WorldWideScience

Sample records for beehive coke

  1. Construction and operation of a demonstration plant of Beehive ovens for producing coke with the utilization of the energy of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, A.D. [Pedagogic and Tecnologic Univ. of Colombia, Tunja (Colombia); White, A. [Colombian Company of Coal Limited, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    1995-12-31

    In Colombia, except the company Acerias Paz de Rio, the production of coke is done using Beehive furnaces and the gases that are produced in the process are expelled to the atmosphere producing a lot of contamination and deterioration of the environment. The Colombia Company of Coal Ltd, Ecocarbon and the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia, state entities, have canalized financial and technical efforts to develop a Demonstrative Plant with 6 Beehive ovens with a duct for collecting the gases and using the energy from de gases in Samaca`s factories of bricks. Samaca is a town with approximately 15.000 habitants, situated in the department of Boyaca at 140 kilometers from Santafe de Bogota, and 25 kilometers from Tunja (where the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia is situated). It`s main activities are coal mining and agriculture.

  2. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  3. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  4. Influence of the Beehive Type on the Quality of Honey

    OpenAIRE

    Tucak, Zvonimir; Periškić, Marin; Drago BEŠLO; Tucak, Ivana

    2004-01-01

    Agricultural producers apply numerous technological procedures, and enlarging efforts to produce the high-quality products. This initiative is present in the beekeeping, too. The quality of the honey produced by the honey bee colonies depends of various factors, but prevailing are the ecological conditions and the floristic composition of the honeyfull plants. The aim of our research was to discover the influence of the beehive type on the quality of honey, which is produced at apiaries under...

  5. Coke dust enhances coke plant wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Rozwadowski, Andrzej; Burmistrz, Michał; Karcz, Aleksander

    2014-12-01

    Coke plant wastewater contain many toxic pollutants. Despite physico-chemical and biological treatment this specific type of wastewater has a significant impact on environment and human health. This article presents results of research on industrial adsorptive coke plant wastewater treatment. As a sorbent the coke dust, dozen times less expensive than pulverized activated carbon, was used. Treatment was conducted in three scenarios: adsorptive after full treatment with coke dust at 15 g L(-1), biological treatment enhanced with coke dust at 0.3-0.5 g L(-1) and addition of coke dust at 0.3 g L(-1) prior to the biological treatment. The enhanced biological treatment proved the most effective. It allowed additional removal of 147-178 mg COD kg(-1) of coke dust. PMID:25113994

  6. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood () in winter beehive wax debris.

    OpenAIRE

    Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions wa...

  7. Increasing the strength of metallurgical coke by adding modified petroleum coke to the coking batch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.I. Stukov; V.S. Zagainov; Y.B. Kukolev; N.S. Andreichikov; P.V. Shtark; A.V. Vishnyakov; V.A. Antonova; S.N. Soboleva [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-08-15

    Box-coking data show the possibility of increasing the yield and strength of metallurgical coke by introducing a coking additive in the batch. Specifically, this additive is a product of slow coking of heavy petroleum residues, characterized by excellent thermoplastic properties: clinkering properties and plastic temperature range. A Russian patent has been obtained for the coking additive.

  8. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R.

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  9. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. PMID:27196059

  10. Centralized coke gasification study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    du Plessis, Duke [Alberta Innovates (Canada); Pietrusik, Debbie [Alberta Finance and Enterprise (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    By the year 2020 Alberta will produce 3 million barrels of bitumen per day. Refining bitumen yields several by-products such as petroleum coke and off-gasses. These products can be further utilized as a low cost feedstock for additional applications to increase revenue. Alberta currently has the largest amount of coke stockpiled in the world. The presentation explores what is the most profitable way to use this coke and what future technologies would improve the economic and environmental impact of the process. The development of methane and hydrogen becomes competitive at intermediate gas and oil prices. The next generation of gasification technologies is going to be cheaper, efficient and much smaller. Pilot projects have shown positive results. Economies of scale can be reached simply by only 20-30% of annual coke production. The high cost of the current technology is creating the biggest challenge but new technologies and process innovations have the potential to drive down cost.

  11. The triumphs of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, R.A.

    2004-07-01

    This is a reproduction of a booklet specially written by Dr R.A. Mott and designed by Mr G.E. Hall to mark the jubilee of the Coke Oven Managers' Association, founded in 1915. Whilst mentioning early methods of making coke in Great Britain, it deals particularly with the many developments in coke usage which took place before 1915 and is complementary to the 'History of coke making' written by Dr Mott in 1936. Uses covered include: for malting, for non-ferrous metal making, in an iron blast furnace, in crucible steel making, in the chafery and puddling process, in a foundry cupola, and in railway locomotives. 15 ills.

  12. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  13. A PCR method of detecting American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae) in winter beehive wax debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryba, Stepan; Titera, Dalibor; Haklova, Marcela; Stopka, Pavel

    2009-10-20

    The objective of this work was to create a fast and sensitive method of detecting Paenibacillus larvae from beehive debris based on PCR that does not require long-lasting cultivation steps. Various methods of extracting spores from beehive debris were compared: the original method of extraction of spores into toluene, and alternative spore extraction methods into Tween 80, into water, into isopropanol and into 95% ethanol. Isolation of DNA from various spore extractions was evaluated too. Best results were provided by isolation of DNA using the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, without heat treatment. DNA of spores was detected by PCR from 0.25 g of beeswax debris, with the detected titer of 10(5) in 1g according to the cultivation tests. PMID:19559547

  14. Texture of cokes in relation to parameters of coal and coke

    OpenAIRE

    Pěgřimočová, J.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of the simplified classification of textures of coke and the relationship between the texture parameters of coke both coal, from which the coke was made, and properties of the coke.

  15. COMPARING STUDY OF BLENDING PREHEATING MODIFIED COAL COKING AND STAMPING COKING FOR DONGSHEN COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍林; 尹学琼; 魏贤勇; 宗志敏; 陈清如

    1999-01-01

    The compaison of the properties of coke of three coking methods is introduced. The mechanical properties and high temperature reactivity of coke blending preheating modified Dongshen coal are improved obviously than those of normal coke, and achieve or exceed that of stamping coke. This method shews more ability of expending coking coal resources.

  16. Programmed heating of coke ovens for increased coke size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.R.; Mahoney, M.R. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Large, uniform sized coke is desirable for blast furnace use. It has previously been shown that the coke oven flue temperature in the first few hours of coking is a key determinant of coke size. In this paper, the authors present a new programmed heating approach, which is called pulsed heating, aiming to increase coke mean size at a given average flue temperature. The approach takes into account the charging sequence in coke oven batteries and the authors demonstrate how existing operating practice can be modified in batteries with suitable heating systems to achieve the desired heating programme. A mathematical model of fissure formation provides a prediction of the increase in coke mean size using pulsed heating, compared with standard heating. Pilot scale experiments have also been performed to validate the modelling approach. The results of the modelling indicate that the mean coke size can be increased by several millimetres in some cases, although results from the pilot scale show that pulsed heating increases coke size, but by a smaller amount than that predicted by the model. The potential advantages and limitations of pulsed heating are discussed, as well as opportunities for further investigation of the approach.

  17. Silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the classification,specification,test method,quality appraisal procedure,labeling,packing,transportation,storage and quality certification of silica brick for coke oven.

  18. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  19. EFFICIENCY OF FORMING NUCLEUS COLONIES IN ORDER TO DECREASE POPULATION OF Varroa destructor (ANDRESON AND TRUEMAN, 2000 IN BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming of nucleus colonies is efficient method in growth control of Varroa destructor population. Its goal is to decrease parasite’s pressure on bee colony. The advantage of this bio-technical measurement lays in its implement during vegetation season which delays use of the chemical resources for Varroa destructor control population in beehives for the post major honey harvest period. Nucleus colonies were formed from approx. half of sealed brood (35.5 ± 5.8 dm² and average of 5915 ± 912 bees. Results showed that there were 37.2 ± 5.6% mites removed from parental colonies. Minimum was 30.8%, and maximum was 45.5%. Due to such relatively small efficiency, this method cannot be recommended as unique, but it can be effective if it is applied in the post spring's honey harvest period as a part of growth reduction strategy of Varroa destructor population in beehive.

  20. Nanogrids and Beehive-Like Nanostructures Formed by Plasma Etching the Self-Organized SiGe Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juang Jenh-Yih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A lithography-free method for fabricating the nanogrids and quasi-beehive nanostructures on Si substrates is developed. It combines sequential treatments of thermal annealing with reactive ion etching (RIE on SiGe thin films grown on (100-Si substrates. The SiGe thin films deposited by ultrahigh vacuum chemical vapor deposition form self-assembled nanoislands via the strain-induced surface roughening (Asaro-Tiller-Grinfeld instability during thermal annealing, which, in turn, serve as patterned sacrifice regions for subsequent RIE process carried out for fabricating nanogrids and beehive-like nanostructures on Si substrates. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy observations confirmed that the resultant pattern of the obtained structures can be manipulated by tuning the treatment conditions, suggesting an interesting alternative route of producing self-organized nanostructures.

  1. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Experimental study on shrinkage characteristics of semi-coke/coke under gradient temperature during coking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Z.; Guo, Z.; Wang, S. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2006-04-15

    A furnace equipped with a removable measuring scale in the side was applied to study on the shrinkage characteristics of semi-coke/coke under gradient temperature during coking process. 1500 g coking coal was used in the test. The effects of coking time, central temperature, heating-up rate and gradient temperature on lateral shrinkage were studied under different heating rate. The results show that the coal begins to shrink at a central temperature range of 280 to 360{sup o}C and ends at about 900{sup o}C. The lateral shrinkage is in a range of 5 mm to 8.5 mm and lateral shrinkage ratio is 7 to 12%. Generally, the gradient temperature increases and lateral shrinkage decreases with increasing heating-up rate and density. The central temperature of beginning shrinkage, the second shrinkage peak, gradient temperature of different locations and shrinkage coefficient of coal decreases with the increase of heating rate. The central temperature of beginning shrinkage and gradient temperature of different locations increase with increasing density. But the increase of density has no influence on shrinkage coefficient and shrinkage peak. In addition, the temperature rise rates at different locations are different during different coking stages. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined...

  4. The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire [BHP Billiton Technology, Shortland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Effects of atamp-charging coke making on strength and high temperature thermal properties of coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Zhong, Xiangyun; Zhao, Zhenning; Liu, Hongchun

    2013-12-01

    The stamp-charging coke making process has some advantages of improving the operation environment, decreasing fugitive emission, higher gas collection efficiency as well as less environmental pollution. This article describes the different structure strength and high temperature thermal properties of 4 different types of coke manufactured using a conventional coking process and the stamp-charging coke making process. The 4 kinds of cokes were prepared from the mixture of five feed coals blended by the petrography blending method. The results showed that the structure strength indices of coke prepared using the stamp-charging coke method increase sharply. In contrast with conventional coking process, the stamp-charging process improved the coke strength after reaction but had little impact on the coke reactivity index. PMID:25078828

  6. Comparison of coke burning on catalysts coked in a commericial plant and in the laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Parera, J.M. (Instituto de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (AR))

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports a commercial catalyst coked in a commercial naphtha reforming unit compared with a laboratory catalyst and the fresh commercial one coked during laboratory experiments at pressures lower than the commercial one. The carbon concentration on the catalyst and hydrogen/carbon ratio of the coke were measured. Temperature-programmed oxidation and test reactions for metallic and acidic functions of the coked catalysts were performed. The main difference is in the coke composition and its distribution over the catalytic functions of the catalyst. Compared to the commercially coked catalyst, the coke on the laboratory coked catalysts is richer in hydrogen, covers the metallic function in a higher proportion, and is burnt faster. The catalytic activity for hydrogenation (metallic reaction) of the laboratory-coked catalyst is decreased more, but it is partially recovered by increasing the hydrogen pressure. The decrease on the acidic activity produced by coking is similar on both catalysts.

  7. TWO 'b's IN THE BEEHIVE: THE DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST HOT JUPITERS IN AN OPEN CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster). These are the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster and the only planets known to orbit Sun-like, main-sequence stars in a cluster. The planets are detected from Doppler-shifted radial velocities; line bisector spans and activity indices show no correlation with orbital phase, confirming the variations are caused by planetary companions. Pr0201b orbits a V = 10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 ± 0.0070 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 ± 0.039 MJup, and Pr0211b orbits a V = 12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 ± 0.0012 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 ± 0.064 MJup. The detection of two planets among 53 single members surveyed establishes a lower limit of 3.8+5.0–2.4% on the hot Jupiter frequency in this metal-rich open cluster. Given the precisely known age of the cluster, this discovery also demonstrates that, in at least two cases, giant planet migration occurred within 600 Myr after formation. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and formation history of planets, environments with well-determined properties—such as open clusters like Praesepe—may provide essential clues to this end.

  8. Cooperative mobile agents search using beehive partitioned structure and Tabu Random search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Saba; Jackson, Delvin L.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2013-05-01

    In search and surveillance operations, deploying a team of mobile agents provides a robust solution that has multiple advantages over using a single agent in efficiency and minimizing exploration time. This paper addresses the challenge of identifying a target in a given environment when using a team of mobile agents by proposing a novel method of mapping and movement of agent teams in a cooperative manner. The approach consists of two parts. First, the region is partitioned into a hexagonal beehive structure in order to provide equidistant movements in every direction and to allow for more natural and flexible environment mapping. Additionally, in search environments that are partitioned into hexagons, mobile agents have an efficient travel path while performing searches due to this partitioning approach. Second, we use a team of mobile agents that move in a cooperative manner and utilize the Tabu Random algorithm to search for the target. Due to the ever-increasing use of robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms, the field of cooperative multi-agent search has developed many applications recently that would benefit from the use of the approach presented in this work, including: search and rescue operations, surveillance, data collection, and border patrol. In this paper, the increased efficiency of the Tabu Random Search algorithm method in combination with hexagonal partitioning is simulated, analyzed, and advantages of this approach are presented and discussed.

  9. Two 'b's in the Beehive: The Discovery of the First Hot Jupiters in an Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Buchhave, L A; Cantrell, J R; Dahm, S E; Fürész, G; Szentgyorgyi, A H; Geary, J C; Torres, G; Bieryla, A; Berlind, P; Calkins, M C; Esquerdo, G A; Stefanik, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster), the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster. Pr0201b orbits a V=10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 +/- 0.0070 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 +/- 0.039 Mjup, and Pr0211b orbits a V=12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 +/- 0.0012 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 +/- 0.064 Mjup. Because they reside in a cluster, the ages of these planets are amongst the best-determined of any planet outside our own solar system. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and characteristics of planets, the environment in which most stars form -- open clusters like Praesepe -- may provide essential clues to this end. This discovery will allow, for the first time, a direct estimate of the short-period giant planet frequency in open clusters.

  10. K2 Discovers a Busy Bee: An Unusual Transiting Neptune Found in the Beehive Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Christian; Schlieder, Joshua E; Crossfield, Ian J M; Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Sinukoff, Evan; Isaacson, Howard; Ciardi, David R; David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Beichmann, Charles A; Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliot; Everett, Mark; Hirsch, Lea; Teske, Johanna; Christiansen, Jessie L; Lépine, Sébastien; Aller, Kimberly M; Liu, Michael C; Saglia, Roberto P; Livingston, John; Kluge, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters have been the focus of several exoplanet surveys but only a few planets have so far been discovered. The \\emph{Kepler} spacecraft revealed an abundance of small planets around small, cool stars, therefore, such cluster members are prime targets for exoplanet transit searches. Kepler's new mission, K2, is targeting several open clusters and star-forming regions around the ecliptic to search for transiting planets around their low-mass constituents. Here, we report the discovery of the first transiting planet in the intermediate-age (800 Myr) Beehive cluster (Praesepe). K2-95 is a faint ($\\mathrm{Kp = 15.5\\,mag}$) $\\mathrm{M3.0\\pm0.5}$ dwarf from K2's Campaign 5 with an effective temperature of $\\mathrm{3471 \\pm 124\\,K}$, approximately solar metallicity and a radius of $\\mathrm{0.402 \\pm 0.050 \\,R_\\odot}$. We detected a transiting planet with a radius of $\\mathrm{3.47^{+0.78}_{-0.53} \\, R_\\oplus}$ and an orbital period of 10.134 days. We combined photometry, medium/high-resolution spectroscopy, ad...

  11. Coke from small-diameter tubes analyzed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism for coke deposit formation and the nature of the coke itself can vary with the design of the ethylene furnace tube bank. In this article, coke deposits from furnaces with small-diameter pyrolysis tubes are examined. The samples were taken from four furnaces of identical design (Plant B). As in both the first and second installments of the series, the coke deposits were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX). The deposits from the small-diameter tubes are compared with the coke deposits from the furnace discussed in earlier articles. Analysis of the coke in both sets of samples are then used to offer recommendations for improved decoking procedures, operating procedures, better feed selection, and better selection of the metallurgy used in furnace tubes, to extend the operating time of the furnace tubes by reducing the amount and type of coke build up

  12. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  13. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Drying, burning and emission characteristics of beehive charcoal briquettes: an alternative household fuel of Eastern Himalayan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, S; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, R K; Kundu, K

    2014-05-01

    Beehive charcoal briquettes were produced from powdered charcoal in which soil was added as binder. It was found to be an eco-friendly, clean and economic alternative source of household fuel for the people of Eastern Himalayan Region. Experiments were conducted to determine natural drying behaviour, normalised burn rate, temperature profile and emission of CO, CO2, UBHC (unburnt hydrocarbons) and NO(x) of beehive briquettes prepared from 60:40; 50:50 and 40:60 ratios of charcoal and soil. It was observed that under natural drying conditions (temperature, humidity) briquettes took 433 hr to reach equilibrium moisture content of 5.56-10.29%. Page's model was found suitable to describe the drying characteristics of all three combinations. Normalised burn rate varied between 0.377-0.706% of initial mass min⁻¹. Total burning time of briquette ranged between 133-143 min. The peak temperature attained by briquettes ranged from 437 °C to 572 °C. All the briquette combinations were found suitable for cooking and space heating. Emission of CO, CO2, UBHC, NO and NO2 ranged between 68.4-107.2, 922-1359, 20.9-50.8, 0.19-0.29 and 0.34-0.64 g kg⁻¹, respectively which were less than firewood. PMID:24813011

  15. K2CO3 catalysis on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Jian-liang; Qi, Cheng-lin; Ma, Chao; Kong, De-wen; Mao, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The catalysis of K2CO3 on the reactivity of top charged coke and stamp charged coke from Pansteel in China was studied. The coke reaction index of the stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the top charged coke. Under the catalysis of K2CO3, the coke reaction index of both cokes approximately increased by 4%, 6%, 10% and 6% at 900, 1000, 1100 and 1200°C, respectively. The reactivity of the K-enriched stamp charged coke was 1%-2% higher than that of the K-enriched top charged coke below 1100°C. However, only negligible differences were found in the temperature zone between 1100 and 1200°C. Scanning electron microscopy images illustrated that pores in the top charged coke were smaller and equally distributed, while relatively more big pores exist non-homogenously in stamp charged coke. Due to the different processes in production, the stamp charged coke was more porous and most of the pores tended to be applanate. Cracks were observed in the microstructure of the stamp charged coke during the carbon solution reaction, implying the inferior quality of the stamp charged coke to the top charged coke at high temperature. Diffusion of K during the carbon solution reaction was studied by the energy dispersive spectrometry. It is found that K gradually spreads into the center of lumpy coke with the rising of temperature and is equally distributed on the edges of pores at 1200°C. Besides, oxidation reactions of functional groups become faster with the catalysis of K.content

  16. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (I): combustion characteristics of coke in the vertical direction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Takase, S.; Okui, N.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature distribution in a coking chamber and sampling plus analysis of the product coke have confirmed that temperature fluctuations in the upper coking chamber of a single-stage burner type oven (such as a Koppers oven) have a large effect on the variations of coke quality. Control of such temperature fluctuations is therefore essential. A possible computerized combustion control system for improving temperature control is described. 2 references.

  17. The world coke market. Problems and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outlooks to the world coke market are considered with regard to supply and demand as well as the current state of capacities for its production in some countries of Asia, Western and Eastern Europe, USA. In experts opinion increase of coke import from China, increase in service life of currently operating coke furnaces, as well as more extensive use of PCI coal mixture are among the most feasible opportunities for its Western consumers

  18. A heating partition for a coking furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelov, K.K.; Ivanova, A.V.; Kaufman, A.A.; Kuznetsov, G.I.; Likhogub, Ye.P.; Turman, D.S.; Varshavskiy, T.P.; Volfovskiy, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    A coking furnace heating partition (OPKT) is proposed in order to increase reliability by increasing its strength. The proposal includes equipping with a vertical wall (St) made of Dinas brick and positioning it along the longitudinal axis of the coking furnace heating panel. The dividing walls are made of Dinas brick and their faces are disposed between the bricks of the wall of the coking chamber (KK). The surface of the coking chamber wall is made from magnesite or corundum brick which makes up 70 to 80 percent of the operational surface (Pv) of the wall. The presence of the vertical wall in combination with the

  19. Investigation on activated semi-coke desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Ju; LI Zhuan-li; LI Chun-hu

    2005-01-01

    An activated semi-coke with industrial-scale size was prepared by high-pressure hydrothermal chemistry activation, HNO3oxidation and calcination activation in proper order from Inner Mongolia Zhalainuoer semi-coke, which is rich in resource and cheap in sale.SO2 adsorption capacity on this activated semi-coke was assessed in the fixed bed in the temperature range of 60-170℃, space velocity range of 500-1300 h-1, SO2 concentration of 1000-3000 ppmv, and N2 as balance. The surface area, elemental and proximate analysis for both raw semi-coke and activated semi-cokes were measured. The experimental results showed that the activated semi-coke has a high adsorption capacity for sulfur dioxide than the untreated semi-coke. This may be the result of increase of surface area on activated semi-coke and surface oxygen functional groups with basicity characteristics. Comparison to result of FTIR, it is known that group of-C-O-C- may be active center of SO2 catalytic adsorption on activated semi-coke.

  20. Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia.…

  1. Production of conductive coke for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogollon, E.G.; Henao, L.E.; Pacheco, L.A.; Ortiz, J.L.; Diaz, J.J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Departamento de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    The reduction of resistivity of coke by means of the cocarbonization of mixtures of coking coals was studied using coal tar as an additive. Optimum temperature and blending conditions for decreased resistivity were investigated. The effect of particle size on the dependency of coal rank was investigated. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Neutron probe monitoring of water in coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coke moisture ranges between 5 and 7%. At coke sampling, inaccuracies occur in water content assessment. The results alter depending on hourly and daily samples and on sampling points. In the blast furnace situation where the knowledge of coke moisture is important for determining specific consumption of coke, the neutron moisture gauge continuous method has been proven. The effect was studied of different contents of volatile compounds in coke, as were the effects of the types of steel and the wall thickness of the neutron probe protective tube and those of big lumps of coke and of anomalous moisture on determination accuracy. The neutron probe operation may also be affected by bulk density and by consistency of the coke granulometric composition. The steel protective tube should be made of a strong material guaranteeing long-term invariability of measuring conditions. Mixing should not take place of compacting and bulk operation coke. Under these conditions, measurement can be sufficiently accurate. (M.D.). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 5 refs

  3. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, trachea, kidney, and prostate. An import...

  4. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (pminerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca). PMID:26934152

  5. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucak-Koc, A.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT) on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I), with 32 colonies, in 2010-2011, and Experiment II (E-II), with 20 colonies, in 2011-2012. Each lowland (25 m) and highland (797 m) colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF) and normal bottom floor (NBF), and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE) and Italian race (ItR) were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB), and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA) and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the effects of genotype on BA and NCCB were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), while its effect on the NCCB was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%). In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type. (Author)

  7. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytul Ucak-Koc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I, with 32 colonies, in 2010–2011, and Experiment II (E-II, with 20 colonies, in 2011–2012. Each lowland (25 m and highland (797 m colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF and normal bottom floor (NBF, and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE and Italian race (ItR were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB, and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p0.05. In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p0.05. The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%. In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type.

  8. Characterization of residual coke during burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieck, C.L.; Jablonski, E.L.; Parera, J.M. (Inst. de Investigaciones in Catalisis y Petroquimica, Santiago del Estero 2654, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina)); Frety, R. (Conventionne a l' Univ. Claude Bernard, Lyon I (France))

    1992-04-01

    In this paper coke remaining from the partial burning of coke deposited during the commercial re-forming of naphtha on a Pt-Re/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalyst is studied. Burning temperatures are 623-923 K, and the remaining coke is characterized by temperature-programmed oxidation, X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, IR, [sup 13]C CP-MAS NMR, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and chemical analysis. After coke is burned at 673 K, the residual coke shows the minimum value in the H/C ratio and the maximum in the thickness of the aromatic layers, degree of organization, C==O concentration, binding energy of C 1s, peak width, and g value. This agrees with the model of coke burning: at low temperatures, the burning is selective; the more hydrogenated and amorphous carbonaceous species are burnt first. At high temperatures, the burning is nonselective and all species are simultaneously burnt. Coke is partially oxidized during burning, and intermediate species with C==O and C--OH groups are formed.

  9. Analysis of coal charge drying in a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes drying of coal mixtures charged to a coke oven and factors that influence drying. A mathematical model of coal gasification is used. Coal charge in a coke oven is dried layer by layer starting from the layer adjacent to coke oven walls. Moisture evaporated from a layer close to coke oven walls condenses in a layer more distant from coke oven walls (i.e. in the coke oven center). Formulae that describe moisture migration in a coke oven are derived and formulae that describe coal drying are evaluated. The following factors that influence drying are considered: moisture content in coal, initial coal temperature, condensation temperature, heating wall thickness, coke oven dimensions, final temperature of coking, average temperature in flue channels. Analyses show that 62.8% of coking time falls on drying and condensation. 6 refs.

  10. The New-Generation Technology for Making Petroleum Needle Coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Changzhi; Shen Haiping; Long Jun; Xie Changjiang

    2003-01-01

    The current technology for producing the petroleum needle coke is apt to cause overflow of feedstock from the coke drums, instability in operation of coking unit, low mechanical strength of petroleum coke, and high percentage of coke powder, leading to difficulties in improving the overall quality of needle coke. Therefore, we have developed a new technology for producing the needle coke,featuring the manipulation of temperature range in a narrow scale at high pressure coupled with feedstock alternations. This new kind of technology has been successfully applied in a 60kt/a commercial coking unit. Provided that demand for the feedstock quality is satisfied, petroleum needle coke meeting the international quality standard can be manufactured using RIPP's technology for producing petroleum needle coke.

  11. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  12. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  13. Technical Progress of China's Delayed Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lixin; Li Hejie

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the recent advances of China in the fields of process technology of delayed coking, enlarged equipment size, hydraulic decoking, automatic control and environmental protection. By the end of 2004 the total capacity of delayed coking units in China had reached 37.24Mt/a with the maximum coke drum diameter equating to 9.4 m. This article also presents the investment in delayed cokers and the current production status while pointing out the existing problems and future development trends.

  14. Influence of low-density polyethylene addition on coking pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, C.; R. Alvarez; M.A. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Different amounts of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were added to a bituminous coal used to produce metallurgical coke. The effect of the plastic waste on the carbonization process and more exactly, on the coking pressure were investigated. A movable wall oven at semi-pilot scale was used for measuring coking pressure generated. It was found that coking pressure increases for low LDPE addition levels (1-3 wt.%); however higher amounts of LDPE reduce coking pressure. To explain this behavior ...

  15. Effects of process parameters on selected functions describing coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1987-10-01

    Evaluates a mathematical method for optimization of black coal coking. Mathematical models describe effects of groups of parameters: indices that characterize properties of coal mixtures, parameters that describe technology of coal coking, indices that characterize design and operation of a coke oven. Using the mathematical models, effects of groups of parameters on selected functions that describe coal coking are evaluated. Examples of calculations are discussed. An uncomplicated linear algorithm for optimization of coking is characterized. 6 refs.

  16. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    OpenAIRE

    Junjun Shi; Jianyu Guan; Dawei Guo; Jiushun Zhang; Liam John France; Lefu Wang; Xuehui Li

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed du...

  17. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  18. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  19. Coke oven automatic combustion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihara, Y.

    1981-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the development and application of an automatic combustion control system for coke ovens that has been used at the Yawata Works of the Nippon Steel Corporation, Japan. (In Japanese)

  20. Method of determining coking temperature of coke. [Experimental method of determining final coking temperature using a small sample and calibration graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Bondarenko, A.K.; Fialkov, B.S.; Khegay, L.U.; Khvan, L.A.; Muzyzhuk, V.D.; Zakharov, A.G.; Zelenskiy, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coking temperature of coke should be determined from the magnitude of the ionization current of the medium during heating (3/sup 0//min) of a coke sample (2 g, fraction < 0.2 mm) in an oxidation medium with air supply (1 1/min). The coking temperature is determined from the maximum magnitude of current using a graduated graph constructed during analysis of coke samples obtained with different final coking temperatures. The discrepancy between the established coking temperature and that defined from the proposed method is 8-19/sup 0/, and that defined from electrical resistance of coke is 26-43/sup 0/. In addition to high accuracy, this method reduces the time outlays for making the analysis.

  1. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall

    OpenAIRE

    Landreau, M.; Isler, D.; Gasser, A.; Blond, E.; Daniel, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    International audience This work deals with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven battery operating conditions compatible with a long service life in terms of thermal and mechanical stresses. For this purpose a 3D thermomechanical model of a heating wall taking into account the assembly of bricks and joints was developed with PRISME Laboratory. To build an efficient and complete model, different parameters must be ta...

  2. Study of coke oven combustion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, F.; Ono, H.; Ariyoshi, K.; Kasaoka, H.; Ichinomiya, M.

    1986-01-01

    Gas flow and combustion in the flues of a Carl Still-type coke oven battery (employing natural draft) can be controlled by focussing on combustion control for a single oven and applying an equation for steady gas flow to all the gas passages in the combustion chambers. This effectively corrects the oven temperature distribution. The usefulness of this control technique has been confirmed, and a large reduction in coking heat consumption has been achieved. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  3. Coal and coke - Analysis and testing - Coal and coke - Chlorine - High-temperature combustion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-29

    This Standard sets out a method for the liberation of the chlorine from coal and coke by high-temperature combustion, and its subsequent determination by titrimetry. The presence of residual halogen-bearing organic float-and-sink liquids in coal samples will affect the determination of chlorine. This Standard is applicable to coal and coke containing less than 0.3% chlorine.

  4. Combustion characteristics of coke oven. Developments of combustion control for coke oven - I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y.

    1984-01-01

    This short article is a synopsis of a paper presented to the 106th Meeting of the ISIJ in October 1983. It reports the results of an investigation which showed the effect of flue temperature distribution on coke strength. The results indicate the necessity for controlling the flue top temperature for a single-stage burner coke oven such as the Koppers type.

