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Sample records for beer production process

  1. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE PROCESS OF BEER PRIMARY FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Miriam Solgajová; Helena Frančáková; Štefan Dráb; Žigmund Tóth

    2013-01-01

    Beer is a very popular and widespread drink worldwide. Beer may be defined as a foamy alcoholic drink aerated by carbon dioxide that is formed during fermentation. Sensorial and analytical character of beer is mainly formed during process of primary fermentation. Our work has monitored the influence of temperature of fermentation substrate on the process of primary fermentation during beer production. Obtained values of temperature and apparent extract out of four brews of 10% light hopped wo...

  2. The Occurrence of Beer Spoilage Lactic Acid Bacteria in Craft Beer Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Cristiana; Osimani, Andrea; Milanović, Vesna; Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Clementi, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Beer is one of the world's most ancient and widely consumed fermented alcoholic beverages produced with water, malted cereal grains (generally barley and wheat), hops, and yeast. Beer is considered an unfavorable substrate of growth for many microorganisms, however, there are a limited number of bacteria and yeasts, which are capable of growth and may spoil beer especially if it is not pasteurized or sterile-filtered as craft beer. The aim of this research study was to track beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inside a brewery and during the craft beer production process. To that end, indoor air and work surface samples, collected in the brewery under study, together with commercial active dry yeasts, exhausted yeasts, yeast pellet (obtained after mature beer centrifugation), and spoiled beers were analyzed through culture-dependent methods and PCR-DGGE in order to identify the contaminant LAB species and the source of contamination. Lactobacillus brevis was detected in a spoiled beer and in a commercial active dry yeast. Other LAB species and bacteria ascribed to Staphylococcus sp., Enterobaceriaceae, and Acetobacter sp. were found in the brewery. In conclusion, the PCR-DGGE technique coupled with the culture-dependent method was found to be a useful tool for identifying the beer spoilage bacteria and the source of contamination. The analyses carried out on raw materials, by-products, final products, and the brewery were useful for implementing a sanitization plan to be adopted in the production plant. PMID:26489032

  3. Exploring the use of natural antimicrobial agents and pulsed electric fields to control spoilage bacteria during a beer production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvagno, M A; Gil, G R; Iannone, L J; Cerrutti, P

    2007-01-01

    Different natural antimicrobials affected viability of bacterial contaminants isolated at critical steps during a beer production process. In the presence of 1 mg/ml chitosan and 0.3 mg/ml hops, the viability of Escherichia coli in an all malt barley extract wort could be reduced to 0.7 and 0.1% respectively after 2 hour- incubation at 4 degrees C. The addition of 0.0002 mg/ml nisin, 0.1 mg/ml chitosan or 0.3 mg/ml hops, selectively inhibited growth of Pediococcus sp. in more than 10,000 times with respect to brewing yeast in a mixed culture. In the presence of 0.1 mg ml chitosan in beer, no viable cells of the thermoresistant strain Bacillus megaterium were detected. Nisin, chitosan and hops increased microbiological stability during storage of a local commercial beer inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum or Pediococcus sp. isolated from wort. Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) (8 kV/cm, 3 pulses) application enhanced antibacterial activity of nisin and hops but not that of chitosan. The results herein obtained suggest that the use of these antimicrobial compounds in isolation or in combination with PEF would be effective to control bacterial contamination during beer production and storage. PMID:17987854

  4. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  5. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Suruceanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, identification and quantification of xanthohumol by HPLC method. Waste yeast from brewery pilot plant of USAMV Cluj Napoca it was dried by atomization and the powder was analyzed on xanthohumol content by HPLC method. For quantification a calibration curve it was used. The process of drying by atomisation lead to a powder product. It was used malt dextrin powder for stabilisation. The final product it was encapsulated. The xanthohumol content of powdered yeast it was 1.94 µg/ml. In conclusion the slurry yeast from beer production it is an important source of prenylflavonoids compounds.

  6. Revaluation of Waste Yeast from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoleta Suruceanu; Sonia Socaci; Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura

    2013-01-01

    Brewing yeast is an important waste product from beer production. The valorification of slurry yeast mainly consists of separation of vitamins and important nitrogen compounds. The hops compounds, one of the most important raw materials in beer technology are removed beforehand valorification. The prenylflavonoids compounds from hops are important bioactive compounds that can be revaluation with proper technology. Revaluation of prenylflavonoids from waste yeast into dietary supplement, ident...

  7. 27 CFR 25.1 - Production and removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.1 Section 25.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Scope of Regulations § 25.1 Production and removal of beer. The regulations in this part relate to beer and cereal beverages and cover the location, construction,...

  8. Mycotoxins and fermentation--beer production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul B

    2002-01-01

    Along with food safety issues due to mycotoxins, the effects of Fusarium infections on malt and beer quality can be disastrous. While some of the Fusarium head blight mycotoxins, such as DON, present in infected barley may be lost during steeping, the Fusarium mold is still capable of growth and mycotoxin production during steeping, germination and kilning. Therefore, detoxification of grain before malting may not be practical unless further growth of the mold is also prevented. Methods for reducing the amount of mold growth during malting are needed. Physical, chemical and biological methods exist for inhibiting mold growth in grain. Irradiation is a promising means for preventing Fusarium growth during malting, but its effects on malt quality and mycotoxin production in surviving mold need to be evaluated in more detail. Chemical treatments such as ozonation, which do not leave chemical residues in beer, also appear to be promising. Although biological control methods may be desirable, the effects of these inhibitors on malt and beer quality require further investigation. In addition, storage studies are needed to determine the effect of biological control on Fusarium viability and malt quality. It may also be possible to incorporate detoxifying genes into fermentation yeasts, which would result in detoxification of mycotoxins present in wort. Development of these types of technological interventions should help improve the safety of products, such as beer, made from Fusarium infected grain. PMID:11922090

  9. 小麦深色啤酒生产工艺研究%Study on the Production Process of Deep-colored Wheat Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩小龙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective]The study aimed to develop the production process of deep-colored beer. [Method]With wheat malt, barley malt and burnt malt as raw materials, after they were mixed at the ratio of 1∶1∶0.25 and wetted and grinded, they were saccharified at 65 ℃ and filtered at 78 ℃, the acquired 14° Bx wort was added with the yeast at the volume ratio of 0.8 to 100 after cooling, and fermented for 48 h under the conditions of inoculation temperature at 14 ℃ and the highest fermentation temperature at 18 ℃, and then pressured to 0.1 MPa and fermented for 72 h at 12 ℃, and afterward reduced the temperature with the velocity of 4 ℃/d, when cooling at 4 and 0 ℃, the yeasts were removed for the 1st and 2nd time resp., the beer was stored for 10 d at -1-0 ℃ finally, and the remaining sugar concn. should be controlled below 2.7% when the liquid beer came out. [Result]The original beer wort concn. of finished product was 12° P, chroma 25 EBC, bitter value 20 BU, alcoholicity 4.2%(W/W), apparent fermenting degree 75.3%. The beer liquid was clear and transparent, the foam was white and fine with long cup-hanging time, the beer had obvious fruit aroma, and pure, soft and refreshing taste. [Conclusion]The deep-colored wheat beer developed could completely attain the production standard of minitype beer.%[目的]研制深色小麦啤酒的生产工艺.[方法]以小麦麦芽、大麦麦芽、焦香大麦芽为原料,按1∶1∶0.25的比例混合增湿粉碎后,在 65 ℃下进行糖化,在78 ℃下进行过滤,所得麦芽汁(14° Bx)冷却后按0.8∶100 的体积比添加酵母,在接种温度14 ℃和最高发酵温度18 ℃条件下发酵48 h,之后加压至0.1 MPa,12 ℃下发酵72 h,然后以4 ℃/d的速度降温,降至4和0 ℃时,分别排第1和2次酵母,最后在-1~0 ℃下贮酒10 d,出酒时残糖浓度应控制在2.7%以下.[结果]成品啤酒原麦汁浓度12° P,色度为25 EBC,苦味值20 BU,酒精含量为4.2%(W/W),外观发酵度为75.3%;

  10. Low cost and compact analytical microsystem for carbon dioxide determination in production processes of wine and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Izquierdo, David; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2016-08-10

    The design, construction and evaluation of a low cost, cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow microanalyzer, with optical detection, to monitor carbon dioxide in bottled wines and beers as well as in fermentation processes, is presented. The microsystem, constructed by computer numerically controlled (CNC) micromilling and using a multilayer approach, integrates microfluidics, gas-diffusion module and an optical flow-cell in a single polymeric substrate. Its size is slightly bigger than a credit card, exactly 45 × 60 × 4 mm in the microfluidic and diffusion module zone and 22.5 × 40 × 3 mm in the flow-cell zone. The gas-diffusion module is based on a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane, which allows the transfer of the carbon dioxide present in the sample to a bromothymol blue (BTB) pH-sensitive acceptor solution, where the color change is measured optically. The detection system consisted of a LED with an emission peak at 607 nm and a photodiode integrated in a printed circuit board (PCB). The obtained analytical features after the optimization of the microfluidic platform and hydrodynamic variables are a linear range from 255 to 10000 mg L(-1) of CO2 and a detection limit of 83 mg L(-1) with a sampling rate of 30 samples h(-1). PMID:27282752

  11. Novel starters for old processes: use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdough for craft beer production at a brewery scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marongiu, Antonella; Zara, Giacomo; Legras, Jean-Luc; Del Caro, Alessandra; Mascia, Ilaria; Fadda, Costantino; Budroni, Marilena

    2015-01-01

    The deliberate inoculation of yeast strains isolated from food matrices such as wine or bread, could allow the transfer of novel properties to beer. In this work, the feasibility of the use of baker's yeast strains as starters for craft beer production has been evaluated at laboratory and brewery scale. Nine out of 12 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from artisanal sourdoughs metabolized 2 % maltose, glucose and trehalose and showed growth rates and cell populations higher than those of the brewer's strain Safbrew-S33. Analysis of allelic variation at 12 microsatellite loci clustered seven baker's strains and Safbrew-S33 in the main group of bread isolates. Chemical analyses of beers produced at a brewery scale showed significant differences among the beers produced with the baker's strain S38 or Safbrew-S33, while no significant differences were observed when S38 or the brewer's strain Safbrew-F2 was used for re-fermentation. The sensory profile of beers obtained with S38 or the brewer's yeasts did not show significant differences, thus suggesting that baker's strains of S. cerevisiae could represent a reservoir of biodiversity for the selection of starter strains for craft beer production. PMID:25387611

  12. LIVE/DEAD YEAST VIABILITY STAINING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING ARTISANAL PILSNER BEER PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Benedetta Bottari; Giovanni Campari; Monica Gatti

    2014-01-01

    The production of an artisanal beer, made by brewers using traditional practices on a small scale, is founded on the empirical adjustment of parameters, including yeasts handling and serial repitching. The aim of this study was to monitor yeast viability during different stages of artisanal beer productions through the Live/Dead Yeast viability staining and to correlate it with fermentation dynamics in order to increase process standardization and to maintain the quality of final products. Ye...

  13. Craft Beer in the US: A Production of Culture Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Nathaniel Gray

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation I use the production of culture perspective as a lens to analyze the emergence of craft beer in the US. In doing so, I examine how the six facets of the production of culture perspective have both constrained and stimulated the production of craft beer in the US. The six facets of the production of culture perspective are: law and regulation, industry structure, organizational structure, markets, technology, and occupational careers. These six facets, in concert, allowed ...

  14. Analysis of production and consumption of beer in Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Zamrzlová, Jiřina

    2013-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the analysis of production, consumption, export and import of beer in the Czech Republic in the years 1990 - 2011. The lengths of the time period of the individual indicators vary according to availability of the necessary data. The aim of this work is to assess the development of these indicators and predict their value for the year 2012. The theoretical work introduces to the problems of brewing and describes the origins of beer and Czech brewing, present ...

  15. Banana as adjunct in beer production : applicability and performance of fermentative parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Giovani B. M.; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Bento, Camila V.; Vicente, A.A.; J. A. Teixeira; Felipe, Maria das Graças A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidi...

  16. EVALUATION OF FERMENTATION PARAMETERS DURING HIGH-GRAVITY BEER PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Almeida

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A large number of advantages are obtained from the use of highly concentrated worts during the production of beer in a process referred to as "high-gravity". However, problems related to slow or stuck fermentations, which cause the lower productivity and possibility of contamination, are encountered. This study examines the influence of factors pH, percentage of corn syrup, initial wort concentration and fermentation temperature on the fermentation parameters, namely productivity, wort attenuation and the yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion. The results show that productivity increased when the higher temperature, the higher wort concentration and the lower syrup percentage were used, while wort attenuation increased when lower wort concentration and no syrup were used. The yield coefficient for sugar-to-ethanol conversion was not influenced by any of the factors studied.

  17. 27 CFR 25.263 - Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and reconstitution of beer. 25.263 Section 25.263 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Concentrate § 25.263 Production of concentrate and reconstitution of beer. (a) Operations at brewery. A brewer may concentrate...

  18. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Farcas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Brewer’s spent grain (BGS is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  19. Polarimetric Determination of Starch in Raw Materials and Discharged Waste from Beer Production

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Farcas; Maria Tofana; Sonia Socaci; Stancuta Scrob; Liana Salanta; Doinita Bors

    2013-01-01

    Brewer’s spent grain (BGS) is a by-product of thebrewing process, consisting of the solid fraction of barley malt remainingafter separation of worth. In this research, raw materials and discharged waste from beer production were evaluated on the basis of starch content, using Ewers polarimetric method.

  20. Study of innovative methods of control in the cereal productive chain for the production of beer and spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Sileoni, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Researches performed during the PhD course intended to assess innovative applications of near-infrared spectroscopy in reflectance (NIR) in the production chain of beer. The purpose is to measure by NIR the "malting quality" (MQ) parameter of barley, to monitor the malting process and to know if a certain type of barley is suitable for the production of beer and spirits. Moreover, NIR will be applied to monitor the brewing process. First of all, it was possible to check the quality of the...

  1. Medicinal mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalović Ida I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms like Ganoderma lucidum have been used for thousands of years as a traditional medicine in the Far East. Ganoderma received wide popularity as an eating mushroom with high nutritive value, but even more as medical fungi. It has been used for the treatment of various diseases: hepatitis, hypertension, insomnia, and even cancer. Due to its extraordinary action, it is often called 'Elixir of life', 'Food of gods' and 'Mushroom of universe'. The intracellular and extracellular polysaccharides (b-glucane inhibit the growth of several types of cancer. Mushroom produces triterpenes of which especially ganoderic acid showed cytotoxicity on primary tumor liver cells, inhibition of histamine release, hepatoprotective effect, stimulation of the immune system functions, inhibition of the aggregation of blood plates, etc. On the other hand, beer as a purely natural beverage obtained in the process of fermentation, contains a number of ingredients which are important for human organism, and in moderate usage has favorable reaction on the general health condition of the body. As such, beer is a very good basis for the development of a number of new products with defined pharmacodynamics influence. In this work, we have investigated the possibilities of using extracts of mushroom Ganoderma lucidum in the production of special beer types. The composition of mushroom, properties of the most important active ingredients, extraction procedures, and sensory characteristics of the beers on the basis of such extracts were determined. The most important parameters of quality and possibility of adjustments using extracts of different medicinal herbs were investigated.

  2. Automatic control with fuzzy logic of home-made beer production in maceration and cooking stages

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano Luján Corro; Víctor Vásquez Villalobos

    2010-01-01

    The process of home-made beer production in the malt maceration and cooking stages was controlled automatically with fuzzy logic, across different performers considering the time and temperature of the process, using 2009LabVIEW. The equipment was mainly composed of three 20 L capacity stainless steel containers (water supply, maceration and cooking), an additional hops container, a data acquisition card (PIC 16F877a micro controller), three LM35 temperature sensors and 11 on/off type perform...

  3. Glucose promotes controlled processing: Matching, maximizing, and root beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. McMahon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Participants drank either regular root beer or sugar-free diet root beer before working on a probability-learning task in which they tried to predict which of two events would occur on each of 200 trials. One event (E1 randomly occurred on 140 trials, the other (E2 on 60. In each of the last two blocks of 50 trials, the regular group matched prediction and event frequencies. In contrast, the diet group predicted E1 more often in each of these blocks. After the task, participants were asked to write down rules they used for responding. Blind ratings of rule complexity were inversely related to E1 predictions in the final 50 trials. Participants also took longer to advance after incorrect predictions and before predicting E2, reflecting time for revising and consulting rules. These results support the hypothesis that an effortful controlled process of normative rule-generation produces matching in probability-learning experiments, and that this process is a function of glucose availability.

  4. 27 CFR 28.147 - Return of beer or beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Return of beer or beer... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Removal of Beer and Beer Concentrate...-Trade Zone § 28.147 Return of beer or beer concentrate. Beer or beer concentrate removed without...

  5. Beer Snobs do Exist: Estimation of Beer Demand by Type

    OpenAIRE

    Toro-González, Daniel; McCluskey, Jill J.; Mittelhammer, Ron C.

    2014-01-01

    Although mass-produced beers still represent the vast majority of U.S. beer sales, there has been a significant growth trend in the craft beer segment. This study analyzes the demand for beer as a differentiated product and estimates own-price, cross-price, and income elasticities for beer by type: craft beer, mass-produced beer, and imported beer. We verify that beer is a normal good with a considerably inelastic demand and also find that the cross-price elasticity across types of beer is cl...

  6. Banana as adjunct in beer production: applicability and performance of fermentative parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Giovani B M; Silva, Daniel P; Bento, Camila V; Vicente, António A; Teixeira, José A; Felipe, Maria das Graças A; Almeida E Silva, João B

    2009-05-01

    Traditionally, the raw materials for beer production are barley, hops, water, and yeast, but most brewers use also different adjuncts. During the alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of aroma compounds from other ingredients to the final beer flavor depends on the wort composition, on the yeast strain, and mainly on the process conditions. In this context, banana can also be a raw material favorable to alcoholic fermentation being rich in carbohydrates and minerals and providing low acidity. In this work, the objective was to evaluate the performance of wort adjusted with banana juice in different concentrations. For this, static fermentations were conducted at 15 degrees C at pilot scale (140 L of medium). The addition of banana that changed the concentration of all-malt wort from 10 degrees P to 12 and 15 degrees P were evaluated ( degrees P is the weight of the extract or the sugar equivalent in 100 g solution, at 20 degrees C). The results showed an increase in ethanol production, with approximately 0.4 g/g ethanol yield and 0.6 g/L h volumetric productivity after 84 h of processing when concentrated wort was used. Thus, it was concluded that banana can be used as an adjunct in brewing methods, helping in the development of new products as well as in obtaining concentrated worts. PMID:19089653

  7. Influence of the brewing process on furfuryl ethyl ether formation during beer aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Delvaux, Freddy R; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy

    2004-11-01

    In beer, the development of a solvent-like stale flavor is associated with the formation of furfuryl ethyl ether. The synthesis rate of this important flavor compound is proportional to the concentration of furfuryl alcohol in beer. This study shows that furfuryl alcohol in beer is mainly formed by Maillard reactions initiated during wort boiling and malt production. A mechanism for its formation from alpha-(1,4)-oligoglucans and amino acids in wort and beer is proposed. During wort boiling, a quadratic relationship was found between the wort extract concentration, on the one hand, and the increase of furfuryl alcohol and furfural, on the other. The reduction of furfural by yeast during fermentation further increases the furfuryl alcohol content. In pale beers, the furfuryl alcohol concentration is essentially determined by the thermal load on wort during brewing operations. In dark beers, a considerable fraction of furfuryl alcohol may, however, come from the dark malts used. These results lead to important practical conclusions concerning the control over furfuryl ethyl ether in beer. PMID:15506813

  8. Beer volatile compounds and their application to low-malt beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Shioya, Suteaki

    2008-10-01

    Low-malt beers, in which the amount of wort is adjusted to less than two-thirds of that in regular beer, are popular in the Japanese market because the flavor of low-malt beer is similar to that of regular beer but the price lesser than that of regular beer. There are few published articles about low-malt beer. However, in the production process, there are many similarities between low-malt and regular beer, e.g., the yeast used in low-malt beer fermentation is the same as that used for regular beer. Furthermore, many investigations into regular beer are applicable to low-malt beer production. In this review, we focus on production of volatile compounds, and various studies that are applicable to regular and low-malt beer. In particular, information about metabolism of volatile compounds in yeast cells during fermentation, volatile compound measurement and estimation methods, and control of volatile compound production are discussed in this review, which concentrates on studies published in the last 5-6 years. PMID:19000606

  9. Consumer perceptions of beer products at the point of purchase / Veldman S.

    OpenAIRE

    Veldman, Stian

    2011-01-01

    Customer perception and the way this phenomenon impacts customers' choices when purchasing products is an extremely significant marketing aspect in any industry. In a competitive market and economy, understanding and being able to predict consumer perceptions and responses is a crucial competitive factor that all suppliers should have an in–depth knowledge and understanding of. This applies especially to the South African beer market with more than forty competing beer brands. This study e...

  10. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague: ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  11. The Impact of Hop Products on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Linhart, P.; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Prague : ICPF ASCR, 2013. s. 92. ISBN N. [Workshop on Smart and Green Interfaces 2013. 20.3.2013-22.03.2013, Prague] Grant ostatní: COST(XE) MP1106 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer foam * brewing industry * analysis Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  12. Behavior of field-applied triadimefon, malathion, dichlorvos, and their main metabolites during barley storage and beer processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhiqiang; Li, Minmin; Chen, Jieying; Gui, Yuejing; Bao, Yuming; Fan, Bei; Jian, Qiu; Francis, Frédéric; Dai, Xiaofeng

    2016-11-15

    The behavior and fate of 3 pesticides (triadimefon, malathion, and dichlorvos) and the main metabolites (triadimenol and malaoxon) during barley storage or beer processing were assessed using a pilot-plant equipment. The residues of all products were determined using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Field investigation of the dissipation rate kinetics for triadimefon and malathion during storage indicated that their half-life was twice as high when 5 times the recommended dosage was used. Milling had little effect on the removal of dichlorvos and malathion residues, whereas these were substantially removed when the spent grains were filtered after mashing. The calculated processing factors were all <1, indicating the residual ratios of dichlorvos and malathion were reduced during the entire process. In conclusion, storage and processing considerably reduced pesticide residue levels in barley and beer; however, greater focus needs to be paid to the toxicity of their metabolites in commercial by-products. PMID:27283683

  13. Automatic control with fuzzy logic of home-made beer production in maceration and cooking stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Luján Corro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of home-made beer production in the malt maceration and cooking stages was controlled automatically with fuzzy logic, across different performers considering the time and temperature of the process, using 2009LabVIEW. The equipment was mainly composed of three 20 L capacity stainless steel containers (water supply, maceration and cooking, an additional hops container, a data acquisition card (PIC 16F877a micro controller, three LM35 temperature sensors and 11 on/off type performers, which were governed by a total of 47 Mandani type fuzzy rules with trapezoidal membership functions, using the method of center area for the defuzzification. The performers: electrovalves (5, pumps (2, heaters (3 and a stirrer, in approximately 4 hours, were adequately controlled in their early maceration and cooking stages. The beer obtained by automatic control with fuzzy logic in the maceration and cooking stages, had the following characteristics: 0.98 g/cm3 of density, 3.9 of pH, total acidity expressed as 0.87% of lactic acid, 6.2ºGL of alcoholic degree and 0.91% w/v of CO2 percentage.

  14. Changes in the Microbial Composition of Microbrewed Beer during the Process in the Actual Manufacturing Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Jeon, S H; Kim, N H; Kim, H W; Lee, N Y; Cho, T J; Jung, Y M; Lee, S H; Hwang, I G; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated changes in the microbial composition of microbrewed beer during the manufacturing processes and identified potential microbial hazards, effective critical quality control points, and potential contamination routes. Comprehensive quantitative (aerobic plate count, lactic acid bacteria, fungi, acetic acid bacteria, coliforms, and Bacillus cereus) and qualitative (Escherichia coli and eight foodborne pathogens) microbiological analyses were performed using samples of raw materials (malt and manufacturing water), semiprocessed products (saccharified wort, boiled wort, and samples taken during the fermentation and maturation process), and the final product obtained from three plants. The initial aerobic plate count and lactic acid bacteria counts in malt were 5.2 and 4.3 log CFU/g, respectively. These counts were reduced to undetectable levels by boiling but were present at 2.9 and 0.9 log CFU/ml in the final product. Fungi were initially present at 3.6 log CFU/g, although again, the microbes were eliminated by boiling; however, the level in the final product was 4.6 log CFU/ml. No E. coli or foodborne pathogens (except B. cereus) were detected. B. cereus was detected at all stages, although it was not present in the water or boiled wort (total detection rate ¼ 16.4%). Results suggest that boiling of the wort is an effective microbial control measure, but careful management of raw materials and implementation of effective control measures after boiling are needed to prevent contamination of the product after the boiling step. The results of this study may constitute useful and comprehensive information regarding the microbiological quality of microbrewed beer. PMID:26613919

  15. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.

  16. Optimization of biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Maojin; Yuan, Zhuliang; Zhi, Xiaohua; Shen, Jianquan [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences (BNLMS), Laboratory of New Materials, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongguancun North First Street 2, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Beer lees are the main by-product of the brewing industry. Biohydrogen production from beer lees using anaerobic mixed bacteria was investigated in this study, and the effects of acidic pretreatment, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration on hydrogen production were studied at 35 C in batch experiments. The hydrogen yield was significantly enhanced by optimizing environmental factors such as hydrochloric acid (HCl) pretreatment of substrate, initial pH value and ferrous iron concentration. The optimal environmental factors of substrate pretreated with 2% HCl, pH = 7.0 and 113.67 mg/l Fe{sup 2+} were observed. A maximum cumulative hydrogen yield of 53.03 ml/g-dry beer lees was achieved, which was approximately 17-fold greater than that in raw beer lees. In addition, the degradation efficiency of the total reducing sugar, and the contents of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and metabolites are presented, which showed a strong dependence on the environmental factors. (author)

  17. Finger Millet: A Potential Source For Production of Gluten Free Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Bano,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to value addition of underutilized crops using fermentation technology need a radical approach. Present study has been made to explore the underutilized crops utilization for production of beer. Designed experiments were conducted to find the effect of three independent variables having three levels of each i.e. (blend ratio-80:20:0,80:10:10, 80:0:20 , α-amylase enzyme concentration - 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8% and slurry ratio -1:5, 1:7 and 1:9 on pH, colour and alcohol content of beer prepared from finger millet, barnyard millet and paddy. The data from all experiments were analyzed statistically using Design Expert 8.0.7.1 and the response functions were developed using the regression analysis. Result of fermented studies reveals that blend ratio had maximum effect on alcohol content,pH and colour but enzyme concentration had maximum effect on alcohol content while slurry ratio affected the colour of beer. Statistical analysis resulted in the optimum conditions of the independent variables as blend ratio (80:(9.6:(10.4, enzyme concentration 0.45% and slurry ratio 1:6.82 for maximum beer production. The second order model was found to be fitted to predict all the responses i.e., pH, colour and alcohol content.

  18. 27 CFR 28.320 - Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loss of beer and beer... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Losses Beer and Beer Concentrate § 28.320 Loss of beer and beer concentrate in transit. (a) Losses not requiring inspection....

  19. An application of classical and instrumental methods of analysis in quality control of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.; Sredović-Ignjatović Ivana D.; Ignjatović Ljubiša M.; Nedović Viktor A.; Prijić Slobodan M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to control the quality of beer and raw materials for production of beer in Belgrade Beer Industry (BIP), water is analyzed (city, technological and demineralized water). Measurements of pH values indicated the increased pH values in the sample of tehnological water, which had no impact on wort hopping, since the tested samples of wort, young beer and final product had a pH value within the expected range. After processing city water, a sample of te...

  20. Impact of the brewing process on the concentration of silicon in lager beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krausová, Ivana; Cejnar, R.; Kučera, Jan; Dostálek, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 4 (2014), s. 433-437. ISSN 0046-9750 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570; GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019; GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : beer * brewing * hops * INAA * malt * silicon Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2014

  1. 27 CFR 25.231 - Finished beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finished beer. 25.231... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Purchased From Another Brewer § 25.231 Finished beer. (a) A brewer may obtain beer in barrels and kegs, finished and ready for sale from another brewer. The...

  2. Continuous beer fermentation with yeast immobilized on alternative cheap carriers and sensorial evaluation of the final product

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Silva, João B. Almeida e; J. A. Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Continuous beer fermentation offers a wide range of advantages, mostly of economic nature over the traditional batch process. However, due to increased complexity of operation comparing to batch process, flavor problems, risk of contamination, yeast viability, carrier price and inconvenience of immobilization, the continuous beer fermentation has found few practical applications so far. The carrier cost represents a significant part of the investment costs and therefore the need f...

  3. Experimental Study on Extruded Beer Adjunct Used for Brewing Beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN De-chao

    2004-01-01

    The properties of saccharified and boiled worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts were studied at the laboratory and a small beer brewing equipment( 100 L) in this paper. Test results indicate that the main saccharification indices and filtration speeds of worts between extruded and traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts are similar basically. The collected rate of extracted material of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 8%more than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. Fermentation time of worts of extruded beer adjuncts is 10 %less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts. The energy consumption of extruded beer adjuncts in saccharification process is 13 % less than that of traditional non-extruded beer adjuncts.

  4. Finger Millet: A Potential Source For Production of Gluten Free Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Ishrat Bano,; Kopal Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Studies related to value addition of underutilized crops using fermentation technology need a radical approach. Present study has been made to explore the underutilized crops utilization for production of beer. Designed experiments were conducted to find the effect of three independent variables having three levels of each i.e. (blend ratio-80:20:0,80:10:10, 80:0:20 , α-amylase enzyme concentration - 0%, 0.4%, and 0.8%) and slurry ratio -1:5, 1:7 and 1:9) on pH, colour and alcohol...

  5. Evaluation of a distribution model for a new beer company production site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Menoncin Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ambev dominates the beer market in Brazil with a 70% share. The group formed in the 1990s by the merger of the two largest companies in the industry at the time, Brahma and Antarctica. Even with new entrants in the market AmBev kept growing and increasing its participation. One of the biggest challenges to work in the beer market is the distribution strategy. AmBev’s success has, in its distribution strategy, one of the critical factors in reaching this level of market share. The model AmBev has implemented and continues to invest is what Brahma, pre AmBev, adopted as its strategy in the 1990s. This work aims to determine whether, in a company starting its production activities in the same industry, the AmBev distribution model can be applied. Based on the concepts of logistics and supply chain management, the possible concepts of distribution strategies were identified, seeking to understand those underlying the AmBev reference model. With this, a company has been identified and a case study conducted to understand the application of the AmBev model. The main findings of the study point to possibilities for adopting the model, but with restrictions and constant monitoring to control the implementation of the strategy.

  6. Physico-Chemical Characterization of Brew during the Brewing Corn Malt in the Production of Maize Beer in Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Diakabana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study consists in the production of a traditional beer from maize in the Congo. The traditional method of brewing corn malt has three main stages: malting corn, brewing corn malt and fermentation. During the brewing corn malt, endogenous amylase activity is destroyed during the stiffening of the starch to about 80°C. A pre-cooking of the mash is necessitated to promote amylolyse at 50°C with an exogenous enzyme. The use of a preparation of α-amylase can liquefy the mash and produce a sweet wort (average density = 12.5° Balling rich in dextrin corresponding to an apparent extract of 4° Balling in beer. The rising profile of the pH of the corn malt mash, from mashing to extract the wort does not affect the pH of the beer produced. This beer, slightly alcoholic (3.6% ethanol, is characterized by a nomal acid pH (pH = 4.15 on average and a brown color (25 EBC units. Its slight bitterness (21 EBU and the fine aroma of a beer closer barley produced industrially in the Congo.

  7. Study on the processing technology of health oat tea beer%保健燕麦茶啤酒的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妮; 逯家富; 徐亚杰; 于洪梅; 姜海波; 刘志勤

    2012-01-01

    The production process and the manufacturing process of health oat tea beer were introduced.The beer was made by 60% malt,20% oatmeal,and 20% sugar as raw material,adding 5% tea juice that the tea boiled in water 20min with the proportion of 1:180 at 85℃ 20min later,and 0.02% hop.In the pilot production,health oat tea beer met all indexes provided by GB.%阐述了保健燕麦茶啤酒的生产工艺流程及生产工艺要点,采用大麦芽60%,燕麦20%,糖浆20%的原料配比,并在85℃对茶水比为1:180进行20min的绿茶浸提,生产过程中浸提后茶汁添加量为5%,酒花添加量0.02%,添加时间初沸后20min。经过中试生产,保健型燕麦茶啤酒各项指标均符合GB。

  8. Influence of yeast immobilization on fermentation and aldehyde reduction during the production of alcohol-free beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, van M.F.M.; Brouwer-Post, E.; Rombouts, F.M.; Abee, T.

    2000-01-01

    Production of alcohol-free beer by limited fermentation is optimally performed in a packed-bed reactor. This highly controllable system combines short contact times between yeast and wort with the reduction of off-flavors to concentrations below threshold values. In the present study, the influence

  9. 27 CFR 25.24 - Storage of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage of beer. 25.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Location and Use of Brewery § 25.24 Storage of beer. (a) Taxpaid beer. Beer of a brewer's own production on which the tax has been paid or determined may not be stored in...

  10. Free Beer and Engaging Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn Johansson, Troels

    This paper presents an analysis of art collective Superflex' FREE BEER project; a beer brand and an art work that seeks to promote a critical understanding of free creativity and intellectual property rights by inviting beer enthusiasts to brew their own beer. The paper seeks to demonstrate how...... the project contributes to Superflex' profile as contemporary avant-garde artists and how their work has contributed to the field of design. More specifically the paper seeks to demonstrate how the FREE BEER project succeeds in establishing a context of meaning that involves a political as well as a business...... dimension, and which makes possible the exchange of values to and from these dimensions as well as that of art. In the paper, this context of meaning is constructed in terms of a complex chain of analogies by means of which amateur beer production and beer consumption becomes an expression of the belief...

  11. 27 CFR 25.206 - Removal of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removal of beer. 25.206... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Beer for Personal Or Family Use § 25.206 Removal of beer. Beer made under § 25.205 may be removed from the premises where made for personal...

  12. 27 CFR 25.295 - Record of unsalable beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of unsalable beer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.295 Record of unsalable beer. A brewer having unsalable beer in packages or tanks in the brewery may destroy, recondition, or use the beer...

  13. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  14. 27 CFR 25.211 - Beer returned to brewery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.211 Beer returned to brewery. (a) General. Beer, produced in the United States, on which the brewer has paid or determined the tax may...

  15. Beer City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Shandong Province’s Qingdao is becoming China’s great beer city sicenically located on a peninsula over-looking the Pacific Ocean, Qingdao, |or Tsingtao, is a coastal city soaked in two kinds of foam. One floats in

  16. Development of polyhydroxyalkanoate/beer spent grain fibers composites for film blowing applications

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Mara; Berthet, Marie-Alix; Pereira, Ricardo; Covas, José A.; Vicente, António A.; Hilliou, Loïc

    2015-01-01

    The high cost, narrow processing window, and poor mechanical properties of polyhydroxyalkanoates hamper their use as films for food packaging applications. We report the preparation, characterization, and film blowing of polyhydroxybutyrate-valerate (PHBV)/beer spent grain fibers (BSGF) composites. Beer spent grains are by-products of the beer industry submitted to an acid/caustic treatment and to successive grinding to achieve fibers with typical size of 30 microns. ...

