of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay D. Dobrynin; Mario Colombo; Francesca Romana Eördegh

    2011-01-01

    Different methods for evaluation of the degree of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies were tested. The methods using in vivo evaluation were the most sparing for the bees but less precise. The methods using evaluation with the killing of the bees or brood were the most precise but less sparing for bees.

  4. Comparative testing of different methods for evaluation of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay D. Dobrynin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Different methods for evaluation of the degree of Varroa destructor infestation of honey bee colonies were tested. The methods using in vivo evaluation were the most sparing for the bees but less precise. The methods using evaluation with the killing of the bees or brood were the most precise but less sparing for bees.

  5. Medium for development of bee cell cultures (Apis mellifera: Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bee cell culture system was developed. A medium, WH2, for the production of cell cultures from hymenopteran species such as honey bee, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was developed. Multiple bee cell cultures were produced when using bee larvae and pupae as starting material and the modif...

  6. Discovery of the Western Palearctic bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bees of North America are very diverse, including over 3500 species. Approximately thirty of these bee species are not native to this continent. Recently another non-native bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum, was found in a naturalized area in Ontario, Canada. This bee nests in holes...

  7. Queens become workers: pesticides alter caste differentiation in bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Charles F.; Acosta, André L.; Dorneles, Andressa L.; dos Santos, Patrick D. S.; Blochtein, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Bees are important for the world biodiversity and economy because they provide key pollination services in forests and crops. However, pesticide use in crops has adversely affected (decreased) queen production because of increased mortality among larvae. Here, we demonstrated that in vitro-reared queens of a neotropical social bee species (Plebeia droryana) also showed high larval mortality after exposure to an organophosphate pesticide (chlorpyrifos) via larval food. Moreover, most of the surviving larvae that were destined to develop into queens became workers more likely because they ate less food than expected without pesticide skewing thus caste differentiation in this bee species. This adverse effect has not been previously reported for any other social insects, such as honeybees or bumblebees. Queens are essential for breeding and colony growth. Therefore, if our data are applicable to other pantropical social bee species across the globe, it is likely that these bees are at a serious risk of failure to form new colonies. PMID:27530246

  8. A quantitative model of honey bee colony population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Khoury

    Full Text Available Since 2006 the rate of honey bee colony failure has increased significantly. As an aid to testing hypotheses for the causes of colony failure we have developed a compartment model of honey bee colony population dynamics to explore the impact of different death rates of forager bees on colony growth and development. The model predicts a critical threshold forager death rate beneath which colonies regulate a stable population size. If death rates are sustained higher than this threshold rapid population decline is predicted and colony failure is inevitable. The model also predicts that high forager death rates draw hive bees into the foraging population at much younger ages than normal, which acts to accelerate colony failure. The model suggests that colony failure can be understood in terms of observed principles of honey bee population dynamics, and provides a theoretical framework for experimental investigation of the problem.

  9. Queens become workers: pesticides alter caste differentiation in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Charles F; Acosta, André L; Dorneles, Andressa L; Dos Santos, Patrick D S; Blochtein, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Bees are important for the world biodiversity and economy because they provide key pollination services in forests and crops. However, pesticide use in crops has adversely affected (decreased) queen production because of increased mortality among larvae. Here, we demonstrated that in vitro-reared queens of a neotropical social bee species (Plebeia droryana) also showed high larval mortality after exposure to an organophosphate pesticide (chlorpyrifos) via larval food. Moreover, most of the surviving larvae that were destined to develop into queens became workers more likely because they ate less food than expected without pesticide skewing thus caste differentiation in this bee species. This adverse effect has not been previously reported for any other social insects, such as honeybees or bumblebees. Queens are essential for breeding and colony growth. Therefore, if our data are applicable to other pantropical social bee species across the globe, it is likely that these bees are at a serious risk of failure to form new colonies. PMID:27530246

  10. Antiradioactive effect of bee pollens on irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The antiradioactive effect of bee pollens on irradiated rats were studied. The results showed that bee pollens have better effects of antiradioactive damage, i.e. the counts of peripheral white blood cells (PWBC) and the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the irradiation group treated with bee pollens increased significantly comparing with the control groups (normal and single irradiation), the levels of lipid peroxide (MDA Content and POV) of irradiation group treated with bee pollens decreased obviously comparing with the control groups. It is suggested that possible mechanism of antiradioactive capacity, namely, the activating for SOD to eradicate free radicals and decline LPO levels. The experimental result has provided a scientific basis for clinical therapy of acute radiation sickness with bee pollens

  11. The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of the Maltese Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, Mario V; Rasmont, Pierre; Kuhlmann, Michael; Dathe, Holger; Pauly, Alain; Patiny, Sébastien; Terzo, Michael; Michez, Denis

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first checklist of the bees of the Maltese Islands and includes notes on the distribution of each species. A total of 95 species belonging to five bee families are recorded: Andrenidae (17 species), Apidae (34 species), Colletidae (6 species), Halictidae (15 species) and Megachilidae (23 species). Lasioglossum callizonium (Pérez, 1896) is recorded for the first time from the Maltese Islands. Records of three previously reported species are listed as dubious. The bee fauna of the Maltese Archipelago is dominated by widespread West-Palaearctic species, and most of the species recorded are also found in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Bees that have been recorded from Malta are also known from Southern Europe. The study provides a biogeographical analysis of the Maltese bee fauna, and discusses the conservation of this group and their important role in the delivery of ecosystem services in the Maltese Islands. PMID:27615971

  12. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B.; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  13. Bioinspired engineering of exploration systems for NASA and DoD: from bees to BEES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakoor, S.; Zornetzer, S.; Hine, B.; Chahl, J.; Werblin, F.; Srinivasan, M. V.; Young, L.

    2003-01-01

    The intent of Bio-inspired Engineering of Exploration Systems (BEES) is to distill the principles found in successful, nature-tested mechanisms of specific crucial functions that are hard to accomplish by conventional methods, but accomplished rather deftly in nature by biological organisms.

  14. Starving honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae signal pheromonally to worker bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xu Jiang; Zhang, Xue Chuan; Jiang, Wu Jun; Barron, Andrew B; Zhang, Jian Hui; Zeng, Zhi Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative brood care is diagnostic of animal societies. This is particularly true for the advanced social insects, and the honey bee is the best understood of the insect societies. A brood pheromone signaling the presence of larvae in a bee colony has been characterised and well studied, but here we explored whether honey bee larvae actively signal their food needs pheromonally to workers. We show that starving honey bee larvae signal to workers via increased production of the volatile pheromone E-β-ocimene. Analysis of volatile pheromones produced by food-deprived and fed larvae with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that starving larvae produced more E-β-ocimene. Behavioural analyses showed that adding E-β-ocimene to empty cells increased the number of worker visits to those cells, and similarly adding E-β-ocimene to larvae increased worker visitation rate to the larvae. RNA-seq and qRT-PCR analysis identified 3 genes in the E-β-ocimene biosynthetic pathway that were upregulated in larvae following 30 minutes of starvation, and these genes also upregulated in 2-day old larvae compared to 4-day old larvae (2-day old larvae produce the most E-β-ocimene). This identifies a pheromonal mechanism by which brood can beg for food from workers to influence the allocation of resources within the colony. PMID:26924295

  15. Bees as Biosensors: Chemosensory Ability, Honey Bee Monitoring Systems, and Emergent Sensor Technologies Derived from the Pollinator Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry J. Bromenshenk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on critical milestones in the development path for the use of bees, mainly honey bees and bumble bees, as sentinels and biosensors. These keystone species comprise the most abundant pollinators of agro-ecosystems. Pollinating 70%–80% of flowering terrestrial plants, bees and other insects propel the reproduction and survival of plants and themselves, as well as improve the quantity and quality of seeds, nuts, and fruits that feed birds, wildlife, and us. Flowers provide insects with energy, nutrients, and shelter, while pollinators are essential to global ecosystem productivity and stability. A rich and diverse milieu of chemical signals establishes and maintains this intimate partnership. Observations of bee odor search behavior extend back to Aristotle. In the past two decades great strides have been made in methods and instrumentation for the study and exploitation of bee search behavior and for examining intra-organismal chemical communication signals. In particular, bees can be trained to search for and localize sources for a variety of chemicals, which when coupled with emerging tracking and mapping technologies create novel potential for research, as well as bee and crop management.

  16. Colonies of bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) produce fewer workers, less bee biomass, and have smaller mother queens following fungicide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bees provide vital pollination services to the majority of flowering plants in both natural and agricultural systems. Unfortunately, both native and managed bee populations are experiencing serious declines, threatening the persistence of these plants and crops. Agricultural chemicals are one possib...

  17. Antimicrobial effect of bee collected pollen extract to Enterobacteriaceae genera after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we researched antimicrobial activity of bee pollen extracts to Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from chicken intestinal tract after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding. We used well plate agar diffusion method for antimicrobial testing of bee pollen extract and disc diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria by EUCAST. Identification of bacteria was done by test kit Enterotest 24. We identified tree bacterial strains: E. coli, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca. We determined that K. oxytoca was resistant to ampicillin only and others identified strain were sensitive to used antibiotics. Also we determined antimicrobial effect of bee pollen extract to all tested strains of Enterobacteriaceae genera which were isolated from intestinal tract of chicken after application of bee collected pollen extract in their feeding. From obtained results we could be conclude that bacteria isolated from chicken after application of bee pollen extract had more resistance to bee collected pollen extract in in vitro experiment as E. coli CCM 3988, which did not be in contact with bee pollen extract.

  18. Molecular genetic analysis of Varroa destructor mites in brood, fallen injured mites and worker bee longevity in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important traits that contribute to honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony survival are resistance to Varroa destructor and longevity of worker bees. We investigated the relationship between a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and three phenotypic measurements of colonies: a) perc...

  19. Modelling food and population dynamics in honey bee colonies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Khoury

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera are increasingly in demand as pollinators for various key agricultural food crops, but globally honey bee populations are in decline, and honey bee colony failure rates have increased. This scenario highlights a need to understand the conditions in which colonies flourish and in which colonies fail. To aid this investigation we present a compartment model of bee population dynamics to explore how food availability and bee death rates interact to determine colony growth and development. Our model uses simple differential equations to represent the transitions of eggs laid by the queen to brood, then hive bees and finally forager bees, and the process of social inhibition that regulates the rate at which hive bees begin to forage. We assume that food availability can influence both the number of brood successfully reared to adulthood and the rate at which bees transition from hive duties to foraging. The model predicts complex interactions between food availability and forager death rates in shaping colony fate. Low death rates and high food availability results in stable bee populations at equilibrium (with population size strongly determined by forager death rate but consistently increasing food reserves. At higher death rates food stores in a colony settle at a finite equilibrium reflecting the balance of food collection and food use. When forager death rates exceed a critical threshold the colony fails but residual food remains. Our model presents a simple mathematical framework for exploring the interactions of food and forager mortality on colony fate, and provides the mathematical basis for more involved simulation models of hive performance.

  20. A Study on Major Components of Bee Venom Using Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Jin-Seon

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to study on major components of various Bee Venom(Bee Venom by electrical stimulation in Korea; K-BV I, Bee Venom by Microwave stimulation in Korea; K -BV II, 0.5rng/ml, Fu Yu Pharmaceutical Factory, China; C-BV, 1mg /ml, Monmouth Pain Institute, Inc., U.S.A.; A-BV using Electrophoresis. The results were summarized as follows: 1. In 1:4000 Bee Venom solution rate, the band was not displayed distinctly usmg Electrophoresis. But in 1: 1000, the band showed clearly. 2. The results of Electrophoresis at solution rate 1:1000, K-BV I and K-BVII showed similar band. 3. The molecular weight of Phospholipase A2 was known as 19,000 but its band was seen at 17,000 in Electrophoresis. 4. Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was different at solution rate 1:4000 ; C-BV was 250μg/ml, K-BV I was 190μg/ml, K-BV Ⅱ was 160μg/ml and C-BV was 45μg/ml. 5. Electrophoresis method was unuseful for analysis of Bee Venom when solution rate is above 1:4000 but Protein concentration of Bee Venom by Lowry method was possible. These data from the study can be applied to establish the standard measurement of Bee Venom and prevent pure bee venom from mixing of another components. I think it is desirable to study more about safety of Bee Venom as time goes by.

  1. Bee bread - perspective source of bioactive compounds for future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bee bread is product with long history used mainly in folk medicine. Nowadays, bee bread is growing in commercial interest due to its high nutritional properties. The objective of this study was to determine biological activity of ethanolic extract of bee bread obtained from selected region of Ukraine - Poltava oblast, Kirovohrad oblast, Vinnica oblast, Kyiv oblast, Dnepropetrovsk oblast. The antioxidant activity was measured with the radical scavenging assays using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical as well as phosphomolybdenum assay. Total polyphenol content was determined with Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and total flavonoid content by aluminium-chloride method. Secondary was also evaluated antimicrobial activity in bee bread samples with disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentrations. Antioxidant activity expressed as mg TEAC per g of dry weight (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was the highest in bee bread from Poltava oblast in DPPH and also phosphomolybdenum method. Samples of bee bread contained high levels of total polyphenols (12.36 - 18.24 mg GAE - gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight and flavonoids (13.56 - 18.24 μg QE - quercetin equivalent per g of dry weight with the best values of bee bread from Poltava oblast. An elevated level of antioxidant potential in the bee bread determines its biological properties, which conditioned of the biological active substances. The best antibacterial activity of bee bred with disc diffusion method was found against Bacillus thuringiensis CCM 19. The antibacterial activity inhibited by the bee bread extract in the present study indicate that best minimal inhibition concentration was against bacteria Escherichia coli CCM 3988 and Salmonella enterica subs. enterica CCM 3807.

  2. STIMULATION OF RESISTANCE OF BEE FAMILIES DURING WINTERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nicolae eremia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Honey bees use as food nectar, honey, pollen and bee bread. They collect nectar and pollen on flowers, that process in food - honey and bee bread. Food provides the bees body with energy due to carbohydrates, proteins, enzymes, lipids, vitamins, minerals. The goal of the studies was to stimulate the bees’ resistance during wintering against nesemosa disease in bee families’ survival after winter time and productivity increasing. There was established that the optimal dose of feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in reserves supplementing of food of bee families during autumn is 150 mg of sugar syrup. There was revealed that using of the feed additive Pramix Bionorm P (symbiotic complex, in bees feeding for reserves supplementing of bees food ensures a stimulating of resistance at wintering of bees, decreases the quantity of used honey during wintering at one space between honey combs populated with bees, as well increases the productivity. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Urban gardens promote bee foraging over natural habitats and plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Benjamin F; Wallace, Helen; Heard, Tim A; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Leonhardt, Sara D

    2016-03-01

    Increasing human land use for agriculture and housing leads to the loss of natural habitat and to widespread declines in wild bees. Bee foraging dynamics and fitness depend on the availability of resources in the surrounding landscape, but how precisely landscape related resource differences affect bee foraging patterns remains unclear. To investigate how landscape and its interaction with season and weather drive foraging and resource intake in social bees, we experimentally compared foraging activity, the allocation of foragers to different resources (pollen, nectar, and resin) and overall resource intake in the Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonaria (Apidae, Meliponini). Bee colonies were monitored in different seasons over two years. We compared foraging patterns and resource intake between the bees' natural habitat (forests) and two landscapes differently altered by humans (suburban gardens and agricultural macadamia plantations). We found foraging activity as well as pollen and nectar forager numbers to be highest in suburban gardens, intermediate in forests and low in plantations. Foraging patterns further differed between seasons, but seasonal variations strongly differed between landscapes. Sugar and pollen intake was low in plantations, but contrary with our predictions, it was even higher in gardens than in forests. In contrast, resin intake was similar across landscapes. Consequently, differences in resource availability between natural and altered landscapes strongly affect foraging patterns and thus resource intake in social bees. While agricultural monocultures largely reduce foraging success, suburban gardens can increase resource intake well above rates found in natural habitats of bees, indicating that human activities can both decrease and increase the availability of resources in a landscape and thus reduce or enhance bee fitness. PMID:26848387

  4. Wing shape of four new bee fossils (Hymenoptera: Anthophila provides insights to bee evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Dehon

    Full Text Available Bees (Anthophila are one of the major groups of angiosperm-pollinating insects and accordingly are widely studied in both basic and applied research, for which it is essential to have a clear understanding of their phylogeny, and evolutionary history. Direct evidence of bee evolutionary history has been hindered by a dearth of available fossils needed to determine the timing and tempo of their diversification, as well as episodes of extinction. Here we describe four new compression fossils of bees from three different deposits (Miocene of la Cerdanya, Spain; Oligocene of Céreste, France; and Eocene of the Green River Formation, U.S.A.. We assess the similarity of the forewing shape of the new fossils with extant and fossil taxa using geometric morphometrics analyses. Predictive discriminant analyses show that three fossils share similar forewing shapes with the Apidae [one of uncertain tribal placement and perhaps near Euglossini, one definitive bumble bee (Bombini, and one digger bee (Anthophorini], while one fossil is more similar to the Andrenidae. The corbiculate fossils are described as Euglossopteryx biesmeijeri De Meulemeester, Michez, & Engel, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Euglossopteryx Dehon & Engel, n. gen. and Bombus cerdanyensis Dehon, De Meulemeester, & Engel, sp. nov. They provide new information on the distribution and timing of particular corbiculate groups, most notably the extension into North America of possible Eocene-Oligocene cooling-induced extinctions. Protohabropoda pauli De Meulemeester & Michez, gen. nov. sp. nov. (type species of Protohabropoda Dehon & Engel, n. gen. reinforces previous hypotheses of anthophorine evolution in terms of ecological shifts by the Oligocene from tropical to mesic or xeric habitats. Lastly, a new fossil of the Andreninae, Andrena antoinei Michez & De Meulemeester, sp. nov., further documents the presence of the today widespread genus Andrena Fabricius in the Late Oligocene of France.

  5. Territorial biodiversity and consequences on physico-chemical characteristics of pollen collected by honey bee colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Odoux, Jean Francois; Feuillet, Dalila; Aupinel, Pierrick; Loublier, Yves; Tasei, Jean Noel; Mateescu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Pollen resources may become a constraint for the honey bee in cereal farming agrosystems and thus influence honey bee colony development. This survey intended to increase knowledge on bee ecology in order to understand how farming systems can provide bee forage throughout the year. We conducted a 1-year study to investigate the flower range exploited in an agrarian environment in western France, the physico-chemical composition of honey bee-collected pollen, the territorial biodiversity visit...

  6. Multiobjective Optimization of Irreversible Thermal Engine Using Mutable Smart Bee Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Gorji-Bandpy, M.; A. Mozaffari

    2012-01-01

    A new method called mutable smart bee (MSB) algorithm proposed for cooperative optimizing of the maximum power output (MPO) and minimum entropy generation (MEG) of an Atkinson cycle as a multiobjective, multi-modal mechanical problem. This method utilizes mutable smart bee instead of classical bees. The results have been checked with some of the most common optimizing algorithms like Karaboga’s original artificial bee colony, bees algorithm (BA), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO), L...

  7. A New Threat to Honey Bees, the Parasitic Phorid Fly Apocephalus borealis

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Core; Charles Runckel; Jonathan Ivers; Christopher Quock; Travis Siapno; Seraphina Denault; Brian Brown; Joseph Derisi; Smith, Christopher D.; John Hafernik

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are subject to numerous pathogens and parasites. Interaction among multiple pathogens and parasites is the proposed cause for Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD), a syndrome characterized by worker bees abandoning their hive. Here we provide the first documentation that the phorid fly Apocephalus borealis, previously known to parasitize bumble bees, also infects and eventually kills honey bees and may pose an emerging threat to North American apiculture. Parasitized honey bees s...

  8. Africanized honey bees pollinate and preempt the pollen of Spondias mombin (Anacardiaceae) flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Liedson; Martins, Celso

    2012-01-01

    The invasion of generalist Africanized honey bees may change certain plant-pollinator interactions. We evaluated the preemption by honey bees and the exploitative competition with native bees on a tree with nocturnally dehiscent small flowers. Our main objectives were to quantify pollen production and harvesting, to verify whether honey bees exploitatively compete with native bees and to identify the effective pollinators of Spondias mombin. The nocturnally dehiscent flowers were pollen deple...

  9. Information flow and regulation of foraging activity in bumble bees (Bombus spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dornhaus, Anna; Chittka, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Communication in the context of foraging in bumble bees has received less attention than in other social bees. Yet, recent studies have revealed that information flow mediates colony foraging activity. The species studied do not recruit to specific locations, but bees can learn the scent of food sources at the nest, which may reduce their search time. Location communication may not confer high benefits to bumble bees. But bees react to nectar influx with increased foraging activity, with high...

  10. Intensively Cultivated Landscape and Varroa Mite Infestation Are Associated with Reduced Honey Bee Nutritional State

    OpenAIRE

    Adam G Dolezal; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Miller, W. Allen; Bryony C. Bonning; Toth, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    As key pollinators, honey bees are crucial to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. An important factor in the health of honey bees is the availability of diverse floral resources. However, in many parts of the world, high-intensity agriculture could result in a reduction in honey bee forage. Previous studies have investigated how the landscape surrounding honey bee hives affects some aspects of honey bee health, but to our knowledge there have been no investigations of the effects of int...

  11. The Impact of Pesticides on Honey Bees and Hence on Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Antonina Jivan

    2013-01-01

    Bee crisis is threatening global food security, given the fact that one third of global agricultural production relies on pollination, especially that of honey bees. Despite their importance for human being, honey bees die with alarming speed. In recent years, in Europe and America, due to pollution, pesticides and neglect there was registered an unprecedented rate of disappearance of honey bees. Einstein's theory, the fact that once the bees cease to exist, humanity has only four years to e...

  12. An Adaptive WLAN Interference Mitigation Scheme for ZigBee Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jo Woon Chong; Chae Ho Cho; Ho Young Hwang; Dan Keun Sung

    2015-01-01

    We propose an adaptive interference avoidance scheme that enhances the performance of ZigBee networks by adapting ZigBees' transmissions to measured wireless local area network (WLAN) interference. Our proposed algorithm is based on a stochastic analysis of ZigBee operation that is interfered with by WLAN transmission, given ZigBee and WLAN channels are overlaid in the industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band. We assume that WLAN devices have higher transmission power than ZigBee device...

  13. Monophyly and extensive extinction of advanced eusocial bees: Insights from an unexpected Eocene diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced eusociality sometimes is given credit for the ecological success of termites, ants, some wasps, and some bees. Comprehensive study of bees fossilized in Baltic amber has revealed an unsuspected middle Eocene (ca. 45 million years ago) diversity of eusocial bee lineages. Advanced eusociality arose once in the bees with significant post-Eocene losses in diversity, leaving today only two advanced eusocial tribes comprising less than 2% of the total bee divers...

  14. Quality of durable cookies enriched with rape bee pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Solgajová

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to enrich durable cookies with different additions of rape (Brassica napus var. napus bee pollen to increase nutritional properties of cookie samples and to improve technological and sensorial properties as well. Bee pollen is an important raw material due to its nutritional and functional properties. Cookie samples were prepared by substituting wheat flour with rape bee pollen in the amount of 16 % (1 g of bee pollen per cookie and 32 % (2 g of bee pollen per cookie using bee pollen from two localities Lenártovce and Nové Zámky. In baked samples beside sensory properties also chemical parameters and technological parameters of cookies were evaluated. It was found out that with the gradual addition of rape bee pollen the amount of ash content increased and the highest ash content was analysed in variants II and IV (0.71 and 0.77 % using 32 % addition of rape bee pollen. In terms of reducing sugars, addition of bee pollen caused that the content of reducing sugars in the products increased slightly. The highest reducing sugar content was determined in variant II. (24.59 %. On the other hand amount of crude protein the most considerably raised by addition of 2 g of pollen per cookie. The highest content of crude protein was analysed in variants II and IV (8.72 and 9.00 %. From the results of a linear models in which the dependent variables were the ash, crude protein and moisture it was determined the significant effect (p <0.05 only of the pollen addition. In the case of the model with the dependent variable reducing sugars it was found out significant effect (p<0.0001 of pollen addition and locality and their interactions. With the gradual addition of bee pollen values of technological parameters such as diameter and weight of cookies increased and thickness of products decreased. Based on sensory scores using a 9-point Hedonic scale the best sensorial acceptability (7.4 was found in variant I (1 g of bee

  15. Bee community shifts with landscape context in a tropical countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosi, Berry J; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R

    2007-03-01

    The ongoing scientific controversy over a putative "global pollination crisis" underscores the lack of understanding of the response of bees (the most important taxon of pollinators) to ongoing global land-use changes. We studied the effects of distance to forest, tree management, and floral resources on bee communities in pastures (the dominant land-use type) in southern Costa Rica. Over two years, we sampled bees and floral resources in 21 pastures at three distance classes from a large (approximately 230-ha) forest patch and of three common types: open pasture; pasture with remnant trees; and pasture with live fences. We found no consistent differences in bee diversity or abundance with respect to pasture management or floral resources. Bee community composition, however, was strikingly different at forest edges as compared to deforested countryside only a few hundred meters from forest. At forest edges, native social stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) comprised approximately 50% of the individuals sampled, while the alien honeybee Apis mellifera made up only approximately 5%. Away from forests, meliponines dropped to approximately 20% of sampled bees, whereas Apis increased to approximately 45%. Meliponine bees were also more speciose at forest edge sites than at a distance from forest, their abundance decreased with continuous distance to the nearest forest patch, and their species richness was correlated with the proportion of forest cover surrounding sample sites at scales from 200 to 1200 m. Meliponines and Apis together comprise the eusocial bee fauna of the study area and are unique in quickly recruiting foragers to high-quality resources. The diverse assemblage of native meliponine bees covers a wide range of body sizes and flower foraging behavior not found in Apis, and populations of many bee species (including Apis), are known to fluctuate considerably from year to year. Thus, the forest-related changes in eusocial bee communities we found may have

  16. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    OpenAIRE

    Xianbing Xie; Zachary Y Huang; Zhijiang Zeng

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emer...