  5. The identification of dangerously coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriocanal, C.; Patrick, J.W.; Walker, P.A. [Loughborough Univ. of Technology, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    When coals are carbonised in slot-type ovens, layers of plastic coal are formed parallel to the oven walls and move progressively inwards eventually meeting at the oven centre. It is within these plastic layers that the principal processes which result in particulate coal being converted into porous, fused coke take place. For some coals, usually having volatile matter contents between 17 and 25wt% (dry, ash-free basis), these processes are accompanied by the generation of measurable gas pressures within the plastic layers which attain maximum levels when the two layers meet at the oven centre. These pressures are transmitted through the coke to the oven walls, causing damage if sufficiently high. Other coals, similar in chemical analysis and swelling properties, can be carbonised with impunity. The technical aspects of the coking pressure phenomenon are well known. However, the fundamental processes involved in the generation of internal gas pressures are not fully understood. Thus, before being used in blends for commercial coke production, potentially dangerous coals are tested by carbonising upwards of 180kg charges in moveable-wall ovens and measuring directly the pressures exerted on the walls. Clearly, it would be helpful if dangerously coking coals could be identified from laboratory tests. Preliminary findings of a laboratory study designed to gain further insight into coking pressure development are presented in this paper. Internal gas pressures have been ascribed to volatiles trapped within either the plastic envelope or the plastic layer implying an overlap of the temperature ranges of volatile release and fluidity. An attempts to assess this view using, initially, thermogravimetric analysis and Gieseler plastometry and, later, a coking bomb are described, the results being related to internal gas pressures measured in a 1.5kg double-wall oven.

  6. Three-dimensional beehive-like hierarchical porous polyacrylonitrile-based carbons as a high performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Long; Yang, Guangzhi; Han, Pan; Tang, Zhihong; Yang, Junhe

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional beehive-like hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) have been prepared by a facile carbonization of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) core-shell polymer particle followed by KOH activation. The all-organic porogenic core-shell precursor was synthesized by a simple and green surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The as-obtained HPCs show favorable features for electrochemical energy storage such as high specific surface area of up to 2085 m2 g-1, high volume of pores up to 1.89 cm3 g-1, hierarchical porosity consisting of micro, meso, and macropores, turbostratic carbon structure, uniform pore size and rich oxygen-doping (21.20%). The supercapacitor performance of HPCs exhibit a high specific capacitance 314 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and 237 F g-1 at a current density of 20 A g-1, ultra-high rate capability with 83% retention rate from 1 to 20 A g-1 and outstanding cycling stability with 96% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles. The facile, efficient and green synthesis strategy for novel HPCs from polymer sources could find use in supercapacitors, lithium ion batteries, fuel cells and sorbents.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF A COKE OVEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang

    2005-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  8. APPLICABILITY OF COKE PLANT CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES TO COAL CONVERSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of comparisons of process and waste stream characteristics from the Byproduct coke over process with selected gasification and liquefaction processes. It includes recommendations regarding control technologies for air, water, and solid wastes. Coke oven c...

  9. METALLURGICAL COKE INDUSTRY PARTICULATE EMISSIONS: SOURCE CATEGORY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to develop particulate emission factors based on cutoff size for inhalable particles for the metallurgical coke industry. After a review of available information characterizing particulate emissions from metallurgical coke plants, the data were...

  10. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Closed-cycle process of coke-cooling water in delayed coking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesized processes are commonly used to treat coke-cooling wastewater. These include cold coke-cut water, diluting coke-cooling water, adding chemical deodorization into oily water, high-speed centrifugal separation, de-oiling and deodorization by coke adsorption, and open nature cooling. However, because of water and volatile evaporation loss, it is not suitable to process high-sulphur heavy oil using open treatments. This paper proposed a closed-cycling process in order to solve the wastewater treatment problem. The process is based on the characteristics of coke-cooling water, such as rapid parametric variation, oil-water-coke emulsification and steam-water mixing. The paper discussed the material characteristics and general idea of the study. The process of closed-cycle separation and utilization process of coke-cooling water was presented along with a process flow diagram. Several applications were presented, including a picture of hydrocyclones for pollution separation and a picture of equipments of pollution separation and components regeneration. The results showed good effect had been achieved since the coke-cooling water system was put into production in 2004. The recycling ratios for the components of the coke-cooling water were 100 per cent, and air quality in the operating area reached the requirements of the national operating site circumstance and the health standards. Calibration results of the demonstration unit were presented. It was concluded that since the devices went into operation, the function of production has been normal and stable. The operation was simple, flexible, adjustable and reliable, with significant economic efficiency and environmental benefits. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  12. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1910.1029 Section 1910.1029 Labor... Coke oven emissions. (a) Scope and application. This section applies to the control of employee exposure to coke oven emissions, except that this section shall not apply to working conditions with...

  13. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (II): analysis of coke oven operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Takase, S.

    1983-01-01

    Following on from an earlier report continuous measurements were carried out in an operating oven to establish when coking in the upper coke oven chamber was completed. The results of this operational analysis are reported. Accounts are also given of the measures adopted, on the basis of these results, to reduce the variations in coke quality. These measures, which constitute a combustion control system, include using a carbonization model to calculate the correct temperature distribution and then adjusting the burner ports accordingly. 1 reference.

  15. Influence of biomass on metallurgical coke quality

    OpenAIRE

    Montiano Redondo, María de Garabandal; Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Álvarez García, Ramón

    2014-01-01

    Two industrial coal blends used in coke making were subjected to tests in order to assess the influence of waste sawdust (SC2 from chestnut and SP1 from pine) on the quality of the coke produced. The biomass was added in quantities of up to 5 wt.%. It was observed that biomass produced a substantial decrease in the plastic properties of the industrial coal blend, with reductions in Gieseler maximum fluidity of around 50% for 3 wt.% additions of the two different sawdusts. Carbonizations with ...

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  17. 单种焦煤结焦性能及其混配性研究%Coking capacity and coking compatibility of coking coals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项茹; 宋子逵; 薛改凤; 鲍俊芳

    2012-01-01

    The quality and coking capacity of 5 coking coals from different mines were analyzed and compared, and coal blend coking experiment was conducted. The results show, although the coking capacity of the coals doesn't differ much, their process indexes and coking microstructures are remarkably different. During blending and coking, if the coking has abundant plastometers with high fluxion and expansion and more coarse coking grains, its coking compatibility with different coals will be good and the coke quality will also be high, and vice versa.%对5种不同矿点的焦煤进行煤质分析和单种煤结焦性能比较,并进行配煤炼焦试验研究.结果表明,尽管单种焦煤的结焦性能接近,但其工艺性质及成焦显微结构存在较大差异.在配煤炼焦中,胶质体含量丰富、胶质体的流变性和膨胀性高、成焦粗粒镶嵌结构多的焦煤,与不同炼焦煤的混配性强,所得焦炭质量较优.

  18. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. The Value Proposition of 'Teck Coke Limited' Should Teck Enter the Coke Trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Colin Wilfred Petryk

    2011-01-01

    This paper will review the business case for Teck to enter the metallurgical cokemarket for the steel industry. The trend impacting investment is the growing demand forsteel. There are two coke battery technologies to choose from; environmental concernsmake the heat recovery oven the preferred technology. Four countries were considered inwhich to build the coke plant; Teck’s relationship with Chile and Chile’s desire forforeign investment makes it the best choice. Market size was estimated us...

  1. New systems for coke gas purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodovich, A.I.; Zaichenko, V.M.; Melikentsova, V.I.; Shteinberg, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Due to increased requirements for the purity of industrial emissions, recent years have seen further development of the new coke-oven gas purificaton methods which have been adopted by a number of plants. The improvement of these methods was caused by the necessity for solving problems of utilization or elimination of secondary production wastes.

  2. Generic methods for coke oven gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfried Seyfferth; Rainer Dittmer; Holger Thielert [ThyssenKrupp EnCoke GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation gives an overview of the most common desulphurisation processes suitable for coke oven gas. Dry oxidative processes mentioned include the iron oxide and the zinc oxide process; wet oxidative processes outlined are the Stretford, Perox, Takahax, Thylox, Fumaks and LoCat; and neutralizaiton or absorption/stripping processes described are the Sulfiban, CYCLASULF, VACASULF and Soda Lye scrubbing processes. 22 figs.

  3. Automated combustion control of individual coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumiso, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yamate, Yoshitomo; Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro (Nippon Kokan Kabushiki Kaisha, Tokyo, Japan)

    1989-06-25

    NKK successfully developed an automated computerized combustion control system for coke oven for the first time in 1973. As the final stage of the development, an automated combustion control system for individual coke oven was completed and put to operation in July, 1988. The history of the development, method of combustion control and result of the operation are reported. In the earlier days, the automatic combustion control was made for a group of ovens, and 'combustion control of individual oven' was made by operators. Time series variation of flue temperatures of each oven is assumed to be the heat transfer from the combustion chamber to the carbonization chember which is treated as a function of assumed carbonization temperature, and expressed by a numerical model. The calculated target agreed well with the measured flue temperature. Temperature deviation for each flue is calculated every 2 hours, the degree of change is calculated, and the opening of the corresponding gas cock is automatically adjusted. The heat consumption showed a rapid decrease. The variation of coke strength decreased by 0.1 %, contributing very much for the reduction of coal cost for coke making. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Simulation of transport phenomena in coke oven with staging combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-dimensional transient mathematical model was developed for coupled coking chamber and staging combustion chamber in large-capacity coke ovens, to describe the flow–combustion–thermo behavior. The model was solved numerically using CFX CFD package and was validated by the central temperature evolution of coke bed. The fields of temperature, fluid flow and combustible gas concentration were analyzed, with special reference to the temperature difference of coke bed and NO concentration of exhaust. The results show that staging combustion plays an important role in improving temperature uniformity of the coke bed and reducing NO concentration of exhaust, especially for the large-capacity coke oven. It is beneficial for production optimization to decrease the gas mass flow rate at the bottom inlet while increase the rate at the upper inlet in the combustion chamber. In addition, it turns out that some measures such as coal preheating, adjustment of moisture content or/and coal densification may be used to improve the coke production efficiency. It is expected the developed model and relevant data in the present research will be beneficial to realize large-scale coke oven with a higher energy efficiency and lower emission. -- Highlights: • The application of staging combustion in coke ovens and its effects are analyzed. • A 3D model is proposed to describe flow–combustion–thermo behaviors in coke oven. • Optimizing operation parameters in full-scale coke oven are studied

  5. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  6. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  7. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  8. Fluid coking : a competitive option for heavy feed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluid coking is a proven thermal conversion process for converting heavy hydrocarbon feeds to lighter products. Fluid coking was commercialized by Exxon over 40 years ago. A total of 13 units have been built with over 330 years of cumulative operating experience. Fluid coking can process many different feeds at once and is usually insensitive to feed contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen and metals. New developments in coke utilization and flue gas desulfurization/departiculation have prompted new economic studies. Fluid coking is competitive and is the most attractive option compared to delayed coking, particularly for very heavy feed stocks such as deasphalter bottoms. Viewgraphs describe the fluid coking process, its advantages, utilization, and commercial viability. 7 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  10. Development of coke oven combustion control technology (III). Development of a control system for coke oven combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M.; Yamamura, H.; Yamamoto, T.; Miyake, M.; Itoh, Y.; Yamashita, H.

    1983-01-01

    A 41 gate combustion control system has been developed at Sumitomo Chemicals' Kashima II - D coke oven battery as a means of stabilizing coke quality and reducing the amount of heat required for coking. The system has been operating smoothly since January 1983. Low level stability of oven temperature has been obtained and the variation in coking times among the ovens has been reduced. The coking heat requirement has been decreased by approximately 20 kcal/kg-coal. The control functions of the system and the control model upon which it is based are indicated, and control results are given.

  11. New characterisation tests of the coke behaviour at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danloy, G.; Pesneux, P.; Fischbach, J.P. (and others) [CRM, Liege (Belgium)

    2009-07-01

    New laboratory tests have been developed to characterise the coke behaviour at high temperature under conditions similar to those encountered in the blast furnace, especially in terms of gasification degree. The CRM Cokarac test characterises the evolution of coke size distribution under mechanical, chemical and thermal stresses during increasing residence time under gasification conditions prevailing in the blast furnace. Two Corus tests characterise the resistance of coke submitted to the actions of liquid iron and slag. A CPM test characterises the strength of coke after a constant weight loss. The validity of these new tests has been demonstrated by comparing the modifications of the coke grain size and microscopic texture resulting from the tests with those undergone by coke in the blast furnace. The latter have been measured by comparing cokes sampled by a tuyere probe with cokes sampled before charging into the blast furnace. Industrial cokes from a wide variety of sources have been tested. Moreover, to highlight the sensitivity of the new tests and their innovative content, cokes differing greatly by their CRI and CSR indices have been produced in the pilot coke oven plant of CPM. The results of the new tests showed only little correlation with the classical coke characterisation indices (I10, I40) and with the standard CRI-CSR indices, which indicates that they really bring new information on coke properties. The applicability of these new tests on a routine basis has been evaluated in order to allow the ironmaking industry to better characterise coke quality. 15 refs., 90 figs., 23 tabs., 13 apps.

  12. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  13. The Corex process - ironmaking without coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flickenschild, J.; Hauk, R. (Deutsche Voest-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    The high cost of coke making and the environmental problems involved as well as the increasing price of natural gas for DRI production were the reasons for the development of the COREX process for the production of hot metal based on a wide range of ordinary steam coals. After the successful operation of a CORX pilot plant, the first commercial plant was built at Iscor in Pretoria, South Africa, and is now in full operation. 3 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs.

  14. Mortality in retired coke oven plant workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, N.; Bertrand, J P; Mur, J M; Figueredo, A; Patris, A.; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1993-01-01

    A previous study on 536 retired coke oven plant workers in Lorraine Collieries (France) reported an excess of deaths from lung cancer (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) = 251) compared with the French male population. Occupational exposures during working life were retraced for each subject, but the number of deaths during the observation period (1963-82) was small, and smoking habits were known only for dead subjects. In 1988, the cohort was re-examined (182 deaths occurred between 1963 and...

  15. Petroleum coke slags :characterization and dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Jun

    1997-01-01

    Slags are crystalline to vitreous by-product materials generated in many high temperature industrial processes. This study presents a general technique for the identification of the phases present in petroleum coke gasification slags. documents the phase assemblages and textures, and finally determines the dissolution of vanadium from these slags as part of the considerations of potential resource reclamation. The general identification procedure utilizes (1) recognition of separa...

  16. BRAND COMMITMENTAS ACOMPONENTOFBRAND EQUITY- ARESEARCH CONCERNING COKE

    OpenAIRE

    Ridvan Karalar; Hakan Kiraci

    2007-01-01

    Brand equity is affected by many factors such as brand commitment, brand awareness, perceived quality and brand association. One of them brand royalty is important component of brand equity. In this research, it was investigated consumers’ brand preferences, brand royalty level and brand commitment factors on brands on coke product placed beverage sector. Asurvey carried out on 500 students at Dumlupinar University Economics and Administrative Sciences Faculty. The participants of this stud...

  17. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  18. A static approach towards coke collapse modelling in blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nag, S.; Basu, S. Yu, A.B.

    2009-10-15

    Burden distribution control in a blast furnace has a close relationship with wind acceptance and gas utilisation. Quantification of radial distribution of ore and coke is important for proper control of blast furnace operation. Charging of metallic burden over a layer of coke causes a portion of the coke layer to get dislodged from its original position, similar to the situation observed when a heavy material is dropped on a bed of lighter particles. This phenomenon, designated 'coke collapse', significantly changes the ore/coke distribution in the radial direction and thus affects the permeability of the furnace shaft. In the present work a mathematical model for quantifying the amount of coke collapse has been proposed on the basis of 'stability of slope theory'. The calculation from this model has been compared with the results from experiments in simplified physical models. Predictions of the mathematical model are in good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Toxicological assessment of green petroleum coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Richard H; Herron, Deborah; Beatty, Patrick; Podhasky, Paula; Hoffman, Gary M; Swigert, James; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Green petroleum coke is primarily inorganic carbon with some entrained volatile hydrocarbon material. As part of the petroleum industry response to the high production volume challenge program, the potential for reproductive effects was assessed in a subchronic toxicity/reproductive toxicity screening test in rats (OECD 421). The repeated-dose portion of the study provided evidence for dust accumulation and inflammatory responses in rats exposed to 100 and 300 mg/m(3) but there were no effects at 30 mg/m(3). In the reproductive toxicity screen, the frequency of successful matings was reduced in the high exposure group (300 mg/m(3)) and was not significantly different from control values but was outside the historical experience of the laboratory. The postnatal observations (external macroscopic examination, body weight, and survival) did not indicate any treatment-related differences. Additional tests conducted to assess the potential hazards to aquatic (fish, invertebrates, and algae) and soil dwelling organisms (earthworms and vascular plants) showed few effects at the maximum loading rates of 1000 mg coke/L in aquatic studies and 1000 mg coke/kg soil in terrestrial studies. The only statistically significant finding was an inhibition of algal growth measured as either biomass or growth rate. PMID:24179031

  20. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M T; Mao, I F; Ho, C.K.; Wypij, D; Lu, P. L.; Smith, T. J.; Chen, M. L.; Christiani, D C

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation of individual occupational exposure to total particulates benzene soluble fraction (BSF) of ambient air with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations among coke oven workers in Taiwan. METHODS: 80 coke oven workers and 50 referents were monitored individually for the BSF of breathing zone air over three consecutive days. Exposures were categorised as high, medium, or low among coke oven workers based on exposure situations. The high exposure...

  1. Parameters and evaluation criteria for the coal coking process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1988-09-01

    Analyzes effects of temperature distribution on black coal coking in a conventional coke oven. Two parameters are used for description of temperature distribution: a local (time-average) divergence function and an instant (volumetric) divergence function. Formulae for determining the two parameters are derived. Use of the mean values of the two functions as an evaluation criteria for assessment of the coking process is recommended. Practical use of the proposed criteria is discuussed. 8 refs.

  2. 76 FR 77020 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Coke Oven Emissions ACTION... Administration (OSHA) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Coke Oven Emissions,'' to the...: The purpose of Coke Oven Emissions Standard and its information collection requirements, codified...

  3. Mortality of coke plant workers in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A.; Hayes, R B; Scheffers, T; Sturmans, F.

    1991-01-01

    During the production of coke, large quantities of coke oven gas are emitted. People who work on the top or on the sides of coke ovens are exposed to this oven gas, which contains a range of carcinogenic chemicals. To investigate the cancer risks under these work conditions, a retrospective study was undertaken. In total 11,399 former workers were enrolled in the study. Of these, 5639 had worked in the coke plant for at least six months between 1945 and 1969. The other 5740 had worked in anot...

  4. Study of coking on heavy petroleum fractions and on models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belloir, P.F.

    1989-11-01

    After recalling coke formation, thermal behavior of a petroleum fraction from catalytic craking is examined. Thermal sensitivity of diarylethylenes and influence of additives on reaction mechanisms are studied.

  5. Process for the preparation of isotropic petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of a process for preparing isotropic coke from oil residue charge. It includes blowing air into the residue until it reaches a softening temperature of around 49 to 116 deg C, the deferred coking of the residue having undergone blowing at a temperature of around 247 to 640 deg C, at a pressure between around 1.38x105 and 1.72x106 Pa, and the recovery of isotropic coke with a thermal expansion coefficient ratio under 1.5 approximately. The isotropic coke is used for preparing hexagonal graphite bars for nuclear reactor moderators

  6. Competitive reactions of organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catak, Saron; Hemelsoet, Karen; Hermosilla, Laura; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique

    2011-10-17

    The efficacy of organophosphorus radicals as anticoking agents was subjected to a computational study in which a representative set of radicals derived from industrially relevant organophosphorus additives was used to explore competitive reaction pathways on the graphene-like coke surface formed during thermal cracking. The aim was to investigate the nature of the competing reactions of different organophosphorus radicals on coke surfaces, and elucidate their mode of attack and inhibiting effect on the forming coke layer by use of contemporary computational methods. Density functional calculations on benzene and a larger polyaromatic hydrocarbon, namely, ovalene, showed that organophosphorus radicals have a high propensity to add to the periphery of the coke surface, inhibiting methyl radical induced hydrogen abstraction, which is known to be a key step in coke growth. Low addition barriers reported for a phosphatidyl radical suggest competitive aptitude against coke formation. Moreover, organophosphorus additives bearing aromatic substituents, which were shown to interact with the coke surface through dispersive π-π stacking interactions, are suggested to play a nontrivial role in hindering further stacking among coke surfaces. This may be the underlying rationale behind experimental observation of softer coke in the presence of organophosphorus radicals. The ultimate goal is to provide information that will be useful in building single-event microkinetic models. This study presents pertinent information on potential reactions that could be taken up in these models. PMID:21956815

  7. An installation for the intake of coke and the outlet of gases during unloading of coke furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marapulets, G.N.; Butko, A.V.; Likhogub, Ye.P.; Nayman, A.M.; Pevnyy, V.P.; Yatsura, V.A.; Zinchenko, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    An installation is proposed for receiving coke and the outlet of gases during unloading of coke furnaces, which includes a coke directing dolly, a basket with a dust trapping hood attached to it, a gas outlet, telescopic branchpipe, whose fixed part is attached to the upper part of the hood and a collector for outlet of the gas in the device for purification located parallel to the battery of coking furnaces. To increase the reliability and effectiveness of outlet of the gases, the gas outlet branchpipe is installed horizontally and the telescopic branchpipe is connected by means of levers and linkages to the basket of the coke guide dolly. The dust trapping hood is equipped with an additional, horizontal, gas outlet branchpipe and the gas outlet branchpipes are installed at a distance equal to the distance between the coking furnaces.

  8. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Coal Beneficiation Technology for Coking & Non-Coking Coal Meant For Steel and Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Gohil Priyank; Nikita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    There are 21 coking coal washeries in production both in private and public sectors. Production of clean coal in these washeries during 1989-90 was 12 million tonne and it is expected to go up to 37 million, tonne during 2015-16. Planning Commission has taken the decision that non-coking coal meant for Thermal Power Plants situated far away from feeding coalfield, should be beneficiated. Coal Washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in Specific Gravity of Coal and associa...

  10. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies. PMID:22532121

  11. Soluções conservantes em sorvetão pós-colheita Preservative solutions in beehive ginger post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Herbênia Lima Cruz Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da fisiologia pós-colheita de inflorescências de sorvetão cultivadas no Submédio São Francisco. Hastes florais recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos (água destilada; 75mg L-1 de nitrato de prata - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 de cloreto de cobalto - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de ácido giberélico - GA3 - Progibb® e 10mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina - BAP, em ambiente com temperatura e umidade controlada por 15 dias. A vida pós-colheita foi acompanhada a partir da escala de notas, da massa da matéria fresca e do consumo da solução conservante. O tratamento com AgNO3 em hastes de sorvetão, foi o mais eficiente na manutenção da vida de vaso de sorvetão, porém, devido a sua toxidez, recomenda-se o uso de GA3.The objective of this research was to study some physiological post-harvest aspect of beehive ginger inflorescences grown in the lower middle San Francisco river basin. Flower stems just harvested were submitted to different treatments (distilled water; 75mg L-1 of silver nitrate - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 of cobalt chloride - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de GA3 - Progibb® and 10mg L-1 of 6-benzylamino purine - BAP, in an environment with controlled temperature and humidity, for 15 days. The post-harvest life was monitored from grading scale, fresh weight, and consumption of the preservative solution. The treatment with silver nitrate was the most efficient to keep the vase life of beehive ginger, however due to its toxity, the use of GA3 is recommended.

  12. 29 CFR 1926.1129 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coke oven emissions. 1926.1129 Section 1926.1129 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1129 Coke oven emissions. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are...

  13. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the comprehensiv

  14. Utilization of semi-coke for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review describes some problems and possibilities associated with the spent shale from the Kiviter process. Kiviter AS in cooperation with the Finnish power company Imatraan Voima OY is doing a project study on power generation from semi-coke. The main alternative is to burn the semi-coke in a high-pressured fluidized bed

  15. CARCINOGEN ASSESSMENT OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS (REVISED DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke oven workers in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and at 10 non-Allegheny County coke plants in the United States and Canada were found to be at an excess risk of mortality from cancer of all sites and from cancer of the lungs, bronchus, and trachea, kidney, and prostate. An im...

  16. Wear resistance of coke-crushing hammers

    OpenAIRE

    Zupanič, Franc

    2015-01-01

    This work investigated several methods for improving the wear resistance of the 42CrMo4 tool steel used for coke-crushing hammers. The methods embraced heat treatment for obtaining different combinations of strength and ductility of the bulk steel, and surface-engineering processes comprising TiN thin-film deposition using magnetron-sputtering, nitriding and WC/Ni weld deposit surfaced by gas metal arc (GMA) method. The wear-resistance was tested under industrial conditions. Oil quenching and...

  17. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Härkki

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs) in a blast furnace (BF) coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N 2 and O 2 . The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallu...

  18. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  19. Coke deactivation of catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell's principal contribution to the study of the role of coke in the deactivation of catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum feedstocks has been the development and application of nuclear microprobe methods to measure the distributions of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and other elements in coked catalyst pellets. Nuclear microprobe methods have been developed that allow the measurement of the distribution of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and heavier elements in coked catalyst pellets. At present analysis by both deuteron and helium-4 ion beams is necessary to cover the complete range of elements. The potential of using helium-3 irradiation alone to measure all elements is as yet unrealised. Applications have included studies of the variability of profiles in batches of used pellets, investigation of interrelationships between coke components and limited kinetic studies. Many of these applications have proved to be successful and nuclear microprobe methods should continue to be exploited studies of catalyst coking. (au)

  20. Recycling of hazardous waste materials in the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Barriocanal, C; Díez, M A; Cimadevilla, J L G; Casal, M D; Canga, C S

    2004-03-01

    Every year the coking industry produces a significant amount of tarry and other wastes in byproducts plants. For the most part these wastes have not been put to any practical use. In addition, an integrated factory produces several waste oils which differ in composition and quantity, e.g., wastes from the steel rolling-mill process. In this work, the possibility of using such waste materials as binders in a partial briquetting process for metallurgical coke production is explored. By means of this coking procedure, a strong metallurgical coke not inferior in quality to coke from conventional coal blends is produced at pilot and semi-industrial scales. The use of such wastes, some of which are classified as hazardous materials, will avoid the need for dumping, thereby contributing to the protection of the environment as well as reducing the costs related to waste disposal. PMID:15046368

  1. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  2. Coke Deposition and Smoke Formation in Turbojet Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, R. R.; Wear, J. D.

    1956-01-01

    In the early development of jet engines, it was occasionally found that excessive amounts of coke or other carbonaceous deposits were formed in the combustion chamber. Sometimes a considerable amount of smoke was noted in the-exhaust gases. Excessive coke deposits may adversely affect jet-engine performance in several ways. The formation of excessive amounts of coke on or just downstream of a fuel nozzle (figs. 116(a) and (b)) changes the fuel-spray pattern and possibly affects combustor life and performance. Similar effects on performance can result from the deposition of coke on primary-air entry ports (fig. 116(c)). Sea-level or altitude starting may be impaired by the deposition of coke on spark-plug electrodes (fig. 116(b)), deposits either grounding the electrodes completely or causing the spark to occur at positions other than the intended gap. For some time it was thought that large deposits of coke in turbojet combustion chambers (fig. 116(a)) might break away and damage turbine blades; however, experience has indicated that for metal blades this problem is insignificant. (Cermet turbine blades may be damaged by loose coke deposits.) Finally, the deposition of coke may cause high-temperature areas, which promote liner warping and cracking (fig. 116(d)) from excessive temperature gradients and variations in thermal-expansion rates. Smoke in the exhaust gases does not generally impair engine performance but may be undesirable from a tactical or a nuisance standpoint. Appendix B of reference 1 and references 2 to 4 present data obtained from full-scale engines operated on test stands and from flight tests that indicate some effects on performance caused by coke deposits and smoke. Some information about the mechanism of coke formation is given in reference 5 and chapter IX. The data indicate that (1) high-boiling fuel residuals and partly polymerized products may be mixed with a large amount of smoke formed in the gas phase to account for the consistency

  3. Effects of Additives on Sulfur Transformation, Crystallite Structure and Properties of Coke during Coking of High-sulfur Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sheng-fu ZHANG; Liang-ying WEN; Kun WANG; Chong ZOU; Jian XU

    2015-01-01

    High-sulfur coal, as an alternative coal source, has a relatively high proportion in coal reserves. However, the feature of high sulfur content, which can cause environmental pollution and poor quality of molten iron, restrains its utilization in coking industry. Coking experiments of high-sulfur coal with Fe2O3, La2O3 and CaO as additives were carried out in order to ifx the sulfur in coke. The effects of additives on sulfur distribution, crystallite structure, surface morphology and properties of coke were inves-tigated. The results indicate that CaO can be used as sulfur-ifxing agent in coking process, and CaS is the main mineralogical phase of the sulfur-contained mineral constituents in coke. Fe2O3 and La2O3 facilitate the conversion of CaO to CaS. The additives mainly inlfuence the crystallite height and the average interlayer spacingd002 of coke. The addition of La2O3 increases the value of the crys-tallite heightwhile the addition of CaO and Fe2O3 decreases it. CaO leads the pores of coke to increase with its physical action and agglomerating characteristic. Fe2O3and C can form (Fe,C), resulting in the pulverization and erosion of the pore wall. La2O3 makes the coke surface become more compact and thinner. The reactivity of coke increases with the decrease of crystallite height and crystallite layer number.

  4. Coke: Capacity Expansion and Production Closure / Restriction Go Side by Side

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ With the "self production restriction" and the "closure of small coking enterprises" in the coking sector and the rapid demand increase in downstream metallurgical and chemical sectors, a basic supply/demand balance of coke was achieved in 2006 and the price of coke also made a gradual pickup from the second quarter of 2007.

  5. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  6. Petroleum coke and plants : impact on growth and physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroleum coke, a by-product of the oil sand processing industry in Alberta, contains fairly significant concentrations of arsenic, boron, iron, nickel, sulphur, titanium, and vanadium embedded in a carbon matrix. Through weathering and biological degradation, these components may be released from coke and absorbed by plant tissues where they may restrict growth and interfere with physiological activities. In order to study the effects of petroleum coke on plants, several greenhouse experiments were conducted by growing Agropyron trachycaulum, Deschampsia caespitosa, Calamagrostis canadensis, Oryzopsis hymenoides, Triticum aestivum, Cornus sericea and Fragaria virginiana for 3 months in control soil, Syncrude Canada Ltd. coke; and Suncor Energy Inc.coke. It was found that in all coke treated plants, shoot biomass was lower than controls. Root biomass followed this same trend, with the exception of Triticum aestivum. Several results were presented in this study abstract. It was concluded that the short term effects of coke on plants are most likely due to water stress and nutrient deficiency and that further research is needed

  7. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  8. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  9. THE INERT HOLDING RATIO OF COAL ANDTHE STRENGTH OF COKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏

    1996-01-01

    The variation regularity of coke strength was investigated in terms of the genetic fac-tors and petrographic parameters of coal in collaboration with the technical properties of coal. Aconcept of inert holding ratio of coal was proposed. There is an optimal inert holding ratio for dif-ferent ranks of coals for making coke with highest combined strength. The additive property of in-ert holding ratio under normal conditions was demonstrated with actual examples of coal blending.Thus it is possible to predict the combined strength of coke through reflectance, content of inertcomponents and caking index (Ro, max-I-G) diagram system.