  17. 27 CFR 28.282 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 28.282 Section 28.282 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Beer. When beer has been laden on board the aircraft for use as supplies, the customs officer...

  18. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  19. Optimisation of Lab-Scale Continuous Alcohol-Free Beer Production

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lehnert, R.; Novák, Pavel; Macieira, F.; Kuřec, M.; Teixeira, J.A.; Brányik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2009), s. 267-275. ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : alcohol-free beer * continuous reactor * immobilised yeast Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.602, year: 2009

  20. Kosovo beer markets - Consumer preferences and baying behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Gjonbalaj, M.; I. Miftari; H. Bytyqi; J.Shkodra

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes and presents important findings on the consumers buying behaviour and their preferences for beer. The paper also tests whether there is dependency of frequencies buying beer with demographic and economic factors. The data were entered and processed in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS), while common statistical models have been used for interpretation of results and tested hypotheses. A research was part of the project ‘’Marketing Support of Food Products in Ko...

  1. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  2. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Fernanda; Franco, Larissa Tuanny; Rosim, Roice Eliana; Barbalho, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS). BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05) from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins. PMID:26273277

  3. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS. BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05 from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins.

  4. Thermal resistance of Saccharomyces yeast ascospores in beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Elham A; Gardner, Richard C; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    The industrial production of beer ends with a process of thermal pasteurization. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces pastorianus are yeasts used to produce top and bottom fermenting beers, respectively. In this research, first the sporulation rate of 12 Saccharomyces strains was studied. Then, the thermal resistance of ascospores of three S. cerevisiae strains (DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, Ethanol Red(®)) and one strain of S. pastorianus (ATCC 9080) was determined in 4% (v/v) ethanol lager beer. D60 °C-values of 11.2, 7.5, 4.6, and 6.0 min and z-values of 11.7, 14.3, 12.4, and 12.7 °C were determined for DSMZ 1848, DSMZ 70487, ATCC 9080, and Ethanol Red(®), respectively. Lastly, experiments with 0 and 7% (v/v) beers were carried out to investigate the effect of ethanol content on the thermal resistance of S. cerevisiae (DSMZ 1848). D55 °C-values of 34.2 and 15.3 min were obtained for 0 and 7% beers, respectively, indicating lower thermal resistance in the more alcoholic beer. These results demonstrate similar spore thermal resistance for different Saccharomyces strains and will assist in the design of appropriate thermal pasteurization conditions for preserving beers with different alcohol contents. PMID:25996521

  5. 27 CFR 28.225 - Removals of beer by brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by brewer..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.225 Removals of beer by brewer. Where a brewer removes taxpaid beer from...

  6. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  7. 27 CFR 25.296 - Record of beer concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of beer concentrate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Records and Reports § 25.296 Record of beer concentrate. (a) Daily records. A brewer who produces concentrate or reconstitutes beer shall maintain daily records...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. Importance of tetrahydroiso alpha-acids to the microbiological stability of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Isabel; Agut, Montserrat; Armentia, Alicia; Blanco, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    While beer provides a very stable microbiological environment, a few niche microorganisms are capable of growth in malt, wort, and beer. The production of off-flavors and development of turbidity in the packaged product are due to the growth and metabolic activity of wild yeast, certain lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria. Beer also contains bitter hop compounds, which are toxic to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and contribute to preventing the spoilage of this beverage. In the boiling process, the hop alpha-acids (humulones) are isomerized into iso alpha-acids. These products are responsible for the bitter taste of beer, but they also play an essential role in enhancing foam stability. Antibacterial activity of iso alpha-acids and their hydrogenated derivates (rhoiso alpha-acids and tetrahydroiso alpha-acids) in MRS broth and beer have been evaluated against different LAB (Lactobacillus and Pediococcus) for the determination of their beer-stabilizing capabilities. Besides this, we have determined the minimum inhibitory concentration and the bacteriostatic effect of each compound against Pediococcus. We found that tetrahydroiso alpha-acids (added directly to beer during production processes) are the compounds that present the greatest antibacterial activity against the main agents implicated in beer spoilage. PMID:19714985

  10. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  11. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  12. 27 CFR 25.212 - Beer returned to brewery from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.212 Beer returned to brewery from which removed. If beer on which the tax has been determined or paid is returned...

  13. 27 CFR 25.156 - Determination of tax on keg beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... keg beer. 25.156 Section 25.156 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.156 Determination of tax on keg beer. (a) In determining the tax on beer removed in kegs, a barrel is regarded as...

  14. An application of classical and instrumental methods of analysis in quality control of beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to control the quality of beer and raw materials for production of beer in Belgrade Beer Industry (BIP, water is analyzed (city, technological and demineralized water. Measurements of pH values indicated the increased pH values in the sample of tehnological water, which had no impact on wort hopping, since the tested samples of wort, young beer and final product had a pH value within the expected range. After processing city water, a sample of tehnological water was found with increased carbonate hardness, which is caused by the increased content of sodium hydrogen carbonate. Analysing the titration alkalinity, titration acidity and buffering power, it was found that the alkalinity was decreasing which is in accordance with the determination of pH values of wort and beer samples (young beer and final product. Analyzing the content of anions and cations in the examined water samples, it has been shown that the concentration of these examinated anions (Cl-, NO3 -, SO4 2- and PO4 3- and cations (NH4 +, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ are within the limits prescribed by the Regulations on hygienic safety of drinking water, and thus by the Regulations of quality and other requirements for beer. The contents of anions in wort and beer samples (young beer and final product were determined by ion chromatography method. The contents of sulphate and nitrate ions were within the recommended limits. The concentration of chloride ions was above 150 mg/dm3, which may have an impact on the sensory properties of beer, while changes in the content of phosphate ions were insignificant. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 43009

  15. Fundamentals of beer and hop chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Denis De Keukeleire

    2000-01-01

    Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is pla...

  16. Occurrence of Theaspirane and its Odorant Degradation Products in Hop and Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Caroline; Nizet, Sabrina; Massart, Hadrien; Gerbaux, Pascal; Collin, Sonia

    2015-09-23

    In model oxidized media, six theaspirane-derived compounds were identified by gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry: 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-α-ionone, dihydrodehydro-β-ionone, two monoepoxides, and a derived alcohol. Only 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone have been described previously in the literature. Investigation of hop revealed five of these compounds in free form together with theaspirane (especially in the Mosaic variety), while the Citra and Amarillo hop varieties emerged as very interesting for the release of theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone from glucoside precursors. For the first time, theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, 6-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-α-ionone, and both monoepoxides were found in a fresh commercial top fermentation beer (only theaspirane, 4-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-β-ionone, and dihydrodehydro-β-ionone have recently been mentioned as Gueuze constituents). PMID:26321162

  17. A Historical Review of the Beer Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Eline; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transformed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  18. Beer identity in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlholm, Ole; Martens, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this study a sensory profiling and a consumer test including 10 commercially Danish beers were conducted. The 10 beer samples covered four types of beer namely; lager, strong lager, ale and wheat beer, representing both new and more established beers on the Danish market. A trained panel...... consisting of nine panellists completed the sensory profiling using the following attributes; colour, body, bitter, carbonation, alcohol, fruity, floral, spicy and grainy/roasted. All attributes discriminated significantly between the beer samples. Lager beers were mainly described by the attributes grainy....../roasted, bitter, alcohol and carbonation whereas the attributes fruity, spicy, body and floral primarily described the ale and wheat beers. Consumers tasted the same 10 beers in a hedonic test (affective response) and in an appropriateness test (cognitive-contextual response). Partial least squares regression...

  19. Chemical-analytical and sensory characterisation of kettle hoppy aroma of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Praet, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Hops constitute an indispensable raw material for beer production. The hop essential oil (-derived) volatiles are at the origin of the highly desired hoppy aroma of beer. (Bio)chemical transformations and losses during the brewing process alter the hop oil volatile fingerprint, resulting in hoppy aroma in beer that is clearly different from the aroma of the hops. Nevertheless, the nature of hoppy aroma is up-to-date far from understood. Especially ‘noble kettle hop’ aroma, which is a typical ...

  20. Drink beer to save the planet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Barfield

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This student poster display example considers the ethics of the marketing of the “Cascade Green” beer inAustralia. Issues considered include the ethics of marketing beer, the environmental impacts of the beersmarketing and packaging and a reflection upon the societal impacts of the product.

  1. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the beer model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2007-01-01

    The production-distribution system or "beer game" is one of the most well-known system dynamics models. Notorious for the complex dynamics it produces, the beer game has been used for nearly five decades to illustrate how structure generates behavior and to explore human decision making. Here we...

  2. Metabolic strategies of beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Andreas J; Behr, Jürgen; von Kamp, Kristina; Vogel, Rudi F

    2016-01-01

    Beer contains only limited amounts of readily fermentable carbohydrates and amino acids. Beer spoilage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have to come up with metabolic strategies in order to deal with selective nutrient content, high energy demand of hop tolerance mechanisms and a low pH. The metabolism of 26 LAB strains of 6 species and varying spoilage potentialwas investigated in order to define and compare their metabolic capabilities using multivariate statistics and outline possible metabolic strategies. Metabolic capabilities of beer spoilage LAB regarding carbohydrate and amino acids did not correlate with spoilage potential, but with fermentation type (heterofermentative/homofermentative) and species. A shift to mixed acid fermentation by homofermentative (hof) Pediococcus claussenii and Lactobacillus backii was observed as a specific feature of their growth in beer. For heterofermentative (hef) LAB a mostly versatile carbohydrate metabolism could be demonstrated, supplementing the known relevance of organic acids for their growth in beer. For hef LAB a distinct amino acid metabolism, resulting in biogenic amine production, was observed, presumably contributing to energy supply and pH homeostasis. PMID:26398285

  3. CORROSION RESISTANCE OF ALUMINUM CANS IN CONTACT WITH BEER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Esteves

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum cans with an organic coating are used in Brazil as packaging for carbonated beverages (soft drinks, beer, which act as electrolyte solutions. These electrolytes, in contact with the inner metal can, initiate a corrosion process of aluminum. The presence of metallic ions can change the flavor of the beverage, compromising the product quality. This work aims to evaluate the corrosion resistance of aluminum in beer environment using the technique of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and the Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS were used to evaluate the metal surface. Two batches with different coating thickness were analyzed for the same date of manufacture. The electrolyte resistance and the aluminum charge transfer resistance in beer varied depending on the batch analyzed.

  4. Kosovo beer markets - Consumer preferences and baying behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gjonbalaj

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and presents important findings on the consumers buying behaviour and their preferences for beer. The paper also tests whether there is dependency of frequencies buying beer with demographic and economic factors. The data were entered and processed in Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS, while common statistical models have been used for interpretation of results and tested hypotheses. A research was part of the project ‘’Marketing Support of Food Products in Kosovo’’ which was founded by European Agency for Reconstruction. The aim of this project was to support Kosovo producers of food industry by offering them relevant information on beer market, consumers buying behaviour and their preferences.

  5. 27 CFR 31.33 - Retail dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in beer. 31... Classified § 31.33 Retail dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines, to any...

  6. 27 CFR 28.295 - Exception for export of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 28.295 Section 28.295 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Alternate Procedures § 28.295 Exception for export of beer. The provisions of this subpart do not apply in the case of beer when the exporter or claimant obtains proof of exportation other than...

  7. 27 CFR 31.34 - Wholesale dealer in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealer in beer... Classified § 31.34 Wholesale dealer in beer. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, every person who sells or offers for sale beer, but not distilled spirits or wines,...

  8. 27 CFR 26.68 - Bond, Form 2898-Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond, Form 2898-Beer. 26... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Bonds § 26.68 Bond, Form 2898—Beer. Where a brewer intends to withdraw, for purpose of shipment to the United States, beer of Puerto Rican manufacture from bonded storage...

  9. Long-Term n-Caproic Acid Production from Yeast-Fermentation Beer in an Anaerobic Bioreactor with Continuous Product Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shijian; Usack, Joseph G; Spirito, Catherine M; Angenent, Largus T

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional reactor microbiomes can elongate short-chain carboxylic acids (SCCAs) to medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCAs), such as n-caproic acid. However, it is unclear whether this microbiome biotechnology platform is stable enough during long operating periods to consistently produce MCCAs. During a period of 550 days, we improved the operating conditions of an anaerobic bioreactor for the conversion of complex yeast-fermentation beer from the corn kernel-to-ethanol industry into primarily n-caproic acid. We incorporated and improved in-line, membrane liquid-liquid extraction to prevent inhibition due to undissociated MCCAs at a pH of 5.5 and circumvented the addition of methanogenic inhibitors. The microbiome accomplished several functions, including hydrolysis and acidogenesis of complex organic compounds and sugars into SCCAs, subsequent chain elongation with undistilled ethanol in beer, and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The methane yield was 2.40 ± 0.52% based on COD and was limited by the availability of carbon dioxide. We achieved an average n-caproate production rate of 3.38 ± 0.42 g L(-1) d(-1) (7.52 ± 0.94 g COD L(-1) d(-1)) with an n-caproate yield of 70.3 ± 8.81% and an n-caproate/ethanol ratio of 1.19 ± 0.15 based on COD for a period of ∼55 days. The maximum production rate was achieved by increasing the organic loading rates in tandem with elevating the capacity of the extraction system and a change in the complex feedstock batch. PMID:25941741

  10. 27 CFR 25.192 - Removal of sour or damaged beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.192 Section 25.192 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer Unfit for Beverage Use § 25.192 Removal of sour or damaged beer. (a) Containers. The brewer shall remove sour...

  11. 27 CFR 26.105 - Prepayment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of beer. 26.105 Section 26.105 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.105 Prepayment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the beer is to be withdrawn from bonded storage after payment of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.213 - Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer returned to brewery... AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Beer Returned to Brewery § 25.213 Beer returned to brewery other than that from which removed. (a) Refund or adjustment of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  14. Biopolymers production with carbon source from the wastes of a beer brewery industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Phoeby Ai Ling

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential and feasibility of malt wastes, and other food wastes, such as soy wastes, ice-cream wastes, confectionery wastes, vinegar wastes, milk waste and sesame oil, in the induction of biosynthesis of PHA, in the cellular assembly of novel PHA with improved physical and chemical properties, and in the reduction of the cost of PHA production. In the first part of the experiments, a specific culture of Alcaligenes latus DSM 1124 was selected to ferment several types of food wastes as carbon sources into biopolymers. In addition, the biopolymer production, by way of using malt waste, of microorganisms from municipal activated sludge was also investigated. In the second part, the experiments focused on the synthesis of biopolymer with a higher molecular mass via the bacterial strain, which was selected and isolated from sesame oil, identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis . Molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of PHB were studied by GPC. Molecular weight of PHB produced from various types of food wastes by Alcaligenes latus was higher than using synthetic sucrose medium as nutrient, however, it resulted in the reverse by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Thermal properties of biopolymers were studied by DSC and TG. Using malt wastes as nutrients by Alcaligenes latus gave a higher melting temperature. Using sucrose, confectionery and sesame oil as nutrients by Staphylococcus epidermidis gave higher melting temperature. Optimization was carried out for the recovery of microbial PHB from Alcaligenes latus. Results showed that molecular weight can be controlled by changing the hypochlorite concentration, the ratio of chloroform to hypochlorite solution and the extraction time. In addition, the determination of PHB content by thermogravimetric analysis method with wet cell was the first report in our study. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. Physics of beer tapping

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as {\\em beer tapping} consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO$_2$ from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time-scales, namely: bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, diffusion-driven stage and buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of pre-existing gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmenta...

  16. Utilization of bagasse from the beer industry in clay brick production for building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes bricks manufactured from bagasse, a by-product of the brewing industry. Raw materials (clay and bagasse were characterized to determine their chemical composition, mineralogical composition and thermal behaviour. Mixtures were prepared with amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 wt% of bagasse incorporated into the clay body. Rectangular test pieces were obtained by application of 54.5 MPa pressure, they were dried at 110 °C and fired at 950 ºC in a laboratory furnace for 1 hour. Ceramic properties related to weight loss on ignition, linear shrinkage, bulk and absolute density, water absorption, water suction and compressive strength were analyzed in order to evaluate the suitability of using this wastes in ceramic matrix to the production of building bricks. The results indicate that the incorporation of the bagasse decreases the absolute and bulk density, increases the water absorption and reduces the compressive strength of the brick.

    Este estudio analiza ladrillos fabricados a partir de bagazo, un subproducto del sector cervecero. Las materias primas (arcilla y bagazo fueron caracterizadas para determinar la composición química, la composición mineralógica y el comportamiento térmico. Las mezclas fueron preparadas adicionando cantidades del 0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 y 10 % en peso de bagazo a la arcilla. Se obtuvieron piezas rectangulares por aplicación de una presión de 54,5 MPa, secadas a 110 ºC y sinterizadas a 950 ºC en un horno mufla durante 1 hora. Las propiedades cerámicas relativas a la pérdida de peso por calcinación, contracción lineal, densidad aparente, densidad absoluta, absorción de agua, succión del agua y resistencia a la compresión, fueron analizadas para evaluar la conveniencia de utilizar estos residuos en matrices cerámicas para la producción de ladrillos para construcción. Los resultados indican que, la incorporación de bagazo disminuye las densidades aparente y absoluta, incrementa la

  17. Foaming in stout beers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. T.; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-10-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them several properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless, the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibers, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for investigating the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. We also consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer can with cellulose fibers.

  18. Foaming in stout beers

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, W T

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same mechanism, nucleation by gas pockets trapped in cellulose fibres, responsible for foaming in carbonated drinks is active in stout beers, but at an impractically slow rate. This gentle rate of bubble nucleation makes stout beers an excellent model system for the scientific investigation of the nucleation of gas bubbles. The equipment needed is very modest, putting such experiments within reach of undergraduate laboratories. Finally we consider the suggestion that a widget could be constructed by coating the inside of a beer...

  19. Foaming in stout beers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, W T; Devereux, M. G.

    2011-01-01

    We review the differences between bubble formation in champagne and other carbonated drinks, and stout beers which contain a mixture of dissolved nitrogen and carbon dioxide. The presence of dissolved nitrogen in stout beers gives them a number of properties of interest to connoisseurs and physicists. These remarkable properties come at a price: stout beers do not foam spontaneously and special technology, such as the widgets used in cans, is needed to promote foaming. Nevertheless the same m...

  20. Statistical analysis of beer consumption preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Pospíšilová, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the statistical analysis of consumer behavior in the area of beer consumption. It aims to identify consumers’ preferences, which can significantly influence the level of their consumption. The thesis is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on the theoretical basis for defining the basic concepts of marketing, marketing research and survey. It further investigates the history of beer production, technology of production, the current situation and the structure ...

  1. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Immobilized cell technology (ICT has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the situation is more complex and this process is still under scrutiny on both the lab and pilot levels. The paper outlines the most important ICT processes developed for beer brewing and provides an overview of carrier materials, bioreactor design and examples of their industrial applications, as well as some recent results obtained by our research group. We investigated the possible applications of polyvinyl alcohol in the form of LentiKats®, as a potential porous matrices carrier for beer fermentation. Given are the results of growth studies of immobilized brewer's yeast Saccharomyces uvarum and the kinetic parameters obtained by using alginate microbeads with immobilized yeast cells and suspension of yeast cells as controls. The results indicate that the immobilization procedure in LentiKat® carriers has a negligible effect on cell viability and growth. The apparent specific growth rate of cells released in medium was comparable to that of freely suspended cells, implying preserved cell vitality. A series of batch fermentations performed in shaken flasks and an air-lift bioreactor indicated that the immobilized cells retained high fermentation activity. The full attenuation in green beer was reached after 48 hours in shaken flasks and less than 24 hours of fermentation in gas-lift bioreactors.

  2. Qualitative determination of β-acids and their transformation products in beer and hop using HR/AM-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dušek, Martin; Olšovská, Jana; Krofta, Karel; Jurková, Marie; Mikyška, Alexandr

    2014-08-01

    Hops represent an important source of β-acids with antimicrobial and sensory properties. Transformation products of β-acids formed during their oxidation, mainly hulupones, have been shown to have an interesting kind of bitterness. Their structures were recently elucidated using LC-TOFMS and 1D/2D NMR in solution after thermal treatment of the hop β-acids. This study demonstrates the advantages of MS detection with high resolution and accurate mass measurements. The structure of transformation products in an experimental solution of oxidized β-acids was elucidated using a newly developed method by hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap MS. In addition to already known structures, two new ones were identified and named epoxycohulupone and epoxyhulupone. The method was verified on real samples; the profiles of these products in Sládek hops harvested in 2008 and 2012 and in corresponding beers were compared. For this purpose, a new QuEChERS assay was used for the preparation of beer samples. PMID:25099125

  3. Beer Drinking Nations. The Determinants of Global Beer Consumption.

    OpenAIRE

    Colen, Liesbeth; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the evolution of beer consumption between countries and over time. Historically, there have been major changes in beer consumption in the world. In recent times, per capita consumption has decreased in traditional ' beer drinking nations' while it increased strongly in emerging economies. Recently, China has overtaken the US as the largest beer economy. A quantitative empirical analysis shows the relationship between income and beer consumption has an inverse U-shape....

  4. The "Green" Root Beer Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Renee; Wandersee, James

    2010-01-01

    No, your students will not be drinking green root beer for St. Patrick's Day--this "green" root beer laboratory promotes environmental awareness in the science classroom, and provides a venue for some very sound science content! While many science classrooms incorporate root beer-brewing activities, the root beer lab presented in this article has…

  5. Influence of beer storage for the selected biogenic amines content

    OpenAIRE

    Brýdlová, Nikola

    2012-01-01

    This thesis does not only changes in the content of biogenic amines during storage of bottled beer, but beer in general. The production of beer in the world is gradually increasing. In 2010, produced a 811,4 million hectoliters of beer. Czech Republic in 2010 produced 17,1 million hectoliters in 2011 and ceased production decline. Average consumption in the Czech Republic was in 2010, 144 liters/person/year. Another chapter is devoted to biogenic amines. They are nitrogen compounds, in which ...

  6. Clean Production Management of Breweries: the realities of implementing clean production management in Tsingtao Brewery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chaonan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,China's beer industry has rapid growth,but because of high energy consumption and high emissions in the production process, its environmental pollution became more serious and aroused concern. Beer companies must promote management of clean production in the pursuit of economic benefits while addressing the pollution problems. Comparing to leading markets, China’s beer industry practiced clean production at later stage, the level of clean production management is still lower t...

  7. Beer Market Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Koulová, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the master's thesis is to find out similarities or differences among consumers in the Czech beer market by using primary and secondary research and content analysis. The thesis contains two parts, the theoretical and the practical one. Market segmentation, marketing research and Czech beer market are described in the theoretical part. The practical part includes market segmentation by using secondary data (agency data MML-TGI with Data Analyzer software), primary data (own researc...

  8. Implementation of measurement methods over the process of cleaning and disinfection of cooling equipment and dispensing of beer in keg of type 'Fast Chiller', installed at points of sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cerveceria de Costa Rica has launched a project to improve the controls over the process of cleaning and disinfection of dispensing equipments in keg beer of type 'fast chiller' installed at points of sale. The development of some methods have been used to verify the effectiveness of the procedure. The study of the initial situation of the company has been the starting point of the project. One study, updating and summarizing has performed of maintenance manual used by technicians responsible for performing cleaning of equipments. The selection and evaluation at laboratory level has been made of the container used to hold 30 mL dose of disinfectant with which the equipments maintenance is performed. Additional controls have been specifically established to ensure food quality CO2 that was used to dislodge the keg beer. A specification sheet has been prepared containing the necessary parameters to product quality is preserved by contact with the gas. A method of reception of cylinders in the plant has been standardized to ensure that they meet specifications. The most important phase of the project has been the implementation of the use of bioluminescence tests, to determine whether the process of cleaning and disinfection has been effective. The critical control points have been selected and standardized for testing the detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), then the training of personnel. A number of documents and specifications have been standardized in different control procedures, a specification sheet of ingredient for CO2 and different registers that are expected to establish an effective control mechanism to ensure customer satisfaction by consuming a quality beverage. Monitor the records that are generated has been the recommendation to ensure that all outlets is served a product without alterations by contamination present in the dispensing system. (author)

  9. 27 CFR 28.43 - Evidence of exportation and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. 28.43 Section 28.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... lading for use on vessels and aircraft: beer. (a) Exportation. The exportation of beer to a foreign... certificate issued by an official of the country or possession where the beer has actually landed; or (6)...

  10. 27 CFR 25.160 - Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer. 25.160 Section 25.160 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.160 Tax adjustment for brewers who produce more than 2,000,000 barrels of beer....

  11. 27 CFR 28.227 - Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by... ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.227 Removals of beer by persons other than the brewer or agent of the brewer. Where there is a removal of taxpaid beer by a...

  12. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  13. Brewing with Distinction: The Implications of a Quality Symbol for the Craft Beer Industry of British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Oppenheimer, Leonardo Manuel

    2008-01-01

    A growing segment of the Canadian beer market is the microbrew/craft beer segment. For the palates of many beer connoisseurs, craft beer has a taste that distinguishes it from other beers, thus setting it apart from the mass-marketed products of the giant commercial breweries. However, a large proportion of beer consumers in Canada remain oblivious to the virtues and properties that make craft beer unique. This study examines the feasibility of creating a quality symbol of distinction as a me...

  14. Beer Tourism – from Theory to Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Zoltán Bujdosó; Csaba Szûcs

    2012-01-01

    Due to the interest in the development of gastronomy and the food and beverage culture of different countries and regions, culinary travel is gaining in popularity all over the world and gastronomic tourism has become an independent product on its own within tourism. Beer tourism has become an integrated part of gastronomic tourism. The purpose of this paper is to place beer tourism, which attracts a growing number of visitors, as a product into the system of tourism as well as to review its ...

  15. Product Development Process Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The use of Concurrent Engineering and other modern methods of product development and maintenance require that a large number of time-overlapped "processes" be performed by many people. However, successfully describing and optimizing these processes are becoming even more difficult to achieve. The perspective of industrial process theory (the definition of process) and the perspective of process implementation (process transition, accumulation, and inter-operations between processes) are used to survey the method used to build one base model (multi-view) process model.

  16. Enhanced production of bioethanol from waste of beer fermentation broth at high temperature through consecutive batch strategy by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Waleed Ahmad; Khan, Taous; Ha, Jung Hwan; Ul-Islam, Mazhar; Kang, Min-Kyung; Park, Joong Kon

    2013-10-10

    Malt hydrolyzing enzymes and yeast glycolytic and fermentation enzymes in the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) were identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). A new 'one-pot consecutive batch strategy' was developed for efficient bio-ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using WBFB without additional enzymes, microbial cells, or carbohydrates. Bio-ethanol production was conducted in batches using WBFB supernatant in the first phase at 25-67°C and 50rpm, followed by the addition of 3% WBFB solid residue to the existing culture broth in the second phase at 67°C. The ethanol production increased from 50 to 102.5g/L when bare supernatant was used in the first phase, and then to 219g ethanol/L in the second phase. The amount of ethanol obtained using this strategy was almost equal to that obtained using the original WBFB containing 25% solid residue at 33°C, and more than double that obtained when bare supernatant was used. Microscopic and gel electrophoresis studies revealed yeast cell wall degradation and secretion of cellular material into the surrounding medium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) supported the existence of enzymes in WBFB involved in bioethanol production at elevated temperatures. The results of this study will provide insight for the development of new strategies for biofuel production. PMID:24034431

  17. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid...

  18. 27 CFR 26.104 - Deferred payment of tax-release of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-release of beer. 26.104 Section 26.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.104 Deferred payment of tax—release of beer. (a) Action by brewer. Where the brewer has furnished bond on Form 2898, and payment of the tax...

  19. 27 CFR 31.53 - Wholesale dealers in beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in beer... beer consummating sales at premises of other dealers. Any dealer who has registered as a wholesale dealer in beer for the place from which that dealer conducts selling operations may consummate sales...

  20. 27 CFR 28.226 - Removals of beer by agent on behalf of brewer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals of beer by agent... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS EXPORTATION OF ALCOHOL Exportation of Beer With Benefit of Drawback Execution of Claims § 28.226 Removals of beer by agent on behalf of...

  1. 27 CFR 25.285 - Refund of beer tax excessively paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refund of beer tax... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.285 Refund of beer tax excessively paid. (a) Eligibility. A brewer who, under the...

  2. 27 CFR 25.225 - Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... beer which was never removed from brewery premises. 25.225 Section 25.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.225 Destruction of taxpaid beer which was never removed from brewery premises. (a) General....

  3. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  4. Craft vs. industrial: Habits, attitudes and motivations towards beer consumption in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Corona, Carlos; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; García, Mauricio; Chollet, Sylvie; Valentin, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Food choices tend to be stable over time; they do not change fast, since consumers tend to act like creatures of habits. However, food habits can evolve, like currently the craft beer category. A change of habits involves a change of perception towards a product. Therefore, what is changing in the perception of beer? Two studies were conducted to address this question. First study was preliminary and aimed at exploring beer consumption habits in Mexico and a better understanding of craft beer representation among beer users. A questionnaire was administrated to 207 consumers in Mexico City during a beer festival. Results showed that respondents could be classified in: industrial beer (41.1%), occasional industrial (24.1%), and craft beer (34.8%) consumers. Craft cluster included mostly 25-35 years old men with high-income level. Among the craft beers cited by respondents from this cluster some are industrial, suggesting that the concept of craft beer might not be well defined, or defined in ideological terms. The second and main study was conducted using consumer ethnographies to understand the motivations and benefits of craft beer consumption. Opposite to industrial, craft beer emerges as an experience-based and symbolic product rather than a utilitarian one. The main motivation for drinking craft beer seems to be the quest of authenticity. Respondents' motivations to drink craft beer are generated by three important factors: desire for more knowledge, new taste experiences, and move away from the mainstream beer consumption. Craft consumers do not drink the product for its functional attributes, they consume it for what it means and as a consequence they build an identity, perceived as more authentic and unique, in comparison to the mainstream industrial beer consumption in Mexico. PMID:26455311

  5. Radiation processed polysaccharide products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation crosslinking, degradation and grafting techniques for modification of polymeric materials including natural polysaccharides have been providing many unique products. In this communication, typical products from radiation processed polysaccharides particularly plant growth promoter from alginate, plant protector and elicitor from chitosan, super water absorbent containing starch, hydrogel sheet containing carrageenan/CM-chitosan as burn wound dressing, metal ion adsorbent from partially deacetylated chitin were described. The procedures for producing those above products were also outlined. Future development works on radiation processing of polysaccharides were briefly presented. (author)

  6. Characterization of beer flavour stability (EPR - spin trapping)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beer flavour stability is coupled with free radical degradation processes. Probably, aldehydes produced during the brewery but also generated by stalling are responsible for beer flavour as well as for its breaking down. The storing beer at the lower temperatures and in the dark place inhibits, and otherwise the rising temperature and illumination accelerate the rate of such radical processes. Beers contain naturally occurring radical scavengers - antioxidants which inhibit such unwanted reactions. Then depleting of scavengers results in the breaking down of the beer stability. EPR spin trapping technique was used as monitor such processes and for characterising so the flavour stability of beer. The probe was temperated at 60 grad C in the cavity of EPR spectrometer in the presence of spin trapping agent, N-tert.-butyl-α-phenyl nitrone (PBN) and EPR spectra were recorded for few hours. After beer antioxidants become depleted, free radicals formed by the beer degradation are scavenged by PBN spin trap and this point is characterised with a dramatically increased concentration of the free radicals trapped

  7. The impact of hop bitter acid and polyphenol profiles on the perceived bitterness of beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladokun, Olayide; Tarrega, Amparo; James, Sue; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David

    2016-08-15

    Thirty-four commercial lager beers were analysed for their hop bitter acid, phenolic acid and polyphenol contents. Based on analytical data, it was evident that the beers had been produced using a range of different raw materials and hopping practices. Principal Components Analysis was used to select a sub-set of 10 beers that contained diverse concentrations of the analysed bitter compounds. These beers were appraised sensorially to determine the impacts of varying hop acid and polyphenolic profiles on perceived bitterness character. Beers high in polyphenol and hop acid contents were perceived as having 'harsh' and 'progressive' bitterness, whilst beers that had evidently been conventionally hopped were 'sharp' and 'instant' in their bitterness. Beers containing light-stable hop products (tetrahydro-iso-α-acids) were perceived as 'diminishing', 'rounded' and 'acidic' in bitterness. The hopping strategy adopted by brewers impacts on the nature, temporal profile and intensity of bitterness perception in beer. PMID:27006233

  8. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  9. Product and Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian T.; Gani, Rafiqul

    This book covers the area of product and process modelling via a case study approach. It addresses a wide range of modelling applications with emphasis on modelling methodology and the subsequent in-depth analysis of mathematical models to gain insight via structural aspects of the models....... These approaches are put into the context of life cycle modelling, where multiscale and multiform modelling is increasingly prevalent in the 21st century. The book commences with a discussion of modern product and process modelling theory and practice followed by a series of case studies drawn from a variety...... to biotechnology applications, food, polymer and human health application areas. The book highlights to important nature of modern product and process modelling in the decision making processes across the life cycle. As such it provides an important resource for students, researchers and industrial practitioners....

  10. 27 CFR 27.60 - Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of all concerned is directed, in this connection, to the provisions of Regulations 7 (27 CFR part 7... regulations (19 CFR parts 11 and 12). Closures for Containers of Distilled Spirits ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer. 27.60 Section...

  11. Chemical transformations of characteristic hop secondary metabolites in relation to beer properties and the brewing process: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenackers, Bart; De Cooman, Luc; De Vos, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    The annual production of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) exceeds 100,000 mt and is almost exclusively consumed by the brewing industry. The value of hops is attributed to their characteristic secondary metabolites; these metabolites are precursors which are transformed during the brewing process into important bittering, aromatising and preservative components with rather low efficiency. By selectively transforming these components off-line, both their utilisation efficiency and functionality can be significantly improved. Therefore, the chemical transformations of these secondary metabolites will be considered with special attention to recent advances in the field. The considered components are the hop alpha-acids, hop beta-acids and xanthohumol, which are components unique to hops, and alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, sesquiterpenes which are highly characteristic of hops. PMID:25442616

  12. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  13. Music Influences Hedonic and Taste Ratings in Beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Velasco, Carlos; van Ee, Raymond; Leboeuf, Yves; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The research presented here focuses on the influence of background music on the beer-tasting experience. An experiment is reported in which different groups of customers tasted a beer under three different conditions (N = 231). The control group was presented with an unlabeled beer, the second group with a labeled beer, and the third group with a labeled beer together with a customized sonic cue (a short clip from an existing song). In general, the beer-tasting experience was rated as more enjoyable with music than when the tasting was conducted in silence. In particular, those who were familiar with the band that had composed the song, liked the beer more after having tasted it while listening to the song, than those who knew the band, but only saw the label while tasting. These results support the idea that customized sound-tasting experiences can complement the process of developing novel beverage (and presumably also food) events. We suggest that involving musicians and researchers alongside brewers in the process of beer development, offers an interesting model for future development. Finally, we discuss the role of attention in sound-tasting experiences, and the importance that a positive hedonic reaction toward a song can have for the ensuing tasting experience. PMID:27199862

  14. Immobilized cell technology in beer brewing: Current experience and results

    OpenAIRE

    Leskošek-Čukalov Ida J.; Nedović Viktor A.

    2005-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology (ICT) has been attracting continual attention in the brewing industry over the past 30 years. Some of the reasons are: faster fermentation rates and increased volumetric productivity, compared to those of traditional beer production based on freely suspended cells, as well as the possibility of continuous operation. Nowadays, ICT technology is well established in secondary fermentation and alcohol- free and low-alcohol beer production. In main fermentation, the sit...