  17. Experience-dependent plasticity in the mushroom bodies of the solitary bee Osmia lignaria (Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Ginger S; Day, Nancy F; Talbot, Emily F; Dobson, Heidi E M; Wallace, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    All members of the solitary bee species Osmia lignaria (the orchard bee) forage upon emergence from their natal nest cell. Conversely, in the honey bee, days-to-weeks of socially regulated behavioral development precede the onset of foraging. The social honey bee's behavioral transition to foraging is accompanied by neuroanatomical changes in the mushroom bodies, a region of the insect brain implicated in learning. If these changes were general adaptations to foraging, they should also occur in the solitary orchard bee. Using unbiased stereological methods, we estimated the volume of the major compartments of the mushroom bodies, the neuropil and Kenyon cell body region, in adult orchard bees. We compared the mushroom bodies of recently emerged bees with mature bees that had extensive foraging experience. To separate effects of general maturation from field foraging, some orchard bees were confined to a cage indoors. The mushroom body neuropil of experienced field foragers was significantly greater than that of both recently emerged and mature caged orchard bees, suggesting that, like the honey bee, this increase is driven by outdoor foraging experience. Unlike the honey bee, where increases in the ratio of neuropil to Kenyon cell region occur in the worker after emerging from the hive cell, the orchard bee emerged from the natal nest cell with a ratio that did not change with maturation and was comparable to honey-bee foragers. These results suggest that a common developmental endpoint may be reached via different development paths in social and solitary species of foraging bees. PMID:17918235

  18. Bee Hotels’ as Tools for Native Pollinator Conservation: A Premature Verdict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIvor, J. Scott; Packer, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Society is increasingly concerned with declining wild bee populations. Although most bees nest in the ground, considerable effort has centered on installing ‘bee hotels’—also known as nest boxes or trap nests—which artificially aggregate nest sites of above ground nesting bees. Campaigns to ‘save the bees’ often promote these devices despite the absence of data indicating they have a positive effect. From a survey of almost 600 bee hotels set up over a period of three years in Toronto, Canada, introduced bees nested at 32.9% of sites and represented 24.6% of more than 27,000 total bees and wasps recorded (47.1% of all bees recorded). Native bees were parasitized more than introduced bees and females of introduced bee species provisioned nests with significantly more female larva each year. Native wasps were significantly more abundant than both native and introduced bees and occupied almost 3/4 of all bee hotels each year; further, introduced wasps were the only group to significantly increase in relative abundance year over year. More research is needed to elucidate the potential pitfalls and benefits of using bee hotels in the conservation and population dynamics of wild native bees. PMID:25785609

  19. Are bee diseases linked to pesticides? - A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goulson, Dave; Pennacchio, Francesco; Nazzi, Francesco; Goka, Koichi; Desneux, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The negative impacts of pesticides, in particular insecticides, on bees and other pollinators have never been disputed. Insecticides can directly kill these vital insects, whereas herbicides reduce the diversity of their food resources, thus indirectly affecting their survival and reproduction. At sub-lethal level (insecticide molecules are known to influence the cognitive abilities of bees, impairing their performance and ultimately impacting on the viability of the colonies. In addition, widespread systemic insecticides appear to have introduced indirect side effects on both honey bees and wild bumblebees, by deeply affecting their health. Immune suppression of the natural defences by neonicotinoid and phenyl-pyrazole (fipronil) insecticides opens the way to parasite infections and viral diseases, fostering their spread among individuals and among bee colonies at higher rates than under conditions of no exposure to such insecticides. This causal link between diseases and/or parasites in bees and neonicotinoids and other pesticides has eluded researchers for years because both factors are concurrent: while the former are the immediate cause of colony collapses and bee declines, the latter are a key factor contributing to the increasing negative impact of parasitic infections observed in bees in recent decades. PMID:26826357

  20. Ecological adaptation of diverse honey bee (Apis mellifera populations.

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    Robert Parker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees are complex eusocial insects that provide a critical contribution to human agricultural food production. Their natural migration has selected for traits that increase fitness within geographical areas, but in parallel their domestication has selected for traits that enhance productivity and survival under local conditions. Elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of these local adaptive processes is a key goal of evolutionary biology. Proteomics provides tools unique among the major 'omics disciplines for identifying the mechanisms employed by an organism in adapting to environmental challenges. RESULTS: Through proteome profiling of adult honey bee midgut from geographically dispersed, domesticated populations combined with multiple parallel statistical treatments, the data presented here suggest some of the major cellular processes involved in adapting to different climates. These findings provide insight into the molecular underpinnings that may confer an advantage to honey bee populations. Significantly, the major energy-producing pathways of the mitochondria, the organelle most closely involved in heat production, were consistently higher in bees that had adapted to colder climates. In opposition, up-regulation of protein metabolism capacity, from biosynthesis to degradation, had been selected for in bees from warmer climates. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results present a proteomic interpretation of expression polymorphisms between honey bee ecotypes and provide insight into molecular aspects of local adaptation or selection with consequences for honey bee management and breeding. The implications of our findings extend beyond apiculture as they underscore the need to consider the interdependence of animal populations and their agro-ecological context.

  1. Varroa-virus interaction in collapsing honey bee colonies.

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    Roy M Francis

    Full Text Available Varroa mites and viruses are the currently the high-profile suspects in collapsing bee colonies. Therefore, seasonal variation in varroa load and viruses (Acute-Kashmir-Israeli complex (AKI and Deformed Wing Virus (DWV were monitored in a year-long study. We investigated the viral titres in honey bees and varroa mites from 23 colonies (15 apiaries under three treatment conditions: Organic acids (11 colonies, pyrethroid (9 colonies and untreated (3 colonies. Approximately 200 bees were sampled every month from April 2011 to October 2011, and April 2012. The 200 bees were split to 10 subsamples of 20 bees and analysed separately, which allows us to determine the prevalence of virus-infected bees. The treatment efficacy was often low for both treatments. In colonies where varroa treatment reduced the mite load, colonies overwintered successfully, allowing the mites and viruses to be carried over with the bees into the next season. In general, AKI and DWV titres did not show any notable response to the treatment and steadily increased over the season from April to October. In the untreated control group, titres increased most dramatically. Viral copies were correlated to number of varroa mites. Most colonies that collapsed over the winter had significantly higher AKI and DWV titres in October compared to survivors. Only treated colonies survived the winter. We discuss our results in relation to the varroa-virus model developed by Stephen Martin.

  2. Floral nectar guide patterns discourage nectar robbing by bumble bees.

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    Anne S Leonard

    Full Text Available Floral displays are under selection to both attract pollinators and deter antagonists. Here we show that a common floral trait, a nectar guide pattern, alters the behavior of bees that can act opportunistically as both pollinators and as antagonists. Generally, bees access nectar via the floral limb, transporting pollen through contact with the plant's reproductive structures; however bees sometimes extract nectar from a hole in the side of the flower that they or other floral visitors create. This behavior is called "nectar robbing" because bees may acquire the nectar without transporting pollen. We asked whether the presence of a symmetric floral nectar guide pattern on artificial flowers affected bumble bees' (Bombus impatiens propensity to rob or access nectar "legitimately." We discovered that nectar guides made legitimate visits more efficient for bees than robbing, and increased the relative frequency of legitimate visits, compared to flowers lacking nectar guides. This study is the first to show that beyond speeding nectar discovery, a nectar guide pattern can influence bees' flower handling in a way that could benefit the plant.

  3. Effects of Long Distance Transportation on Honey Bee Physiology

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    Kiheung Ahn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the requirement of long distance transportation of honey bees used for pollination, we understand little how transportation affects honey bees. Three trials in three different states (CA, GA, and MI were conducted to study the effects of long distance transportation on honey bee physiology. Newly emerged bees from one colony were split into two groups and introduced into a transported (T colony or a stationary (S colony in each trial. Volumes of hypopharyngeal gland acini in T colonies were significantly smaller than S colonies in all three trials. There were no significant differences between S and T colonies in juvenile hormone titers. Protein content in head showed no significant differences between S and T either in 7-day-old or 17-day-old bees of MI trial, but GA trial showed a significant reduction in bees experiencing transportation. Protein content in thorax was only measured in GA trial and was not significantly different between the two groups. Lipid content in abdomen was not significantly different between the S and T colonies in all three trials. This study suggests that bees experiencing transportation have trouble fully developing their food glands and this might affect their ability to nurse the next generation of workers.

  4. Nosema ceranae escapes fumagillin control in honey bees.

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    Wei-Fone Huang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Fumagillin is the only antibiotic approved for control of nosema disease in honey bees and has been extensively used in United States apiculture for more than 50 years for control of Nosema apis. It is toxic to mammals and must be applied seasonally and with caution to avoid residues in honey. Fumagillin degrades or is diluted in hives over the foraging season, exposing bees and the microsporidia to declining concentrations of the drug. We showed that spore production by Nosema ceranae, an emerging microsporidian pathogen in honey bees, increased in response to declining fumagillin concentrations, up to 100% higher than that of infected bees that have not been exposed to fumagillin. N. apis spore production was also higher, although not significantly so. Fumagillin inhibits the enzyme methionine aminopeptidase2 (MetAP2 in eukaryotic cells and interferes with protein modifications necessary for normal cell function. We sequenced the MetAP2 gene for apid Nosema species and determined that, although susceptibility to fumagillin differs among species, there are no apparent differences in fumagillin binding sites. Protein assays of uninfected bees showed that fumagillin altered structural and metabolic proteins in honey bee midgut tissues at concentrations that do not suppress microsporidia reproduction. The microsporidia, particularly N. ceranae, are apparently released from the suppressive effects of fumagillin at concentrations that continue to impact honey bee physiology. The current application protocol for fumagillin may exacerbate N. ceranae infection rather than suppress it.

  5. Linking pollination effectiveness and interspecific displacement success in bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Saeed, S; Sajjad, A; Akbar, A

    2015-04-01

    Pollen deposition, a surrogate for bee efficiency, becomes increasingly important during their interspecific interactions. We conducted field experiments on highly cross-pollinated melon (Cucumis melo) and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) in order to understand how bee species with different pollination efficiencies displace each other from floral resources. We observed significant displacement of less abundant but more efficient bees by the more abundant but less efficient bees in both crops, which may lead to deficient pollination. We did not find significant relationship of the bee displacement success and body size or abundance. Apis florea (Fabricius) and Nomia sp.2 (Latreille) had significantly more winner events in melon, while the former also had significantly more winner events in watermelon. A. florea was the only bee species that foraged mostly within the 1-m(2) virtual area after their displacement, which may indicate its behavior of geitinogamous pollination. The two bee species, Ceratina sexmaculata (Smith) and Lasioglossum sp. (Curtis), were more sensitive to displacement as their proportion of leaving the 1-m(2) virtual area was higher. PMID:26013126

  6. Sublethal imidacloprid effects on honey bee flower choices when foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Ahmed; Çakmak, Ibrahim; Hranitz, John M; Karaca, Ismail; Wells, Harrington

    2015-11-01

    Neonicotinoids, systemic neuro-active pesticides similar to nicotine, are widely used in agriculture and are being investigated for a role in honey bee colony losses. We examined one neonicotinoid pesticide, imidacloprid, for its effects on the foraging behavior of free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera anatoliaca) visiting artificial blue and white flowers. Imidacloprid doses, ranging from 1/5 to 1/50 of the reported LD50, were fed to bees orally. The study consisted of three experimental parts performed sequentially without interruption. In Part 1, both flower colors contained a 4 μL 1 M sucrose solution reward. Part 2 offered bees 4 μL of 1.5 M sucrose solution in blue flowers and a 4 μL 0.5 M sucrose solution reward in white flowers. In Part 3 we reversed the sugar solution rewards, while keeping the flower color consistent. Each experiment began 30 min after administration of the pesticide. We recorded the percentage of experimental bees that returned to forage after treatment. We also recorded the visitation rate, number of flowers visited, and floral reward choices of the bees that foraged after treatment. The forager return rate declined linearly with increasing imidacloprid dose. The number of foraging trips by returning bees was also affected adversely. However, flower fidelity was not affected by imidacloprid dose. Foragers visited both blue and white flowers extensively in Part 1, and showed greater fidelity for the flower color offering the higher sugar solution reward in Parts 2 and 3. Although larger samples sizes are needed, our study suggests that imidacloprid may not affect the ability to select the higher nectar reward when rewards were reversed. We observed acute, mild effects on foraging by honey bees, so mild that storage of imidacloprid tainted-honey is very plausible and likely to be found in honey bee colonies. PMID:26415950

  7. Pesticide residues and bees--a risk assessment.

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    Francisco Sanchez-Bayo

    Full Text Available Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees.

  8. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp..

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    Catherine E Thompson

    Full Text Available Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed.

  9. Parasite pressures on feral honey bees (Apis mellifera sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Catherine E; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C; Allnutt, Theodore R; Pietravalle, Stéphane; Budge, Giles E

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires and tree tops. In addition, little is known about the provenance of feral colonies and whether they represent a reservoir of Varroa tolerant material that could be used in apiculture. Samples of forager bees were collected from paired feral and managed honey bee colonies and screened for the presence of ten honey bee pathogens and pests using qPCR. Prevalence and quantity was similar between the two groups for the majority of pathogens, however feral honey bees contained a significantly higher level of deformed wing virus than managed honey bee colonies. An assessment of the honey bee race was completed for each colony using three measures of wing venation. There were no apparent differences in wing morphometry between feral and managed colonies, suggesting feral colonies could simply be escapees from the managed population. Interestingly, managed honey bee colonies not treated for Varroa showed similar, potentially lethal levels of deformed wing virus to that of feral colonies. The potential for such findings to explain the large fall in the feral population and the wider context of the importance of feral colonies as potential pathogen reservoirs is discussed. PMID:25126840

  10. Intraspecific Aggression in Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata

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    Frank Weihmann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated intraspecific aggression in experimental nests (expN1, expN2 of the giant honey bee Apis dorsata in Chitwan (Nepal, focusing on interactions between surface bees and two other groups of bees approaching the nest: (1 homing “nestmate” foragers landing on the bee curtain remained unmolested by guards; and (2 supposed “non-nestmate” bees, which were identified by their erratic flight patterns in front of the nest, such as hovering or sideways scanning and splaying their legs from their body, and were promptly attacked by the surface bees after landing. These supposed non-nestmate bees only occurred immediately before and after migration swarms, which had arrived in close vicinity (and were most likely scouting for a nesting site. In total, 231 of the “nestmate” foragers (fb and 102 approaches of such purported “non-nestmate” scouts (sc were analysed (total observation time expN1: 5.43 min regarding the evocation of shimmering waves (sh. During their landing the “nestmate” foragers provoked less shimmering waves (relnsh[fb] = 23/231 = 0.0996, relnsh[sc] = 75/102 = 0.7353; p <0.001, χ2-test with shorter duration (Dsh[fb] = 197 ± 17 ms, Dsh[sc] = 488 ± 16 ms; p <0.001; t-test than “non-nestmates”. Moreover, after having landed on the nest surface, the “non-nestmates” were attacked by the surface bees (expN1, expN2: observation time >18 min quite similarly to the defensive response against predatory wasps. Hence, the surface members of settled colonies respond differently to individual giant honey bees approaching the nest, depending on whether erratic flight patterns are displayed or not.

  11. Bumble bees (Bombus spp along a gradient of increasing urbanization.

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    Karin Ahrné

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bumble bees and other wild bees are important pollinators of wild flowers and several cultivated crop plants, and have declined in diversity and abundance during the last decades. The main cause of the decline is believed to be habitat destruction and fragmentation associated with urbanization and agricultural intensification. Urbanization is a process that involves dramatic and persistent changes of the landscape, increasing the amount of built-up areas while decreasing the amount of green areas. However, urban green areas can also provide suitable alternative habitats for wild bees. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied bumble bees in allotment gardens, i.e. intensively managed flower rich green areas, along a gradient of urbanization from the inner city of Stockholm towards more rural (periurban areas. Keeping habitat quality similar along the urbanization gradient allowed us to separate the effect of landscape change (e.g. proportion impervious surface from variation in habitat quality. Bumble bee diversity (after rarefaction to 25 individuals decreased with increasing urbanization, from around eight species on sites in more rural areas to between five and six species in urban allotment gardens. Bumble bee abundance and species composition were most affected by qualities related to the management of the allotment areas, such as local flower abundance. The variability in bumble bee visits between allotment gardens was higher in an urban than in a periurban context, particularly among small and long-tongued bumble bee species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that allotment gardens and other urban green areas can serve as important alternatives to natural habitats for many bumble bee species, but that the surrounding urban landscape influences how many species that will be present. The higher variability in abundance of certain species in the most urban areas may indicate a weaker reliability of the ecosystem

  12. Parallel inputs to memory in bee colour vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2016-03-01

    In the 19(th) century, it was found that attraction of bees to light was controlled by light intensity irrespective of colour, and a few critical entomologists inferred that vision of bees foraging on flowers was unlike human colour vision. Therefore, quite justly, Professor Carl von Hess concluded in his book on the Comparative Physiology of Vision (1912) that bees do not distinguish colours in the way that humans enjoy. Immediately, Karl von Frisch, an assistant in the Zoology Department of the same University of Münich, set to work to show that indeed bees have colour vision like humans, thereby initiating a new research tradition, and setting off a decade of controversy that ended only at the death of Hess in 1923. Until 1939, several researchers continued the tradition of trying to untangle the mechanism of bee vision by repeatedly testing trained bees, but made little progress, partly because von Frisch and his legacy dominated the scene. The theory of trichromatic colour vision further developed after three types of receptors sensitive to green, blue, and ultraviolet (UV), were demonstrated in 1964 in the bee. Then, until the end of the century, all data was interpreted in terms of trichromatic colour space. Anomalies were nothing new, but eventually after 1996 they led to the discovery that bees have a previously unknown type of colour vision based on a monochromatic measure and distribution of blue and measures of modulation in green and blue receptor pathways. Meanwhile, in the 20(th) century, search for a suitable rationalization, and explorations of sterile culs-de-sac had filled the literature of bee colour vision, but were based on the wrong theory. PMID:26960353

  13. Antineoplastic Effects of Honey Bee Venom

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    Mohammad Nabiuni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bee venom (BV, like many other complementary medicines, has been used for thousands of years for the treatment of a range of diseases. More recently, BV is also being considered as an effective composition for the treatment of cancer. Cancer is a major worldwide problem. It is obvious that the identification of compounds that can activate apoptosis could be effective on the treatment of cancer. BV is a very complicated mixture of active peptides, enzymes, and biologically active amines. The two main components of BV are melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2. Of these two components, melittin, the major active ingredient of BV, has been identified to induce apoptosis and to possess anti-tumor effects. We tried to review antineoplastic effects of BV in this study. Materials and Methods: The related articles were derived from different data bases such as PubMed, Elsevier Science, and Google Scholar using keywords including bee venom, cancer, and apoptosis.Results: According to the results of this study, BV can induce apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell growth and metastasis. Results of in vivo experiments show that the anti-tumor effect of the BV is highly dependent on the manner of injection as well as the distance between the area of injection and the tumor cells.Conclusion: The results obtained from the reported studies revealed that BV has anti-cancer effects and can be used as an effective chemotherapeutic agent against tumors in the future.

  14. Wireless ZigBee home automation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Halunga, Simona; Fratu, Octavian

    2015-02-01

    The home automation system concept existed for many years but in the last decade, due to the rapid development of sensors and wireless technologies, a large number of various such "intelligent homes" have been developed. The purpose of the present paper is to demonstrate the flexibility, reliability and affordability of home automation projects, based on a simple and affordable implementation. A wireless sensing and control system have been developed and tested, having a number of basic functionalities such as switching on/off the light according to ambient lighting and turning on/off the central heating. The system has been built around low power microcontrollers and ZigBee modems for wireless communication, using a set of Vishay 640 thermistor sensors for temperature measurements and Vishay LDR07 photo-resistor for humidity measurements. A trigger is activated when the temperature or light measurements are above/below a given threshold and a command is transmitted to the central unit through the ZigBee radio module. All the data processing is performed by a low power microcontroller both at the sensing device and at the control unit.

  15. Studies Concerning the Wintering of Bees

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    Monica Parvu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in a private apiary, in order to determine the most efficient method of wintering in Brasov County.  The biological material was Apis mellifera carpathica Foti honey bees maintained in multi-storey hives. Ten hives were housed outdoor and ten in shelter. The parameters were monitored between October 2013 and March 2014. The monthly average temperatures were 9°C in October; 7°C in November; -8°C in December; -6°C in January; 2°C in February and 4°C in March. In the colonies housed in shelter, the consumption of honey during the winter was less than 34% and the mortality was less than 63.3%. The results were very significant (p≤ 0.01. The diarrhea was moderate compared to wintering hives outdoor. The laying of queen bees has resumed in late February, in both methods. It was observed that the colonies housed in shelter have refused to leave the hives and the intervention of beekeepers was required. This method is recommended in the regions with colds winters, even if it requires more effort to transport the hives.

  16. Honey and honey bees of Guinea-Bissau

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, M. Alice; Batista, Vânia; Alves, Dulce; Vilas-Boas, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Beekeeping is an ancient activity in Guinea-Bissau. The ancestral interaction with bees stands on “honey hunting” of natural colonies or use of traditional hives hanged on trees. These hives are perfect shelters for swarms but the colony is destroyed every year after honey harvesting. Bees are therefore kept as wild as ever with little, if any, interference from man. Reports on honey bees and honey of Guinea-Bissau are scarce. Herein we report the first data on honey quality and provide a...

  17. Trap-nests for stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ricardo; Menezes, Cristiano; Soares, Ademilson; Fonseca, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Most stingless bee species build their nests inside tree hollows. In this paper, we present trap-nest containers which simulate nesting cavities so as to attract swarms of stingless bees. Although regularly used by stingless bee beekeepers in Brazil, this technique to obtain new colonies has not yet been systematically studied. We used two different types of trap-nests (plastic and cardboard) of four different sizes (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 L) containing propolis extract and wax. Over a period...

  18. Solving Integer Programming Problems by Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Bahriye; Karaboga, Dervis

    This paper presents a study that applies the Artificial Bee Colony algorithm to integer programming problems and compares its performance with those of Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm variants and Branch and Bound technique presented to the literature. In order to cope with integer programming problems, in neighbour solution production unit, solutions are truncated to the nearest integer values. The experimental results show that Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can handle integer programming problems efficiently and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm can be considered to be very robust by the statistics calculated such as mean, median, standard deviation.

  19. REVIEW: The Diversity of Indigenous Honey Bee Species of Indonesia

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    SOESILAWATI HADISOESILO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known that Indonesia has the most diverse honey bee species in the world. At least five out of nine species of honey bees are native to Indonesia namely Apis andreniformis, A. dorsata, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi, and A. nigrocincta. One species, A. florea, although it was claimed to be a species native to Indonesia, it is still debatable whether it is really found in Indonesia or not. The new species, A. nuluensis, which is found in Sabah, Borneo is likely to be found in Kalimantan but it has not confirmed yet. This paper discusses briefly the differences among those native honey bees.

  20. The Honey Bee Parasite Nosema ceranae: Transmissible via Food Exchange?

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it may instead be spread via an oral-oral pathway. Cages that separated older infected bees from young uninfected bees were used to test whether N. ceranae can be spread during food exchange. When cag...

  1. A Mathematical Model for the Bee Hive of Apis Mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Bellom, Fabio Enrici; Montabone, Andrea; Venturino, Ezio

    2010-09-01

    In this work we introduce and discuss a model for the bee hive, in which only adult bees and drones are modeled. The role that the latter have in the system is interesting, their population can retrieve even if they are totally absent from the bee hive. The feasibility and stability of the equilibria is studied numerically. A simplified version of the model shows the importance of the drones' role, in spite of the fact that it allows only a trivial equilibrium. For this simplified system, no Hopf bifurcations are shown to arise.

  2. Radioactive contamination of honey and other bee-keeping products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Great amount of dust is collected in propolis under emergency atmospheric fallouts. Specific coefficient of the product migration amounts to several m2 per 1 kg. Propolis is a good biological indicator of radioactive fallouts. The propolis collection is inadmissible after radioactive fallouts. Cocoon residuals obtained during bees-wax separation contain many radionuclides and should be disposed in special places. Nuclides are absent in bees-wax. Nuclides accumulated absent in a bee organism migrate into honey and queen milk, the honey is contaminated mainly via biogenic path

  3. The corbiculate bees arose from New World oil-collecting bees: implications for the origin of pollen baskets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Aline C; Melo, Gabriel A R; Renner, Susanne S

    2014-11-01

    The economically most important group of bees is the "corbiculates", or pollen basket bees, some 890 species of honeybees (Apis), bumblebees (Bombus), stingless bees (Meliponini), and orchid bees (Euglossini). Molecular studies have indicated that the corbiculates are closest to the New World genera Centris, with 230 species, and Epicharis, with 35, albeit without resolving the precise relationships. Instead of concave baskets, these bees have hairy hind legs on which they transport pollen mixed with floral oil, collected with setae on the anterior and middle legs. We sampled two-thirds of all Epicharis, a third of all Centris, and representatives of the four lineages of corbiculates for four nuclear gene regions, obtaining a well-supported phylogeny that has the corbiculate bees nested inside the Centris/Epicharis clade. Fossil-calibrated molecular clocks, combined with a biogeographic reconstruction incorporating insights from the fossil record, indicate that the corbiculate clade arose in the New World and diverged from Centris 84 (72-95)mya. The ancestral state preceding corbiculae thus was a hairy hind leg, perhaps adapted for oil transport as in Epicharis and Centris bees. Its replacement by glabrous, concave baskets represents a key innovation, allowing efficient transport of plant resins and large pollen/nectar loads and freeing the corbiculate clade from dependence on oil-offering flowers. The transformation could have involved a novel function of Ubx, the gene known to change hairy into smooth pollen baskets in Apis and Bombus. PMID:25034728

  4. Efficiency of local Indonesia honey bees (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Ramadhani Eka; Kinasih, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is considered as one of major agricultural commodity of Indonesia farming. However, monthly production is unstable due to lack of pollination services. Common pollinator agent of tomatoes is bumblebees which is unsuitable for tropical climate of Indonesia and the possibility of alteration of local wild plant interaction with their pollinator. Indonesia is rich with wild bees and some of the species already domesticated for years with prospect as pollinating agent for tomatoes. This research aimed to assess the efficiency of local honey bee (Apis cerana L.) and stingless bee (Trigona iridipennis), as pollinator of tomato. During this research, total visitation rate and total numbers of pollinated flowers by honey bee and stingless bee were compared between them with bagged flowers as control. Total fruit production, average weight and size also measured in order to correlated pollination efficiency with quantity and quality of fruit produced. Result of this research showed that A. cerana has slightly higher rate of visitation (p>0.05) and significantly shorter handling time (p honey bee pollinated tomato flowers more efficient pollinator than stingless bee (80.3 and 70.2% efficiency, respectively; p 0.05). Based on the results, it is concluded that the use of Apis cerana and Trigona spp., for pollinating tomatoes in tropical climates could be an alternative to the use of non-native Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombus spp.). However, more researches are needed to evaluate the cost/benefit on large-scale farming and greenhouse pollination using both bees against other bee species and pollination methods. PMID:24783783

  5. Effects of insect growth regulators on honey bees and non-Apis bees. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Tasei, J.N.