  10. Characteristics of laboratory-coked resid HDS catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgart, J. Wang, Y.; Ernst, W.R. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta (USA))

    1990-12-01

    A sample of commercial residual oil hydrotreating catalyst with a bimodal pore structure was coked to progressively higher levels with styrene at 425{degree}C. Measurements of porosity by mercury intrusion-extrusion porosimetry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption porosimetry, and coronene diffusivity reveal the importance of the pore network to the structure of the coked catalyst. The role played by 'shielded' large pores within the structure is demonstrated. It is proposed that coking first occurs at the junctions between large, shielded pores and narrow connecting pores. The results are discussed in terms of the theoretical predictions of Mann and co-workers.

  11. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY PRICE RATIO OF COKING COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶树人; 王永君

    1994-01-01

    If assortment price parity of Clean coling coal and its quallty price difference is nonreasortable, it doesn't guide in improving the qualiry metaljurgical eoking coal and may be influence the economic benefit of metallurgical enterprises. This paper propose the principles and mathematic model for determination assortment parity of ciean cokingcoal and its quality difference of ash content in clean coking coa in order to urge wasberies into producing superior clean coking coal which is under condition of consideration both intorest waskcries and interest metallurgical industry. It canbe used as a method in theory to make price stra,iegics under condition of socialism maket economic for washeries of clean coking coal

  12. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    Konstanciak, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  13. Expectation for coke quality seen from recent blast furnace operation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, I.; Ichida, M. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd, Futtsu (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    The coke quality requested for the stable operation of a large-scale blast furnace under high production and low coke rate in the future is arranged based on a past finding concerning relation between the coke quality and the blast furnace operation analysis. And an expectation for next generation coke-making process (SCOPE21) which has the function to enable the above-mentioned coke quality and a necessary requirement are described.

  14. Therapeutic Effect of Beehive Extract for Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis%蜂巢提取物治疗变应性鼻炎疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤姣; 李维榕; 罗岳雄; 赵红霞; 李万瑶

    2015-01-01

    [目的] 观察蜂巢提取物对变应性鼻炎患者的临床疗效. [方法] 将符合纳入标准的60例受试者, 随机分为大剂量组和小剂量组各30例. 大剂量组给予口服蜂巢提取物15 g/次, 3次/ d; 小剂量组给予口服蜂巢提取物5 g/次, 3次/ d; 服用1周为1个疗程, 2组均服用4个疗程后观察疗效, 并于停服1个月时随访. [结果] (1) 大剂量组总有效率为90.00%,小剂量组为93.00%, 2组比较 (秩和检验), 差异无统计学意义 (P>0.05). (2) 治疗后及随访时, 2组患者总症状视觉模拟评分量表 (Uni-VAS)、 鼻结膜炎生活质量量表 (RQLQ) 各维度评分均显著降低 (P0.05). [结论] 口服大剂量和小剂量蜂巢提取物均能显著改善变应性鼻炎患者的症状, 两者总体疗效相当, 但随访时小剂量组在症状量表评分方面有回升 (即复发) 的趋势.%Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of beehive extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis. Methods Sixty qualified subjects were evenly randomized into large dose group and small dose group, 30 in each group. The large dose group was given oral use of beehive extract 15 g per time, and the small dose group was given 5 g per time, three times per day. One week constituted a treatment period, and the treatment lasted 4 courses. After treatment, the therapeutic effect was evaluated in both groups. Follow-up was carried out one month after suspension of medicine. Results ( 1) The total effective rate was 90.00% in the large dose group, and was 93.00% in the small dose group, and the rank sum test results showed the difference was insignificant between the two groups (P>0.05) . (2) After treatment and during follow-up, the scores of general symptom Visual Analog Scale ( Uni-VAS) and the scores of Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire ( RQLQ) were decreased in both groups ( P0.05) . Conclusion Oral use of large or small dose of beehive extract shows certain therapeutic effect for

  15. Causes Leading to Formation of Shot Cokes and Measures for Its Prevention in Super Viscous Oil Delayed Coking Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chunmao; Zhang Feng; Yan Guangxu; Guo Shaohui

    2007-01-01

    Shot cokes are frequently formed in the delayed coking unit treating the super viscous oil at PetroChina's Liaohe Petrochemical Company. Considerable work has been carried out to avoid the formation of shot cokes. The test results obtained have shown that the property of super viscous oil has played a key role in the formation of shot cokes. After adjusting and optimizing the process indices the operating regime of the delayed coking unit at a throughput of 118t/h of the super viscous oil is specified as follows: a reaction temperature of 498-502℃, a reaction pressure of 0.17-0.25 MPa, a recycle ratio of 0.5-0.6 and a fractionation tower bottom temperature of 355-365 ℃. In the meantime,the delayed coking process has adopted measures to enhance pre-fractionation of the feedstock to rationally remove light fractions and maintain a steady gas velocity in order to avoid the formation of shot cokes.

  16. TGA and DMA studies of blends from very good coking Zofiowka coal and various carbon additives: Weakly coking coals, industrial coke and carbonized plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzesinska, M. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marii Curie- Sklodowskiej 34, PL-41819 Zabrze (Poland); Silesian Technical University, Department of Electron Technology, Institute of Physics, Krzywoustego 2, PL-44100 Gliwice (Poland); Szeluga, U.; Majewska, J.; Pusz, S.; Czajkowska, S. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, Marii Curie- Sklodowskiej 34, PL-41819 Zabrze (Poland); Smedowski, L. [Silesian Technical University, Department of Electron Technology, Institute of Physics, Krzywoustego 2, PL-44100 Gliwice (Poland); Kwiecinska, B. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effects of various carbon additives, blended with very good coking coal, on the thermal decomposition of the blends. The blends possess fixed content (50 wt.%) of very good coking coal from the Zofiowka Mine. The remaining components of the blends are worse coking coals collected from the Janina, Krupinski, Szczyglowice, Jas-Mos mines (coals of carbon content ranging from 73 up to 92 wt.%), and very porous carbons: coke (from the coking plant Zdzieszowice), as well as woody stems of bamboo and yucca carbonized at 400 C. The content of porous carbon in a blend does not exceed 20 wt.%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) are used in the study. The weight loss during low-temperature pyrolysis (< 600 C), and storage/loss elastic moduli measured as a function of the increasing temperature are related to the kind and concentration of additives. The temperature dependences of elastic moduli determined for binary coal blends differ clearly from those of ternary coal blends. The consumption of energy during the interaction of the components in binary blends was found to be distinctly bigger than the one observed for ternary blends. Non-softening additives such as carbonized plants and low rank coal, containing many functional groups, diminish both moduli of the blends distinctly. However, the addition of coke does not reduce the value of the elastic moduli but increases the width of the maximum occurring in the temperature dependence of the moduli. The influence of the coke additive on rheological properties of the blends, different in comparison with the remaining additives studied, was assigned with different number of functional groups and radicals. (author)

  17. Methanol gasoline blend from petroleum coke sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, David [Consulting Chemical Engineer (United States); Wallsgrove, Chris [Process Engineering Manager (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta, a large amount of petroleum coke is produced as a byproduct from processes relating to bitumen upgrading and refining. Unfortunately, there is little to no market for this product in the province. This presentation addresses concerns relating to the concept of converting the otherwise wasted petcoke into methanol and using it as a blending component in gasoline. The presentation tackles issues relating to environmental impact, economics, renewability, toxicity, safety, and vehicle design by analyzing and comparing the proposed methanol/gasoline (M-10) to that of an ethanol/gasoline (E-10). The presentation covers analysis of the CO2 emissions, an analysis of the finances, and a number of scenarios involving the improper use or accidental spillage of M-10. Through the comparison of methanol/gasoline and ethanol/gasoline, the presentation demonstrated that converting the petcoke byproduct into methanol for use as a gasoline blend is a viable option.

  18. Changes in the microstructure of coke while passing the blast furnace with respect to the quality of the charged coke and the behaviour of nut coke in the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janhsen, U.; Guenbati, A.; Sautner, C. (and others) [ThyssenKrupp Steel, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    This study provides a comprehensive contribution to the understanding of the metallurgical stresses to which the coke is exposed in a blast furnace. The investigations refer to the change in the coke microstructure depending on the charged feed coke quality and the blast furnace operatic conditions. Also the behaviour of nut coke (coke - 35 mm) in the blast furnace is determined. To work on the scheduled activities and aims of the project various tools are used by the different partners. At TKS, a new microscopic measurement method quantifying the change in the coke carbon micro texture is used to compare the microstructure of feed coke, CRI/CSR treated coke and core drilled coke from the tuyere level of different TKS blast furnaces. Tuyere core drill exercises also are used to detect ZrO{sub 2} traced nut coke charged as mix with burden components in the lower part of the furnace, CSM used the MOSCA model and tuyere core drillings to investigate the behaviour of the nut at a blast furnace of Lucchini at Piombino (Italy). At MEFOS, cokes excavated from LKAB's Experimental Blast Furance (EBF) are used as a basis for the research. The evolution of the EBF coke properties, particuly the carbon structure and alkali uptake were related to CO{sub 2} reactivity. At DMT synthetic coke materials of various qualites are produced for laboratory investigations also at the partner. The University of Aachen RWTH studies the behaviour of coke under various blast furnace scenarios to detect also the changes in the coke microstructure. 12 refs., 141 figs., 63 tabs.

  19. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    OpenAIRE

    Weill J.; Broutin P.; Billaud F.; Gueret C.

    2006-01-01

    Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence an...

  20. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  1. [Health risk assessment of coke oven PAHs emissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wen, Rou; Zhao, Chun-Li; Wu, Tie; Li, Shi-Bei

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by coke oven are with strong toxicity and carcinogenicity. Taken typical coke oven of iron and steel enterprises as the case study, the dispersion and migration of 13 kinds of PAHs emitted from coke oven were analyzed using AERMOD dispersion model, the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks at the receptors within the modeling domain were evaluated using BREEZE Risk Analyst and the Human Health Risk Assessment Protocol for Hazardous Waste Combustion (HHRAP) was followed, the health risks caused by PAHs emission from coke oven were quantitatively evaluated. The results indicated that attention should be paid to the non-carcinogenic risk of naphthalene emission (the maximum value was 0.97). The carcinogenic risks of each single pollutant were all below 1.0E-06, while the maximum value of total carcinogenic risk was 2.65E-06, which may have some influence on the health of local residents. PMID:25244863

  2. Experimental research on quality features of metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, V.; Constantin, N.

    2015-06-01

    From all the solid fuels, the metallurgical coke is the most used in obtaining iron in the blast furnace. Together with the iron ore, manganese ore and fluxes, it constitutes the basis of raw materials and materials for elaborating pig iron. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations by the authors to determine the most important quality characteristics of some types of coke used in the blast furnace charge.

  3. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  4. Coke formation during thermal cracking of a heavy crude oil

    OpenAIRE

    Urán Castaño, Laura Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: A pseudo-mechanism for the production of coke during the thermal cracking of a Colombian heavy crude oil was proposed based on thermal cracking experiments carried out at TGA and at horizontal tube furnace at atmospheric conditions. In-situ combustion (ISC) is a thermal method that improves the recovery of heavy crude oils and involves complex phenomena such as heat and mass transfers, low-temperature oxidation of the liquid phase (LTO), and cracking reactions that yield coke, a car...

  5. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    OpenAIRE

    Hilde C. Meisingset; Jens G. Balchen

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this p...

  6. Modeling elementary reactions in coke formation from first principles

    OpenAIRE

    Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Hemelsoet, Karen; Minner, Bert; Guy B. Marin; WAROQUIER, MICHEL

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Theoretical calculations are presented on elementary reactions which are important during coke formation in a thermal cracking unit. This process is known to proceed through a free radical chain mechanism. The elementary reaction steps that lead to the growth of the coke surface can be divided into five classes of reversible reactions : hydrogen abstraction, substitution, gas phase olefin addition to radical surface species, gas phase radical addition to ...

  7. Optimal control structure of combustion in coke oven battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Big energetic aggregates require a complicated control system, which provide an effective running or production. Among these aggregates belongs the coke - oven battery. This article contains a proposal of the two - level control system. The basic control is realized by a direct digital control. The advanced control continuously optimizes regulator parameters of the basic control. The present control system has been verified in real conditions of a coking plant. (authors)

  8. Automatic combustion control system for coke oven battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasaoka, S.; Terazono, K.; Hashimoto, K.; Matsuda, H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper outlines an automatic coke battery temperature control system. The temperature sensors used, their number and location are described. There are three control systems: the combustion control system, temperature detection and heat control system, and the air volume and excess air-ratio control. The system for setting the battery temperature is also described. The overall system has achieved substantial reduction in coking heat consumption. 3 references.

  9. Conversion of unrefined coke oven gas by partial pulse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuennenberg, W.

    1984-05-10

    The possibility of using coke-oven gas again as a chemical feedstock has been examined. The application of a pulse tube to achieve partial oxidation yielding a hydrogen and CO synthesis gas has been examined at Bergbau Forschung's Prosper experimental coking plant. Industrial-scale trials were carried out with a pulse-tube installation having a throughput of 1000 m/SUP/3/h of crude gas. An account is given of these trials. (In German)

  10. Damage Diagnosis for High Temperature Coke-oven Chamber Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Masato; Sakaida, Michitaka; Fujikake, Yohichi; Irie, Keisuke

    Metallurgical coke is needed as reducing reagent and energy source in blast furnaces. Most of coke ovens in Japan have been working over 30 years and have become gradually decrepit. A coke oven consists of many coking chambers, and each chamber is 6 m high, 16 m long and 0.4m wide. Uneven damage at the chamber-wall surface such as brick erosion and carbon deposition disturbs production because the coke is pushed horizontally when discharged from the chamber. To diagnose the chamber wall which is constantly sustained at a high temperature, we have developed a water-cooling heat-resistance probe. Line scan cameras mounted in the probe obtain thermal images of the entire chamber-wall surfaces with high resolution. In addition, to measure topographical information of the wall, a laser light-section method combined with line-scan-camera imaging has been considered. It is emphasized that the diagnosis probe works under enormously severe conditions, such as at a temperature of over 1000°C and inside a width of only 0.4m. Clarifying the appearance of chamber-wall damages in operating aged coke ovens, we proposed the index relating unevenness of a chamber-wall surface to pushing load. The index is utilized for the guidance enabling effective repairs of damaged oven walls.

  11. Transformations of pyrite during formation of metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav Gornostayev; Jouko Haerkki; Olavi Kerkkonen [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2009-10-15

    The desulfurization of pyrite during the coking process leads to the formation of phases of varying size, shape and composition. The phases are represented mostly by Fe and S-bearing associations, which can be divided into two categories: those represented only by of Fe-S phases (three varieties), and aggregates containing both sulfides and almost pure iron. There are also Fe-O and Fe-S-O phases, which were probably formed after the coke was pushed from the coke oven. It is suggested that the formation of Fe and S-bearing associations can cause the appearance of cracks and cavities in the coke matrix, which, together with the pressure of the released SO{sub 2} gas, will detract from the strength of the coke. Large grains of pyrite can create weaker spots than do smaller ones, and the incomplete decomposition of pyrite will cause migration of the remaining part of the sulfur to the blast furnace, affecting the reactions there. This may be more common in cokes of relatively low porosity and small pore size and in those made from coals with large pyrite grains. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Effects of Annealing on Microstructure and Microstrength of Metallurgical Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xing; Zhang, Guangqing; Rogers, Harold; Zulli, Paul; Ostrovski, Oleg

    2013-12-01

    Two metallurgical cokes were heat treated at 1673 K to 2273 K (1400 °C to 2000 °C) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure and microstrength of metallurgical cokes was characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and ultra-microindentation. In the process of heat treatment, the microstructure of the metallurgical cokes transformed toward the graphite structure. Raman spectroscopy of reactive maceral-derived component (RMDC) and inert maceral-derived component (IMDC) indicated that the graphitisation degree of the RMDC was slightly lower than that of the IMDC in the original cokes; however graphitisation of the RMDC progressed faster than that of the IMDC during annealing, and became significantly higher after annealing at 2273 K (2000 °C). The microstrength of cokes was significantly degraded in the process of heat treatment. The microstrength of the RMDC was lower, and of its deterioration caused by heat treatment was more severe than IMDC. The degradation of the microstrength of cokes was attributed to their increased graphitisation degree during the heat treatment.

  13. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Mineral matter crystallization and crack formation in tuyere coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav Gornostayev; Jouko Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2006-05-15

    Polished and dry-cut sections of samples of tuyere coke were studied by scanning electron microscopy to reveal the mechanism of appearance, distribution and effects of aluminosilicate spherules and irregular segregations of slag and spinel crystals formed in the coke matrix. It was found that the formation of spherules and slag is not destructive with respect to the host coke matrix. On the contrary, the octahedral spinel crystals, which grow from the aluminosilicate spherules gradually expose {l_brace}1 1 1{r_brace} faces and edges and change the shape and possibly volume of the parental mineral matter. The sharp and straight edges probably cause cracks to appear in the coke matrix, leading to a weakening of its strength upon crystal growth. The proposed model for this crack formation probably reflects the negative role of some Al- and especially Mg-bearing minerals in the coal blends used for the production of coke, and partly reveals mineralogical insights into the negative influence of high ash basicity on coke strength. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Desulphurizing of coke oven gas by the Stretford process in the San Giuseppe di Cairo coke plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borello, G.; Pastorino, L.

    1990-01-01

    The chemistry of the Stretford process and the plant used at this Italian coke works are described. Operating conditions, maintenance needs, overall cost and modifications to overcome problems are discussed.

  16. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  17. Texture of cokes in relation to parameters of coal and coke

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pěgřimočová, J.; Kožušníková, Alena

    Ostrava : Ústav geoniky AV ČR, 2013 - (Kožušníková, A.; Ruppenthalová, L.), s. 125-131 ISBN 978-80-86407-41-8. - (Documenta Geonica. 2013. 1). [Česko - polská konference Geologie uhelných pánví /9./. Ostrava (CZ), 15.10.2013-17.10.2013] Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : texture of cokes * coal * phase carbon forms Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining

  18. Electrochemical treatment of COD in biologically pretreated coking wastewater using Ti/RuO2-IrO2 electrodes combined with modified coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xu-wen; LIU Li-yuan; GONG Jing-wen; WANG Jian-bing; QIN Qiang; WANG Hao

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical treatment of COD contained in biologically pretreated coking wastewater treated by a three-dimensional electrode system with modified coke as the particle electrode was investigated.And the electrochemical perfomance of the coke modified with various active components was studied.The results show that the coke modified with Fe(NO3)2 has the lowest energy consumption and higher COD removal rate under the same condition,and the modified coke has better surface characteristics for the purpose of this study.In addition,the kinetic constant was also calculated.The study shows that the three-dimensional electrode system with Fe(NO3)2-modified coke can give a satisfactory solution in biologically pretreated coking wastewater.

  19. Coking Wastewater Treatment by Coke Powder Activation%焦粉活化处理焦化废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭兴华; 张远行

    2012-01-01

    In our report, activated coke and coking wastewater treatment were performed by changing the chemical reagent type, concentration and time, and the removal rates of activated coke on volatile phenol, COD substances, ammonia and non-ferrous material in coking wastewater were analyzed. The results indicated that the effects of steam modified coke powder were superior to that of chemical reagent modified coke powder; the volatile phenol removal rate, COD removal rate, ammonia-nitrogen removal rate and chroma removal rate of which was 98.67% , 83.05% , 37.52% , 94. 71% , respectively; the ammonia-nitrogen removal rate of coke powder treated with HNO3(5 mol · L-1) attained 49.33%.%通过改变化学试剂种类、浓度和时间等3个因素来活化焦粉并处理焦化废水的实验,研究了活化焦粉对焦化废水中的挥发酚、COD物质、氨氮和有色物的去除率.结果表明:水蒸气改性焦粉的处理效果优于化学试剂改性焦粉的处理效果.水蒸气改性后的焦粉,其处理废水中挥发酚的去除率可达98.67%,COD去除率可达83.05%,氨氮去除率可达37.52%,色度去除率可达94.71%.采用5mol·L-1的HNO3活化焦粉,氨氮去除率效果较好,可达49.33%.

  20. Disposal of Waste Plastics With Traditional Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; YU Guang-wei; LIAO Hong-qiang; QIAN Kai; ZHAO Pen; HE Ya-bin

    2006-01-01

    A new technology for treating waste plastics (WP) by traditional coking process was introduced. With a thermo-balance and a 10 g atmospheric fixed bed reactor, the thermo-gravimetric behavior and product were studied during co-coking of WP with blended coal. And then, using a coke-oven with capacity of 200 kg, the characteristics of products were assessed. The results showed that there is an overlapping temperature range (200-550 ℃) of decomposition between WP and blended coal, and the pyrolysis synergism index η and synergism strength β proposed could evaluate the synergism between them. 1% of added WP results in the maximum synergism in all series experiments. The increase of added WP decreases the synergism. Tar yield in co-coking is increased with the decrease of water yield for synergism. Moreover, it was also found that the quality indexes of coke, such as M10, M40, CRI and CSR, are degraded with the increase of WP until 4%, though the quality of tar and gas is optimized for WP addition.

  1. Intercalation mechanisms of lithium into graphitized needle cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉长; 尹志民; 徐仲榆

    2001-01-01

    A needle coke was graphitized at different heat treatment temperature (2000℃ to 3000℃). The electrochemical intercalation mechanism of Li into the graphitized coke has been studied in Li|1mol*L-1 LiClO4+ethylene carbonate/diethylene carbonate|graphite cells, using an in-situ X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The study of Li-C intercalation processes of the graphitized coke reveals that there are three major types of intercalation behavior. The first is uniformly intercalated at all Li-C compounds in graphitized coke heated at 2250℃; the second is obviously staging phenomenon during intercalating for the graphitized coke heated at 2750℃; the third is cointercalation of solvated Li-ion at high potential (>0.3V) and then lithium electrochemical intercalation at lower potential for that heated at 3000℃, resulting in the decrease of capacity and efficiency of graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion secondary battery.

  2. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  3. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  4. Industrial Experiment on Coke Spraying With ZBS Additive in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-zong; ZHANG Zhu-ming; TANG Qi-yong; YANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Kun-hua; ZHAO Xian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal properties of coke, an industrial experiment on the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution was carried out at coking plant and No.6 blast furnace (2 000 m3) of Kunming Iron and Steel Co Ltd. The coke reaction index (CRI) of the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution decreases by 10.56%, and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) increases by 7.80% in comparison with those of the un-sprayed coke. During the experiment, the average iron output increases by 66.69 t/d, and the coke rate is reduced by 5.21 kg per ton iron, while the fluctuation of furnace temperture is small, and sulphur content in hot metal and 100% of hot metal are acceptable.

  5. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  6. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal; William Fernando Mora Pulido; Luís Ignacio Rodríguez Varela; Javier Ramírez; José de Jesús Díaz Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40), coke reactivity index (CRI) with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index). Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain c...

  7. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    OpenAIRE

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Di...

  8. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislav S.Gornostayev; Jyrki J.Heino; Tommi M.T.Kokkonen; Hannu T.Makkonen; Satu M.M.Huttunen; Timo M.J.Fabritius

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polar-ized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100%coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  9. Coke yield and heat transfer in reaction of liquid-solid agglomerates of Athabasca vacuum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M.; Courtney, M.; Boddez, L.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2010-02-15

    Delayed coking and fluid-bed coking are the most common commercial processes used by the petroleum industry for the thermal conversion of vacuum residues into petroleum distillate products. This paper presented the results of an experimental study of coke yield at long reaction times from agglomerates of coke particles and Athabasca vacuum residue (AVR). The ultimate coke yield was determined for a range of agglomerate thicknesses, liquid concentrations and reaction temperatures. The agglomerates were heated on Curie-point alloy strips in an induction furnace at 503 and 530 degrees C until all toluene-soluble material was converted. A simple heat transfer model was used to describe the temperature profile within the agglomerates. Coke yield results from agglomerates were compared to the coke yield results from reacting thin films of vacuum residue. The average coke yield from the agglomerates was 23 per cent, while the coke yield from thin films of 20 {mu}m thickness was 11 per cent, which supports the role of mass transfer in coke formation reactions. The ultimate coke yield was insensitive to vacuum residue concentration, agglomerate size, and reaction temperature. According to control experiments on thin films of liquid at different heating rates, the temperature-time history has little effect on the ultimata coke yield. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. [Characterization of PAHs in fly ashes from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Bai, Hui-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2013-03-01

    In order to investigate the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ashes from coking, PAHs in ashes from three coke production plants were analyzed with GC-MS, and the distribution characteristics of PAHs and potential toxicity risk were discussed. The sum of 16 EPA prior PAHs varied from 8.17 x 10(2) to 5.17 x 10(3) microg x g(-1). PAH contents from the coke oven (stamp charging) with the height of 3.2 m were two times higher than those from the one (top charging) with the height of 6.0 m, and PAHs in ashes from coal charging were significantly higher than those from coke pushing in the same plant. Four-ring and five-ring PAHs were the dominant species in ashes from coking and the sum of them accounted for more than 80.00% of total PAHs. Chrysene (Chr), benzo [a] anthracene (BaA) and benzo [b] fluoranthene (BbF) were abundant in all ash samples. The content of total BaP-based toxic equivalency (BaPeq) ranged from 1.64 x 10(2) to 9.57 x 10(2) microg x g(-1). From the carcinogenic point of view, besides benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), dibenz [a,h] anthracene (DbA) contributed most to the overall toxicity of PAHs, followed by BaA and BbF. BaPeq concentration from coal charging was 5.21-fold higher than that from coke pushing, indicating that different reuse ways should be considered based on their specific toxicity profiles of PAHs. PMID:23745428

  11. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bouchez, Marc

    2008-01-01

    cited By (since 1996) 5 International audience The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel an...

  13. Temperament and intuition: a commentary on Feltz and Cokely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelhoffer, Thomas; Kvaran, Trevor; Nahmias, Eddy

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we examine Adam Feltz and Edward Cokely's recent claim that "the personality trait extraversion predicts people's intuitions about the relationship of determinism to free will and moral responsibility" (INSERT REFERENCE). We will first present some criticisms of their work before briefly examining the results of a recent study of our own. We argue that while Feltz and Cokely have their finger on the pulse of an interesting and important issue, they have not established a robust and stable connection between extraversion and compatibilist-friendly intuitions. PMID:19136280

  14. Methods for measuring moisture content in the coal and coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of modern mining methods and the increase of fine coal recovery for economic reasons, there has been growing interest in measuring and controlling the moisture content of the coal and coke. In recent decades moisture determination of the coal and coke has been extensively investigated and applied worldwide. The methods for measuring moisture include nuclear and non-nuclear techniques. This paper introduces the basic principle and principal specification of various techniques for moisture determination and reviews advantage and disadvantage for various methods and also put forward the tendency at present

  15. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.)

  16. 利用铁桶试验预测工业焦炉成焦质量的研究%Prediction of the Coke Quality of Industrial Coke Oven Using Test Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守军; 杨颂; 何小刚; 吕青

    2011-01-01

    为优化炼焦炉入炉煤配方以及提高焦炭产品质量,利用20 kg铁桶随炉试验以预测工业焦炉的成焦质量,并建立了预测数学模型.结果表明,利用20 kg铁桶试验可准确预测工业焦炉成焦强度,二者表现出很好的相关性,可直接用于指导工业生产过程中的配煤操作,具有很强的实用性.%In order to optimize coking coal blending and increase coke quality,a 20 kg test coke oven was adopted iuside industrial coke oven to predict the coke quality of industrial coke oven. A mathematical model was established for the prediction. Results show that the test coke oven predicted industrial coke oven accurately in coke quality with good correlation. Therefore,it is applicable to guiding coal blending for industrial production.

  17. An investigation into coking on catalyst support materials & supported metal catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Michael A

    1997-01-01

    The deposition of coke on oxidation catalysts leads to deactivation. For oxide supports this phenomena of coking has previously been identified with acidic sites. Measurement of coke formation on silica gel, a-, r|- and y-Al2 0 3 showed that the greatest amount of coke was formed on y-A12 0 3 followed by r(-Al2 0 3 with no detectable coking occurring on either a-Al2 0 3 or silica gel. Titration results showed y-Al2 0 3 to contain the highest concentration of acidic and Bronsted basic sites...

  18. Compacting of coal for heat recovery ovens, Illawarra Coke Company Pty Ltd., Coalcliffe, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R.; Schuecker, F.; Kim, R. [Illawara Coke Company, NSW (Australia)

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a simple method of compacting coal for heat-recovery coke making. Coal carbonization tests in commercial non-recovery coke ovens have shown that coal densities greater than 1100 kg/m{sup 3} were obtained in a simple manner by means of hydraulically actuated compression plates. The tests and the results have significantly increased the level of knowledge regarding compacting technology. The coke produced from the compacted cakes is comparable to well-known qualities from non-recovery coke ovens using top charging technology. The quality of stamp charged heat recovery coke will provide a positive impact on blast furnace performance. 2 refs., 5 figs., 11 photos.

  19. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  20. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  1. Coke formation in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene by TEOM

    OpenAIRE

    Nederlof, C.; P. Vijfhuizen; Zarubina, V.; Melián-Cabrera, I.; Kapteijn, F.; Makkee, M.

    2014-01-01

    A packed bed microbalance reactor setup (TEOM-GC) is used to investigate the formation of coke as a function of time-on-stream on γ-Al2O3 and 3P/SiO2 catalyst samples under different conditions for the ODH reaction of ethylbenzene to styrene. All samples show a linear correlation of the styrene selectivity and yield with the initial coverage of coke. The COX production increases with the coverage of coke. On the 3 wt% P/SiO2 sample, the initial coke build-up is slow and the coke deposition ra...

  2. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  3. Properties of Spent Active Coke Particles Analysed via Comminution in Spouted Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  4. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  5. Properties of spent active coke particles analysed via comminution in spouted bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczek, Bronislaw

    2013-01-01

    Samples of active coke, fresh and spent after cleaning flue gases from communal waste incinerators, were investigated. The outer layers of both coke particles were separately removed by comminution in a spouted bed. The samples of both active cokes were analysed by means of densities, mercury porosimetry, and adsorption technique. Remaining cores were examined to determine the degree of consumption of coke by the sorption of hazardous emissions (SO2, HCl, and heavy metals) through its bed. Differences in contamination levels within the porous structure of the particles were estimated. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of commercial active coke in the cleaning of flue gases. PMID:24459454

  6. Combined XRD and Raman studies of coke types found in SAPO-34 after methanol and propene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Grønvold, Arne; Voronov, Alexey;

    2013-01-01

    oligomerisation (PO) reactions. The coke caused by MTO leads to two distinct sets of HRPD peaks which can be indexed by two SAPO-34 unit cells with different lattice parameters and coke contents. We believe that these unit cells represent different zones of the catalyst filled with different coke types. PO coking...