  15. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I2/H2O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  16. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Andualem

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

  17. The impact of beer type, pizza spiciness and gender on match perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrington, Robert J.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study surveys preferences of participants towards pairing three categories of beer (lager, ale and stout with a non-spicy and spicy pizza. The goals of this study are to determine the level of a ‘just right’ match of pizza style with each beer type, determine any differences by gender, and to explore if spice has an impact on participants’ beer selection and beer preference. Implications of this research apply to restaurateurs’ ability to appropriately cater their beer and pizza offerings in terms of menu design and pro-duct delivery.

  18. PERCEPTIONS OF BEER ADVERTISING AND RISKY DRINKING AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ślaski, Sławomir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The main purpose of the research was to determine whether individuals at risk of drinking are people particularly susceptible to the effects of alcohol and viewing ads can be an incentive for re–consumption of alcohol. Material and method. The study group (40 persons were selected from 30 0 students, who used alcohol in a risky manner, and the control group (40 persons was selected, where alcohol was used with a little risk, or not at all. To assess the subjects selected productbeer (in the form of advertising leaflets, which was recently introduced into the Polish market. The Attitudes Questionnaire to view the Product was used in the study and contained scales: cognitive, emotional and behavioral component. To study perception of advertising the Advertising Scale was applied. To identify groups of people who use alcohol in a risky way, AUDIT Test was used. Results and conclusions. People at risk of drinking, liked beer more than those not at risk of addiction, and more often drink beer, have a more positive attitude towards the advertising of beer in emotional sphere, the above estimate of beer advertising in terms of potency, better evaluate the advertising of beer in terms of positive mood caused by it, and better evaluate beer advertising and its effectiveness in term of impact.

  19. A large set of newly created interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids increases aromatic diversity in lager beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Stijn; Steensels, Jan; Saels, Veerle; De Rouck, Gert; Aerts, Guido; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Lager beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage in the world. Its production process is marked by a fermentation conducted at low (8 to 15°C) temperatures and by the use of Saccharomyces pastorianus, an interspecific hybrid between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the cold-tolerant Saccharomyces eubayanus. Recent whole-genome-sequencing efforts revealed that the currently available lager yeasts belong to one of only two archetypes, "Saaz" and "Frohberg." This limited genetic variation likely reflects that all lager yeasts descend from only two separate interspecific hybridization events, which may also explain the relatively limited aromatic diversity between the available lager beer yeasts compared to, for example, wine and ale beer yeasts. In this study, 31 novel interspecific yeast hybrids were developed, resulting from large-scale robot-assisted selection and breeding between carefully selected strains of S. cerevisiae (six strains) and S. eubayanus (two strains). Interestingly, many of the resulting hybrids showed a broader temperature tolerance than their parental strains and reference S. pastorianus yeasts. Moreover, they combined a high fermentation capacity with a desirable aroma profile in laboratory-scale lager beer fermentations, thereby successfully enriching the currently available lager yeast biodiversity. Pilot-scale trials further confirmed the industrial potential of these hybrids and identified one strain, hybrid H29, which combines a fast fermentation, high attenuation, and the production of a complex, desirable fruity aroma. PMID:26407881

  20. Globalization and taste convergence: The cases of wine and beer

    OpenAIRE

    Aizenman, Joshua; Brooks, Eileen

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates changes in cultural consumption patterns for a low-concentration industry: wine and beer. Using data on 38 countries from 1963-2000, there is clear convergence in the consumption of wine relative to beer between 1963 and 2000. Convergence occurs even more quickly within groups of countries that have a higher degree of integration. A key prediction of international trade is confirmed in the data: greater trade integration weakens the association between production and c...

  1. 27 CFR 25.286 - Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in transit between breweries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tax on beer lost in transit between breweries. 25.286 Section 25.286 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.286 Claims for remission of tax on beer lost in...

  2. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: a rapid tool for assessing beer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C Silva

    2011-02-18

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 °C), using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC-MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achieving a threefold reduction of the chromatographic time. Although losing optimum resolution, rapid GC runs showed similar chromatographic profiles and semi-quantitative ability to characterize volatile compounds. To evaluate the variations on the global volatile signature (chromatographic profile and m/z pattern of fragmentation in each scan) of beer during thermal deterioration, a non-supervised multivariate analysis method, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), was applied to the GC-MS data. This methodology allowed not only the rapid identification of the degree of deterioration affecting beer, but also the identification of specific compounds of relevance to the thermal deterioration process of beer, both well established markers such as 5-hydroxymethylfufural (5-HMF), furfural and diethyl succinate, as well as other compounds, to our knowledge, newly correlated to beer aging. PMID:21227435

  3. Using mass spectrometry to detect hydrolysed gluten in beer that is responsible for false negatives by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2014-11-28

    Gluten is the collective name for a class of proteins found in wheat, rye, barley and oats. Eating gluten triggers an inappropriate auto-immune reaction in ∼70 million people globally affected by coeliac disease, where the gut reacts to gluten proteins and this triggers an immune response, resulting in intestinal inflammation and damage. Gluten-free foods are now commonplace, however, it is difficult to accurately determine the gluten content of products claiming to be gluten-free using current methodologies as the antibodies are non-specific, show cross-reactivity and have different affinities for the different classes of gluten. The measurement of gluten in processed products is further confounded by modifications to the proteins that occur during processing and in some case hydrolysis of the proteins. In this study, LC-MS/MS was used to profile whole beer, and two beer fractions representing hydrolysed hordeins (beer and revealed that certain classes of hordein were prone to hydrolysis (B- and D-hordein). Furthermore, select beers contained very high levels of gluten-derived fragments. Strikingly, those beers that contained high levels of B-hordein fragments gave near zero values by ELISA. The hydrolysed fragments that persist in beer show a dose-dependent suppression of ELISA measurement of gluten despite using a hordein standard for calibration of the assay. The development of MS-based methodology for absolute quantification of gluten is required for the accurate assessment of gluten, including hydrolysed forms, in food and beverages to support the industry, legislation and to protect consumers suffering from CD. PMID:25454134

  4. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consumers who have received better quality product at a lower price. Moreover, changes in consumers’ habits have occurred. This is described by reduction in consumption of hard liquors on behalf of soft alcohols with the major position of beer. Polish beer market is close to satisfying consumers’ demands. Beer consumption per one inhabitant in Poland is close to European mean but its development will not be so dynamic as before. The situation is caused by the risk arising from the law which is not clear. Moreover, increasing fiscal aggravations and costs of production which due to the increase of prices of raw materials are also critical.

  5. Occurrence of (Z)-3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene in Different Types of Beer and Malt Beer as a Result of 3-Deoxyhexosone Interconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Michael; Nobis, Arndt; Witte, Sophia; Henle, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    In beer, 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) and 3-deoxygalactosone (3-DGal) are important sugar degradation products, but little is known about the relevance of the interconversion reaction between these compounds in different types of beer. In the present study, 3-DG was quantitated at concentrations of 12.9-52.7 mg/L and 3-DGal at concentrations of 6.0-26.4 mg/L in different types of beer (pilsner, wheat, bock, dark, and alcohol-free beers). The concentrations in malt beer tended to be higher. Largely overlapping concentration ranges precluded a classification of beers by their 3-deoxyglycosone contents. 3,4-Dideoxyglucoson-3-ene (3,4-DGE) was identified as an important intermediate and quantitated in beer and malt beer for the first time. The E and Z isomers of the corresponding quinoxaline were synthesized by a new synthetic approach and isolated by semipreparative HPLC. An assay was developed for quantitation of (E)- and (Z)-3,4-DGE by HPLC-MS/MS, and the Z isomer was determined at concentrations of 0.3-1.7 mg/L in beer and 0.5-4.8 mg/L in malt beer samples. The E isomer was shown to be of little importance. Concentrations of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were twice as high as those of (Z)-3,4-DGE in beer samples (0.4-3.7 mg/L) but much higher in malt beer samples (1.6-336 mg/L). PMID:26984557

  6. Beers Straight from the Bottle

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, James Peter

    2007-01-01

    Consuming beer straight from the bottle a trend initiated by the US is now an accepted practice throughout Irish bars but that does not necessarily mean it is a good thing from either a hygiene or taste viewpoint.

  7. Craft Beer Marketing. Do You Have to be First, Best, or Unique to Succeed?

    OpenAIRE

    Lahnalampi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with the interplay of marketing and design in the craft brewing industry in Finland. The goal was to figure out what craft brewers do to successfully market their products. The thesis first explains that craft beer is different from generic beer in that it is uncompromising in its ingredients, special flavours, and sole focus on the beer rather than stock prices. Craft breweries use grassroots and guerrilla marketing tactics. They are heavily involved in social media marketi...

  8. How the East Was Won: Supply Chain Restructuring in the Eastern European Beer Market

    OpenAIRE

    van Herck, Kristine; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Deconinck, Koen

    2012-01-01

    Like all markets in the former communist countries, the Eastern European beer market has been strongly affected by the economic reforms in the beginning of the 1990s. In the first years after reforms, there was a substantial decline in the production of barley, malt and beer. However, the brewery sector soon attracted interest from foreign investors, who faced problems in sourcing sufficient high quality malt in order to produce high quality beer. Therefore, they reintroduced vertical coordin...

  9. From Monasteries to Multinationals (and Back): A Historical Review of the Beer Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Poelmans, Eline; Swinnen, Jo

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews beer production, consumption and the industrial organization of breweries throughout history. Monasteries were the centers of the beer economy in the early Middle Ages. Innovation and increased demand later induced the growth of commercial breweries. Globalization and scientific discoveries transfirmed the beer industry and increased competition from the 16th through the 19th century. The 20th century was characterized by dramatic (domestic and international) consolidatio...

  10. 使用路德类酵母生产无醇啤酒%Non-alcoholic Beer Production by Saccharomycodes ludwigii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 李红; 杜金华

    2011-01-01

    研究路德类酵母菌落和细胞形态特征及其利用麦汁中糖的特点,发现其菌落为奶油色,半透明,有光泽,表面光滑,湿润,质软,中间凸起,边缘整齐;细胞为柠檬形,较大,两端出芽生殖。路德类酵母发酵89.9%的果糖和91.9%的葡萄糖,而对于蔗糖的利用率达到100%,但是不发酵麦芽糖和麦芽三糖。将路德类酵母应用于发酵麦汁制得无醇啤酒,并对其产酒精及风味物质的特点予以研究,结果发现:路德类酵母发酵麦汁产酒精量较低,约只相当于同条件下普通啤酒酵母的1/6,当原麦汁浓度低于8°P时,乙醇含量低于0.5%;风味物质的种类与普通啤%In this study,the colonies of Saccharomycodes ludwigii were observed to have a cream-colored,translucent,glossy,humid and smooth surface with middle bulge and regular fringe,and the cells were large and lemon-shaped with budding at both ends.Saccharomycodes ludwigii could ferment 89.9% fructose and 91.9% glucose and its rate of sucrose utilization was 100%,but it could ferment neither maltose nor maltotriose.Saccharomycodes ludwigii was used for producing non-alcoholic beer.We determined the main physicochemical indices and main flavor compounds in final the fermentation broth.The results indicated that Saccharomycodes ludwigii fermented wort produced a lower alcohol content,which was approximately 6 times less than that of common brewer s yeast fermentation under the same conditions.When the original wort concentration was lower than 8 °P,the alcohol content of prepared beer was lower than 0.5%(V/V).The main flavor compounds were identical to those in common beers.Compared with the non-alcoholic beer available in markets,the obtained non-alcoholic beer had fewer esters,no obvious difference in high-grade alcohol and similar taste.

  11. Determination of benzoxazinoids in wheat and rye beers by HPLC-DAD and UPLC-QTOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Kurtelius, Tuula

    2016-08-01

    Phenolic compounds in beer have received considerable interest. Besides the more typical phenolic acids and flavonoids, beer contains also lesser-known compounds, such as hordatines, their agmatine precursors and other phenolamines. Current work shows that beers brewed from wheat or rye malts, in addition to barley malts, contain benzoxazinoids, a group of nitrogen containing secondary metabolites typical to wheat and rye. In this work, HPLC-DAD was used for the quantification of major benzoxazinoids in 32 wheat and four rye beers. Of the wheat beers 22 samples and all of the rye beers contained benzoxazinoids, or their breakdown products. Concentrations of DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) (as aglycon) varied from 1.7 to 21.9mg/l in wheat beers and from 5.6 to 31.6mg/l in rye beers. Breakdown products BOA (benzoxazolin-2-one), found in 15 beers, and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one), found in two beers, were measured at concentrations ranging from 2.4 to 10.7mg/l and 8.4 to 10.5mg/l, respectively. Identification of benzoxazinoids by UPLC-QTOF MS was done on selected beers. Benzoxazinoid profiles varied greatly between different wheat beers, and compared to rye beers the chemical diversity of benzoxazinoids was higher. As far as the authors know, this is the first time that other benzoxazinoids, rather than just the decomposition products BOA or MBOA, have been reported in beer. The results also show that benzoxazinoids can be present in beer glycosylated with three or four hexose units. PMID:26988518

  12. High levels of melatonin generated during the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, H; Calvo, J R; Maldonado, M D

    2013-08-01

    Beer is a beverage consumed worldwide. It is produced from cereals (barley or wheat) and contains a wide array of bioactive phytochemicals and nutraceutical compounds. Specifically, high melatonin concentrations have been found in beer. Beers with high alcohol content are those that present the greatest concentrations of melatonin and vice versa. In this study, gel filtration chromatography and ELISA were combined for melatonin determination. We brewed beer to determine, for the first time, the beer production steps in which melatonin appears. We conclude that the barley, which is malted and ground in the early process, and the yeast, during the second fermentation, are the largest contributors to the enrichment of the beer with melatonin. PMID:23607887

  13. 27 CFR 27.1 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer. 27.1 Section 27.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Scope of Regulations § 27.1 Imported...

  14. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER...

  15. Acrylamide in processed potato products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace amounts of acrylamide are found in many foods cooked at high temperatures. Acrylamide in processed potato products is formed from reducing sugars and asparagine and is a product of the Maillard reaction. Processed potato products including fries and chips are relatively high in acrylamide comp...

  16. Bacteria associated with human saliva are major microbial components of Ecuadorian indigenous beers (chicha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Ana L.; Zapata, Sonia; Mosquera, Juan; Mejia, Maria Lorena

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous beers (chicha) are part of the indigenous culture in Ecuador. The fermentation process of these beers probably relies on microorganisms from fermented substrates, environment and human microbiota. We analyzed the microbiota of artisanal beers (including a type of beer produced after chewing boiled cassava) using bacterial culture and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-based tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Surprisingly, we found that Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans (part of the human oral microbiota) were among the most abundant bacteria in chewed cassava and in non-chewed cassava beers. We also demonstrated that S. salivarius and S. mutans (isolated from these beers) could proliferate in cassava mush. Lactobacillus sp. was predominantly present in most types of Ecuadorian chicha. PMID:27168974

  17. Sensible production processes with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eerola, P.; Annala, T.; Wickstroem, T. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    Small and medium-sized industrial enterprises use electricity increasingly for both heating and production, as electricity offers easy adjustability and has little need for maintenance. In production processes, the advantages of electricity also include uniform quality, automation and cleanness

  18. superoxide dismutase in beer production and its application%超氧化物歧化酶在啤酒生产过程中的研究及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路玉兰

    2011-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a class of enzyme existing in the organisms and has the ability to clear the free radicals. It plays an important role in the beer production. This study analyzes the beer flavor aging factors, and provides some technical solutions to prevent. SOD is an antioxidants which can clear and block the oxygen. The characteristics of SOD in the malt and yeast are discussed. The methods of increasing SOD content in the different fermentation stage of beer are illustrated. Exogenous SOD had significantly impact on increasing the reduction ability of the original malt juice, antioxidants capacity in the fermentation, as well as keep stable of beer flavor. The exogenous SOD resources and the problems are discussed. The prospects of its application in the industry are also proposed.%超氧化物歧化酶普遍存在于生物体内,具有清除氧活性自由基的生物活性,在啤酒生产过程中具有重要的作用.本文对啤酒风味老化因素给予了分析,并对减少啤酒风味的老化提供了一定的技术方案,重点对影响老化的关键因素氧进行了论述,并给与清除和阻断氧的方法,超氧化物歧化酶作为一种抗氧化剂,本文分别对麦芽、酵母中的超氧化物歧化酶的特性进行了分析,并且对啤酒发酵中不同时期提高超氧化物歧化酶的含量的措施给予了探讨,在生产过程中添加外源性超氧化物歧化酶对于提高原麦汁的还原力,发酵液的抗氧化力以及成品啤酒的风味稳定性都有明显的作用,同时,本文就目前外源性超氧化物歧化酶的来源,存在的问题进行了探讨,并对其在工业化生产上的应用前景进行了分析和探讨.

  19. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER) AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Berhanu Andualem; Amare Gessesse

    2013-01-01

    ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were id...

  20. Assessing Process and Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises the ques......The final assessment of a course must reflect its goals, and contents. An important goal of our introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach for the development of computer programs. Having the programming process as learning objective naturally raises...... the question how to include this in assessments. Traditional assessments (e.g. oral, written, or multiple choice) are unsuitable to test the programming process. We describe and evaluate a practical lab examination that assesses the students' programming process as well as the developed programs...

  1. Bioprocess Intensification of Beer Fermentation Using Immobilised Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbelen, Pieter J.; Nedović, Viktor A.; Manojlović, Verica; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Laskošek-Čukalović, Ida; Bugarski, Branko; Willaert, Ronnie

    Beer production with immobilised yeast has been the subject of research for approximately 30 years but has so far found limited application in the brewing industry, due to engineering problems, unrealised cost advantages, microbial contaminations and an unbalanced beer flavor (Linko et al. 1998; Brányik et al. 2005; Willaert and Nedović 2006). The ultimate aim of this research is the production of beer of desired quality within 1-3 days. Traditional beer fermentation systems use freely suspended yeast cells to ferment wort in an unstirred batch reactor. The primary fermentation takes approximately 7 days with a subsequent secondary fermentation (maturation) of several weeks. A batch culture system employing immobilization could benefit from an increased rate of fermentation. However, it appears that in terms of increasing productivity, a continuous fermentation system with immobilization would be the best method (Verbelen et al. 2006). An important issue of the research area is whether beer can be produced by immobilised yeast in continuous culture with the same characteristic as the traditional method.

  2. Continuous immobilized yeast reactor system for complete beer fermentation using spent grains and corncobs as carrier materials

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Silva, Daniel Pereira da; Vicente, A.A.; Lehnert, Radek; Silva, João B. Almeida e; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    Despite extensive research carried out in the last few decades, continuous beer fermentation has not yet managed to outperform the traditional batch technology. An industrial breakthrough in favour of continuous brewing using immobilized yeast could be expected only on achievement of the following process characteristics: simple design, low investment costs, flexible operation, effective process control and good product quality. The application of cheap carrier materials of by-produc...

  3. Comparison of biohydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For hydrogen to be a viable energy carrier, it is important to develop hydrogen generation routes that are renewable like biohydrogen. Hydrogen can be produced biologically by biophotolysis (direct and indirect), photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation or by combination of these processes (such as integration of dark- and photo-fermentation (two-stage process), or biocatalyzed electrolysis, etc.). However, production of hydrogen by these methods at commercial level is not reported in the literature and challenges regarding the process scale up remain. In this scenario net energy analysis (NEA) can provide a tool for establishing the viability of different methods before scaling up. The analysis can also be used to set targets for various process and design parameters for bio-hydrogen production. In this paper, four biohydrogen production processes (dark-fermentation, photo-fermentation, two-stage process and biocatalyzed electrolysis) utilizing sugarcane juice as the carbon source, are compared with base case method steam methane reforming (SMR) on the basis of net energy ratio, energy efficiency and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was found that when by-products are not considered, the efficiencies of biological hydrogen processes are lower than that of SMR. However, these processes reduce GHG emissions and non-renewable energy use by 57-73% and 65-79%, respectively, as compared to the SMR process. Efficiencies of biohydrogen processes increase significantly when by-products are considered hence by-products removal and utilization is an important issue in biological hydrogen production. (author)

  4. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... consumption is not in conflict with the alcohol industry," Rehm said. Joy Dubost is senior director for science and external affairs at the Beer Institute, which represents brewers. "Light beer is the ...

  5. NASA Product Peer Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Ken

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes NASA's product peer review process. The contents include: 1) Inspection/Peer Review at NASA; 2) Reasons for product peer reviews; 3) Different types of peer reviews; and 4) NASA requirements for peer reviews. This presentation also includes a demonstration of an actual product peer review.

  6. Process control of product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, G

    2003-10-01

    This paper describes a method to control output product quality (product variability) by applying engineering or automatic process control (APC) and statistical process control (SPC) techniques. APC techniques have been used to control process variables such as feed rate, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and to product quality variables as well. SPC techniques have also been applied to control product quality. APC and SPC techniques overlap at the interface of the two process control methodologies. It is possible to produce material of desired quality by having an acceptable level of variation in the measured output characteristics. APC aims to maintain certain key process variables as near their set points for as much of the time as possible. There are situations in process control where some form of feedback control is necessary and yet where stability cannot be easily attained in the feedback control loop. Disturbance (noise) afflicts a process, which together with issues of dynamics and dead time (time delay) compounds the process control problem. The process control practitioner faces a challenge while tackling issues of process delay (dead time) and dynamics (inertia). Process control of product variability (control error standard deviation) is possible by developing and simulating a feedback control algorithm for dead-time processes. It is quite common to encounter problems connected with feedback (closed-loop) control stability, controller limitations, and dead-time compensation to obtain minimum variance (mean square error) control at the output. Details of a method to control the quality of a product at output by applying statistical process monitoring and feedback control adjustment are presented in this paper. The focus of this paper is on the issues of process delay ("dead time") and dynamics ("inertia") at the interface between SPC and APC to control output product quality. PMID:14582886

  7. Terminal acidic shock inhibits sour beer bottle conditioning by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cody M; Veatch, Devon; Covey, Adam; Staton, Caleb; Bochman, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    During beer fermentation, the brewer's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae experiences a variety of shifting growth conditions, culminating in a low-oxygen, low-nutrient, high-ethanol, acidic environment. In beers that are bottle conditioned (i.e., carbonated in the bottle by supplying yeast with a small amount of sugar to metabolize into CO2), the S. cerevisiae cells must overcome these stressors to perform the ultimate act in beer production. However, medium shock caused by any of these variables can slow, stall, or even kill the yeast, resulting in production delays and economic losses. Here, we describe a medium shock caused by high lactic acid levels in an American sour beer, which we refer to as "terminal acidic shock". Yeast exposed to this shock failed to bottle condition the beer, though they remained viable. The effects of low pH/high [lactic acid] conditions on the growth of six different brewing strains of S. cerevisiae were characterized, and we developed a method to adapt the yeast to growth in acidic beer, enabling proper bottle conditioning. Our findings will aid in the production of sour-style beers, a trending category in the American craft beer scene. PMID:27052714

  8. Study on the Technology to Produce the Secondary Fermentaton Hullessbarley Beer%二次发酵青稞啤酒工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周韶华; 宋扬; 周广田

    2015-01-01

    二次发酵青稞啤酒以大麦麦芽、小麦麦芽和青稞麦芽为原料,通过上面发酵酵母No.303主发酵和下面发酵酵母No.308后发酵而成,符合优质淡色啤酒国家标准且具有怡人的特征香气。本生产工艺的研究为二次发酵青稞啤酒的开发提供了可行的工艺参数。%The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer was brewed with malt, wheat malt, hullessbarley malt as the main raw material, through lord fermentation by top-fermentation yeast and secondary fermentation by bottom-fermentation yeast. The secondary fermentaton hullessbarley beer meets the national standards of ale beer, and has a pleasant flavor. This research on brewing process of the secondery fermentaton hullessbarley beer provides the best way to produce this kind of beer product.

  9. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  10. Transcriptome Sequence and Plasmid Copy Number Analysis of the Brewery Isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T during Growth in Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa Pittet; Phister, Trevor G.; Barry Ziola

    2013-01-01

    Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients); however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pe...

  11. Identification and in vitro reactivity of celiac immunoactive peptides in an apparent gluten-free beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Real

    Full Text Available Gluten content from barley, rye, wheat and in certain oat varieties, must be avoid in individuals with celiac disease. In most of the Western countries, the level of gluten content in food to be considered as gluten-free products is below 20 parts per million measured by ELISA based on specific anti-gluten peptide antibody. However, in beverages or food suffering complex hydrolytic processes as beers, the relative proportion of reactive peptides for celiac patients and the analytical techniques may differ, because of the diversity of the resulting peptide populations after fermentations. A beer below 20 parts per million of gluten but yet detectable levels of gluten peptides by anti-gliadin 33-mer antibodies (G12 and A1 was analyzed. We identified and characterized the relevant peptides for either antibody recognition or immunoactivity in celiac patients. The beer was fractionated by HPLC. The relative reactivity of the different HPLC fractions to the G12/A1 antibodies correlated to the reactivity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from 14 celiac individuals. Peptides from representative fractions classified according to the relative reactivity to G12/A1 antibodies were identified by mass spectrometry. The beer peptides containing sequences with similarity to those of previously described G12 and A1 epitopes were synthesized and confirmed significant reactivity for the antibodies. The most reactive peptides for G12/A1 also confirmed the highest immunogenicity by peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation and interferon γ production from celiac patients. We concluded that preparative HPLC combined with anti-gliadin 33-mer G12/A1 antibodies were very sensitive and specific methods to analyze the relevant immunogenic peptides in hydrolyzed gluten.

  12. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  13. Physical Factors Influencing Beer Overfoaming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Vitoušová, K.; Poštulková, Michaela; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek

    Vol. Session 1. - : -, 2013, T2:P26. ISBN N. [Conference of European Colloid and Interface Society /27./. Sofia (BG), 01.09.2013-06.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : beer * gushing * physical factors Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.ecis2013.org/

  14. Some factors affecting beer quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sigler, Karel; Pichová, Alena; Matoulková, D.; Gabriel, P.

    Bratislava : Bratislava: SAS, 2011. s. 38-38. ISSN 1336-4839. [Annual Conference on Yeasts /39./. 03.05.2011-06.05.2011, Smolenice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : beer * yeast Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Beer multinationals supporting Africa's development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); H. Kwakkenbos (Herma)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper addresses the question how partnerships include smallholders into sorghum-beer supply chains. Introduction Restrictions on the import of barley malt by the Nigerian government in the 1980s have facilitated an import substitution strategy that is now widely adopted by

  16. Hydrogen production processes from biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Global warming, climate change and energy security have been gaining more attention worldwide. Hydrogen production from biomass offers an effective solution leaving minimal environmental footprint. This thesis identifies and reviews the most potential bio-hydrogen production pathways, identifies and designs the most promising process, and then conducts a rough feasibility study to check its economic potential for commercial production after simulation (experimental part). Finally, it also tes...

  17. Products and Processes: Synergistic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Virginia; Husid, Whitney

    2013-01-01

    Most people agree that products are the culmination of what students have studied. For this article, "product" will refer to students' abilities to create outcomes and design artifacts. Those abilities are guided by four processes: inquiry-based learning, use of a research model, use of Web 2.0 tools, and appropriate assessments.…

  18. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers. PMID:27542484

  19. Ant colony system algorithm for the optimization of beer fermentation control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖杰; 周泽魁; 张光新

    2004-01-01

    Beer fermentation is a dynamic process that must be guided along a temperature profile to obtain the desired results. Ant colony system algorithm was applied to optimize the kinetic model of this process. During a fixed period of fermentation time, a series of different temperature profiles of the mixture were constructed. An optimal one was chosen at last. Optimal temperature profile maximized the final ethanol production and minimized the byproducts concentration and spoilage risk. The satisfactory results obtained did not require much computation effort.

  20. Fluorescence studies of beer protein uptake by silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, Kathleen; Birch, David J. S.; Leiper, Kenneth; McKeown, Ian P.

    2001-05-01

    Fluorescence has been investigated with respect to new methods for monitoring protein uptake by silica, with particular attention being given to haze forming proteins and foam proteins present in beer. These are of particular interest to the brewing industry as an important aspect of the brewing process is the prevention of chill haze formation. This is necessary in order to maintain the clarity of the beer and to extend the shelf life. Chill haze, which is a result of the interaction of certain proteins with some polyphenols, can be prevented by the removal of one or both of these constituents.

  1. About the Bidimensional Beer-Lambert Law

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    In acoustics, ultrasonics and in electromagnetic wave propagation, the crossed medium can be often modelled by a linear invariant filter (LIF) which acts on a wide-sense stationary process. Its complex gain follows the Beer-Lambert law i.e is in the form exp [-\\alphaz] where z is the thickness of the medium and \\alpha depends on the frequency and on the medium properties. This paper addresses a generalization for electromagnetic waves when the beam polarization has to be taken into account. In this case, we have to study the evolution of both components of the electric field (assumed orthogonal to the trajectory). We assume that each component at z is a linear function of both components at 0. New results are obtained modelling each piece of medium by four LIF. They lead to a great choice of possibilities in the medium modelling. Particular cases can be deduced from works of R. C. Jones on deterministic monochromatic light. keywords: linear filtering, polarization, Beer-Lambert law, random processes.

  2. Novel Apparatus for the Study of Gushing in Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poštulková, Michaela

    Prague : Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the ASCR, v. v. i, 2014 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 36 ISBN 978-80-86186-61-0. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2014. Prague (CZ), 19.06.2014] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : gushing * foams * beer Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  3. Mechanisms of multiple production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical approaches to multiple production processes are discussed. A large number of models proceeds from the notion about common excited system produced by colliding hadrons. This class of models includes the hydrodynamical, statistical, thermodynamical and statistical bootstrap models. Sometimes the production process is due to excitation and decay of two colliding particles. The fragmentation bremsstrahlung and inelastic diffraction models belong to this group. The largest group of models describes the multiple production process as a result of formation of many excited centers. The typical example is the multiperipheral model. An interesting direction is given by the attempts to interrelate the mechanism of multiple production with internal structure of particles that is with their constituents (C-group)'-quarks, gluons, etc. Besides the models there are phenomenological (p group) attempts to connect different features of multiple production. Experimental data indicate the existence of leading and pionization particles thus giving an evidence for applications of different models. The data about increase of total and inclusive cross sections, the behaviour of the mean multiplicity and correlations at high energies provide a clue for further development of multiple production theory

  4. Radioimmunoassays of papain in beer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) of papain is described which is capable of detecting 0.2 μg of papain/ml in beer, a level approximately 1% of that normally used for chillproofing. Changes in incubation conditions significantly accelerate the papain determination with only slight loss of accuracy. Apart from the high sensitivity it has been shown that the method is highly specific and distinguishes papain from the other chillproofing enzymes used. (author)

  5. Beer as a Teaching Aid in the Classroom and Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolija, Jasminka N.; Plavsic, Jovica V.; Marinkovic, Dragan; Mandic, Ljuba M.

    2012-01-01

    Beer was chosen as a teaching tool to maximize students' class participation and systemize and enhance their knowledge of chemistry. Viewing beer as a complex mixture allowed the students to learn how to directly apply their chemistry knowledge. Before the "Beer Unit" students were instructed to research beer and acquire data on beer composition…

  6. A Rare Etiology of Hyponatremia: Beer Potomania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan SARGIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrolyte abnormalities can be observed in chronic alcoholic patients. Hyponatremia is one of them. Beer potomania is an unusual cause of hyponatremia and was first described by Gwinup et all. in 1972. Patients usually have a history of binge beer drinking and poor solute intake. We present here a 48-year-old male patient who had hyponatremia secondary to binge beer drinking.

  7. Brewing the Recipe for Beer Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Calvo Porral; Normand Bourgault; Domingo Calvo Dopico

    2013-01-01

    This research study aims to analyze the sources and consequences of beverages’ Brand Equity, and more specifically, the beer Brand Equity in a Sothern European mature market. For this purpose, based on the customer-based Aaker’s Brand Equity model, we developed an empirical study, using structural equation modeling (SEM) in order to assess how beer Brand Equity stems from in the brewery industry and to analyze its consequences in consumer behavior. Our findings suggest that the beer brand ima...

  8. Continuous fermentation of alcohol-free beer : bioreactor hydrodynamics and yeast physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Mota, André

    2012-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Biological and Chemical Engineering In this study, the continuous product ion with immobilized cells of beer without alcohol was investigated. Apart from the evaluation of the various parameters affecting the quality of the continuous product ion of alcohol- free beer, a detailed study on the hydrodynamics of three phase bioreactors was also done. One of the major costs associated with continuous fermentations is the carrier cost where the yeast is immobilized. T...

  9. Creating a beer degustation for restaurant "Talli". Marketing promotion.

    OpenAIRE

    Shamanina, Elizaveta

    2013-01-01

    Restaurant business nowadays is not only catering establishment, with the function of food service. It includes the function of nutrition, education, leisure, media and competent marketing policy. Creating a new product for working business place is responsible and interesting work. It needs deep and wide range of knowledge, professional skills and willingness to actively work. The aim of the thesis is to submit to the customer new kind of productbeer degustation. Explain in details ...

  10. Consumers' perception of novel beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide

    to many consumers. After a decade of growth, the Danish craft brewing segment is rapidly reaching maturity, and a higher degree of consumer orientation seems to be needed for continuing success. The aim of this PhD project was to investigate some of the key aspects of consumers’ perception of novel beers...... industry. More generally, this work makes a number of original contributions to our understanding of determinants of consumers’ perception of novel food and beverages, as well as methodological advances in the use of consumers as subjects in sensory and consumer research....

  11. Potential of lees from wine, beer and cider manufacturing as a source of economic nutrients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bibbins, B; Torrado-Agrasar, A; Salgado, J M; Oliveira, R Pinheiro de Souza; Domínguez, J M

    2015-06-01

    Lees are the wastes generated during the fermentation and aging processes of different industrial activities concerning alcoholic drinks such as wine, cider and beer. They must be conveniently treated to avoid uncontrolled dumping which causes environmental problems due to their high content of phenols, pesticides, heavy metals, and considerable concentrations of nitrogen, phosphate and potassium as well as high organic content. The companies involved must seek alternative environmental and economic physicochemical and biological treatments for their revalorization consisting in the recovery or transformation of the components of the lees into high value-added compounds. After describing the composition of lees and market of wine, beer and cider industries in Spain, this work aims to review the recent applications of wine, beer and cider lees reported in literature, with special attention to the use of lees as an endless sustainable source of nutrients and the production of yeast extract by autolysis or cell disruption. Lees and/or yeast extract can be used as nutritional supplements with potential exploitation in the biotechnological industry for the production of natural compounds such as xylitol, organic acids, and biosurfactants, among others. PMID:25824282

  12. Product-oriented intensive heating process design

    OpenAIRE

    Broeze, J.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Berg, van den, S.J.P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Control of product quality and process yields in innovative food production processes can be largely improved through better understanding of the relations between process design and product quality.The effects of intensive heating processes such as frying, baking, roasting and microwave on product quality are still poorly understood. Currently, when designing new food processing lines, empirical knowledge of the effects of various process types on product quality is leading.With upcoming `ne...