    2001-01-01

    International audience The insect growth regulators (IGRs) are ecdysone or juvenile hormone mimics, or chitin synthesis inhibitors. They are more likely to be hazardous to larval insects than to adults. Application of JH mimics to adult honey bees may affect foraging behaviour and some physiological traits. Topical and feeding tests revealed that application of IGRs to larvae may result in death and larval ejection by workers, malformed larvae and pupae with typical rimmed eyes, or malform...

  6. 2008 USFWS Region 5 Refuges Native Bee Study: Final Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report describes the results of a bee survey coordinated by Leo Shapiro under contract with USFWS, working in close collaboration with Sam Droege of Patuxent...

  7. Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for Short-Term Hydrothermal Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Artificial bee colony optimization is applied to determine the optimal hourly schedule of power generation in a hydrothermal system. Artificial bee colony optimization is a swarm-based algorithm inspired by the food foraging behavior of honey bees. The algorithm is tested on a multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric system having prohibited operating zones and thermal units with valve point loading. The ramp-rate limits of thermal generators are taken into consideration. The transmission losses are also accounted for through the use of loss coefficients. The algorithm is tested on two hydrothermal multi-reservoir cascaded hydroelectric test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those of differential evolution, evolutionary programming and particle swarm optimization. From numerical results, it is found that the proposed artificial bee colony optimization based approach is able to provide better solution.

  8. Brain Infarction: Rare Neurological Presentation of African Bee Stings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Raphael Alvis- Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described including local reactions which are common, systemic responses such as anaphylaxis, diffuse intravascular coagulation and hemolysis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who developed neurologic deficit 5 hours after bee stings, which was confirmed to be left frontal infarction on brain CT-scan. The case does not follow the reported pattern of hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, hemolysis and/or rhabdomyolysis, despite the potentially lethal amount of venom injected. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to give an explanation to all the clinical manifestation of both toxic and allergic reactions secondary to bee stings. Currently, the most accepted one state that victims can develop severe syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines.

  9. Studies on Biological Development of Hybrid Bees Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Pârvu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It has made a study concerning the biological development of hybrid bee’s families (Italian x Carpathian comparative with Carpathian bee’s families. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The following parameters were studied: the queen bee prolificacy, the flight intensity during harvesting, the flight intensity during bad weather the irascibility, the behaviour of the bees during the survey and the predisposition to swarming. At the hybrid families, queen bee prolificacy and the rate of old bee’s replacement were significantly higher (p≤0.01. In terms of the flight intensity during bad weather and the swarming instinct, were not found significant differences (p≥0.05.

  10. National Protocol Framework for the Inventory and Monitoring of Bees

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This national protocol framework is a standardized tool for the inventory and monitoring of the approximately 4,200 species of native and non-native bee species...

  11. Component Analysis of Bee Venom from lune to September

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aim of this study was to observe variation of Bee Venom content from the collection period. Methods : Content analysis of Bee Venom was rendered using HPLC method by standard melittin Results : Analyzing melittin content using HPLC, 478.97mg/g at june , 493.89mg/g at july, 468.18mg/g at August and 482.15mg/g was containing in Bee Venom at september. So the change of melittin contents was no significance from June to September. Conclusion : Above these results, we concluded carefully that collecting time was not important factor for the quality control of Bee Venom, restricted the period from June to September.

  12. Brain Infarction: Rare Neurological Presentation of African Bee Stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvis-Miranda, Hernando Raphael; Duarte-Valdivieso, Nancy Carolina; Alcala-Cerra, Gabriel; Moscote-Salazar, Luis Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described including local reactions which are common, systemic responses such as anaphylaxis, diffuse intravascular coagulation and hemolysis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who developed neurologic deficit 5 hours after bee stings, which was confirmed to be left frontal infarction on brain CT-scan. The case does not follow the reported  pattern  of hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, hemolysis and/or  rhabdomyolysis, despite the potentially lethal amount of venom injected. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to give an explanation to all the clinical manifestation of both toxic and allergic reactions secondary to bee stings. Currently, the most accepted one state that victims can develop severe syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines. PMID:27162866

  13. A Survey on the Applications of Bee Colony Optimization Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Arvinder Kaur

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an overview of the areas where the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO and its variants are applied have been given. Bee System was identified by Sato and Hagiwara in 1997 and the Bee Colony Optimization (BCO was identified by Lucic and Teodorovic in 2001. BCO has emerged as a specialized class of Swarm Intelligence with bees as agents. It is an emerging field for researchers in the field of optimization problems because it provides immense problem solving scope for combinatorial and NP-hard problems. BCO is one of the benchmark systems portraying team work, collaborative work. BCO is a bottom-up approach of modeling where agents form global solution by optimizing the local solution.

  14. Learning Ability and Factors Influencing Nest Establishment of the Solitary Bees Osmia lignaria and Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vorel, Cory A.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last several decades, the use of solitary bees as an alternative to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) for pollination of commercial crops has increased, in part as a response to ongoing problems faced by commercial honey bee populations. Two solitary bee species have exhibited great commercial potential: the blue orchard bee, Osmia lignaria Say, and the alfalfa leafcutting bee, Megachile rotundata Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). However, growth of O. lignaria and M. rotundata ...

  15. Honey bee success predicted by landscape composition in Ohio, USA

    OpenAIRE

    DB Sponsler; RM Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Foraging honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) can routinely travel as far as several kilometers from their hive in the process of collecting nectar and pollen from floral patches within the surrounding landscape. Since the availability of floral resources at the landscape scale is a function of landscape composition, apiculturists have long recognized that landscape composition is a critical determinant of honey bee colony success. Nevertheless, very few studies present quantitative data relating c...

  16. Enhanced Bee Colony Algorithm for Complex Optimization Problems

    OpenAIRE

    S.Suriya; R. Deepalakshmi; S.Suresh kannan; Dr.S.P.SHANTHARAJAH

    2012-01-01

    Optimization problems are considered to be one kind of NP hard problems. Usually heuristic approaches are found to provide solutions for NP hard problems. There are a plenty of heuristic algorithmsavailable to solve optimization problems namely: Ant Colony Optimization, Particle Swarm Optimization, Bee Colony Optimization, etc. The basic Bee Colony algorithm, a population based search algorithm, is analyzed to be a novel tool for complex optimization problems. The algorithm mimics the food fo...

  17. A bee colony optimization-based approach for binary optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Kıran, Mustafa Servet; Gündüz, Mesut

    2013-01-01

    The bee colony optimization (BCO) algorithm, one of the swarm intelligence algorithms, is a population based iterative search algorithm. Being inspired by collective bee intelligence, BCO has been proposed for solving discrete optimization problems such as travelling salesman problem. The BCO uses constructive approach for creating a feasible solution for the discrete optimization problems but in this study, we used the solution improvement technique due to nature of the uncapacitated facilit...

  18. Artificial Bee Colony Optimization for Multiobjective Quadratic Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Eleyan, Haytham Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Excellent ability of swarm intelligence can be used to solve multi-objective combinatorial optimization problems. Bee colony algorithms are new swarm intelligence techniques inspired from the smart behaviors of real honeybees in their foraging behavior. Artificial bee colony optimization algorithm has recently been applied for difficult real-valued and combinational optimization problems. Multiobjective quadratic assignment problem (mQAP) is a well-known and hard combinational optim...

  19. Solving Multiobjective Optimization Problems Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Beiwei Zhang; Hanning Chen; Yunlong Zhu; Wenping Zou

    2011-01-01

    Multiobjective optimization has been a difficult problem and focus for research in fields of science and engineering. This paper presents a novel algorithm based on artificial bee colony (ABC) to deal with multi-objective optimization problems. ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. It uses less control parameters, and it can be efficiently used for solving multimodal and multidimensional optimization problems. Ou...

  20. XOR-based artificial bee colony algorithm for binary optimization

    OpenAIRE

    KIRAN, Mustafa Servet; Gündüz, Mesut

    2012-01-01

    The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, which was inspired by the foraging and dance behaviors of real honey bee colonies, was first introduced for solving numerical optimization problems. When the solution space of the optimization problem is binary-structured, the basic ABC algorithm should be modified for solving this class of problems. In this study, we propose XOR-based modification for the solution-updating equation of the ABC algorithm in order to solve binary optimization pro...

  1. First detection of viruses in Africanized honey bees from Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orlando; Yaez; Graciano; Tejada; Peter; Neumann

    2014-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,The ability of the Western honey bee,Apis mellifera,to adapt to most climates of the world and the ongoing standardization of colony management has made this species of honey bees the most important species for crop pollination.In recent years,Peru emerged as a main exporter of industrial crops.This industry is mainly concentrated in the Peruvian coastal region,because the local climate permits off-season production

  2. Assessment of risks to honey bees posed by guttation

    OpenAIRE

    Pistorius, Jens; Campbell, Peter; Forster, Rolf; Lortsch, Jose-Anne; Marolleau, Franck; Maus, Christian; Lückmann, Johannes; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Wallner, Klaus; Becker, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Background: Besides their nectar and pollen collecting activities, honey bees also forage water. Guttation droplets may be used as a water source. Measurements of high residue levels of some intrinsically highly toxic, systemic insecticides in guttation droplets triggered research activities on the potential risk for honey bees. Since 2009, a large number of studies have been conducted on the environmental conditions and factors favoring guttation, foraging of guttation, the occurrence of gut...

  3. Effects of cocaine on honey bee dance behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Barron, Andrew B.; Maleszka, Ryszard; Helliwell, Paul G.; Robinson, Gene E

    2008-01-01

    The role of cocaine as an addictive drug of abuse in human society is hard to reconcile with its ecological role as a natural insecticide and plant-protective compound, preventing herbivory of coca plants (Erythroxylum spp.). This paradox is often explained by proposing a fundamental difference in mammalian and invertebrate responses to cocaine, but here we show effects of cocaine on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) that parallel human responses. Forager honey bees perfo...

  4. Pharmacological modulation of aversive responsiveness in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Tedjakumala, Stevanus R.; Aimable, Margaux; Giurfa, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Within a honey bee colony, individuals performing different tasks exhibit different sensitivities to noxious stimuli. Noxious-stimulus sensitivity can be quantified in harnessed bees by measuring the sting extension response (SER) to a series of increasing voltages. Biogenic amines play a crucial role in the control of insect responsiveness. Whether or not these neurotransmitters affect the central control of aversive responsiveness, and more specifically of electric-shock responsiveness, rem...

  5. Neural effects of insecticides in the honey bee

    OpenAIRE

    Belzunces, Luc; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Brunet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    International audience During their foraging activity, honey bees are often exposed to direct and residual contacts with pesticides, especially insecticides, all substances specifically designed to kill, repel, attract or perturb the vital functions of insects. Insecticides may elicit lethal and sublethal effects of different natures that may affect various biological systems of the honey bee. The first step in the induction of toxicity by a chemical is the interaction between the toxic co...

  6. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives

    OpenAIRE

    Rokop, Z. P.; Horton, M. A.; Newton, I. L. G.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of ...

  7. Interactions between Cooccurring Lactic Acid Bacteria in Honey Bee Hives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokop, Z P; Horton, M A; Newton, I L G

    2015-10-01

    In contrast to the honey bee gut, which is colonized by a few characteristic bacterial clades, the hive of the honey bee is home to a diverse array of microbes, including many lactic acid bacteria (LAB). In this study, we used culture, combined with sequencing, to sample the LAB communities found across hive environments. Specifically, we sought to use network analysis to identify microbial hubs sharing nearly identical operational taxonomic units, evidence which may indicate cooccurrence of bacteria between environments. In the process, we identified interactions between noncore bacterial members (Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae) and honey bee-specific "core" members. Both Fructobacillus and Lactobacillaceae colonize brood cells, bee bread, and nectar and may serve the role of pioneering species, establishing an environment conducive to the inoculation by honey bee core bacteria. Coculture assays showed that these noncore bacterial members promote the growth of honey bee-specific bacterial species. Specifically, Fructobacillus by-products in spent medium supported the growth of the Firm-5 honey bee-specific clade in vitro. Metabolic characterization of Fructobacillus using carbohydrate utilization assays revealed that this strain is capable of utilizing the simple sugars fructose and glucose, as well as the complex plant carbohydrate lignin. We tested Fructobacillus for antibiotic sensitivity and found that this bacterium, which may be important for establishment of the microbiome, is sensitive to the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline. Our results point to the possible significance of "noncore" and environmental microbial community members in the modulation of honey bee microbiome dynamics and suggest that tetracycline use by beekeepers should be limited. PMID:26253685

  8. Immune thrombocytopenia after bee venom therapy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulsalam, Mohammad Adel; Ebrahim, Bader Esmael; Abdulsalam, Ahmad Jasem

    2016-01-01

    Background Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a hematological disorder with an isolated decrease in number of circulating platelets. Bee venom therapy (BVT) is a form of alternative medicine. It is still being practiced in the Middle East and other parts of Asia. In BVT, acupuncture points are used to inject diluted bee venom into the body. The pharmacological basis behind BVT is not fully understood. However, it has been used to treat various medical conditions such as arthritis and low back p...

  9. Parasite Pressures on Feral Honey Bees (Apis mellifera sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E Thompson; Biesmeijer, Jacobus C.; Allnutt, Theodore R.; Stéphane Pietravalle; Budge, Giles E.

    2014-01-01

    Feral honey bee populations have been reported to be in decline due to the spread of Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite that when left uncontrolled leads to virus build-up and colony death. While pests and diseases are known causes of large-scale managed honey bee colony losses, no studies to date have considered the wider pathogen burden in feral colonies, primarily due to the difficulty in locating and sampling colonies, which often nest in inaccessible locations such as church spires...

  10. The Adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seon-Ae; Westra, John V.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

    2006-01-01

    Factors influencing the adoption of Russian Varroa-Resistant honey bees were assessed using a double hurdle model. Results indicate factors associated with the adoption include sales over $1,000 of bee related products, residence in the delta states, internet use, and membership in the AHPA. Negatively associated factors are high percentage of income coming from beekeeping, and membership in the ABF. Intensity of adoption increased with frequent contact with the USDA, and decreased with great...

  11. Learning at old age: a study on winter bees

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Behrends; Ricarda Scheiner

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from six weeks (summe...

  12. Learning at Old Age: A Study on Winter Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Behrends, Andreas; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2010-01-01

    Ageing is often accompanied by a decline in learning and memory abilities across the animal kingdom. Understanding age-related changes in cognitive abilities is therefore a major goal of current research. The honey bee is emerging as a novel model organism for age-related changes in brain function, because learning and memory can easily be studied in bees under controlled laboratory conditions. In addition, genetically similar workers naturally display life expectancies from 6 weeks (summer b...

  13. Social molecular pathways and the evolution of bee societies

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch, Guy; Grozinger, Christina M

    2011-01-01

    Bees provide an excellent model with which to study the neuronal and molecular modifications associated with the evolution of sociality because relatively closely related species differ profoundly in social behaviour, from solitary to highly social. The recent development of powerful genomic tools and resources has set the stage for studying the social behaviour of bees in molecular terms. We review ‘ground plan’ and ‘genetic toolkit’ models which hypothesize that discrete pathways or sets of...

  14. Experience and problems with bees as bioindicators of airborne pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of anthropogenic air pollution on apiculture are far-reaching: From the loss of feeding plants to the accumulation of toxic materials in nectar and pollen (due to chronic or acute damage). A negative effect on the life functions of the bee is caused by arsenic and in particular fluorocompounds. The biological indicator function of the bee possible in this manner was and is combined with problems of trace amount analysis methods and the interpretation of the diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Recruitment communication in stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Nieh, James

    2004-01-01

    - The stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini) have evolved sophisticated communication systems that allow foragers to recruit nestmates to good resources. Over the past 50 years, a growing body of research has shown that foragers can communicate three-dimensional resource location, uncovered several potential communication mechanisms, and demonstrated new information transfer mechanisms. Some of these mechanisms are unique to stingless bees and some may provide insight into how the a...

  16. Native bees pollinate tomato flowers and increase fruit production

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Araújo Ribeiro Bergamini; Marcos Antônio Elias; Flaviana Gomes Lima; Bruno Bastos Gonçalves; Leonardo Lima Bergamini; Carlos Melo Silva Neto; Edivani Villaron Franceschinelli

    2013-01-01

    The tomato plant has a specific relationship with native pollinators because the form of its flowers is adapted to buzz pollination carried out by some pollen-gatherer bees that vibrate their indirect flight muscles to obtain that floral resource. The absence and the low density of these bees in tomato fields can lead to pollination deficits for crop. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that open tomato flowers, probably visited by native pollinator, have greater pollen load on their stig...

  17. CLEPTOPARASITE BEES, WITH EMPHASIS ON THE OILBEES HOSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALVES-DOS SANTOS ISABEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT

    Cleptoparasite bees lay their eggs inside nests constructed by other bee species and the larvae feed on pollen provided by the host, in this case, solitary bees. The cleptoparasite (adult and larvae show many morphological and behavior adaptations to this life style. In this paper I present some data on the cleptoparasite bees whose hosts are bees specialized to collect floral oil.

    Key words: solitary bee, interspecific interaction, parasitic strategies, hospicidal larvae.

    RESUMEN

    Las abejas Cleptoparásitas depositan sus huevos en nidos construídos por otras especies de abejas y las larvas se alimentan del polen que proveen las hospederas, en este caso, abejas solitarias. El cleptoparásito (adulo y larva muestra muchas adaptaciones morfológicas y comportamentales para este estilo de vida. En este manuscrito presento datos sobre abejas cleptoparásitas cuyos hospederos son abejas especializadas en recolectar aceite floral.

    Palabras clave: abejas solitarias, interacción interespecífica, estrategias parasíticas, larva assassina.

  18. Implantable bioimpedance monitor using ZigBee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogónez-Franco, P; Bragós, R; Bayés-Genis, A; Rosell-Ferrer, J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a novel implantable bioimpedance monitor using a free ZigBee protocol for the transmission of the measured data is described. The application field is the tissue and organ monitoring through electrical impedance spectroscopy in the 100 Hz - 200 kHz range. The specific application is the study of the viability and evolution of engineered tissue in cardiac regeneration. Additionally to the telemetric feature, the measured data are stored in a memory for backup purposes and can be downloaded at any time after an RF link break. In the debugging prototype, the system autonomy exceeds 1 month when a 14 frequencies impedance spectrum is acquired every 5 minutes. In the current implementation, the effective range of the RF link is reduced and needs for a range extender placed near the animal. Current work deals with improving this range. PMID:19963630

  19. Experimental Study on the comparison of antibacterial and antioxidant effects between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Joong chul An; Ki Rok Kwon; Eun Hee Lee; Bae Chun Cha

    2006-01-01

    Objectives : This study was conducted to compare antibacterial activities and free radical scavenging activity between the Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom in which the allergy-causing enzyme is removed. Methods : To evaluate antibacterial activities of the test samples, gram negative E. coli and gram positive St. aureus were compared using the paper disc method. For comparison of the antioxidant effects, DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and Thiobarbituric Ac...

  20. Multiple Virus Infections and the Characteristics of Chronic Bee Paralysis Virus in Diseased Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L. in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yan Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives. Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.

  1. Bumble Bees (Bombus terrestris use mechanosensory hairs to detect electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutton Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bees and flowers have an intricate relationship which benefits both organisms. Plants provide nectar bees, in turn, distribute pollen to fertilize plants. To make pollination work, flowers need a mechanism to incentivize individual bees to visit only a single species of flower. Flowers, like modern advertising agencies, use multiple senses to create a floral ‘brand’ that is easily recognized. Size, smell, colour, touch, and even temperature are used to allow bees to differentiate between flower species. Recently, a new sense has been found that is usable by bees to differentiate flowers, an ‘electric sense’: they can identify flowers based only on the flower’s electric field. This new sense provides a novel example of how flowers differentiate themselves to bees and has obvious implications for how bees and flowers interact with the electrical world around us. Bumble bees detect this electric field by using their body hairs, which bend in the presence of electric charge.

  2. Report on bees collected at selected Midwestern US Fish and Wildlife Refuges 2012 to 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bee conservation, broadly speaking, has four main objectives: 1) to conserve the individual species of native bees, 2) to conserve the ecological services...

  3. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  4. No apparent correlation between honey bee forager gut microbiota and honey production

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Melissa A.; Oliver, Randy; Irene L. Newton

    2015-01-01

    One of the best indicators of colony health for the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is its performance in the production of honey. Recent research into the microbial communities naturally populating the bee gut raise the question as to whether there is a correlation between microbial community structure and colony productivity. In this work, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to explore the microbial composition associated with forager bees from honey bee colonies producing large amount...

  5. Shifts in the Midgut/Pyloric Microbiota Composition within a Honey Bee Apiary throughout a Season

    OpenAIRE

    Ludvigsen, Jane; Rangberg, Anbjørg; Avershina, Ekaterina; Sekelja, Monika; Kreibich, Claus; Amdam, Gro; Rudi, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are prominent crop pollinators and are, thus, important for effective food production. The honey bee gut microbiota is mainly host specific, with only a few species being shared with other insects. It currently remains unclear how environmental/dietary conditions affect the microbiota within a honey bee population over time. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the composition of the midgut/pyloric microbiota of a honey bee apiary throughout ...

  6. Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts from Monofloral Bee Pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hongcheng; Wang Xue; Wang Kai; Li Chunyang

    2015-01-01

    Bee pollen has been used for many years in traditional medicine and supplementary nutrients. Bee pollen is mainly composed of nutrients and bioactive substances which might act as potential antioxidants and tyrosinase inhibitors. In this study, 14 species of monofloral bee pollen from China were collected to analyse their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory properties. Our results revealed that virtually all the bee pollen samples possessed powerful antioxidant or tyrosinase inhibitory acti...

  7. A Multiuser Detector Based on Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for DS-UWB Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhendong Yin; Xiaohui Liu(High Energy Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A.); Zhilu Wu

    2013-01-01

    Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is an optimization algorithm based on the intelligent behavior of honey bee swarm. The ABC algorithm was developed to solve optimizing numerical problems and revealed premising results in processing time and solution quality. In ABC, a colony of artificial bees search for rich artificial food sources; the optimizing numerical problems are converted to the problem of finding the best parameter which minimizes an objective function. Then, the artificial bee...

  8. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm and Its Application to Generalized Assignment Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Baykaso&#;lu, Adil; Özbak&#;r, Lale; Tapkan, P&#;nar

    2007-01-01

    In this study a relatively new member of swarm intelligence family that is named as "artificial bee colony" is explained in detail. Actually, different names were used in the literature for the algorithms inspired from natural honey bees. Here we prefer to use the name "artificial bee colony" to reflect population characteristic of the algorithm. A very detailed literature review along with a categorization is presented in this study. All accessible previous work on bee based optimization alg...

  9. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires; Fernando Amaral Silveira; Carolina Ferreira Cardoso; Edison Ryotii Sujii; Débora Pires Paula; Eliana Maria Gouveira Fontes; Joseane Padilha da Silva; Sandra Maria Morais Rodrigues; David Alan Andow

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified (GM) cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifer...

  10. Genetic structure of the gentle Africanized honey bee population (gAHB) in Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo-Cardona, Alberto; Acevedo-Gonzalez, Jenny P; Rivera-Marchand, Bert; Giray, Tugrul

    2013-01-01

    Background The Africanized honey bee is one of the most spectacular invasions in the Americas. African bees escaped from apiaries in Brazil in 1956, spread over Americas and by 1994 they were reported in Puerto Rico. In contrast to other places, the oceanic island conditions in Puerto Rico may mean a single introduction and different dynamics of the resident European and new-coming Africanized bees. To examine the genetic variation of honey bee feral populations and colonies from different lo...

  11. Studies on wings symmetry and honey bee races discrimination by using standard and geometric morphometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Abou-Shaara H.F.; Al-Ghamdi A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Morphometric is an essential tool for honey bee races discrimination and characterization. Such vital tool has been applied widely in honey bee researches. Unfortunately there is no available literature for confirming honey bee wings symmetry. Therefore, standard and geometric morphometric analyses were employed for investigating wings symmetry as well as for discriminating between Carniolan and Yemeni honey bees. Moreover, three angles of hind wings (H1, H...

  12. Contribution to the epidemiological profile of main honey bee brood fungal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Sância; Durão, Luís; Karolos, Douvlataniotis; Vasileios, Papazis; Pilão, Vasco; Rodrigues, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the etiopathology and epidemiology of the honey bee brood diseases in Portugal. Honey bee brood samples were collected and analysed at the Laboratory of Honey Bee Pathology (LPAESAB) and Microbiology of IPB. Samples were processed for epidemiological characterization of fungal diseases of honey bee brood. In general, the prevalence of this fungal disease occurs along all the distritos and seasons of the country. The diagnosis of chalkbrood were higher (P

  13. How Varroa Parasitism Affects the Immunological and Nutritional Status of the Honey Bee, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Katherine A. Aronstein; Eduardo Saldivar; Rodrigo Vega; Stephanie Westmiller; Douglas, Angela E.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor on the immunological and nutritional condition of honey bees, Apis mellifera, from the perspective of the individual bee and the colony. Pupae, newly-emerged adults and foraging adults were sampled from honey bee colonies at one site in S. Texas, USA. Varroa‑infested bees displayed elevated titer of Deformed Wing Virus (DWV), suggestive of depressed capacity to lim...

  14. Predator-prey coevolution: Australian native bees avoid their spider predators.

    OpenAIRE

    Heiling, A M; Herberstein, M E

    2004-01-01

    Australian crab spiders Thomisus spectabilis manipulate visual flower signals to lure introduced Apis mellifera. We gave Australian native bees, Austroplebia australis, the choice between two white daisies, Chrysanthemum frutescens, one of them occupied by a crab spider. The colour contrast between flowers and spiders affected the behaviour of native bees. Native bees approached spider-occupied flowers more frequently. However, native bees avoided flowers occupied by spiders and landed on vac...

  15. STUDIES ON THE RESISTANCE TO WINTERING OF THE ITALIAN BEES APIS MELLIFERA LIGUSTICA REARED IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA PÂRVU; CORINA AURELIA ZUGRAVU; IOANA CRISTINA ANDRONIE; CARMEN BERGHEŞ; IUDITH IPATE

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on bee families of Apis mellifera carpatica and Apis mellifera ligustica breeds. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The experimental period was of 6 months. The resistance to wintering was evaluated on the basis of several apicultural indicators: mortality, feed intake during the winter, general state of the family. Mortality was 35% during wintering for the Carpathian bee and 52% for the Italian bee. The differences were very significant (p≤0.001). When winte...

  16. Native bees are a rich natural resource in urban California gardens

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon W. Frankie; Thorp, Robbin; Hernandez, Jennifer; Rizzardi, Mark; Ertter, Barbara; Pawelek, Jaime C.; Witt, Sara L.; Schindler, Mary; Coville, Rollin; Wojcik, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that pollinators of crop and wildland plants are declining worldwide. Our research group at UC Berkeley and UC Davis conducted a 3-year survey of bee pollinators in seven cities from Northern California to Southern California. Results indicate that many types of urban residential gardens provide floral and nesting resources for the reproduction and survival of bees, especially a diversity of native bees. Habitat gardening for bees, using targeted ornamental plants, can pr...