  7. Prediction of the Coke Strength with 40 kg Testing Coke Oven%运用40 kg试验焦炉预测焦炭机械强度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝洪洲; 张增旭; 王海燕; 陈双管; 杨永珍

    2001-01-01

    介绍了用40 kg试验焦炉进行的炼焦试验及Micum转鼓测定,可预测焦炭的机械强度的方法和结果,并建立试验焦炉与生产焦炉之间的关系。%Description of following:experiment of 40 kg testing coke oven,measurement of Micum drum,method and result of the prediction on the coke strength as well as the relationship between the testing coke oven and the production coke oven.

  8. The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron smelting.

  9. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  10. The Coke Zero Game - Analyse af advergames som kommunikationsprodukt

    OpenAIRE

    Scherfig, Valentin T.; Bendixen, Maria; Larsen, Line N.; Gudmundsson, Soffia

    2010-01-01

    Dette projekt behandler kommunikationsgenren advergames, med udgangspunkt i The Coke Zero Game (2008). Spillet analyseres som kommunikationsprodukt, ved brug af spilteori og empiri i form af fokusgruppeinterview. Opgaven konkluderer på, hvorvidt spillet formår at kommunikere et givent budskab.

  11. Hard coal and coke - determination of volatile matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The volatile matter is determined as the loss in mass, less that due to moisture, when coal or coke is heated out of contact with air under standardised conditions. The apparatus and procedure are specified so that one or more determinations can be performed simultaneously in the future.

  12. EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL CARCINOGENICITY OF COKE OVEN EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke oven emissions are known human carcinogens, classified as weight-of-evidence Group A under the EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986a). vidence on potential carcinogenicity from animal studies is "Sufficient,". and the evidence rom human studies is "S...

  13. Co-gasification of oil sand coke with coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vejahati, Farshid; Gupta, Rajender [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Gasification of oil sand delayed coke with sub-bituminous and lignite coals was performed in an atmospheric entrained flow gasifier using steam and oxygen as gasifying agents. The underlying objective of this work was to assess the effects of the operating variables (i.e. temperature, oxygen and steam concentrations) and coal/coke blending ratio on gasification performance in a high-temperature in order to find the possible synergies in co-gasification of the fuels. Experiments were conducted at 1,400 C, using steam and oxygen to carbon weight ratios of (0.36-1.08) and (0.07-0.2), respectively in N{sub 2} carrier gas. The coke to coal weight ratios of 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 were used for the blending tests. Particle size of 53-90 {mu}m with d{sub 50} = 75 {mu}m were used. In terms of char reactivity, blending did not show any significant positive effect. Slight deviations from linear additive line are in the order of experiment error. Gasification efficiency was also following a linear additive trend once more pointing out the lack of synergy in entrained flow gasification systems. The results however, showed that higher coke content clearly favored the H{sub 2} production.

  14. CYANIDE REMOVAL FROM COKE MAKING AND BLAST FURNACE WASTE WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study to determine the feasibility of removing cyanide from coke making and blast furnace waste waters by ion flotation or column precipitate flotation of iron ferrocyanides. Ion flotation was reasonably effective on ferricyanide, but not on cyanide ...

  15. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  16. Improvements to a coke oven combustion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajikawa, S.; Nakano, K.; Natori, Y.; Hasebe, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized combustion control system was introduced at Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama No.5 coke oven battery in 1973. A system for determining oven temperature distributions has now been developed so that temperature control can be carried out with greater precision. The new system makes use of thermometers set up in the guide car cage.

  17. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  18. Dependences between properties of coals, coal blends, and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heilpern, S. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze, Poland); Kaziszyn, I.; Zarembinska, J.; Postrzednik, S.

    1976-12-01

    Investigations were made on charge coals representative for home conditions with the aim of determining the degree of additivity for selected assessment indices of raw material quality. A functional dependence was found between strength indices of coke and those characterizing the coal blend on changing the correlation coefficient r/sup 2/ from 0.70 to 0.48.

  19. A method for discharging gas from banks of horizontal coking furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varshavskiy, T.P.; Sukhorukov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    In the method for discharging gases from a bank of horizontal coking furnaces, which includes discharge of gases from the loading period through a gas collector on the coke side with feeding into it of the coke gas with a reduced NOx content, discharge of the gases of the coking period through the gas collector on the machine side, in order to increase the service life of the furnace lining, 25 to 50 percent of the gases of the coking period are discharged through the gas collector on the coking side. The method provides for smokeless loading of the coking furnaces, a normal NOx content in the coking gas and creates conditions for maintaining the required temperature in the head part of the lining of the coking chambers. The operation of a coking bank based on the proposed method makes it possible to produce conditioned coke gas for nitric acid production. The service life of the heads is increased by 2 times as compared with the prototype.

  20. Effect of yttrium on the coking behavior of Fe-based superalloy in heavy hydrocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Compared with bare specimen (a), specimen doped with yttrium (b) shows the elimination of the intergranular coking behavior of Fe-based superalloy and changes the coke morphology. - Highlights: • Effect of Y on the coking behavior of Fe-based superalloy was studied. • The alloy doped with Y exhibits the better coking and carbonizing resistance. • Y doped in the alloy eliminates the intergranular coking and carbonization. - Abstract: Effect of the rare earth element yttrium on the coking behavior of Fe-based superalloy has been studied. The coking process of Fe-based superalloy during dodecane pyrolysis includes three stages – incubation period, coke protrusions growing and graphite layer stacking. Fe-based superalloy with yttrium addition exhibits the better coking and carburization resistance. The reason is that Y doped in Fe-based superalloy eliminates the intergranular coking and carburization by forming yttrium oxides to inhibit the aggregation of Cr2O3 at the grain boundary in initial period of coking behavior, thus internal Cr2O3 layer forms and effectively blocks the permeation of outer graphite

  1. Catalytic effect of black liquor on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, ZhiJie; Wang, Fuchen [Kay Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-05-15

    CO{sub 2} gasification of petroleum coke using black liquor as a catalyst was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under temperatures 1223-1673 K at ambient pressure to evaluate the effect of black liquor loading on petroleum coke gasification. It was found that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was improved greatly by black liquor. The gasification reactivity was affected by different loading methods in the order: wet grinding > dry grinding > physical impregnation > dry mix. The catalytic activity of black liquor was higher than that of pure alkali metal. The effect of temperature on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was changed by black liquor. The reactivity reaches its maximum at 1573 K. The reactivity of petroleum coke was found higher than that of Shenfu coal when black liquor loading is 5 wt.% (of petroleum coke), clearly demonstrating that black liquor could be an effective catalyst for petroleum coke gasification. (author)

  2. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    OpenAIRE

    Billaud F.; Broutin P.; Busson C.; Gueret C.

    2006-01-01

    Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methan...

  3. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  4. Automatic operation systems for the coke oven top; Cokes ro rojo sagyo no jidoka tachiage jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saji, T.; Kitayama, Y. [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1994-10-13

    This paper describes an outline of automatic operation on the coke oven top, which has been conducted at the Kashima Steel Works, Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd. For the automatic operation on the oven top, unmanned operation of the charging car, mechanization of works on the oven top, centralized control, and simplification of the system were introduced. This automatic system consists of the charging car, central station, charging car station, and quenching car automation system. For the automatic travel motion control, braking by the electric regenerative brake and disk brake was adopted. The oven center standing control is carried out by using the position and distance information of interlock cable and the oven center sensor. Standing accuracy of the oven center of charging car was designed to be up to {plus_minus}10 mm. High detection accuracy can be obtained through the optical cutting image processing. The carbon removing apparatus for inlet port, oven top cleaner dust treatment apparatus, and charging level measurement apparatus were added to the charging car, which were required for the automatic operation on the oven top. As a result, the automatic ratio more than 99% could be achieved. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Factory automation of Yawata coke furnace No.5; Yawata No.5 cokes ro no FA ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Y.; Sakaida, M.; Uematsu, H.; Furuta, K. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-25

    A coke furnace of attended operation was factory-automated to an unattended operation. The following improvements were attempted on a furnace with an output as high as 140 productions a day: Mounting on a tractor trolley of the charging trolley an automation device that operates ascension pipes in ten furnaces ahead in the charge furnace has reduced the cycle time by 8% and increased the generated COG by 1%. The furnace outputting work operating on the synchronous work of the moving machine was modeled after the actual state of operation to develop a cycle time simulator that calculates the total outputting work time of one furnace group. This simulator has made discussions on different operation patterns of the moving machine possible as described below and realized the improvement. Changing the charging trolley work patterns resulted in reducing the cycle time by 5%. With an objective to improve the stopping accuracy and reduce the expense, the VVVF feedback control and the electric stopping position inching control were adopted. In addition, improvements were achieved in the run stopping accuracy and automatic operation. This factory-automation realized an operation at the automation rate of 97%. The furnace outputting time for 140 productions a day in the case of intervention of manual works at 3% is 1275 minutes. 2 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  7. Changes in a coke structure due to reaction with carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusz, S.; Majewska, J.; Pilawa, B. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, PL-41819 Zabrze (Poland); Krzesinska, M. [Centre of Polymer and Carbon Materials, Polish Academy of Sciences, M. Curie-Sklodowskiej 34, PL-41819 Zabrze (Poland); Silesian Technical University, Department of Electron Technology, Institute of Physics, Krzywoustego 2, PL-44100 Gliwice (Poland); Smedowski, L. [Silesian Technical University, Department of Electron Technology, Institute of Physics, Krzywoustego 2, PL-44100 Gliwice (Poland); Kwiecinska, B. [AGH-University of Science and Technology, Aleja Mickiewicza 30, PL-30059 Krakow (Poland)

    2010-04-01

    Technological properties of a coke directly depend on a coke structure, i.e., on carbon matrix (a solid phase in a porous medium) and on pore system. Coke structure is deeply transformed during blast furnace operation and one of the most important factors responsible for that is the CO{sub 2} gasification. The objective of this work was to investigate changes of the physical structure of a coke upon the reaction with carbon dioxide to evaluate the effects of structural transformations on technological properties of a coke. Selected physical parameters of cokes produced in a laboratory scale were carried out prior to and after the reaction with CO{sub 2}. The following physical methods were used for the study: helium gas densitometry, physical adsorption of N{sub 2}, optical microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultrasonic measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The results showed that the reaction with CO{sub 2} distinctly affects the physical structure of coke. Coke solid matrix becomes better ordered, with greater structural units, while development of pore structure consists in the enlargement and coalescence of pores and the increase of specific surface area. Great increase of coke porosity after the reaction with CO{sub 2} seems to be more affecting the final strength and reactivity of coke than the transformation of carbon matrix. (author)

  8. Behaviour of coal associated minerals during coking and blast furnace processes. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav; Haerkki, Jouko [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Kerkkonen, Olavi [Ruukki Oyj, Raahe (Finland)

    2009-06-15

    Metallurgical coke is made from a mix of several types of coal that contain various minerals, including quartz, carbonates, feldspars, sulphides and a number of phyllosilicates, represented by clay minerals and micas. During coking and coke consumption processes the minerals undergo various physical and chemical changes, which in the case of coke oven batteries include desulphurization, decarbonation, dehydration, dehydroxylation, polymorph transformations, melting with the formation of an alkali and silica-rich liquid, and transformation to another crystalline phase. The typical modifications of mineral phases in a blast furnace (BF) coke are polymorph transformations, melting, and the formation of another crystalline phase. These events are also preceded by notable changes in the shape of crystalline aggregates. All these changes affect the coke properties and the processes occurring in a BF. Mineralogical data can help us to better understand the processes taking place in coke batteries and in a BF, and to improve the quality of a coke by more careful selection of coal blends and setting optimal temperatures for its pre-heating. The degradation of a BF coke by alkalis can be reduced by the addition of certain minerals to the feed coke before charging into the BF. (orig.)

  9. Mild coal extraction for the production of anode coke from Blue Gem coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodney J. Andrews; Terry Rantell; David Jacques; James C. Hower; J. Steven Gardner; Mike Amick [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research

    2010-09-15

    The quality and availability of petroleum coke used in the manufacture of carbon anodes for aluminum production is a growing concern to the industry. Coke quality and yields have progressively declined as changes in refinery practice and the move towards processing an increasing proportion of heavier sour crudes have affected coke properties, resulting in an increase in the metal impurities and sulfur content of the coke. An alternative supply of anode coke is required to supplement or eventually replace calcined petroleum coke. The significant domestic reserves of coal could represent a viable carbon resource for anode production, provided defined coke specifications can be met and at a cost that is economically viable. The principal objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of producing anode grade coke by the UKCAER process for the mild solvent extraction of coal. Blue Gem coal from Eastern Kentucky was dissolved in a high boiling point solvent, the mineral matter and unreacted products removed by filtration, and the clean coal liquid converted to coke. The performance of the coal in solvent extraction was compared to a very reactive coal from Western Kentucky. A simple solvent-extraction screening test was established to assess potential candidate materials and process variables without the need for prolonged and complex routines. The coals were assessed in more detail to determine the optimum process conditions by conducting larger scale extraction tests to yield sufficient material for conversion to coke. The green cokes were calcined and the products characterized. The composition and structure of the calcined cokes were compared to typical petroleum coke and assessed for their use in the fabrication of carbon anodes. 21 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  11. 降低捣固焦炉炼焦耗热量的措施%Measures to reduce the coking heat consumption of stamp-charging coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶汝佩; 李红军

    2015-01-01

    对捣固焦炉炼焦耗热量高开展研究。在保证焦炭质量的前提下,研究了配合煤水分、焦炉炉顶空间温度、废气温度的影响,采用适当的焦饼中心温度及合理的空气过剩系数,加强对焦炉炉体保温管理,严格控制焦炉操作等措施来降低炼焦耗热量,效果显著。%This paper studies the reason for high coking heat consumption of stamp-charging coke oven. The influence of moisture content,coke oven top space temperature,and waste gas temperature was studied. Under the precondition of ensuring coke quality,measures such as adopting suitable coke cake center temperature and suitable excess air coefficient,enhancing the management of coke oven proper temperature,and strictly controlling the operation of coke oven were taken to reduce the coking heat consumption. The effect turned out to be remarkable.

  12. Ignition Dynamic Parameters for Coke in Cement Calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical ignition model was established and researches of ignition dynamic parameters for coke in some typical coal samples from cement plants was carried out according to circumstances of coal combusted in cement plants.In order to get the ignitioin temperature Tpi of carbon particles more accurately,the temperature rising experimental method was used and the actual heating circumstances for pulverized coal in calciners(in cement plants)were also considered.With this method,the accurate determination of the ignition temperature of coke in coal was achieved,so as to get some ignition dynamic parameters.These research results provide a theoretical basis for investigating coal ignition characteristics more scientifically and more accurately.

  13. Development of low NOx combustion structure in coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Takase, S.; Uchida, M.; Saji, T.; Koyama, H.; Yamamoto, M. [Sumitomo Metal Industry Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    One of the targets of the SCOPE21 process was to improve the productivity. To achieve high productivity, the process was applied the following items: (1) ultra super dense brick, (2) thin wall (70 mm), (3) hot coal charging, (4) medium temperature carbonization. As the heat flux for carbonization was needed about 2 times as much as a conventional coke oven, the combustion technologies to achieve high productivity were investigated by using the actual scale combustion test oven. The combustion conditions to achieve low NOx in the waste gas and uniform heating for carbonization were clarified. The coke oven of the pilot plant was designed based on these results. The combustion targets of the low NOx and uniform heating were achieved in the test operation.

  14. Development of a thermometer for coke oven combustion control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Sakaguchi, Y.

    1985-01-01

    Regarding coke oven combustion control systems, explanations are given of the automatic control of an entire oven battery, and of the individual adjustments that can be made for each coking chamber. Secondly, various aspects of the development of a thermometer for use with such systems are reported, including the choice of oven temperature measuring method, the selection of a suitable metal protecting tube (based on the results of tests of thermocouple protecting tubes in an operating oven), the causes of the deterioration of platinum thermocouples, and the results of various improvements to conventional platinum thermocouples. Finally, an explanation is given of the final forms of the new thermometer, which has a triple protection tube construction. 6 references.

  15. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  16. 干熄焦工艺对6 m 焦炉焦炭质量的影响%Influence of coke dry quenching on coke quality in 6 m coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周尽晖; 丁玲; 韩军; 王世杰; 王光辉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper ,the coke wet quenching (CWQ) coke and coke dry quenching (CDQ) coke pro‐duced in 6 meters oven under the same coal blending ratio were analyzed and compared .The influence of CDQ on the quality of coke was studied .The results show that CDQ has no great influence on ash content and sulfur content of coke ,and has little influence on the real density ,porosity ,ash composi‐tion and optical texture indexes of coke .However ,CDQ can significantly improve the parameters such as maturity ,mean size ,size uniformity ,pore size distribution ,mechanical strength and thermal properties ,etc .%选取6m焦炉焦炭,对干、湿法熄焦焦炭进行质量对比分析,研究干熄焦对焦炭质量的影响。结果表明,干熄焦对焦炭的灰分和硫含量改变不大,对焦炭的真密度、气孔率、灰成分和光学组织指数影响较小,对焦炭的成熟度、平均粒度、粒度均匀系数、孔径分布、机械强度和热态强度等的改善明显。

  17. Lung function in retired coke oven plant workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, N.; Bertrand, J P; Guenzi, M.; Mayer, L; Téculescu, D; Mur, J M; Patris, A.; Moulin, J J; Pham, Q T

    1992-01-01

    Lung function was studied in 354 coke oven plant workers in the Lorraine collieries (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine, France) who retired between 1963 and 1982 and were still alive on 1 January 1988. A spirometric examination was performed on 68.4% of them in the occupational health service. Occupational exposure to respiratory hazards throughout their career was retraced for each subject. No adverse effect of occupational exposure on ventilatory function was found. Ventilatory function was,...

  18. Partial briquetting vs direct addition of biomass in coking blends

    OpenAIRE

    Montiano Redondo, María de Garabandal; Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this work partial briquetting is employed as a means of biomass densification to allow for biomass inclusion in coking coal blends. The effect of increasing the bulk density was evaluated by comparison with direct addition. Two briquettes of different composition were studied. The influence of the briquettes on the Gieseler plasticity of the coals was determined. It was found that the effect of the binder was not enough to compensate for the decrease in plasticity produced by the inert com...

  19. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    OpenAIRE

    Kardaś Dariusz; Polesek-Karczewska Sylwia; Ciżmiński Przemysław; Stelmach Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predi...

  20. Utilization of petrographic analysis for determination of petroleum coke mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    TOPRAK, Selami; SÜTCÜ, Emine CİCİOĞLU; GÜLEN, Fatma Jale

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out on mostly imported, processed petrocokes, which are also commercially known as "petcoke" or "petroleum coke". Petrocoke is imported in great amounts and is occasionally consumed domestically without conscientious thought. It is not a well-known material, though there is an idea of its genesis. The samples, their analysis, and their images are essential to be kept in mind for further investigations, since it is not an environmental...

  1. Assessment of PAH-exposure among coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahakangas, K. [and others] [Oulu University, Oulu (Finland)

    1992-12-31

    Levels of BaP diol epoxide - DNA adducts in urine and blood were monitored for workers at the Raahe coking plant, Finland, and other relevant information was collected. All adduct values were low, but oven battery workers had slightly higher values than matched controls. Antibodies to these adducts increased somewhat after work at the plant started, no differences between smokers and non-smokers were found.

  2. Milling Process of Petroleum Coke for Sintered Steel Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco, F.; S. Guzmán; Rabanal, M. E.; Jiménez-Mateos, J. M.; Echeberria, J.; Ayerbe, E.; Calero, J.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of milling on different properties of a petroleum coke has been evaluated. The material was subjected to planetary milling at two different rates (400 and 600 rev min-1) for different times up to 48 h. The milled material was characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, sieve analysis, thermal analysis, chemical analysis, specific surface area and compressibility has been undertaken. The results show that the milling produces a very quick loss of the crystal st...

  3. Investigation on combustion of ammonia from coke-oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwiner, H.; Ulatowski, R.; Dziembala, F.; Wrobelska, K.; Bonk, M.

    1976-03-01

    Results are presented of research work performed on a pilot plant for combustion of ammonia from coke-oven gas. After being washed from gas and stripped in the stripping column, ammonia was burnt in a mixture with water vapor, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide in a combustion furnace designed by the Research Institute of Chemical Coal Utilization in Zabrze (Poland). Satisfactory results were achieved.

  4. Brown coal coke in biological waste water cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological sewage plants working by the activated sludge process are often confronted by the following problems: the formation of expanded bubbles, lack of decomposition performance, unstable operation and insufficient excess sludge dewatering. In the former East Germany, there is also the problem of too little nitrificaion/denitrification, caused by obsolete plant. The use of brown coal coke guarantees efficient cleaning of waste water. (orig.)

  5. Technology for Coking of Heavy Crude Oil with High Acid Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Wen; Zhao Yujun; Cheng Gang; Li Chao; Shen Haiping; Cui Long

    2005-01-01

    Sudan Khartoum Refinery Co. has selected a unique route featuring delayed coking of crude in connection with the highly sour and high-calcium heavy crude extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6.The crude oil after pretreatment for calcium removal is subjected to coking for removal of acids and metals with the coker products being further processed. The crude oil extracted from Sudanese oil block No. 6contains as high as 13 mg KOH/g of crude in addition to a calcium content of 1600 ppm. This article makes an analysis on problems related with the operation of commercial delayed coking unit for processing of highly sour crude and bring forth measures to solve these problems. The liquid yield resulted from coking of crude oil can reach 82m%, and the petroleum coke can meet the quality requirement for class 3B petroleum coke.

  6. The History and Future Challenges of Calcined Petroleum Coke Production and Use in Aluminum Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Les

    2015-02-01

    Calcined petroleum coke is used for the production of carbon anodes in the Hall-Héroult aluminum smelting process due to a combination of low impurity levels, ready availability, and relatively low cost. This article provides a review of the history and use of calcined petroleum coke for anode production and describes the different calcining technologies used by the industry. The article discusses the impact of changes in crude oil quality and refining economics over the last 10 years as well as the impact on green petroleum coke quality and availability. The industry has adapted well to quality changes in recent times, and the blending of different quality cokes by smelters is becoming increasingly important. The world has a plentiful supply of green petroleum coke, but the next wave of aluminum smelting capacity growth will put further pressure on the supply of the higher quality cokes traditionally favored by the industry.

  7. Formation of coke precursors from pyrene-based model compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshareef, Ali H.; Gray, Murray R. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)], email: murray.gray@ualberta.ca; Azyat, Khalid [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta (Canada); Tykwinski, Rik [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitat (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This work highlights understanding the thermal behavior and coking mechanism of pyrene-based model compounds. Microcarbon residue (MCR) was estimated for a thermally cracked model compound (Py-m-Phenyl-Py) using a thermal gravimetric analyzer (TGA). Nevertheless, when the coke produced by this process was analyzed it revealed insignificant information; hence, microreactor experiments were implemented to better analyze residual structures. Py-m-Phenyl-Py was converted with 30% and a mass spectrometry was performed on high molecular weight products, whereas, low molecular cracked weight products were analyzed using GC-MS. It was shown that the products obtained from this process matched those obtained by free-radical cracking. Moreover, MALDI-TOF analysis was used to reveal the addition product, and a spectrum of products was generated. It was shown that most of these products were yielded from the same species. It was believed that cyclization might be characterized by the dehydrogenation of the addition products, and coke precursors were generated due to olefin formation and radical additions.

  8. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk. PMID:26520182

  9. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  10. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation. PMID:24269931

  11. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  12. Charging trolley for coke oven. Beskikingsvogn for koksovn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregor, K.; Feldhaus, K.

    1984-06-04

    The patent application describes a charging trolley for coke ovens. The trolley has a cover raising device which may be moved along a vertical track in order to raise covers for the oven sharge openings. At the coking process considerable amounts of combustion and coke gases are liberated. They contain large amounts of pollutants such as dust, finely devided solids and various other components. The pollutants settle on the convers and at the openings which leads to less satisfactory stopping and a leak of gases containing such pollutants to the surroundings. In order to avoid or at least reduce considerably such leaks in a simple and reliable way and with little loss of time, a cover cleaning device is constructed. It has at least 2 cleaning segments equipped with cleaning devices wich may move between a position swung away from and one covering the motion track. By help of the cleaning device it is possible to clean the stopper sheets on the covers without disturbing the operation. As a result the opening stoppers are improved and undesired pollution is considerably reduced. The claims concern the design of the charge trolley and the covering and cleaning devices in particular. 4 drawings.

  13. Comparison of the quality of the coke produced at different scales

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz-Faes González, Elvira; García Cimadevilla, José Luis; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia; Álvarez García, Ramón

    2007-01-01

    A series of coking coals covering a wide range of coalification, thermoplastic properties and geographical origin were carbonized at two different scales. All the coals used are available in the international market and they are used by the cokemaking industry in blend preparation. The cokes were produced in two movable wall ovens of 15 and 300 kg capacity available at INCAR-CSIC facilities. The quality of the cokes was assessed by means of reactivity towards carbon dioxide and mechanical ...

  14. China's Coke Industrial and Trade Policy Over 2000–2013: Its Evolution and Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Shuyun Wang; Zesheng Sun

    2014-01-01

    This paper systematically discusses the evolution of China's industrial and trade policy regarding coke and the effects of this policy over the past decade, particularly from 2004 to 2013. We found that: (1) due to the impact of China's strict industrial policies, the country's coal and coke industry is still competitive. These policies have also helped the Chinese government achieve its goal of maintaining security and energy conservation. (2) China's coke trade policies did not reduce the v...

  15. THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON COKE REMOVAL FROM Ga/HZMS5 CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.F. Rodrigues

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of gallium on HZMS5 zeolites increases the rate of coke elimination in their regeneration in hydrogen. The gallium species should contribute to the hydrogenation of the coke molecules and the acid sites should favour their crackings. However, the location of the coke molecules (near the outer surface and near the gallium species instead of their nature seems to be the determining parameter for their elimination

  16. THE EFFECT OF HYDROGEN ON COKE REMOVAL FROM Ga/HZMS5 CATALYSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues M.G.F.; Magnoux P.; Guisnet M.; Choudhary V.R.

    1997-01-01

    The presence of gallium on HZMS5 zeolites increases the rate of coke elimination in their regeneration in hydrogen. The gallium species should contribute to the hydrogenation of the coke molecules and the acid sites should favour their crackings. However, the location of the coke molecules (near the outer surface and near the gallium species) instead of their nature seems to be the determining parameter for their elimination

  17. Effect Coke and Metal Deposition on Catalyst Deactivation of Early Stages of Resid Hydrodesulfurization Operation

    OpenAIRE

    出井, 一夫; 高橋, 武重; 甲斐, 敬美; IDEI, Kazuo; TAKAHASHI, Takeshige; KAI, Takami

    2001-01-01

    The hydrodesulfurization reaction with two kinds of atmospheric residues was carried out over three kinds of catalysts with different mean pore diameters to obtain catalysts with different deposited amounts of coke and metal on their surfaces. Elemental analysis and physical properties were carried out to elucidate the effects of coke and metal depositions on catalyst deactivation at an early stage of the reaction. Coke density (pc) and metal density (pm) calculated from the mean pore diamete...

  18. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed F.M.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm) are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organ...

  19. 46 CFR 148.04-17 - Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. 148.04-17...-17 Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. (a) The requirements of this part do not apply to bulk shipments of petroleum coke, calcined, on any vessel when the material is less than 130 °F....

  20. Automatic combustion control of the ArcelorMittal Tubarao coke oven batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Barbosa de Oliveira Mello; C.-H. Sampaio Dandrea; G.-H. Marietto Goncalves; A. Estevao Torres; N.-L. Biccas

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the automatic combustion control is to guarantee the operational stability of the coke batteries based on the control of the coking time and consequently, minimize the reduction of useful life of the ovens. This control is guided by a mathematical model whose inputs are process variables and raw materials parameters and outputs are combustion parameters. Therefore, this paper will present the evolution of the performance of the burning process, providing a stability of the coking time.

  1. Heating coke ovens with a mixture of blast furnace and coke-oven gases with increased combustion heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V.I.; Shvetsov, V.I.; Tonchii, M.P.

    1985-07-01

    An experiment is described carried out in the Nizhnii Tagil Metallurgical Complex coke oven battery No. 4 with the aim of reducing graphite deposits without increasing pressure loss. Results showed that, over a period of 10 years, when the battery was heated with a mixture of blast furnace and coke-oven gases at 6300 KJ/m/sup 3/ combustion heat, the resulting pressure loss did not exceed normal values, the temperature in the below-the-roof space dropped to 30-40 C, the temperature between the levels at 2.1 and 0.6 m dropped to 50-60 C and the amount of graphite deposited on the walls, ceiling and gas outlets was reduced to such an extent that there was no need for manual removal.

  2. Modélisation thermomécanique d'un piédroit de four à coke

    OpenAIRE

    Landreau, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    This study lies within the framework of European project called Coke Oven Operating Limits. This thesis deals with the thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The heating wall is an alveolar masonry, heated thanks to gas at high temperature (superior to 1200°C). During coking time in coke ovens, there is a pyrolysis of coal to coke which implies a coke swelling pressure on chamber wall. The aim of this project is to determine the maximal lateral pressure allowed by these struc...

  3. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  4. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  5. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Shuguang Ouyang; Jie Xu; Xiaoli Su; Zikan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inne...

  6. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  7. Relevance of the composition of municipal plastic wastes for metallurgical coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Melendi; M.A. Diez; R. Alvarez; C. Barriocanal [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-04-15

    This study is concerned with the effects of the composition of mixed plastic wastes on the thermoplastic properties of coal, the generation of coking pressure and the quality of the resulting cokes in a movable wall oven at semipilot scale. The mixed plastic wastes were selected to cover a wide spectrum in the relative proportions of high- and low-density polyethylenes (HDPE and LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). From the results it was deduced that the reduction in Gieseler fluidity in the coal blend is linked to the total amount of polyolefins in the waste. It was also found that these thermoplastics increase the pressure exerted against the wall in the course of the coking process and that coke quality is maintained or even improved. However, when the level of aromatic polymers such PS and PET are increased at the expense of polyolefins, the coking pressure decreases. Thus, the amount of aromatic polymers such as PS and PET in the waste is critical, not only for controlling Gieseler fluidity and coking pressure, but also for avoiding deterioration in coke quality (reactivity towards CO{sub 2} CRI and mechanical strength of the partially-gasified coke CSR). An amount of polyolefins in the waste lower than 65 wt.% for a secure coking pressure is established. 43 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  9. Assessment of metal releases and leachate toxicity of oil sands coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large volumes of coke are produced as a by-product of thermal upgrading of oil sands bitumen in Alberta. This paper examined the feasibility of integrating this stored by-product at wetland reclamation sites. Coke leachate water toxicity was evaluated in this study since coke is known to releases trace amounts of metals when it comes in contact with water. The objective was to determine the cause of toxicity by performing toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) on the leachate. The leachability of metals from coke was examined over a 45 day period in 2-L glass jars using reconstituted water with a hardness of 300 mg/L as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) at pH levels 5.5 and 9.5. Coke porewater samples and overlying water samples collected periodically were analyzed for trace metals using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The toxicity of coke leachate was evaluated at the end of the 45 day period using a Ceriodaphnia dubia standard three-brood chronic test with survival and reproduction as endpoints. Coke leachate water from both pH treatments had a negative effect on survival and reproduction of C. dubia. The coke leachate had high concentrations of vanadium, according to metal analysis of leachate water from both pH treatments. In order to identify the cause of toxicity, the coke leachate water will be subjected to several TIE processes

  10. Basic study of the rate of combustion of carbon deposited in a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, S.; Nishioka, K.; Takase, S.; Yamamoto, B.