  13. Hydrogen production processes: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe, does not occur freely on our planet. However, it is predominantly present on earth in combination with oxygen as water and with carbon and other elements as fossil fuels, hydrocarbons, and biomass. Production of hydrogen from these sources is an energy intensive process. Hydrogen production processes can be broadly classified into three general categories: thermal, electrolytic, and photolytic. At present about 96 % of world's hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels using thermal processes like steam methane reforming, partial oxidation, and gasification of coal or biomass while remaining comes from electrolysis of water. Most of the hydrogen produced is primarily used in the chemical industry. More recently hydrogen is perceived as a clean, renewable energy carrier for sustainable energy supply in the future especially when issues like growing concern about global warming due to emission of green house gases and depletion of fossil fuel resources have become paramount. In association with the fuel cell technology, hydrogen appears to be a promising alternative to the fossil fuels for transport applications

  14. The positions of men and women to the advertising of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Bosáková, Júlia

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis work is to determine what position interested men and women of various ages and educational attainment to the advertising of beer. What advertising appeals and most responsive to the building negative. What position are interested to advertising for beer in terms that include the advertising of alcoholic products, and it plays a big role in the aspect of advertising purchase decisions. On the basis of marketing research companies and its own research, which was transfer...

  15. Finding the "bio" in biobased products: electrophoretic identification of wheat proteins in processed products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, George H; Hurkman, William J; Cao, Trung K; Tanaka, Charlene K; Orts, William J

    2010-04-14

    Verification of the biocontent in biobased or "green" products identifies genuine products, exposes counterfeit copies, supports or refutes content claims, and ensures consumer confidence. When the biocontent includes protein, elemental nitrogen analysis is insufficient for verification since non-protein, but nitrogen-rich, content also may be present. However, the proteins can be extracted, separated by electrophoretic methods, and detected by UV absorption, protein stain, or immunoblotting. We utilized capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) to separate proteins in a gliadin fraction that had been dissolved in aqueous ethanol (70%) and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to separate proteins in a gliadin-plus-glutenin fraction that had been dissolved in water containing both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT). We sought to verify the presence of these wheat grain proteins in wheat bread, a wheat flake cereal, wheat beer, and an enclosure for an antique automobile ignition coil reputed to contain wheat gluten. Proteins extracted from commercial wheat, corn, and soy flours served as standards, and proteins from heat-altered wheat served as process condition references. This approach successfully identified wheat proteins in these products especially if the process temperature did not exceed 120 degrees C. Above this temperature attenuation was nearly complete for proteins analyzed by CZE, but wheat-like patterns could still be recognized by one- and two-dimensional PAGE. Immunoblots reacted with grain-specific antibodies confirmed the identities of the cereal component especially when the protein pattern was greatly altered by thermal modification, specific protein adsorption, or protein digestion. In addition to verifying that wheat proteins are present, the complementary use of these methods can reveal whether whole wheat gluten or merely an alcohol-soluble fraction had been used in the specific product and indicate the

  16. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The ...

  17. Mycotoxins in South African traditionally brewed beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, B; Naicker, V

    2002-01-01

    Traditionally brewed alcoholic beverages are regularly consumed by most ethnic black South Africans. Maize and barley, both of which are used for producing locally brewed alcoholic beer, are frequently contaminated by mycotoxin-producing moulds. The study was undertaken to investigate whether these toxins are present in raw grains and the traditional beers imbibed by the local black African population. It was established that the raw ingredients (sorghum, sorghum malt grains, maize grits), commercially produced traditional beers (Utshwala and Utshwala special) and home-brewed beers (Umqombotha, Isiqatha, Imfulamfula) were contaminated by bacteria and fungi (both yeasts and moulds). The contaminating moulds were isolated and identified. The contaminated samples were analysed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, zearalenone, citrinin, deoxynivalenol, and ochratoxin A using a multi-mycotoxin thin-layer chromatography screening method and the toxins were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Grain samples were infected by. Aspergillus flavus, A. alliaceus, A. clavatus, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Mucor spp. Sorghum malt grain samples contained the toxin zear alenone. No mycotoxin-producing fungi were present in the fermented beers but two of six commercial beer samples contained aflatoxins (200 and 400 microg l(-1) and 45% (13 of 29) of the home-brewed beers had zear alenone (range 2.6-426 microg l(-1) and/or ochratoxin A (3-2340 microg l(-1). PMID:11811766

  18. Evolutionary optimization of production materials workflow processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert, Luke Thomas; Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Jacobsen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    We present an evolutionary optimisation technique for stochastic production processes, which is able to find improved production materials workflow processes with respect to arbitrary combinations of numerical quantities associated with the production process. Working from a core fragment of the ...... where a baked goods company seeks to improve production time while simultaneously minimising the cost and use of resources....

  19. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E; Muzatko, Danielle S; White, James F; Zacher, Alan H

    2015-04-21

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  20. Chemical production processes and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Johnathan E.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; White, James F.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2014-06-17

    Hydrogenolysis systems are provided that can include a reactor housing an Ru-comprising hydrogenolysis catalyst and wherein the contents of the reactor is maintained at a neutral or acidic pH. Reactant reservoirs within the system can include a polyhydric alcohol compound and a base, wherein a weight ratio of the base to the compound is less than 0.05. Systems also include the product reservoir comprising a hydrogenolyzed polyhydric alcohol compound and salts of organic acids, and wherein the moles of base are substantially equivalent to the moles of salts or organic acids. Processes are provided that can include an Ru-comprising catalyst within a mixture having a neutral or acidic pH. A weight ratio of the base to the compound can be between 0.01 and 0.05 during exposing.

  1. Detection and Quantification of Gluten during the Brewing and Fermentation of Beer Using Antibody-Based Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rakhi; Zoerb, Hans F; Cho, Chung Y; Jackson, Lauren S; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-06-01

    In 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defined the term ''gluten-free'' and identified a gap in the analytical methodology for detection and quantification of gluten in foods subjected to fermentation and hydrolysis. To ascertain the ability of current enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to detect and quantify gluten in fermented and hydrolyzed products, sorghum beer was spiked in the initial phases of production with 0, 20, and 200 μg/ml wheat gluten, and samples were collected throughout the beer production process. The samples were analyzed using five sandwich ELISAs and two competitive ELISAs and by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western analysis employing four antibodies (MIoBS, R5, G12, and Skerritt). The sensitivity of the MIoBS ELISA (0.25 ppm) enabled the reliable detection of gluten throughout the manufacturing process, including fermentation, when the initial concentration of 20 μg/ml dropped to 2 μg/ml. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based sandwich ELISAs were unable to reliably detect gluten, initially at 20 μg/ml, after the onset of production. The Skerritt antibody-based sandwich ELISA overestimated the gluten concentration in all samples. The R5 antibody-based and G12 antibody-based competitive ELISAs were less sensitive than the sandwich ELISAs and did not provide accurate results for quantifying gluten concentration. The Western analyses were able to detect gluten at less than 5 μg/ml in the samples and confirmed the results of the ELISAs. Although further research is necessary before all problems associated with detection and quantification of hydrolyzed and fermented gluten are resolved, the analytical methods recommended by the FDA for regulatory samples can detect ≥ 20 μg/ml gluten that has undergone brewing and fermentation processes associated with the manufacture of beer. PMID:26038908

  2. The Phenomenon of Czech Beer: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olšovská, J.; Čejka, P.; Sigler, Karel; Hönigová, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2014), s. 309-319. ISSN 1212-1800 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Czech beer * chemical profile * sensorial profile Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.675, year: 2014

  3. Case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomoko; Yagami, Akiko; Shimojo, Naoshi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Nakamura, Masashi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2016-06-01

    We report here a case of immediate hypersensitivity to beer, in which a female patient developed angioedema of the eyelids shortly after consuming beer. In skin prick tests, the patient showed positive reactions to the base ingredients of beer, particularly malt and barley. The specific serum immunoglobulin E antibodies against barley and malt displayed weakly positive reactivity. To identify the immunoreactive antigens, malt and barley proteins were separated by 2-D polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoreacted with the patient's serum. The results of mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main antigen was a protein with similarity to protein z-type serpin. Notably, the identified antigen had a molecular weight of 20-25 kDa, which is markedly smaller than that previously reported for protein Z4 (44 kDa). Taken together, these analyses indicate that a possible new antigen which belongs to the protein Z family elicits immediate hypersensitivity to beer. PMID:26661797

  4. Beer spoilage bacteria and hop resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Konings, WN

    2003-01-01

    For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Mega

  5. Image Analysis Of Beer Foam Collapse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Martin; Novák, Pavel; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava : Slovak University of Technology, 2010 - (Markoš, J.), s. 139 ISBN 978-80-227-3290-1. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /37./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 24.05.2010-28.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD104/08/H055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer * physical-chemical properties * beer foam Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  6. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  7. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  8. Proteomics, peptidomics, and immunogenic potential of wheat beer (Weissbier).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Mamone, Gianfranco; Cutignano, Adele; Fontana, Angelo; Zurlo, Lucia; Addeo, Francesco; Ferranti, Pasquale

    2015-04-01

    Wheat beer is a traditional light-colored top-fermenting beer brewed with at least 50% malted (e.g., German Weissbier) or unmalted (e.g., Belgian Witbier) wheat (Triticum aestivum) as an adjunct to barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt. For the first time, we explored the proteome of three Weissbier samples, using both 2D electrophoresis (2DE)-based and 2DE-free strategies. Overall, 58 different gene products arising from barley, wheat, and yeast (Saccharomyces spp.) were identified in the protein fraction of a representative Weissbier sample analyzed in detail. Analogous to all-barley-malt beers (BMB), barley and wheat Z-type serpins and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins dominated the proteome of Weissbier. Several α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors also survived the harsh brewing conditions. During brewing, hundreds of peptides are released into beer. By liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS) analysis, we characterized 167 peptides belonging to 44 proteins, including gliadins, hordeins, and high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits. Because of the interference from the overabundant yeast-derived peptides, we identified only a limited number of epitopes potentially triggering celiac disease. However, Weissbier samples contained 374, 372, and 382 ppm gliadin-equivalent peptides, as determined with the competitive G12 ELISA, which is roughly 10-fold higher than a lager BMB (41 ppm), thereby confirming that Weissbier is unsuited for celiacs. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Weissbier also contained large-sized prolamins immunoresponsive to antigliadin IgA antibodies from the pooled sera of celiac patients (n = 4). PMID:25793656

  9. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment. PMID:26857464

  10. PRODUKSI PEPTON DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI BIR DENGAN PAPAIN UNTUK MEDIUM PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI [Production Of Peptone From Waste Beer Industry Using Papain for Bacterial Growth Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman; Dedi Fardiaz; Tami Idiyanti3)

    2004-01-01

    peptone. Papain with activity of 691.5 units based on casein substrat was used in this experiment. Results showed that optimum conditions for hydrolysis processes were as follows : substrate concentration 3.2%, papain concentration 0.4%, temperature 60-70OC, pH 6.0, hydrolysis time 5 hours. With 5 liter fermentation jar as much as 3.8 liter of hydrolyzate could be produced with 19.23% of peptone. The resulting peptone had the following characteristics : solubility 90.7%, N-amino 3.25%, N-tota...

  11. Frogs Sell Beer: The Effects of Beer Advertisements on Adolescent Drinking Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Douglas A.; Walsh, David A.; Bloomgren, Barry W., Jr.; Atti, Jule A.; Norman, Jessica A.

    This present research reveals how beer advertising affects adolescents' knowledge of beer brands, drinking attitudes, and drinking behaviors. In addition to traditional psychological approaches for measuring media effects on alcohol-related behaviors and attitudes, market research advertising tracking methods were included to permit a clearer and…

  12. Functional or emotional? How Dutch and Portuguese conceptualise beer, wine and non-alcoholic beer consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Ana Patricia; Jager, Gerry; Bommel, van Roelien; Zyl, van Hannelize; Voss, Hans Peter; Hogg, Tim; Pintado, Manuela; Graaf, de Cees

    2015-01-01

    Non-alcoholic beer (NAB) may be a healthier alternative to wine and beer consumption, however has little appeal to consumers. Conceptualisations, i.e. functional and emotional associations that consumers have with foods/beverages, were explored to understand how NAB consumption is perceived, and

  13. Developing engineering processes through integrated modelling of product and process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe Bjerrum; Hvam, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This article aims at developing an operational tool for integrated modelling of product assortments and engineering processes in companies making customer specific products. Integrating a product model in the design of engineering processes will provide a deeper understanding of the engineering...... activities as well as insight into how product features affect the engineering processes. The article suggests possible ways of integrating models of products with models of engineering processes. The models have been tested and further developed in an action research study carried out in collaboration with...... a major international engineering company....

  14. Bread, beer and wine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae diversity reflects human history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Merdinoglu, Didier; Cornuet, Jean-Marie; Karst, Francis

    2007-05-01

    Fermented beverages and foods have played a significant role in most societies worldwide for millennia. To better understand how the yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main fermenting agent, evolved along this historical and expansion process, we analysed the genetic diversity among 651 strains from 56 different geographical origins, worldwide. Their genotyping at 12 microsatellite loci revealed 575 distinct genotypes organized in subgroups of yeast types, i.e. bread, beer, wine, sake. Some of these groups presented unexpected relatedness: Bread strains displayed a combination of alleles intermediate between beer and wine strains, and strains used for rice wine and sake were most closely related to beer and bread strains. However, up to 28% of genetic diversity between these technological groups was associated with geographical differences which suggests local domestications. Focusing on wine yeasts, a group of Lebanese strains were basal in an F(ST) tree, suggesting a Mesopotamia-based origin of most wine strains. In Europe, migration of wine strains occurred through the Danube Valley, and around the Mediterranean Sea. An approximate Bayesian computation approach suggested a postglacial divergence (most probable period 10,000-12,000 bp). As our results suggest intimate association between man and wine yeast across centuries, we hypothesize that yeast followed man and vine migrations as a commensal member of grapevine flora. PMID:17498234

  15. PRODUKSI PEPTON DARI LIMBAH INDUSTRI BIR DENGAN PAPAIN UNTUK MEDIUM PERTUMBUHAN BAKTERI [Production Of Peptone From Waste Beer Industry Using Papain for Bacterial Growth Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman1

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available peptone. Papain with activity of 691.5 units based on casein substrat was used in this experiment. Results showed that optimum conditions for hydrolysis processes were as follows : substrate concentration 3.2%, papain concentration 0.4%, temperature 60-70OC, pH 6.0, hydrolysis time 5 hours. With 5 liter fermentation jar as much as 3.8 liter of hydrolyzate could be produced with 19.23% of peptone. The resulting peptone had the following characteristics : solubility 90.7%, N-amino 3.25%, N-total 11.23%, protein 70.19%, water 5.5% and ash 7.9%. This peptone gave the same effectivity for bacterial growth as that fron commercial Bacto peptone and Yeast extract to support the bacterial growth

  16. The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Ing. Juraj Válek

    2015-01-01

    The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is ...

  17. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.J.; Benbernou, M.; Lantier, F. (Nantes Univ., 44 (France))

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process.

  18. Application of site-specific natural isotope fractionation (SNIF-NMR) of hydrogen to the characterization of European beers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than one hundred samples of European beers have been investigated by the new SNIF-NMR method which is based on 2H NMR at the natural abundance level and enables site-specific natural isotope fractionation factors in ethanol to be determined. The relative (R) and absolute (D/H)sub(i) parameters are shown to be characteristic of the country where the beers are brewed and the observed variations are explained in terms of cereal composition, water resource, and manufacturing processing (fermentation, yeast, temperature cycle). These new parameters find analytical and mechanistic applications in the identification of a beer and in the investigation of a fermentation process. (author)

  19. Optimizing the order processing of customized products using product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Bonev, Martin; Denkena, B.; Schürmeyer, J.; Dengler, B.

    2011-01-01

    Management Engineering and Operations Management of the Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with the Institute of Production Engineering and Machine Tools of the Leibniz Universität Hannover. Thereby, a product configuration system has been modelled for a manufacturer of mass customized products......For the better part of the 20th century many large companies have been focussed on optimizing their mass production process as a way of maximizing their profits. Nowadays, in the existing environment of global competitiveness, enhancing the production process remains a significant issue as well....... Product configuration based on integrated modular product structure and product family architecture has been recognized as an effective means for implementing mass customization. In order to evaluate the effects of product configuration on order processing, a study has been conducted by the Department of...

  20. Processing Contaminants in Food Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Fromberg, Arvid;

    Contaminants like acrylamide, furan or PAHs (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) as e.g. Benz(a)pyrene may be formed during food processing. All of the substances are genotoxic carcinogens, and for that reason mitigation strategies to reduce the levels are needed. Examples of the formation of the processing...... contaminants and factors that influence the occurrence are given as well as suggestions for mitigation....

  1. Scouring Process of Natural Color Cotton Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei

    2002-01-01

    In order to improve the absorbency of color cotton products, alkali and pectase scouring processes under different conditions were tested, by comparing the actual results of two different scouring processes. It was considered that the pectase scouring process more suits color cotton products.

  2. Diagnostic Process of Company Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Tokarˇcíková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an actual topic of how key factors of enterprise diagnostics can help to increase company productivity. Recognition and use of relevant internal and external information in this field determines the success of the enterprise. Application of the general diagnostic model of company productivity to the net income has been a frequent problem of company practice. This problem is of profit showing, which is an inevitable precondition for long-term company development and growth. Diagnostic access of company productivity allows recognition of specific problems in greater detail, which results from the activity of each company. This article also presents an introduction to the researched area of enterprise diagnostics, which opens opportunities for other publishing activities and can lead to information exchange.

  3. PRODUCTION CYCLES REENGINEERING ON SMALL PROCESSING ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    РЕЗЕР А.В.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents problems of production cycles reengineering on small processing enterprises and, also, the most common issues which appear in production reengineering on this type of enterprises due to present economic condition in Russian Federation.

  4. Firms' age, process innovation and productivity growth

    OpenAIRE

    Huergo, Elena; Jaumandreu, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks directly at the impact of firms' age and (process) innovations on productivity growth. A model that specifies productivity growth as an unknown function of these variables is devised and estimated using semiparametric methods. Results show that firms enter the market experiencing high productivity growth and that above-average growth rates tend to last for many years, but also that productivity growth of surviving firms converges. Process innovations at some point then lead t...

  5. Do process innovations boost SMEs productivity growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Máñez Castillejo; Amparo Sanchis Llopis; Sanchis Llopis, Juan A.; María Engracia. Rochina Barrachina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we explore in depth the effect of process innovations on total factor productivity growth for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), taking into account the potential endogeneity problem that may be caused by self selection into these activities. First, we analyse whether the ex-ante most productive SMEs are those that start introducing process innovations; then, we test whether process innovations boost SMEs productivity growth using matching techniques to control for the possibi...

  6. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related...... activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study....

  7. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2002-01-01

    found using a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...

  8. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    found using a search engine, and through hyperlinks can relevant materials and processes be explored. Realising that designers are very sensitive to user interfaces do all descriptions of materials, processes and products include graphical descriptions, i.e. pictures or computer graphics.......The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...

  9. Improving the quotation process with product configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Christensen, Simon Pape

    2006-01-01

    How can product configuration support the process of engineering highly complex industrial products? This article describes how an IT-based product configuration system was developed to support the process of mak-ing budget quotations. The article is based on a research project carried out...... as collaboration between the Centre for Product Modelling at the Technical University of Denmark and a Danish cement plant manufacturer. A pro-cedure for building product models developed by the Centre for Product Modelling was tested empirically at the company during the project. The system was developed from...

  10. Curricular Mapping: Process and Product

    OpenAIRE

    Kelley, Katherine A.; McAuley, James W.; Wallace, Lane J.; Frank, Sylvan G.

    2008-01-01

    Curricular maps can be used to link ability-based outcomes (ABOs) and content to courses in PharmD curricula as one component of an overall assessment plan. Curricular maps can also be used to meet some of the requirements delineated by Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education, Standards 2007. Five steps can be followed to help ensure the successful production of a curricular map that both meets accreditation requirements and helps to inform curricular improvements. A case study is presen...

  11. Becoming a beer expert: is simple exposure with feedback sufficient to learn beer categories?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre-Desmas, Maud; Chollet, Sylvie; Abdi, Hervé; Valentin, Dominique

    2015-10-01

    Category learning is an important aspect of expertise development which had been little studied in the chemosensory field. The wine literature suggests that through repeated exposure to wines, sensory information is stored by experts as prototypes. The goal of this study was to further explore this issue using beers. We tested the ability of beer consumers to correctly categorize beers from two different categories (top- and bottom-fermented beers) before and after repeated exposure with feedback to beers from these categories. We found that participants learned to identify the category membership of beers to which they have been exposed but were unable to generalize their learning to other beers. A retrospective verbal protocol questionnaire administrated at the end of the experiment indicates that contrary to what was suggested in the wine literature, prototype extraction is probably not the only mechanism implicated in category learning of foods and beverages. Exemplar-similarity and feature-frequency models might provide a better account of the course of learning of the categorization task studied. PMID:26355240

  12. Beer constituents as potential cancer chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhäuser, Clarissa

    2005-09-01

    Beer is a complex alcoholic beverage made from barley (malt), hop, water and yeast. Phenolic constituents of beer are derived from malt (70-80%) and hop (20-30%). Structural classes include simple phenols, benzoic- and cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarins, catechins, di-, tri- and oligomeric proanthocyanidins, (prenylated) chalcones and flavonoids as well as alpha- and iso-alpha-acids derived from hop. Compounds belonging to different structural classes have distinct profiles of biological activity in in vitro test systems, and in combination might lead to enhanced effects. Scientific evidence has accumulated over the past 10 years pointing to the cancer preventive potential of selected hop-derived beer constituents, i.e., prenylflavonoids including xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol, and hop bitter acids. Chemopreventive activities observed with these compounds relevant to inhibition of carcinogenesis at the initiation, promotion and progression phases, as well as results from in vivo studies on metabolism, bioavailability and efficacy are summarised in this review. PMID:15953717

  13. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. 31.75 Section 31.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in...

  14. 27 CFR 31.152 - Requirements as to wines and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements as to wines and beer. 31.152 Section 31.152 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports §...

  15. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS ON THE BEER MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jąder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research conducted in November among 220 students at the University of Life Sciences in Poznań. The aim was study the preferences and buying behaviour of students on the beer market. It shows the place of beer among other alcohols, frequency and place of consumption, as well the place of beer shopping and the criteria of beer purchase. The most popular brands and tastes of beer were researched. Otherwise was analysed preference for beer packaging and promotion effects on students. It was found that beer is the most often chosen alcohol among this group of consumers, and vast majority of them consume it at least once a week. Students often drink beer at home or at friends, and favourite brands are: Lech, Redd’s, Desperados and Żubr.

  16. Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enr...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Applying the 2003 Beers Update to Elderly Medicare Enrollees in the Part D Program Inappropriate prescribing of certain medications known as Beers drugs may be...

  17. Generative inspection process planner for integrated production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.W. (Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (USA). Kansas City Div.); Gyorog, D.A. (Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1990-04-01

    This work describes the design prototype development of a generative process planning system for dimensional inspection. The system, IPPEX (Inspection Process Planning EXpert), is a rule-based expert system for integrated production. Using as advanced product modeler, relational databases, and artificial intelligence techniques, IPPEX generates the process plan and part program for the dimensional inspection of products using CMMs. Through an application interface, the IPPEX system software accesses product definition from the product modeler. The modeler is a solid geometric modeler coupled with a dimension and tolerance modeler. Resource data regarding the machines, probes, and fixtures are queried from databases. IPPEX represents inspection process knowledge as production rules and incorporates an embedded inference engine to perform decision making. The IPPEX system, its functional architecture, system architecture, system approach, product modeling environment, inspection features, inspection knowledge, hierarchical planning strategy, user interface formats, and other fundamental issues related to inspection planning and part programming for CMMs are described. 27 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Biotechnology in Food Production and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Dietrich; Sinskey, Anthony J.

    1985-09-01

    The food processing industry is the oldest and largest industry using biotechnological processes. Further development of food products and processes based on biotechnology depends upon the improvement of existing processes, such as fermentation, immobilized biocatalyst technology, and production of additives and processing aids, as well as the development of new opportunities for food biotechnology. Improvements are needed in the characterization, safety, and quality control of food materials, in processing methods, in waste conversion and utilization processes, and in currently used food microorganism and tissue culture systems. Also needed are fundamental studies of the structure-function relationship of food materials and of the cell physiology and biochemistry of raw materials.

  19. Material and process selection using product examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to suggest a different procedure for selecting materials and processes within the product development work. The procedure includes using product examples in order to increase the number of alternative materials and processes that is considered. Product examples can...... designers often limit their selection of materials and processes to a few well-known ones. Designers need to expand the solution space by considering more materials and processes. But they have to be convinced that the materials and processes are likely candidates that are worth investing time in exploring....... A database that support the selection procedure has been compiled. It contains uniform descriptions of a wide range of materials and processes. For each of those, good product examples have been identified, described and associated with keywords. Product examples matching the requirements can be...

  20. Can Niche Agriculturalists Take Notes from the Craft Beer Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Woolverton, Andrea E.; Parcell, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    This industry-level case study focuses on the growth cycles of craft brewing, a niche industry. The research case is defined as the craft beer industry evolution including the surrounding institutional and consumer environments. The research goal is to provide insight for niche agriculturalists by examining the case of the successful niche craft beer industry. First, the environment surrounding craft beer reemergence is analyzed. We examine the current state of the craft beer industry with a ...

  1. Development of black beer bread%黑啤酒面包的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海娟; 朱珠; 张传智; 朱佳琪

    2013-01-01

    以面包专用粉为主要原料,添加黑啤酒、白砂糖、酵母、盐、面包改良剂等辅料,采用一次发酵工艺生产黑啤酒面包,通过单因素实验和正交实验确定黑啤酒面包的最佳工艺配方.结果表明,白砂糖投入量对黑啤酒面包品质影响最大,其次是黑啤酒的投入量,酵母的影响最小.黑啤酒面包的最佳工艺参数为:白砂糖量为48g、黑啤酒量为140g、酵母量为6g(以面粉270g计).%Bread flour as the main raw material,adding black beer,sugar,yeast,salt,bread improvers and other accessories by a fermentation process to produce malt beer bread.In addition,bread and dark beer by single factor test and orthogonal test to determine the optimum formulation.The result showed that the amount of sugar was the main impact on the quality of bread black beer.The amount of black beer was the minor impact and the amount of yeast was the minimum impact.Malt beer bread the optimum parameters were:sugar of 48g,malt beer of 140g,yeast of 6g(flour of 270g).

  2. Product, process and organizational innovation: drivers, complementarity and productivity effects

    OpenAIRE

    Polder, M.; van Leeuwen, G.; Mohnen, P.; Raymond, W.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a model where both R&D and ICT investment feed into a system of three innovation output equations (product, process and organizational innovation), which ultimately feeds into a productivity equation. We find that ICT investment and usage are important drivers of innovation in both manufacturing and services. Doing more R&D has a positive effect on product innovation in manufacturing. The strongest productivity effects are derived from organizational innovation. We f...

  3. Process intensification technologies for biodiesel production reactive separation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kiss, A A

    2014-01-01

    This book is among the first to address the novel process intensification technologies for biodiesel production, in particular the integrated reactive separations. It provides a comprehensive overview illustrated with many industrially relevant examples of novel reactive separation processes used in the production of biodiesel (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters): reactive distillation, reactive absorption, reactive extraction, membrane reactors, and centrifugal contact separators. Readers will also learn about the working principles, design and control of integrated processes, while also getting a

  4. Methods for traceability in food production processes involving bulk products

    OpenAIRE

    Belforte, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    In food processing plants, raw materials are fed into the system in different supply-lots of product, and are processed through different stages. In these stages, raw or intermediate materials are mixed or combined together, and physico-chemical and/or microbiological processes such as heating, concentration, pasteurisation etc. take place. In this setting, traceability consists of the ability to determine for each portion of intermediate or final product, in any part of the plant, its relati...

  5. Integrating ergonomics into the product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...... and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering...

  6. Do Process Innovations Induce Product Ones?

    OpenAIRE

    Battaggion, Maria Rosa; Tedeschi, Piero

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between process and product innovations in vertically differentiated duopolies. A process innovation can lead two competing firms to improve the quality of their goods introducing a product innovation. In fact, a cost reducing innovation has two effects: it spurs production and it enhances price competition. The former effect induces both firms to increase quality. The latter encourages differentiation, inducing low quality firm to decrease it. Therefore, high qualit...

  7. The role of lager beer yeast in oxidative stability of model beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    AIMS: In this study, we investigated the relationship between the ability of lager brewing yeast strains to tolerate oxidative stress and their ability to produce oxidative stable model beer. METHODS AND RESULTS: Screening of 21 lager brewing yeast strains against diamide and paraquat showed...... that the oxidative stress resistance was strain dependent. Fermentation of model wort in European Brewing Convention tubes using three yeast strains with varying oxidative stress resistances resulted in three model beers with different rates of radical formation as measured by electron spin resonance in forced...... in the model beers. CONCLUSIONS: A more oxidative stable beer is not obtained by a more-oxidative-stress-tolerant lager brewing yeast strain, exhibiting a higher secretion of thioredoxin, but rather by a less-oxidative-stress-tolerant strain, exhibiting a higher iron uptake. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT...

  8. Processing Effects on Meat Product Microstructure

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Glenn R.

    1984-01-01

    Animal species, meat ingredient properties, comminution equipment, mechanical action, product composition, type and level of non-meat ingredients, and thermal processing greatly affect the structural and organoleptic properties of meat products. However, additional research in the area of restructured meat products, meat protein functionality and lipid properties in meat products remains to be done. The interaction of meat proteins with lipids, water and ions should be further investigated. C...

  9. OPENNESS IN PRODUCT AND PROCESS INNOVATION

    OpenAIRE

    FANG HUANG; JOHN RICE

    2012-01-01

    Open innovation has generally been explored in terms of improved innovation performance vis-à-vis product/service innovation performance. However, the process innovation is often ignored in the open innovation literature. In this study, we assess the impact of openness on innovation in products/services, and also on process innovation drawing on a large-scale sample of Australian firms. In essence, we find that open innovation models are useful for firms seeking to innovate in processes as we...

  10. Beer's law in semiconductor quantum dots

    CERN Document Server

    Adamashvili, G T

    2010-01-01

    The propagation of a coherent optical linear wave in an ensemble of semiconductor quantum dots is considered. It is shown that a distribution of transition dipole moments of the quantum dots changes significantly the polarization and Beer's absorption length of the ensemble of quantum dots. Explicit analytical expressions for these quantities are presented.

  11. Drosophila and Beer: An Experimental Laboratory Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurvink, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is a popular organism for studying genetics and development. Maintaining Drosophila on medium prepared with varying concentrations of beer and evaluating the effects on reproduction, life cycle stages and other factors is one of the exercises that is versatile and applicable to many student levels.

  12. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  13. Transcriptome sequence and plasmid copy number analysis of the brewery isolate Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344 T during growth in beer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Pittet

    Full Text Available Growth of specific lactic acid bacteria in beer leads to spoiled product and economic loss for the brewing industry. Microbial growth is typically inhibited by the combined stresses found in beer (e.g., ethanol, hops, low pH, minimal nutrients; however, certain bacteria have adapted to grow in this harsh environment. Considering little is known about the mechanisms used by bacteria to grow in and spoil beer, transcriptome sequencing was performed on a variant of the beer-spoilage organism Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T (Pc344-358. Illumina sequencing was used to compare the transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing mid-exponentially in beer to those in nutrient-rich MRS broth. Various operons demonstrated high gene expression in beer, several of which are involved in nutrient acquisition and overcoming the inhibitory effects of hop compounds. As well, genes functioning in cell membrane modification and biosynthesis demonstrated significantly higher transcript levels in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Three plasmids had the majority of their genes showing increased transcript levels in beer, whereas the two cryptic plasmids showed slightly decreased gene expression. Follow-up analysis of plasmid copy number in both growth environments revealed similar trends, where more copies of the three non-cryptic plasmids were found in Pc344-358 growing in beer. Transcriptome sequencing also enabled the addition of several genes to the P. claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T genome annotation, some of which are putatively transcribed as non-coding RNAs. The sequencing results not only provide the first transcriptome description of a beer-spoilage organism while growing in beer, but they also highlight several targets for future exploration, including genes that may have a role in the general stress response of lactic acid bacteria.

  14. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant product denitrator upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium product denitrator at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant has had serious operating problems since 1970, including inadequate contamintion control, fluidized bed caking, frequent bed heater failure, product overflow plugging, and poor feed control. These problems were minimized through selective redesign and upgrade of the process equipment as part of a process upgrade program completed in March 1981. Following startup and testing of the rebuilt product denitrator, 1044 kg of enriched uranium was processed in three weeks while demonstrating greater reliability, ease of operation, and improved contamination control. To maximize personnel safety in the future, the denitrator vessel should be made critically safe by geometry and process instrumentation isolated from the process for semi-remote operation

  15. Innovative Canadian Process Technology For Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johar, Sangat; Norton, Kevin

    2010-09-15

    The need for increasing renewable and alternative energy in the global energy mix has been well recognized by Governments and major scientific forums to reduce climate change impact for this living planet. Biodiesel has very high potential for GHG emission reduction. An innovative process developed in Canada provides solution to mitigate the feedstock, yield and quality issues impacting the industry. The Biox process uses a continuous process which reduces reaction times, provides > 99% yield of high quality biodiesel product. The process is feedstock flexible and can use cheaper higher FFA feedstock providing a sustainable approach for biodiesel production.

  16. Survey of pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses for ochratoxin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Surveys have been carried out to estimate the levels of ochratoxin A in pork, poultry, coffee, beer and pulses.. A total of 286 samples were analysed The results show that compared with cereals and cereal products the contribution from the foods surveyed to the total intake of ochratoxin A by the...

  17. 27 CFR 27.48 - Imported distilled spirits, wines, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... List of CFR Sections Affected in the Finding Aids section of this volume. ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Imported distilled spirits... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER...

  18. Mariner 9-Image processing and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinthal, E.C.; Green, W.B.; Cutts, J.A.; Jahelka, E.D.; Johansen, R.A.; Sander, M.J.; Seidman, J.B.; Young, A.T.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the system for the display, processing, and production of image-data products created to support the Mariner 9 Television Experiment. Of necessity, the system was large in order to respond to the needs of a large team of scientists with a broad scope of experimental objectives. The desire to generate processed data products as rapidly as possible to take advantage of adaptive planning during the mission, coupled with the complexities introduced by the nature of the vidicon camera, greatly increased the scale of the ground-image processing effort. This paper describes the systems that carried out the processes and delivered the products necessary for real-time and near-real-time analyses. References are made to the computer algorithms used for the, different levels of decalibration and analysis. ?? 1973.

  19. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. PMID:26616936

  20. Processing and products of Japanese quince

    OpenAIRE

    Hellin, P.; Jordan, M.J.; Vila, Roser; Gustafsson, M.; Göransson, E.; Åkesson, Bengt; Gröön, I.; Laencina, J.; Ros, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, applied research on the usefulness of Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica) fruits in processing and for development of products is reported. Juice was extracted by crushing and centrifugation or by pressing, with and without prior treatment with pectolytic enzymes. Aroma was extracted from fresh fruits by sugar and was also enriched by pervaporation from juice. Several products were developed based on fruit juice, purée and aroma extracts, including consumer products such as ...