  17. The habitat disruption induces immune-suppression and oxidative stress in honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Morimoto, Tomomi; Kojima, Yuriko; Toki, Taku; Komeda, Yayoi; YOSHIYAMA, Mikio; Kimura, Kiyoshi; Nirasawa, Keijiro; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The honey bee is a major insect used for pollination of many commercial crops worldwide. Although the use of honey bees for pollination can disrupt the habitat, the effects on their physiology have never been determined. Recently, honey bee colonies have often collapsed when introduced in greenhouses for pollination in Japan. Thus, suppressing colony collapses and maintaining the number of worker bees in the colonies is essential for successful long-term pollination in greenhouses and recycli...

  18. A Holistic Approach to ZigBee Performance Enhancement for Home Automation Networks

    OpenAIRE

    August Betzler; Carles Gomez; Ilker Demirkol; Josep Paradells

    2014-01-01

    Wireless home automation networks are gaining importance for smart homes. In this ambit, ZigBee networks play an important role. The ZigBee specification defines a default set of protocol stack parameters and mechanisms that is further refined by the ZigBee Home Automation application profile. In a holistic approach, we analyze how the network performance is affected with the tuning of parameters and mechanisms across multiple layers of the ZigBee protocol stack and investigate possible perfo...

  19. Impact of Bee Species and Plant Density on Alfalfa Pollination and Potential for Gene Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Johanne Brunet; Stewart, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    In outcrossing crops like alfalfa, various bee species can contribute to pollination and gene flow in seed production fields. With the increasing use of transgenic crops, it becomes important to determine the role of these distinct pollinators on alfalfa pollination and gene flow. The current study examines the relative contribution of honeybees, three bumble bee species, and three solitary bee species to pollination and gene flow in alfalfa. Two wild solitary bee species and one wild bumble ...

  20. Orchid bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) community from a gallery forest in the Brazilian Cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Francinaldo S Silva

    2012-01-01

    The orchid bees are a very important group of pollinators distributed in the Neotropics. Although a lot of studies concerning male euglossine bees have been done in this region, few works have so far been carried out in the Cerrado biome. This manuscript has the main objective to present the orchid bee community from a Gallery Forest in the Northeastern Brazilian Cerrado landscape, taking account the species composition, abundance, seasonality and hourly distribution. Male euglossine bees wer...

  1. Bee Pollen-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Young-Sook; Oh, Jae-Won; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Bee pollen is pollen granules packed by honey bees and is widely consumed as natural healthy supplements. Bee pollen-induced anaphylaxis has rarely been reported, and its allergenic components have never been studied. A 40-year-old male came to the emergency room with generalized urticaria, facial edema, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea 1 hour after ingesting one tablespoon of bee pollen. Oxygen saturation was 91%. His symptoms resolved after injection of epinephrine, c...

  2. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite–host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee

    OpenAIRE

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G.; Arbogast, Richard T.; Tumlinson, James H.; Teal, Peter E. A.

    2007-01-01

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles f...

  3. Bumble Bees (Bombus terrestris) use mechanosensory hairs to detect electric fields

    OpenAIRE

    Sutton Gregory; Whitney Heather; Clarke Dominic; Robert Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Bees and flowers have an intricate relationship which benefits both organisms. Plants provide nectar bees, in turn, distribute pollen to fertilize plants. To make pollination work, flowers need a mechanism to incentivize individual bees to visit only a single species of flower. Flowers, like modern advertising agencies, use multiple senses to create a floral ‘brand’ that is easily recognized. Size, smell, colour, touch, and even temperature are used to allow bees to differentiate between flow...

  4. An Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szeto, W.Y.; Wu, Yongzhong; Ho, Sin C.

    This paper introduces an artificial bee colony heuristic for the capacitated vehicle routing problem. The artificial bee colony heuristic is a swarm-based heuristic, which mimics the foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. The performance of the heuristic is evaluated on two sets of benchmark...... instances, and the computational results show that the heuristic produces good solutions....

  5. RuBee and RFID A confidential summary,May 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The letters"RFID"have become a negative to many of our end-customers,so we have had to distance RuBee from the entire category and discourage any attempt to characterize RuBee as just another RFID technology.We never engage in pilots or trials where RFID is seen as a competing technology to RuBee.Most

  6. A METHOD TO FEED BEES (HYMENOPTERA: APIFORMES) KNOWN AMOUNTS OF PESTICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory studies on the effect of pesticides on bees often omit oral toxicity tests because it is difficult to feed individual bees known amounts of test solutions. Group feeding methods used in Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) studies usually cannot be used with other bees, as most species do not perfo...

  7. Resistance to Acarapis woodi by honey bees from far-eastern Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Guzman, Lilia; Rinderer, Thomas; Delatte, Gary; Anthony Stelzer, J.; Beaman, Lorraine; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Honey bees from the Primorsky region of far-eastern Russia were evaluated for their resistance to Acarapis woodi. Results from a field test in Louisiana showed that Primorsky honey bees showed strong resistance to tracheal mites. The Primorsky honey bees maintained nearly mite-free colonies throughout the experiment while the domestic stocks were ultimately parasitized by high levels of tracheal mites.

  8. Gender-bias primes elicit queen-bee responses among senior Policewomen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, B.; Laar, C. van; Ellemers, N.; Groot, K. de

    2011-01-01

    Queen bees are senior women in male-dominated organizations who have achieved success by emphasizing how they differ from other women. Although the behavior of queen bees tends to be seen as contributing to gender disparities in career outcomes, we argue that queen-bee behavior is actually a result

  9. Multitrophic interaction facilitates parasite-host relationship between an invasive beetle and the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torto, Baldwyn; Boucias, Drion G; Arbogast, Richard T; Tumlinson, James H; Teal, Peter E A

    2007-05-15

    Colony defense by honey bees, Apis mellifera, is associated with stinging and mass attack, fueled by the release of alarm pheromones. Thus, alarm pheromones are critically important to survival of honey bee colonies. Here we report that in the parasitic relationship between the European honey bee and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, the honey bee's alarm pheromones serve a negative function because they are potent attractants for the beetle. Furthermore, we discovered that the beetles from both Africa and the United States vector a strain of Kodamaea ohmeri yeast, which produces these same honey bee alarm pheromones when grown on pollen in hives. The beetle is not a pest of African honey bees because African bees have evolved effective methods to mitigate beetle infestation. However, European honey bees, faced with disease and pest management stresses different from those experienced by African bees, are unable to effectively inhibit beetle infestation. Therefore, the environment of the European honey bee colony provides optimal conditions to promote the unique bee-beetle-yeast-pollen multitrophic interaction that facilitates effective infestation of hives at the expense of the European honey bee. PMID:17483478

  10. Tropilaelaps of bees - epizootiological picture with special emphasis on the first description of the parasite in bumblebees and bees in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are the most significant pollinators of plants worlwide. Importance of plant pollination widely exceeds all other economic benefits of modern beekeeping such as production of honey, Royal jelly, propolis, beeswax, honeybee venom etc. The issues concerning bees diseases are of extreme importance in modern commercial beekeeping. That especially regards to the fact that the number of disease agents in bees has considerably increased in recent decades. Using international transport, export or import of bees and their products, the possibility of entering various agents (parasites, bacterias, viruses and fungi into bee colonies. In recent years one of the biggest problems in beekeeping in Asia has become tropilaelaps - ectoparasitic bee disease caused by mites of the genus Tropilaelaps. But because of prevalent interest in parasites Varroa destructor and Acarapis woodi, the threat of mites from Tropileaps family has not been familiar for a long period of time. Today, Tropilaelaps is on the list of diseases endangering the whole world, made by OIE. There is a real risk of its spreading, mostly through trade, that is import of bees, swarms, queen bees, bee products and equipment. In the Republic of Serbia, this disease was described for the first time in April-May 1981 in bumblebees and bees in which a mass infestation with until then unknown parasites was detected. By additional analysis there was found out that the parasite in question was from Laelapidae (Mesostigmata family, Tropilaelaps.

  11. Consumption of bee pollen affects rat ovarian functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesarova, A; Bakova, Z; Capcarova, M; Galik, B; Juracek, M; Simko, M; Toman, R; Sirotkin, A V

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of bee pollen added to the feed mixture (FM) on rat ovarian functions (secretion activity and apoptosis). We evaluated the bee pollen effect on the release of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and steroid hormones (progesterone and estradiol), as well as on the expression of markers of apoptosis (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) in rat ovarian fragments. Female rats (n = 15) were fed during 90 days by FM without or with rape seed bee pollen in dose either 3 kg/1000 kg FM or 5 kg/1000 kg FM. Fragments of ovaries isolated from rats of each group (totally 72 pieces) were incubated for 24 h. Hormonal secretion into the culture medium was detected by RIA. The markers of apoptosis were evaluated by Western blotting. It was observed that IGF-I release by rat ovarian fragments was significantly (p < 0.05) decreased; on the other hand, progesterone and estradiol secretion was increased after bee pollen treatment at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM but not at 3 kg/1000 FM. Accumulation of Bcl-2 was increased by bee pollen added at 3 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at higher dose. Accumulation of Bax was increased in ovaries of rats fed by bee pollen at doses either 3 or 5 kg/1000 kg FM, whilst accumulation of caspase-3 increased after feeding with bee pollen at dose 5 kg/1000 kg FM, but not at 3 kg/1000 kg FM. Our results contribute to new insights regarding the effect of bee pollen on both secretion activity (release of growth factor IGF-I and steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol) and apoptosis (anti- and pro-apoptotic markers Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3). Bee pollen is shown to be a potent regulator of rat ovarian functions. PMID:23137268

  12. Bees require protection for sustainable horticultural crops production in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasina, Muo J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Horticulture is the fastest growing agriculture subsector in Kenya, with the majority of production consumed locally and only less than 10% is exported. Intensive farming is currently practiced. Majority of Kenyan farmers have small land size, less than 1 ha where they grow not only horticultural crops but other food crops and livestock keeping. This paper highlights aspects of bees that relate to horticultural production and suggests reasons why bee protection is essential in Kenya.Results: Kenya is rich in diversity of horticultural crops. Only few of these are traded in domestic and export market. The rest are consumed locally and have not been promoted for commercial gains. Wide range of fruits and vegetables require xenogamous pollination to enhance yields. Farmers have reported reduced honey bee visits on their crops though they are less aware of pollination needs of their crops. Also, pollination management is not included in their crop management practices. Conclusion: Bees are an essential component of horticultural production but their survival has been threatened by farm practices in Kenya amongst other factors. Policy support is suggested to minimize the bee decline trend and to increase their use for pollination provision.

  13. A novel bee swarm optimization algorithm for numerical function optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Reza; Mohammadi, Alireza; Ziarati, Koorush

    2010-10-01

    The optimization algorithms which are inspired from intelligent behavior of honey bees are among the most recently introduced population based techniques. In this paper, a novel algorithm called bee swarm optimization, or BSO, and its two extensions for improving its performance are presented. The BSO is a population based optimization technique which is inspired from foraging behavior of honey bees. The proposed approach provides different patterns which are used by the bees to adjust their flying trajectories. As the first extension, the BSO algorithm introduces different approaches such as repulsion factor and penalizing fitness (RP) to mitigate the stagnation problem. Second, to maintain efficiently the balance between exploration and exploitation, time-varying weights (TVW) are introduced into the BSO algorithm. The proposed algorithm (BSO) and its two extensions (BSO-RP and BSO-RPTVW) are compared with existing algorithms which are based on intelligent behavior of honey bees, on a set of well known numerical test functions. The experimental results show that the BSO algorithms are effective and robust; produce excellent results, and outperform other algorithms investigated in this consideration.

  14. Topic acute toxicity of Bioenraiz in honey bees (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Beiro Castro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bioenraiz is a phytohormone which active ingredient is indolacetic acid (AIA, an auxina that promotes vegetable vegetable growth. The most important feature is that it regulates growth by inducing the synthesis of ribonucleic acid (RNA or specific enzymes, which in turn are linked into a central genetic as biological modulators.Objective. To evaluate the potential toxicity of Bioenraiz when is administered to honey bees. Method. The product was applied in single and topic doses of 0.650 mg/ bee; equivalent to a concentration of 130 mg/ L. Two hundred honey bees of the Apis mellifera specie were used and distributed in two experimental groups: a control one (non treated and a group treated with Bioenraiz. The mortality of the bee and the appearance of toxicity signs at the 4, 24 and 48 hours of the test, were the variables analyzed. Results and Discussion. Bioenraiz caused a 2 percent of mortality, a non biological and statistical significant value according to the validation criteria of the test. Concerning clinical observations, the animals did not show toxic signs nor alterations in their behavor attribute to the administration of the test substance. Conclusions. According to the results obtained in this highly sensitive specie for ecotoxicological tests, this product did not provoke neither mortality, nor toxicity for the Apis mellifera bee.

  15. A Memory-based Bees Algorithm: An Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faidzul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bees Algorithm (BA is a new population-based optimization algorithm inspired by the foraging nature of bees. In the basic version of the Bees Algorithm, the algorithm performed a combination of neighborhood search and global search. However, the current BA has the disadvantage of not fully imitate all physical and social aspect of bees’ nature. In this study, enhancements to the BA will be introduced as Memory-based Bees Algorithm (MBA by adding memory (local and global to two types of bees to make the algorithm more natural. The results of comparing the proposed Local-MBA, global-MBA and MBA (combination of Local-MBA and global-MBA are tested using several benchmark functions. They had obtained approximately 59.34, 73.02, 74.9 and 75.44% improvement on mean number of evaluations over the basic BA, respectively. Novel fitness values of two engineering design problems are obtained by applying MBA. The proposed algorithms have great potential to be used in many optimization problems.

  16. Altitudinal variation in bumble bee (Bombus) critical thermal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, K Jeannet; Giri, Susma; Dillon, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Organism critical thermal limits are often tightly linked to current geographic distribution and can therefore help predict future range shifts driven by changing environmental temperatures. Thermal tolerance of diverse organisms often varies predictably with latitude, with upper thermal limits changing little and lower thermal limits decreasing with latitude. Despite similarly steep gradients in environmental temperatures across altitude, few studies have investigated altitudinal variation in critical thermal limits. We estimated critical thermal minimum (CTmin), critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and recovery temperature (Trec) by tracking righting response of three bumble bee species during thermal ramps: Bombus huntii collected from 2180m asl, and Bombus bifarius and Bombus sylvicola collected from 3290m asl in Wyoming, USA. Overall, larger bees could tolerate more extreme temperatures, likely due to a thermal inertia driven lag between core body temperatures and air temperatures. Despite their smaller size, high altitude bumble bees tolerated colder air temperatures: they had ~1°C lower CTmin and recovered from cold exposure at ~3-4°C lower air temperatures. Conversely, low altitude bees tolerated ~5°C hotter air temperatures. These altitudinal differences in thermal tolerance parallel differences in average daily minimum (1.2°C) and maximum (7.5°C) temperatures between these sites. These results provide one of the few measurements of organism thermal tolerance across altitude and the first evidence for geographical differences in tolerance of temperature extremes in heterothermic bumble bees. PMID:27264888

  17. Hydroxymethylfurfural: a possible emergent cause of honey bee mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirbes, Lara; Nguyen, Bach Kim; de Graaf, Dirk C; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Reybroeck, Wim; Haubruge, Eric; Saegerman, Claude

    2013-12-11

    Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), a common product of hexose degradation occurring during the Maillard reaction and caramelization, has been found toxic for rats and mice. It could cause a potential health risk for humans due to its presence in many foods, sometimes exceeding 1 g/kg (in certain dried fruits and caramel products), although the latter still is controversial. HMF can also be consumed by honey bees through bad production batches of sugar syrups that are offered as winter feeding. In Belgium, abnormal losses of honey bee colonies were observed in colonies that were fed with syrup of inverted beet sugar containing high concentrations of HMF (up to 475 mg/kg). These losses suggest that HMF could be implicated in bee mortality, a topic that so far has received only little attention. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the presence of HMF in honey bee environment and possible consequences on bee mortality. Some lines of inquiry for further toxicological analysis are likewise proposed. PMID:24127696

  18. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  19. Quantifying honey bee mating range and isolation in semi-isolated valleys by DNA microsatellite paternity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Bruun; Palmer, Kellie A.; Chaline, Nicolas;

    2005-01-01

    Apis mellifera mellifera, gene flow, honey bee conservation, mating distance, National Park, European black bee, Peak District, polyandry, social insects Udgivelsesdato: JUL......Apis mellifera mellifera, gene flow, honey bee conservation, mating distance, National Park, European black bee, Peak District, polyandry, social insects Udgivelsesdato: JUL...

  20. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Bae Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV and sweet bee venom (SBV against Candida albicans (C. albicans clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates.

  1. Numerical cognition in bees and other insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarioPahl

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perceive the number of objects has been known to exist in vertebrates for a few decades, but recent behavioral investigations have demonstrated that several invertebrate species can also be placed on the continuum of numerical abilities shared with birds, mammals and reptiles. In this review article, we present the main experimental studies that have examined the ability of insects to use numerical information. These studies have made use of a wide range of methodologies, and for this reason it is striking that a common finding is the inability of the tested animals to discriminate numerical quantities greater than four. Furthermore, the finding that bees can not only transfer learnt numerical discrimination to novel objects, but also to novel numerosities, is strongly suggestive of a true, albeit limited, ability to count. Later in the review, we evaluate the available evidence to narrow down the possible mechanisms that the animals might be using to solve the number-based experimental tasks presented to them. We conclude by suggesting avenues of further research that take into account variables such as the animals’ age and experience, as well as complementary cognitive systems such as attention and the time sense.

  2. Simulation of Fermentation Pathway Using Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigeru OMATU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} In this paper, we propose Bees Algorithm (BA to enhance the performance in estimating the parameters for metabolic pathway data to simulate fermentation pathway for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the parameter estimation of biological processes has always been a challenging task due to the complexity and nonlinear equations. Therefore, we present this algorithm as a new approach for parameter estimation for biological interactions to obtain more accurate parameter values. The result shows that BA outperforms other estimation algorithms as it produces the most accurate kinetic parameters, which contributes to the precision of simulated kinetic model.

  3. Simulation of Fermentation Pathway Using Bees Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ying LEONG

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-ansi-language:EN-US;} In this paper, we propose Bees Algorithm (BA to enhance the performance in estimating the parameters for metabolic pathway data to simulate fermentation pathway for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the parameter estimation of biological processes has always been a challenging task due to the complexity and nonlinear equations. Therefore, we present this algorithm as a new approach for parameter estimation for biological interactions to obtain more accurate parameter values. The result shows that BA outperforms other estimation algorithms as it produces the most accurate kinetic parameters, which contributes to the precision of simulated kinetic model.

  4. ZigBee wireless sensor network for environmental monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Shun-qi; Ji, Lei; Wu, Hong

    2009-11-01

    ZigBee is a new close-up, low-complexity, low-power, low data rate, low-cost wireless networking technology, mainly used for short distance wireless transmission. It is based on IEEE802.15.4 standards, thousands of tiny sensors form a network through mutual coordination to communications. This paper introduces the ZigBee wireless sensor networks in environmental monitoring applications. The hardware design, including microprocessor, data acquisition, antenna and peripheral circuits of the chips, and through software design composed ZigBee mesh network that can make data acquisition and communication. This network has low power consumption, low cost, the effective area is big, and information transfers reliable merits. And have confirmed the network's communication applicability by the Serial Com Assistant, also testified the network have very good pragmatism by the NS2 emulation the network's operation.

  5. A Simple and Efficient Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunfeng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial bee colony (ABC is a new population-based stochastic algorithm which has shown good search abilities on many optimization problems. However, the original ABC shows slow convergence speed during the search process. In order to enhance the performance of ABC, this paper proposes a new artificial bee colony (NABC algorithm, which modifies the search pattern of both employed and onlooker bees. A solution pool is constructed by storing some best solutions of the current swarm. New candidate solutions are generated by searching the neighborhood of solutions randomly chosen from the solution pool. Experiments are conducted on a set of twelve benchmark functions. Simulation results show that our approach is significantly better or at least comparable to the original ABC and seven other stochastic algorithms.

  6. A Clustering Approach Using Cooperative Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenping Zou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the most recently introduced algorithms based on the intelligent foraging behavior of a honey bee swarm. This paper presents an extended ABC algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Article Bee Colony (CABC, which significantly improves the original ABC in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique; therefore, the CABC could be used for solving clustering problems. In this work, first the CABC algorithm is used for optimizing six widely used benchmark functions and the comparative results produced by ABC, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, and its cooperative version (CPSO are studied. Second, the CABC algorithm is used for data clustering on several benchmark data sets. The performance of CABC algorithm is compared with PSO, CPSO, and ABC algorithms on clustering problems. The simulation results show that the proposed CABC outperforms the other three algorithms in terms of accuracy, robustness, and convergence speed.

  7. Spinal processing of bee venom-induced pain and hyperalgesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Subcutaneous injection of bee venom causes long-term neural activation and hypersensitization in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which contributes to the development and maintenance of various pain-related behaviors. The unique behavioral 'pheno-types' of nociception and hypersensitivity identified in the rodent bee venom test are believed to reflect a complex pathological state of inflammatory pain and might be appropriate to the study of phenotype-based mechanisms of pain and hyperalgesia. In this review, the spinal processing of the bee venom-induced different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia will be described. The accumulative electrophysiological, pharmacological, and behavioral data strongly suggest that different 'phenotypes' of pain and hyperalgesia are mediated by different spinal signaling pathways. Unraveling the phenotype-based mechanisms of pain might be useful in development of novel therapeutic drugs against complex clinic pathological pain.

  8. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Orchid Bees Males: Interspecific and Chemotaxonomy Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Aline Borba; do Nascimento, Fábio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have investigated the composition of compounds that cover the cuticle in social insects, but few studies have focused on solitary bees. Cuticular hydrocarbons may provide a tool for chemotaxonomy, and perhaps they can be used as a complement to morphology and genetic characters in phylogenetic studies. Orchid bees (Tribe Euglossini) are a highly diverse group of Neotropical bees with more than 200 species. Here, the cuticular hydrocarbons of 17 species were identified and statistical analysis revealed 108 compounds, which allowed for the taxonomic classification according to the genera. The most significant compounds discriminating the four genera were (Z)-9-pentacosene, (Z,Z)-pentatriacontene-3, (Z)-9-tricosene, and (Z)-9-heptacosene. The analyses demonstrated the potential use of CHCs to identify different species. PMID:26713612

  9. Observations on fragrance collection behaviour of euglossine bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W.H. Holland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Male bees of the tribe Euglossini collect volatile chemicals secreted by orchids using dense patches of hair on the front tarsi. After collecting chemicals, the bee hovers while transferring these fragrances to invaginations on the hind tibiae. The fragrance collection and hovering behaviours are repeated multiple times. Here I report preliminary field observations on the length of fragrance collection and hovering phases in bees of the Eulaema meriana (Oliver, 1789 mimicry complex visiting the orchid Catasetum discolor in Kavanayén, Venezuela. I observed that in extended visits with many cycles of fragrance collection and hovering, the length of each collection phase gradually increased, while the length of hovering phase was static. This suggests either that chemicals secreted by orchids are in limited supply or that efficiency of fragrance collection drops.

  10. The alternative Pharaoh approach: stingless bees mummify beetle parasites alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Mark K.; Hoffmann, Dorothee; Dollin, Anne; Duncan, Michael; Spooner-Hart, Robert; Neumann, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Workers from social insect colonies use different defence strategies to combat invaders. Nevertheless, some parasitic species are able to bypass colony defences. In particular, some beetle nest invaders cannot be killed or removed by workers of social bees, thus creating the need for alternative social defence strategies to ensure colony survival. Here we show, using diagnostic radioentomology, that stingless bee workers ( Trigona carbonaria) immediately mummify invading adult small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida) alive by coating them with a mixture of resin, wax and mud, thereby preventing severe damage to the colony. In sharp contrast to the responses of honeybee and bumblebee colonies, the rapid live mummification strategy of T. carbonaria effectively prevents beetle advancements and removes their ability to reproduce. The convergent evolution of mummification in stingless bees and encapsulation in honeybees is another striking example of co-evolution between insect societies and their parasites.

  11. Complete mitochondrial genome of the Himalayan honey bee, Apis laboriosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhakchhuak, Liansangmawii; De Mandal, Surajit; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami; Sudalaimuthu, Naganeeswaran; Gopalakrishnan, Chellappa; Mugasimangalam, Raja C; Senthil Kumar, Nachimuthu

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Himalayan bee Apis laboriosa, from Mizoram, India, has been sequenced using Illumina NextSeq500 platform and analysed. The mitogenome was assembled and found to be 15 266 bp in length and the gene arrangement is similar to other honey bee species. The A. laboriosa mitogenome comprises of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and an A + T-rich region of 346 bp. Based on the concatenated PCGs, in the phylogenetic tree, A. laboriosa is placed as a sister group along with the cavity nesting honey bees. The present study reports the first complete mitochondrial genome sequence of A. laboriosa, which will enhance our knowledge on Apinae mitogenomes and phylogeny. PMID:26360118

  12. Resource Potential Analysis Of Honey Bee Feed Apis Dorsata In Mountain Tinanggo Kolaka

    OpenAIRE

    Rosmarlinasiah; Daud Malamassam; Sampe Paembonan; Yusran Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Honey Bees feed in the form of nectar pollen and water the bees used to build nests and establish colonies. A hexagonal honeycomb as a store of honey pollen and seedlings. If feed honey bees flower plants are abundantly available continuously then the always active bees build nests and fill each cell nest of honey pollen eggs and other products. The purpose of research is to determine the types of flowering plants as a potential feed honey bees nectar and pollen. The experiment was c...

  13. Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea, Apiformes in the Agricultural Landscape of Bulgaria: Species Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banaszak Józef

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild bees (Apiformes were studied in 4 crop fields and 8 refuge habitats for 2 - 5 years in agricultural landscapes in the Pleven and Plovdiv regions of Bulgaria. In total, 233 bee species were recorded. Bee forage plants visited by the honey bee and wild Apiformes are listed for each refuge habitat. Species composition is given for individual habitats, including fields of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, oilseed rape (Brassica napus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus, and radish (Raphanus sativus. Species richness and dominance structure of bee communities in the 2 regions are compared, and species responsible for significant differences are identified.

  14. Determination of fipronil LD50 for the brazilian bee Melipona scutellaris

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Clara T.; Carvalho, Stephan M.; MALASPINA, Osmar; Nocelli, Roberta C. F.