    1984-01-01

    Using experimental apparatus, the authors have quantified the effect of O/sub 2/ concentration, gas flow velocity, temperature, etc. on the rate of combustion of samples of the carbon deposited on the walls of a coke oven. Such carbon deposits are one cause of difficulty in pushing the coke. The results obtained have enabled an equation for combustion rate to be formulated. Carbon combustion tests carried out in an empty coke oven chamber immediately after pushing the coke have confirmed the validity of this rate equation. 1 reference.

  11. Pitch (slate) coke and prospects of its usage in production of structural carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial experience of usage of pitch coke in fabrication of materials via hot and cold extrusion is generalized on the example of artificial graphite of different sorts (fine- and medium-grained materials). It is shown that physical and mechanical characteristics of different graphites on the base of KS coke are located inside the boundaries of properties required by reference documents. In this case usage of KS coke instead of conventional pseudo-isotropic petroleum KNPS coke leads to small decrease of density and tensile strength during compression, but does not lower tensile strength values during bending. Thermal-physical parameters of graphite manufacturing via piercing extrusion improve

  12. Smoke and Dust Control During Coke Discharging from Coking Oven%焦炉出焦过程中的烟尘治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 郝志强

    2011-01-01

    In order to control the smoke phenomenon during the coke discharging from the coking oven,the smoke and dust sources during the coke discharging from the coking oven in the Coking Plant of Taiyuan Town Gas Company were analyzed.In the comparison with three smoke and dust control alternatives,the second dust control system added on the coke receiving car was proposed to solve the smoke and dust problem.The applied results showed that the smoke and dust during the coke discharging was effectively controlled after the second dust control system measure applied.%为治理焦炉出焦过程中的冒烟现象,分析了太原煤气公司焦化厂焦炉出焦过程中的烟尘来源,通过对比3种治理烟尘的方案,提出采用在拦焦车上增加二次除尘系统的方法解决烟尘问题。实施结果表明,采用此措施后使出焦过程中散发的烟尘量得到了有效治理。

  13. Parametric Study of Gasification of the Mexican Petroleum Coke: Effect Feed Petroleum Coke on Energetic Characteristic of the Synthetic Gas (syngas)

    OpenAIRE

    Longoria-Ramírez R.; González-Rocha J.C.; Urquiza-Beltrán G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a parametric study the gasification of the Mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero (CRM) and Cadereyta, Nuevo León (CRC) is performed. It is evaluates the energy behavior of the gasification process with objective to research which feedstock of petroleum coke has a be?? er yield of energy. Effect feed petroleum coke on energy characteristics of the clear synthetic gas (gasl): molar composition of CO and H2, High Heating Value (HHVgasl), energy power (Ogasl), Cold...

  14. Effects of Coke Calcination Level on Pore Structure in Carbon Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ning; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Bao, Chongai; Gao, Shoulei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of coke calcination levels on pore structure of carbon anodes have been investigated. Bench anodes were prepared by 3 types of cokes with 4 calcination temperatures (800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C). The cokes and anodes were characterized using hydrostatic method, air permeability determination, mercury porosimetry, image analysis and confocal microscopy (CSLM). The cokes with different calcination levels are almost the same in LC values (19-20 Å) and real density (1.967-1.985 g/cm3), while the anode containing coke calcined at 900°C has the lowest open porosity and air permeability. Pore size distribution (represented by Anode H sample) can be roughly divided into two ranges: small and medium pores in diameter of 10-400 μm and large pores of 400-580 μm. For the anode containing coke calcined at 800°C, a number of long, narrow pores in the pore size range of 400-580 μm are presented among cokes particles. Formation of these elongated pores may be attributed to coke shrinkages during the anode baking process, which may develop cracking in the anode under cell operations. More small or medium rounded pores with pore size range of 10-400 μm emerge in the anodes with coke calcination temperatures of 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, which may be generated due to release of volatiles from the carbon anode during baking. For the anode containing coke calcined at 1100°C, it is found that many rounded pores often closely surround large coke particles, which have potential to form elongated, narrow pores.

  15. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  16. On-site raw gas cut-off during the shut down of Baosteel phase I coke ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Haizhong

    2015-01-01

    The preparation and implementation of raw coke oven gas cut-off,which was the key process involved with shutting down the Baosteel phase I coke ovens,were investigated,and the main technical points and countermeasures are presented.

  17. Preparation and Anti-coking Property of SiO2/S Coating on HP40 Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建新; 徐宏; 张莉; 刘京雷; 戚学贵; 彭博

    2007-01-01

    SiO2/S coating was prepared on the inner surface of an HP40 tube using dimethyldisulfide and tetraethylorthosilicate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) to alleviate catalytic coking on the inner surface of radiant tube for ethylene production in petrochemical plants. The comparative coking experiments with the coated and uncoated HP40 tubes were carried out under the same cracking conditions. SiO2/S coating was compact and had excellent anti-coking property. The coke on the coated HP40 tube was about 22% of that on the uncoated HP40 tube, and only small granular coke was deposited on the coated HP40 tube. However, the filamentous coke formed on the uncoated HP40 tube. The thermal stability of SiO2/S coating was satisfactory at cracking temperature, and the anti-coking property of SiO2/S coating was still over 60% after 3 coking and decoking cycles.

  18. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  19. Modulating influence of cytochrome P-450 MspI polymorphism on serum liver function profiles in coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, M T; Ho, C.K.; Huang, S.L.; Yeh, Y. F.; C. L. Liu; Mao, I F; Christiani, D C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It was reported previously that topside oven workers with heavy exposure to coke oven emissions had increased serum activities of hepatic aminotransferase in one coke oven plant. This study was conducted to investigate the modifying effect of CYP1A1 MspI polymorphism on liver function profiles in coke oven workers. METHODS: 88 coke oven workers from a large steel company in Taiwan were studied in 1995-6. Exposure was categorised by work area: topside oven workers and sideove...

  20. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  1. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for by-product coke oven batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke...

  2. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke...

  3. RECOVERY AND DESTRUCTIVE TREATMENT OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCE IN COKING PLANT WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jianguang

    2000-01-01

    This paper discussed the comprehensive treatment of coking plant effluent.Cyanide-containing and phenol wastewater was first recovered and utilized respectively, and then, mixed it with other low harmful wastewater for destroying treatment.Treated water was reused in quenching coke.

  4. Characterization of semi-coke generated by coal-based direct reduction process of siderite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德庆; 罗艳红; 潘建; 周仙霖

    2015-01-01

    Solid wastes derived from metallurgical industries pose a significant threat to environment. The utilization and disposal of these solid wastes are the major concern in the world. Semi-coke generated in coal-based direct reduction process of iron ore is a by-product and its suitable utilization is not available so far. In order to handle it properly, the characteristics of this by-product were comprehensively investigated. A series of analysis methods were used to demonstrate its mineral compositions, petrography and physico-chemical properties. The results reveal that the semi-coke has poor washability. The fixed carbon content of semi-coke reaches 76.11% and the gross calorific value is 28.10 MJ/kg, both of which are similar to those of traditional sinter coke breeze. Also, semi-coke ash possesses lower content of SiO2, Al2O3, S and higher content of CaO and MgO, which could improve the strength of sinter ore when partially substituting for coke breeze in sintering. Semi-coke features well-development porous structure and higher reaction activity, which predicts that the sintering speed could be elevated to some extent when employing it as a partial replacement of coke breeze, so the studies further suggest that the potential adverse effect of the high reactivity on sintering process could be weakened by adequately coarsening the semi-coke’s particle size.

  5. Influence of nut coke on iron ore sinter reducibility under simulated blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousa, E.A.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W.

    2010-04-15

    One of the most important factors to increase the economic efficiency of the blast furnace process is to reduced coke losses (undersieve product known as nut coke). In recent years there has been increased interest in mixing nut coke in the sinter layers. In order to clarify the influence of nut coke on sinter reducibility, sinter and sinter-nut coke mixtures were isothermally reduced with 30%CO-70%N{sub 2} at 1173-1523 K using a muffle furnace supported by an on-line gas analyser. Reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray technique were used to characterise the microstructure and the different phases developed in the original and reduced sinter. Sinter reduced without nut coke participation exhibited reduction retardation at elevated temperatures (>1373 K) while the presence of nut coke prevented such phenomena. The rate controlling mechanism of sinter and sinter-nut coke mixture was predicted from the correlation between apparent activation energy calculations, mathematical modelling derived from gas-solid reaction model and microstructure examination.

  6. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babich, I.V.; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, L.

    2005-01-01

    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine,

  7. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  8. 76 FR 74810 - Foundry Coke From China; Institution of a Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., and F (19 CFR part 207), as most recently amended at 76 FR 61937 (October 6, 2011). \\1\\ No response to... duty order on imports of foundry coke from China (66 FR 48025). Following five-year reviews by Commerce... order on imports of foundry coke from China (72 FR 1214). The Commission is now conducting a...

  9. Recycling of waste mill oil through non-recovery coke making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, S.C.; Kumar, P.P.; Patil, B.R.; Kinlekar, A.; Reddy, S. [JSW Steel Ltd., Karnataka (India)

    2009-07-01

    A plant scale trial was conducted to recycle the mill oil waste through non recovery coke oven route. The waste mill oil was added in the coal blend as a binder before hammer mill and charged in the ovens. JSW Steel has non-recovery coke ovens synergized with vibro-compaction technology to produce coke of 1.2 Mtpa. About 300 L of the mill oil which is generated in the hot strip mill daily was used in the trial. A cake density of 1.1 t/m{sup 3} has been achieved using vibro-compaction with optimized moisture, oil addition and crushing fineness. The coke produced with and without oil of same coal blend and coking conditions, was tested and compared. It is observed that utilization of mill oil has not shown any deteriorating effect on coke quality. There is a marginal increase in flue gas as well as oven crown temperature which helped to increase the power generation. This present paper describes the effect of mill oil addition on coke quality and the oven thermal conditions and the feasibility of recycling the waste through non recovery coke ovens at JSW Steel Ltd.

  10. Trials aimed at adapting the Simonis method to predict coke quality from domestic coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaziszyn, I. (Instytut Chemicznej Przerobki Wegla, Zabrze, Poland); Heilpern, S.; Zarembinska, J.; Postrzednik, S.

    1977-01-01

    For purposes of forecasting coke quality from domestic coals and coal blends, the methods of Simonis, Mackowsky and Simonis as well as that of Falk have been used. In view of considerable differences in the results obtained with regard to the real coke quality, correction coefficients for the Simonis and Falk models have been calculated.

  11. Application of 150t/h coke dry quenching technique in Bengang coke oven%150t/h干熄焦在本钢焦炉的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全喜红

    2009-01-01

    The main process of 150t/h coke dry quenching technique in Bengang No. 6 and 7 coke oven were introduced. According to actual operation data, the environmental protection effect and energy saving characteristic of coke dry quenching technology were analyzed. It will be of great importance in the application and dissemination of coke dry quenching technology, especially that of Chinese property.%介绍了本钢6、7号焦炉干熄焦的主要工艺流程,通过实际数据详细分析了干熄焦运行的节能效益及环保效应,对国内干熄焦技术推广与应用将起到积极的推动作用.

  12. Coal and coke - analysis and testing. Determination of trace elements. Coal, coke and fly-ash. Determination of fluorine content. Pyrohydrolysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-29

    This Standard sets out a procedure for the pyrohydrolytic separation of fluorine from coal, coke and fly-ash and for determination of fluorine by gravimetric processing and either ion potentiometry or ion chromatography.

  13. Economics and alternatives for sulfur removal from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, M.J.; Dunlap, R.W.

    1975-10-01

    Two processes are currently being employed in North America for the desulfurization of coke oven gas, the Vacuum Carbonate System, and the Stretford System. A third, the Sulfiban Process, which was recently announced, now has several plants scheduled for construction. Overall operating requirements for each of these processes are considered in detail. Emphasis is placed on an identification of power and steam requirements, the types and amounts of solid and/or liquid waste streams produced together with methods for their treatment, and the net desulfurization efficiencies achieved by each process. Detailed estimates of capital and operating costs for desulfurization are considered, and equipment needs for environmental control requirements are discussed.

  14. Study on soot purifying of molding shop in coking factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duo-song; ZHANG Hui; BAI Xiang-yu

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust gas in molding shop was complicated in component and characteristic in Iow thickness asphalt smoke, mass steam-gas and dust. It was difficult to purify the soot with common purifier. So we must consider them roundly and develop new multifunction purifier. PFP multifunction soot purifier was made on the base of design optimization and was installed at Shenhuo Coking Factory in 2004. The combined effects of multi- mechanism in purifier make purifying ratio keep in high level. The remove ratio of smut reaches at 92.8%, and asphalt smoke at 83.7%.

  15. Failure analysis of the impellers of coke plant

    OpenAIRE

    Souvik Das; Goutam Mukhopadhyay; Sandip Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Premature failure of the impeller blade of coke plant has been investigated. The component functioned during the CGC gas intake cycle. The component rotates at 1480 rpm with a volumetric flow of 720 m3/min of flue gas with temperature about 200–300 °C. The failed component reveals exposed surface of a crack that extended slightly beyond the assembly weld. From macro-structural observation under-filled region in welding is observed which is detrimental because it acts as a stress concentration...

  16. The Kinetics for Electrochemical Removal of Ammonia in Coking Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Zhenhai; LI Su; GUO Wenqian; FAN Caimei

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical removal of ammonia is a new and effective method in coking wastewater.The reaction mechanism of ammonia removal was proved by stable polarization curve in this paper.First,the supposing of reaction steps of the electrode were proposed.And then reaction parameter of the electrode was measured by Tafel curve.Finally,the reaction mechanism was determined by quasi-equilibrium approach.The results showed that Cl2+H2O→HOCl+H++Cl was the rate-determining step,the calculated apparent transfer coefficient was uniform to the experimental value.

  17. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by gasification of petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by using petroleum coke (PC) as carbon source. Different positions of the PC in the reactor chamber and some other factors markedly increase quantity of the synthesized CNTs and lead to changing of their characteristics such as crystallinity, diameter, straight and etc. confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies.The thickness of the Fe catalyst deposited on Si and SiO2 substrates strongly influence to the quality, quantity and uniformity of the grown CNTs. Wet-coated thin films of FeCl2 works well as catalyst, which can be profitable for mass production of CNTs

  18. Conversion of unrefined coke oven gas by partial pulse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuennenberg, W.; George, D.; Habermehl, D.; Rohde, W.

    1984-05-10

    To convert coke-oven gas to a chemical feedstock it is possible to use pulsating partial-oxidation in a pulse tube, a method which yields a hydrogen- and CO-based gas which can serve as a synthesis gas, for example in methanol synthesis. Alternatively, the pulse-tube gas can also be used as a reducer gas in the metallurgical industry. A particular process-related advantage of such a pulse-tube reactor, the so-called Schmid tube, lies in the fact that it gives about a tenfold higher space-time yield than the conventional partial-oxidation process.

  19. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of...) approval of the information collection requirements specified in the Standard on Coke Oven Emissions (29... requirements in the Coke Oven Emissions Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health...

  20. The effective carbonaceous restorer for the production of silicon carbide on the basis of deep processing of petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The skilled use of all particle size distribution of petroleum coke is considered. The different technologies of petroleum coke breeze ennoblement are shown and their advantages and weaknesses are identified. An optimal variant of preparation of petroleum coke breeze at the site attached to reactor for the production of silicon carbide is proposed. (authors)

  1. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  2. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  3. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke - article no. 108101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, S.G.; Wang, B.C.; Sun, Q.A. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2010-10-15

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  4. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  5. Promoted slurryability of petroleum coke-water slurry by using black liquor as an additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijie; Wang, Fuchen [Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Kang, Wanzhong [School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The purpose of this paper is to prepare the petroleum coke-water slurry with a maximal coke mass fraction and the superior slurry natures using black liquor as an additive. The variations of rheological properties, contact angle, fluidity, stability and zeta potential of the coke-water slurry with different black liquor dosages were investigated. It was observed that the addition of a black liquor dosage around 1.0 wt.% of the petroleum coke remarkably improved the rheological properties, fluidity and stability of the slurry, and the slurry could hold a mass of petroleum coke as high as 70 wt.%, with the superior apparent viscosity, fluidity and stability available for practical utilization. (author)

  6. Method to obtain sulphur from the hydrogen sulphide of coke oven gas with simultaneous combustion of the coke oven gas ammonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, G.; Weber, H.

    1976-02-05

    The invention deals with a method to obtain sulphur from coke oven gas hydrogen sulphide by partly combusting to sulphur dioxide and processing to sulphur with simultaneous combustion of the coke oven ammonia according to the Claus method. The method is thus characterized in that the ammonia combustion gases released from the heating boiler are after cooling freed from the aqueous condensate and then are added to the partly combusted hydrogen sulphide clouds before introducing into the Claus oven system.

  7. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters. PMID:23589270

  8. Mineralogy and phase transition of oil sands coke ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemun Jang; Thomas H. Etsell [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2006-08-15

    Coke obtained from Syncrude and Suncor was investigated to characterize the metals and minerals by ashing it at various temperatures. Samples were collected by high temperature ashing at 100{sup o}C intervals from 400 to 1200{sup o}C. Samples were also obtained from low temperature ashing (LTA) which gives little effect on the mineral assemblage compared to HTA samples. X-ray diffraction patterns of Suncor and Syncrude coke ash were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively to characterize the mineral phases in the sample and their thermal transition behavior. In Suncor ash, kaolinite, illite, gypsum, anhydrite, microcline, anorthite, hematite, sillimanite and quartz were dominant phases in ash from the LTA temperature up to 700{sup o}C, and mullite, cristobalite, hercynite, albite, anorthite, pseudobrookite and other iron-titanium oxides were dominant mineral phases from 700 to 1200{sup o}C. In Syncrude ash, illite, anhydrite, quartz, anorthite, microcline, sillimanite and hematite were dominant up to 700{sup o}C, and hercynite, anorthite, albite, pseudobrookite and other iron-titanium oxides were dominant up to 1200{sup o}C. The higher quantities of Ca, K and Na, and the lower quantities of V, Fe and Ni in Syncrude ash resulted in higher amorphocity and the different mineral phases. 32 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. The Transient Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Coke Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Teng-teng; SUN Tie; XING Ling; ZHANG Su-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic analysis must be performed when the duration of the applied load is short or if the load is dynamic in nature. Wind load, as a random load, can lead to the vibration of the coke tower. In order to study the influence to the strength of the coke tower by wind, ABAQUS was used to conduct the transient modal dynamic analysis of the wind load. The response of the structure during loading and unloading was mainly observed. The results indicate that, with the effect of wind, the maximal nodal displacement appears at the top of the tower, which is 0.79 mm; while the maximal stress locates at the node around the skirt, the maximum is 3.26 MPa. Both of the displacement and stress cannot cause the failure of the structure. After loading and unloading, the structure engenders vibration along the loading direction. The frequency is 10 Hz, under the effect of external loads, it may easily cause the resonance of the structure, which can cause damage to the structure. So it must be taken into consideration during the process of design and operation.

  10. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: sjin@uwyo.edu [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  11. Thermal coupling between crude distillation and delayed coking units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plesu, V.; Bumbac, G.; Iancu, P. [University Politechnica of Bucharest (Romania). Centre for Technology Transfer in the Process Industries; Ivanescu, I. [SNP PETROM, Bucharest (Romania); Popescu, D.C. [SNP PETROM, INCERP Ploiesti Subsidiary, Ploiesti (Romania)

    2003-10-01

    The paper presents an industrial case study. Crude distillation unit (CDU) and delayed coking unit (DCU) are important plants in oil refineries, presenting huge energy consumption, especially due to high flowrates of process material streams. Any acceptable solution for energy saving is important in this context. The idea of thermal coupling between these two plants is good as they have potential to exchange energy, but the problem is to choose the most appropriate way to do it. The objective of this work is to present the possibility to exchange energy between the two plants, continuing a previous work [Energy saving by integration of CDU-delayed coke plants, third Conference, Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction - PRES 2000, P7.72], where a part of the solution was already presented. The difficulty to find a solution arisen from the fact that DCU is working semi-continuous. More insights in the process allowed finding new possibilities, more attractive for rational use of energy, with better applicability. A feasibility study will be performed to give also economic sound of all the implications for the modifications proposed. (author)

  12. Laser ultrasonic furnace tube coke monitor. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, May 1--August 1, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-15

    The overall aim of the project is to demonstrate the performance and practical use of a laser ultrasonic probe for measuring the thickness of coke deposits located within the high temperature tubes of a thermal cracking furnace. This aim will be met by constructing an optical probe that will be tested using simulated coke deposits that are positioned inside of a bench-scale furnace. Successful development of the optical coke detector will provide industry with the only available method for on-line measurement of coke deposits. The optical coke detector will have numerous uses in the refining and petrochemical sectors including monitoring of visbreakers, hydrotreaters, delayed coking units, vacuum tower heaters, and various other heavy oil heating applications where coke formation is a problem. The coke detector will particularly benefit the olefins industry where high temperature thermal crackers are used to produce ethylene, propylene, butylene and other important olefin intermediates. The ethylene industry requires development of an on-line method for gauging the thickness of coke deposits in cracking furnaces because the current lack of detailed knowledge of coke deposition profiles introduces the single greatest uncertainty in the simulation and control of modern cracking furnaces. The laser ultrasonic coke detector will provide operators with valuable new information allowing them to better optimize the decoking turnaround schedule and therefore maximize production capacity.

  13. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  14. The effects of the coke addition and the heating time on the efficiency of chlorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of mixed pellet, ZrO2, coke and sucrose, for chlorinating process of ZrO2 pellet has been performed. In this experiments the studied parameters were coke addition and the heating time. The addition of coke was 9.72 grams, 10.5 grams and 11 for the mixture of the 87 grams ZrO2 and 3.5 grams sucrose. The purpose of the coke addition is to from ZrC, which is corresponding to Kroll process with carbon-chlor methos. The weight of cokes had been calculated beyond the stoichiometry. The heating times was held in 10 minutes, 15 minutes, and 20 minutes at the temperature of 100oC that was below the evaporation coke temperature of 315oC. The result show that the efficiency of chlorinating of ZrO2 pellet could be reached of 82.16% with the addition of coke mass of 11 grams at the heating temperature of 100oC with the heating time of 20 minutes

  15. Preparation of modified semi-coke by microwave heating and adsorption kinetics of methylene blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Peng, Jin-Hui; Duan, Xin-Hui; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar

    2013-01-01

    Preparation of modified semi-coke has been achieved, using phosphoric acid as the modifying agent, by microwave heating from virgin semi-coke. Process optimization using a Central Composite Design (CCD) design of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) technique for the preparation of modifies semi-coke is presented in this paper. The optimum conditions for producing modified semi-coke were: concentration of phosphoric acid 2.04, heating time 20 minutes and temperature 587 degrees C, with the optimum iodine of 862 mg/g and yield of 47.48%. The textural characteristics of modified semi-coke were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and nitrogen adsorption isotherm. The BET surface area of modified semi-coke was estimated to be 989.60 m2/g, with the pore volume of 0.74 cm3/g and a pore diameter of 3.009 nm, with micro-pore volume contributing to 62.44%. The Methylene Blue monolayer adsorption capacity was found to be mg/g at K. The adsorption capacity of the modified semi-coke highlights its suitability for liquid phase adsorption application with a potential usage in waste water treatment. PMID:24779145

  16. Three-dimensional modelling of in-furnace coal/coke combustion in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.S. Shen; B.Y. Guo; A.B. Yu; P.R. Austin; P. Zulli [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Lab for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems

    2011-02-15

    A three-dimensional mathematical model of the combustion of pulverized coal and coke is developed. The model is applied to the region of lance-blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed to simulate in-furnace phenomena of pulverized coal injection in an ironmaking blast furnace. The model integrates not only pulverized coal combustion model in the blowpipe-tuyere-raceway-coke bed but also coke combustion model in the coke bed. The model is validated against the measurements under different conditions. The comprehensive in-furnace phenomena are investigated in the raceway and coke bed, in terms of flow, temperature, gas composition, and coal burning characteristics. The underlying mechanisms for the in-furnace phenomena are also analysed. The simulation results indicate that it is important to include recirculation region in the raceway and the coke bed reactions for better understanding in-furnace phenomena. The model provides a cost-effective tool for understanding and optimizing the in-furnace flow-thermo-chemical characteristics of the PCI operation in full-scale blast furnaces. 32 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Activated oil sands fluid coke for electrical double-layer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn E.; Kirk, Donald W.; Jia, Charles Q.; Tong, Shitang

    2014-12-01

    Electrochemical capacitors are important energy storage devices that have high power density, rapid charging cycles and are highly cyclable. In this study, activated fluid coke has demonstrated high surface area, improved capacitive properties, and high energy density. Fluid coke is a by-product generated from continuous high temperature bitumen upgrading, resulting in the formation of nearly spherical particles with concentric carbon layers. The residual sulphur impurities in fluid coke may enhance its energy storage performance. The activated coke samples have high specific surface areas, up to 1960 m2 g-1, and show promising capacitive performance, in 4 M KOH electrolyte, with high gravimetric and specific capacitances of 228-257 F g-1 and 13-14 μF cm-2, respectively. These results are comparable to other top performing activated carbon materials [1-3]. The activated fluid coke maintains high performance at fast charging rates, greater than 160 F g-1 at a current density of 7500 mA g-1. Activated fluid coke's high capacitance and promising rate performance are potentially associated with its unique layered, and the moderate sulphur content in the chemical structure. Activated fluid coke is a unique opportunity to use a limited use by-product to generate activated carbon that has a high surface area and promising energy storage properties.

  18. Periodic temperature changes in heat exchangers of a coke oven battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1982-09-01

    This paper analyzes temperature distribution and temperature fluctuations in a heat exchanger of a coke oven battery type with three elements taking part in heat exchange: flue gases in flue channels, walls of a coke chamber and coal being heated in a coke chamber. The analysis is based on the assumption that thermal and physical properties of the heating walls are constant and do not change during coal heating, heat sources are present in coal being heated due to chemical reactions and evaporation of water, temperature fluctuations in the heating walls and coal are of a linear character in relation to thickness of the coal layer and wall thickness. Effects of periodic character of coking, duration of a coking cycle and energy consumption on the range of temperature fluctuatons in the heating walls are analyzed. Equations for calculating range of temperature changes as well as the minumum time for increasing coal temperature to the optimum level are derived. Equations are used for optimizing coke chamber design as well as heating systems for coke batteries. (3 refs.)

  19. Nature of nitrogen specie in coke and their role in NOx formation during FCC catalyst regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NOx emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an environmental problem. In order to follow the route to NOx formation and try to find ways to suppress it, a coked industrial FCC catalyst has been prepared using model N-containing compounds, e.g., pyridine, pyrrole, aniline and hexadecane-pyridine mixture. Nitrogen present in the FCC feed is incorporated as polyaromatic compounds in the coke deposited on the catalyst during cracking. Its functionality has been characterized using XPS. Nitrogen specie of different types, namely, pyridine, pyrrolic or quaternary-nitrogen (Q-N) have been discriminated. Decomposition of the coke during the catalyst regeneration (temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and isothermal oxidation) has been monitored by GC and MS measurements of the gaseous products formed. The pyrrolic- and pyridinic-type N specie, present more in the outer coke layers, are oxidized under conditions when still large amount of C or CO is available from coke to reduced NOx formed to N2. ''Q-N'' type species are present in the inner layer, strongly adsorbed on the acid sites on the catalyst. They are combusted last during regeneration. As most of the coke is already combusted at this point, lack of reductants (C, CO, etc.) results in the presence of NOx in the tail gas

  20. Parametric Study of Gasification of the Mexican Petroleum Coke: Effect Feed Petroleum Coke on Energetic Characteristic of the Synthetic Gas (syngas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longoria-Ramírez R.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a parametric study the gasification of the Mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero (CRM and Cadereyta, Nuevo León (CRC is performed. It is evaluates the energy behavior of the gasification process with objective to research which feedstock of petroleum coke has a be?? er yield of energy. Effect feed petroleum coke on energy characteristics of the clear synthetic gas (gasl: molar composition of CO and H2, High Heating Value (HHVgasl, energy power (Ogasl, Cold Gas Efficiency (CGEgasl and thermal efficiency of gasification (?tg is realized. The parametric study has been realized for 0.64 = oxygen/coke = 1.11 ratio with the fl ow of oxygen (6036.388 kg/h and steam/oxygen of 23% both constant. It is observed that in oxygen/coke 0.77 and 0.94 ratio it is present the best energy characteristics of the gasl from CRM and CRC, respectively. The best energy characteristics relationship of the gasl fined are: molar composition CO (65.6, 68.5, H2 (32.29, 29.13, HHVgasl (14054.6 kJ/kggasl, 13438.76 kJ/kggasl, Ogasl (204.86 GJ/h, 178.02 GJ/h, CGEgasl (74.43%, 71.14%, ?tg (86.2%, 83.22%. The gasification of petroleum coke CRM produced energy with 26.20 MJ/kgcoque rates whereas that gasification of the petroleum coke CRC produced 27.74 MJ/kgcoque rates.

  1. The correlation between nitrogen species in coke and NOx formation during regeneration☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng Li; Chaohe Yang; Xiaobo Chen⁎; Libo Yao; Wei Liang; Xuemei Ding

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission during the regeneration of coked fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts is an en-vironmental issue. In order to identify the correlations between nitrogen species in coke and different nitrogen-containing products in tail gas, three coked catalysts with multilayer structural coke molecules were prepared in a fixed bed with model compounds (o-xylene and quinoline) at first. A series of characterization methods were used to analyze coke, including elemental analysis, FT-IR, XPS, and TG–MS. XPS characterization indicates all coked catalysts present two types of nitrogen species and the type with a higher binding energy is related with the inner part nitrogen atoms interacting with acid sites. Due to the stronger adsorption ability on acid sites for basic nitrogen compounds, the multilayer structural coke has unbalanced distribution of carbon and ni-trogen atoms between the inner part and the outer edge, which strongly affects gas product formation. At the early stage of regeneration, oxidation starts from the outer edge and the product NO can be reduced to N2 in high CO concentration. At the later stage, the inner part rich in nitrogen begins to be exposed to O2. At this period, the formation of CO decreases due to lack of carbon atoms, which is not beneficial to the reduction of NO. There-fore, nitrogen species in the inner part of multilayer structural coke contributes more to NOX formation. Based on the multilayer structure model of coke molecule and its oxidation behavior, a possible strategy to control NOX emission was discussed merely from concept.