  1. Valorization of food processing by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandrasekaran, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    Biotechnology has immense potential for resolving environmental problems and augmenting food production. Particularly, it offers solutions for converting solid wastes into value-added items. In food processing industries that generate voluminous by-products and wastes, valorization can help offset g

  2. Optimization of a pharmaceutical freeze-dried product and its process using an experimental design approach and innovative process analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Hawe, A; Kasper, J C; Almeida, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2011-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibilities/advantages of using recently introduced in-line spectroscopic process analyzers (Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy), within well-designed experiments, for the optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation and its freeze-drying process. The formulation under investigation was a mannitol (crystalline bulking agent)-sucrose (lyo- and cryoprotector) excipient system. The effects of two formulation variables (mannitol/sucrose ratio and amount of NaCl) and three process variables (freezing rate, annealing temperature and secondary drying temperature) upon several critical process and product responses (onset and duration of ice crystallization, onset and duration of mannitol crystallization, duration of primary drying, residual moisture content and amount of mannitol hemi-hydrate in end product) were examined using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A 2-level fractional factorial design (2(5-1)=16 experiments+3 center points=19 experiments) was employed. All experiments were monitored in-line using Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy, which supply continuous process and product information during freeze-drying. Off-line X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Karl-Fisher titration were performed to determine the morphology and residual moisture content of the end product, respectively. In first instance, the results showed that - besides the previous described findings in De Beer et al., Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 7639-7649 - Raman and NIR spectroscopy are able to monitor the product behavior throughout the complete annealing step during freeze-drying. The DOE approach allowed predicting the optimum combination of process and formulation parameters leading to the desired responses. Applying a mannitol/sucrose ratio of 4, without adding NaCl and processing the formulation without an annealing step, using a freezing rate of 0.9°C/min and a secondary drying temperature of 40°C resulted in

  3. NISAR ISRO science data processing and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Krishna Murari; Mehra, Raghav; Ryali, Usha Sundari

    2016-05-01

    NASA-ISRO Synthetic Aperture Radar (NISAR) is a Dual Frequency (L & S band) mission which will be operating in SweepSAR mode. As compared to traditional SAR imaging modes in which Swath and resolution are at trade-off, SweepSAR imaging concept can acquire data over large swath (240 Km) without compromising azimuth resolution (6m approximately). NISAR L-band & S-band sensors will be developed by JPL-NASA and ISRO respectively. NISAR science data will be downloaded at both NASA and ISRO ground stations. SAC-ISRO will develop the SAR processor for both L & S band data to generate products in compliance with science requirements. Moreover, JPL will develop L-band SAR processor and all data products will be available to users. Distributed data processing architecture will be used for handling large volume of data resulting from moderate resolution and larger swath in SweepSAR mode. Data products will be available in multiple processing levels like raw signal products, signal processed single-look and multi-look products, ground range products and Geo-Referenced products in HDF5 & GeoTiff formats. Derived Geo-Referenced Polarimetric and Interferometric data products will also be available for dissemination to the users. A rigorous calibration exercise will be performed by acquiring data over reference targets like Amazon rain-forest & corner reflectors sites for the generation of calibrated data products. Furthermore, various science data products (for science applications) will also be derived from basic data products for operational dissemination.

  4. Making a frothy shampoo or beer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durian, Douglas

    2011-03-01

    The terms ``foam'' and ``froth'' refer to a dispersion of gas bubbles in a liquid. Why do certain liquids show a tendency to foam while others do not? For example, bubbles can be produced in pure water by vigorous agitation, but then they rapidly coalesce and disappear. While foams cannot be produced with pure water, foams associated with beer or shampoo can persist for several minutes or even hours. What ingredient(s) in shampoo and beer make their foams stable, and what physical concepts control their stability? In this talk I'll review three basic mechanisms underlying foam stability, and I'll make connection with current research on coarsening by the diffusion of gas from smaller to larger bubbles. With thanks to Srinivasa Raghavan, Adam Roth, and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Grant NNX07AP20G.

  5. Modern Beer Factory Interwoven in Urban Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjorgjevska Violeta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this research is to present a concept of integration of a beer factory in a new urban reality. Nowadays, modern development of industrial architecture enables beer factories to leave their typical locations in industrial zones and draw nearer to their customers. To design a modern industrial complex incorporating the ideas of the contemporary way of designing an industrial facility with a clear and indicative architectural expression of its hybrid character requires great skilfulness. Using a linear grid, the concept of this project will be developed in a composition consisting of several strips. This kind of structure creates a compositional equivalence from strip to strip, integrating the natural and the urban, the public and the private.

  6. Enrichment of xanthohumol in the brewing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Sascha; Zürcher, Achim; Back, Werner

    2005-09-01

    Xanthohumol (XN), a component of hops, is lost in significant quantities in the conventional brewing process. In commercial beers less than 0.2 mg XN/L are found. In order to increase the yield of XN in the brewing process, the parameters of XN recovery were studied. During wort boiling, XN is largely isomerised to isoxanthohumol. Further losses are owing to the precipitation and absorption of XN to yeast cells and haze particles and by filtration. The use of XN-enriched hop products combined with a late hop dosage during wort boiling proved to be effective in increasing the XN content in beer. The yield was further raised by a low-pitching rate and the abnegation of beer stabilisation. The use of dark malts had a positive effect on the XN recovery. Investigations of roasted malt extracts revealed several high-molecular substances that are able to form complexes with XN. These complexes proved to be stable in the brewing process. Depending on the addition of roasted malt or special XN-enriched roasted malt extracts, dark beers with more than 10 mg XN/L were achieved. Results obtained led to a brewing technology that produced on an industrial scale pale wheat beer with more than 1 mg XN/L. PMID:16097021

  7. Acute biochemical responses to moderate beer drinking.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, G. V.; Baylis, P. H.; Flear, C T; Skillen, A. W.; Diggle, P H

    1982-01-01

    The consequences of drinking six pints of beer (3.31) over three hours were investigated in six healthy men. The expected rise in plasma osmolality, fall in plasma vasopressin concentration, and increase in free water clearance occurred; these variables had returned to normal by nine hours. There was a small but significant fall in plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine accompanied by a rise in plasma potassium concentration. Serum activities of alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl tran...

  8. Book review: Punk sociology by David Beer

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Dave

    2014-01-01

    "Punk Sociology." David Beer. Palgrave Pivot. Jan 2014. --- This book explores the possibility of drawing upon a punk ethos to inspire sociology and to cultivate a vibrant future for the discipline. Aiming to fire the sociological imaginations of sociologists at any stage of their careers, from new students to established professors, it uses punk to think creatively about what sociology is and how it might be conducted. Dave O’Brien finds this a readable, fun, intriguing and vital book, altho...

  9. The wine and beer yeast Dekkera bruxellensis

    OpenAIRE

    Schifferdecker, Anna Judith; Dashko, Sofia; Ishchuk, Olena P.; Piškur, Jure

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the non-conventional yeast Dekkera bruxellensis has been gaining more and more attention in the food industry and academic research. This yeast species is a distant relative of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is especially known for two important characteristics: on the one hand, it is considered to be one of the main spoilage organisms in the wine and bioethanol industry; on the other hand, it is 'indispensable' as a contributor to the flavour profile of Belgium lambic and gueuze beer...

  10. Home production – Enjoying the process or the product?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Gørtz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests a household production model on data from a Danish time use survey from 2001 using GMM 3SLS. Household production includes “process benefits” accruing from the pleasure of undertaking certain housework tasks. I find no significant evidence of “process benefits”. An identification problem arises from the situation where households alternatively attach extra value to consuming home-produced goods. The outcome of these two types of benefits may in certain cases be observationally equivalent.

  11. Susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates to antimicrobial compounds in relation to hop-resistance and beer-spoilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziola Barry

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Though important in the context of food microbiology and as potential pathogens in immuno-compromised humans, bacterial isolates belonging to the genus Pediococcus are best known for their association with contamination of ethanol fermentation processes (beer, wine, or fuel ethanol. Use of antimicrobial compounds (e.g., hop-compounds, Penicillin by some industries to combat Pediococcus contaminants is long-standing, yet knowledge about the resistance of pediococci to antimicrobial agents is minimal. Here we examined Pediococcus isolates to determine whether antibiotic resistance is associated with resistance to hops, presence of genes known to correlate with beer spoilage, or with ability to grow in beer. Results Lactic acid bacteria susceptibility test broth medium (LSM used in combination with commercially available GPN3F antimicrobial susceptibility plates was an effective method for assessing antimicrobial susceptibility of Pediococcus isolates. We report the finding of Vancomycin-susceptible Pediococcus isolates from four species. Interestingly, we found that hop-resistant, beer-spoilage, and beer-spoilage gene-harbouring isolates had a tendency to be more susceptible, rather than more resistant, to antimicrobial compounds. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the mechanisms involved in conferring hop-resistance or ability to spoil beer by Pediococcus isolates are not associated with resistance to antibiotics commonly used for treatment of human infections. Also, Vancomycin-resistance was found to be isolate-specific and not intrinsic to the genus as previously believed.

  12. Integrated durability process in product development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation describes the integrated durability process in product development. Each of the major components of the integrated process are described along with a number of examples of how integrated durability assessment has been used in the ground vehicle industry. The durability process starts with the acquisition of loading information, either physically through loads measurement or virtually through multibody dynamics. The loading information is then processed and characterized for further analysis. Durability assessment was historically test based and completed through field or laboratory evaluation. Today, it is common that both the test and CAE environments are used together in durability assessment. Test based durability assessment is used for final design sign-off but is also critically important for correlating CAE models, in order to investigate design alternatives. There is also a major initiative today to integrate the individual components into a process, by linking applications and providing a framework to communicate information as well as manage all the data involved in the entire process. Although a single process is presented, the details of the process can vary significantly for different products and applications. Recent applications that highlight different parts of the durability process are given. As well as an example of how integration of software tools between different disciplines (MBD, FE and fatigue) not only simplifies the process, but also significantly improves it. (author)

  13. Supply Chain Collaboration under Uncertainty in the Albanian Beer Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa MAMILLO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Today supply chain uncertainty is higher due to the global crisis, the fast changing technology and the increasing vulnerability of supply chains. Companies use different strategies to reduce uncertainty, like building agile supply chains, increasing resilience, postponement, etc. All these strategies require strong supply chain collaboration. Although research interest in supply chain collaboration is growing, no research has been done in Albania. This paper is one of the first to investigate supply chain management practices and the extent of supply chain collaboration in the Albanian beer industry. The aim of this research is twofold: first, to investigate how supply chain uncertainty influences the extent of collaboration with the supply chain members, and second, to analyze how organizational culture facilitates the collaboration process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the managers of the main beer companies. A guide questionnaire was prepared. It consisted of open and rate-scale questions about supply chain collaboration, supply chain uncertainty, supply chain management practices and organizational culture. The research will show that a high level of supply chain uncertainty does not always lead to a high degree of collaboration with the supply chain members. Organizational culture is the key driver of a successful collaboration. Not all types of culture can facilitate collaboration but only the ones with an external orientation.

  14. Recent Developments in Biological Hydrogen Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEBABRATA DAS

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Biohydrogen production technology can utilize renewable energy sources like biomass for the generation of hydrogen, the cleanest form of energy for the use of mankind. However, major constraints to the commercialization of these processes include lower hydrogen yields and rates of hydrogen production. To overcome these bottlenecks intensive research work has already been carried out on the advancement of these processes such as the development of genetically modified microorganisms, the improvement of the bioreactor design, molecular engineering of the key enzyme hydrogenases, the development of two stage processes, etc. The present paper explores the recent advancements that have been made till date and also presents the state of the art in molecular strategies to improve the hydrogen production.

  15. Domestication and Divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Beer Yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallone, Brigida; Steensels, Jan; Prahl, Troels; Soriaga, Leah; Saels, Veerle; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Merlevede, Adriaan; Roncoroni, Miguel; Voordeckers, Karin; Miraglia, Loren; Teiling, Clotilde; Steffy, Brian; Taylor, Maryann; Schwartz, Ariel; Richardson, Toby; White, Christopher; Baele, Guy; Maere, Steven; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2016-09-01

    Whereas domestication of livestock, pets, and crops is well documented, it is still unclear to what extent microbes associated with the production of food have also undergone human selection and where the plethora of industrial strains originates from. Here, we present the genomes and phenomes of 157 industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Our analyses reveal that today's industrial yeasts can be divided into five sublineages that are genetically and phenotypically separated from wild strains and originate from only a few ancestors through complex patterns of domestication and local divergence. Large-scale phenotyping and genome analysis further show strong industry-specific selection for stress tolerance, sugar utilization, and flavor production, while the sexual cycle and other phenotypes related to survival in nature show decay, particularly in beer yeasts. Together, these results shed light on the origins, evolutionary history, and phenotypic diversity of industrial yeasts and provide a resource for further selection of superior strains. PAPERCLIP. PMID:27610566

  16. Hydrogen production processes; Procedes de production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H{sub 2} question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H{sub 2} production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  17. The production process for water penetrated brick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunGuofeng

    2005-01-01

    Waste penetrated brick, which is a green building material with good water penetration, high strength, lower firing temperature, lower production cost, good appearance and good structure, can holding ground water lever. This article analysis the production process and related factor for water penetrated brick:proper particle size distribution, proper shaping method, proper press and proper firing can ensure to produce good quality water penetrated brick.

  18. The Effect of Entry into the European Union on the Slovak Beer Industry and Its Consequences for the Tax Taken from the Excise Duty on Beer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Juraj Válek

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The following paper is concerned with the issue of increasing the excise duty on beer and its consequences for consumption of the studied product. The aim is to demonstrate the tax burden in relation to domestic producers and beer consumption in the domestic market. The time period considered is the 16 years from 1999 to 2014. Data on consumption and the evolution of excise duty rates were compared ex post and conclusions were drawn using an analysis of economic indicators. In general, it is the case that, by increasing the rates of the duty, governments expect to see an increase in the income side of the state budget, even though increases in tax lead to reductions in consumption. This is, however, only a short-term effect and, over a longer time frame, such measures have a negative effect not only on consumption, but also on domestic production and on the tax income in the state budget.

  19. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of technological entities where all possible situation are considered during work of machines and devices, which are installed in electric drive and are protected from technological and electrical accident. Transformer station and diesel engine, raw materials transport and dosage, processes in dome oven, centrifuges, polycondensation (PC chamber, burners, compressor station, binder preparation and dosage, wool cutting, completed panel packing and their transport to storehouse are controlled. Process variables and parameters like as level, flow, velocity, temperature, pressure, etc. are controlled. Control system is doing identification of process states changes, diagnostic and prediction of errors and provides prediction of behavior of control objects when input flows of materials and generates optimal values of control variables due to decreasing downtime and technic - economical requires connected to wool quality to be achieved. Supervisory and control system either eliminates unwanted changes in the production line or restricts them within the allowable limits according to the technology. In this way, the optimization of energy and raw materials consumption and appropriate products quality is achieved, where requirements are satisfied in accordance with process safety and environmental standards. SCADA provides a visual representation of controlled and uncontrolled parts of the technological process, processing alarms and events, monitoring of the changes of relevant

  20. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product.

  1. Immunochemical determination of gluten in malts and beers

    OpenAIRE

    Dostálek, Pavel; Hochel, Igor; Méndez, Enrique; Hernando, Alberto; Gabrovská, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The glutent content in the different varieties of barley, malts, and different types of beers were determined by means of "sandwich" enzyme immunoassay. The commercial RIDASCREEN? Gliadin kit has been used. The gluten level ranges in barley wheat, rye and spelt malts are 18.8-45.0, 44.0-68.0, 41.6, and 21.2 g kg-1, respectively. When various types of beer are compared the gluten concentration rise in the following order: alcohol free beer (

  2. A review of flavour formation in continuous beer fermentations

    OpenAIRE

    Brányik, Tomáš; Vicente, A.A.; Dostálek, Pavel; Teixeira, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    The attractive prospect of a continuous beer fermentation system consists mostly of the accelerated transformation of wort into beer. Although continuous beer fermentation has been studied as a promising technology for several decades, the number of industrial applications is still limited. The major obstacle hindering the extensive industrial exploitation of this technology is the difficulty in achieving the correct balance of sensory compounds in the short time typical ...

  3. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals. (author)

  4. Fuzzy logic and nuclear production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of fuzzy logic to production processes in the nuclear industry is discussed. Particular attention is paid to the application to the conditioning process of radioactive waste. It is shown that, in case of clustering problems, the results of the fuzzy approach are better than those for the crisp approach. For the discrete homogenization, further improvements to the semi-fuzzy algorithms are required

  5. Development of Processed Products from Guapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Acevedo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to develop processed products from guapple. Characterization of the guapple fruit was intially conducted before proceeding to formulation studies.The following characteristics of the guapple fruit were observed: color of outer skin - yellow green with Munsell notation of 10 Y7/6, color of inner flesh - off white with Munsell notation of 7.5Y 8/2; texture, 20.4-37.1 mm; average weight per piece, from 219 to 420 gms; ph, 3.7; titrable acidity (citric acid, 0.34%, and soluble solids, 2.6° Brix.The identified processed products from guapple were puree, pickles, and preserves. Standardized processes and formulations for each of these products were developed in semi-pilot scale. Removal of the skin for the guapple preserves and pickles was facilitated using 5% brine-l % CaCI2.Suitable packaging materials were also identified. Flexible films were used for guapple puree while glass jars and flexible films were found to be satisfactory both for guapple pickles and preserves.Physico-chemical, microbiological, and sensory evaluation were done after two months of storage. Based on these tests, the pasteurization process of 180° F for 20 minutes for puree and 10 minutes for preserves and pickles, was found to make the products commercially sterile.

  6. Production of strange particles in hadronization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange particles provide an important tool for the study of the color confinement mechanisms involved in hadronization processes. We review data on inclusive strange-particle production and on correlations between strange particles in high-energy reactions, and discuss phenomenological models for parton fragmentation. 58 refs., 24 figs

  7. Workplace exposure at nanomaterial production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, Carsten; Welter, Johannes; Klenke, Martin; Sander, Jürgen

    2009-05-01

    Typical nanomaterial production processes from daily practice had been performed in order to determine simultaneously the exposure to nanoparticles. They involve mixing of ZnO powder into a liquid, filling and emptying an oven with indium tin oxide (ITO), spraying a suspension of nanoparticles, flame spraying of silanes, and an outside location as comparison.

  8. Processing of Ayurvedic products by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayurvedic or herbal products being processed at ISOMED are primarily for microbiological upgradation and not necessarily for sterilization. These products must satisfy the microbiological requirements of the importing countries, besides, meeting physical and chemical parameters. Ethylene oxide (ETO) and gamma radiation are the obvious sterilants for the purpose. With more and more countries imposing restriction upon the use of ETO, gamma radiation is the preferred choice. Psyllium (Ispaghula) husk, garcina cambogia, various alkaloids, neem, tulsi etc. and their extracts and formulations are the principal products. Together they constitute roughly 2 to 2.5% of the total volume processed at ISOMED. The last year's figure ending Oct '01 was 3000 standard cartons or 270 cubic meter. (author)

  9. Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: A rapid tool for assessing beer composition

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, João A; Barros, António S.; Carvalho, Beatriz; Brandão, Tiago; Gil, Ana M; Ferreira, António C. Silva

    2011-01-01

    Beer stability is a major concern for the brewing industry, as beer characteristics may be subject to significant changes during storage. This paper describes a novel non-targeted methodology for monitoring the chemical changes occurring in a lager beer exposed to accelerated aging (induced by thermal treatment: 18 days at 45 ◦C), using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in tandem with multivariate analysis (GC–MS/MVA). Optimization of the chromatographic run was performed, achi...

  10. Optimization process of tribenzoine production as a glycerol derived product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widayat, Abdurrakhman, Rifianto, Y.; Abdullah, Hadiyanto, Samsudin, Asep M.; Annisa, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Tribenzoin is a derived product from glycerol that can produce from glycerol conversion via esterification process. The product can be used in the food industry, cosmetics industry, polymer industry and also can be used to improve the properties of adhesive materials and water resistance in the ink printer.In the other hand, it advantages is environmentally friendly andrenewable because it is not derived from petroleum. This paper discusses the effect of temperature and catalyst concentration for tribenzoin production. For the responses, yield and product composition were observed. Results showed that the highest yield achieved at optimal variable data processed using Central Composite Design (CCD) which is 63.64 temperature (°C), mole ratio of benzoic acidto glycerol is 3.644:1, and catalyst concentration 6.25% (wt% glycerol). Yield products produced 58.71%. FTIR analysis results showed that the samples contained the results of IR spectra wavelength 1761 cm-1 in the fingerprint region and 3165 cm-1 frequency region group. The existence of these two adjustments that fixed in the area is strong evidence that the compound is tribenzoin.

  11. Peace Journalism and the news production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Bläsi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years various models of „peace journalism“ or „constructive conflict coverage“ have been proposed. These models suggest alternative ways of conflict reporting in order to contribute to processes of de-escalation, peacebuilding and reconciliation instead of escalating, exaggerating or neglecting conflicts. However, these models will remain irrelevant for the practical work of journalists unless they are connected to the reality of today’s media. Therefore it is of great importance to also direct our attention to the news production process. At the same time, studying the factors that influence the production of journalistic reporting in times of conflict and war means learning about the actual preconditions for any effort of constructive conflict coverage. Based on qualitative expert interviews with German journalists, this paper presents a model of the production process of conflict coverage. According to this model, the production process can be described as a complex interaction of six factors: (1 structural aspects of the media, (2 conflict situation on-site, (3 personal features of the individual journalist, (4 the political climate, (5 lobbies, (6 the audience. After presenting the general model and the discussion of its limitations and possible benefits, the influence of the „political climate“ factor is explored in more detail and illustrated with the experience of German journalists in the aftermath of 9/11. The author argues that peace journalism can only attract the critical number of journalists needed for a noticeable change in conflict coverage, if there are realizable suggestions for how to meet the obstacles journalists face in their daily work. The model of influencing factors affecting conflict coverage could be a good starting point for this undertaking, as it enables us, on the one hand, to systematize and specify attempts to implement peace journalism and, on the other hand, to develop a more

  12. Quality Control System for Beer Developed with Monoclonal Antibodies Specific to Barley Lipid Transfer Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukie Murakami-Yamaguchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-specific lipid transfer protein (LTP in barley grain reacted with the IgE in sera drawn from food allergy patients. A sandwich-type of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was developed with mouse monoclonal antibodies raised against LTP purified with barley flour. This ELISA showed a practical working range of 0.3–3 ng/mL and no cross-reactivity with wheat, adlay and rye. Using this ELISA, LTP was determined in several types of barley-foods, including fermented foods such as malt vinegar, barley-malt miso and beer. LTP content in beer of the same kind was approximately constant, even if manufacturing factory and production days were different. Not only as a factor of foam formation and stability but also as an allergen, controlling and monitoring of LTP in beer should be considered. Taken together, our LTP-detecting ELISA can be proposed as an appropriate system for the quality control of beer.

  13. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.E.A. [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Erny, G.L. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Barros, A.S. [QOPNAA-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Esteves, V.I. [CESAM - Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Brandao, T.; Ferreira, A.A. [UNICER, Bebidas de Portugal, Leca do Balio, 4466-955 S. Mamede de Infesta (Portugal); Cabrita, E. [Department of Chemistry, New University of Lisbon, 2825-114 Caparica (Portugal); Gil, A.M., E-mail: agil@ua.pt [CICECO-Department of Chemistry, University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2010-08-03

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  14. Quantification of organic acids in beer by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organic acids present in beer provide important information on the product's quality and history, determining organoleptic properties and being useful indicators of fermentation performance. NMR spectroscopy may be used for rapid quantification of organic acids in beer and different NMR-based methodologies are hereby compared for the six main acids found in beer (acetic, citric, lactic, malic, pyruvic and succinic). The use of partial least squares (PLS) regression enables faster quantification, compared to traditional integration methods, and the performance of PLS models built using different reference methods (capillary electrophoresis (CE), both with direct and indirect UV detection, and enzymatic essays) was investigated. The best multivariate models were obtained using CE/indirect detection and enzymatic essays as reference and their response was compared with NMR integration, either using an internal reference or an electrical reference signal (Electronic REference To access In vivo Concentrations, ERETIC). NMR integration results generally agree with those obtained by PLS, with some overestimation for malic and pyruvic acids, probably due to peak overlap and subsequent integral errors, and an apparent relative underestimation for citric acid. Overall, these results make the PLS-NMR method an interesting choice for organic acid quantification in beer.

  15. Incentives to Advertise and Economic Efficiency: The Difference Between Beef and Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Hunnicutt, Lynn; Israelsen, L. Dwight

    2001-01-01

    There is some debate about whether firms advertise too much or too little. We present a simple model to examine the incentives of a firm to advertise, and distinguish between the market-expansion effect and the business-stealing effect of advertising. Firms advertise homogeneous products (beef) too little relative to the amount that would maximize total industry profits. The possibility of stealing customers from competitors causes firms in differentiated products markets (beer) to advertise ...

  16. The Demand for Wine and Beer

    OpenAIRE

    Tsolakis, Dimitris; Riethmuller, Paul C.; Watts, Geof

    1983-01-01

    In this paper annual data series covering 1955-56 to 1978-79 are used to estimate the elasticity of demand for both wine and beer. These are first estimated using a flexible functional form. The habit formation hypothesis and the role of social and demographic factors are also examined. The demand for wine in aggregate is estimated to be relatively price inelastic in the short run, while in the long run it is relatively price elastic. With respect to income, the demand for wine is shown to be...

  17. UASB反应器处理啤酒废水%Beer Wastewater Treatment by UASB Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽霞; 魏海波

    2012-01-01

    Beer is the worldwide beverage, but 10~20 t wastewater are produced in producing 1 t beer. UASB reactor method was designed treat high concentrations of organic matter beer wastewater. The results showed it could effectively remove BOD and COD in the wastewater, the removal rate was more than 80 %, and the beer wastewater ultimately achieved the water quality requirements through the process.%啤酒是世界性的饮料,但每生产lt啤酒也会产生约10~20t废水。文章设计使用uAsB反应器法处理含高浓度有机物的啤酒废水,能有效地去除废水中的BOD和COD,去除率达到80%以上,啤酒废水经此工艺处理,最终达到出水水质要求。

  18. Process technology and effects of spallation products: Circuit components, maintenance, and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Working Session D included an assessment of the status of the technology and components required to: (1) remove impurities from the liquid metal (mercury or Pb-Bi) target flow loop including the effects of spallation products, (2) provide the flow parameters necessary for target operations, and (3) maintain the target system. A series of brief presentations were made to focus the discussion on these issues. The subjects of these presentations, and presenters were: (1) Spallation products and solubilities - R. Dressler; (2) Spallation products for Pb-Bi - Y. Orlov; (3) Clean/up/impurity removal components - B. Sigg; (4) open-quotes Road-Mapclose quotes and remote handling needs - T. McManamy; (5) Remote handling issues and development - M. Holding. The overall conclusion of this session was that, with the exception of (i) spallation product related processing issues, (ii) helium injection and clean-up, and (iii) specialized remote handling equipment, the technology for all other circuit components (excluding the target itself) exists. Operating systems at the Institute of Physics in Riga, Latvia (O. Lielausis) and at Ben-Gurion University in Beer Shiva, Israel (S. Lesin) have demonstrated that other liquid metal circuit components including pumps, heat exchangers, valves, seals, and piping are readily available and have been reliably used for many years. In the three areas listed above, the designs and analysis are not judged to be mature enough to determine whether and what types of technology development are required. Further design and analysis of the liquid metal target system is therefore needed to define flow circuit processing and remote handling equipment requirements and thereby identify any development needs

  19. Process technology and effects of spallation products: Circuit components, maintenance, and handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, B.; Haines, S.J.; Dressler, R.; McManamy, T.

    1996-06-01

    Working Session D included an assessment of the status of the technology and components required to: (1) remove impurities from the liquid metal (mercury or Pb-Bi) target flow loop including the effects of spallation products, (2) provide the flow parameters necessary for target operations, and (3) maintain the target system. A series of brief presentations were made to focus the discussion on these issues. The subjects of these presentations, and presenters were: (1) Spallation products and solubilities - R. Dressler; (2) Spallation products for Pb-Bi - Y. Orlov; (3) Clean/up/impurity removal components - B. Sigg; (4) {open_quotes}Road-Map{close_quotes} and remote handling needs - T. McManamy; (5) Remote handling issues and development - M. Holding. The overall conclusion of this session was that, with the exception of (i) spallation product related processing issues, (ii) helium injection and clean-up, and (iii) specialized remote handling equipment, the technology for all other circuit components (excluding the target itself) exists. Operating systems at the Institute of Physics in Riga, Latvia (O. Lielausis) and at Ben-Gurion University in Beer Shiva, Israel (S. Lesin) have demonstrated that other liquid metal circuit components including pumps, heat exchangers, valves, seals, and piping are readily available and have been reliably used for many years. In the three areas listed above, the designs and analysis are not judged to be mature enough to determine whether and what types of technology development are required. Further design and analysis of the liquid metal target system is therefore needed to define flow circuit processing and remote handling equipment requirements and thereby identify any development needs.

  20. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Exemptions...

  1. Radiation methods in dairy production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various uses of radiotracers and radiation in dairy technology are described. In dairy production, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) rumen metabolism leading to protein synthesis (2) total body water, blood volume and sodium (3) minerals metabolism (4) relation between climatic stress and thyroid functioning of dairy animals (5) volume of milk in mammary glands (6) hormone level in dairy animals and (7) spermatozoa metabolism. In dairy processing, radiotracers are used for studying: (1) compositional analysis of milk and milk products and (2) efficiency of cleaning agents for cleaning dairy equipment. Ionizing radiation is used for: (1) preservation of milk and milk products and (2) sterilization of packaging materials. Radiation source has been used to monitor the over-run in ice-cream and the fill control for fluid in papar cartons. (M.G.B.)

  2. UO2 production process with methanol washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention refers to a process for the recovery of methanol used for washing the ammonium uranyl carbonate obtained during UO2 production. The methanol contains about 50% H2O, about 10% (NH4)2CO3, and is radioactive. According to the invention the methanol is purified at reduced pressure in a distillation unit and then led back to the washing unit. (UWI) 891 HP/UWI 892 MBE

  3. Modern control of mineral wool production process

    OpenAIRE

    Stankov Stanko P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the control of the plant for mineral wool production consisting of a number of the technological units of different sizes and complexity is considered. The application of modern equipment based on PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) configuration provides optimal control of technological process. Described supervisory and control system is consisting of a number of units doing decentralized distributed control of techno...

  4. Optimization of software product localization process

    OpenAIRE

    Vehar, Matej

    2015-01-01

    In order to facilitate the distribution of software on international markets, adaptation of software products is required. This is especially important for end-user applications which need to be accessible and usable in different cultural and linguistic environments. The various steps taken to make software fit for foreign markets are collectively called software localization. The integration of the localization process into the software development cycle is presented in the...

  5. Processes for biobutanol production from renewable resources

    OpenAIRE

    Procentese, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The impact of petroleum fuel emissions and more rapid diminishing petroleum reserves have increased the research for alternative biofuel sources. In this scenario, recently is rising the biorefinery concept. A biorefinery is a facility that produces fuels, power, heat, and value-added chemicals from biomass conversion. The study carried out during the present Ph.D. program aimed at investigating the butanol production process by fermentation from renewable resources. The activities, in ord...

  6. Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butter, F.A.G. den; Delifotis, A.; Koning, Ruud H.

    1997-01-01

    Preference shifts in the demand for wine and beer are empirically investigated for Germany, the Netherlands, France, and Italy. With the rise in disposable income we see a shift from the demand for beer to the demand for wine notably in the Netherlands and somewhat less clearly in Germany, and a shi

  7. 27 CFR 25.186 - Record of beer transferred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Ownership § 25.186 Record of beer transferred. (a) Preparation of invoice. When beer is transferred between breweries without payment of tax, the shipping brewer shall prepare a serially numbered invoice or commercial record, in duplicate, covering the transfer. The invoice will be marked “transfer without...

  8. STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL IN FOREST PRODUCTS INDUSTRY: CASE STUDY ON PARTICLEBOARD PRODUCTION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim Halil ÖZDAMAR

    2009-01-01

    As it is specified in many of related references cited, the aim of a production is to provide a service or physical goods that compensates a need. The compensation quality of the goods and services at the aimed needs is an issue that has been studying for a long time. Production of goods and services requires a definite process. Variability is specified by means of measurable attributes of the production process. Purpose of a statistical quality control is to monitor the process while it runs...

  9. The sedative effect of non-alcoholic beer in healthy female nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Franco

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The hop (Humulus lupulus L., a component of beer, is a sedative plant whose pharmacological activity is principally due to its bitter resins, in particular to the α-acid degradation product 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The mechanism of action of hop resin consists of raising the levels of the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter acting in the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the sedative effect of hops as a component of non-alcoholic beer on the sleep/wake rhythm in a work-stressed population. METHODS: The experiment was conducted with healthy female nurses (n = 17 working rotating and/or night shifts. Overnight sleep and chronobiological parameters were assessed by actigraphy (Actiwatch® after moderate ingestion of non-alcoholic beer containing hops (333 ml with 0.0% alcohol with supper for 14 days (treatment. Data were obtained in comparison with her own control group without consumption of beer during supper. RESULTS: Actigraphy results demonstrated improvement of night sleep quality as regards the most important parameters: Sleep Latency diminished (p≤0.05 in the Treatment group (12.01±1.19 min when compared to the Control group (20.50±4.21 min, as also did Total Activity (p≤0.05; Treatment group = 5284.78±836.99 activity pulses vs Control = 7258.78±898.89 activity pulses. In addition, anxiety as indexed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI decreased in the Treatment group (State Anxiety 18.09±3.8 vs Control 20.69±2.14. CONCLUSION: The moderate consumption of non-alcoholic beer will favour night-time rest, due in particular to its hop components, in addition to its other confirmed benefits for the organism.

  10. 奶啤生产中乳酸菌对酵母菌发酵作用的研究%Effect of lactic acid bacteria on yeast fermentation in the milk beer production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪志

    2009-01-01

    利用乳酸菌和酵母菌的共生作用,对牛乳进行了混合菌种的发酵研究.分析了共生作用对产品pH值、滴定酸度、乙醇含量和α-氨基酸态氮的影响.研究结果表明,乳酸菌的加入不仅可以提高酵母菌的生长速度,而且可以提高产品的风味,奶啤的酒精含量相对啤酒较低,是酒精度较低的健康型饮料.%Abstract: The fermentation characteristic of milk by lactic acid bacteria and yeast was investigated.The effects of symbiotic fermentation on pH, titratable acidity, ethanol content and α-amino nitrogen were studied.The results showed that addition of lactic acid bacteria can not only enhance the growth rate of yeast, but also improve the flavor.In addition, the alcohol in beer was relatively low.

  11. Quality costs in the production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michalska

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is showing the relationship of the quality costs with a production process. In this paper it was worked out and introduced the way of marking the documents with regard to the quality costs.Design/methodology/approach: In the frames of own research it has been analysed the quality costs in the production process from the documents marked using the worked out way of marking.Findings: On the basis of the own research it can be stated, that the majority of the elements of the quality costs can be counted on the base of generic costs arrangement through the foundation of the suitable accounts and the suitable marking of the source documents.Research limitations/implications: In management practice, enterprises have to choose the way of the identification, control and analysis of the quality costs answering their needs, using among others proposed in this paper the way of marking the documents.Practical implications: The suitable marking of the documents gives the possibility of recording the quality costs of given production process, and not only for the whole enterprise. But each enterprise should take into account the appropriate way of marking the documents to collect all the elements of the quality costs.Originality/value: The extremely important problem from the point of view of the quality costs account and analysis is defining the places of cost formation in such way, that the costs would not be recorded according to the places of appearing but the places of formation. Thanks to these research it is possible to get the information about the quality costs of each process and this paper can be a simple rule how to collect the quality costs from each process.