    2012-01-01

    Apis mellifera L., 1758 in toxicology studies of insecticides to bees, the aim of this study was to determine the LD50 of fipronil by topical application on the stingless bees Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811. Foraging bees were collected at the nest entrance and in laboratory anesthetized with CO2 for applying 1.0 μL of fipronil solution on the pronotum. Each group of treatments was made with thirteen bees divided in three cages, while in the control treatments the bees received only ace...

  15. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2: Yesterday’s Enemy Becomes Today’s Friend

    OpenAIRE

    Gihyun Lee; Hyunsu Bae

    2016-01-01

    Bee venom therapy has been used to treat immune-related diseases such as arthritis for a long time. Recently, it has revealed that group III secretory phospholipase A2 from bee venom (bee venom group III sPLA2) has in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory effects. A growing number of reports have demonstrated the therapeutic effects of bee venom group III sPLA2. Notably, new experimental data have shown protective immune responses of bee venom group III sPLA2 against a wide range of diseases inc...

  16. Bee Hotels’ as Tools for Native Pollinator Conservation: A Premature Verdict?

    OpenAIRE

    MacIvor, J. Scott; Packer, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Society is increasingly concerned with declining wild bee populations. Although most bees nest in the ground, considerable effort has centered on installing ‘bee hotels’—also known as nest boxes or trap nests—which artificially aggregate nest sites of above ground nesting bees. Campaigns to ‘save the bees’ often promote these devices despite the absence of data indicating they have a positive effect. From a survey of almost 600 bee hotels set up over a period of three years in Toronto, Canada...

  17. Predatory behavior in a necrophagous bee Trigona hypogea (Hymenoptera; Apidae, Meliponini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Sidnei; Noll, Fernando B.

    Although most bees feed on nectar and pollen, several exceptions have been reported. The strangest of all is the habit found in some neotropical stingless bees, which have completely replaced pollen-eating by eating animal protein from corpses. For more than 20 years, it was believed that carrion was the only protein source for these bees. We report that these bees feed not only off dead animals, but on the living brood of social wasps and possibly other similar sources. Using well developed prey location and foraging behaviors, necrophagous bees discover recently abandoned wasps' nests and, within a few hours, prey upon all immatures found there.

  18. Learning impairment in honey bees caused by agricultural spray adjuvants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Ciarlo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spray adjuvants are often applied to crops in conjunction with agricultural pesticides in order to boost the efficacy of the active ingredient(s. The adjuvants themselves are largely assumed to be biologically inert and are therefore subject to minimal scrutiny and toxicological testing by regulatory agencies. Honey bees are exposed to a wide array of pesticides as they conduct normal foraging operations, meaning that they are likely exposed to spray adjuvants as well. It was previously unknown whether these agrochemicals have any deleterious effects on honey bee behavior. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An improved, automated version of the proboscis extension reflex (PER assay with a high degree of trial-to-trial reproducibility was used to measure the olfactory learning ability of honey bees treated orally with sublethal doses of the most widely used spray adjuvants on almonds in the Central Valley of California. Three different adjuvant classes (nonionic surfactants, crop oil concentrates, and organosilicone surfactants were investigated in this study. Learning was impaired after ingestion of 20 µg organosilicone surfactant, indicating harmful effects on honey bees caused by agrochemicals previously believed to be innocuous. Organosilicones were more active than the nonionic adjuvants, while the crop oil concentrates were inactive. Ingestion was required for the tested adjuvant to have an effect on learning, as exposure via antennal contact only induced no level of impairment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A decrease in percent conditioned response after ingestion of organosilicone surfactants has been demonstrated here for the first time. Olfactory learning is important for foraging honey bees because it allows them to exploit the most productive floral resources in an area at any given time. Impairment of this learning ability may have serious implications for foraging efficiency at the colony level, as well as potentially many

  19. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  20. Acaricide, fungicide and drug interactions in honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M Johnson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chemical analysis shows that honey bees (Apis mellifera and hive products contain many pesticides derived from various sources. The most abundant pesticides are acaricides applied by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Beekeepers also apply antimicrobial drugs to control bacterial and microsporidial diseases. Fungicides may enter the hive when applied to nearby flowering crops. Acaricides, antimicrobial drugs and fungicides are not highly toxic to bees alone, but in combination there is potential for heightened toxicity due to interactive effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laboratory bioassays based on mortality rates in adult worker bees demonstrated interactive effects among acaricides, as well as between acaricides and antimicrobial drugs and between acaricides and fungicides. Toxicity of the acaricide tau-fluvalinate increased in combination with other acaricides and most other compounds tested (15 of 17 while amitraz toxicity was mostly unchanged (1 of 15. The sterol biosynthesis inhibiting (SBI fungicide prochloraz elevated the toxicity of the acaricides tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos and fenpyroximate, likely through inhibition of detoxicative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activity. Four other SBI fungicides increased the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate in a dose-dependent manner, although possible evidence of P450 induction was observed at the lowest fungicide doses. Non-transitive interactions between some acaricides were observed. Sublethal amitraz pre-treatment increased the toxicity of the three P450-detoxified acaricides, but amitraz toxicity was not changed by sublethal treatment with the same three acaricides. A two-fold change in the toxicity of tau-fluvalinate was observed between years, suggesting a possible change in the genetic composition of the bees tested. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Interactions with acaricides in honey bees are similar to drug interactions in other animals in that P450-mediated detoxication

  1. A Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Graph 3-Coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Fister Jr., Iztok; Fister, Iztok; Brest, Janez

    2012-01-01

    The Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) is the name of an optimization algorithm that was inspired by the intelligent behavior of a honey bee swarm. It is widely recognized as a quick, reliable, and efficient methods for solving optimization problems. This paper proposes a hybrid ABC (HABC) algorithm for graph 3-coloring, which is a well-known discrete optimization problem. The results of HABC are compared with results of the well-known graph coloring algorithms of today, i.e. the Tabucol and Hybrid ...

  2. Comparison between Agent Development Frameworks : BEE-GENT and JADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Agent-oriented programming is the software paradigm that brings the concepts of artificial intelligence into the realm of distributed systems. Agent-based distributed systems have been used in wide range of applications. This encouraged us to research on different agent development tools. This paper presents a brief introduction of multi-agent development frameworks: BEE-GENT and JADE. Comparison between their architecture, interaction mechanism and implementation are discussed. Based on the comparison, the advantages and limitations of BEE-GENT and JADE are concluded in the end.

  3. Honey bee colonies that have survived Varroa destructor

    OpenAIRE

    Le Conte, Yves; de Vaublanc, Gérard; Crauser, Didier; Jeanne, François; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Bécard, Jean-Marc

    2007-01-01

    We document the ability of a population of honey bee colonies to survive in France without Varroa suppression measures. We compared the mortality of collected Varroa surviving bee (VSB) stock with that of miticide-treated Varroa-susceptible colonies. Varroa infestation did not induce mortality in the VSB colonies. Some of the original colonies survived more than 11 years without treatment and the average survival of the experimental colonies was 6.54 ± 0.25 years. Swarming was variable (41.50...

  4. Identification of Aspergillus nomius in Bees Visiting Brazil Nut Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Penha, Rafael Elias Silva; Cavalcante, Marcelo Casimiro; Viaro, Helena Paula; da Silva, Josué José; de Souza Ferranti, Larissa; Fungaro, Maria Helena Pelegrinelli

    2015-01-01

    We designed a primer pair (BtubNomF/BtubNomR) specifically for amplifying Aspergillus nomius DNA. In vitro assays confirmed BtubNomF/BtubNomR specificity, corroborating its usefulness in detecting and identifying A. nomius. We then investigated the occurrence of A. nomius in floral visitors of Bertholletia excelsa trees by means of PCR, and A. nomius was detected in the following bees: Xylocopa frontalis, Bombus transversalis, Centris denudans, C. ferruginea, and Epicharis flava. The presence of A. nomius in bees visiting Brazil nuts opens up new avenues for obtaining novel insights into the process whereby Brazil nuts are contaminated by aflatoxin-producing fungi. PMID:26063353

  5. APIS - a novel approach for conditioning honey bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hagen Kirkerud

    2013-04-01

    Our data show that in a short-term memory test the response rate for the conditioned stimulus in APIS correlates well with response rate obtained from conventional Proboscis Extension Response (PER-conditioning. Additionally, we discovered that bees modulate their behaviour to aversively learned odours by reducing their rate, speed and magnitude of escapes and that both generalisation and extinction seem to be different between appetitive and aversive stimuli. The advantages of this automatic system make it ideal for assessing learning rates in a standardised and convenient way, and its flexibility adds to our toolbox for studying honey bee behaviour.

  6. Protein Structure Prediction Using Bee Colony Optimization Metaheuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, Rasmus; Paluszewski, Martin; Winter, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    Predicting the native structure of proteins is one of the most challenging problems in molecular biology. The goal is to determine the three-dimensional struc- ture from the one-dimensional amino acid sequence. De novo prediction algorithms seek to do this by developing a representation of the...... proteins structure, an energy potential and some optimization algorithm that ¿nds the structure with minimal energy. Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) is a relatively new approach to solving opti- mization problems based on the foraging behaviour of bees. Several variants of BCO have been suggested in the...

  7. Foraging on some nonfloral resources by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) in a Caatinga region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzon, M C A; Matrangolo, C A R

    2005-05-01

    In a caatinga region the flowers and nonfloral resources visited by highly eusocial bees, stingless beess and Apis mellifera (Africanized honey bee) were studied. During one year, monthly sampling took place in two sites at Serra da Capivara National Park (Piauf State, Brazil), one of them, including the local village, outside the park, and the other inside, using already existing park trails. With the help of entomological nets, all bees were caught while visiting floral and nonfloral resources. At the study sites we observed more stingless bees in nonfloral resources, made possible by human presence. Twelve stingless bee species used the nonfloral resources in different proportions, showing no preference for time of day, season of the year, or sites. During the rainy season, more water sources and abundant flowering plants were observed, which attract stingless bees, even though many worker bees were found foraging in the aqueous substrates while few were observed at water sources. This relationship was higher for stingless bee species than for Africanized honey bees. Paratrigona lineata was represented by few specimens in floral and nonfloral resources and is perhaps rare in this region. Frieseomelitta silvestrii could be considered rare in the floral resources, but they were abundant in nonfloral resources. The variety and intriguing abundance of bees in nonfloral resources suggests that these are an important part of the stingless bee niches, even if these resources are used for nest construction and defense. PMID:16097732

  8. The Impact of Pesticides on Honey Bees and Hence on Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonina Jivan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bee crisis is threatening global food security, given the fact that one third of global agricultural production relies on pollination, especially that of honey bees. Despite their importance for human being, honey bees die with alarming speed. In recent years, in Europe and America, due to pollution, pesticides and neglect there was registered an unprecedented rate of disappearance of honey bees. Einstein's theory, the fact that once the bees cease to exist, humanity has only four years to extinction, seems now truer than ever. Thus, the issue has gained a tone of maximum urgency; the bee crisis can entirely shatter the world food security, already affected by the economic crisis. There are plenty of factors that could cause honey bee population decline: disease, parasites, climatic factors (high temperature, drought or decrease in the diversity of honey flora. It may sometimes happen that the beekeeper himself causes the poisoning of his honey bees, use inappropriate products which should protect the honey bees. It is therefore possible to imagine a multi-factorial explanation of problems encountered by honey bees and to underestimate the key role of pesticides. Considering these, a review of the impact of pesticides on honey bees should not be superfluous.

  9. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-02-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrated to cause effects on longevity or foraging in adult honey bees. Nosema infections increased significantly in the bees from pesticide-treated hives when compared to bees from control hives demonstrating an indirect effect of pesticides on pathogen growth in honey bees. We clearly demonstrate an increase in pathogen growth within individual bees reared in colonies exposed to one of the most widely used pesticides worldwide, imidacloprid, at below levels considered harmful to bees. The finding that individual bees with undetectable levels of the target pesticide, after being reared in a sub-lethal pesticide environment within the colony, had higher Nosema is significant. Interactions between pesticides and pathogens could be a major contributor to increased mortality of honey bee colonies, including colony collapse disorder, and other pollinator declines worldwide.

  10. Impact of honeybee (Apis mellifera L. density on wild bee foraging behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goras Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees are globally regarded as important crop pollinators and are also valued for their honey production. They have been introduced on an almost worldwide scale. During recent years, however, several studies argue their possible competition with unmanaged pollinators. Here we examine the possible effects of honey bees on the foraging behaviour of wild bees on Cistus creticus flowers in Northern Greece. We gradually introduced one, five, and eight honey-bee hives per site, each containing ca. 20,000 workers. The visitation frequency and visit duration of wild bees before and after the beehive introductions were measured by flower observation. While the visitation frequencies of wild bees were unaffected, the average time wild bees spent on C. creticus increased with the introduction of the honey-bee hives. Although competition between honey bees and wild bees is often expected, we did not find any clear evidence for significant effects even in honey-bee densities much higher than the European-wide average of 3.1 colonies/km2.

  11. Varroa jacobsoni infestation of adult Africanized and Italian honey bees (Apis mellifera) in mixed colonies in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moretto Geraldo; Mello Jr. Leonidas João de

    1999-01-01

    Different levels of infestation with the mite Varroa jacobsoni have been observed in the various Apis mellifera races. In general, bees of European races are more susceptible to the mite than African honey bees and their hybrids. In Brazil honey bee colonies are not treated against the mite, though apparently both climate and bee race influence the mite infestation. Six mixed colonies were made with Italian and Africanized honey bees. The percentage infestation by this parasite was found to b...

  12. Honey bees are essential for pollination of Vitellaria paradoxa subsp. paradoxa (Sapotaceae) in Burkina Faso

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Nielsen, Lene Rostgaard; Dupont, Yoko Luise;

    2016-01-01

    Shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) is an important fruit tree in West African parklands, and its successful pollination is a requirement for fruit production. Size-based pollinator exclusion experiments combined with visual observations showed that presence of honey bees (Apis mellifera jemenitica) was...... important for pollination and thereby the production of fruits and seeds. Smaller insects, mainly species of stingless bees (Hypotrigona spp. and Liotrigona cf. bottegoi) and solitary bees (Compsomelissa borneri) could partly compensate pollination in absence of honey bees, but fertilisation and fruit yield...... bees were excluded by bagging. We conclude that local beekeeping with honey bees and stingless bees is likely to have a positive influence on fruit production of shea trees in the farmed West African parklands, which speaks in favour of a pollinator friendly environment....

  13. Multiobjective Optimization of Irreversible Thermal Engine Using Mutable Smart Bee Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gorji-Bandpy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method called mutable smart bee (MSB algorithm proposed for cooperative optimizing of the maximum power output (MPO and minimum entropy generation (MEG of an Atkinson cycle as a multiobjective, multi-modal mechanical problem. This method utilizes mutable smart bee instead of classical bees. The results have been checked with some of the most common optimizing algorithms like Karaboga’s original artificial bee colony, bees algorithm (BA, improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO, Lukasik firefly algorithm (LFFA, and self-adaptive penalty function genetic algorithm (SAPF-GA. According to obtained results, it can be concluded that Mutable Smart Bee (MSB is capable to maintain its historical memory for the location and quality of food sources and also a little chance of mutation is considered for this bee. These features were found as strong elements for mining data in constraint areas and the results will prove this claim.

  14. Causes and Scale of Winter Flights in Honey Bee (Apis Mellifera Carnica Colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Węgrzynowicz Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Winter honey bee losses were evaluated during the two overwintering periods of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011. The research included dead bee workers that fell on the hive bottom board (debris and the ones that flew out of the hive. Differences were observed in the number of bees fallen as debris between the two periods, whereas the number of bees flying out was similar in both years. No differences were found between the numbers of dead bees in strong and weak colonies. The percentage of bees flying out of the colony increased in the presence of Nosema spores, Varroa infestation, increased average air temperature, and insolation during the day. In addition, both the presence of Nosema and insolation during the day had an impact on the number of bees that died and fell on the hive board.

  15. Bats and bees are pollinating Parkia biglobosa in The Gambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Kristin Marie; Ræbild, Anders; Hansen, Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    A pollination experiment was conducted with Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) in The Gambia. P. biglobosa is integrated in the farming systems and produces fruit pulp and seeds used in cooking. The species is bat-pollinated, and in areas with few bats the main pollinators are assumed to be honey bees. A...... replicates. The pollinators’ identity, efficiency, and relative effect were determined. Bats, honey bees, and stingless bees were able to pollinate the species. Bat-visited capitula produced more pods, but not significantly more than honey bees. Honey bees were more efficient than stingless bees, resulting...... fruit pulp was analysed and a positive correlation between number of seeds per pod and the sugar content was found. Improved pollination success may thus result in sweeter fruits. We conclude it is important to strive against a pollinator-friendly environment in order to attract bats and bees...

  16. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn K Klatt

    Full Text Available Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding.

  17. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Melittin Derived from Honey Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Momenzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: Bacterial peritonitis is one of the nosocomial infections that is due to direct invasion of bacteria to peritoneal membrane. Resistance to antibiotic is of great significance in this disease and could be led to morbidity and mortality of patients. During the past decade, tracing for natural antimicrobial peptide is more considered. Among them, melittin has been extracted from honey bee venom and its antibacterial activity is being examined. The main goal of this study was isolation of melittin from honey bee venom and evaluation of its antibacterial activity against the agents of bacterial peritonitis. Materials and methods: Honey bee venom prepared using electrical stimulation and the quality of venom confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Melittin isolated from the venom using a linear gradient of acetonitrile and C18 column by Reverse Phase-High Performance Chromatography (RP-HPLC. Minimal Inhibition and Bactericidal concentration for melittin examined on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: Honey bee venom composed of twenty distinct fraction in which melittin was the major one. Melittin inhibited Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth at 0.39, 6.25, and 12.5 µg and was bactericide at 1.56, 25, and >50 µg respectively. Conclusion: Melittin specifically invade the corresponding bacteria and induce significant inhibitory and bactericidal activity against the main agents of bacterial peritonitis. Complementary studies in animal model would be overcome bacterial drug resistance issue specifically in bacterial peritonitis.

  19. [Intestinal enterobacteria of the hibernating Apis mellifera mellifera L. bees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapunov, Ia E; Kuziaev, R Z; Khismatullin, R G; Bezgodova, O A

    2008-01-01

    Dynamics of enterobacteria of normal intestinal microflora was studied in Apis mellifera mellifera L. bees hibernating under snow in the Western Urals. The cell numbers (N) of the predominant species Klebsiella oxytoca increased from 10-10(6) CFU/bee in November 2004 to 10(4)-10(7) CFU/bee in March 2005; its frequency of occurrence (P) increased from 92 to 100%. Increase of Providencia rettgeri (11.2004: N up to 10(6), P 25%; 03.2005: N 10(2)-10(6), P 80%) was accompanied by the substitution of Morganella morganii (11.2004: N up to 10(6), P 25%) with Proteus vulgaris (03.2005: N up to 10(5), P 8%). By spring, Hafnia alvei and Citrobacter sp., which are pathogenic to bees, disappeared (11.2004: N up to 10(5), P 13 and 10%, respectively). Endophytic species Pantoea agglomerans, Leclecria sp., and other representatives of the "Enterobacter agglomerans" group were present in November and after the first emergence in spring (N up to 10(5); November: P 15%; April: P 23%). In April, the number of enterobacteria decreased to 10(5), and P. rettgeri became the predominant species (P 54%) instead of K. oxytoca (P 43%). PMID:18683661

  20. Lipophilic extracts composition of honey-bee collected pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Sandra; Vilas-Boas, Miguel; Dias, L. G.; Estevinho, Leticia M.; Silvestre, Armando; Simões, Mário

    2003-01-01

    Honey-bee derived products such as pollen have been applied for centuries in traditional medicine as well as in food diets and supplementary nutrition due to their nutritional and physiological properties, above all in regard to their healthy effects on the human organism

  1. Patterns of viral infection in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2013-01-01

    The well-being of a colony and replenishment of the workers depends on a healthy queen. Diseases in queens are seldom reported, and our knowledge on viral infection in queens is limited. In this study, 86 honey bee queens were collected from beekeepers in Denmark. All queens were tested separately...

  2. Handling sticky resin by stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gastauer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For their nest defense, stingless bees (Meliponini collect plant resins which they stick on intruders like ants or cleptobiotic robber bees causing their immobilization. The aim of this article is to identify all parts of stingless bee workers contacting these sticky resins. Of special interest are those body parts with anti-adhesive properties to resin, where it can be removed without residues. For that, extensive behavioral observations during foraging flight, handling and application of the resin have been carried out. When handling the resin, all tarsi touch the resin while walking above it. For transportation from plants to the nest during foraging flight, the resin is packed to the corbicula via tarsi and basitarsi of front and middle legs. Once stuck to the resin or after the corbicula had been unloaded, the bee's legs have to be cleaned thoroughly. Only the tips of the mandibles, that form, cut and apply the sticky resin, seem to have at least temporarily resin-rejecting properties.

  3. Novel antimicrobial peptides from the venom of solitary bees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Cvačka, Josef; Voburka, Zdeněk; Hovorka, Oldřich; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 8 (2008), s. 92-92. ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /30./. 31.08.2008-05.09.2008, Helsinki] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * solitary bees * melectin * isolation and characterization Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  4. Patch Departure Behavior of Bumble Bees: Rules and Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale E. Taneyhill

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I present an increment-decay model for the mechanism of bumble bees' decision to depart from inflorescences. The probability of departure is the consequence of a dynamic threshold level of stimuli necessary to elicit a stereotyped landing reaction. Reception of floral nectar lowers this threshold, making the bee less likely to depart. Concurrently the threshold increases, making departure from the inflorescence more probable. Increments to the probability of landing are an increasing, decelerating function of nectar volume, and are worth less, in sequence, for the same amount of nectar. The model is contrasted to threshold departure rules, which predict that bees will depart from inflorescences if the amount of nectar in the last one or two flowers visited is below a given level. Field tests comparing the two models were performed with monkshood (Aconitum columbianum. Treated flowers contained a descending series of nectar volumes (6 to 0 L of 30 % sucrose solution. The more nectar that bees encountered in the treated flowers, the more likely they were to remain within the inflorescence after subsequently visiting one to three empty flowers. I discuss the differences between rules and mechanisms in regard to cognitive models of foraging behavior.

  5. Bee pollen flavonoid/phenolic characterization in different flowering periods

    OpenAIRE

    Monsanto, M.; Anjos, O.; Campos, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess the choice made by honey bees all over the time two apiaries in the region of Beira Interior were selected for evaluation of the variance of floral pollen sources used by them in three different flowering periods.

  6. Influence of environmental contaminations on life expectancy of bees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to determine the life expectancy of bees inhabiting in different geochemical provinces in the course of active flying season. The concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in honey from apiary of Tyumen region is detected.

  7. Hybrid origins of Australian honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased globalisation and homogenisation the maintenance of genetic integrity of local populations of agriculturally important species is of increasing concern. The honey bee provides an interesting perspective as it is both domesticated and wild, with a large native range and much larger int...

  8. Stingless bees further improve apple pollination and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blandina Felipe Viana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of Africanised honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata Lepeletier hives to increase pollination success in apple orchards is a widespread practice. However, this study is the first to investigate the number of honeybee hives ha-1 required to increase the production of fruits and seeds as well as the potential contribution of the stingless bee Mandaçaia (Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides Lepeletier. We performed tests in a 43-ha apple orchard located in the municipality of Ibicoara (13º24’50.7’’S and 41º17’7.4’’W in Chapada Diamantina, State of Bahia, Brazil. In 2011, fruits from the Eva variety set six seeds on average, and neither a greater number of hives (from 7 to 11 hives ha-1 nor a greater number of pollen collectors at the honeybee hives displayed general effects on the seed number. Without wild pollinators, seven Africanised honeybee hives ha-1 with pollen collectors is currently the best option for apple producers because no further increase in the seed number was observed with higher hive densities. In 2012, supplementation with both stingless bees (12 hives ha-1 and Africanised honeybees (7 hives ha-1 provided higher seed and fruit production than supplementation with honeybees (7 hives ha-1 alone. Therefore, the stingless bee can improve the performance of honeybee as a pollinator of apple flowers, since the presence of both of these bees results in increases in apple fruit and seed number.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by Amazonian stingless bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemilla Sarmento Rebelo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical characteristics of pollen collected by the Amazonian stingless bees Melipona seminigra and Melipona interrupta , in order to verify whether their characteristics meet the physicochemical requirements established by the Brazilian Technical Regulation for Identity and Quality of Bee Pollen. Physicochemical analyses were performed through official analytical methods. Results of pollen analyses collected by M. seminigra and M. interrupta were respectively as follows: moisture: 53.39 and 37.12%; protein: 37.63 and 24.00%; lipids: 10.81 and 6.47%; ash: 4.03 and 2.74%; crude fiber: 9.30 and 13.65%; carbohydrates: 25.66 and 44.27%; energy: 350.47 and 331.33kcal%; pH: 3.70 and 3.34; total solids: 46.60 and 62.87%, and water activity: 0.91 and 0.85. The percentages of moisture and pH in pollen collected by both studied bees are not in agreement with the Technical Regulation for bee pollen. Since some characteristics, which are inherent to the Melipona pollen, were not in conform to the current Regulation, we recommend that further studies should be conducted to better characterize it, and correct the Regulation, if necessary.

  10. SWEETNESS AND LIGHT: ILLUMINATING THE HONEY BEE GENOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome sequence and annotated gene list of the honey bee Apis mellifera is the first genome of the Hymenoptera to be deciphered. As such it has already, and will continue, to provide an avalanche of insights into insect biology and the genetic basis of social behavior. The project was centered a...

  11. Peers, Pressure, and Performance at the National Spelling Bee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how individuals' performances of a cognitive task in a high-pressure competition are affected by their peers' performances. To do so, I use novel data from the National Spelling Bee, in which students attempt to spell words correctly in a tournament setting. Across OLS and instrumental variables approaches, I…

  12. Monogamy in large bee societies: a stingless paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffé, Rodolfo; Pioker-Hara, Fabiana C.; dos Santos, Charles F.; Santiago, Leandro R.; Alves, Denise A.; de M. P. Kleinert, Astrid; Francoy, Tiago M.; Arias, Maria C.; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera L.

    2014-03-01

    High genetic diversity is important for the functioning of large insect societies. Across the social Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps), species with the largest colonies tend to have a high colony-level genetic diversity resulting from multiple queens (polygyny) or queens that mate with multiple males (polyandry). Here we studied the genetic structure of Trigona spinipes, a stingless bee species with colonies an order of magnitude larger than those of polyandrous honeybees. Genotypes of adult workers and pupae from 43 nests distributed across three Brazilian biomes showed that T. spinipes colonies are usually headed by one singly mated queen. Apart from revealing a notable exception from the general incidence of high genetic diversity in large insect societies, our results reinforce previous findings suggesting the absence of polyandry in stingless bees and provide evidence against the sperm limitation hypothesis for the evolution of polyandry. Stingless bee species with large colonies, such as T. spinipes, thus seem promising study models to unravel alternative mechanisms to increase genetic diversity within colonies or understand the adaptive value of low genetic diversity in large insect societies.