  2. Color and chlorinated organics removal from pulp mills wastewater using activated petroleum coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawwa, A R; Smith, D W; Sego, D C

    2001-03-01

    Delayed petroleum coke, a waste by-product from the oil sand industry, was utilized in the production of activated carbon. The activated carbon was then evaluated for color and chlorinated organics reduction from pulp mill wastewater. The activation of the petroleum coke was evaluated using a fixed bed reactor involving carbonization and activation steps at temperature of 850 degrees C and using steam as the activation medium. The activation results showed that the maximum surface area of the activated coke was achieved at an activation period of 4 h. The maximum surface area occurred at burnoff and water efficiency of 48.5 and 54.3%, respectively. Increasing the activation period to 6 h resulted in a decrease in the surface area. Methylene blue adsorption results indicated that the activation process was successful. Methylene blue adsorbed per 100 g of applied activated coke was 10 times higher than that adsorbed by raw petroleum coke. Adsorption equilibrium results of the bleached wastewater and the activated coke showed that significant color, COD, DOC and AOX removal (> 90%) was achieved when the activated coke dose exceeded 15,000 mg/L. Adsorption isotherms, in terms of COD, DOC, UV and color were developed based on the batch equilibrium data. Based on these isotherms, the amount of activated coke required to achieve certain removal of color and AOX can be predicted. The utilization of the petroleum coke for the production of activated carbon can provide an excellent disposal option for the oil sand industry at the same time would provide a cheap and valuable activated carbon. PMID:11228973

  3. Variation in toxicity response of Ceriodaphnia dubia to Athabasca oil sands coke leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Turcotte, Dominique; Liber, Karsten

    2010-07-01

    Coke from the Athabasca (Alberta, Canada) oil sands operations may someday be integrated into reclamation landscapes. It is hypothesized that the metals associated with the solid coke may leach into the surrounding environment. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to characterize the toxicity and chemistry of coke leachates collected from two field lysimeters (i.e. shallow lysimeter and deep lysimeter) over a period of 20months, as well as from other oil sands coke storage sites. In addition, a batch renewal leaching of coke was conducted to examine the rate of metals release. Chronic toxicity of key metals (e.g. Al, Mn, Ni and V) found in lysimeter coke leachate was evaluated separately. Toxicity test results revealed that whole coke leachates (100% v/v) were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; the 7-day LC50 values were always coke leachate. The deep lysimeter leachate was generally more toxic than the shallow lysimeter leachate, likely because of significantly higher concentrations of vanadium (V) found in the deep lysimeter leachate at all sampling times. Vanadium concentrations were higher than all other metals found in the leachate from both lysimeters, and in the batch renewal leaching study. Furthermore, V found in leachates collected from other oil sands field sites showed a concentration-response relationship with C. dubia survival. Mass balance calculations indicated that 94-98% of potentially leachable V fraction was still present in the coke from two field lysimeters. Evidence gathered from these assessments, including toxic unit (TU) calculations for the elements of concern, suggests that V was the likely cause of toxicity of the deep lysimeter leachate, whereas in the shallow lysimeter leachate both Ni and V could be responsible for the observed toxicity. PMID:20553931

  4. Factors affecting the microwave coking of coals and the implications on microwave cavity design

    OpenAIRE

    Binner, Eleanor; Medeira-Munoyerro, Maria; Huddle, Thomas; Kingman, S. W.; Dodds, Chris; Dimitrakis, G.; Robinson, John P.; Lester, Edward

    2014-01-01

    The work carried out in this paper assessed how processing conditions and feedstock affect the quality of the coke produced during microwave coke making. The aim was to gather information that would support the development of an optimised microwave coke making oven. Experiments were carried out in a non-optimised 2450 MHz cylindrical cavity. The effect of treatment time (15–120 min), power input (750 W–4.5 kW) and overall power input (1700–27,200 kWh/t) on a range of coals (semi-bituminous–an...

  5. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Konieczyński; Elwira Zajusz-Zubek; Magdalena Jabłońska

    2012-01-01

    In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of ...

  6. Energy efficiency of alternative coke-free metallurgical technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.G. Lisienko; A.V. Lapteva; A.E. Paren' kov [Ural State Technical University - Ural Polytechnic Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-02-15

    Energy analysis is undertaken for the blast-furnace process, for liquid-phase processes (Corex, Hismelt, Romelt), for solid-phase pellet reduction (Midrex, HYL III, LP-V in a shaft furnace), for steel production in systems consisting of a blast furnace and a converter, a Midrex unit and an arc furnace, or a Romelt unit and an arc furnace, and for scrap processing in an arc furnace or in an LP-V shaft furnace. Three blast-furnace processes with sinter and coke are adopted as the basis of comparison, as in: the standard blast-furnace process used in Russia; the improved blast-furnace process with coal-dust injection; and the production of vanadium hot metal from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite ore (with a subsequent duplex process, ferrovanadium production, and its use in the arc furnace).

  7. Structural variations and physical properties of lignin coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studied lignin is a by-product of the process of ethanol production from eucaliptus. It was heat-treated under inert atmosphere conditions at increasing temperatures from 3000C up to 26000C. This material has about 35 weight % of carbon yield and low ash content (0.70 w %). The structural variations were studied by wide-angle X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and infra-red spectroscopy. The bulk and the ''real'' density of the samples have also been determined as a function of the heat treatment temperatures. These experimental results enabled us to establish a mechanism of structure variation based on the formation of a graphite-like and porous structure within the initially amorphous lignin matrix. It has been possible to specify the adequate heat treatment temperature based upon the lignin coke applications. (author)

  8. Repair of the bottom bricks of 6 m coke oven coking chamber%6m焦炉炭化室底部砖的修补

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋忠平; 朱婷婷

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a method for overall repair of the bottom bricks of coking chamber, and proposes a control plan for temperature management during repairing. Practical production shows that the repaired coking chamber has similar indexes with other coking chambers, and from which coke can be pushed out easily. Therefore, the risk of high temperature radiation to human body is reduced and the service life of coke oven is prolonged.%介绍了对炭化室底部砖进行整体修补的方法,并对期间的温度管理提出了控制方案,生产实践表明,该炭化室推焦正常,各方面指标与其他炭化室无明显差异,降低了高温辐射对人体的伤害,延长了焦炉的使用寿命。

  9. A small-angle neutron scattering investigation of coke deposits on catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to characterize a silica-alumina catalyst before and after coke deposition. The reaction used to deactivate the catalyst was the isomerization of xylenes. The results showed that, while most of the surface area in this type of catalyst resides in the ultrafine pores of diameters less than 1 nm occupying about 7% of the sample volume, there appears to be no coke deposition in these pores. The coke seems to coat the solid structures of 3.3-nm diameter which are of capillary shape. Such structures occupy about 6% of the sample volume. The coke was found to correspond to amonolayer of composition CH0.3 with a density of 1660 kg/m3

  10. Study of ways of reducing coke use at non-integrated metallurgical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.A. Feshchenko; V.I. Pleshkov; I.N. Shishchuk; A.V. Buev [Svobodnyi Sokol (Russian Federation). Lipetsk Metallurgical Plant

    2006-03-15

    To reduce the costs of blast-furnace smelting, the Svobodnyi Sokol plant has devised a comprehensive program of organizational-technical measures that include study of ways of reducing coke consumption. To do this, the plant began operating its blast furnaces with schungite when making foundry and conversion pig irons. Using schungite in the charge employed to make foundry iron makes it possible to save a significant (10-15%) amount of coke. The value of the coefficient that characterizes the replacement of coke by schungite varies broadly and can reach 1.0 or more, depending on the grade of iron being made and the furnace operating regime. The same coefficient has a value of 0.57 kg coke/kg schungite when 12-15 kg schungite/ton pig is used to make conversion pig iron.

  11. Lymphohaematopoietic system cancer incidence in an urban area near a coke oven plant: an ecological investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, S; Vercelli, M; Stella, A.; Stagnaro, E; Valerio, F.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the incidence risk of lymphohaematopoietic cancers for the 1986–94 period in Cornigliano, a district of Genoa (Italy), where a coke oven is located a few hundred metres from the residential area.

  12. Estimation of cytogenetic risk among coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, Shanmugam; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Devi, Subramaniam Mohana; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Karthickkumar, Alagamuthu; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kathannan; Mustaqahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan; Dharwadkar, Shanwaz N; Sasikala, Keshavarao; Cho, Ssang-Goo

    2013-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) result from the incomplete combustion of natural or synthetic organic materials. The working environment at a coke plant can negatively affect the employed workers who were exposed to coke oven emissions containing PAHs, which formed and released into the environment by the process of pyrolysis of coke. This study aims to analyze the relationship between the exposure of PAHs and the risk of genetic damages such as chromosomal alteration (CA), micronucleus (MN), and DNA damage (PCR-RFLP) in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 27 coke oven workers and equal number of control subjects. The exposed subjects and controls were divided into two groups based on their age (group Icoke oven workers under risk should be monitored for adverse effects of the any long-term exposure. PMID:24040626

  13. Thermal construction of hot coke oven%焦炉的热态施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓锋

    2014-01-01

    Coke oven project quality influenced by various factors , the most important including ma-sonry, oven, hot production and production .The importance of construction quality of coke oven tem-perature is not inferior to coke oven masonry and oven .The construction of hot construction site and technical solutions were presented , and provide reference for the future construction of coke oven .%焦炉工程质量受到多方面因素的影响,最重要的包括砌筑、烘炉、热态施工和开工生产这几个因素。其中,焦炉热态施工质量的重要性不次于焦炉的砌筑和烘炉。介绍热态施工的施工点和技术方案,为今后焦炉的施工提供参考。

  14. Gasification characteristics of coke and mixture with coal in an entrained-flow gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    See Hoon Lee; Sang Jun Yoon; Ho Won Ra; Young Il Son; Jai Chang Hong; Jae Goo Lee [Korean Institute of Energy Research, Taejon (Republic of Korea). Gasification Research Group

    2010-08-15

    To enhance clean energy utilization and reduce greenhouse gases, various gasification technologies have been developed in the world. The gasification characteristics, such as syngas flow rate, compositions, cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, of petroleum coke and mixture of petroleum coke and lignite were investigated in a 1 T/d entrained-flow gasifier (ID. 0.2 m x height 1.7 m) with quencher as a syngas cooler. CO concentration was 31-42 vol% and H{sub 2} concentration was almost 22 vol% in the gasification experiments of petroleum coke. In the case of mixture of petroleum coke and lignite, CO concentration was 37-47 vol% and H{sub 2} concentration was almost 25 vol% due to synergy effect. The gasification of mixture resulted in higher syngas heating value and cold gas efficiency because of the higher H{sub 2} and CO composition in syngas.

  15. Fe-Si droplets associated with graphite on blast furnace coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornostayev, Stanislav S.; Fabritius, Timo M. J.; Kerkkonen, Olavi; Härkki, Jouko J.

    2012-06-01

    Fe-Si droplets on the surface of blast furnace (BF) coke from 25 to 50 cm at the tuyere level are mostly composed of Fe3Si, which has various shapes (round, elongated, and irregular) and penetration degrees into the BF coke matrix. The shapes and penetration degrees may depend on the saturation of molten iron by silicon during interaction with the coke matrix. The droplets are covered by a tiny shell of carbon. Graphite observed inside the droplets can be divided into two categories: well-formed tabular crystals with relatively large size and flakes with structures similar as those in cast iron. The textures of the droplets reflect composition, interaction with the coke matrix, and cooling conditions.

  16. Gasification characteristics of coke and mixture with coal in an entrained-flow gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, See Hoon; Yoon, Sang Jun; Ra, Ho Won; Son, Young Il; Hong, Jai Chang; Lee, Jae Goo [Gasification Research Group, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 71-2 Jang-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-08-15

    To enhance clean energy utilization and reduce greenhouse gases, various gasification technologies have been developed in the world. The gasification characteristics, such as syngas flow rate, compositions, cold gas efficiency and carbon conversion, of petroleum coke and mixture of petroleum coke and lignite were investigated in a 1 T/d entrained-flow gasifier (I.D. 0.2 m x height 1.7 m) with quencher as a syngas cooler. CO concentration was 31-42 vol% and H{sub 2} concentration was almost 22 vol% in the gasification experiments of petroleum coke. In the case of mixture of petroleum coke and lignite, CO concentration was 37-47 vol% and H{sub 2} concentration was almost 25 vol% due to synergy effect. The gasification of mixture resulted in higher syngas heating value and cold gas efficiency because of the higher H{sub 2} and CO composition in syngas. (author)

  17. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79, equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1, and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1. The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distribution of calcined petroleum coke, the calcined petroleum coke temperature at heat exchanger outlet, the average heat transfer coefficient, and the heat recovery efficiency were studied. It can also be used in deriving much needed data for heat exchanger designs when employed in industry.

  18. Morphological classification of coke formed from the Castilla and Jazmin crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A morphological classification of cokes from the Castilla and Jazmin Colombian crude oils was completed. These heavy-nature crude oils, after being fractioned during the refining stages, were physicochemical characterized and submitted to the coking process. The conclusions of this work are based on the characterization of the feedstock chemical composition according to the type of aromatic carbon. UV visible spectrophotometry and the corresponding micrographs obtained by a Scan Electron Microscope (SEM), in amplification intervals from 100X to 5000X for the samples of formed cokes, were analyzed. Results of this work allowed the determination of the morphological classification intervals in function of the polyaromatic compound concentration ratio (tetraromatic/triaromatic, and diaromatic/triaromatic) of the different coked feedstock. Furthermore, high content of calcium and sulfur in the feedstock promotes morphologies of the associated - shot type

  19. Influence of carbonization conditions on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Qiao; Jianjun Wu; Jingru Zu; Zhiyuan Gao; Guoli Zhou

    2009-07-01

    There are few studies on coke's micro-pore structure in recent years, however, micro-pore structure of foundry coke determines its macroscopically quality index and reactivity in cupola furnace. Effect of such factors on micro-pore structure were investigated under different carbonization conditions with certain ratio of raw materials and material forming process in this article as charging temperature (A); braised furnace time (B); heating rate of the first stage (C)and the second stage (D) and holding time of ultimate temperature (E). Research showed that charging temperature was the most influential factor on the coke porosity, pore volume, pore size and specific surface area. It is suggested that formation of plastic mass and releasing rate of volatile during carbonization period are two main factors on microstructure of foundry coke while charging temperature contributes most to the above factors. 6 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  20. Significance of a mathematical model of solid fuel carbonization in analysis of coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S.

    1985-05-01

    Use of mathematical models of coal coking in conventional coke ovens is evaluated. General conditions for construction of mathematical models are characterized. A mathematical model developed at the Institute for Thermal Engineering of the Silesian Technical Institute in Gliwice is analyzed. The model describes physical and chemical phenomena which occur in a large-volume coke chamber, in its walls and in flue channels. The model is solved using computer calculations. A block scheme of a computer program is given. Three iteration loops used in the program are characterized: inner iteration loop, the middle (time) loop, and major iteration loop. Practical recommendations for use of mathematical models of coal coking are made. 12 references.

  1. The impact of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition in heavy oil hydroprocessing catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui

    Coke deposition in heavy oil catalytic hydroprocessing remains a serious problem. The influence of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition is an important but unresolved question. A model heavy oil system (Athabasca vacuum bottoms (ABVB) + decane) and a commercial heavy oil hydrotreating catalyst (NiMo/gamma-Al 2O3) were employed to study the impact of multiphase behaviour on coke deposition. The model heavy oil mixture exhibits low-density liquid + vapour (L1V), high-density liquid + vapour (L2V), as well as low-density liquid + high-density liquid + vapour (L1L2V) phase behaviour at a typical hydroprocessing temperature (380°C). The L2 phase only arises for the ABVB composition range from 10 to 50 wt %. The phase behaviour undergoes transitions from V to L2V, to L1L2V, to L1V with increasing ABVB compositions at the pressure examined. The addition of hydrogen into the model heavy oil mixtures at a fixed mass ratio (0.0057:1) does not change the phase behaviour significantly, but shifts the phase regions and boundaries vertically from low pressure to high pressure. In the absence of hydrogen, the carbon content, surface area and pore volume losses for catalyst exposed to the L1 phase are greater than for the corresponding L2 phase despite a higher coke precursor concentration in L2 than in L1. By contrast, in the presence of hydrogen, the carbon content, surface area and pore volume losses for the catalyst exposed to the L2 phase are greater than for the corresponding L1 phase. The higher hydrogen concentration in L1 appears to reverse the observed results. In the presence of hydrogen, L2 was most closely associated with coke deposition, L1 less associated with coke deposition, and V least associated with coke deposition. Coke deposition is maximized in the phase regions where the L2 phase arises. This key result is inconsistent with expectation and coke deposition models where the extent of coke deposition, at otherwise fixed reaction conditions, is asserted to

  2. Temperature-programmed oxidation of coked noble metal catalysts after autothermal reforming of n-hexadecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, E.I.; Linnekoski, J.A.; Krause, A.O.I.; Veringa Niemelae, M.K. [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Research Group Industrial Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kaila, R.K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1001, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexadecane was carried out on zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic noble metal (Rh, Pt) catalysts at 600, 700, and 800 C. After ATR, the reactivity of coke deposits (2.8-9.9 wt%) on the catalysts was investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Analysis of the results obtained from ATR and TPO experiments at various temperatures and on the different catalysts gave information on the reaction conditions where the detrimental coke can be minimized and allows estimating the nature of carbon deposits. H{sub 2} production increased with temperature on the tested Rh-containing catalysts and the ZrO{sub 2} support, but decreased as a function of temperature on the Pt catalyst. The formation of coke was least at 800 C, evidently due to the intensifying reaction of carbon and steam with increasing temperature, as well as to the better activity of the catalysts. The amount of coke formed was highest at 700 C. Comparison of the TPO profiles obtained for the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts with the bimetallic RhPt revealed differences in the nature of carbon deposits on their surface. At 600 C, the coke formed on the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts was located mostly on the support, whereas on the bimetallic RhPt catalyst the formation of this type of coke was suppressed. The bimetallic RhPt catalyst also exhibited better tolerance toward coking at 700 C. Therefore, although the selectivity toward hydrogen was not related to the amount of coke formed, the deactivation patterns differed on the mono- and bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  3. Using Lymphocyte and Plasma Hsp70 as Biomarkers for Assessing Coke Oven Exposure among Steel Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaobo; Zheng, Jinping; Bai, Yun; Tian, Fengjie; Yuan, Jing; Sun, Jianya; Liang, Huashan; Guo, Liang; Tan, Hao; Chen, Weihong; Tanguay, Robert M.; Wu, Tangchun

    2007-01-01

    Background Hsp70, an early-response protein induced when organisms are confronted with simple or complicated environmental stresses, can act as either a cellular protector or a danger signal. Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate levels of lymphocyte and/or plasma Hsp70 as biomarkers for assessing exposure response to complex coke oven emissions (COEs). Methods We recruited 101 coke oven workers and determined levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, urinary 1-hyd...

  4. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  5. Optical Microscopy and SEM Study of Pyrolytic Carbon Deposits from Coke Ovens

    OpenAIRE

    Barranco, Richelieu; Patrick, John W.; Snape, Colin E.; Wu, Tao; Poultney, Ruth M.; Barriocanal Rueda, Carmen; Díez Díaz-Estébanez, M.ª Antonia

    2007-01-01

    The presence of pyrolytic carbon deposits can cause a number of serious problems in the operation of a coke oven. The main objective of the investigation was to study the nature and characteristics of pyrolytic carbon deposits in industrial coke ovens, with particular emphasis on the nature of the carbon deposited adjacent to the oven walls. Study of the carbon deposits by optical microscopy and SEM showed a variable concentration of carbon entities as well as differences in packing density.

  6. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in British coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Brian G.; Doust, Emma; Cherrie, John W.; Hurley, J Fintan

    2013-01-01

    Background Workers on coke oven plants may be exposed to potentially carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), particularly during work on the ovens tops. Two cohorts, employees of National Smokeless Fuels (NSF) and the British Steel Corporation (BSC) totalling more than 6,600 British coke plant workers employed in 1967, had been followed up to mid-1987 for mortality. Previous analyses suggested an excess in lung cancer risk of around 25%, or less when compared with Social Class I...

  7. Relevance of the composition of municipal plastic wastes for metallurgical coke production

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi, Sonia; M.A. Diez; R. Alvarez; Barriocanal, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of the composition of mixed plastic wastes on the thermoplastic properties of coal, the generation of coking pressure and the quality of the resulting cokes in a movable wall oven at semipilot scale. The mixed plastic wastes were selected to cover a wide spectrum in the relative proportions of high- and low-density polyethylenes (HDPE and LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). From the results it was deduced t...

  8. Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk in a coke plant.

    OpenAIRE

    Assennato, G; Ferri, G M; Tockman, M S; Poirier, M C; Schoket, B; Porro, A.; Corrado, V.; Strickland, P T

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the association between an indicator of carcinogen exposure (peripheral blood leukocyte DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and an early indicator of neoplastic transformation (sputum epithelial cell membrane antigens binding by monoclonal antibodies against small cell lung cancer and against nonsmall cell lung cancer), a survey of 350 coke-oven workers and 100 unexposed workers was planned. This paper reports a pilot investigation on a subgroup of 23 coke-oven worker...

  9. Recycling of Coking Plant Residues in a Finnish Steelworks—Laboratory Study and Replacement Ratio Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Suopajärvi, Hannu; Salo, Antti; Paananen, Timo; Mattila, Riku; Fabritius, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Material efficiency is one of the most effective methods for achieving more sustainable operations in iron and steelmaking. Sintering and briquetting processes are commonly used in integrated steel plants to recycle carbon- and iron-containing residues back to blast furnace. In the Ruukki steelworks in Finland, a surplus of solid coking plant by-products is produced, none of which are presently utilized within the steelworks. In this paper, a novel concept for recycling solid coking plant by-...

  10. Functionalization of Petroleum Coke-Derived Carbon for Synergistically Enhanced Capacitive Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Jufeng; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-01-01

    Petroleum coke is a valuable and potential source for clean energy storage if it could be modified legitimately and facilely. In the present study, porous carbon with high surface area and abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared from petroleum coke by chemical activation and modification processes. The as-prepared carbon exhibits a high surface area (1129 m2 · g−1) and stable micrographic structure. It presents a high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance in KOH electroly...

  11. Electrochemical Oxidation Using BDD Anodes Combined with Biological Aerated Filter for Biotreated Coking Wastewater Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C.R.; Hou, Z. F.; M. R. Zhang; J. Qi; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Coking wastewater is characterized by poor biodegradability and high microorganism toxicity. Thus, it is difficult to meet Grade I of Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard of China by biological treatment technology; specifically, COD cannot meet above standard due to containing refractory organics. A novel coupling reactor, electrochemical oxidation using BDD anodes and biological aerated filter (BAF), has been developed for carbon and nitrogen removal from biotreated coking wastewater, f...

  12. Zeolite deactivation during hydrocarbon reactions: characterisation of coke precursors and acidity, product distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons over zeolites has been applied in large scale petroleum-refining processes. However, there is always formation and retention of heavy by-products, called coke, which causes catalyst deactivation. This deactivation is due to the poisoning of the acid sites and/or pore blockage. The formation of coke on hydrocarbon processing catalysts is of considerable technological and economic importance and a great deal of work has been carried out to this study. Th...

  13. Effect of thermal treatment on coke reactivity and catalytic iron mineralogy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byong-chul Kim; Sushil Gupta; David French; Richard Sakurovs; Veena Sahajwalla [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology

    2009-07-15

    Iron minerals in coke can catalyze its gasification and may affect coke behavior in the blast furnace. The catalytic behavior of iron depends largely upon the nature of the iron-bearing minerals. To determine the mineralogical changes that iron could undergo in the blast furnace, cokes made from three coals containing iron present in different mineral forms (clays, carbonates, and pyrite) were examined. All coke samples were heat-treated in a horizontal furnace at 1373, 1573, and 1773 K and then gasified with CO{sub 2} at 1173 K in a fixed bed reactor (FBR). Coke mineralogy was characterized using quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of coke mineral matter prepared by low-temperature ashing (LTA) and field emission scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (FESEM/EDS). The mineralogy of the three cokes was most notably distinguished by differing proportions of iron-bearing phases. During heat treatment and subsequent gasification, iron-containing minerals transformed to a range of minerals but predominantly iron-silicides and iron oxides, the relative amounts of which varied with heat treatment temperature and gasification conditions. The relationship between initial apparent reaction rate and the amount of catalytic iron minerals - pyrrhotite, metallic iron, and iron oxides - was linear and independent of heat treatment temperature at total catalyst levels below 1 wt %. The study showed that the coke reactivity decreased with increasing temperature of heat treatment due to decreased levels of catalytic iron minerals (largely due to formation of iron silicides) as well as increased ordering of the carbon structure. The study also showed that the importance of catalytic mineral matter in determining reactivity declines as gasification proceeds. 37 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Technique used for the unplugging of combustion gas and air ducts of coke oven regenerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bovi, R.; Giraud, A.

    1996-01-01

    After an overheating, gas ducts of two heating walls have been plugged by silica bricks melting. The ovens concerned have a bad distribution of temperature and operate with an increased coking time. Nowadays, the only repairing technique is demolishing the wall and operating a new cold rebuilding: but this is a very expensive operation. The Sollac Fos coke plant has done a hot repair, without demolishing, with a remote control sandblasting device associated with a video system. (authors). 4 figs., 1 photo.

  15. Improvement on coke cake center temperature measurement of 7m coke oven battery%7m 焦炉焦饼中心温度测量方法的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党平

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of traditional coke cake center tem-perature measurement and modern automatic coke cake temperature measuring system. As to the diffi-culties in coke cake center temperature measurement of 7m coke oven battery,it is recommended to adopt horizontal tube inserting method to measure the coke cake center temperature,which has been applied to large scale coke oven battery successfully.%分析传统焦饼中心温度测量方法以及现代化焦饼自动测量系统的优缺点,针对7m 焦炉焦饼中心温度测量困难等问题,提出横向插管法测量焦饼中心温度,并成功运用于大型焦炉焦饼中心温度的测量。

  16. Research on the application of large pilot coke oven in coking companies%大型试验焦炉在焦化企业的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    线葵娟; 龙晓阳; 金辉; 王旭; 徐申

    2015-01-01

    介绍了200kg试验焦炉的结构和配套设备,并与6m生产焦炉进行对比炼焦试验。结果表明,200kg试验焦炉所得焦炭质量与生产焦炉所得焦炭质量具有显著的线性关系,利用该关系可有效指导生产配煤。%This paper introduces the structure and corollary equipment of 200kg pilot coke oven. Coking experiments were performed to compare with 6m production coke oven. The result shows that the coke quality produced by the 200kg pilot coke oven has obvious linear relation with that produced by production coke oven. This relationship can be used to guide coal blending.

  17. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Removal of sulfur in coke oven gas by mixing ZnO-based additive into coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占成; 唐惠庆; 叶树锋

    2001-01-01

    A new technology for recycling EAF dust and removal of sulfur from coking oven gas was investigated. The new technology does not need to set up special equipment to treat COG (coke oven gas), and it is only acquired by mixing the ZnO-base additive into the coke coal. In the stage of pyrolysis of the coal volatile, ZnO of the additive combines with H2S, CS2, COS and C2H2SH of coal gas, forming ZnS in coal char. In the stage of coking of the coal char, Zn is gasified with S, then the gas Zn react with H2S, CS2, COS and C2H2SH, forming ZnS in coal gas and depositing as dust. After the collected ZnS dust was regenerated, it can be recycling as the additive again. The sulfur in coal gas can be completely removed if the mole ratio of the added Zn to the volatilized S is more than 1, and the sulfur in coke is also slightly decreased comparing with the coke without the additive. The EAF dust containing ZnO and Fe2O3 can be the base material of the desulfurizing additive.

  19. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  20. Automation techniques of coke oven moving machines; Kokusuro ido kikai no jidoka gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inayama, A.; Noguchi, H.; Shibata, T. [Kawasaki Steel Corporation, Tokyo (Japan). Chiba Works

    1999-12-01

    In a coke oven plant, four associated moving machines are used for coal charging, coke pushing, coke guiding and transportation. Except quenching cars, which are easy for automation, pusher cars, coal charging cars and coke guide cars had been driven by boarded operators respectively. Since 1994, Kawasaki Steel has been tried to realize the automatic no-man operation of the moving cars, including the pusher car that was considered to be difficult, at Chiba Works No. 6 and No. 7 coke oven plants. Consideration to the oven bodies deteriorated through the respective usage of 19 and 26 years, and preventive function to manual interruption during the detected light fault of equipment, are the key issues to achieve this goal in order to modify and improve the existing equipment. For automation techniques of the moving cars developed at Chiba Works No. 6 and No. 7 coke oven plants, the feature of the automation system and the current operating condition are described in this paper. (author)

  1. Effect of mechanochemical treatment on petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianhui Zou; Boli Yang; Kaifeng Gong; Shiyong Wu; Zhijie Zhou; Fuchen Wang; Zunhong Yu [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-05-15

    The effect of mechanochemical treatment during the grinding of petroleum coke on its gasification by CO{sub 2} was studied. An additive derived by drying the black liquor in papermaking industry is adopted in grinding process. Results show that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke is effectively improved by grinding, and the activation by wet grinding is more noticeable than that by dry grinding. Besides, by wet grinding petroleum coke and additive together, the active metal species in additive are not easily volatilized in gasification, and retain a high catalytic reactivity to the coke-CO{sub 2} reaction throughout most of the conversion range. Changes in crystal structure of the petroleum coke induced by mechanochemical treatment is related to its gasification reactivity. In general, the crystalline-amorphous phase transition is the tendency of long time mechanical grinding, while a crystal structure re-formation stage is observed after wet grinding of petroleum coke with and without additive for some time. Similar phenomenon has also been found in the reported data, but not given attention. Some discussion is made in the paper, and more work should be undertaken to disclose the mechanism. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Coke gasification: the influence and behavior of inherent catalytic mineral matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaela Grigore; Richard Sakurovs; David French; Veena Sahajwalla [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Bangor, NSW (Australia)

    2009-04-15

    Gasification of coke contributes to its degradation in the blast furnace. In this study, the effect of gasification on the inherent catalytic minerals in cokes and their reciprocal influence on gasification are investigated. The catalytic mineral phases identified in the cokes used in this study were metallic iron, iron sulfides, and iron oxides. Metallic iron and pyrrhotite were rapidly oxidized during gasification to iron oxide. The catalysts had a strong influence on the apparent rates at the initial stages of reaction. As gasification proceeds, their effect on the reaction rate diminishes as a result of reducing the surface contact between catalyst and carbon matrix because of carbon consumption around the catalyst particles; with extended burnout the reactivity of the coke becomes increasingly dependent on surface area. The reaction rate in the initial stages was also influenced by the particle size of the catalytic minerals; for a given catalytic iron level, the cokes whose catalytic minerals were more finely dispersed had a higher apparent reaction rate than cokes containing larger catalytic particles. Iron, sodium, and potassium in the amorphous phase did not appear to affect the reaction rate. 40 refs., 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. The forming of coke by catalytic cracking of black mineral oil by catalysts on the base of activated aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with an investigation in coke formation under black mineral oil reactions on oxide catalysts which care based on activated aluminium alloys containing 2-20% of active components of In and Ga. The coke yield is of extreme nature and depends on the content of active components in the catalyst composition. The application of thermogravimetric method shows that the oxidation of coke depositions after black mineral oil cracking proceeds in the same temperature range while after the steam-water treatment of coked catalysts the oxidation of coke deposition proceeds at higher temperatures with different temperature maximums which points to the inhomogeneity of coke depositions. It is shown that the catalyst phase composition changes significantly during the reaction under the effect of reaction mixture. 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Application of coke dry quenching technology in the production of the cleaning type heat recovery coke oven%干熄焦技术在清洁型热回收焦炉中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄岭

    2011-01-01

    对清洁型热回收焦炉熄焦方式进行了评价,指出干熄焦技术在节能、环保、改善焦炭质量以及经济效益上的积极意义。%By assessing the method of coke quenching technology of the cleaning type heat recovery coke oven,the positive significance of coke dry quenching technology in energy-saving,environmental protection,the quality of coke improving and economic effect was displayed.