  12. Identification of the lactogenic compound present in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawagado, L; Houdebine, L M

    1988-01-01

    Lyophylized beer and extracts of plants used to prepare beer have been administered orally to mature virgin rats and intravenously to ewe. After four days of treatment, beta-casein estimated by a radioimmunoassay was present in the mammary glands of the rats to which beer or barley extracts were given. Injections of lyophilised beer, barley or malt extracts triggered the release of prolactin in ewe whereas hop extracts were inactive. The active compound present in beer barley and malt, was insolubilized in 50% ethanol and it is in the aqueous phase in chloroform extraction. The active preparation contained essentially polysaccharides. This suggests that the lactogenic principle belongs to this class of macromolecule. PMID:3382062

  13. Issues of organizational cybernetics and viability beyond Beer's viable systems model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechansky, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    The paper starts summarizing the claims of Beer's viable systems model to identify five issues any viable organizations has to deal with in an unequivocal hierarchical structure of five interrelated systems. Then the evidence is introduced for additional issues and related viable structures of organizations, which deviate from Beer's model. These issues are: (1) the establishment and (2) evolution of an organization; (3) systems for independent top-down control (like "Six Sigma"); (4) systems for independent bottom-up correction of performance problems (like "Kaizen"), both working outside a hierarchical structure; (5) pull production systems ("Just in Time") and (6) systems for checks and balances of top-level power (like boards and shareholder meetings). Based on that an evolutionary approach to organizational cybernetics is outlined, addressing the establishment of organizations and possible courses of developments, including recent developments in quality and production engineering, as well as problems of setting and changing goal values determining organizational policies.

  14. 全小麦啤酒酵母菌株的诱变育种及应用研究%The Application and Mutation Breeding of Whole Wheat Beer Yeast Strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁仲; 张百胜; 张慎举; 马绮云; 陈柯羽

    2011-01-01

    采用10 Kev低能N+注入啤酒酵母,经筛选获得-菌株Lz37,再用150 MPa超高压处理菌株Lz37,经双乙酰平板筛选获得-菌株Gy3,其凝聚性很强,适合于在小麦汁中发酵啤酒,其发酵度为66%-68%,双乙酰含量低于口味阈值,遗传稳定性良好.将Gy3酵母定为全小麦啤酒生产应用酵母,命名为商啤3号(SP-03)."SP-03"啤酒酵母菌株的各项生理及生产性能都较优良,特别是在全小麦芽啤酒的酿造中适用性较强,经过对发酵工艺等的调整,用其酿制的啤酒口感纯正、淡爽、柔和.%Low energy N+ implantation using 10 Kev Saccharomyces cerevisiae by screening to obtain a bacteria Lz37, using ultra high pressure 150 MPa strains Lz37, screened by a plate of diacetyl bacteria Gy3, the cohesion was very strong, suitable for use in wheat beer fermented juice, the degree of fermentation was from 68% to 66%, diacetyl content below the taste threshold, genetic stability was good.Gy3 as whole wheat yeast beer yeast was named No.3 commercial beer (SP-03)."SP-03" beer yeast strains of the physiological and production performance were relatively good, especially in the full-malt beer brewed in the applicability of strong, such as through the adjustment of the fermentation process, with its pure taste of beer brewed, cool light, soft.

  15. Inspection of bottles crates in the beer industry through computer vision

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Mário; Ferreira, Manuel João Oliveira; Martins, Teresa; Santos, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a system developed for the industry of bottling beer. The system has to perform the inspection of various items in the final stage, meaning after the production phase where the bottles are already in the crate. The items to inspect are the following: whether the crate is correct (with the correct color), whether the crate is broken, whether the crate is fully populated, i.e., all bottles are present, to check for bottles without caps and whether the ...

  16. Global sourcing of complex production processes

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Christian; Suedekum, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theory of a firm in an environment with incomplete contracts. The firm’s headquarter decides on the complexity, the organization, and the global scale of its production process. Specifically, it decides: i) on the mass of symmetric intermediate inputs that are part of the value chain, ii) if the supplier of each component is an external contractor or an integrated affiliate, and iii) if the supplier is offshored to a foreign low-wage country. Afterwards we consider a related scen...

  17. Coherent pion production in electroweak processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a relativistic calculation for photon, electron and neutrino induced coherent pion production on spin zero nuclei. The matrix elements for these reactions are written by using effective Lagrangian formalism in field theory. The dominant Feynman diagrams contributing to this process are taken into account. The cross-section calculations are done in local density approximation and the nuclear medium effects are incorporated in terms of the delta self energy in the nuclear medium. The final state interactions of the outgoing pions are taken into account using Eikonal approximation for the distortion of the pion. (author)

  18. Cloning and expression of a novel prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae and its application in beer stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chao; Yu, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    A novel prolyl endopeptidase gene from Aspergillus oryzae was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Amino acid sequence analysis of the prolyl endopeptidase from Aspergillus oryzae (AO-PEP) showed that this enzyme belongs to a class serine peptide S28 family. Expression, purification and characterization of AO-PEP were analyzed. The optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The enzyme was activated and stabilized by metal ion Ca(2+) and inhibited by Zn(2+), Mn(2+), Al(3+), and Cu(2+). The K m and k cat values of the purified enzyme for different substrates were evaluated. The results implied that the recombinant AO-PEP possessed higher affinity for the larger substrate. A fed-batch strategy was developed for the high-cell-density fermentation and the enzyme activity reached 1,130 U/l after cultivation in 7 l fermentor. After addition of AO-PEP during the fermentation phase of beer brewing, demonstrated the potential application of AO-PEP in the non-biological stability of beer, which favor further industrial development of this new enzyme in beer stabilization, due to its reducing operational costs, as well as no beer losses unlike regeneration process and beer lost with regenerated polyvinylpolypyrrolidone system. PMID:25547787

  19. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content...... and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable...

  20. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudnitskaya, Alisa, E-mail: alisa.rudnitskaya@gmail.com [Chemistry Department, University of Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Polshin, Evgeny [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Kirsanov, Dmitry [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolai, Bart [BIOSYST/MeBioS, Catholic University of Leuven, W. De Croylaan 42, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip [Centre for Malting and Brewing Sciences, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverelee (Belgium); Legin, Andrey [Laboratory of Chemical Sensors, Chemistry Department, St. Petersburg University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-30

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  1. Instrumental measurement of beer taste attributes using an electronic tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study deals with the evaluation of the electronic tongue multisensor system as an analytical tool for the rapid assessment of taste and flavour of beer. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types (lager beers, ales, wheat beers, etc.), which were characterized with respect to the sensory properties, were measured using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors developed in Laboratory of Chemical Sensors of St. Petersburg University. The analysis of the sensory data and the calculation of the compromise average scores was made using STATIS. The beer samples were discriminated using both sensory panel and ET data based on PCA, and both data sets were compared using Canonical Correlation Analysis. The ET data were related to the sensory beer attributes using Partial Least Square regression for each attribute separately. Validation was done based on a test set comprising one-third of all samples. The ET was capable of predicting with good precision 20 sensory attributes of beer including such as bitter, sweet, sour, fruity, caramel, artificial, burnt, intensity and body.

  2. Sequential processing during noun phrase production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürki, Audrey; Sadat, Jasmin; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the brain operations involved during the processing of successive words in multi word noun phrase production take place sequentially or simultaneously. German speakers named pictures while ignoring a written distractor superimposed on the picture (picture-word interference paradigm) using the definite determiner and corresponding German noun. The gender congruency and the phonological congruency (i.e., overlap in first phonemes) between target and distractor were manipulated. Naming responses and EEG were recorded. The behavioural performance replicated both the phonology and the gender congruency effects (i.e., shorter naming latencies for gender congruent than incongruent and for phonologically congruent than incongruent trials). The phonological and gender manipulations also influenced the EEG data. Crucially, the two effects occurred in different time windows and over different sets of electrodes. The phonological effect was observed substantially earlier than the gender congruency effect. This finding suggests that the processing of determiners and nouns during determiner noun phrase production occurs at least partly sequentially. PMID:26407338

  3. Microbial production of scleroglucan and downstream processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alejandra Castillo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic petroleum-based polymers and natural plant polymers have the disadvantage of restricted sources, in addition to the non-biodegradability of the former ones. In contrast, eco-sustainable microbial polysaccharides, of low-cost and standardized production, represent an alternative to address this situation. With a strong global market, they attracted worldwide attention because of their novel and unique physico-chemical properties as well as varied industrial applications, and many of them are promptly becoming economically competitive. Scleroglucan, a beta-1,3-beta-1,6-glucan secreted by Sclerotium fungi, exhibits high potential for commercialization and may show different branching frequency, side-chain length and/or molecular weight depending on the producing strain or culture conditions. Water-solubility, viscosifying ability and wide stability over temperature, pH and salinity make scleroglucan useful for different biotechnological (enhanced oil recovery, food additives, drug delivery, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products, biocompatible materials, etc., and biomedical (immunoceutical, antitumor, etc. applications. It can be copiously produced at bioreactor scale under standardized conditions, where a high EPS concentration normally governs the process optimization. Operative and nutritional conditions, as well as the incidence of scleroglucan downstream processing will be discussed in this chapter. The relevance of using standardized inocula from selected strains and experiences concerning the intricate scleroglucan scaling-up will be also herein outlined.

  4. Pinellas Plant facts. [Products, processes, laboratory facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-09-01

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant.

  5. LEAN PRACTICES FOR PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Luz Tortorella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean product development (LPD is an approach that comprises lean principles and management practices that aim to reduce waste and improve operational effectiveness throughout the entire value stream in continuous improvement endless journey. Due to that, the ability to innovate, change and learn continuously is a key element in order to minimize product development problems. Several LPD techniques are presented in the literature as possible enablers for lean implementation. However, little has been known about the impact of these enablers on the problems related to product development processes. Thus, this paper aims to examine the relationship between five LPD practices’ constructs and the occurrence frequency of eleven LPD problems’ constructs in companies that are implementing lean. Moreover, the identification of relevant relationships between LPD practices’ and problems’ constructs may contribute to specify the contexts in which problems are expected to occur. The study sample comprises sixty four companies already undergoing lean implementation both in shop floor and offices area. The results indicate that the same practices’ constructs, which are deemed as influential for minimizing LPD problems, present different relationship intensities among them.

  6. Downstream Processing of Synechocystis for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie

    Lipids and free fatty acids (FFA) from cyanobacterium Synechocystis can be used for biofuel (e.g. biodiesel or renewable diesel) production. In order to utilize and scale up this technique, downstream processes including culturing and harvest, cell disruption, and extraction were studied. Several solvents/solvent systems were screened for lipid extraction from Synechocystis. Chloroform + methanol-based Folch and Bligh & Dyer methods were proved to be "gold standard" for small-scale analysis due to their highest lipid recoveries that were confirmed by their penetration of the cell membranes, higher polarity, and stronger interaction with hydrogen bonds. Less toxic solvents, such as methanol and MTBE, or direct transesterification of biomass (without preextraction step) gave only slightly lower lipid-extraction yields and can be considered for large-scale application. Sustained exposure to high and low temperature extremes severely lowered the biomass and lipid productivity. Temperature stress also triggered changes of lipid quality such as the degree of unsaturation; thus, it affected the productivities and quality of Synechocystis-derived biofuel. Pulsed electric field (PEF) was evaluated for cell disruption prior to lipid extraction. A treatment intensity > 35 kWh/m3 caused significant damage to the plasma membrane, cell wall, and thylakoid membrane, and it even led to complete disruption of some cells into fragments. Treatment by PEF enhanced the potential for the low-toxicity solvent isopropanol to access lipid molecules during subsequent solvent extraction, leading to lower usage of isopropanol for the same extraction efficiency. Other cell-disruption methods also were tested. Distinct disruption effects to the cell envelope, plasma membrane, and thylakoid membranes were observed that were related to extraction efficiency. Microwave and ultrasound had significant enhancement of lipid extraction. Autoclaving, ultrasound, and French press caused significant

  7. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  8. Highlighting the importance of testing in the product development process

    OpenAIRE

    Tahera, Khadija; Eckert, Claudia; Earl, Chris

    2015-01-01

    A product development is not a linear process of “design-build-test”; rather, the design process and the testing process are closely integrated throughout the product development process. The main objective of this paper is to understand how testing is integrated into the product development process and how that effects the product development processes in companies. This paper reports case studies in UK based manufacturing companies where physical testing are essential activities but key con...

  9. Global Competitiveness in the Beer Industry: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Subhash C. Jain

    1994-01-01

    Three companies (Anheuser-Busch, Miller, and Coors) in the brewing industry accounted for 78 percent of the U.S. market in 1992. Among these three, Anheuser-Busch is the apparent leader with 46.2 percent of the market. Although Anheuser-Busch produces and markets a number of brands, the Budweiser brand has been the top selling beer with 24.1 percent market share in 1992. Lately, light beers have been gaining ground, a trend likely to continue in the future. Foreign beer brands account for abo...

  10. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew Gołaś; Mariusz Ścibek

    2010-01-01

    The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consume...

  11. Cloning and characterization of the beer foaming gene CFG1 from Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Lucía; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-10-31

    Foam production is an essential characteristic of beer, generated mainly from the proteins present in the malt and, to a minor extent, from the mannoproteins in brewer's yeast cell walls. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of the novel fermentation gene CFG1 (Carlsbergensis foaming gene) from Saccharomyces pastorianus. CFG1 encodes the cell wall protein Cfg1p, a 105 kDa protein highly homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall mannoproteins, particularly those involved in foam formation, such as Awa1p and Fpg1p. Further characterization of Cfg1p revealed that this novel protein is responsible for beer foam stabilization. This report represents the first time that a brewing yeast foaming gene has been cloned and its action fully characterized. PMID:23039128

  12. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biancolillo, Alessandra; Bucci, Remo; Magrì, Antonio L.; Magrì, Andrea D.; Marini, Federico, E-mail: fmmonet@hotmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples.

  13. Data-fusion for multiplatform characterization of an italian craft beer aimed at its authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Characterization of beer samples by five different fingerprinting techniques. • Chemometric discriminant and class-modeling techniques used for their authentication. • Mid-level data fusion allowed correct classification of all samples. - Abstract: Five different instrumental techniques: thermogravimetry, mid-infrared, near-infrared, ultra-violet and visible spectroscopies, have been used to characterize a high quality beer (Reale) from an Italian craft brewery (Birra del Borgo) and to differentiate it from other competing and lower quality products. Chemometric classification models were built on the separate blocks using soft independent modeling of class analogies (SIMCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) obtaining good predictive ability on an external test set (75% or higher depending on the technique). The use of data fusion strategies – in particular, the mid-level one – to integrate the data from the different platforms allowed the correct classification of all the training and validation samples

  14. Beer is the cattle of women: sorghum beer commercialization and dietary intake of agropastoral families in Karamoja, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Kelsey Needham; Akol, Helen A; Gray, Sandra J

    2010-04-01

    Karimojong agropastoralists of Uganda have employed a dual subsistence strategy of cattle herding and sorghum cultivation to survive in an unpredictable environment, one afflicted by a severe humanitarian crisis. Armed raiding since the 1970s has led to devastating cattle losses, high male mortality, and increased sedentarization of women and children in densely populated homesteads, where infectious diseases and malnutrition rates are prevalent. Fieldwork in 1998-1999 confirmed the detrimental effects of armed raiding on child growth and development. During this period, however, women maintained largely traditional subsistence patterns. Follow-up fieldwork in 2004 revealed surprising subsistence changes: sorghum beer, an important food and ritual item, was being brewed for sale, which had not been noted in previous literature on the Karimojong. We outline the role of beer in the diet by analyzing the nutritional profile of Karimojong women and children, nutrients supplied by beer, and those supplied by foodstuffs purchased with sales profits. Commercial beer supplied from 3 to 6% of energy intake, and grains leftover from brewing (dregs) supplied from 3 to 12%. Selling beer was women's preferred form of casual labor, with differing patterns of participation in brewing between rural and peri-urban areas. Women who were paid in currency relied on profits to purchase nutrient-rich supplemental foodstuffs important in an otherwise marginal diet, as well as beer. The households of women who worked for other brewers or purchased beer wholesale and sold it retail relied heavily on dregs for daily subsistence. Nutrient intake was highest among women with cattle and sorghum who brewed and sold beer from their homesteads, and lowest among women who lacked sorghum and worked for commercial brewers in urban centers. Because nutritional status remains marginal in Karamoja, beer commercialization as a consequence of subsistence changes could have dramatic health consequences

  15. Cyclic thermodynamic processes and entropy production

    CERN Document Server

    Abou-Salem, W K

    2005-01-01

    We study the time evolution of a periodically driven quantum-mechanical system coupled to several reservoirs of free fermions at different temperatures and chemical potentials. This is a paradigm of a cyclic thermodynamic process. We introduce the notion of a Floquet Liouvillean as the generator of the dynamics of the coupled system on an extended Hilbert space. We show that the time-periodic state which the true state of the coupled system converges to after very many periods corresponds to a zero-energy resonance of the Floquet Liouvillean. We then show that the entropy production per cycle is (strictly) positive, a property that implies Carnot's formulation of the second law of thermodynamics.

  16. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Johnner P Sitompul; W. W.; Tatang H. Soerawidjaja

    2012-01-01

    This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, eac...

  17. The impact of beer type, pizza spiciness and gender on match perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Robert J.; Miszczak, Daniel C.; Ottenbacher, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study surveys preferences of participants towards pairing three categories of beer (lager, ale and stout) with a non-spicy and spicy pizza. The goals of this study are to determine the level of a ‘just right’ match of pizza style with each beer type, determine any differences by gender, and to explore if spice has an impact on participants’ beer selection and beer preference. Implications of this research apply to restaurateurs’ ability to appropriately cater their beer and ...

  18. 27 CFR 26.263 - Determination of tax on beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Procedure at Port of Entry From the Virgin Islands § 26.263 Determination of tax on beer. If the...

  19. Fate of xanthohumol and related prenylflavonoids from hops to beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J F; Taylor, A W; Clawson, J E; Deinzer, M L

    1999-06-01

    The fate of three prenylated flavonoids of the chalcone type, xanthohumol, desmethylxanthohumol, and 3'-geranylchalconaringenin, was monitored with LC/MS-MS from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) to beer in two brewing trials. The three prenylchalcones were largely converted into their isomeric flavanones, isoxanthohumol, prenylnaringenins, and geranylnaringenins, respectively, in the boiling wort. Losses of prenylflavonoids were due to incomplete extraction from the hops into the wort (13-25%), adsorption to insoluble malt proteins (18-26%), and adsorption to yeast cells (11-32%) during fermentation. The overall yield of xanthohumol, after lagering of the beer and largely in the form of isoxanthohumol, amounted to 22-30% of the hops' xanthohumol. About 10% of the hops' desmethylxanthohumol, completely converted into prenylnaringenins, remained in the beers. 3'-Geranylchalconaringenin behaved similarly to desmethylxanthohumol. Solubility experiments indicated that (1) malt carbohydrates form soluble complexes with xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol and (2) solubility does not dictate the isoxanthohumol levels of finished beers. PMID:10794646

  20. Determination of free fatty acids in beer wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Benedetti, Paolo; Marconi, Ombretta; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2014-05-15

    The importance of free fatty acids (FFAs) in wort has been known for a long time because of their influence on beer quality and yeast metabolism. Lipids have a beneficial effect on yeast growth during fermentation as well as negative effects on beer quality. Lipids content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the ratio of unsaturated and saturated fatty acids seems to be related to gushing problems. A novel, simple, and reliable procedure for quantitative analysis of FFAs in wort was developed and validated. The determination of FFAs in wort was achieved via liquid-liquid cartridge extraction, purification of FFA fraction by solid phase extraction, boron trifluoride in methanol methylation, and injection into GC-FID system. The proposed method has high accuracy (Plato). PMID:24423546

  1. Filtering the Beer; A Permanent and Transitory Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Clark; Ronald MacDonald

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we extend the BEER (Behavioral Equilibrium Exchange Rate) approach which identifies an estimated equilibrium relationship between the real exchange rate and economic fundamentals. Here the economic fundamentals are decomposed using Johansen cointegration methods into transitory and permanent components, with the latter used to estimate the Permanent Equilibrium Exchange Rate, or PEER, for the U.S. and Canadian dollars and the pound sterling. The BEER and the PEER move closely to...

  2. Marketing Strategy of Imported Beers before Liquor Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sinee Sankrusme

    2012-01-01

    These are the case study analysis of imported beer companies: the C.V.S Syndicate Company and the TIS Worldwide Marketing (1997) Company. The purpose of the study is to analyze marketing strategy and marketing mix of imported beers before liquor liberalization in 2000. The qualitative and descriptive approaches to the case study analysis used standard research methodology. The results of the study indicated (1) Marketing strategy depended on the economic situation, (2) The company’s marketing...

  3. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measureme......We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption...

  4. Marketing Response Models for Shrinking Beer Sales in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Polasek, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Beer sales in Germany are confronted for several years with a shrinking market share in the market of alcoholic beverages. I use the approach of sales response function (SRF) models as in Polasek and Baier (2010) and adapt it to time series observation of beer sales for simultaneous estimation. I propose a new class of growth sales (gSRF) models having endogenous and exogenous variables as in Polasek (2011) together with marketing efforts that follow a sustained growth allocation pr...

  5. Evaluating Coordinated Effects: An application to the US beer industry

    OpenAIRE

    Beelitz, Frederik

    2009-01-01

    The paper brings Friedman's (1971) collusive game to data and investigates whether the merger between the fifth and fourth largest brewer (G. Heileman and Stroh) of the US beer industry in the mid 1990's had a significant impact on the incentives to collude in the industry. It does so by firstly estimating a random coefficient Logit demand system for the US beer market. In a second step the demand estimates are used to conduct a merger simulation (Davis, 2006) quantifying coordinated effects ...

  6. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  7. Flexibility Study of a Liquid Food Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Applying process engineering simulation method to model the processing of liquid food can provide a way to build a flexible food factory that can efficiently offer a wide range of tailored products in short delivery time. A milk production process, as an example, is simulated using a process...... engineering software to investigate the process operation conditions and flexibility. The established simulation method can be adapted to simulate similar liquid food production processes through suitable modifications....

  8. Atmospheric Processing Module for Mars Propellant Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, A.; Devor, R.; Captain, J.

    2014-01-01

    The multi-NASA center Mars Atmosphere and Regolith COllector/PrOcessor for Lander Operations (MARCO POLO) project was established to build and demonstrate a methaneoxygen propellant production system in a Mars analog environment. Work at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Applied Chemistry Laboratory is focused on the Atmospheric Processing Module (APM). The purpose of the APM is to freeze carbon dioxide from a simulated Martian atmosphere containing the minor components nitrogen, argon, carbon monoxide, and water vapor at Martian pressures (approx. 8 torr) by using dual cryocoolers with alternating cycles of freezing and sublimation. The resulting pressurized CO(sub 2) is fed to a methanation subsystem where it is catalytically combined with hydrogen in a Sabatier reactor supplied by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) to make methane and water vapor. We first used a simplified once-through setup and later employed a H(sub 2)CO(sub 2) recycling system to improve process efficiency. This presentation and paper will cover (1) the design and selection of major hardware items, such as the cryocoolers, pumps, tanks, chillers, and membrane separators, (2) the determination of the optimal cold head design and flow rates needed to meet the collection requirement of 88 g CO(sub 2) hr for 14 hr, (3) the testing of the CO(sub 2) freezer subsystem, and (4) the integration and testing of the two subsystems to verify the desired production rate of 31.7 g CH(sub 4) hr and 71.3 g H(sub 2)O hr along with verification of their purity. The resulting 2.22 kg of CH(sub 2)O(sub 2) propellant per 14 hr day (including O(sub 2) from electrolysis of water recovered from regolith, which also supplies the H(sub 2) for methanation) is of the scale needed for a Mars Sample Return mission. In addition, the significance of the project to NASAs new Mars exploration plans will be discussed.

  9. Development of new product: process development procedure for SMEs:

    OpenAIRE

    Gomišček, Boštjan; Karničar Šenk, Mateja; Maletič, Matjaž; Metlikovič, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The result of our research is a developed and implemented set of activities for new process or product development (NPD procedure) for SMEs environment in the plastic processing industry, which enables the production of products and services with a high value added. The developed NPD procedure consists of five consecutive and overlapping steps: attracting orders, designing a project, developing a product, developing a process and zero production series. Each distinct step is further divided i...

  10. THE INTEGRATED PROCESS OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTS

    OpenAIRE

    Chala, O.

    2010-01-01

    In the article the problem of quality management of products is examined on an industrial enterprise. The integrated process of quality management of products is offered. Generalized and complemented list of factors which influence on quality of industrial products.

  11. Process and product-oriented environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla Kornelia; Nielsen, Eskild Holm; Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The article focuses on end-of-life vehicle regulations and product chain management in relation to South Africa.......The article focuses on end-of-life vehicle regulations and product chain management in relation to South Africa....

  12. 27 CFR 25.205 - Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production. 25.205 Section... Production. (a) Any adult may produce beer, without payment of tax, for personal or family use and not for... that age before commencing the production of beer. This exemption does not authorize the production...

  13. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dražen Horvat; Andrijana Eđed; Đuro Banaj

    2006-01-01

    Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are define...

  14. Furfural Determination with Disposable Polymer Films and Smartphone-Based Colorimetry for Beer Freshness Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-Yuste, Alberto; González-Vallejo, Victoria; Benito-Peña, Elena; de Las Casas Engel, Tomás; Orellana, Guillermo; Moreno-Bondi, María Cruz

    2016-04-01

    We have developed disposable color-changing polymeric films for quantification of furfural-a freshness indicator-in beer using a smartphone-based reader. The films are prepared by radical polymerization of 4-vinylaniline, as a furfural-sensitive indicator monomer, 2-hydroxymethyl methacrylate as a comonomer, and ethylene dimethyl methacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker. The sensing mechanism is based on the Stenhouse reaction in which aniline and furfural react in acidic media with the generation of a deep red cyanine derivative, absorbing at 537 nm, which is visible to the naked eye. The colorimetric response has been monitored using either a portable fiber-optic spectrophotometer or the built-in camera of a smartphone. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response to furfural in beer was obtained in the 39 to 500 μg L(-1) range, with a detection limit of 12 μg L(-1), thus improving the performance of other well-established colorimetric or chromatographic methods. The novel films are highly selective to furfural, and no cross-reactivity has been observed from other volatile compounds generated during beer aging. A smartphone application (app), developed for Android platforms, measures the RGB color coordinates of the sensing membranes after exposure to the analyte. Following data processing, the signals are converted into concentration values by preloaded calibration curves. The method has been applied to determination of furfural in pale lager beers with different storage times at room temperature. A linear correlation (r > 0.995) between the storage time and the furfural concentration in the samples has been confirmed; our results have been validated by HPLC with diode-array detection. PMID:26965182

  15. Global product as a result of globalization process

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2003-01-01

    The paper elaborates on the process of global product creation. The author tries to define a global product. Basic product strategies on global market are described, among them: standardization, adaptation and diversification. Premises and conditions for product standardization as well as determiners of standardization and adaptation are quoted. Many examples of global product and its strategies are described.

  16. From Sentence Production to Text Production: Investigating Fundamental Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    1991-01-01

    Presents a review of cognitive psychology research dealing with the organization and functioning of oral and written language production mechanisms. Discusses works dealing with the microstructural aspects of language, primarily oral production. Describes how the research perspective has evolved from modular to connectionist models. Examines the…

  17. 21 CFR 820.70 - Production and process controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... process control procedures that describe any process controls necessary to ensure conformance to... and control of process parameters and component and device characteristics during production; (3... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production and process controls. 820.70...

  18. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-02-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop technologies for carbon products from coal-derived feedstocks. Carbon products can include precursor materials such as solvent extracted carbon ore (SECO) and synthetic pitch (Synpitch). In addition, derived products include carbon composites, fibers, foams and others. Key milestones included producing hydrogenated coal in the Hydrotreating Facility for the first time. The facility is now operational, although digital controls have not yet been completely wired. In addition, ultrasound is being used to investigate enhanced dissolution of coal. Experiments have been carried out.

  19. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  20. Innovative Processes and Products for Mass Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blecker, Thorsten; Edwards, Kasper; Hvam, Lars;

    goal of KoViP was to create a modular, easy configurable, standard software platform and a suite of standard services for the knowledge acquisition and maintenance as well as for the implementation of product configurators in SMEs producing mass customized products. The second part of the contribution...

  1. Process simulation for advanced composites production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, M.D.; Ferko, S.M.; Griffiths, S. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the efficiency and lower the cost of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes used to manufacture advanced ceramics by providing the physical and chemical understanding necessary to optimize and control these processes. Project deliverables include: numerical process models; databases of thermodynamic and kinetic information related to the deposition process; and process sensors and software algorithms that can be used for process control. Target manufacturing techniques include CVD fiber coating technologies (used to deposit interfacial coatings on continuous fiber ceramic preforms), chemical vapor infiltration, thin-film deposition processes used in the glass industry, and coating techniques used to deposit wear-, abrasion-, and corrosion-resistant coatings for use in the pulp and paper, metals processing, and aluminum industries.

  2. Powder-Metallurgy Process And Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Henry G.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid-solidification processing yields alloys with improved properties. Study undertaken to extend favorable property combinations of I/M 2XXX alloys through recently developed technique of rapid-solidification processing using powder metallurgy(P/M). Rapid-solidification processing involves impingement of molten metal stream onto rapidly-spinning chill block or through gas medium using gas atomization technique.

  3. Hydrogen in the Methanol Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralj, Anita Kovac; Glavic, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is a very important industrial gas in chemical processes. It is very volatile; therefore, it can escape from the process units and its mass balance is not always correct. In many industrial processes where hydrogen is reacted, kinetics are often related to hydrogen pressure. The right thermodynamic properties of hydrogen can be found for…

  4. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colehour, Alese M; Meadow, James F; Liebert, Melissa A; Cepon-Robins, Tara J; Gildner, Theresa E; Urlacher, Samuel S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Snodgrass, J Josh; Sugiyama, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal. PMID:25071997

  5. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alese M. Colehour

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chicha batches using Illumina high-throughput sequencing. Fermented chicha samples were collected from seven Shuar households in two neighboring villages in the Morona-Santiago region of Ecuador, and the composition of the bacterial communities within each chicha sample was determined by sequencing a region of the 16S ribosomal gene. Members of the genus Lactobacillus dominated all samples. Significantly greater phylogenetic similarity was observed among chicha samples taken within a village than those from different villages. Community composition varied among chicha samples, even those separated by short geographic distances, suggesting that ecological and/or evolutionary processes, including human-mediated factors, may be responsible for creating locally distinct ferments. Our results add to evidence from other fermentation systems suggesting that traditional fermentation may be a form of domestication, providing endemic beneficial inocula for consumers, but additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms and extent of microbial dispersal.

  6. Integrating Artificial and Human Intelligence into Tablet Production Process

    OpenAIRE

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-01-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attr...

  7. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Sepulveda, Mauricio; Johannsen, Neil; Astudillo, Sebastián; Jorquera, Carlos; Álvarez, Cristian; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W), beer (AB) or non-alcoholic beer (NAB). Body mass, plasma Na⁺ and K⁺ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG) were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05) in W (-1.1%), AB (-1.0%) and NAB (-1.0%). In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na⁺ was reduced (p < 0.05) in W (-3.9%) and AB (-3.7%), plasma K⁺ was increased (p < 0.05) in AB (8.5%), and USG was reduced in W (-0.9%) and NAB (-1.0%). Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na⁺ and increased plasma K⁺ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na⁺ in plasma during exercise. PMID:27338452

  8. Effects of Beer, Non-Alcoholic Beer and Water Consumption before Exercise on Fluid and Electrolyte Homeostasis in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Castro-Sepulveda

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluid and electrolyte status have a significant impact on physical performance and health. Pre-exercise recommendations cite the possibility of consuming beverages with high amounts of sodium. In this sense, non-alcoholic beer can be considered an effective pre-exercise hydration beverage. This double-blind, randomized study aimed to compare the effect of beer, non-alcoholic beer and water consumption before exercise on fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Seven male soccer players performed 45 min of treadmill running at 65% of the maximal heart rate, 45 min after ingesting 0.7 L of water (W, beer (AB or non-alcoholic beer (NAB. Body mass, plasma Na+ and K+ concentrations and urine specific gravity (USG were assessed before fluid consumption and after exercise. After exercise, body mass decreased (p < 0.05 in W (−1.1%, AB (−1.0% and NAB (−1.0%. In the last minutes of exercise, plasma Na+ was reduced (p < 0.05 in W (−3.9% and AB (−3.7%, plasma K+ was increased (p < 0.05 in AB (8.5%, and USG was reduced in W (−0.9% and NAB (−1.0%. Collectively, these results suggest that non-alcoholic beer before exercise could help maintain electrolyte homeostasis during exercise. Alcoholic beer intake reduced plasma Na+ and increased plasma K+ during exercise, which may negatively affect health and physical performance, and finally, the consumption of water before exercise could induce decreases of Na+ in plasma during exercise.

  9. A Prevalidation of the Product-Process Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenbaum, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for instructors of supply chain and operations management (SCOM) courses is to help students who have never seen a production floor visualize concepts, such as the product-process matrix from standard introductory SCOM texts. This article presents a classroom exercise, which "prevalidates" the product-process matrix.…

  10. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.;

    2015-01-01

    In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...... economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary....

  11. Nuclear reactor plant for production process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high temperature reactor is suitable as a heat source for carrying out endothermal chemical processes. A heat exchanger is required for separating the reactor coolant gases and the process medium. The heat of the reactor is transferred at a temperature lower than the process temperature to a secondary gas and is compressed to give the required temperature. The compression energy is obtained from the same reactor. (RW)

  12. PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH AND INPUT MIX CHANGES IN FOOD PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Adelaja, Adesoji O.

    1992-01-01

    To examine productivity growth in New Jersey's food-processing sector, this study conducts a joint analysis of total and partial factor productivity indexes. Results indicate growing material intensity, declining labor and capital intensities, and relatively slow material productivity growth. However, due to the high cost share of material inputs, material productivity growth contributed more to total factor productivity growth than did growth in the productivity of any other input. In fact, ...

  13. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: → EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. → CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. → Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  14. Success factors of energy performance contracting (EPC) for sustainable building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Pengpeng, E-mail: xupp.cn@gmail.com [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, Edwin Hon-Wan; Queena Kun Qian [Department of Building and Real Estate, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-11-15

    Hotel building is a type of high-energy-consuming building and most existing hotel buildings need energy efficiency improvement in China. Energy performance contracting (EPC) is considered a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) project. However, EPC mechanism has been introduced into China relatively recently and many EPCs have not been successful in building energy efficiency retrofit projects. This research aims to develop a set of critical success factors (CSFs) of EPC for sustainable energy efficiency retrofit (BEER) of hotel buildings in China. Semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey with practitioners and other professionals were conducted. The findings reveal the relative importance of the 21 number of identified success factors. In order to explore the underlying relationship among the identified critical success factors (CSFs), factor analysis method was adopted for further investigation, which leads to grouping the 21 identified CSFs into six clusters. These are (1) project organization process, (2) EPC project financing for hotel retrofit, (3) knowledge and innovation of EPC, sustainable development (SD), and M and V, (4) implementation of sustainable development strategy, (5) contractual arrangement, and (6) external economic environment. Finally, several relevant policies were proposed to implement EPC successfully in sustainable BEER in hotel buildings. - Highlights: > EPC is a win-win mechanism to organize building energy efficiency retrofit project. > CSFs of EPC mechanism for sustainable BEER of hotel building in China are examined. > Six clusters are extracted from 21 identified CSFs based on factor analysis.