  13. The Honey Bee Parasite Nosema ceranae: Transmissible via Food Exchange?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Nosema ceranae, a newly introduced parasite of the honey bee, Apis mellifera, is contributing to worldwide colony losses. Other Nosema species, such as N. apis, tend to be associated with increased defecation and spread via a fecal-oral pathway, but because N. ceranae does not induce defecation, it

  14. New species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A.R. Melo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two new species of the stingless bee genus Schwarziana from Brazil are described and illustrated. Schwarziana bocainensis sp. nov. is described from Serra da Bocaina, in São Paulo, and S. chapadensis sp. nov. is described from Chapada dos Veadeiros, in Goiás. An identification key to workers of the known species of Schwarziana is provided.

  15. Security system of radioactive sources based on ZigBee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This public government and research section are paying more and more attention on the security of radioactive sources, which belongs to the realm of physical protection of small civil nuclear facilities. An application using the newly developed WLAN technology ZigBee is presented, which brings about many benefits to the sources and the whole facilities. At last, several key factors are analyzed. (authors)

  16. Genetic diversity affects colony survivorship in commercial honey bee colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey bee (Apis mellifera) queens mate with unusually high numbers of males (average of approximately 12 drones), although there is much variation among queens. One main consequence of such extreme polyandry is an increased diversity of worker genotypes within a colony, which has been shown empirica...

  17. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, Australia Abstract: In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left–right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green

  18. Bee species diversity enhances productivity and stability in a perennial crop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley R Rogers

    Full Text Available Wild bees provide important pollination services to agroecoystems, but the mechanisms which underlie their contribution to ecosystem functioning--and, therefore, their importance in maintaining and enhancing these services-remain unclear. We evaluated several mechanisms through which wild bees contribute to crop productivity, the stability of pollinator visitation, and the efficiency of individual pollinators in a highly bee-pollination dependent plant, highbush blueberry. We surveyed the bee community (through transect sampling and pan trapping and measured pollination of both open- and singly-visited flowers. We found that the abundance of managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, and wild-bee richness were equally important in describing resulting open pollination. Wild-bee richness was a better predictor of pollination than wild-bee abundance. We also found evidence suggesting pollinator visitation (and subsequent pollination are stabilized through the differential response of bee taxa to weather (i.e., response diversity. Variation in the individual visit efficiency of A. mellifera and the southeastern blueberry bee, Habropoda laboriosa, a wild specialist, was not associated with changes in the pollinator community. Our findings add to a growing literature that diverse pollinator communities provide more stable and productive ecosystem services.

  19. The sound and the fury--bees hiss when expecting danger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henja-Niniane Wehmann

    Full Text Available Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees' sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We therefore conditioned honey bees aversively to odours in a walking arena and recorded both their sound production and their movement. Bees were presented with two odours, one of which was paired with an electric shock. Initially, the bees did not produce any sound upon odour presentation, but responded to the electric shock with a strong hissing response. After learning, many bees hissed at the presentation of the learned odour, while fewer bees hissed upon presentation of another odour. We also found that hissing and movement away from the conditioned odour are independent behaviours that can co-occur but do not necessarily do so. Our data suggest that hissing can be used as a readout for learning after olfactory conditioning, but that there are large individual differences between bees concerning their hissing reaction. The basis for this variability and the possible ecological relevance of the bees' hissing remain to be investigated.

  20. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such "migratory management" causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  1. Dynamics of Persistent and Acute Deformed Wing Virus Infections in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D. Evans

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature decline could lead to not only significant decrease in the rate for pupae to emerge as adult bees, but also an increased severity of the virus infection in emerged bees, partly explaining the high levels of winter losses of managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, around the world. By experimentally exposing adult bees with variable levels of parasitic mite Varroa destructor, we showed that the severity of DWV infection was positively correlated with the density and time period of Varroa mite infestation, confirming the role of Varroa mites in virus transmission and activation in honey bees. Further, we showed that host conditions have a significant impact on the outcome of DWV infection as bees that originate from strong colonies resist DWV infection and replication significantly better than bee originating from weak colonies. The information obtained from this study has important implications for enhancing our understanding of host‑pathogen interactions and can be used to develop effective disease control strategies for honey bees.

  2. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  3. Annual dynamics of wild bee densities: attractiveness and productivity effects of oilseed rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedinger, Verena; Mitesser, Oliver; Hovestadt, Thomas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Holzschuh, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Mass-flowering crops may affect long-term population dynamics, but effects on pollinators have never been studied across several years. We monitored wild bees in oilseed rape fields in 16 landscapes in Germany in two consecutive years. Effects on bee densities of landscape oilseed rape cover in the years of monitoring and in the previous years were evaluated with landscape data from three consecutive years. We fit empirical data to a mechanistic model to provide estimates for oilseed rape attractiveness and its effect on bee productivity in comparison to the rest of the landscape, and we evaluated consequences for pollinator densities in consecutive years. Our results show that high oilseed rape cover in the previous year enhances current densities of wild bees (except for bumble bees). Moreover, we show a strong attractiveness of and dilution on (i.e., decreasing bee densities with increasing landscape oilseed rape cover) oilseed rape for bees during flowering in the current year, modifying the effect of the previous year's oilseed rape cover in the case of wild bees (excluding Bombus). As long as other factors such as nesting sites or natural enemies do not limit bee reproduction, our findings suggest long-term positive effects of mass-flowering crops on bee populations, at least for non-Bombus generalists, which possibly help to maintain crop pollination services even when crop area increases. Similar effects are conceivable for other organisms providing ecosystem services in annual crops and should be considered in future studies. PMID:26236848

  4. Viral infection affects sucrose responsiveness and homing ability of forager honey bees, Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Li

    Full Text Available Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV, on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L. were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER assays and radio frequency identification (RFID systems. The pollen forager honey bees originated from colonies that had no detectable level of honey bee viruses and were manually inoculated with IAPV to induce the viral infection. The results showed that IAPV-inoculated honey bees were more responsive to low sucrose solutions compared to that of non-infected foragers. After two days of infection, around 10⁷ copies of IAPV were detected in the heads of these honey bees. The homing ability of IAPV-infected foragers was depressed significantly in comparison to the homing ability of uninfected foragers. The data provided evidence that IAPV infection in the heads may enable the virus to disorder foraging roles of honey bees and to interfere with brain functions that are responsible for learning, navigation, and orientation in the honey bees, thus, making honey bees have a lower response threshold to sucrose and lose their way back to the hive.

  5. Selection of bee species for environmental risk assessment of GM cotton in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Sílvia Soares Pires

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to list potential candidate bee species for environmental risk assessment (ERA of genetically modified (GM cotton and to identify the most suited bee species for this task, according to their abundance and geographical distribution. Field inventories of bee on cotton flowers were performed in the states of Bahia and Mato Grosso, and in Distrito Federal, Brazil. During a 344 hour sampling, 3,470 bees from 74 species were recovered, at eight sites. Apis mellifera dominated the bee assemblages at all sites. Sampling at two sites that received no insecticide application was sufficient to identify the three most common and geographically widespread wild species: Paratrigona lineata, Melissoptila cnecomola, and Trigona spinipes, which could be useful indicators of pollination services in the ERA. Indirect ordination of common wild species revealed that insecticides reduced the number of native bee species and that interannual variation in bee assemblages may be low. Accumulation curves of rare bee species did not saturate, as expected in tropical and megadiverse regions. Species-based approaches are limited to analyze negative impacts of GM cotton on pollinator biological diversity. The accumulation rate of rare bee species, however, may be useful for evaluating possible negative effects of GM cotton on bee diversity.

  6. Negative effects of pesticides on wild bee communities can be buffered by landscape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mia G.; Blitzer, E. J.; Gibbs, Jason; Losey, John E.; Danforth, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild bee communities provide underappreciated but critical agricultural pollination services. Given predicted global shortages in pollination services, managing agroecosystems to support thriving wild bee communities is, therefore, central to ensuring sustainable food production. Benefits of natural (including semi-natural) habitat for wild bee abundance and diversity on farms are well documented. By contrast, few studies have examined toxicity of pesticides on wild bees, let alone effects of farm-level pesticide exposure on entire bee communities. Whether beneficial natural areas could mediate effects of harmful pesticides on wild bees is also unknown. Here, we assess the effect of conventional pesticide use on the wild bee community visiting apple (Malus domestica) within a gradient of percentage natural area in the landscape. Wild bee community abundance and species richness decreased linearly with increasing pesticide use in orchards one year after application; however, pesticide effects on wild bees were buffered by increasing proportion of natural habitat in the surrounding landscape. A significant contribution of fungicides to observed pesticide effects suggests deleterious properties of a class of pesticides that was, until recently, considered benign to bees. Our results demonstrate extended benefits of natural areas for wild pollinators and highlight the importance of considering the landscape context when weighing up the costs of pest management on crop pollination services. PMID:26041355

  7. Inorganic Nitrogen Derived from Foraging Honey Bees Could Have Adaptive Benefits for the Plants They Visit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Archana; Afik, Ohad; Cabrera, Miguel L.; Delaplane, Keith S.; Mowrer, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    In most terrestrial ecosystems, nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Honey bees may help alleviate this limitation because their feces (frass) have high concentration of organic nitrogen that may decompose in soil and provide inorganic N to plants. However, information on soil N processes associated with bee frass is not available. The objectives of this work were to 1) estimate the amount of bee frass produced by a honey bee colony and 2) evaluate nitrogen mineralization and ammonia volatilization from bee frass when surface applied or incorporated into soil. Two cage studies were conducted to estimate the amount of frass produced by a 5000-bee colony, and three laboratory studies were carried out in which bee frass, surface-applied or incorporated into soil, was incubated at 25oC for 15 to 45 days. The average rate of bee frass production by a 5,000-bee colony was estimated at 2.27 to 2.69 g N month−1. Nitrogen mineralization from bee frass during 30 days released 20% of the organic N when bee frass was surface applied and 34% when frass was incorporated into the soil. Volatilized NH3 corresponded to 1% or less of total N. The potential amount of inorganic N released to the soil by a typical colony of 20,000 bees foraging in an area similar to that of the experimental cages (3.24 m2) was estimated at 0.62 to 0.74 g N m−2 month−1 which may be significant at a community scale in terms of soil microbial activity and plant growth. Thus, the deposition of available N by foraging bees could have adaptive benefits for the plants they visit, a collateral benefit deriving from the primary activity of pollination. PMID:23923006

  8. Specialist Osmia bees forage indiscriminately among hybridizing Balsamorhiza floral hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cane, James H

    2011-09-01

    Pollinators, even floral generalists (=polyleges), typically specialize during individual foraging bouts, infrequently switching between floral hosts. Such transient floral constancy restricts pollen flow, and thereby gene flow, to conspecific flowers in mixed plant communities. Where incipient flowering species meet, however, weak cross-fertility and often similar floral traits can yield mixed reproductive outcomes among pollinator-dependent species. In these cases, floral constancy by polyleges sometimes serves as an ethological mating barrier. More often, their foraging infidelities instead facilitate host introgression and hybridization. Many other bee species are oligolectic (taxonomic specialists for pollen). Oligoleges could be more discriminating connoisseurs than polyleges when foraging among their limited set of related floral hosts. If true, greater foraging constancy might ensue, contributing to positive assortative mating and disruptive selection, thereby facilitating speciation among their interfertile floral hosts. To test this Connoisseur Hypothesis, nesting females of two species of oligolectic Osmia bees were presented with randomized mixed arrays of flowers of two sympatric species of their pollen host, Balsamorhiza, a genus known for hybridization. In a closely spaced grid, the females of both species preferred the larger flowered B. macrophylla, evidence for discrimination. However, both species' females showed no floral constancy whatsoever during their individual foraging bouts, switching randomly between species proportional to their floral preference. In a wider spaced array in which the bouquets reflected natural plant spacing, foraging oligolectic bees often transferred pollen surrogates (fluorescent powders) both between conspecific flowers (geitonogamy and xenogamy) and between the two Balsamorhiza species. The Connoisseur Hypothesis was therefore rejected. Foraging infidelity by these oligolectic Osmia bees will contribute to

  9. The bacterial communities associated with honey bee (Apis mellifera foragers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Corby-Harris

    Full Text Available The honey bee is a key pollinator species in decline worldwide. As part of a commercial operation, bee colonies are exposed to a variety of agricultural ecosystems throughout the year and a multitude of environmental variables that may affect the microbial balance of individuals and the hive. While many recent studies support the idea of a core microbiota in guts of younger in-hive bees, it is unknown whether this core is present in forager bees or the pollen they carry back to the hive. Additionally, several studies hypothesize that the foregut (crop, a key interface between the pollination environment and hive food stores, contains a set of 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB that inoculate collected pollen and act in synergy to preserve pollen stores. Here, we used a combination of 454 based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the microbial communities of forager guts, crops, and corbicular pollen and crop plate counts to show that (1 despite a very different diet, forager guts contain a core microbiota similar to that found in younger bees, (2 corbicular pollen contains a diverse community dominated by hive-specific, environmental or phyllosphere bacteria that are not prevalent in the gut or crop, and (3 the 13 LAB found in culture-based studies are not specific to the crop but are a small subset of midgut or hindgut specific bacteria identified in many recent 454 amplicon-based studies. The crop is dominated by Lactobacillus kunkeei, and Alpha 2.2 (Acetobacteraceae, highly osmotolerant and acid resistant bacteria found in stored pollen and honey. Crop taxa at low abundance include core hindgut bacteria in transit to their primary niche, and potential pathogens or food spoilage organisms seemingly vectored from the pollination environment. We conclude that the crop microbial environment is influenced by worker task, and may function in both decontamination and inoculation.

  10. Why, when and where did honey bee dance communication evolve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie eI'Anson Price

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis sp. are the only known bee genus that uses nest-based communication to provide nest-mates with information about the location of resources, the so-called dance language. Successful foragers perform waggle dances for high quality food sources and suitable nest-sites during swarming. However, since many species of social insects do not communicate the location of resources to their nest-mates, the question of why the dance language evolved is of ongoing interest. We review recent theoretical and empirical research into the ecological circumstances that make dance communication beneficial in present day environments. This research suggests that the dance language is most beneficial when food sources differ greatly in quality and are hard to find. The dances of extant honey bee species differ in important ways, and phylogenetic studies suggest an increase in dance complexity over time: species with the least complex dance were the first to appear and species with the most complex dance are the most derived. We review the fossil record of honey bees and speculate about the time and context (foraging vs. swarming in which spatially referential dance communication might have evolved. We conclude that there are few certainties about when the dance language first appeared; dance communication could be older than 40 million years and, thus, predate the genus Apis, or it could be as recent as 20 million years when extant honey bee species diverged during the early Miocene. The most parsimonious scenario assumes it evolved in a sub-tropical to temperate climate, with patchy vegetation somewhere in Eurasia.

  11. Bees, honey and pollen as sentinels for lead environmental contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three beehive matrices, sampled in eighteen apiaries from West France, were analysed for the presence of lead (Pb). Samples were collected during four different periods in both 2008 and 2009. Honey was the matrix the least contaminated by Pb (min = 0.004 μg g−1; max = 0.378 μg g−1; mean = 0.047 μg g−1; sd = 0.057). The contamination of bees (min = 0.001 μg g−1; max = 1.869 μg g−1; mean = 0.223 μg g−1; sd = 0.217) and pollen (min = 0.004 μg g−1; max = 0.798 μg g−1; mean = 0.240 μg g−1; sd = 0.200) showed similar levels and temporal variations but bees seemed to be more sensitive bringing out the peaks of Pb contamination. Apiaries in urban and hedgerow landscapes appeared more contaminated than apiaries in cultivated and island landscapes. Sampling period had a significant effect on Pb contamination with higher Pb concentrations determined in dry seasons. - Highlights: ► Bees, pollen and honey were analysed for the presence of lead. ► The contamination of bees and pollen showed similar levels. ► Honey was the least contaminated matrix. ► Apiaries in urban and hedgerow landscapes appeared more contaminated. ► Pb concentrations varied across the year and were higher in dry seasons. - The aim of this study was to investigate the contamination of 18 apiaries by lead through analyses on 3 different matrices, foraging bees, honey and pollen over 2 beekeeping seasons and in 4 different landscape contexts.

  12. Comparison of Treatment Effects and Allergic responses to stiff neck between Sweet Bee Venom and Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture (A pilot study, Double blind, Randomized Controlled Clinical Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-hee Lee

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the difference of treatment effects and allergic responses to stiff neck between Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture. Methods : Forty one patients who felt stiff neck were randomly divided into two groups, a Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture group(group Ⅰ and a Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture group(group Ⅱ. Evaluations of the treatment effects were made before and after a treatment using Visual Analog Scale(VAS, Neck Disability Index(NDI, Clinical Evaluation Grade(CEG. The comparison of allergic responses was measured with VAS. The obtained data were analyzed and compared with SPSS. Results : The group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ showed significant improvement(p<0.05 according to the VAS, NDI, CEG. And the differences between the two groups were insignificant according to VAS, NDI, CEG. But allergic responses such as localized edema, localized itching were significantly lower in group Ⅱ than group Ⅰ. Conclusions : It seems that there are no big different treatment effects between the two groups. Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture appears to be more effective measurement against allergic reactions than the Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture. Further studies are needed for the comparison of Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture and Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture.

  13. A comparison of bee bread made by Africanized and European honey bees (Apis mellifera) and its effects on hemolymph protein titers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic influence on nutrient acquisition was examined using European and African honey bees (EHB and AHB). Both races collected the same pollen and stored it in comb cells where it was converted to a fermented food called bee bread. We compared pH, protein and amino acid concentrations in the...

  14. A scientific note on the comparison of airborne volatiles produced by commercial bumble bee (Bombus impatiens) and honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small hive beetles have been documented as being able to successfully invade commercial bumble bee colonies and find the hives through odors produced by the colonies. We tested the hypothesis that volatiles emanating from Bumble bee and Honeybee colonies were similar by collecting volatiles from wo...

  15. The Potential of Bee-Generated Carbon Dioxide for Control of Varroa Mite (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) in Indoor Overwintering Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to manipulate ventilation rate to characterize interactions between stocks of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and ventilation setting on varroa mite (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) mortality in honey bee colonies kept indoors over winter. The first experiment used colonies established from stock selected locally for wintering performance under exposure to varroa (n = 6) and unselected bees (n = 6) to assess mite and bee mortality and levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) in the bee cluster when kept under a simulated winter condition at 5°C. The second experiment, used colonies from selected bees (n = 10) and unselected bees (n = 12) that were exposed to either standard ventilation (14.4 liter/min per hive) or restricted ventilation (0.24 liter/min per hive, in a Plexiglas ventilation chamber) during a 16-d treatment period to assess the influence of restricted air flow on winter mortality rates of varroa mites and honey bees. Experiment 2 was repeated in early, mid-, and late winter. The first experiment showed that under unrestricted ventilation with CO2 concentrations averaging varroa mite mortality when colonies were placed under low temperature. CO2 was negatively correlated with O2 in the bee cluster in both experiments. When ventilation was restricted, mean CO2 level (3.82 ± 0.31%, range 0.43-8.44%) increased by 200% relative to standard ventilation (1.29 ± 0.31%; range 0.09-5.26%) within the 16-d treatment period. The overall mite mortality rates and the reduction in mean abundance of varroa mite over time was greater under restricted ventilation (37 ± 4.2%) than under standard ventilation (23 ± 4.2%) but not affected by stock of bees during the treatment period. Selected bees showed overall greater mite mortality relative to unselected bees in both experiments. Restricting ventilation increased mite mortality, but did not affect worker bee mortality relative to that for

  16. On the Performance of the Predicted Energy Efficient Bee-Inspired Routing (PEEBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane M. A. Fahmy

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Predictive Energy Efficient Bee Routing PEEBR is a swarm intelligent reactive routing algorithm inspired from the bees food search behavior. PEEBR aims to optimize path selection in the Mobile Ad-hoc Network MANET based on energy consumption prediction. It uses Artificial Bees Colony ABC Optimization model and two types of bee agents: The scout bee for exploration phase and the forager bee for evaluation and exploitation phases. PEEBR considers the predicted mobile nodes battery residual power and the expected energy consumption for packet reception and relaying of these nodes along each of the potential routing paths between a source and destination pair. In this research paper, the performance of the proposed and improved PEEBR algorithm is evaluated in terms of energy consumption efficiency and throughput compared to two state-of-art ad-hoc routing protocols: The Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector AODV and the Destination Sequenced Distance Vector DSDV for various MANET sizes.

  17. Radiologic Findings of Foreign Body Granuloma by the Bee Sting: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bee sting therapy is a folk remedy used for arthralgia. An adverse reaction to bee sting therapy can be variable, ranging from a local inflammatory reaction to generalized anaphylaxis. There have been reports of dermatologic findings pertaining to bee sting granulomas, which results from a foreign body reaction to the persistence of venom and stinger at the sting site. However to the best of our knowledge, the radiologic findings of bee sting granulomas have not been reported on in Korea. We describe the ultrasound and MRI findings of bee sting granulomas at the lower extremity in a 36-year-old woman who underwent bee-sting therapy for osteoarthritis of the knee joints 3 months prior

  18. Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme do Carmo Silveira; Anderson Machado Nascimento; Silvia Helena Sofia; Solange Cristina Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil. Euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from December 1998 to November 1999. Samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an Atlantic Forest remnant in northeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. A total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging t...

  19. Honey bee microRNAs respond to infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Huang; Yanping Chen; Rui Wu Wang; Schwarz, Ryan S.; Evans, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effects of Nosema ceranae infection on honey bee microRNA (miRNA) expression, we deep-sequenced honey bee miRNAs daily across a full 6-day parasite reproduction cycle. Seventeen miRNAs were differentially expressed in honey bees infected by N. ceranae that potentially target over 400 genes predicted to primarily involve ion binding, signaling, the nucleus, transmembrane transport, and DNA binding. Based on Enzyme Code analysis, nine biological pathways were identified by...

  20. Influence of feeding bee colonies on colony strenght and honey authenticity

    OpenAIRE

    Andreja KANDOLF BOROVŠAK; Ogrinc, Nives; Lilek, Nataša; Boštjan NOČ; Božič, Janko; Korošec, Mojca

    2015-01-01

    For the natural development of bee colonies, there is the need for appropriate nutrition. Lack of natural honey flow must be supplemented by feeding bee colonies with sugar syrups or candy paste. This supplementary feeding encourages brood breeding and forage activity, whereby stronger colonies collect more honey. Sugar syrups can cause honey adulteration, which is more frequent with the reversing of the brood combs with the bee food, with the combs moved from the brood chamber to the upper c...

  1. Evaluation of the physicochemical and functional properties of Colombian bee pollen

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Fuenmayor B.; Carlos Zuluaga D.; Consuelo Díaz M.; Marta Quicazán de C.; María Cosio; Saverio Mannino

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. To establish current knowledge about Colombian bee-pollen from a point of view nutritional and functional, contributing towards creating national technical standards and the identification of chemical differentiation factors for further researches. Material and methods. One hundred ninety-six samples of dried bee pollen were collected in the center region of Colombia known as Cundi-boyacense high plateau, where nearly 90% of total bee pollen production is concentrated in th...

  2. Mitochondrial discrimination of stingless bees Tetragonisca angustula (Apidae: Meliponini) from Santa Catarina state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Koling, Diego Fagundes; Moretto, Geraldo

    2010-01-01

    The stingless bee Tetragonisca angustula is a meliponini bee naturally distributed from Argentina to Mexico. Morphologically, based on the mesepisternum color, it is separated into T. angustula angustula and T. angustula fiebrigi subspecies. The objective of this study was to characterize the restriction site variation in the mitochondrial DNA of each subspecies. Samples of worker bees were collected from two regions of Santa Catarina state, known as having a natural distribution of each subs...

  3. Honey bees (Apis mellifera) as explosives detectors: exploring proboscis extension reflex conditioned response to trinitrotolulene (TNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-mccabe, Kirsten J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingo, Robert M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haarmann, Timothy K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We examined honey bee's associative learning response to conditioning with trinitrotolulene (TNT) vapor concentrations generated at three temperatures and their ability to be reconditioned after a 24 h period. We used classical conditioning of the proboscis extension (PER) in honey bees using TNT vapors as the conditioned stimulus and sucrose as the unconditioned stimulus. We conducted fifteen experimental trials with an explosives vapor generator set at 43 C, 25 C and 5 C, producing three concentrations of explosives (1070 ppt, 57 ppt, and 11 ppt). Our objective was to test the honey bee's ability to exhibit a conditioned response to TNT vapors at all three concentrations by comparing the mean percentage of honey bees successfully exhibiting a conditioned response within each temperature group. Furthermore, we conducted eight experimental trials to test the honey bee's ability to retain their ability to exhibit a conditioned response to TNT after 24h period by comparing the mean percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response TNT on the first day compared to the percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response to TNT on the second day. Results indicate that there was no significant difference between the mean percentage of honey bees with a conditioned response to TNT vapors between three temperature groups. There was a significant difference between the percentage of honey bees exhibiting conditioned response on the first day of training compared to the percentage of honey bees exhibiting conditioned response 24 h after training. Our experimental results indicate that honey bees can be trained to exhibit a conditioned response to a range of TNT concentrations via PER However, it appears that the honey bee's ability to retain the conditioned response to TNT vapors after 24h significantly decreases.

  4. Using Bee Colony Optimization to Solve the Task Scheduling Problem in Homogenous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Arabnejad; Ali Moeini; Nasrollah Moghadam

    2011-01-01

    Bee colony optimization (BCO) is one of the most recent algorithms in swarm intelligence that can be used in optimization problems this algorithm is based on the intelligent behavior of honey bees in foraging process. In this paper bee colony optimization is applied to solve the task scheduling problem which tasks have dependency with each other. Scheduling of tasks that represents by directed acyclic graph is a NP-complete problem. The main purpose of this problem is obtaining the minimum sc...

  5. A Faster Convergence Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm in Sensor Deployment for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangyu; Zhang, Jiaxin; Fan, Jiaru; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSN), sensor deployment is one of the main topics for enhancing the sensor’s coverage rate. In this paper, by modifying updating equation of onlooker bee and scout bee of original artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm, a sensor deployment algorithm based on the modified ABC algorithm is proposed. Some new parameters such as forgetting and neighbor factor for accelerating the convergence speed and probability of mutant for maximizing the coverage rate are introduce...