  5. Impact of a semi-industrial coke processing plant in the surrounding surface soil. Part II: PAH content

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Roberto; Díaz Somoano, Mercedes; Calvo Díez, Montserrat; López Antón, María Antonia; Suárez, Sonia; Suárez Ruiz, Isabel; Martínez Tarazona, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Topsoil samples taken from different areas of a disused experimental coking plant were analysed in order to determine their polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentration. The variation in concentrations as a function of distance from the coking oven battery was studied and a reduction in PAH concentration as the distance to the coking ovens' battery increases was observed. Two exceptions are the area in the vicinity of the tar distillation section of the plant, with a strong contributio...

  6. The Evolution of Structural Order as a Measure of Thermal History of Coke in the Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Maria; Khanna, Rita; Ökvist, Lena Sundqvist; Sahajwalla, Veena; Björkman, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Investigations were carried out on cokes heat treated in the laboratory and on cokes extracted from the experimental blast furnace (EBF) raceway and hearth. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed to investigate changes in structural order ( L c), chemical transformations in coke ash along with comparative thermodynamic equilibrium studies and the influence of melt. Three data processing approaches were used to compute L c values as a function of temperature and time and linear correlations were established between L c and heat treatment temperatures during laboratory investigations. These were used to estimate temperatures experienced by coke in various regions of EBF and estimated raceway temperatures were seen to follow the profile of combustion peak. The MgAl2O4 spinel was observed in coke submerged in slag during laboratory studies and in cokes found further into the raceway. Coke in contact with hot metal showed XRD peaks corresponding to presence of Fe3Si. The intensity of SiO2 peak in coke ash was seen to decrease with increasing temperature and disappeared at around 1770 K (1500 °C) due to the formation of SiC. This study has shown that the evolution of structural order and chemical transformations in coke could be used to estimate its thermal history in blast furnaces.

  7. Formation of a Mineral Layer during Coke Dissolution into Liquid Iron and Its Influence on the Kinetics of Coke Dissolution Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.; Nightingale, Sharon A.; Mathieson, John G.; Nightingale, Robert J.

    2008-06-01

    The formation and development of the mineral layer that forms between coke and liquid iron during carbon dissolution has been characterized. Coke particles (-2 mm, +0.5 mm) were added to the top surface of an iron 2 mass pct C melt at representative iron-making temperatures, for periods of time between 2 and 120 minutes, before being quenched. The quenched samples were then sectioned, and the solidified coke-melt interfacial region analyzed in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Analysis showed that a mineral layer was present at the interface at all experimental temperatures (1450 °C to 1550 °C) from 2 minutes and persisted beyond 120 minutes. The mineral layer was found to be composed of calcium aluminate phases, with the proportions of these phases dictating its morphology. Further, changes observed in the rate of carbon dissolution from the coke were related to the composition and morphology of the mineral layer. The effect of this mineral layer on the rate of carbon dissolution has been interpreted as a change in the reaction control mechanism.

  8. 防止炉膛结焦和垮大焦%Prevention of Coking and Off Coking in the Boiler Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕哲

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the main factors affecting the boiler coking, these include coal composition and ash melting point,furnace temperature and the distribution of temperature field, air dynamic field ect.. So, the main measures to prevent coking and off coking in the furnace are control of coking coal into the furnace, improvement of the aerodynamic field in furnace, control of furnace temperature, prevention of the oxygen deficient combustion, the heating surface cleaning, ect..%本文主要叙述了影响锅炉结焦的主要因素包括:原煤成份及灰熔点、炉膛温度及温度场分布、空气动力场等,故防止炉膛结焦和垮大焦的主要措施包括:控制易结焦煤种入炉、改善炉内空气动力场、控制炉膛温度、防止缺氧燃烧、保持受热面清洁等。

  9. Mechanism for sludge acidification in aerobic treatment of coking wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the cause of sludge acidification that led to disruption of the activated sludge process treating coking wastewater from a steel-making plant in Taiwan. An activated sludge reactor (ASR) with a working volume of 80 L was used as a model system to simulate the behavior of the real wastewater treatment process. Parameters that may cause acidification or inactivation of the sludge (NH3, SCN-, S2O32- and CN-) were studied individually to examine for their effects on the performance of the ASR. The results show that high loading of NH3, SCN- and CN- did not lead to pH decrease, while the ASR attained 85% COD removal and nearly 100% SCN degradation. In contrast, when the wastewater was supplemented with ca. 1000 mg/L of S2O32-, the pH dropped to nearly 4.0 in 2 days and the COD and SCN removal yields were significantly lower (at 50 and 0-20%, respectively). Thus, overloading of S2O32- was apparently a key factor causing sludge acidification. The results suggest that to ensure a normal functioning of the activated sludge, the influent S2O32- concentration should be closely monitored and that the pH control of the ASR is indispensable when the S2O32- loading is in excess

  10. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie

    2008-01-01

    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  11. A device for removing gases during unloading of coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsura, V.A.; Matsegora, N.T.; Mikhaylenko, V.Ya.; Nayman, A.M.; Stepko, G.V.

    1983-01-01

    In the device for outlet of gases during unloading of coking furnaces, which includes a dust trapping hood, a collector for outlet of the gases with valves, a gas collecting chamber with openings on the side wall, which is located above the collector and has drives for vertical movement of the collector channels and a connecting branch pipe, attached to the dust trapping hood, in order to increase the operational reliability, the gas collecting chamber is fixed above the collector and is equipped with vertical partitions which divide it into sections, whose number is equal to the number of furnaces being serviced, the connecting branch pipe is equipped with runners mounted on its exterior surface (Pv) and interacting with the side wall of the gas collection chamber and the connecting branch pipe is attached to the dust trapping hood by means of shock absorbers. The device provides for continuous abutment between the dust trapping hood and the gas collector, which makes it possible to perform dust trapping throughout the entire cycle of coal outlet, including the time for fulfillment of auxiliary operations. The device is operationally reliable, since the shifting of the hood and the unevennesses of the solid wall along which the abutting device moves are eliminated by the compensators, which prevents failures.

  12. Development of dynamic combustion control system for individual coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwa, Yasuo; Konishi, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Kuwada, Fukio; Matsumoto, Kazutoshi; Inaba, Mamoru; Kawaguchi, Yasuhiro (Nippon Kokan K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-10-06

    Automatic dynamic combustion control system for individual coke oven was presented. The system was composed of such 216 electrically operated valves as fuel gas flow regulating valves and exhaust valves, a process controller to control or monitor the system, and a process computer to calculate the control variables for the valves according to combustion conditions. Supply quantity of heat was first corrected with the deviations between the measured value of flue temperature and that desired value at coal charging. Supply fuel gas flow rate and draft variables of the exhaust valves were then corrected considering fuel gas calorie, and the corrected valve opening variables were finally transmitted to the valves. As the operation results, the deviation between the desired and measured value was reduced to 7{degree}C at the control cycle of two hours, accompanying the favorable control of an air ratio. The reduction effect of heat consumption was estimated to be nearly 8Mcal/T from the reduction effect of flue temperature dispersion. 2 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Influence of properties of bituminous binders on the strength of formed coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Das, Bani P.; Tripathi, Prem S.M. [Central Fuel Research Institute, P.O. FRI-828108, Dhanbad (India)

    2002-03-20

    The role of different chemical characteristics (coking value, quinoline insolubles, elemental composition, {beta}-resin, toluene solubles) of various coal tar- and petroleum-based bituminous binders, such as heavy fraction of HTC tar, processed LTC tar, pitch and asphalt as also the mixed binder in controlling the strength of formed coke made from char prepared from non-coking Chirimiri coal and coke breeze (prepared after carbonising Jharia coal), respectively, has been studied in some detail. The objective was to investigate as to whether and how the properties of these bituminous binders govern the strength of formed coke. It is found that these properties of the binders do play significantly important role in controlling the strength of formed coke both during curing and carbonisation. These parameters of the binders are found to be closely related with their atomic C/H ratios. Notwithstanding the varying composition of the binders of different origin, be they coal tar or petroleum based, the atomic C/H ratio seems to be the most important characteristics of the bituminous binders, upon which the strength of formed coke depends predominantly. This also holds true when mixed binders were used. The results show that at a C/H ratio of about 1, the strength of the briquettes either on curing or on carbonising remains almost similar and that strong cured briquettes can be produced by using a bituminous binder with a C/H ratio less than 1, whilst for obtaining strong carbonised briquettes, binders with C/H ratio greater than 1 are preferable.

  14. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  15. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coking wastewater by a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Wenwen

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemical oxidation is a promising technology for the treatment ofbio-refractory wastewater. In this research, advanced treatment of coking wastewater which had previously undergone A/O (anaerobic-aerobic biological) treatment was investigated over Ti/RuO2 x IrO2 anode, stainless steel cathode and coke powder particle electrodes which were packed into the electrodes in a bipolar three-dimensional electrode reactor (BTDR). The results showed that the removal efficiency of COD and ammonia nitrogen increased with applied current density. The main influencing factors of BTDR were evaluated by an orthogonal test, including reaction time, plate distance, current density, plate amounts and aeration flow rate. With reaction time of 60 min, plate distance of 1.0 cm, current density of 20 mA/cm2 and plate amounts of four pairs, most of the contaminants in coking wastewater can be remediated by BTDR, which can then meet the discharge limit for coking wastewater in China. For organic pollutants, 12 kinds of organic pollutants can be completely removed, and the removal efficiencies of 11 kinds of organic pollutants are between 13.3 and 70.3% by advanced treatment with BTDR. We conclude that there is great potential for BTDR in engineering applications as a final treatment for coking wastewater. PMID:24350493

  16. Highly coke-resistant ni nanoparticle catalysts with minimal sintering in dry reforming of methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joung Woo; Kim, Chanyeon; Park, Jun Seong; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2014-02-01

    Nickel catalysts are typically used for hydrogen production by reforming reactions. Reforming methane with carbon dioxide, called dry reforming of methane (DRM), is a good way to produce hydrogen or syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) from two notable greenhouse gases. However, Ni catalysts used for DRM suffer from severe coke deposition. It has been known that small Ni nanoparticles are advantageous to reduce coke formation, but the high reaction temperature of DRM (800 °C) inevitably induces aggregation of the nanoparticles, leading to severe coke formation and degraded activity. Here, we develop highly coke-resistant Ni catalysts by immobilizing premade Ni nanoparticles of 5.2 nm in size onto functionalized silica supports, and then coating the Ni/SiO2 catalyst with silica overlayers. The silica overlayers enable the transfer of reactants and products while preventing aggregation of the Ni nanoparticles. The silica-coated Ni catalysts operate stably for 170 h without any degradation in activity. No carbon deposition was observed by temperature programmed oxidation (TPO), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy. The Ni catalysts without silica coating show severe sintering after DRM reaction, and the formation of filamentous carbon was observed. The coke-resistant Ni catalyst is potentially useful in various hydrocarbon transformations. PMID:24402833

  17. Experimental study on catalytic steam gasification of natural coke in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Changsui; Lin, Liangsheng; Pang, Keliang; Xiang, Wenguo; Chen, Xiaoping [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096, Jiangsu (China)

    2010-08-15

    The gasification characteristics of natural coke from Peicheng mine with steam were investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. The effects of catalyst type, composition and dosage of catalyst on the yield, components and heating value of product gas, and carbon conversion rate were examined. The results show that fluidized bed gasification technology is an effective way to gasify natural coke. Also the results indicate that individual addition of K-, Ca-, Fe-, Ni-based catalyst effectively increases the gasification reaction rate of the natural coke samples. With the increase in catalyst dosage, the yield and heating value of product gas per hour increase obviously, and carbon conversion rate is improved substantially. Each of aforementioned catalysts has similar catalytic effect and trend, among which the effect of Ca-based catalyst is a little weaker. The optimum metal atom ratio of mixed catalyst is Fe/Ni/others 35/55/10, and the mixed catalyst displays maximum catalytic performance when the catalyst dosage in the natural coke is about 4%. The experimental findings provide an interesting reference for large-scale development and utilization of natural coke. (author)

  18. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  19. Coking wastewater increases micronucleus frequency in mouse in vivo via oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Na; Li, Hongyan; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2013-10-01

    Coking wastewater has caused serious health risk in coal-producing areas of China, however its toxic effects have not been well understood. The genotoxicity induced by coking wastewater on mice in vivo and its possible oxidative mechanisms were investigated via observing the induction of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes of mouse bone marrow, and subsequently determining the antioxidative enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase Cu, Zn-SOD, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and catalase), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance contents and protein carbonyl levels in brains and livers of mice. Results showed that the tested coking wastewater caused a significant increase of micronucleus frequencies in a concentration-dependent manner. Also, the sample increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation levels, which was accompanied by changes in antioxidative status. Interestingly, pre-treatment with an antioxidant (vitamin C) led to a statistical reduction in the micronucleus frequency caused by coking wastewater. This implies that coking wastewater induces evident genetic damage in mammalian cells, and exposure to polluted areas might pose a potential genotoxic risk to human beings; in the process, oxidative stress played a crucial role. PMID:24494500

  20. Measurement of coke oven combustion chamber temperature distribution and operational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Katayama, A.; Okui, N.; Takase, S.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of temperature distribution at the walls of a coke oven combustion chamber have been made under a variety of operating conditions using specially developed apparatus incorporating a radiation thermometer. Analysis of the relation between the measured temperature distributions and the quality of the product coke has yielded the following conclusions. 1) Firstly, it was confirmed that the temperature sensing probe used is an extremely effective means of measuring combustion chamber wall temperatures. The probe comprises a water-cooled, triple tube into which the radiation thermometer is fitted. 2) A qualitative relation holds between operating conditions and wall temperature distribution in the vertical direction. In other words, a guide to the improvement of temperature distribution has been obtained. 3) The quality of coke in the upper part of the oven tends to be poorer in coke ovens with single-stage burners. It was shown that a basic level of coke quality can be guaranteed by controlling the temperature in the upper oven. 8 references.

  1. Automatic combustion control in coke oven plants; Controle automatico de combustao em baterias de coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Afonso E.; Bissoli, Aluizio R.; Clemente, Jose M.; Oliveira, Jorge M. de; Alves, Marcelo T.; Silva, Mauro R. da [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao (CST), Serra, ES (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    The Automatic Combustion Control of the three Coke Ovens Plants of CST had its first stage started in january 1996, when the Visual Inspection of the Coking End Point was replaced by the Automatic Detection with a Process Computer and thermocouples in the ascension pipes of the 147 ovens. Monitoring is performed in the operations of charging, leveling, discharging, guiding and moving of the 12 movable machines (charging car, discharging car, guide car and locomotive), and safe integrated functioning among these machines is done, using one Plc in each one. The data from each oven are transmitted to the Process Computer by radio waves. Based on temperatures reached by thermocouples installed in the combustion chambers of 10 walls in each coke oven plant, and the automatic detection of weight and moisture of the coal, the Process Computer performs the calculation of the Set Point of the temperature for each coke oven plant. The mathematical model in the Process Computer is responsible for this result and the value is sent to the Plc, in the operation room, in order to control the rate of combustible gas, The cooking time is controlled by this method and the results of coke production are in the target range. (author) 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. 焦炉顶装改捣固后工艺及焦炭质量对比%Comparison of the process and coke quality for modifying top charging coke oven battery to stamp charging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力辉

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the change of process and coke quality after modifying the 4. 3m top charging coke oven battery to stamp charging. After the modification, the coke yield has almost remained same as before,while the coke strength at cold and hot conditions has increased,and the coke screening has been improved,the metallurgical coke rate could be increased by 2. 5%,coke nut yield has been reduced by 1. 5%,and coke breeze yield has been reduced by 0. 5%.%介绍了4.3m焦炉顶装改造为捣固生产后工艺和焦炭质量的变化,由顶装改造为捣固生产后,产量基本保持不变,焦炭的冷热态强度提高,焦炭筛分改善,冶金焦率可以提高2.5%,焦丁产率降低1.5%,焦末产率降低0.5%。

  3. Failure analysis of the impellers of coke plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souvik Das

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premature failure of the impeller blade of coke plant has been investigated. The component functioned during the CGC gas intake cycle. The component rotates at 1480 rpm with a volumetric flow of 720 m3/min of flue gas with temperature about 200–300 °C. The failed component reveals exposed surface of a crack that extended slightly beyond the assembly weld. From macro-structural observation under-filled region in welding is observed which is detrimental because it acts as a stress concentration site. The microstructure from the weld zone showed severe intergranular corrosion degradation. Micro cracks and cracks have been observed at several locations, mostly originating from the weld zone. From the EDS analysis of the failed sample it is observed that there is a deposition of Cr along the grain boundary. From the mode of failure it indicates that probable reason for the premature failure is due to sensitization of the component. In this case, the precipitation of chromium carbides may be occurred during welding operation when the heat affected zone (HAZ experiences a particular temperature range (550–850 °C. From the microstructure it is observed that the welding operation was not proper and there is every chance that there is heat generation in around sensitization range leading to precipitation of chromium carbides consumed the alloying element – chromium from a narrow band along the grain boundary and this makes the zone anodic to the unaffected grains. The chromium depleted zone becomes the preferential path for corrosion attack or crack propagation if under tensile stress. Thus it leads to premature failure of the component during service.

  4. Research on Loading Attachment of One Set Coke Dry Quenching System Applied to Various Types of Coke Ovens%适应不同型式焦炉干熄焦系统装入装置的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建锋; 赫占坤; 王涛

    2013-01-01

    Designs of the coke-loading connector and the seal mechanism of one set coke dry quenching applied to various types of coke ovens have been described respectively .Successful research on loading attachment of one set coke dry quenching applied to various types of coke ovens could reduce initial investment of the device and implement energy saving and consumption reducing .%  介绍了不同焦炉炉型,不同型式焦罐共用一套干熄焦的装焦连接装置的设计,以及装焦密封机构的设计。不同型式焦炉干熄焦共用一套装入装置的研制成功,可以减少设备前期投入,节能降耗。

  5. Elevated Levels of Urinary 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, Lymphocytic Micronuclei, and Serum Glutathione S-Transferase in Workers Exposed to Coke Oven Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ai-Lin; Lu, Wen-Qing; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Chen, Wei-Hong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Yuan, Jing; Nan, Pei-Hong; Sun, Jian-Ya; Zou, Ya-Lin; Zhou, Li-Hong; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Tang-chun

    2005-01-01

    To investigate associations among occupational exposure to coke oven emissions (COEs), oxidative stress, cytogenotoxic effects, change in the metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST), and internal levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coke oven workers, we recruited 47 male coke oven workers and 31 male control subjects from a coke oven plant in northern China. We measured the levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in urine, micron...

  6. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES G-N

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. The report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Sp...

  7. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  8. Environmental improvements realized at United Kingdom coking plants measured by BCRA under the aegis of ECSC supported research study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antill, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    The use of dynamic dilution olfactometry to quantify odour emissions from coke oven door leaks, the correlation between odour and other emission parameters, modifications of door design which failed to reduce emissions, and improvements in practice and maintenance which did reduce them are discussed by reference to trials at Scunthorpe Works. Related studies at other British Steel coking plants are summarised.

  9. Differences in physical properties and CO{sub 2} gasification reactivity between coal char and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Y.Q.; Wu, S.Y.; Gu, J.; Gao, J.S. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-09-15

    This paper mainly investigated the physical properties and gasification reactivity of coal char and petroleum coke, separately at the high temperature pyrolysis (950-1400{sup o}C) with slow heating rate and pyrolysis pressure of the atmospheric pressure and at the pressurized pyrolysis (the atmospheric pressure to 3 MPa) with rapid heating rate and the pyrolysis temperature of 950{sup o}C. Some significant differences in those between coal chars and petroleum coke were found. The high temperature pyrolysis caused more easily the graphitization of petroleum coke than that of coal char, especially in the higher temperature range. The increasing pyrolysis temperature resulted in the decrease of surface areas of coal char and the increase of surface areas of petroleum coke. As the pyrolysis pressure was elevated from the atmospheric pressure to 3 MPa, surface areas of petroleum coke initially increased and then decreased, while those of coal chars presented an opposite tendency. The increasing pyrolysis temperature was adverse to the gasification activity of coal chars and was favorable for the gasification activity of petroleum coke. Also, the effects of the pyrolysis pressure on the gasification activity of coal char and petroleum coke were significantly different. The gasification activity of petroleum coke was obviously lower than that of coal chars, and even lower than that of the natural graphite.

  10. 77 FR 34012 - Foundry Coke Products From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 74775 (December 1, 2011). \\2\\ See Foundry Coke Products from the... FR 20788 (April 6, 2012) and accompanying Issues and Decision Memorandum. \\3\\ See Foundry Coke Products from China Determination, 77 FR 32998 (June 4, 2012), and USITC Publication 4326 (May 29,...

  11. Peculiarities of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in shoots of various species of acer genus in conditions of coke process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bilchuk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The research results on influence of the by-product-coking industry emission on starch and saccharose accumulation in sprouts of the Acer L. species are presented. The toxic ingredients of the coke production wastes inhibit the process of starch hydrolysis that provokes considerable decrease of the sugars content and negative influence on the plants’ winter hardiness are established.

  12. Experimental study on coke and heavy oil co-conversion process for production of light olefins and synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new process, coke and heavy oil co-conversion for production of light olefins (ethylene and propylene) and synthesis gas, was introduced in this paper. Following the technological principle of this process, light olefins and synthesis gas could be produced. Using a fixed bed as the reactor and coke and Shengli atmospheric residue as raw materials in the preliminary study of hot simulative experiments, the effects of operating parameters on the gaseous products components and produced coke were investigated. When the mass ratio of oxygen/steam/residue was set at 0.3/1.0/1.0 and the pyrolysis temperature at 800 oC, while the residence time lasted less than 0.5 s, the contents of light olefins (C2H4, C3H6), alkanes (CH4, C2H6) and synthesis gas (H2, CO) were about 24%, 28% and 37%, respectively. The SEM images of the produced coke on the coked surface medium from residue pyrolysis were observed, and the results showed that the produced coke was almost consumed with blown oxygen. All the results demonstrated that the coke and heavy oil co-conversion process (CHCP) could produce light olefins and synthesis gas together, and the coking problem could be solved effectively. Therefore, the concept of this process is positive and feasible

  13. New prices and profitability of production in the coking by-products industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barannik, A.G.; Akhtyrchenko, A.M.; Denisova, R.T.; Vecherova, V.V.; Kostenko, V.M.; Knyshenko, L.P.

    1985-01-01

    The profitability of coking by-products plants after 1982 and the production of basic products are analyzed. The introduction of new wholesale prices for coking by-products made it possible for the chemical industry to use accurate accounting methods to determine the profitability of specific products. In several chemical plants (e.g. Enakievskii, Kommunarskii, Avdeevskii, Kemerov, and the Rustavskii metallurgical plant) the profitability of specific products is borderline because of management and production problems. These plants must increase the organizational and technical level of their production and eliminate the unprofitability of a series of products, e.g. coal gas, raw benzene and the products from its rectification, sulfonated coal, chemicals, etc. In order to maintain an average price level for the production of the coking by-products industry, prices on specific items must be corrected.

  14. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin

    2014-01-01

    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  15. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  16. Influence of blending methods on the co-gasification reactivity of petroleum coke and lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, X.L.; Jia, J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Wang, F.C. [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2011-04-15

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influence of blending methods on the co-gasification of petroleum coke and lignite with CO{sub 2} using a thermogravimetric system at 0.1 MPa. The weight loss curves, XRD analysis, SEM images, BET specific surface area, were investigated. It was observed that petroleum coke shows a low reactivity because of the graphitic carbon structure, low catalyst content and small specific surface area. Blending with lignite can get a high reactivity. The co-gasification reactivity was significantly influenced by blending methods. Wet grinding is much effective than dry grinding. Long grinding time made lignite show greater BET specific area. And the sample in long grinding time has more association chances between petroleum coke and AAEM species. The co-gasification reactivity increases linearly with a rise of BET specific area.

  17. Incorporation of petroleum coke into red ceramic; Incorporacao de coque de petroleo em ceramica vermelha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, L.A. de; Monteiro, S.N.; Sanchez, R.; Vieira, C.M.F. [Laboratorio de Materiais Avancados - LAMAV, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: sanchez@uenf.br, vieira@uenf.br

    2011-04-15

    This work has as its objective the evaluation of the effect of incorporation of petroleum coke in the physical and mechanical properties of red ceramic. Compositions were prepared with 0%, 1%, 2% and 4 wt.% of petroleum coke incorporated into a kaolinitic clayey body. Rectangular specimens were formed by extrusion to fire at 850 deg C and 1050 deg C. The determined physical and mechanical properties were flexural rupture strength and water absorption. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy. The results show that the petroleum coke waste can significantly contribute to reduce the energy consumption during the firing stage. However, incorporations must be done in amounts around 1 wt.% to avoid deleterious effect on the water absorption of the ceramic. (author)

  18. Experimental investigations of ammonia adsorption and nitric oxide reduction on activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirko Ogriseck; Gloria Patricia Galindo Vanegas [Infraserv GmbH & Co. Hoechst KG, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-06-01

    In this work the enhancement of ammonia adsorption on activated coke has been investigated to increase the efficiency of the denitrification in the dry flue gas cleaning system located at Infraserv GmbH & Co. Hoechst KG in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The influence of loading temperatures and sulfur components content of the activated coke on the ammonia adsorption were studied. Additionally, urea was tested as an alternative loading substance. Increasing ammonia adsorption was observed by raising loading temperatures. The highest ammonia loading was possible at the highest temperature tested at 469{sup o}C. The activated coke loaded at these conditions, as well as the one loaded with urea, was found to have higher denitrification efficiency than that loaded at present conditions of about 114{sup o}C. The results of this study allowed the recommendation of possible measures to be applied in the plant to increase its denitrification efficiency.

  19. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  20. Clean utilization of high sulphur petroleum coke by circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic and environmental problems caused by inefficient utilization of residual high-sulphur petroleum coke resulted from oil cracking in Romania is discussed. A special research programme applying CFBC technology has been carried out in the Institute for Power Equipment, Bucharest. The results from both laboratory facilities and pilot plant are presented. The main operating conditions and parameters are pointed out. Data on quality and composition of petroleum coke, combustion efficiency, temperature range in different zones and flue gas composition at distinct operating loads are given. The results obtained will be used for innovative design of CFBC boilers based on petroleum coke. A project for implementing a CFBC boiler in one of the Romanian oil refineries is being developed. An analysis of technical and economic advantages of these boilers for energy generation is presented

  1. Mechanism of physical transformations of mineral matter in the blast furnace coke with reference to its reactivity and strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev; Jouko J. Haerkki [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Laboratory of Process Metallurgy

    2006-12-15

    Examinations of polished and dry cut sections of feed and tuyere coke revealed some possible mechanisms for the physical influence of mineral compounds on the reactivity and strength of coke. It was observed that rounded particles of mineral phases that are exposed to the pore walls and surface of coke at high temperature create an inorganic cover, thus reducing the surface available for gas-solid reactions. The particles of mineral matter that have a low melting point and viscosity can affect the coke at earlier stages in the blast furnace process, acting in the upper parts of the blast furnace (BF). The temperature-driven redistribution of mineral phases within the coke matrix probably leads to the creation of weak spots and in general to anisotropy in its properties, thus reducing its strength. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Decomposition of Organic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Ultrasonic Irradiation and Its Combined Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-qiu; JIA Jin-ping; WANG Jing-wei

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the degradation of the organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge. The influence factors of the ultrasonic degradation effect such as air atmosphere, initial concentration, ultrasonic power density and the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. A water quality model was used to explain the degradation of different kinds of organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by ultrasonic irradiation. After the wastewater was treated by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge, the COD degradation efficiency was 95. 74 %, which is 63. 49% higher than that by the process of activated sludge alone.

  3. Non-competitive market behaviour in the international coking coal market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, a primal dual programming model of international coking coal trade is constructed to test for non-competitive market behaviour. World trade in 1996 is simulated under perfect competition and various non-competitive market structures. Statistical tests are used to compare simulated trade flows with actual data. Assuming Cournot-Nash behaviour, an all consumer oligopsony market structure is preferred to alternative models. Under an all consumer oligopsony world coking coal prices and trade are lower than under perfect competition. Under an oligopsonistic structure welfare gains from productivity increases in Australian coal mines might largely accrue to coal buyers

  4. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    OpenAIRE

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke) of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas r...

  5. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M.; Hara, K.; S. Zhang; Hanaoka, T.; Pan, G.; Yamano, Y.; K. Takahashi; Tomokuni, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employ...

  6. Effect of Contact Resistance on Bulk Resistivity of Dry Coke Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidem, P. A.; Runde, M.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J. A.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Yu, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    Measurements show that bulk resistivity of dry coke beds decreases with increasing particle size. A further development of a coke bed model is proposed to explain this correlation. By image analysis, it has been determined that the total porosity increases with increasing particle size. An increased total porosity of the particles decreases the mechanical strength of the particles. In the modeling work, the strength of the coke particles is introduced through Young’s modulus. By the use of discrete element method (DEM) modeling of a dry coke bed, the particle-to-particle contact area variation with varying particle size and particle strength has been introduced into a model of the dry coke bed. This was done by the introduction of the concept of the Holm’s radius, known from metal contact theory for describing how the contact resistance is affected by the material resistivity and the contact area. By assuming a decrease in the particle strength due to increased porosity of the coke particles with increasing particle size, the calculated bulk resistivity for 7.3-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 1.0 GPa is 5.24·10-3 Ωm and 3.44·10-3 Ωm for the 20-mm particles with a Young’s modulus of 0.1 GPa. By comparison, the measured bulk resistivity of the Corus coke is 4.67 ± 0.30·10-3 Ωm for the 5- to 10-mm fraction and 3.71 ± 0.45·10-3 Ωm for the 15- to 20-mm fraction. The measured contact resistance of Swedish Steel AB (SSAB) coke decreases with increasing contact area size from a contact diameter of 5 mm to a contact diameter of 30 mm. This is probably due to an increasing number of electrical contact spots. When two spheres are in contact, the measured contact resistance is lower compared to the 5-mm-diameter contact, which indicates that the increased contact pressure has lowered the contact resistance. This supports the modeling results.