  15. Measurement Of Beer Taste Attributes Using An Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polshin, Evgeny; Rudnitskaya, Alisa; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Lammertyn, Jeroen; Nicolaï, Bart; Saison, Daan; Delvaux, Freddy R.; Delvaux, Filip; Legin, Andrey

    2009-05-01

    The present work deals with the results of the application of an electronic tongue system as an analytical tool for rapid assessment of beer flavour. Fifty samples of Belgian and Dutch beers of different types, characterized with respect to sensory properties and bitterness, were analyzed using the electronic tongue (ET) based on potentiometric chemical sensors. The ET was capable of predicting 10 sensory attributes of beer with good precision including sweetness, sourness, intensity, body, etc., as well as the most important instrumental parameter—bitterness. These results show a good promise for further progressing of the ET as a new analytical technique for the fast assessment of taste attributes and bitterness, in particular, in the food and brewery industries.

  16. The impact of different ale brewer’s yeast strains on the proteome of immature beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berner, Torben Sune; Jacobsen, Susanne; Arneborg, Nils

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well known that brewer’s yeast affects the taste and aroma of beer. However, the influence of brewer’s yeast on the protein composition of beer is currently unknown. In this study, changes of the proteome of immature beer, i.e. beer that has not been matured after fermentation, by...... ale brewer’s yeast strains with different abilities to degrade fermentable sugars were investigated. RESULTS: Beers were fermented from standard hopped wort (13° Plato) using two ale brewer’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains with different attenuation degrees. Both immature beers had the same...... alcohol and protein concentrations. Immature beer and unfermented wort proteins were analysed by 2-DE and compared in order to determine protein changes arising from fermentation. Distinct protein spots in the beer and wort proteomes were identified using Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time...

  17. Methodology of evaluation of value created in the productive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Roszak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Of this paper was to present the methodology of analysis of the productive processes with applicationof value analysis and multi-criterion-analysis which allow to evaluate the technology and organization of theproductive processes.Design/methodology/approach: Presented in the paper methodology of evaluation of the productive processesis based on analysis of activities in the productive processes and their characteristics with reference to createdvalue in the productive chain.Findings: The paper presents elaborated by the author methodology and computer application for applicationin the chains of the productive processes.Research limitations/implications: Presented methodology allows to evaluate effectivity of the productivechains connecting aspects of the management and economics of the process.Practical implications: Presented methodology was used in analysis of the productive chains and theireffectivity, and also as a benchmarking instrument.Originality/value: The paper presents originally elaborated computer application for the value added analysisin the productive chains.

  18. NOVEL PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS FOR RECOMBINANT PRODUCTION OF BIOPHARMACEUTICALS

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody market represents the fastest-growing segment within the biopharmaceutical industry (Evans and Das 2005). Indeed, recombinant antibodies and antibody fragments are widespread tools for research, diagnostics and therapy (Joosten et al., 2003). Large-scale production of recombinant antibodies and antibody fragments requires a suitable expression system which has to be cheap, accessible for genetic modifications, easily scaled up for greater demands and safe for use in co...

  19. Bio-oil Production - Process Optimization and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Jessica

    such candidate is hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), a thermochemical process that converts low-value biomass feedstocks to a high-value bio-through the use of hot compressed water and catalysts. As there is typically residual oxygen left in the bio-crude from HTL, further processing involves upgrading in order...... to be further treated in existing refineries. The design of an efficient, low input procedure for this requires an accurate understanding of the nature of the bio-crude along with corresponding upgrading pathways as well as existing refinery structure assessment. Once pathways have been identified the optimal...

  20. Goal Model Integration for Tailoring Product Line Development Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arfan Mansoor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Many companies rely on the promised benefits of product lines, targeting systems between fully custom made software and mass products. Such customized mass products account for a large number of applications automatically derived from a product line. This results in the special importance of product lines for companies with a large part of their product portfolio based on their product line. The success of product line development efforts is highly dependent on tailoring the development process. This paper presents an integrative model of influence factors to tailor product line development processes according to different project needs, organizational goals, individual goals of the developers or constraints of the environment. This model integrates goal models, SPEM models and requirements to tailor development processes.

  1. Managing product variety in quotation processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bramham, Jo; MacCarthy, Bart L.; Guinery, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Manufacturers across many sectors increasingly operate in high variety environments. Research evidence suggests that variety has a negative impact on performance. However, the research literature is limited on the enablers that allow variety to be managed effectively and efficiently at the “front-end” of an organisation and in quotation processes in particular. Design/methodology/approach – This paper presents case analysis of the quotation processes from manufacturers operating ...

  2. Evaluating administrative data quality as inputof the statistical production process

    OpenAIRE

    Fulvia Cerroni; Grazia Di Bella; Lorena Galiè

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating and reporting data quality of administrative sources is a growing need for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs) as more and more production processes are using this type of data source. To monitor the quality of the administrative data supply that enter the statistical production process, to evaluate its possible use for statistical purposes and to support administrative data acquisition are tasks that should be performed in the early stages of the production process. The paper r...

  3. A Content Analysis of Factors Affecting New Product Development Process

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Atilgan-Inan; Aslihan Buyukkupcu; Serkan Akinci

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the international marketing literature on new product development process and compare the changes in the important factors in the process with the changes in the management approaches. For this purpose, the articles in three international marketing journals were selected and “new product development” and “new product performance” were searched for in the abstracts. After grouping the variables in the process, they were compared with the perspectives of...

  4. Characterisation and improvement of the quality of Rwandese traditional beer « ikigage » made from sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Lyumugabe Loshima, François

    2013-01-01

    Ikigage is a Rwandese traditional beer made from sorghum malt and local plants, mainly Vernonia amygdalina “umubirizi”. However, this beer remains less attractive than Western beers of pils type because of poor hygienic quality, variations of organoleptic quality and limited shelf life. The aim of this work is to characterize ikigage beer in order to improve its hygienic quality and to reduce the organoleptic variations using the local raw materials. The first part of our study shows that iki...

  5. Potential Bacterial Consortium to Increase the Effectiveness of Beer Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Nia Anggraeni; Ida Bagus Wayan Gunam; Retno Kawuri

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to determine the effectiveness of microbial consortia in beer wastewater treatment. The research was initiated with the isolation of soil microbial consortium that has been contaminated by beer waste water, followed by the selection of the best potential microbial beer wastewater treatment. At the end, the selection of the best microbial consortium was tested in beer wastewater treatment based on pollutant parameters namely biochemical oxygen demand (BOD...

  6. Assessment of factors influencing the antioxidant capacity and flavour stability of beer

    OpenAIRE

    Aumala, Ville

    2015-01-01

    Controlling beer flavour stability is of high importance to brewers because of export and extended storage of packaged beer. Antioxidant (AO) capacity has been claimed to be a major factor affecting the rate of beer staling. However, there is no consensus in the literature on the relative significance of oxidative vs. non-oxidative staling in beer packaged using modern methods enabling low oxygen concentrations (50-450 ppb) in the package. The current thesis aimed to investigate the relat...

  7. Metal Content and Stable Isotope Determination in Some Commercial Beers from Romanian Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Cezara Voica; Dana-Alina Magdas; Ioana Feher

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of beer samples is of interest because their compositions affect the taste and stability of beer and, also, consumer health. In this work, the characterizations of 20 Romanian beers were performed by mean of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) in order to trace heavy metals and isotopic content of them. Major, minor, and trace metals are important in beer fermentation since they supply the appropriate environment fo...

  8. Sexual and reproductive health issues facing Southeast Asian beer promoters: a qualitative pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Spitzer Denise L; Webber Gail C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Southeast Asia, hundreds of thousands of young rural women migrate from their villages to the larger cities in search of work. Many find employment with beer companies or in the clubs where beer is sold, promoting the sale of beer. Previous research suggests these young migrants are in a highly vulnerable position. This paper will describe the findings of an October 2009 meeting to develop a research agenda on the sexual and reproductive health of beer promoters and a s...

  9. Project and Innovation Management in New Product Development Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Leif; Gayretli, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Although the process of innovation is one of the most important drivers behind the growth and prosperity of today’s global economy, it is one of the least understood. This paper aims to address specific problems in carrying out new product development processes. There are crucial issues related to...... product design processes like inefficient project management, increasing product complexity, conflict management, shortfall of existing methods and tools, and high failures in new product introduction. A new approach has been proposed for a system based platform, which consist of a product platform, a...

  10. High Alcohol Control Process Optimization Factors%高级醇控制影响因素工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国林

    2014-01-01

    介绍啤酒生产过程中高级醇的影响因素,优化确定降低高级醇的因素措施。%The factors affecting the beer production process optimization to reduce higher alcohols higher alcohol content factor measures.

  11. Production process for function-gradient material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A function-gradient material to be used for a heat receiving element and a heat releasing plate of a divertor plate for use in a thermonuclear power plant is produced. Powders of two or more kinds of high-melting point ingredients having different grain size are formed into a slurry. This slurry is cast into a mold to form a molding product of powders having ingredients of high-melting point in which the grain size is gradually increased and the porosity is gradually reduced by the change of the sedimentation velocity. The molding product is sintered to form a skeleton having a structure in which the porosity is continuously changed to one surface. Further, the skeleton is impregnated with ingredients of low melting point under melting to form a function-gradient material. With such procedures, continuously gradient structure can be formed easily without using a powder accumulation device. (T.M.)

  12. DETERMINANTS OF AN EFFECTIVE PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: TOWARDS A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR PROCESS INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    DIANA CHRONÉER; KRISTINA LAURELL-STENLUND

    2006-01-01

    Organisation and management of the product development process have been an issue in both academia and industry for over three decades. The literature on product development is growing, but Process Industry is often lacking in these discussions. Therefore, this paper focuses on linking the determinants of an effective product development process to Process Industry and the implication this may have on a traditionally very process-oriented industry by nature. Further, the paper organises the b...

  13. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  14. Fish production and processing in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Tobor, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper highlights the importance of fish protein in essentially carbohydrate diets and relates increasing demand for fish to the short supply of protein of animal origin. The demand for fish in Nigeria from 1985 to the year 2000 is presented. Domestic production relative to demand is stressed. Estimated potential yields of resources from various bodies of water and indication of their present levels of exploration are indicated. The potential of aquaculture as the most reliable means o...

  15. PRODUCTION OF MAIZE BEER AT A WARI SITE IN THE AYACUCHO VALLEY, PERU (Producción de bebida fermentada en un sitio Wari del valle de Ayacucho, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina J. Bettcher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption is not just a current phenomenon; archaeological findings demonstrate that many ancient civilizations around the world also made fermented beverages from a variety of products, including maize. However, the archaeological study of fermented beverages is not straightforward because the raw materials used in alcohol production are recovered only under exceptional conditions of preservation and the equipment remains are fragmentary. In this paper, our aim is to consider how ethnographical and ethnohistorical data may be used to better interpret the potential archaeological evidence for the production of fermented beverages. Here we use as an example the Middle Horizon site of Marayniyoq, from the Peruvian central highlands to discuss the production of fermented beverages. ESPAÑOL: El consumo del alcohol no es un fenómeno actual; la evidencia arqueológica demuestra que muchas de las antiguas civilizaciones alrededor del mundo también produjeron bebidas fermentadas de una variedad de productos, incluido el maíz. Sin embargo, el estudio arqueológico de las bebidas fermentadas no siempre es directo debido a que la materia prima se recupera sólo ocasionalmente y bajo condiciones excepcionales, mientras que los instrumentos y utensilios empleados en dicha producción son fragmentarios. En este trabajo, es nuestra intención destacar cómo evidencia etnográfica y datos ethnohistóricos pueden ser útiles para una mejor interpretación de la evidencia arqueológica relacionada con la producción de bebidas fermentadas en el pasado. Aquí utilizamos la evidencia proveniente del sitio de Marayniyoq, perteneciente al Horizonte Medio y ubicado en la sierra central del Perú como un ejemplo para discutir la producción de las bebidas fermentadas.

  16. Comparison of Authorization/Registration/Notification Processes among Biocidal Products, Cosmetics, Plant Protection Products and Human Medicinal Products

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, comparison of the authorization/registration/notification processes of biocidal products, cosmetics, plant protection products and medicinal products are made and in this respect, the situation in EU is assessed.

  17. From Process to Product: Your Risk Process at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Fogarty, Jenifer; Charles, John; Buquo, Lynn; Sibonga, Jean; Alexander, David; Horn, Wayne G.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2010-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) and Human Research Program (HRP) at the NASA/Johnson Space Center work together to address and manage the human health and performance risks associated with human space flight. This includes all human system requirements before, during, and after space flight, providing for research, and managing the risk of adverse long-term health outcomes for the crew. We previously described the framework and processes developed for identifying and managing these human system risks. The focus of this panel is to demonstrate how the implementation of the framework and associated processes has provided guidance in the management and communication of human system risks. The risks of early onset osteoporosis, CO2 exposure, and intracranial hypertension in particular have all benefitted from the processes developed for human system risk management. Moreover, we are continuing to develop capabilities, particularly in the area of information architecture, which will also be described. We are working to create a system whereby all risks and associated actions can be tracked and related to one another electronically. Such a system will enhance the management and communication capabilities for the human system risks, thereby increasing the benefit to researchers and flight surgeons.

  18. The fermentation kinetics and physicochemical properties of special beer with addition of Prokupac grape variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljović Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the market of special beers with improved healthy function and/or with new refreshing taste has significantly increased. One of the possible solutions enables grape and mixing beer with bioactive component responsible for well known health promoting action of red wine. The influence of the addition of Prokupac grape on the physicochemical properties and the fermentation kinetics of the grape beer were studied and results were compared with control lager beer. The effect of grape addition on the activity of yeast was also studied. Original extract, alcohol content, degree of fermentation, fermentation rate and yeast growth were significantly higher in beers with grapes as a consequence of higher concentration of simple sugars in grapes compared with pure wort. Based on the CIELab chromatic parameters the color of grape beer samples was yellow with certain proportion of redness, while the control beer was purely yellow. The increase in the concentration of grape mash affects the reduction of lightness and yellowness of beers, while the redness of samples was directly proportional with grape quantity. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of grape beers was remarkably higher compared with control beer, which indicates that the grape beer is a better source of natural antioxidants than regular lager beer. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46001

  19. Zinc and methanol production using HTR process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinc making methods are reviewed and the advantages of zinc oxide reduction by methane pointed out. The synthesis and applications of methanol are discussed. A combined process of zinc making and methanol production using HTGR process heat is proposed. (Auth.)

  20. ENTROPY PRODUCTION RATE OF THE MINIMAL DIFFUSION PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The entropy production rate of stationary minimal diffusion processes with smooth coefficients is calculated. As a byproduct, the continuity of paths of the minimal diffusion processes is discussed, and that the point at infinity is absorbing is proved.

  1. Guidelines and cost analysis for catalyst production in biocatalytic processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufvesson, Pär; Lima Ramos, Joana; Nordblad, Mathias;

    2011-01-01

    be a powerful tool to guide research and development activities in order to achieve commercial potential. This study discusses the cost contribution of the biocatalyst in processes that use isolated enzymes, immobilized enzymes, or whole cells to catalyze reactions leading to the production of chemicals...... as well as the production scale are crucial for decreasing the total cost contribution of the biocatalyst. Moreover, it is clear that, based on initial process performance, the potential to reduce production costs by several orders of magnitude is possible. Guideline minimum productivities for a feasible...... process are suggested for different types of processes and products, based on typical values of biocatalyst and product costs. Such guidelines are dependent on the format of the biocatalyst (whole-cell, soluble enzyme, immobilized enzyme), as well as product market size and value. For example commodity...

  2. Simulation and Flexibility Analysis of Milk Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    In this work, process simulation method is used to simulate pasteurised market milk production line. A commercial process simulation tool - Pro/II from Simulation Science Inc. is used in the simulation work. In the simulation, a new model is used to calculate the thermal property of milk....... In this work, a simulator is obtained for the milk production line. Using the simulator, different milk processing situation can be quantitatively simulated investigated, such as different products production, capacity changes, fat content changes in raw milk, energy cost at different operation conditions etc....... As the pasteurised market milk production line involves typical milk processing steps, such as pasteurisation, centrifugal separation, standardisation, the simulator can be modified to simulate similar milk processing lines. In many cases, the rapidly changed market requires a flexible milk production line...

  3. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  4. Group Work: From Process to Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Rosemarie Giroux

    1994-01-01

    Describes a step-by-step process for conducting a small-group activity for intermediate students of French as a Second Language in which the students are asked to create a print advertisement for a new, nutritious snack. The steps include contextualization, brainstorming, establishing criteria, planning the activity, language, and reflection on…

  5. Simulation-based optimization for product and process design

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The design of products and processes has gradually shifted from a purely physical process towards a process that heavily relies on computer simulations (virtual prototyping). To optimize this virtual design process in terms of speed and final product quality, statistical methods and mathematical optimization techniques are widely used nowadays. The main contributions of this thesis are in two areas. The first is the area of gradient estimation for optimization problems for which a single simu...

  6. Isoflavones in processed soybean products from Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inés Genovese

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Soy products produced in Ecuador, with a local developed and cultivated soybean variety (INIAP 306, were analysed for isoflavone content and profile. The products presented high total isoflavone contents, varying from 53 to 106 mg/100 g (wet basis, expressed as aglycones, the lowest content being for okara and the highest for the low fat soybean flour obtained by extrusion cooking of the seeds at the field moisture. Soy nuts showed the same content of isoflavones than the seeds, but with lower amounts of malonylglycosides and higher of the deesterified beta-glycosides. The malonylglycosides were the predominant form of the isoflavones in the flours, and the beta-glycosides in soymilk and textured soy protein. Genistein derivatives were the compounds present in the highest proportions in all the products analysed.Produtos derivados de soja produzidos no Equador, com uma variedade de soja (INIAP 306 desenvolvida e cultivada localmente, tiveram o teor e perfil de isoflavonas determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Os produtos apresentaram altos conteúdos de isoflavonas, variando de 53 a 106 mg/100 g (base úmida, expresso como agliconas, sendo o menor conteúdo encontrado em okara e o maior na farinha parcialmente desengordurada obtida através de extrusão das sementes. Os snacks de soja apresentaram o mesmo conteúdo de isoflavonas que as sementes, mas com quantidades menores de malonilglicosídeos e maiores de beta-glicosídeos desesterificados. Os malonilglicosídeos foram as formas predominantes encontradas nas farinhas e os beta-glicosídeos no leite e na proteína texturizada de soja. Os derivados de genisteína foram os compostos presentes nas maiores proporções em todos os produtos analisados.

  7. Simulation of a Sponge Iron Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Onshus

    1983-07-01

    Full Text Available A model for reduction of FeO with hydrogen in a countercurrent moving bed reactor is summarized. This model is a special case of a mor ecomplete model which also includes reduction of the higher oxides, hematite and magnetite, with a mixture of reducing gases, thus describing the production of direct-reduced iron from iron ores. Equations governing the heat and mass transfer between the gas and solid phase are not given here, but play an important role in the dynamic bahviour of the model.

  8. BD monomer and elastomer production processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J

    2001-06-01

    The monomer 1,3 butadiene (BD) is a product of the petrochemical industry. It is used to make several elastomers including the very high volume styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) that comprises the bulk of automobile tires. It is also used to make polybutadiene rubber that is used in parts of tires, coatings, composites and other products. The monomer can be converted to chlorobutadiene (chloroprene) and used to make polychloroprene (neoprene). BD is one of the several olefins created by cracking hydrocarbons in the presence of steam. A mixed C4 stream from the steam cracker is then sent to a BD monomer extraction unit. Modern units typically use dimethyl formamide as the extraction solvent. SBR is commonly made by the copolymerization of BD and styrene, along with various additives to control the reaction, in a water emulsion. The reaction proceeds in a continuous chain of reactors until it is 'shortstopped' by a strong reducing agent. After removing unreacted monomers from the stabilized latex, it is blended, coagulated and dewatered. The resulting dry rubber crumb is bailed, film wrapped and stored in crates. The polymerization of BD to make polybutadiene rubber can be conducted as a water suspension type polymerization similar to SBR or in a solvent system followed by solvent recovery and transfer into water suspension. PMID:11397387

  9. Fuel production from coal by the Mobil Oil process using nuclear high-temperature process heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two processes for the production of liquid hydrocarbons are presented: Direct conversion of coal into fuel (coal hydrogenation) and indirect conversion of coal into fuel (syngas production, methanol synthesis, Mobil Oil process). Both processes have several variants in which nuclear process heat may be used; in most cases, the nuclear heat is introduced in the gas production stage. The following gas production processes are compared: LURGI coal gasification process; steam reformer methanation, with and without coal hydrogasification and steam gasification of coal. (orig./EF)

  10. Verification of photon-production processing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several laboratories have independently developed computer codes which use evaluated data from the ENDF/B file to produce group-averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for neutron-induced photon production. There have been several instances in which these codes have produced discrepant data sets, and thereby cast doubt on the validity of all the codes. For a series of specified test cases, the results from three of these codes (NJOY, LAPHNGAS, and MACK-IV) were systematically compared with each other and with hand calculations. Several shortcomings in the codes were discovered and repaired. One major difference of philosophy was resolved. Consequently, the codes have arrived at substantial agreement on all of the nearly 1200 nonzero group constants calculated in the study. 4 figures, 1 table

  11. Fluid-bed process for SYNROC production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic waste developed for the immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor waste. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has investigated a fluid-bed technique for the large-scale production of SYNROC precursor powders. Making SYNROC in a fluid bed permits slurry drying, calcination and reduction-oxidation reactions to be carried out in a single unit. We present the results of SYNROC fluid-bed studies from two fluid-bed units 10 cm in diameter: an internally heated fluid-bed unit developed by Exxon Idaho and an externally heated unit constructed at LLNL. Bed operation over a range of temperatures, feed rates, fluidizing rates, and redox conditions indicate that SYNROC powders of a high density and a uniform particle size can be produced. These powders facilitate the densification step and yield dense ceramics (greater than 95% theoretical density) with well-developed phases and low leaching rates

  12. Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.; Tevault, C.V. [and others

    1995-06-01

    In the fundamental biological process of photosynthesis, atmospheric carbon dioxide is reduced to carbohydrate using water as the source of electrons with simultaneous evolution of molecular oxygen: H{sub 2}O + CO{sub 2} + light {yields} O{sub 2} + (CH{sub 2}O). It is well established that two light reactions, Photosystems I and II (PSI and PSII) working in series, are required to perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Experimental data supporting the two-light reaction model are based on the quantum requirement for complete photosynthesis, spectroscopy, and direct biochemical analysis. Some algae also have the capability to evolve molecular hydrogen in a reaction energized by the light reactions of photosynthesis. This process, now known as biophotolysis, can use water as the electron donor and lead to simultaneous evolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen. In green algae, hydrogen evolution requires prior incubation under anaerobic conditions. Atmospheric oxygen inhibits hydrogen evolution and also represses the synthesis of hydrogenase enzyme. CO{sub 2} fixation competes with proton reduction for electrons relased from the photosystems. Interest in biophotolysis arises from both the questions that it raises concerning photosynthesis and its potential practical application as a process for converting solar energy to a non-carbon-based fuel. Prior data supported the requirement for both Photosystem I and Photosystem II in spanning the energy gap necessary for biophotolysis of water to oxygen and hydrogen. In this paper we report the at PSII alone is capable of driving sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen in an anaerobically adapted PSI-deficient strain of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, mutant B4, and that CO{sub 2} competes as an electron acceptor.

  13. Cyclic thermodynamic processes and entropy production

    OpenAIRE

    Salem, Walid K. Abou; Froehlich, Juerg

    2006-01-01

    We study the time evolution of a periodically driven quantum-mechanical system coupled to several reserviors of free fermions at different temperatures. This is a paradigm of a cyclic thermodynamic process. We introduce the notion of a Floquet Liouvillean as the generator of the dynamics on an extended Hilbert space. We show that the time-periodic state to which the true state of the coupled system converges after very many periods corresponds to a zero-energy resonance of the Floquet Liouvil...

  14. Evaluation and Modification of Processes for Bioethanol Separation and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnner P Sitompul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns on process evaluation and modification for bioethanol separation and production by applying pinch technology. Further, the paper is also focused on obtaining a most energy-efficient process among several processes. Three basic process configurations of bioethanol separation and production were selected for this study. The three separations and production systems are Othmer process, Barbet process and a separation process that operates under vacuum condition. Basically, each process is combination of Danish Distilleries process with a separation system yielding 95% (v/v bioethanol. The production capacity of the plant is estimated about 4 x 107 litre of bioethanol 95% (v/v per year. The result of the studies shows that the most energy efficient process among the three processes evaluated is the Othmer process, followed by the Barbet process and the process involving vacuum operation. The evaluation also shows that further energy saving can be carried for Barbet and Othmer process configuration when Tmin = 10oC for heat exchange possible.

  15. Carbohydrate chemistry of congress wort, hopped wort and green beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Čmelík, Richard; Bobálová, Janette

    České Budějovice, 2008. s. 190. [Biochemický sjezd /21./. 14.09.2008-17.09.2008, České Budějovice] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosacharides * beer * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  16. Separation of complex oligosaccharides from wort and beer using HPLC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabálková, Jana; Bobálová, Janette

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 15 (2008), s608-s609. ISSN 1803-2389. [Meeting on Chemistry and Life /4./. Brno, 09.09.2008-11.09.2008] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06037 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : oligosacharides * beer * HPLC Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation

  17. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Arranz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortality, mainly from coronary diseases. However, there are discrepancies regarding the specific effects of different types of beverages (wine, beer and spirits on the cardiovascular system and cancer, and also whether the possible protective effects of alcoholic beverages are due to their alcoholic content (ethanol or to their non-alcoholic components (mainly polyphenols. Epidemiological and clinical studies have pointed out that regular and moderate wine consumption (one to two glasses a day is associated with decreased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD, hypertension, diabetes, and certain types of cancer, including colon, basal cell, ovarian, and prostate carcinoma. Moderate beer consumption has also been associated with these effects, but to a lesser degree, probably because of beer’s lower phenolic content. These health benefits have mainly been attributed to an increase in antioxidant capacity, changes in lipid profiles, and the anti-inflammatory effects produced by these alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes the main protective effects on the cardiovascular system and cancer resulting from moderate wine and beer intake due mainly to their common components, alcohol and polyphenols.

  18. Hypolipidemic effect of beer proteins in experiment on rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gorinstein, S.; Leontowicz, H.; Lojek, Antonín; Leontowicz, M.; Číž, Milan; Stager, M. A. G.; Montes, J. M. B.; Toledo, F.; Arancibia-Avila, P.; Trakhtenberg, S.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 3 (2002), s. 265-271. ISSN 0023-6438 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : lyophilized polyphenol-free beer * proteins * lipids Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.746, year: 2002

  19. Effect of Different Hop Extracts on Beer Foam Quality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Martin; Novák, Pavel; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária

    Frankfurt : DECHEMA, 2011, P44.27. ISBN N. [European Congress of Chemical Engineering /8./. Berlin (DE), 25.09.2011-29.09.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foaming * foam behaviour * bubble size Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  20. Adolescent Perceptions of Underage Drinkers in TV Beer Ads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Michael D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tests adolescents' perception of characters' ages in four television beer advertisements and examines correlational relationships between such age judgments and alcohol use. Some 39.4% of participants reported that the youngest character was under 21. Perceptions were positively related to amount of alcohol use among junior high school students,…

  1. Slow-light enhancement of Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Mortensen, N A; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Xiao, Sanshui

    2007-01-01

    We theoretically show how slow light in an optofluidic environment facilitates enhanced light-matter interactions, by orders of magnitude. The proposed concept provides strong opportunities for improving existing miniaturized chemical absorbance cells for Beer-Lambert-Bouguer absorption measurements widely employed in analytical chemistry.

  2. Effect of Container Wall Properties on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária; Drahoš, Jiří

    Vol. Session 6. -: -, 2011, P34. ISBN N. [European Brewery Convention Congress /33./. Glasgow (GB), 22.05.2011-26.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foam * wetting properties * berr stability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://ebc2011glasgow.org/

  3. Effect of Container Wall Properties on Beer Foam

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Baszczyňski, Martin; Brányik, T.; Růžička, Marek; Zedníková, Mária; Drahoš, Jiří

    Vol. Session 6. - : -, 2011, P34. ISBN N. [European Brewery Convention Congress /33./. Glasgow (GB), 22.05.2011-26.05.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : beer foam * wetting properties * berr stability Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://ebc2011glasgow.org/

  4. Continuous Fermentation: Way to Non-alcoholic Beer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Pavel; Kuřec, M.; Brányik, T.; Baszczyňski, Martin; Růžička, Marek; Drahoš, Jiří

    Bratislava: Slovak University of Technology, 2009 - (Markoš, J.), s. 318 ISBN 978-80-227-3072-3. [International Conference of Slovak Society of Chemical Engineering /36./. Tatranské Matliare (SK), 25.05.2009-29.05.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : alcohol-free beer * continuous * fermentation Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  5. EVALUATION OF PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT PROCESS USING EMVS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Tonissi Moroni Cutovoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates a PDP model application in an auto parts company, leader in its segment. From the application of lean thinking in the supply chain and the EMVS performance analysis methodology for PDP, a check list is created to avoid waste in project management. In this paper, we show that EMVS can be positively impacted through active management of knowledge within a project. This paper suggests that the value-enabling portion of a project manager's role requires aligning knowledge across these three key domains regarding PDP Gates (Phases at company manufacturers of auto parts, Lean Thinking and Value Stream, and methodology for managing projects through performance-term rates and costs. The results show that the methodology has positive aspects, but its implementation takes time and has repercussions throughout the supply chain. Further this research try to explain the types of wastes and view of new products' development is enhanced and associates a manufacturing strategy focus on EMVS performance analysis and lean thinking, PDP and value stream mapping  showing the important of contribution this tools at reduction of waste.

  6. Process and device for thermal energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the invention is to create a heating cycle arrangement, for the energy production facilities as from liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors, that will stand up to the temperature changes of the heated steam at least as from the high pressure turbine. This arrangement includes a first system in which flows a liquid metal coolant between a heat source, a steam generator and a utilisation system on which flows a vaporisable fluid from this generator, passing through a first turbine, a heater, at least a second turbine and a condenser. The steam heated in the heater is heated by the liquid metal coolant. A preheater is located in the heated steam system upstream of the heater. This preheater is connected so as to heat the steam to a preset, practically constant value, before this steam to be heated enters the heater heated by the liquid metal. This arrangement reduces the thermal transitions in the superheater and the heater during load changes. In a preferential design mode, the steam from the steam generator is sent to a moisture extraction drum and the heater is exposed to the steam in this drum

  7. Metrology for the production process of aspheric lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Metrology revealing the form deviation of an aspheric surface is a fundamental part of all different production processes of aspheric lenses. Different processing steps have different requirements for the production. A selection of measuring instruments commonly applied in these processes is presented. This contains tactile and optical pointwise measuring instruments and laser interferometer systems. The principle functionality and the properties are presented. An overview of the application of these systems in different production processes is given. In order to show comparability, measuring results of the different types of systems are presented.

  8. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  9. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    , its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of...

  10. Production process and quality control for the HTTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the production and inspection technology for High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) fuel has been carried out by cooperative work between Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd (NFI). The performance and the quality level of the developed fuel are well established to meet the design requirements of the HTTR. For the commercial scale production of the fuel, statistical quality control and quality assurance must be carefully considered in order to assure the safety of the HTTR. It is also important to produce the fuel under well controlled process condition. To meet these requirements in the production of the HTTR fuel, a new production process and quality control system is to be introduced in the new facilities. The main feature of the system is a computer integrated control system. Process control data at each production stage of products and semi-products are all gathered by terminal computers and processed by a host computer. The processed information is effectively used for the production, quality and accountancy control. With the aid of this system, all the products will be easily traceable from starting materials to final stages and the statistical evaluation of the quality of products becomes more reliable. (author). 8 figs

  11. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Horvat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are defined. There are many institutions in Croatia that work in accordance with these standards. Implementation of statistical process control and usage of a control charts can greatly help in convergence to the standards and in decreasing of production costs. To illustrate the above mentioned we tested a work quality of a nozzle at the eighteen meter clutch sprayer.

  12. Modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Busch, David R.; Mesquita, Rickson C.; Greenberg, Joel H.; Yodh, A. G.

    2015-03-01

    The modified Beer-Lambert law is among the most widely used approaches for analysis of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflectance signals for measurements of tissue blood volume and oxygenation. Briefly, the modified Beer-Lambert paradigm is a scheme to derive changes in tissue optical properties based on continuous-wave (CW) diffuse optical intensity measurements. In its simplest form, the scheme relates differential changes in light transmission (in any geometry) to differential changes in tissue absorption. Here we extend this paradigm to the measurement of tissue blood flow by diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). In the new approach, differential changes of the intensity temporal auto-correlation function at a single delay-time are related to differential changes in blood flow. The key theoretical results for measurement of blood flow changes in any tissue geometry are derived, and we demonstrate the new method to monitor cerebral blood flow in a pig under conditions wherein the semi-infinite geometry approximation is fairly good. Specifically, the drug dinitrophenol was injected in the pig to induce a gradual 200% increase in cerebral blood flow, as measured with MRI velocity flow mapping and by DCS. The modified Beer-Lambert law for flow accurately recovered these flow changes using only a single delay-time in the intensity auto-correlation function curve. The scheme offers increased DCS measurement speed of blood flow. Further, the same techniques using the modified Beer-Lambert law to filter out superficial tissue effects in NIRS measurements of deep tissues can be applied to the DCS modified Beer-Lambert law for blood flow monitoring of deep tissues.

  13. Role of riboflavin in beer flavor instability: determination of levels of riboflavin and its origin in beer by fluorometric apoprotein titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyvis, Martina G; Hilhorst, Riet; Laane, Colja; Evans, David J; Schmedding, Diederik J M

    2002-03-13

    A method for the quantitative determination of riboflavin levels in beer was developed. The method is based on the quenching of riboflavin fluorescence, which occurs when riboflavin binds to the aporiboflavin-binding protein from egg white. The method does not require any pretreatment of the beer before analysis, other than dilution, and proved to be simple, reliable, and sensitive. The lowest concentration that could be detected was approximately 10 nM riboflavin. The possible interference of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) with the determination of the riboflavin content of beer was excluded, because beer contains only a very small amount of FAD (0.03 microM) and no FMN. The riboflavin levels of the types and brands of beer investigated were in the range of 0.5-1.0 microM. The origin of the riboflavin in beer proved to be the malt. Hop and yeast hardly contributed to the riboflavin content of beer. Besides its use in the determination of riboflavin levels, the aporiboflavin-binding protein also provides a way to remove riboflavin from beer, which reduces the light sensitivity and the related lightstruck off-flavor formation in beer. PMID:11879035

  14. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Augusto; Rui Pedrosa

    2014-01-01

    Minimally processed products (MP) are one of the major growing food product segments due to an increasing demand from consumers for innovative, convenient and healthy products. Shelf-life of MP is compromised mostly by enzymatic browning that causes excessive tissue softening and superficial browning. As the farm to fork path gets longer new techniques to maintain the quality throughout all stages of the production chain and distribution of MP without compromising their healthy and fresh-like...

  15. Process for production of industrial gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maslennikov, V.M.; Gordin, K.A.; Krivokon, A.A.; Nosach, V.G.; Shpil' rain, E.E.; Zholudov, Y.S.