  6. Particle Swarm and Bacterial Foraging Inspired Hybrid Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Numerical Function Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Li Mao; Yu Mao; Changxi Zhou; Chaofeng Li; Xiao Wei; Hong Yang

    2016-01-01

    Artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm has good performance in discovering the optimal solutions to difficult optimization problems, but it has weak local search ability and easily plunges into local optimum. In this paper, we introduce the chemotactic behavior of Bacterial Foraging Optimization into employed bees and adopt the principle of moving the particles toward the best solutions in the particle swarm optimization to improve the global search ability of onlooker bees and gain a hybrid a...

  7. Application of the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for Solving the Set Covering Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick Crawford; Ricardo Soto; Rodrigo Cuesta; Fernando Paredes

    2014-01-01

    The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show...

  8. Neonicotinoid-Contaminated Puddles of Water Represent a Risk of Intoxication for Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Samson-Robert; Geneviève Labrie; Madeleine Chagnon; Valérie Fournier

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, populations of honey bees and other pollinators have been reported to be in decline worldwide. A number of stressors have been identified as potential contributing factors, including the extensive prophylactic use of neonicotinoid insecticides, which are highly toxic to bees, in agriculture. While multiple routes of exposure to these systemic insecticides have been documented for honey bees, contamination from puddle water has not been investigated. In this study, we used a m...

  9. Balancing Control and Complexity in Field Studies of Neonicotinoids and Honey Bee Health

    OpenAIRE

    Sainath Suryanarayanan

    2013-01-01

    Amidst ongoing declines in honey bee health, the contributory role of the newer systemic insecticides continues to be intensely debated. Scores of toxicological field experiments, which bee scientists and regulators in the United States have looked to for definitive causal evidence, indicate a lack of support. This paper analyzes the methodological norms that shape the design and interpretation of field toxicological studies. I argue that contemporary field studies of honey bees and pesticide...

  10. Assessing Insecticide Hazard to Bumble Bees Foraging on Flowering Weeds in Treated Lawns

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Jonathan L.; Redmond, Carl T.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining bee-friendly habitats in cities and suburbs can help conserve the vital pollination services of declining bee populations. Despite label precautions not to apply them to blooming plants, neonicotinoids and other residual systemic insecticides may be applied for preventive control of lawn insect pests when spring-flowering weeds are present. Dietary exposure to neonicotinoids adversely affects bees, but the extent of hazard from field usage is controversial. We exposed colonies of ...

  11. Comparison of methodologies for moisture determination on dried bee pollen samples

    OpenAIRE

    Illana Louise Pereira de Melo; Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian

    2011-01-01

    Bee pollen moisture value is one of the quality parameters for this product. Some countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Poland and Switzerland have bee pollen regulations on quality parameters, but these are not clear regarding which method should be used for moisture determination. The aim of this paper was to compare six methods of moisture determination in dried bee pollen samples. The methods were: conventional oven at 100 °C, vacuum oven at 70 °C, desiccator with sulfuric acid, ...

  12. The vibration signal, modulatory communication and the organization of labor in honey bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stanley; Lewis, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Cooperative activities in honey bee colonies involve the coordinated interactions of multiple workers that perform different, but interrelated tasks. A central objective in the study of honey bee sociality therefore is to understand the communication signals used to integrate behavior within and among worker groups. This paper focuses on the role of the "vibration signal" in organizing labor in honey bee colonies. The vibration signal functions as a type of "modulatory communication signal". ...

  13. A day in the life of an oil bee: phenology, nesting, and foraging behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Schäffler, Irmgard; Dötterl, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    International audience Little is known about the bionomics of solitary, ground-nesting bees. We established a population of the oil bee, Macropis fulvipes, in a flight cage and recorded the emergence phenology, sex ratio, nesting behavior, and foraging behavior of individually marked bees. The population was protandrous and the sex ratio was balanced in three of the four observation years. The date of first emergence varied even though the sum of temperatures before emergence was similar a...

  14. Gut Pathology and Responses to the Microsporidium Nosema ceranae in the Honey Bee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Dussaubat; Jean-Luc Brunet; Mariano Higes; Colbourne, John K.; Jacqueline Lopez; Jeong-Hyeon Choi; Raquel Martín-Hernández; Cristina Botías; Marianne Cousin; Cynthia McDonnell; Marc Bonnet; Luc P Belzunces; Moritz, Robin F.A.; Yves Le Conte; Cédric Alaux

    2012-01-01

    The microsporidium Nosema ceranae is a newly prevalent parasite of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). Although this parasite is presently spreading across the world into its novel host, the mechanisms by it which affects the bees and how bees respond are not well understood. We therefore performed an extensive characterization of the parasite effects at the molecular level by using genetic and biochemical tools. The transcriptome modifications at the midgut level were characterized seve...

  15. Differential diagnosis of the honey bee trypanosomatids Crithidia mellificae and Lotmaria passim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravoet, Jorgen; Schwarz, Ryan S; Descamps, Tine; Yañez, Orlando; Tozkar, Cansu Ozge; Martin-Hernandez, Raquel; Bartolomé, Carolina; De Smet, Lina; Higes, Mariano; Wenseleers, Tom; Schmid-Hempel, Regula; Neumann, Peter; Kadowaki, Tatsuhiko; Evans, Jay D; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-09-01

    Trypanosomatids infecting honey bees have been poorly studied with molecular methods until recently. After the description of Crithidia mellificae (Langridge and McGhee, 1967) it took about forty years until molecular data for honey bee trypanosomatids became available and were used to identify and describe a new trypanosomatid species from honey bees, Lotmaria passim (Evans and Schwarz, 2014). However, an easy method to distinguish them without sequencing is not yet available. Research on the related bumble bee parasites Crithidia bombi and Crithidia expoeki revealed a fragment length polymorphism in the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), which enabled species discrimination. In search of fragment length polymorphisms for differential diagnostics in honey bee trypanosomatids, we studied honey bee trypanosomatid cell cultures of C. mellificae and L. passim. This research resulted in the identification of fragment length polymorphisms in ITS1 and ITS1-2 markers, which enabled us to develop a diagnostic method to differentiate both honey bee trypanosomatid species without the need for sequencing. However, the amplification success of the ITS1 marker depends probably on the trypanosomatid infection level. Further investigation confirmed that L. passim is the dominant species in Belgium, Japan and Switzerland. We found C. mellificae only rarely in Belgian honey bee samples, but not in honey bee samples from other countries. C. mellificae was also detected in mason bees (Osmia bicornis and Osmia cornuta) besides in honey bees. Further, the characterization and comparison of additional markers from L. passim strain SF (published as C. mellificae strain SF) and a Belgian honey bee sample revealed very low divergence in the 18S rRNA, ITS1-2, 28S rRNA and cytochrome b sequences. Nevertheless, a variable stretch was observed in the gp63 virulence factor. PMID:26146231

  16. Xenobiotic Effects on Intestinal Stem Cell Proliferation in Adult Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L) Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Cordelia Forkpah; Dixon, Luke R.; Fahrbach, Susan E.; Olav Rueppell

    2014-01-01

    The causes of the current global decline in honey bee health are unknown. One major group of hypotheses invokes the pesticides and other xenobiotics to which this important pollinator species is often exposed. Most studies have focused on mortality or behavioral deficiencies in exposed honey bees while neglecting other biological functions and target organs. The midgut epithelium of honey bees presents an important interface between the insect and its environment. It is maintained by prolifer...

  17. Laboratory approach to study toxico-pathological interactions in the honey bee Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    P. Belzunces, Luc; Blot, Nicolas; Biron, David Georges; Vidau, Cyril; El Alaoui, Hicham; Diogon, Marie; Alaux, Cédric; Le Conte, Yves; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Delbac, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    International audience Pesticides and pathogens are two categories of environmental stressors that may contribute to the decline of honey bee populations (vanEngelsdorp and Meixner, 2010). However, if their separate impacts on the honey bee are relatively well studied, knowledge on their interactions are somewhat lacking. Pioneer studies on toxico-pathological interactions have been conducted on the association of Nosema and chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) with organophosphate, organoch...

  18. Host adaptations reduce the reproductive success of Varroa destructor in two distinct European honey bee populations

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Barbara; Conte, Yves Le; Crauser, Didier; Fries, Ingemar

    2012-01-01

    Honey bee societies (Apis mellifera), the ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor, and honey bee viruses that are vectored by the mite, form a complex system of host–parasite interactions. Coevolution by natural selection in this system has been hindered for European honey bee hosts since apicultural practices remove the mite and consequently the selective pressures required for such a process. An increasing mite population means increasing transmission opportunities for viruses that can quickly...

  19. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans JD

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. This mite reproduces in brood cells and parasitizes immature and adult bees. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differences that affect gene expression relevant to the bee's tolerance, as first steps toward unravelling mechanisms of host response and differences in susceptibility to Varroa parasitism. Results We explored the transcriptional response to mite parasitism in two genetic stocks of A. mellifera which differ in susceptibility to Varroa, comparing parasitized and non-parasitized full-sister pupae from both stocks. Bee expression profiles were analyzed using microarrays derived from honey bee ESTs whose annotation has recently been enhanced by results from the honey bee genome sequence. We measured differences in gene expression in two colonies of Varroa-susceptible and two colonies of Varroa-tolerant bees. We identified a set of 148 genes with significantly different patterns of expression: 32 varied with the presence of Varroa, 116 varied with bee genotype, and 2 with both. Varroa parasitism caused changes in the expression of genes related to embryonic development, cell metabolism and immunity. Bees tolerant to Varroa were mainly characterized by differences in the expression of genes regulating neuronal development, neuronal sensitivity and olfaction. Differences in olfaction and sensitivity to stimuli are two parameters that could, at least in part, account for bee tolerance to Varroa; differences in olfaction may be related to increased grooming and hygienic behavior, important behaviors known to be involved in Varroa tolerance. Conclusion These results suggest that differences in behavior, rather than in the immune system, underlie Varroa tolerance in honey

  20. Dynamics of Persistent and Acute Deformed Wing Virus Infections in Honey Bees, Apis mellifera

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jay D.; Yan Ping Chen; Gloria DeGrandi-Hoffman; Francesco Pennacchio; Michele Hamilton; Emilio Caprio; Gennaro Di Prisco; Xuan Zhang; Jilian Li

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of viruses are critical to our understanding of disease pathogenesis. Using honey bee Deformed wing virus (DWV) as a model, we conducted field and laboratory studies to investigate the roles of abiotic and biotic stress factors as well as host health conditions in dynamics of virus replication in honey bees. The results showed that temperature decline could lead to not only significant decrease in the rate for pupae to emerge as adult bees, but also an increased severity of the v...

  1. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    OpenAIRE

    Hongbo Jiang; Donghun Kim; Sharon Dobesh; Evans, Jay D.; Nachman, Ronald J.; Krzysztof Kaczmarek; Janusz Zabrocki; Yoonseong Park

    2016-01-01

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic target of varroa mites, we investigated two closely related neuropeptidergic systems, tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) and natalisin (NTL), and their respective receptors. Honey bees lack both NTL and ...

  2. Factors Influencing Adoption of VSH Queens in the Honey Bee Breeding Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Leiby, Julie; Westra, John

    2014-01-01

    The Varroa mite is a threat to honey bees and beekeepers across the U.S. and is suspected to be one contributor to colony collapse disorder (CCD). In 2006, Varroa Sensitive Hygiene (VSH) bees were developed in response to this problem in the beekeeping industry. The hygienic behavior of VSH bees helps reduce susceptibility of colonies to Varroa mites, results in stronger colonies and decrease susceptibility to CCD. The objective of this paper is to identify factors that significantly influenc...

  3. Bioassay for grooming effectiveness towards Varroa destructor mites in Africanized and Carniolan honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Aumeier, Pia

    2001-01-01

    International audience Grooming behavior is considered a varroosis tolerance factor of Africanized honey bees, but this behavior is difficult to evaluate directly within the honey bee colony. A laboratory bioassay was developed to measure the intensity and effectiveness of grooming responses by worker bees artificially infested with one Varroa mite. At a study site in tropical Brazil, the sequence of seven well- defined grooming reactions towards mites of different colonial origin was comp...

  4. Differential gene expression of the honey bee Apis mellifera associated with Varroa destructor infection

    OpenAIRE

    Evans JD; Robinson GE; Martin-Magniette ML; Alaux C; Migeon A; Navajas M; Cros-Arteil S; Crauser D; Le Conte Y

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The parasitic mite, Varroa destructor, is the most serious pest of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, and has caused the death of millions of colonies worldwide. This mite reproduces in brood cells and parasitizes immature and adult bees. We investigated whether Varroa infestation induces changes in Apis mellifera gene expression, and whether there are genotypic differences that affect gene expression relevant to the bee's tolerance, as first steps toward unravelling m...

  5. Multiple origins of advanced eusociality in bees inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    The remarkably high level of colony organization found in the honey bees and stingless bees (family Apidae) is extremely rare among animals. Yet there is controversy over whether these two groups independently evolved advanced eusocial behavior or inherited it from a common ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence information from the mitochondrial genome (large-subunit ribosomal RNA gene) of representative apid bees suggest that advanced eusocial behavior evolved twice independently w...

  6. The Sound and the Fury—Bees Hiss when Expecting Danger

    OpenAIRE

    Wehmann, Henja-Niniane; Gustav, David; Kirkerud, Nicholas H.; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Honey bees are important model systems for the investigation of learning and memory and for a better understanding of the neuronal basics of brain function. Honey bees also possess a rich repertoire of tones and sounds, from queen piping and quacking to worker hissing and buzzing. In this study, we tested whether the worker bees’ sounds can be used as a measure of learning. We therefore conditioned honey bees aversively to odours in a walking arena and recorded both their sound production and...

  7. Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema

    OpenAIRE

    Pettis, Jeffery S.; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Johnson, Josephine; Dively, Galen

    2012-01-01

    Global pollinator declines have been attributed to habitat destruction, pesticide use, and climate change or some combination of these factors, and managed honey bees, Apis mellifera, are part of worldwide pollinator declines. Here we exposed honey bee colonies during three brood generations to sub-lethal doses of a widely used pesticide, imidacloprid, and then subsequently challenged newly emerged bees with the gut parasite, Nosema spp. The pesticide dosages used were below levels demonstrat...

  8. Social Modulation of Stress Reactivity and Learning in Young Worker Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Urlacher, Elodie; Tarr, Ingrid S.; Mercer, Alison R.

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cl...

  9. Intraspecific Geographic Variation of Fragrances Acquired by Orchid Bees in Native and Introduced Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Ramírez, Santiago R.; Eltz, Thomas; Fritzsch, Falko; Pemberton, Robert; Pringle, Elizabeth G.; Tsutsui, Neil D

    2010-01-01

    Male orchid bees collect volatiles, from both floral and non-floral sources, that they expose as pheromone analogues (perfumes) during courtship display. The chemical profile of these perfumes, which includes terpenes and aromatic compounds, is both species-specific and divergent among closely related lineages. Thus, fragrance composition is thought to play an important role in prezygotic reproductive isolation in euglossine bees. However, because orchid bees acquire fragrances entirely from ...

  10. Viral Infection Affects Sucrose Responsiveness and Homing Ability of Forager Honey Bees, Apis mellifera L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiguo Li; Yanping Chen; Shaowu Zhang; Shenglu Chen; Wenfeng Li; Limin Yan; Liangen Shi; Lyman Wu; Alex Sohr; Songkun Su

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee health is mainly affected by Varroa destructor, viruses, Nosema spp., pesticide residues and poor nutrition. Interactions between these proposed factors may be responsible for the colony losses reported worldwide in recent years. In the present study, the effects of a honey bee virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), on the foraging behaviors and homing ability of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were investigated based on proboscis extension response (PER) assays and ra...

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Bt Crops on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jian J Duan; Michelle Marvier; Joseph Huesing; Galen Dively; Zachary Y Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are the most important pollinators of many agricultural crops worldwide and are a key test species used in the tiered safety assessment of genetically engineered insect-resistant crops. There is concern that widespread planting of these transgenic crops could harm honey bee populations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a meta-analysis of 25 studies that independently assessed potential effects of Bt Cry proteins on honey bee survival (or ...

  12. A Secure Key Establishment Protocol for ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    ZigBee is a wireless sensor network standard that defines network and application layers on top of IEEE 802.15.4’s physical and medium access control layers. In the latest version of ZigBee, enhancements are prescribed for the security sublayer but we show in this paper that problems persist. In...... propose a secure key establishment protocol for ZigBee networks....

  13. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales): robbery or dispersal?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio L. Oliveira; Elder F. Morato

    2000-01-01

    Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793) and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include sp...

  14. First discovery of a rare polygyne colony in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata (Apidae, Meliponini)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Denise A.; Menez, Cristiano; Imperatriz-Fonseca, Vera Lucia; Wenseleers, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Stingless bees are highly eusocial bees, and are characterised by having perennial colonies that are typically headed by one single-mated queen (Peters et al., 1999). The main exception to this pattern is found in Melipona bicolor, which is the only stingless bee species discovered so far to exhibit facultative polygyny, whereby several queens may coexist and share reproduction inside the colony for considerable periods of time (Bego, 1989; Velthuis et al., 2006). Aside from that, there are, ...

  15. Collateral effects of beekeeping : impacts on pollen-nectar resources and wild bee communities

    OpenAIRE

    Torné Noguera, Anna; Rodrigo Domínguez, Anselm; Osorio, Sergio; Bosch, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the contribution of honey bees (Apis mellifera) to wild flower and crop pollination, beekeeping has traditionally been considered a sustainable practice. However, high honey bee densities may have an impact on local pollen and nectar availability, which in turn may negatively affect other pollinators. This is exacerbated by the ability of honey bees to recruit foragers to highly rewarding flower patches. We measured floral resource consumption in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and t...

  16. Dynamics and Communication Structures of Nectar Foraging in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    Thom, Corinna

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis, I examined honey bee nectar foraging with emphasis on the communication system. To document how a honey bee colony adjusts its daily nectar foraging effort, I observed a random sample of individually marked workers during the entire day, and then estimated the number and activity of all nectar foragers in the colony. The total number of active nectar foragers in a colony changed frequently between days. Foraging activity did not usually change between days. A honey bee colony ...

  17. Morphometric identification of queens, workers, intermediates in in vitro reared honey bees (Apis mellifera)

    OpenAIRE

    De Souza, Daiana A.; Ying Wang; Osman Kaftanoglu; David De Jong; Amdam, Gro V.; Lionel S. Gonçalves; Francoy, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro rearing is an important and useful tool for honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) studies. However, it often results in intercastes between queens and workers, which are normally are not seen in hive-reared bees, except when larvae older than three days are grafted for queen rearing. Morphological classification (queen versus worker or intercastes) of bees produced by this method can be subjective and generally depends on size differences. Here, we propose an alternative method for caste cla...

  18. Host-parasite adaptations and interactions between honey bees, Varroa mites and viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor, has become the largest threat to apiculture and honey bee health world-wide. Since it was introduced to the new host species, the European honey bee (Apis mellifera), it has been responsible for the near complete eradication of wild and feral honey bee populations in Europe and North America. Currently, the apicultural industry depends heavily on chemical Varroa control treatments to keep managed colonies alive. Without such control the mite populati...

  19. Colour processing in complex environments: insights from the visual system of bees

    OpenAIRE

    Dyer, Adrian G.; Paulk, Angelique C.; Reser, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Colour vision enables animals to detect and discriminate differences in chromatic cues independent of brightness. How the bee visual system manages this task is of interest for understanding information processing in miniaturized systems, as well as the relationship between bee pollinators and flowering plants. Bees can quickly discriminate dissimilar colours, but can also slowly learn to discriminate very similar colours, raising the question as to how the visual system can support this, or ...

  20. An Improved Marriage in Honey Bees Optimization Algorithm for Single Objective Unconstrained Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Yuksel Celik; Erkan Ulker

    2013-01-01

    Marriage in honey bees optimization (MBO) is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm developed by inspiration of the mating and fertilization process of honey bees and is a kind of swarm intelligence optimizations. In this study we propose improved marriage in honey bees optimization (IMBO) by adding Levy flight algorithm for queen mating flight and neighboring for worker drone improving. The IMBO algorithm's performance and its success are tested on the well-known six unconstrained test funct...

  1. Bee Venom and Its Component Apamin as Neuroprotective Agents in a Parkinson Disease Mouse Model

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez-Fischer, Daniel; Noelker, Carmen; Vulinović, Franca; Grünewald, Anne; Chevarin, Caroline; Klein, Christine; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Hirsch, Etienne C.; Michel, Patrick P.; Hartmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Bee venom has recently been suggested to possess beneficial effects in the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD). For instance, it has been observed that bilateral acupoint stimulation of lower hind limbs with bee venom was protective in the acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. In particular, a specific component of bee venom, apamin, has previously been shown to have protective effects on dopaminergic neurons in vitro. However, no information regarding a...

  2. Characterizing the Impact of Commercial Pollen Substitute Diets on the Level of Nosema spp. in Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Fleming

    Full Text Available Western honey bee (Apis mellifera L. populations face declines commonly attributed to pesticide, pathogen, and parasite stress. One way beekeepers combat these stressors is by providing supplemental protein diets to honey bee colonies to ensure adequate colony nutrition. However Nosema spp., a microsporidian parasite of the honey bee, is thought to be associated closely with a colony's nutritional intake, thus possibly negating any benefit the bees otherwise would have received from a nutritional supplement. Through three objectives, we examined how adult bees' consumption of wildflower pollen or commercial pollen substitute diets affected Nosema levels in the bees' midguts. For our first objective, we investigated how method of inoculation with Nosema affects infection levels in inoculated bees. Bees were infected with spores of Nosema four days after emergence. On day 15, bees were collected from the cages and Nosema spores were quantified. We found that inoculation through the pollen diet resulted in the highest Nosema levels in inoculated bees. In our second and third objectives, we provided the test diets to caged, newly emerged bees for a period of 15 days. Bees consuming pollen and a sucrose solution had more Nosema in their midguts than did bees consuming the sucrose solution alone (control. The overall volume of diet consumed by the bees did not correlate with the level of Nosema in their midguts. The level of Nosema was higher in bees fed certain commercial pollen substitute diets than in bees fed wildflower pollen. Our study illustrates how providing nutritional supplements to adult honey bees can impact the intensity of Nosema in their midguts.

  3. Flight behavior and pheromone changes associated to Nosema ceranae infection of honey bee workers (Apis mellifera) in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaubat, Claudia; Maisonnasse, Alban; Crauser, Didier; Beslay, Dominique; Costagliola, Guy; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Kretzchmar, André; Le Conte, Yves

    2013-05-01

    Parasites are known to cause the loss of individuals in social insects. In honey bee colonies the disappearance of foragers is a common factor of the wide extended colony losses. The emergent parasite of the European honey bee Nosema ceranae has been found to reduce homing and orientation skills and alter metabolism of forager bees. N. ceranae-infected bees also show changes in Ethyl Oleate (EO) levels, which is so far the only primer pheromone identified in workers that is involved in foraging behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that N. ceranae (i) modifies flight activity of honey bees and (ii) induces EO changes that can alter foraging behavior of nestmates. We compared flight activity of infected bees and non-infected bees in small colonies using an electronic optic bee counter during 28 days. We measured EO levels by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and spore-counts. Bee mortality was estimated at the end of the experiment. Infected bees showed precocious and a higher flight activity than healthy bees, which agreed with the more elevated EO titers of infected bees and reduced lifespan. Our results suggest that the higher EO levels of infected bees might delay the behavioral maturation of same age healthy bees, which might explain their lower level of activity. We propose that delayed behavioral maturation of healthy bees might be a protective response to infection, as healthy bees would be performing less risky tasks inside the hive, thus extending their lifespan. We also discuss the potential of increased flight activity of infected bees to reduce pathogen transmission inside the hive. Further research is needed to understand the consequences of host behavioral changes on pathogen transmission. This knowledge may contribute to enhance natural colony defense behaviors through beekeeping practices to reduce probability of colony losses. PMID:23352958

  4. Genetic diversity of Iranian honey bee (Apis mellifera meda Skorikow, 1829) populations based on ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A; Mirmoayedi, A; Kahrizi, D; Zarei, L; Jamali, S

    2016-01-01

    Honey bee is one of the most important insects considering its role in agriculture,ecology and economy as a whole. In this study, the genetic diversity of different Iranian honey bee populations was evaluated using inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. During May to September 2014, 108 young worker honey bees were collected from six different populations in 30 different geoclimatic locations from Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil provinces of Iran. DNA was extracted from the worker honey bees. The quality and quantity of extracted DNA were measured. A set of ten primers were screened with the laboratory populations of honey bees. The number of fragments produced in the different honey bee populations varied from 3 to 10, varying within 150 to 1500 bp. The used ten ISSR primers generated 40 polymorphic fragments, and the average heterozygosity for each primer was 0.266. Maximum numbers of bands were recorded for primer A1. A dendrogram based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) method generated two sub-clusters. Honey bee populations of Golestan, Mazendaran, Guilan provinces were located in the first group. The second group included honey bee populations of Ardebil, West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan provinces, but this group showed a close relationship with other populations. The results showed obviously the ability of the ISSR marker technique to detect the genetic diversity among the honey bee populations. PMID:27188735

  5. Expermental Studies of quantitative evaluation using HPLC and safety of Sweet Bee Venom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Rok Kwon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was conducted to carry out quantitative evaluation and safety of Sweet Bee Venom. Methods : Content analysis was done using HPLC, measurement of LD50 was conducted intravenous, subcutaneous, and intra-muscular injection to the ICR mice. Results : 1. According to HPLC analysis, removal of the enzymes containing phospholipase A2 was successfully rendered on Sweet Bee Venom. And analyzing melittin content, Sweet Bee Venom contained 12% more melittin than Bee Venom. 2. LD50 of ICR mice with Sweet Bee Venom was more than 20mg/kg in subcutaneous injection and intravenous injection, between 15mg/kg and 20mg/kg in muscular injection. 3. LD50 of ICR mice with Bee Venom was between 6 and 9mg/kg in subcutaneous injection and intravenous injection, and more than 9mg/kg in muscular injection. Conclusion : Above results indicate that Sweet Bee Venom was more safe than Bee Venom and the process of removing enzymes was well rendered in Sweet Bee Venom.

  6. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  7. Stingless bees (Hymenoptera, Meliponini feeding on stinkhorn spores (Fungi, Phallales: robbery or dispersal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio L. Oliveira

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Records about stingless bee-fungi interaction are very rare. In Brazilian Amazonia, workers of Trigona crassipes (Fabricius, 1793 and Trigona fulviventris Guérin, 1835 visiting two stinkhorn species, Dictyophora sp. and Phallus sp., respectively, were observed. The workers licked the fungi gleba, a mucilaginous mass of spores covering the pileum. Neither gleba residue nor spores were found on the body surface of these bee workers. These observations indicate that these bee species include spores as a complement in their diet. On the other hand, they also suggest that these stingless bees can, at times, facilitale spore dispersal, in case intact spores are eliminated with the feces.