    1981-08-23

    A method for producing gas containing H/sub 2/ and CO from solid fuel in the presence of steam and a high-temperature heat transfer agent at 1500-2500 K with repeated oxidative gasification of the solid residue. The ash-enriched fuel from the 2nd stage is burned in O/sub 2/-containing gas in the 3rd stage. The ash and CO/sub 2/-containing gas are separated, and the gas is returned to the 2nd stage. In the 1st stage the solid fuel is takenin stoichiometric excess for the reaction with steam, and the oxidizing agent in the 2nd stage - in insufficiency; in the 3rd stage the fuel is burned with gas containing excess O/sub 2/ and at a temperature below the melting point of the ash. As the high-temperature heat transfer agent, a portion of the industrial gas preheated to the initial process temperature is used.

  16. Value Stream Analysis of Manufacturing Engineering New Product Introduction Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Maginness, Malachy; Shehab, Essam; Beadle, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a methodology for value stream mapping and analysis of Manufacturing Engineering New Product Introduction processes. The applicability and usefulness of the technique to process improvement in this domain is explored in a case study where the production system for a new component part is planned and proven. This analysis enables an improvement strategy for the Manufacturing Engineering process to be successfully outlined.

  17. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaļķis, Henrijs

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  18. Processing and production of molybdenum and tungsten alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technological means to produce and process Mo and W alloys are summarized because for many Mo and W alloy systems the mechanical properties can be optimized only by thermomechanical processing requiring production and processing capabilities that are not widely available. First, the producers of commercial Mo and W alloys are presented along with currently available product forms. Second, currently disclosed standard capabilities of producers and processors in the United States are presented. 56 references, 13 figures, 9 tables

  19. An Integrated Biomass Production and Conversion Process for Sustainable Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is not enough land for the current bioenergy production process because of its low annual yield per unit land. In the present paper, an integrated biomass production and conversion process for sustainable bioenergy is proposed and analyzed. The wastes from the biomass conversion process, including waste water, gas and solid are treated or utilized by the biomass production process in the integrated process. Analysis of the integrated process including the production of water hyacinth and digestion for methane in a tropical area demonstrates several major advantages of the integrated process. (1 The net annual yield of methane per unit land can reach 29.0 and 55.6 km3/h for the present and future (2040 respectively, which are mainly due to the high yield of water hyacinth, high biomethane yield and low energy input. The land demand for the proposed process accounts for about 1% of the world’s land to meet the current global automobile fuels or electricity consumption; (2 A closed cycle of nutrients provides the fertilizer for biomass production and waste treatment, and thus reduces the energy input; (3 The proposed process can be applied in agriculturally marginal land, which will not compete with food production. Therefore, it may be a good alternative energy technology for the future.

  20. Sustainable Intensified Process Retrofit for the Production of MDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul;

    Process intensification (PI) is a means by which processes can be made more efficient and sustainable at different levels, the unit operations, functional and phenomena levels. Therefore PI can be used for making process improvements at the functional level for the production of an important...

  1. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  2. Sources of Information as Determinants of Product and Process Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jaime; Salazar, Idana; Vargas, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we use a panel of manufacturing firms in Spain to examine the extent to which they use internal and external sources of information (customers, suppliers, competitors, consultants and universities) to generate product and process innovation. Our results show that, although internal sources are influential, external sources of information are key to achieve innovation performance. These results are in line with the open innovation literature because they show that firms that are opening up their innovation process and that use different information sources have a greater capacity to generate innovations. We also find that the importance of external sources of information varies depending on the type of innovation (product or process) considered. To generate process innovation, firms mainly rely on suppliers while, to generate product innovation, the main contribution is from customers. The potential simultaneity between product and process innovation is also taken into consideration. We find that the generation of both types of innovation is not independent. PMID:27035456

  3. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    Properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in the design and/or analysis of these chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design......, they are not always available. Also, it may be too expensive or it may take too long to measure the required data. In these situations and when repetitive calculations are involved, as in process simulation, it is useful to have appropriate models to reliably predict the needed properties. For property model...

  4. 啤酒中胺类物质的系统分析%System analysis of amines in beer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑金珠; 刘翻; 孙元社; 唐涛; 张维冰; 李彤

    2012-01-01

    Many amine compounds are exist in Beer. Whose taste and quality are closely related to the content and the kind of the amine compounds. A method for trace amine compounds analysis in beer was developed in this paper. The amine compounds withNH2 and NH in beer were analyzed by HPLC separation and LIFD determination, using FITC as derivative regent. Then the nitrosamines in beer were quantitative analyzed by lowtemperature vacuum distillation com bined with GCFID. Further more, various kinds of beer on sell were analyzed. Using the developed method, the result indicated that there existed some differences of amine compounds among different brands and different series of beer. Setting the integral threshold at lmv, the largest number of HPLC peaks is 53 and the least number is 38. In the chromato grams of beer samples, Analyze the content of nitrosamines in three kinds of beer and trace nitrosamines have been de tected in two kinds of them. The method has a high sensitivity, good stability and is easily operated. It can be used for de tection of quality of beer and fake and shoddy products and is valuable significance to control the content of carcinogenic amine compounds. It is very important for the health of people. The method is also suitable for amine compounds analysis in other beverage and food.%啤酒中含有大量胺类物质,其种类和含量与啤酒口感与质量密切相关。本文以异硫氰酸荧光素(FITC)为衍生试剂,高效液相色谱(HPLC)-激光诱导荧光(LIFD)检测,分析啤酒中含有-NH2和-NH-基团的胺类物质;低温真空蒸馏结合气相色谱-氢火焰离子化(GC-FID)测定啤酒中亚硝胺类物质含量,建立了啤酒中胺类物质的系统分析方法。进-步以该方法,对市售多种啤酒进行了系统分析。结果表明,不同啤酒中胺类物质的种类及其含量均具有-定差异。以峰高值lmV为积分阈值,样品色谱图中最多检测出53个

  5. TECHNICAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS OF PACKAGING PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rudawska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to customer driven economies, today’s world markets are characterized by high fluctuations in market demand and the frequent arrival of new technologies and new products. To stay competitive in such markets manufacturing companies require continuous improvements both in technical and organizational areas of their activity. The paper presents results of the diagnosis provided in the manufacturing area of the company producing cardboard packages and recommendations to make the production process more efficient. Especially, among the proposed technical and organizational recommendations the most important ones are: automation of certain elements of the production process and changes in production plant layout.

  6. Extraction process of fission products from spent nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process for extracting fission products contained in irradiated nuclear fuel elements consisting in bringing these elements into contact with water after having treated them mechanically to remove their cladding and/or cut them up, then separate these treated elements from the aqueous solution and recuperating at least one of the fission products concerned from this by concentrating it by distillation so as to obtain a concentrate containing these fission products and then processing this concentrate in order to ensure a long term storage of these fission products

  7. Microstructure-controllable Laser Additive Manufacturing Process for Metal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.

  8. Xanthohumol-supplemented beer modulates angiogenesis and inflammation in a skin wound healing model. Involvement of local adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Rita; Costa, Raquel; Duarte, Delfim; Gomes, Tiago Taveira; Coelho, Pedro; Guimarães, João T; Guardão, Luísa; Azevedo, Isabel; Soares, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis and inflammation are two intermingled processes that play a role in wound healing. Nevertheless, whenever exacerbated, these processes result in nonhealing wounds. Xanthohumol (XN), a beer-derived polyphenol, inhibits these processes in many physiopathological situations. This study aimed at examining whether XN ingestion affects wound healing. Wistar rats drinking water, 5% ethanol, stout beer (SB) or stout beer supplemented with 10 mg/L XN (Suppl SB) for 4 weeks, were subjected to a 1.5 cm full skin-thickness longitudinal incision, and further maintained under the same beverage conditions for another week. No differences in beverage consumption or body weight were found throughout the study but food intake decreased in every group relative to controls. Consumption of Suppl SB resulted in decreased serum VEGF levels (18.42%), N-acetylglucosaminidase activity (27.77%), IL1β concentration (9.07%), and NO released (77.06%), accompanied by a reduced redox state as observed by increased GSH/GSSG ratio (to 198.80%). Also, the number of blood vessels within the wound granulation tissue seems to reduce in animals drinking Suppl SB (23.08%). Interestingly, SB and primarily Suppl SB showed a tendency to increase adipocyte number (to 194.26% and 156.68%, respectively) and reduce adipocyte size (4.60% and 24.64%, respectively) within the granuloma. Liver function and metabolism did not change among the animal groups as analyzed by plasma biochemical parameters, indicating no beverage toxicity. This study shows that XN intake in its natural beer context reduced inflammation, oxidative stress, and angiogenesis, ameliorating the wound healing process, suggesting that this polyphenol may exert beneficial effect as a nutritional supplement. PMID:21898537

  9. Model based process-product design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper gives a perspective on modelling and the important role it has within product-process design and analysis. Different modelling issues related to development and application of systematic model-based solution approaches for product-process design is discussed and the need for a hybrid...... model-based framework is highlighted. This framework should be able to manage knowledge-data, models, and associated methods and tools integrated with design work-flows and data-flows for specific product-process design problems. In particular, the framework needs to manage models of different types...

  10. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter;

    2009-01-01

    of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  11. Methodology of the quality management in the productive process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Szewieczek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The quality management in the productive processes is essential in formation of the quality of the final product. It is particularly important in the motor industry. The paper presents characteristics of the management methods and application of the processing point analysis in the chosen productive process.Design/methodology/approach: To solve the problem presented in the paper the authors used the method of the processing point analysis applied in the enterprises adapting the quality management model of the World Class Production.Findings: In the paper there were presented the results of the analyses for the productive process of the back door assembly with usage of the processing point analysis.Research limitations/implications: Presented in the paper methodology and the way of running the processing point analysis being an example of the quality management in the process may serve as the guide for realization of similar tasks.Originality/value: Original application at the example of the methodology of the processing point analysis.

  12. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  13. Generic BOMA Processing System for Assembly-To-Order Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Jun; GU Peiliang; JIAO Yuan-yuan

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses integrated product and production data management for assembly-to-orderproduction, which is characterized by a large number of product and process varieties. A data structure,called Bill-of-Materials-and-Assemblies (BOMA), is proposed for the purpose of unifying BOM and assembly routing data in order to accommodate a wide range of product variability and production variations.A generic BOMA concept is put forward to deal with variety effectively. A prototype system of the proposedgeneric BOMA is implemented using object-oriented modeling.

  14. The nutritional value of some processed meat products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, A S; Mohdyusof, S

    1995-03-01

    Per capita consumption of meat and meat products in Malaysia more than doubled from 15.70 kg in 1970 to 35.71 kg in 1990. This increase in meat consumption is mainly due to the rapid development and wide acceptance of value added meat and poultry products amongst Malaysian consumers. Meat products such as burgers, sausages, hotdogs and nuggets are widely accepted and consumed by all ethnic groups at home as well as in the fast food restaurants. The significant expansion of the fast food industry and the increase consumption of processed meat products makes it necessary for a re-evaluation of the nutritional quality of popular meat products currently available in the market. This review paper described the quality of some processed meat products, their proximate composition, meat quality, use of non meat proteins and binders, and the use of additives in the formulation of burgers, frankfurters, nuggets, bologna, chicken and beef balls. Preliminary results on the protein efficiency ratio of local meat products seemed favourable but this study is limited to only one laboratory. In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility studies indicated high values on the digestibility of locally manufactured meat products. Proximate analysis of the raw materials used in the formulation of such products showed many with high fat and low protein contents being utilized. The meat content was lower than the minimum amount stated by the food regulation. This paper concludes that due to lack of information and studies on the nutritional composition of processed meat products, concerned bodies should take positive steps to generate reliable data to elucidate the actual nutritional composition of such products. It is also observed that many by-products from the animal industry from non-conventional sources are increasingly being utilized in the manufacture of processed meat product. PMID:22692017

  15. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  16. Assessment of biological Hydrogen production processes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafpour, G. D.; Shahavi, M. H.; Neshat, S. A.

    2016-06-01

    Energy crisis created a special attention on renewable energy sources. Among these sources; hydrogen through biological processes is well-known as the most suitable and renewable energy sources. In terms of process yield, hydrogen production from various sources was evaluated. A summary of microorganisms as potential hydrogen producers discussed along with advantages and disadvantages of several bioprocesses. The pathway of photo-synthetic and dark fermentative organisms was discussed. In fact, the active enzymes involved in performance of biological processes for hydrogen generation were identified and their special functionalities were discussed. The influential factors affecting on hydrogen production were known as enzymes assisting liberation specific enzymes such as nitrogenase, hydrogenase and uptake hydrogenase. These enzymes were quite effective in reduction of proton and form active molecular hydrogen. Several types of photosynthetic systems were evaluated with intension of maximum hydrogen productivities. In addition dark fermentative and light intensities on hydrogen productions were evaluated. The hydrogen productivities of efficient hydrogen producing strains were evaluated.

  17. Modeling intermediate product selection under production and storage capacity limitations in food processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilic, Onur Alper; Akkerman, Renzo; Grunow, Martin;

    2009-01-01

    In the food industry products are usually characterized by their recipes, which are specified by various quality attributes. For end products, this is given by customer requirements, but for intermediate products, the recipes can be chosen in such a way that raw material procurement costs and pro...... production and inventory planning, thereby considering the production and storage capacity limitations. The resulting model can be used to solve an important practical problem typical for many food processing industries....... processing costs are minimized. However, this product selection process is bound by production and storage capacity limitations, such as the number and size of storage tanks or silos. In this paper, we present a mathematical programming approach that combines decision making on product selection with...

  18. Comparison of deep desulfurization methods in alumina production process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘战伟; 李旺兴; 马文会; 尹中林; 武国宝

    2015-01-01

    Several methods of deep desulfurization in alumina production process were studied, and the costs of these methods were compared. It is found that most of the S2− in sodium aluminate solution can be removed by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide in digestion process, and in this way the effect of S2− on alumina product quality is eliminated. However, the removal efficiency of2-23SOin sodium aluminate solution is very low by this method. Both S2− and2-23SO in sodium aluminate solution can be removed completely by wet oxidation method in digestion process. The cost of desulfurization by wet oxidation is lower than by adding sodium nitrate or hydrogen peroxide. The results of this research reveal that wet oxidation is an economical and feasible method for the removal of sulfur in alumina production process to improve alumina quality, and provide valuable guidelines for alumina production by high-sulfur bauxite.

  19. Research on generalized optimization process for mechanical product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯培恩; 邱清盈; 潘双夏; 董黎刚; 李善春

    1999-01-01

    The generalized optimization process for mechanical product is proposed which includes functional optimization phase, conceptual design optimization phase, technical design optimization phase (that is further divided into product modeling phase, optimization process scheduling phase, optimization modeling phase and multi-computer collaborative optimizing phase), and result analysis and evaluation phase. The characteristics of the generalized optimization are incarnated such as oriented to the design of entire system, whole process and overall performance of a product and combined with human intelligent and artificial intelligent optimization. The functions and the achieved strategies of each key phase in the generalized optimization process are discussed. A prototype of the generalized optimization supported system for mechanical product is preliminarily established.

  20. STATE OF THE ART: SWINE WASTE PRODUCTION AND PRETREATMENT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of waste generation and pretreatment processes was compiled, expanded, and interpreted for the swine production industry. Typical swine units based upon waste management techniques were detailed as concrete slab facilities, slotted floorpit units, and swine drylot or pas...

  1. Development of continuous pharmaceutical production processes supported by process systems engineering methods and tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Woodley, John

    2012-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way.......The pharmaceutical industry is undergoing a radical transition towards continuous production processes. Systematic use of process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools form the key to achieve this transition in a structured and efficient way....

  2. Investigation of shelf-life extension of sorghum beer (Chibuku) by removing the second conversion of malt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutyauripo, Josphat; Parawira, Wilson; Tinofa, Sharai; Kudita, Ivy; Ndengu, Clement

    2009-02-28

    The effect of removing the second step of malt conversion in the brewing of Chibuku beer was investigated with the intention of extending the shelf-life of the product. Chibuku was brewed in the laboratory scale fermenters using Delta Beverages' standard brewing procedure. A variation was made where the second malt conversion was not conducted on one brew. The effect of increasing pasteurisation time was also investigated. The extension of shelf-life was determined by following the physicochemical and the sensory profile of the products for a period of ten days under sub-tropical ambient conditions. Ethanol productions were similar between the control and test beers (without second conversion malt). A product with overall acceptability of 70% was made from the brew without the second malt conversion and with 15 min pasteurisation at 80 degrees C. The product was, however, low in bite and head retention, but had less bacterial load, decreased acid production, and improved keeping quality by at least two days. However, due to contamination of the pitching yeast with lactic acid bacteria (LAB), total acids rapidly increased after 168 h and caused unacceptable sourness. Increasing pasteurisation time to 20 min reduced bacterial load of the wort to figures as low as 2 x 10(3) cfu/ml. General hygiene levels of the brewery were acceptable and no coliforms were detected in the product or contact surfaces along the production line. Bacterial contamination of the product mainly comes from the raw materials with pasteurisation greatly reducing this load. If improved, the procedure has the potential of extending the shelf-life of the beer to beyond 168 h. PMID:19162356

  3. Review : beer production : spoilage microorganisms and detection methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dragone, Giuliano; Solange I. Mussatto; Nogueira, Alvaro Dertinate; Silva, João B. Almeida e

    2007-01-01

    A cerveja é uma bebida que apresenta características desfavoráveis para a multiplicação de vários microrganismos, sendo reconhecida como um produto de considerável estabilidade microbiológica. Porém, algumas espécies de microrganismos, incluindo bactérias Gram-positivas (Lactobacillus e Pediococcus), Gram-negativas (Pectinatus e Megasphaera) e leveduras selvagens (Saccharomyces e não-Saccharomyces) são capazes de se multiplicar nesta bebida, conferindo características indesejáv...

  4. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Berchicci, Luca; Tucci, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring, assimilating and implementing new information from market feedback. However, research has not tackled how information is assimilated by the NPD team and to what extent the process of information imple...

  5. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  6. Energy and exergy analysis of the silicon production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used energy and exergy analysis to evaluate two industrial and one ideal (theoretical) production process for silicon. The industrial processes were considered in the absence and presence of power production from waste heat in the off-gas. The theoretical process, with pure reactants and no side-reactions, was used to provide a more realistic upper limit of performance for the others. The energy analysis documented the large thermal energy source in the off-gas system, while the exergy analysis documented the potential for efficiency improvement. We found an exergetic efficiency equal to 0.33 ± 0.02 for the process without power production. The value increased to 0.41 ± 0.03 when waste heat was utilized. For the ideal process, we found an exergetic efficiency of 0.51. Utilization of thermal exergy in an off-gas of 800 °C increased this exergetic efficiency to 0.71. Exergy destructed due to combustion of by-product gases and exergy lost with the furnace off-gas were the largest contributors to the thermodynamic inefficiency of all processes. - Highlights: • The exergetic efficiency for an industrial silicon production process when silicon is the only product was estimated to 0.33. • With additional power production from thermal energy in the off-gas we estimated the exergetic efficiency to 0.41. • The theoretical silicon production process is established as the reference case. • Exergy lost with the off-gas and exergy destructed due to combustion account for roughly 75% of the total losses. • With utilization of the thermal exergy in the off-gas at a temperature of 800 °C the exergetic efficiency was 0.71

  7. Impact of Customer Relationship Management on Product Innovation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yelin; Thi, Thu Sang Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    In marketing, the common view is that customer relationships enhance innovativeness. Regularly it involves doing something new or different in response to market conditions. However, previous studies have not addressed how customer relationship management (CRM) plays its role in product innovation process. This thesis proposes and tests how key CRM activities influence and relate to each stage in product innovation process. The objective of this study is to test how customer relations managem...

  8. Model driven product line engineering : core asset and process implications

    OpenAIRE

    Azanza Sesé, Maider

    2012-01-01

    Reuse is at the heart of major improvements in productivity and quality in Software Engineering. Both Model Driven Engineering (MDE) and Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) are software development paradigms that promote reuse. Specifically, they promote systematic reuse and a departure from craftsmanship towards an industrialization of the software development process. MDE and SPLE have established their benefits separately. Their combination, here called Model Driven Product Line Engin...

  9. Membrane catalysis in the dehydrogenation and hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the applications of membrane catalysis in the dehydrogenation of organic compounds and hydrogen production are analyzed and generalized. It is shown that the integration of membrane reactors into existing plants is necessary for production of hydrogen of high purity. The steam reforming and oxidative reforming of methane and steam reforming of light alcohols seem to be the most promising processes for hydrogen production in membrane reactors. The bibliography includes 165 references.

  10. Product Innovation Process Outcomes : Long-term Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Gary

    2007-01-01

    This report covers empirical research focused on studying the long-term impacts of product innovation processes. Four cases of successful industrial product innovations were studied within two companies over the course of more than five years using in-depth interviews, revisions to case reports according to respondent inputs, study of company documentation, and observations of R&D and production facilities. Specific in-depth comparisons are made between the pairs of appended cases from ea...

  11. (LeanPD) Towards Lean Product and Process Development

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Muhammad; Al-Ashaab, Ahmed; Shehab, Essam; Haque, Badr; Ewers, Paul; Sorli, Mikel; Sopelana, Amaia

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Successes in lean manufacturing have led researchers and practitioners to consider extending `lean? to different parts of the engineering enterprise, including product and process development (PPD). Lean product development has been understood to mean lean manufacturing applied to product development (PD), while the roots of lean PD ? just like lean manufacturing - go back to Toyota. This paper presents the methodology adopted in order to pave the way towards a coherent le...

  12. Production of fungal lipids : kinetic modeling and process design

    OpenAIRE

    Meeuwse, P.

    2011-01-01

    Finding alternatives for fossil fuels is currently urgent. One of the new processes in this field is the production of biodiesel from lipids accumulated by microorganisms. Some yeasts and fungi accumulate lipids when a component needed for growth, usually the N-source, is limiting while the C-source is in excess. These oleaginous yeasts and fungi were previously mainly used for unsaturated fatty acid production, but now also come into view for production of lipids as a source of biodiesel. Th...

  13. Perfection of processes of seamless steel tubes production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU. G. Gulyayev

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The article first give a review more of hundret years long history of seamless steel tube production, especially during the last 15-20 years of the 20th century. Prolongation, article give technological indices for 4 mills (automatical, continuous mill, pilger, Assel, and perfectation of processes seamless steel tubes production at the begining of 21st century.

  14. Perfection of processes of seamless steel tubes production

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyayev, Yu. G.; Ilija Mamuzić; Shyfrin, Ye. I.; Buršak, M.; D. YU. Garmashev

    2011-01-01

    The article first give a review more of hundret years long history of seamless steel tube production, especially during the last 15-20 years of the 20th century. Prolongation, article give technological indices for 4 mills (automatical, continuous mill, pilger, Assel), and perfectation of processes seamless steel tubes production at the begining of 21st century.

  15. NIR spectroscopy for determining soy contents in processed meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy products such as soy concentrate, soy protein and soy grits are used as a meat extender in processed meat products to improve meat texture. However, soy allergies are one of the common food allergies, especially in infants and young children, and can be mild to life-threatening. The United State...

  16. Market Feedback and Team Commitment in Radical Product Innovation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Berchicci (Luca); C.L. Tucci (Christopher)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPrevious research has considered how exploratory market learning processes moderate market and technological uncertainty in radical product development. Scholars argue that new product development (NPD) teams may increase the chances of success of radically new projects by acquiring, ass

  17. Serach for polarization effects in the antiproton production process

    CERN Multimedia

    It is proposed to study polarization effects in the production of antiprotons at the PS test beam line T11 at 3.5 GeV/c momentum. A polarization in the production process has never been studied but if existing it would allow for a rather simple and cheap way to generate a polarized antiproton beam with the existing facilities at CERN.

  18. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Teodora Coldea; Elena Mudura; Călin Şibotean; Emil Comşa

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were as...

  19. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Woodley, John; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...... the design and analysis of a wide range of homogeneous formulated products: tailor-made blends, single phase liquid formulations and emulsion-based products. The decision making process is supported by dedicated property models and structured databases, specifically developed for each design problem...... scenario. Output from the software is a small set of most promising product candidates and a short list of recommended experiments that can validate and further fine-tune the product composition. The application of the new features is highlighted through two case studies relative to an emulsion...

  20. Product creativity assessment of innovations: considering the creative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsdóttir, Dagný; Onarheim, Balder; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a critical component that feeds into all stages of innovation and design processes by promoting inspiration, ideation, and implementation of ideas, revealing the need for thorough research to support design creativity. Assessment of product creativity is a reoccurring topic...... in creativity research, while the role of consumer’s knowledge of the creative process behind the product is fairly unexplored. In this paper, we present an empirical study investigating whether providing information about a complex development process could amplify consumer’s perception of product creativity....... Does storytelling about the process contribute to amplifying creativity ratings? What form of storytelling is needed to make an impact? Results from 134 respondents showed a small but not significant amplifying effect from the additional process information; however, an important learning can be drawn...

  1. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi;

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  2. Drinking beer reduces radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We here investigated and reported the effects of beer drinking on radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Human blood that was collected either before or after drinking a 700 ml beer was in vitro irradiated with 200 kVp X rays or 50 keV/μm carbon ions. The relation between the radiation dose and the aberration frequencies (fragments and dicentrics) was significantly (P<0.05) lower for lymphocytes collected 3 h after beer drinking than those before drinking. Fitting the dose response to a linear quadratic model showed that the alpha term of carbon ions was significantly (P<0.05) decreased by beer drinking. A decrease of dicentric formation was detected as early as 0.5 h after beer drinking, and lasted not shorter than 4.5 h. The mitotic index of lymphocytes was higher after beer drinking than before, indicating that a division delay would not be responsible for the low aberrations induced by beer drinking. An in vitro treatment of normal lymphocytes with 0.1 M ethanol, which corresponded to a concentration of 6-times higher than the maximum ethanol concentration in the blood after beer drinking, reduced the dicentric formation caused by X-ray irradiation, but not by carbon-ion irradiation. The beer-induced reduction of dicentric formation was not affected by serum. It is concluded that beer could contain non-ethanol elements that reduce the chromosome damage of lymphocytes induced by high-LET radiation. (author)

  3. Improved Methods for Process Routing in Enterprise Production Processes in Terms of Sustainable Development Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xianchun; LIU Fei; LIU Dacheng; ZHENG Li; WANG Haiying; ZHANG Yihua

    2006-01-01

    The selection of process planning methods during production influences the enterprise's production process planning performance with determination of the process flow as the most important influencing factor. A new production process determining method that focuses on sustainable manufacturing was developed based on case-based reasoning, expert systems, and feature technology for designing the process flow of a new component. This study matches a new component with preview case process information, modifies the case process information if necessary, and selects the process flow for the new component based on a sustainable development assessment according to the similarities between the case and the sustainable development characteristics. The feasibility and practicability of the method is verified by a case study of a machining process flow design for a new component.

  4. The development of fermented juice beer%发酵果汁啤酒的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴平; 李文兴; 曹显俊

    2001-01-01

    How a juice beer is prepared with fruit juice and malt juice through fermenting by beer yeast under lower temperature is in troduced in the paper. The results show that the fruit - juice- to- malt - juice ratio of 6: 1 is ideal, and that alcohol 3 % (V / V),sugar 5.5°Bx and pH 4.4 in the formulation of fermenting liquid can help to obtain pleasant flavour in the final products.%介绍了以果汁、麦汁为原料,以啤酒酵母为菌种,通过低温发酵研制成果汁啤酒的方法。研究表明:果汁:麦汁以6:1混合较好,对发酵液进行调配时,酒精度3%(V/V),糖度5.5°Bx,pH值4.4,最终产品可以形成令人满意的风味。

  5. Integrating artificial and human intelligence into tablet production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gams, Matjaž; Horvat, Matej; Ožek, Matej; Luštrek, Mitja; Gradišek, Anton

    2014-12-01

    We developed a new machine learning-based method in order to facilitate the manufacturing processes of pharmaceutical products, such as tablets, in accordance with the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) and Quality by Design (QbD) initiatives. Our approach combines the data, available from prior production runs, with machine learning algorithms that are assisted by a human operator with expert knowledge of the production process. The process parameters encompass those that relate to the attributes of the precursor raw materials and those that relate to the manufacturing process itself. During manufacturing, our method allows production operator to inspect the impacts of various settings of process parameters within their proven acceptable range with the purpose of choosing the most promising values in advance of the actual batch manufacture. The interaction between the human operator and the artificial intelligence system provides improved performance and quality. We successfully implemented the method on data provided by a pharmaceutical company for a particular product, a tablet, under development. We tested the accuracy of the method in comparison with some other machine learning approaches. The method is especially suitable for analyzing manufacturing processes characterized by a limited amount of data. PMID:24970587

  6. Top-quark processes at NLO in production and decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John M.; Ellis, R.Keith

    2012-04-01

    We describe the implementation of top production and decay processes in the parton-level Monte Carlo program MCFM. By treating the top quark as being on-shell, we can factorize the amplitudes for top-pair production, s-channel single-top production, and t-channel single-top production into the product of an amplitude for production and an amplitude for decay. In this way we can retain all spin correlations. Both the production and the decay amplitudes are calculated consistently at next-to-leading order in alpha_s. The full dependence on the b-quark mass is also kept. Phenomenological results are presented for various kinematic distributions at the LHC and for the top quark forward-backward asymmetry at the Tevatron.

  7. Process to remove turbidity-causing components from a fluid by micro-filtration - passes the fluid across an asymmetric membrane with inlet pores larger than those of nominal size, and cleans the membrane by backwashing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    turbidity-causing components from beer, wine, fruit juice, milk and blood, and from bacterial and enzyme suspensions. ADVANTAGE-The process greatly reduces the lost production time associated with earlier filtration methods, and beneficial components can pass through the membrane, thereby improving the...

  8. Chemicals in the process chain from raw material to product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As described in this presentation, chemicals are added at various points along the physical flow from oil/gas well to sold products. They have several functions and are added in different amounts. The chemicals may have a negative impact on the environment by emission to sea. But they can also reduce the regularity of the processing equipment and the prices of the products. Therefore, Statoil has begun a research project that aims to develop improved methods and tools for the prediction of the distribution of chemicals in the process chain and the unwanted effects they might have on the environment, on downstream installations and on the products. 4 refs., 11 figs

  9. Product and process effectiveness using performance-based auditing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focus is the backbone of genius. Focus is the lifeblood of adequate products and effective processes. Focus is the theme of Performance-Based Audits (PBA). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program is using the PBA tool extensively to focus on the evaluation of product adequacy and process effectiveness. The term Performance-Based Audit has been around for several years. however, the approach presented here for the systematic end-product selection, planning, and measurement of adequacy and effectiveness is new and innovative

  10. Electroweak contributions to SUSY particle production processes at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabella, Edoardo

    2009-07-22

    In this thesis we have computed the electroweak contributions of O({alpha}{sub s}{alpha}), O({alpha}{sup 2}) and O({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) to three different classes of processes leading to the hadronic production of the SUSY partners of quarks and gluons, i.e. squarks and gluinos. The theoretical framework is the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model, the MSSM. The three processes are gluino pair production, diagonal squark-antisquark and associated squark-gluino production.

  11. Sustainable Production Process of Biological Mineral Feed Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Zielinska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the problem of accumulation of Zn and Cu in the topsoil as a result of application of mineral feed additives that possess low bioavailability in animal diet. The review considered the production process of mineral feed additives in which a product supplies microelements in highly bioavailable form. Enrichment of natural biomass of edible microalgae with microelement metal ions, which supply microelements of feeding significance in livestock diet, is considered in term of sustainable production. Approach: Production of microalgae-derived products as mineral feed additives requires elaboration of the processes for cultivation of alga, enrichment process and afterwards recovery of the enriched biomass from the solution to obtain liquid free of cells that could be reused in the next process. In this study membrane bioreactor was considered as a method for separation, both in photobioreactor (growth of microorganism as well as in the enrichment process. Results: Effort involved in thermal and chemical separation techniques is higher than that in mechanical techniques. Membrane bioreactors which are usually applied to treat wastewater, both industrial and domestic. This study discussed method to separate a valuable biomass of enriched microalgae and reuse the solution with residual metal ions that can be used once again in the subsequent biosorption process. Conclusion/Recommendation: Taking into consideration care about the environment it is better to apply membrane modules in the production process in terms of sustainable production. The proposed solution assumed the application of membrane modules as a separation step after enrichment process and biomass recovery.

  12. Wine, Beer, Alcohol and Polyphenols on Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Arranz; Gemma Chiva-Blanch; Palmira Valderas-Martínez; Alex Medina-Remón; Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventós; Ramón Estruch

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Since ancient times, people have attributed a variety of health benefits to moderate consumption of fermented beverages such as wine and beer, often without any scientific basis. There is evidence that excessive or binge alcohol consumption is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as with work related and traffic accidents. On the contrary, at the moment, several epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of alcohol reduces overall mortalit...

  13. High gravity primary continuous beer fermentation using flocculent yeast biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Eduardo J.; Teixeira, J. A.; Brányik, Tomáš; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Brandão, Tiago; A.A. Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The current work assessed a new immobilized cell reactor system throughout a long-term (54 days) continuous primary fermentation of lager-type wort of high specific gravity. The experiment was performed in a 4 L airlift bioreactor and immobilization of biomass was attained solely by flocculation. Despite the constant liquid agitation and washout of biomass, up to 53 g dry wt/L of yeast remained immobilized in the system. Two types of beer were produced without interrupting the reactor, based ...

  14. Local domestication of lactic acid bacteria via cassava beer fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Colehour, Alese M.; Meadow, James F.; Liebert, Melissa A.; Tara J. Cepon-Robins; Theresa E. Gildner; Urlacher, Samuel S.; Bohannan, Brendan J.M.; Snodgrass, J. Josh; Lawrence S. Sugiyama

    2014-01-01

    Cassava beer, or chicha, is typically consumed daily by the indigenous Shuar people of the Ecuadorian Amazon. This traditional beverage made from cassava tuber (Manihot esculenta) is thought to improve nutritional quality and flavor while extending shelf life in a tropical climate. Bacteria responsible for chicha fermentation could be a source of microbes for the human microbiome, but little is known regarding the microbiology of chicha. We investigated bacterial community composition of chic...

  15. Process-Product Research: A Cornerstone in Educational Effectiveness Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creemers, Bert; Kyriakides, Leonidas

    2015-01-01

    This article links the contribution of process-product studies in developing the theoretical framework of educational effectiveness by pointing out the importance of teacher behavior in the classroom. The role that Jere Brophy played in this evolving research is described within the various phases of teacher effectiveness research. Process-product…

  16. Multivariate Product-Shot-noise Cox Point Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalilian, Abdollah; Guan, Yongtao; Mateu, Jorge; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    We introduce a new multivariate product-shot-noise Cox process which is useful for model- ing multi-species spatial point patterns with clustering intra-specific interactions and neutral, negative or positive inter-specific interactions. The auto and cross pair correlation functions of the process...

  17. SEMI SCIENTIFIC ATTITUDES THROUGH PROCESS REPORTING ON KNOWLEDGE PRODUCTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tollestrup, Christian

    2010-01-01

    process can emphasize the knowledge production aspects of the process. By making the reflections and evaluation more explicit and accessible this provide a platform for the student to relate to the type of knowledge produced by various activities and methods making theory of science very tangible and...

  18. Low energy production processes in manufacturing of silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A. R.

    1976-01-01

    Ion implantation and pulsed energy techniques are being combined for fabrication of silicon solar cells totally under vacuum and at room temperature. Simplified sequences allow very short processing times with small process energy consumption. Economic projections for fully automated production are excellent.

  19. Information paths within the new product development process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2007-01-01

    The present study explores the information acquisition within the new product development process (NPD). The effect of the front-end and environmental turbulence on the inter-stage connectedness of information within the NPD process is examined. An agent-based simulation is applied as the data...

  20. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m<3>, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of