  8. Detection of American Foulbrood in a Bee Family from Timiş County

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Marina Mot

    2014-01-01

    It seems that after information media lately have been detected more cases of American foulbrood in our country, but this is not yet known by the beekeepers. In November 2013 a beekeeper brought laboratory six dead bees and portions of honeycomb, because bees dying and he did not know why. Following clinical examination of dead bees was not obvious a major change so bacteriological examination was used. After taking over samples by a single dead bee in liquid culture medium, in the second da...

  9. Quasi-Hierarchical Routing Algorithm for ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youn-Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Bong Soo; Kim, Hyung Seok

    ZigBee recently has been used a lot in wireless sensor networks because of its low power consumption and affordable chips. However, ZigBee's existing hierarchical routing algorithm has a disadvantage in that a node may communicate with a nearby node over several hops. In this letter we propose a Quasi-Hierarchical Routing (QHR) algorithm that can improve the ZigBee hierarchical routing method's inefficiency by using brief information on neighbors within radio range. The network simulation evaluates this QHR's performance by comparing it to other ZigBee routing schemes.

  10. Application of the artificial bee colony algorithm for solving the set covering problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo; Cuesta, Rodrigo; Paredes, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The set covering problem is a formal model for many practical optimization problems. In the set covering problem the goal is to choose a subset of the columns of minimal cost that covers every row. Here, we present a novel application of the artificial bee colony algorithm to solve the non-unicost set covering problem. The artificial bee colony algorithm is a recent swarm metaheuristic technique based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees. Experimental results show that our artificial bee colony algorithm is competitive in terms of solution quality with other recent metaheuristic approaches for the set covering problem. PMID:24883356

  11. A BEE COLONY OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM FOR CODE COVERAGE TEST SUITE PRIORITIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. ARVINDER KAUR,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Regression testing is the verification process of the modified software in the maintenance phase. Due to the budget and time constraints regression test suite size and its selection is a critical issue for testers. A Bee Colony Optimization (BCO algorithm for the regression test suite prioritization has been developed and is presented in this paper. The behavior of two types of bees; scout bees and forager bees have been observed and used for testsuite prioritization. The proposed algorithm has been explained using examples based on maximum code coverage. The Average Percentage of Conditions Covered (APCC metrics have been used to show theeffectiveness of proposed algorithm.

  12. Epidemiological profile of honey bee brood diseases in different regions at center of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Azucena; Durão, Luís; Cadavez, Vasco; Pires, Sância

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the honey bee brood diseases at the Central Region of Portugal through the seven last years. Bee brood samples were collected and analysed at the Laboratory of Honey Bee Pathology at Escola Superior Agrária de Bragança (LPAESAB). Samples were processed for epidemiological characterization of diseases of honey bee brood. In general, only the prevalence of varroatosis increased over the years. Also, the results attained show that varroato...

  13. Pathogenesis of varroosis at the level of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, J; Ruhnke, H; Scheller, K; Mispagel, S; Knollmann, U; Kamp, G; Bienefeld, K

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic mite Varroa destructor, in interaction with different viruses, is the main cause of honey bee colony mortality in most parts of the world. Here we studied how effects of individual-level parasitization are reflected by the bee colony as a whole. We measured disease progression in an apiary of 24 hives with differing degree of mite infestation, and investigated its relationship to 28 biometrical, physiological and biochemical indicators. In early summer, when the most heavily infested colonies already showed reduced growth, an elevated ratio of brood to bees, as well as a strong presence of phenoloxidase/prophenoloxidase in hive bees were found to be predictors of the time of colony collapse. One month later, the learning performance of worker bees as well as the activity of glucose oxidase measured from head extracts were significantly linked to the timing of colony collapse. Colonies at the brink of collapse were characterized by reduced weight of winter bees and a strong increase in their relative body water content. Our data confirm the importance of the immune system, known from studies of individually-infested bees, for the pathogenesis of varroosis at colony level. However, they also show that single-bee effects cannot always be extrapolated to the colony as a whole. This fact, together with the prominent role of colony-level factors like the ratio between brood and bees for disease progression, stress the importance of the superorganismal dimension of Varroa research. PMID:27296894

  14. Differential gene expression of two extreme honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies showing varroa tolerance and susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S; Robertson, T; Mostajeran, M; Robertson, A J; Qiu, X

    2016-06-01

    Varroa destructor, an ectoparasitic mite of honey bees (Apis mellifera), is the most serious pest threatening the apiculture industry. In our honey bee breeding programme, two honey bee colonies showing extreme phenotypes for varroa tolerance/resistance (S88) and susceptibility (G4) were identified by natural selection from a large gene pool over a 6-year period. To investigate potential defence mechanisms for honey bee tolerance to varroa infestation, we employed DNA microarray and real time quantitative (PCR) analyses to identify differentially expressed genes in the tolerant and susceptible colonies at pupa and adult stages. Our results showed that more differentially expressed genes were identified in the tolerant bees than in bees from the susceptible colony, indicating that the tolerant colony showed an increased genetic capacity to respond to varroa mite infestation. In both colonies, there were more differentially expressed genes identified at the pupa stage than at the adult stage, indicating that pupa bees are more responsive to varroa infestation than adult bees. Genes showing differential expression in the colony phenotypes were categorized into several groups based on their molecular functions, such as olfactory signalling, detoxification processes, exoskeleton formation, protein degradation and long-chain fatty acid metabolism, suggesting that these biological processes play roles in conferring varroa tolerance to naturally selected colonies. Identification of differentially expressed genes between the two colony phenotypes provides potential molecular markers for selecting and breeding varroa-tolerant honey bees. PMID:26919127

  15. The potential conservation value of unmowed powerline strips for native bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, K.N.; Ikerd, H.; Droege, S.

    2005-01-01

    The land area covered by powerline easements in the United States exceeds the area of almost all national parks, including Yellowstone. In parts of Europe and the US, electric companies have altered their land management practices from periodic mowing to extraction of tall vegetation combined with the use of selective herbicides. To investigate whether this alternate management practice might produce higher quality habitat for native bees, we compared the bee fauna collected in unmowed powerline corridors and in nearby mowed grassy fields at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (MD). Powerline sites had more spatially and numerically rare species and a richer bee community than the grassy fields, although the difference was less pronounced than we expected. Powerline sites also had more parasitic species and more cavitynesting bees. Bee communities changed progressively through the season, but differences between the site types were persistent. The surrounding, nongrassland landscape likely has a strong influence on the bee species collected at the grassland sites, as some bees may be foraging in the grasslands but nesting elsewhere. Improving habitat for native bees will help ameliorate the loss of pollination services caused by the collapse of wild and managed honeybee populations. This study suggests that powerline strips have the potential to provide five million acres of bee-friendly habitat in the US if utilities more generally adopt appropriate management practices.

  16. Pheromonal regulation of starvation resistance in honey bee workers ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Patrick; Grozinger, Christina M.

    2008-08-01

    Most animals can modulate nutrient storage pathways according to changing environmental conditions, but in honey bees nutrient storage is also modulated according to changing behavioral tasks within a colony. Specifically, bees involved in brood care (nurses) have higher lipid stores in their abdominal fat bodies than forager bees. Pheromone communication plays an important role in regulating honey bee behavior and physiology. In particular, queen mandibular pheromone (QMP) slows the transition from nursing to foraging. We tested the effects of QMP exposure on starvation resistance, lipid storage, and gene expression in the fat bodies of worker bees. We found that indeed QMP-treated bees survived much longer compared to control bees when starved and also had higher lipid levels. Expression of vitellogenin RNA, which encodes a yolk protein that is found at higher levels in nurses than foragers, was also higher in the fat bodies of QMP-treated bees. No differences were observed in expression of genes involved in insulin signaling pathways, which are associated with nutrient storage and metabolism in a variety of species; thus, other mechanisms may be involved in increasing the lipid stores. These studies demonstrate that pheromone exposure can modify nutrient storage pathways and fat body gene expression in honey bees and suggest that chemical communication and social interactions play an important role in altering metabolic pathways.

  17. STUDIES ON THE RESISTANCE TO WINTERING OF THE ITALIAN BEES APIS MELLIFERA LIGUSTICA REARED IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA PÂRVU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on bee families of Apis mellifera carpatica and Apis mellifera ligustica breeds. The bees were housed in multi-storey hives. The experimental period was of 6 months. The resistance to wintering was evaluated on the basis of several apicultural indicators: mortality, feed intake during the winter, general state of the family. Mortality was 35% during wintering for the Carpathian bee and 52% for the Italian bee. The differences were very significant (p≤0.001. When wintering finished all bee families were in good strength. The general state of the bee family was as follows: the Carpathian bee had a strong family when wintering started and ended with a median power; it had a large number of young bees and sufficient reserves; no diarrhoea or mould were noticed; relative humidity was 74%. The Italian bee had a strong family when wintering started and ended with half of the power because of the high mortality during the winter; no diarrhoea or mould were noticed; relative humidity was 69%.

  18. A method for distinctly marking honey bees, Apis mellifera, originating from multiple apiary locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, James; Mueller, Shannon; Teuber, Larry R; Van Deynze, Allen; Martin, Joe

    2011-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-intrusive marking methods are essential to track natural behavior of insects for biological experiments. An inexpensive, easy to construct, and easy to install bee marking device is described in this paper. The device is mounted at the entrance of a standard honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae) hive and is fitted with a removable tube that dispenses a powdered marker. Marking devices were installed on 80 honey bee colonies distributed in nine separate apiaries. Each device held a tube containing one of five colored fluorescent powders, or a combination of a fluorescent powder (either green or magenta) plus one of two protein powders, resulting in nine unique marks. The powdered protein markers included egg albumin from dry chicken egg whites and casein from dry powdered milk. The efficacy of the marking procedure for each of the unique markers was assessed on honey bees exiting each apiary. Each bee was examined, first by visual inspection for the presence of colored fluorescent powder and then by egg albumin and milk casein specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Data indicated that all five of the colored fluorescent powders and both of the protein powders were effective honey bee markers. However, the fluorescent powders consistently yielded more reliable marks than the protein powders. In general, there was less than a 1% chance of obtaining a false positive colored or protein-marked bee, but the chance of obtaining a false negative marked bee was higher for "protein-marked" bees. PMID:22236037

  19. Modification of a Community Garden to Attract Native Bee Pollinators in Urban San Luis Obispo, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbin W. Thorp

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Gardens have become increasingly important places for growing nutritional food, for conserving biodiversity, for biological and ecological research and education, and for community gathering. Gardens can also be designed with the goal of attracting specific wildlife, like birds and butterflies, but pollinators, like bees, can also be drawn to specially planned and modified gardens. A community garden in San Luis Obispo, California provided the setting for modification with the goal of attracting native bee pollinators by planting known bee-attractive plants. The local gardeners participated in a survey questionnaire and focused interviews to provide their input and interest in such a project. Presentations on our work with native bees in urban environments and gardening to attract bees were also given to interested gardeners. Work of this type also benefited from a lead gardener who managed donated bee plants and kept up momentum of the project. Modification of the garden and monitoring of native bees started in 2007 and continued through the growing season of 2009. Diversity of collected and observed native bees has increased each year since 2007. To date, 40 species in 17 genera of mostly native bees has been recorded from the garden, and this number is expected to increase through time.

  20. A Study on the Effects of Bee Venom Aqua-Acupuncture on Writhing Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Sun-Hee

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:In spite of the use of Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture in the clinics, the scientific evaluation on effects is not enough. Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture is used according to the stimulation of acupuncture point and the chemical effects of Bee Venom. The aims of this study is to investigate the analgegic effects of the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture, through the change of writhing reflex Materials and Methods:Pain animal model was used acetic acid method. The changes of writhing reflex of the mice which were derived pain by injecting acetic acid into the abdomen, after stimulating Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 and non acupuncture point on the backside were measured. Results:1. It showed that the writhing reflex were appeared on the groups which injected acetic acid only, and saline-acetic acid group(sample I, but not on the group bee venom-saline group(sample II. 2. The change of writhing reflex by Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the order of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group III(2.5×10-3g/kg, II(2.5×10-4g/kg, and I(2.5×10-5g/kg, compared with control group. There were significant decrease of number of writhing reflex in 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of Chung wan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group I, and in 0~5, 5~10, 10~15 and 15~20 minutes intervals of II and III, compared with control group. 3. The change of writhing reflex by non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture showed significant decrease in the 0~5 and 5~10 minutes intervals and the total number of writhing reflex in 2.5×10-4g/kg group, compared with control group 4. The effects of writhing reflex of Chungwan(CV12 Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group showed significant decrease, compared with non acupuncture point Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture group. Conclusion:This study shows that the Bee Venom aqua-acupuncture on Chungwan(CV12 decreases the numbers of writhing reflex. As the

  1. 'Anti-sun orientation' of bees with regard to a field of ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When bees dance on a horizontal comb in an enclosed hive, they set the direction of their waggle runs with reference to an artificial light source. If this light contains wavelengths long enough to excite the blue or green receptors in the bee's eye, the dance direction relative to the lamp is the same as it would be relative to the sun. But if the emitted light excites only the UV receptors the bee dances in the opposite direction. Evidently the bee interprets the UV-colored light source as a part of the sky with azimuth opposite to that of the sun. (orig.)

  2. Behavioral studies of learning in the Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Charles I; Aquino, Italo S

    2002-01-01

    Experiments on basic classical conditioning phenomena in adult and young Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) are described. Phenomena include conditioning to various stimuli, extinction (both unpaired and CS only), conditioned inhibition, color and odor discrimination. In addition to work on basic phenomena, experiments on practical applications of conditioning methodology are illustrated with studies demonstrating the effects of insecticides on learning and the reaction of bees to consumer products. Electron microscope photos are presented of Africanized workers, drones, and queen bees. Possible sub-species differences between Africanized and European bees are discussed. PMID:12097861

  3. Chemical profiles of body surfaces and nests from six Bornean stingless bee species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sara Diana; Blüthgen, Nico; Schmitt, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) are the most diverse group of Apid bees and represent common pollinators in tropical ecosystems. Like honeybees they live in large eusocial colonies and rely on complex chemical recognition and communication systems. In contrast to honeybees, their ecology and especially their chemical ecology have received only little attention, particularly in the Old World. We previously have analyzed the chemical profiles of six paleotropical stingless bee species from Borneo and revealed the presence of species-specific cuticular terpenes- an environmentally derived compound class so far unique among social insects. Here, we compared the bees' surface profiles to the chemistry of their nest material. Terpenes, alkanes, and alkenes were the dominant compound groups on both body surfaces and nest material. However, bee profiles and nests strongly differed in their chemical composition. Body surfaces thus did not merely mirror nests, rendering a passive compound transfer from nests to bees unlikely. The difference between nests and bees was particularly pronounced when all resin-derived compounds (terpenes) were excluded and only genetically determined compounds were considered. When terpenes were included, bee profiles and nest material still differed, because whole groups of terpenes (e.g., sesquiterpenes) were found in nest material of some species, but missing in their chemical profile, indicating that bees are able to influence the terpene composition both in their nests and on their surfaces. PMID:21165680

  4. Infestation levels of Varroa destructor in local honey bees of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Alattal, Yehya; Rosenkranz, Peter; Zebitz, Claus Paul Walter

    2008-01-01

    To determine Varroa mite infestation levels in Jordan, a survey covering 180 colonies of two bee types (Apis m. syriaca and Apis m. syriaca hybrids) from six locations of 4 climatic zones was conducted during August, 8 month after the last treatment. Sampled colonies had 8-10 frames covered with bees and 3-4 brood frames. Levels of infestation were determined on both adult worker bees and in sealed worker brood cells. Two-way ANOVA showed no significant differences due to bee type with averag...

  5. Busy Bees: Variation in Insect Flower-Visiting Rates across Multiple Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Couvillon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified insect visitation rates by counting how many flowers/inflorescences were probed per unit time for five plant species (four native and one garden: California lilac, bramble, ragwort, wild marjoram, and ivy growing in Sussex, United Kingdom, by following individual insects (n=2987 from nine functional groups (honey bees (Apis mellifera, bumble bees (Bombus spp., hoverflies, flies, butterflies, beetles, wasps, non-Apidae bees, and moths. Additionally, we made a census of the insect diversity on the studied plant species. Overall we found that insect groups differed greatly in their rate of flower visits (P<2.2e-16, with bumble bees and honey bees visiting significantly more flowers per time (11.5 and 9.2 flowers/minute, resp. than the other insect groups. Additionally, we report on a within-group difference in the non-Apidae bees, where the genus Osmia, which is often suggested as an alternative to honey bees as a managed pollinator, was very speedy (13.4 flowers/minute compared to the other non-Apidae bees (4.3 flowers/minute. Our census showed that the plants attracted a range of insects, with the honey bee as the most abundant visitor (34%. Therefore, rate differences cannot be explained by particular specializations. Lastly, we discuss potential implications of our conclusions for pollination.

  6. Mortality of Varroa destructor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies during winter

    OpenAIRE

    Fries, Ingemar; Perez-Escala, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The change in infestation levels of the mite Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman on adult bees during periods with little or no brood rearing (late October/early November to early February) was investigated in 10 colonies for two consecutive years in a Swedish climate (N57°06'E18°16'). The results do not support the hypothesis that mites become concentrated on the remaining bees as bees die off from the winter cluster. When the number of all mites recovered from dead bees or from debris wa...

  7. Preformulation Studies of Bee Venom for the Preparation of Bee Venom-Loaded PLGA Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ho Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is known that allergic people was potentially vulnerable to bee venom (BV, which can induce an anaphylactic shock, eventually leading to death. Up until recently, this kind of allergy was treated only by venom immunotherapy (VIT and its efficacy has been recognized worldwide. This treatment is practiced by subcutaneous injections that gradually increase the doses of the allergen. This is inconvenient for patients due to frequent injections. Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA has been broadly studied as a carrier for drug delivery systems (DDS of proteins and peptides. PLGA particles usually induce a sustained release. In this study, the physicochemical properties of BV were examined prior to the preparation of BV-loaded PLGA nanoparticles NPs. The content of melittin, the main component of BV, was 53.3%. When protected from the light BV was stable at 4 °C in distilled water, during 8 weeks. BV-loaded PLGA particles were prepared using dichloromethane as the most suitable organic solvent and two min of ultrasonic emulsification time. This study has characterized the physicochemical properties of BV for the preparation BV-loaded PLGA NPs in order to design and optimize a suitable sustained release system in the future.

  8. Bee Colony Optimization - part II: The application survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee Colony Optimization (BCO is a meta-heuristic method based on foraging habits of honeybees. This technique was motivated by the analogy found between the natural behavior of bees searching for food and the behavior of optimization algorithms searching for an optimum in combinatorial optimization problems. BCO has been successfully applied to various hard combinatorial optimization problems, mostly in transportation, location and scheduling fields. There are some applications in the continuous optimization field that have appeared recently. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the scientific community more closely with BCO by summarizing its existing successful applications. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174010, OI174033, TR36002

  9. Artificial Bee Colony and Its Application for Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Sharma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Bee Colony (ABC is one of the latest swarm algorithm based on the intelligent foraging behavior of honey bees introduced in the year 2005 by Karaboga since then it has been used for optimization of various solutions. And it is recently introduced for processing and analysis of images such as segmentation, object recognition and image retrieval. Fusing images from a vast collection of different images has become one of the interesting challenges and has drawn the attention of researchers towards the development of fusion techniques. In this paper, we have proposed the usage of ABC for optimal fusion of multi-temporal images and studied the effect of variation in the source area.

  10. Honey Bee Mating Optimization Vector Quantization Scheme in Image Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Ming-Huwi

    The vector quantization is a powerful technique in the applications of digital image compression. The traditionally widely used method such as the Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) algorithm always generated local optimal codebook. Recently, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is adapted to obtain the near-global optimal codebook of vector quantization. In this paper, we applied a new swarm algorithm, honey bee mating optimization, to construct the codebook of vector quantization. The proposed method is called the honey bee mating optimization based LBG (HBMO-LBG) algorithm. The results were compared with the other two methods that are LBG and PSO-LBG algorithms. Experimental results showed that the proposed HBMO-LBG algorithm is more reliable and the reconstructed images get higher quality than those generated form the other three methods.

  11. Antimicrobial Activity of Bee Collected Pollen against Clostridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium is an anaerobic, endospore forming Gram-positive bacillus genus containing many important pathogenic species. Many naturally occurring compounds present in plants, herbs, and spices have been shown to possess antimicrobial effect against foodborne pathogens. In the present study, the antimicrobial activities of the bee collected pollen samples were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion method against Clostridium genus. Antibacterial activity was assessed on the clostridia: Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. The results of the disk diffusion method showed very different activity against all tested strains of clostridia. The best antimicrobial activity of bee collected pollen against C. butyricum and C. perfringens were found.

  12. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nizar Jamal; Loucif-Ayad, Wahida; Adjlane, Noureddine; Saini, Deepti; Manchiganti, Rushiraj; Krishnamurthy, Venkatesh; AlShagoor, Banan; Batainh, Ahmed Mahmud; Mugasimangalam, Raja

    2015-06-01

    Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation. PMID:26484171

  13. Draft genome sequence of the Algerian bee Apis mellifera intermissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Jamal Haddad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Apis mellifera intermissa is the native honeybee subspecies of Algeria. A. m. intermissa occurs in Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, between the Atlas and the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. This bee is very important due to its high ability to adapt to great variations in climatic conditions and due to its preferable cleaning behavior. Here we report the draft genome sequence of this honey bee, its Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession JSUV00000000. The 240-Mb genome is being annotated and analyzed. Comparison with the genome of other Apis mellifera sub-species promises to yield insights into the evolution of adaptations to high temperature and resistance to Varroa parasite infestation.

  14. A non-policing honey bee colony (Apis mellifera capensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekman, Madeleine; Good, Gregory; Allsopp, Mike; Radloff, Sarah; Pirk, Chris; Ratnieks, Francis

    2002-09-01

    In the Cape honey bee Apis mellifera capensis, workers lay female eggs without mating by thelytokous parthenogenesis. As a result, workers are as related to worker-laid eggs as they are to queen-laid eggs and therefore worker policing is expected to be lower, or even absent. This was tested by transferring worker- and queen-laid eggs into three queenright A. m. capensis discriminator colonies and monitoring their removal. Our results show that worker policing is variable in A. m. capensis and that in one colony worker-laid eggs were not removed. This is the first report of a non-policing queenright honey bee colony. DNA microsatellite and morphometric analysis suggests that the racial composition of the three discriminator colonies was different. The variation in policing rates could be explained by differences in degrees of hybridisation between A. m. capensis and A. m. scutellata, although a larger survey is needed to confirm this.

  15. Mitochondrial tRNA gene translocations in highly eusocial bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial gene rearrangement events, especially involving tRNA genes, have been described more frequently as more complete mitochondrial genome sequences are becoming available. In the present work, we analyzed mitochondrial tRNA gene rearrangements between two bee species belonging to the tribes Apini and Meliponini within the "corbiculate Apidae". Eleven tRNA genes are in different genome positions or strands. The molecular events responsible for each translocation are explained. Considering the high number of rearrangements observed, the data presented here contradict the general rule of high gene order conservation among closely related organisms, and also represent a powerful molecular tool to help solve questions about phylogeny and evolution in bees.

  16. Fault Tolerance in ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Gilstrap, Ray; Baldwin, Jarren; Stone, Thom; Wilson, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 PRO Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. This technology is supported by System-on-a-Chip solutions, resulting in extremely small and low-power nodes. The Wireless Connections in Space Project addresses the aerospace flight domain for both flight-critical and non-critical avionics. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications utilizing such technology. The team from Ames Research Center has developed techniques for assessing the fault tolerance of ZigBee WSNs challenged by radio frequency (RF) interference or WSN node failure.

  17. Antioxidant activity of honey supplemented with bee products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Lesław; Gałkowska, Dorota; Ostrowska, Małgorzata; Socha, Robert

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of supplementation of multiflower honey with bee products on the phenolic compound content and on antioxidant activity. Average total phenolic and flavonoids contents in the multiflower honeys were 36.06 ± 10.18 mg GAE/100 g and 4.48 ± 1.69 mg QE/100 g, respectively. The addition of royal jelly did not affect significantly the phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity. Supplementation of honey with other bee products, i.e. beebread, propolis, pollen, resulted in significant increase in the total phenolic and flavonoids contents, and in antiradical activity and reducing power, with the largest effect found for addition of beebread. Significant linear correlations between the total phenolic and flavonoids contents and antiradical activity and reducing power were found. PMID:26153086

  18. Combinatorial Evolution and Forecasting of Communication Protocol ZigBee

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh; Kistler, Rolf; Klapproth, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses combinatorial evolution and forecasting of communication protocol for wireless sensor networks (ZigBee). Morphological tree structure (a version of and-or tree) is used as a hierarchical model for the protocol. Three generations of ZigBee protocol are examined. A set of protocol change operations is generated and described. The change operations are used as items for forecasting based on combinatorial problems (e.g., clustering, knapsack problem, multiple choice knapsack problem). Two kinds of preliminary forecasts for the examined communication protocol are considered: (i) direct expert (expert judgment) based forecast, (ii) computation of the forecast(s) (usage of multicriteria decision making and combinatorial optimization problems). Finally, aggregation of the obtained preliminary forecasts is considered (two aggregation strategies are used).

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Melittin Derived from Honey Bee Venom

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Momenzadeh; Delavar Shahbazzadeh1; Mohammad Dakhili; Mohammad Reza Zolfaghari; Kamran Pooshang Bagheri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Bacterial peritonitis is one of the nosocomial infections that is due to direct invasion of bacteria to peritoneal membrane. Resistance to antibiotic is of great significance in this disease and could be led to morbidity and mortality of patients. During the past decade, tracing for natural antimicrobial peptide is more considered. Among them, melittin has been extracted from honey bee venom and its antibacterial activity is being examined. The main goal...

  20. An Isolated Bee Sting Involving Multiple Cranial Nerves

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Majidi; Mohammadreza Maleki Verki; Fatemeh Rasooli; Arash Forouzan; Hassan Motamed

    2013-01-01

    Hymenoptera stings are self-limiting events or due to allergic reactions. Sometimes envenomation with Hymenoptera can cause rare complications such as acute encephalopathy, peripheral neuritis, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, silent myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, conjunctivitis, corneal infiltration, lens subluxation, and optic neuropathy. The mechanism of peripheral nervous system damage is not clearly known. In our studied case after bee sting on face between the eyebrows w...