  7. Effects of mechanical activation on the carbothermal reduction of chromite with metallurgical coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Yıldız

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbothermal reduction of mechanically activated chromite with metallurgical coke under an argon atmosphere was investigated at temperatures between 1100 and 1400°C and the effects of the mechanical activation on chromite structure were analyzed by x-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. An increase in specific surface area resulted in more contact points. The activation procedure led to amorphization and structural disordering in chromite and accelerated the degree of reduction and metalization in the mixture of chromite and metallurgical coke. Carbothermal reduction products were analzed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS.

  8. Heat Transfer Characteristics of Calcined Petroleum Coke in Waste Heat Recovery Process

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Zheng; Yongqi Liu; Lichen Zou; Ruiyang Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the results of heat transfer characteristics of calcined petroleum coke in waste heat recovery process. The model of heat exchanger was set up. The model has been used to investigate the effects of porosity (0.58 to 0.79), equivalent heat conductivity coefficient (0.9 to 1.1), and equivalent specific heat (0.9 to 1.1). The calculated values of calcined petroleum coke temperature showed good agreement with the corresponding available experimental data. The temperature distri...

  9. "The Real Thing:" Nominal Price Rigidity of the Nickel Coke, 1886-1959

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Young, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    We report that the price of a 6.5oz Coke was 5¢ from 1886 until 1959. Thus, we are documenting a nominal price rigidity that lasted more than 70 years! The case of Coca-Cola is particularly interesting because during the 70-year period there were substantial changes in the soft drink industry as well as two World Wars, the Great Depression, and numerous regulatory interventions and lawsuits, which led to substantial changes in the Coca-Cola market conditions. The nickel price of Coke, neverth...

  10. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  11. Development of a combustion control system for Fukuyama No. 4A coke oven battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, H.; Hashimoto, K.; Inaba, M.; Yamamoto, R.; Hasebe, S.; Matsumoto, K.

    1985-01-01

    The simplification and improvement are reported for the combustion control system in use at the No. 5 battery and its application to the No. 4A oven battery at Nippon Kokan's Fukuyama Works. The improved control system includes the following features: new step-type control of O/sub 2/; enhanced temperature control in each oven; the use of CRTs as a man-machine interface (in place of conventional control and indicator boards); monitoring of termination of coking period and of coke pushing; and the preparation of temperature charts and gas component distribution diagrams.

  12. [Aerosol size distribution of organic carbon and elemental carbon on the top of coke oven and in the plant area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Peng, Lin; Bai, Hui-Ling; Mu, Ling; Song, Chong-Fang

    2013-08-01

    In order to investigate the characteristic of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in particles on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, the particle matter samples of five size fraction including or = 10.2 microm were collected using Staplex234 cascade impactor, and OC and EC were analyzed by Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH vario EL cube. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with TSP on the top of coke oven were 291.6 microg x m(-3) and 255.1 microg x m(-3), while those in the plant area were 377.8 microg x m(-3) and 151.7 microg x m(-3). The mass concentration of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in particles with size of coke oven. The mass concentration of EC in TSP in the plant area was lower than that on the top of coke oven, while the mass concentration of OC in the plant area was significantly higher than that on the top of coke oven. The mass concentrations of OC and EC associated with particles less than 10.2 microm in the plant area were far higher than those in the atmosphere of area where the coke plant is located. The OC and EC in particles, which were collected both on the top of coke oven and in the plant area, were mainly enriched in fine particles. The size distribution of OC showed a clear distinction between the coke oven top and the plant area, which revealed that OC in the plant area was more preferably enriched in fine particles than that on the top of coke oven, and the same size distribution of EC was found on the top of coke oven and in the plant area. In the plant area, the mass concentration of SOC and the contribution of SOC to OC increased with the decreasing diameter in particles with diameter of less than 10.2 microm. PMID:24191535

  13. Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in European coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, Glenn; Thoroman, Jeff; Schuman, Brenda; Käfferlein, Heiko Udo

    2014-12-01

    Biomonitoring is an excellent method for capturing the results of all exposures, regardless of route. Coke oven workers include certain groups that have the potential for high exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other materials. Biomarkers of exposure to these agents include PAH metabolites as markers of internal dose and carcinogen-DNA adducts as measure of effective dose. The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of these biomarkers in persons with different job duties in a modern coke oven plant. We report that the mean levels of 1-hydroxypyrene (1HP) and carcinogen DNA adducts in the exfoliated urothelial cells of coke oven workers are increased the closer a group of workers is to the ovens and highest in the top oven workers with average 1HP level of 11.6 μg/l and 22 adducts per 10(9) unadducted nucleotides. Both 1HP and carcinogen DNA adduct levels increased in supervisors, area workers, side oven workers, top and side oven workers, and top oven workers, respectively. These data are the first to demonstrate an increase in target organ genotoxicity in coke oven workers and a relationship with other biomarkers. Future studies will determine the identity of the DNA adducts, their correlation with 1HP levels and the relationship between levels in individual workers. PMID:25445007

  14. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission...

  15. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  16. Coke formation in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene by TEOM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederlof, C.; Vijfhuizen, P.; Zarubina, V.; Melian-Cabrera, I.; Kapteijn, F.; Makkee, M.

    2014-01-01

    A packed bed microbalance reactor setup (TEOM-GC) is used to investigate the formation of coke as a function of time-on-stream on gamma-Al2O3 and 3P/SiO2 catalyst samples under different conditions for the ODH reaction of ethylbenzene to styrene. All samples show a linear correlation of the styrene

  17. Blast furnace operating conditions manipulation for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahgat, Mohamed; Abdel Halim, Khaled S.; El-Kelesh, Heba Ali; Nasr, Mahmoud I. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute (CMRDI), Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    A comparative reduction behavior of wuestite samples prepared from iron ore sinter was investigated to find the optimum way for reducing coke consumption and CO{sub 2} emission in blast furnace technology. A series of wuestite reduction experiments was carried out using different gas mixtures. A correlation between the experimental results and real data of blast furnaces at Egyptian Iron and Steel Company (EISCO) was demonstrated in order to optimize the coke consumption inside blast furnaces. Different theoretical models were applied on real data of blast furnaces to calculate the effect of operation parameters on the coke consumption. It was found that the wuestite reducibility can be controlled and enhanced using certain ratio of H{sub 2} and CO gases. Such kind of enhancement decreases the remaining quantity of unreduced wuestite which descends to the high temperature region of blast furnace. The theoretical analysis of real data using certain values of H{sub 2} and CO shows that increasing the amount of natural gas injection in blast furnace of EISCO will decrease the degree of direct reduction of iron oxide and consequently will decrease the amount of coke consumption. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Coke formation in the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene by TEOM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Nederlof; P. Vijfhuizen; V. Zarubina; I. Melián-Cabrera; F. Kapteijn; M. Makkee

    2014-01-01

    A packed bed microbalance reactor setup (TEOM-GC) is used to investigate the formation of coke as a function of time-on-stream on γ-Al2O3 and 3P/SiO2 catalyst samples under different conditions for the ODH reaction of ethylbenzene to styrene. All samples show a linear correlation of the styrene sele

  19. 75 FR 11936 - USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration USS Clairton Coke Works, Clairton, PA; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of 1974, as amended, an investigation was initiated in response to a petition filed on June 26,...

  20. ANGULAR DISTORTION ALLOWABLE VALUE AND ASSESS METHOD OF WELD ON COKE TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A graph as the new engineering method for estimate the safety of bulging deformation of coke tower is proposed. Through stresses analysis of circumferential weld of coke tower and comparing the stresses produced by pressure with heat stress of steady state, residual stress, bending stress produced by both itself weight and wind loads, it showed that the stresses produced by pressure on the angle distortion are the main factor of equivalent stress of the combined stress. After comparing four kinds of stress controlling conditions, the relation to stress with depth of angular distortion, grade of curvature of angular distortion and half of region of angular distortion has been inferred. Graph of deformation allowable value of coke tower for different condition by angular distortion and half of region of angular distortion has been plotted. The five steps for its engineering use have been explained. The lighter the grade of curvature is, the larger of bulge allowance, may be, and the bigger of depth of angular distortion may pose too. For the coke tower with a popular structure of Dg 5 400 mm×28 mm, the result by graph is nearly more than the result of two formulas formed by other research, the error is less than 7.0%. But, the graph can be easily applied to different size of angular distortion.

  1. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  2. Water plasmas for the revalorisation of heavy oils and cokes from petroleum refining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, José L; Rico, Víctor J; Cotrino, José; Jiménez-Mateos, J M; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2009-04-01

    This work investigates the possibility of using plasmas to treat high boiling point and viscous liquids (HBPVL) and cokes resulting as secondary streams from the refining of oil. For their revalorisation, the use of microwave (MW) induced plasmas of water is proposed, as an alternative to more conventional processes (i.e., catalysis, pyrolysis, combustion, etc.). As a main result, this type of energetic cold plasma facilitates the conversion at room temperature of the heavy aromatic oils and cokes into linear hydrocarbons and synthesis gas, commonly defined as syngas (CO + H2 gas mixture). The exposure of the coke to this plasma also facilitates the removal of the sulfur present in the samples and leads to the formation on their surface of a sort of carbon fibers and rods network and new porous structures. Besides, optical emission measurements have provided direct evidence of the intermediates resulting from the fragmentation of the heavy oils and cokes during their exposure to the water plasma. Furthermore, the analysis of the mass spectra patterns suggests a major easiness to break the aromatic bonds mainly contained in the heavy oils. Therefore, an innovative method for the conversion of low value residues from oil-refining processes is addressed. PMID:19452916

  3. [Priority pollutants ranking and screening of coke industry based on USEtox model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tian; Du, Peng-Fei; Du, Bin; Zeng, Si-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Thesis aims at evaluating and setting priority to human toxicity and ecotoxicity of coking pollutants. A field research and sampling project are conducted in coke plant in Shanxi so as to complete the coke emission inventory. The USEtox model representing recommended practice in LCIA characterization is applied to the emission inventory to quantify the potential impacts on human toxicity and ecotoxicity of emerging pollutants. Priority pollutants, production procedures and effects of changing plant site on the toxicity are analyzed. As conclusions, benzo(a) pyrene, benzene, Zn and As are identified as the priority pollutants in human toxicity, while pyrene and anthracene in ecotoxicity. Coal charging is the dominant procedure for organic toxicity and priority pollutants include benzo (a) pyrene, benzene, naphthalene, etc. While coke drenching is the dominant procedure for metal toxicity and priority pollutants include Zn, As, Ti, Hg etc. Emission to rural environment can reduce the organic toxicity significantly compared to the emission to urban environment. However, the site changing has no effect on metal toxicity and might increase the risk of the metal pollution to rural water and soil. PMID:24720220

  4. Coke, char and organic waste behaviour in the blast furnace with high injection rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudenau, H. W.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Blast furnace operation with low coke rate, high amount of auxiliary hydrocarbons and use of nut coke causes a change in coke quality requirements. In particular, not burned in the raceway residues of injected substances (char and ash can influence the coke behaviour. Therefore combustion efficiency of various organic wastes with and without pulverized coal injection (PCI and coal char has been investigated under the raceway simulation conditions. Mixing of various substances improves their combustion efficiency. Study on coke gasification by carbon dioxide in the presence of char showed that with the increase of char concentration, coke strength reduction becomes smaller. The reactivity of char with CO2 is higher than that of coke. Therefore char is consumed preferentially. In presence of injected char, total pore volume in coke and its wear resistance were increased. Coke reactivity and microstructure in the presence of various kinds of ash has been studied. Many ash spheres were observed on the surface of coke matrix and its size was dependent on ash properties.

    La operación del horno alto con una tasa baja de coque, una cantidad elevada de hidrocarburos auxiliares y el empleo de coque calibrado, origina un cambio en las necesidades de calidad del coque. En particular, pueden influir en el comportamiento del coque los residuos inquemados en el raceway (cavidad enfrente a las toberas del horno de las sustancias que se inyectan (char y cenizas. El char es el residuo de carbón que se origina después que el carbón libera sus sustancias volátiles. Por tanto, se ha investigado la eficiencia de la combustión de varios residuos orgánicos con y sin inyección de carbón pulverizado (ICP y char, bajo las condiciones de simulación del raceway. La mezcla de varias sustancias mejora la eficiencia a la combustión. El estudio de la gasificación del coque por el dióxido de carbono en la

  5. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  6. Utilizing results of temperature measurements of gas combustion products in automatic systems for control of coke oven heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balanov, V.G.; Zbykovskii, I.I.; Korneev, Yu.A.; Reznik, M.G.; Goryushkin, V.F. (Donetskii Koksokhimicheskii Zavod (USSR))

    1988-12-01

    Discusses methods for control of gas temperature in heating systems for coke oven batteries. A mathematical model of temperature distribution in a heating system (flue channels) of a coke oven battery is described. The density of heat flux is used as a complex coefficient characterizing thermal conditions in a heating system. The coefficient is calculated on the basis of analyses of curves that describe temperature fluctuations of flue gases leaving flue channels. Design of a measuring system (thermocouples and thermal converters, site selection for measuring instruments etc.) is discussed. Practical use of the control system for optimization of heat distribution in the heating systems for coke oven batteries is discussed. 10 refs.

  7. JN60-6型焦炉降低炼焦耗热量的措施%Measures for decreasing coking heat consumption of JN60-6 coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘君红; 邱岳

    2015-01-01

    Based on actual production condition of coke oven,a series of measures were taken to deal with the problems of COG pipeline,resistance of coke oven gas main pipe,flow meter measurement and other factors affecting coking heat consumption. As a result,coke oven gas consumption was effec-tively controlled and reduced remarkably.%根据焦炉实际生产,针对焦炉煤气管线、焦炉煤气主管阻力、流量计计量及其他影响炼焦耗热量的问题采取了一系列措施,改进后焦炉煤气使用量得到有效控制,炼焦耗热量明显降低。

  8. Reducing Heat Consumption of Coking Production Practice of Tamping Coke Oven%降低捣固焦炉炼焦耗热量的生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一平

    2012-01-01

    捣固焦炉由于其特殊的生产操作方式,焦炉耗热量较高。通过实施原料煤质量、焦炉热工管理、生产操作等方面生产控制,为捣固焦炉炼焦耗热量的降低提供了有效途径。%Because of its special operation mode, tamping coke oven has higher heat consumption of coke oven. In this ifaper, through the implementation of raw coal quality, coke thermal management, production operations and other aspects of the production control for tamping coke oven, an effective way in reducing which provides were provided.

  9. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  10. BEEHIVE: Sustainable Methodology for Fashion Design

    OpenAIRE

    Morais, C.; Carvalho, C.; Broega, A. C.

    2014-01-01

    ISBN: 978 88 6493 027 5 The proposal methodology tends to close the “product fashion cycle”, defending the existence of a good waste management policy, so that the clothing are thrown away can be reused or recycled to come back again as material to produce yarn, fabric or knit. Subsequently these materials should be include in the production of sustainable apparel, whose design methodologies should be concerned in providing more durable garments and being possible to transform according to...

  11. Problem Analysis and Improvement in Stamping Coke Production by Transformed Top Charging Coke Oven%顶装焦炉改为捣固焦生产后的问题及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王即胜; 刘成雷; 常宇

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce production cost, Jinan Steel transformed three 4.3 m top charging coke ovens for stamping coke production. Because of relatively small shrinkage of the coal in coking process, imperfect transformation facilities, unreasonable operation and other reasons, some problems appeared in the production, for example, large coke pushing current, serious leaking of oven body and poor dedusting effect. By controlling the G value of mixed coal below 72, reducing the density of briquette heap, narrowing the width of briquettes and other measures, the existent problems were avoided or relieved. In view of different structure and production characteristics between top charging coke oven and tamping coke oven, caution should be taken in the top charging coke oven transformed to tamping coke production.%为降低生产成本,济钢将3座4.3 m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦生产。由于入炉煤在结焦过程中收缩量相对变小,配套设施改造不完善,操作不合理等原因,导致生产中出现推焦电流过大、炉体窜漏严重、除尘效果差等问题。通过控制配合煤G值在72以下,降低煤饼堆比重,缩小煤饼宽度等措施,存在的问题得到了避免或缓解。鉴于顶装焦炉和捣固焦炉不同的结构及生产特点,应谨慎考虑顶装焦炉改捣固焦生产。

  12. Study on Development Trend of Coke Oven Machinery%焦炉机械发展趋势分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔科佳; 房斌贝

    2016-01-01

    通过对我国焦炉机械行业当前的生产状况、产能等进行分析,结合国家在焦化行业的现行产业政策,对焦炉机械行业的发展趋势和市场需求进行预测,指出焦炉机械供应商应该采取的应对措施。%Based on the current production situations and capacity of coke oven machinery industry in China and the existing coking industrial policy of China, the paper predicts the development trend of coke oven machinery industry and the market demand and puts forward measures that shall be taken by the coke oven machinery supplier to respond to the market change.

  13. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  14. Performance evaluation of a full-scale coke oven wastewater treatment plant in an integrated steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Suresh; Vaidya, A N; Shivaraman, N; Bal, A S

    2003-01-01

    Wastewater generated during coke-oven gas cleaning operations in the integrated steel plant contains phenol, cyanide, thiocyanate, and also oil and grease. Although the activated sludge process is widely practiced for biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater, it was observed during the evaluation of performance of full scale coke-oven wastewater treatment plant that oil contamination and poor sludge settleability had resulted in poor maintenance of the activated sludge process. Keeping these aspects in view, treatability studies were conducted and an alternative treatment process is proposed. With these corrective measures the coke-oven wastewater treatment plant will give desired performance. In this paper we present results of the performance evaluation, data on treatability studies and alternative treatment process scheme. PMID:14723281

  15. SEM/AIA study of size distribution and mineral content of Athabasca oil sand and its coke residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry that has been used to characterize Athabasca oil sand (AOS) and various coked residues prepared therefrom for mineral phase and size distribution. The composite mineral particles were classified into ten particle size ranges. Increasing coking time caused an increase in the percentage of small particles of quartz and clay. The AOS is relatively rich in sulfur and iron; 6.17% and 0.173%, respectively. The micrographs of AOS show that the majority of the sand grains are not in direct contact with each other and that the bitumen forms a thin layer between the grains. For the coked residues, the sand grains were connected to one another by their coke bridges

  16. Comparative carcinogenic potencies of particulates from diesel engine exhausts, coke oven emissions, roofing tar aerosols and cigarette smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, R E

    1983-01-01

    Mammalian cell mutagenesis, transformation and skin tumorigenesis assays show similar results in comparing the potencies of diesel, coke oven, roofing tar and cigarette smoke particulates. These assay results are reasonably consistent with the comparative carcinogenic potencies of coke oven and roofing tar emissions as determined by epidemiological studies. The bacterial mutagenesis assay tends to show disproportionately high potencies, particularly with diesel particulates. Results to date e...

  17. Assessment of potential damage to DNA in urine of coke oven workers: an assay of unscheduled DNA synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Roos, F.; Renier, A.; Ettlinger, J; Iwatsubo, Y; Letourneux, M; Haguenoer, J M; Jaurand, M C; Pairon, J C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A study was conducted in coke oven workers to evaluate the biological consequences of the exposure of these workers, particularly production of potential genotoxic factors. METHODS: 60 coke oven workers and 40 controls were recruited in the same iron and steel works. Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was assessed by job and measurement of 1-hydroxypyrene (1OHP) in urine samples. An unscheduled DNA synthesis assay was performed on rat pleural mesothelial cells use...

  18. Correlation Between Toluene Environmental Monitoring and Biological Index of Urinary Hippuric Acid of Workers in the Coke Industry

    OpenAIRE

    MM Amin; Kalantari, A.; N BASHARDOOST; AR Bahrami; M. Rismanchian; Gh Mirsatari; Mansouri, F.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Toluene is an organic solvent that it is one of the byproducts in the coke industry. Exposure to toluene causes central nervous system dysfunction and others disorders. Many workers are exposed to toluene due to leakage from tracks. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the levels of exposure through environmental and biological monitoring of toluene Methods: Air toluene sampling of air inhaled by 36 coke oven workers was done by using activated charcoal tubes and per...

  19. Reducibility study of Rossetta ilmenite ore briquettes and powder with coke breeze at 800-1100°C

    OpenAIRE

    Abd el Gawad Hala H.; El-Hussiny N.A.; Wassef Marguerite A.; Khalifa M.G.; Soliman Aly A.A.; Shalabi M.E.H.

    2013-01-01

    Ilmenite ore fine and coke breeze as reduced material were briquetted with different amounts of organic materials such as molasses or pitch were studied in this investigation. The produced briquettes at reasonable condition were reduced in nitrogen atmosphere at temperature range 800 - 1100oC to determine the factors controlling the reduction and to determine the controlling mechanism. Also ilmenite ore fine with coke breeze were reduced at the same temperature range in nitrogen atmosph...

  20. Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Urquiza–Beltrán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke from Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kggasl/kgcoque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kggasl/kgcoque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kggasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kggasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kgcoque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kgcoque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

  1. Waste heat conducting system for side burner regenerative coke oven batteries with divided heating system. [German Patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiersch, F.; Strobel, M.; Schmitz, T.

    1980-08-21

    In the well known waste heat removal system for side burner regenerative coking over batteries with divided heating system both flues could be used simultaneously and equally. The flues in the longitudinal direction of the battery open into a common chimney foot connection at one end of the battery. They are individually connected via opposite groups of transverse flues to opposite groups of waste heat elbows of waste heat valves on the machine and on the coke side.

  2. Inhibition of coking and metal dusting on conventional alloys by using a nickel-tin intermetallic coating

    OpenAIRE

    Geers, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Coking and Metal Dusting are high temperature corrosion phenomena occurring at 400 to 900°C under highly reducing conditions with low oxygen partial pressures and high carbon activities. Coking is the catalytical deposition of carbon on steels or nickel base alloys. Metal Dusting is a rapid material loss due to massive carburization and graphite precipitation within the metal matrix, causing the loss of integrity. Both phenomena have been investigated for the last fifty years. Metals suscepti...

  3. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya

    2015-06-11

    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. Application of multivariate data analysis in the construction of predictive model for the chemical properties of coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajdak, Marcin; Smędowski, Łukasz

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a statistical model which can predict values describing chemical composition of cokes performed in industrial scale. This model was developed on the basis of data that were taken from the production system used in the one of Polish coking plant. Elaborated equation include quality parameters of initial coals that form coal blends as well as contribution of additions such as coke and petrochemical coke. These equations allow to predict chemical composition of coke, e.g. contributions of: sulphur, ash, phosphorus and chlorine within the coke. A model was elaborated with use of STATISTICA 10 program and it is based on factor and multiply regression analyses. These analyses were chosen from among few kinds of regression analyses. They allowed to develop prediction model with the required goodness of fit between calculated and actual values. Goodness of fit was elaborated with: • residuals analyses, • residues normality and predicted normality • mean absolute error • Pearson correlation confidence

  5. Prediction of the quality of coke obtained from vacuum residues by using spectroscopy infrared FTIR-ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, A. Y.; Rodríguez, N. A.; Mejía, E.; Cabanzo, R.

    2016-02-01

    According to the trend of the heavy crudes and high demand of fuels, it is projected a considerable increase in the production of vacuum residues. With the purpose of taking advantage of these loads, the refineries have been improving conversion processes for the production of better quality distillates. However, as increasing the severity conditions and the species content of resins and asphaltenes high concentrations of coke are obtained. To provide an insight into the quality and cokes properties, in this study fifty (50) coke samples obtained from vacuum residues processed under conditions of thermal cracking and hydroconversion were selected. Each coke was analysed in detail with properties such as fixed carbon, volatile material, ash, and calorific value. Subsequently, a characterization methodology was developed to predict the properties of cokes, by using partial least squares regression, and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) in the spectral range from 4000 to 500cm-1. The models obtained by chemometrics allowed to predict the quality of the coke produced from vacuum residues with reliable responses in short periods of time.

  6. [Preliminary investigation on emission of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs through flue gas from coke plants in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng-Cheng; Li, Xiao-Lu; Cheng, Gang; Lu, Yong; Wu, Chang-Min; Wu, Chang-Min; Luo, Jin-Hong

    2014-07-01

    According to the Stockholm Convention, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) are classified into unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs), and named dioxins. Coke production as a thermal process contains organic matters, metal and chlorine, is considered to be a potential source of dioxins. Intensive studies on the emission of dioxins from coking industry are still very scarce. In order to estimate the emission properties of dioxins through coke production, isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS technique was used to determine the concentration of dioxins through flue gas during heating of coal. Three results were obtained. First, total toxic equivalents at each stationary emission source were in the range of 3.9-30.0 pg x m(-3) (at WHO-TEQ) for dioxins which was lower than other thermal processes such as municipal solid waste incineration. Second, higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners. Third, emissions of dioxins were dependent on coking pattern. Stamping coking and higher coking chamber may lead to lower emission. PMID:25244832

  7. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies. PMID:25042296

  8. Novel carbon-rich additives preparation by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes for coke-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqing; Li, Xian; Xiao, Li; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Tong, Shan; Wu, Chao; Ashida, Ryuichi; Liu, Wenqiang; Miura, Kouichi; Yao, Hong

    2016-05-01

    In this work, two extracts (Soluble and Deposit) were produced by degradative solvent extraction of biomass wastes from 250 to 350°C. The feasibilities of using Soluble and Deposit as additives for coke-making were investigated for the first time. The Soluble and Deposit, having significantly higher carbon content, lower oxygen content and extremely lower ash content than raw biomasses. All Solubles and most of Deposits can melt completely at the temperature ranged from 80 to 120°C and 140 to 180°C, respectively. The additions of Soluble or Deposit into the coke-making coal significantly improved their thermoplastic properties with as high as 9°C increase of the plastic range. Furthermore, the addition of Deposit or Soluble also markedly enhanced the coke quality through increasing coke strength after reaction (CSR) and reducing coke reactivity index (CRI). Therefore, the Soluble and Deposit were proved to be good additives for coke-making. PMID:26871958

  9. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  10. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. PMID:24642484

  11. Functionalization of Petroleum Coke-Derived Carbon for Synergistically Enhanced Capacitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Jufeng; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum coke is a valuable and potential source for clean energy storage if it could be modified legitimately and facilely. In the present study, porous carbon with high surface area and abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared from petroleum coke by chemical activation and modification processes. The as-prepared carbon exhibits a high surface area (1129 m2 · g-1) and stable micrographic structure. It presents a high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance in KOH electrolyte. Even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A · g-1, the specific capacitance of the prepared carbon can still reach up to an unprecedented value of 261 F · g-1 with a superhigh retention rate of 81 %. In addition, the energy density of this material in aqueous electrolyte can be as high as 13.9 Wh · kg-1. The high energy density and excellent rate performance ensure its prosperous application in high-power energy storage system.

  12. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  13. Effects of three industrial wastes on kinetic characteristics of petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jian-hui; Zhou Zhi-jie; Dai Zheng-hua; Liu Hai-feng; Wang Fu-chen; Yu Zun-hong [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Institute of Clean Coal Technology

    2008-07-01

    Three industrial wastes including black liquor from papermaking industry, coal slag, and sludge were used as catalysts for petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification. The gasification kinetics characteristics with and without a catalyst were studied using a pressurized thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). It is shown that gasification rate increases with increasing conversion and then decreases after reaching a maximal rate for noncatalytic gasification, while decreases in whole course for catalytic gasification. The proposed normal distribution function model describes well the kinetic curve for both noncatalytic and catalytic gasification. The calculated activation energy of noncatalytic petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification is 197.7 kJ/mol, which is in accordance with the reported data. The activities of three catalysts are contributed to the content of metal species. The black liquor in papermaking industry rich in Na species has the best activity, and its gasification rate is six times as that of noncatalytic gasification. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. The total coking plant wastewater, the problem of its treatment and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyskrebets, A.M.; Kozenko, L.I.; Nikolaeva, N.A.; Ludyanskii, M.L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was made into the characteristics, treatment, and possible uses of the coking plant wastewater. Included were data on the volumes of wastewater from various processes in the coking plants. Also included were data on the contaminants of the various components and the total wastewater. Among other suggestions, it was recommended that all contaminated waters be kept from the storm sewer system. It was concluded that an increase in the coefficients of evaporation and treatment of the water with copper tetraamine sulfate would permit a decrease in the demand for fresh water and a decrease in the discharge from the plant. Also, it was concluded that a major obstacle in the use of the total effluent was mineralization. Seven tables of data were included in the work.

  15. Effluents of toxic and corrosion-active components at coke-oven gas combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various modes of coke-coal gas combustion are studied and dependence of concentration of nitrogen sulfur oxides and carbon monoxides originating in smoke gases on the air excess delivered to the combustion chamber is determined. The lowest summary releases of hazardous substances are achieved by the excess air coefficients α > 1.2 relative to modes of coke-coal gas combustion with smoke gases recirculation. The quantity of sulfur does not depend on the mode of fuel combustion and is determined by the total sulfur content in the fuel. To prevent the corrosion of low-temperature heat exchange surfaces it is necessary to heat up the feed-water up to the temperature exceeding the temperature of the coal gases dew point by 10-15 deg C. 10 refs

  16. Analysis of solid fuel degasification parameters and their effect on mechanical properties of coke obtained

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postrzednik, S. (Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Techniki Cieplnej)

    1990-09-01

    Analyzes the mechanism of fissure formation in a coal batch degasified in a coke oven chamber. Main factors affecting thermal stresses in the batch are discussed. Differential equations are provided. Shrinkage of coke in the 'after-plasticity' state was investigated at up to 1,000 C. Equations for calculating the shrinkage coefficient for various coal grades are provided, taking also heating rate into consideration. Graphical approximation of the coefficient is shown. Temperature gradient, solidification point, coal devolatilization degree and thermal shrinkage coefficient were found to influence thermal stress values. The most disadvantageous case is of a high temperature gradient accompanied by a relatively low solidification point and high shrinkage coefficient. Programmable heating is suggested in such a case. Four figures are shown. 5 refs.

  17. Formation of nitrogen-containing compounds during slow pyrolysis and oxidation of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.; Ohtsuka, Y. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The petroleum coke from a fluid coking process was pyrolyzed in helium and oxidized in 1% and 4% O{sub 2} and in air, with the aim to determine N-containing compounds such as HCN, NH{sub 3}, NO, and N{sub 2}O. The experiments were performed with and without limestone. NO was the major product during all oxidation runs. N{sub 2}O was formed only in air. In this case, N{sub 2}O formation was delayed when compared with that of NO. The addition of limestone decreased formation of HCN and increased that of NH{sub 3}, whereas NO formation was least affected. 36 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Comparative investigations of zeolite catalyst deactivation by coking in the conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    OpenAIRE

    Evensen, Kjetil Gurholt

    2014-01-01

    With large countries as India and China in tremendous development accompanied by a growing worldwide population, questions arise in how energy demands can be met in the post-oil society. The methanol-to-hydrocarbon process, catalysed by Brønsted acidic zeolites, constitutes an alternative route for the production of gasoline and other valuable hydrocarbons from feedstocks such as natural gas and coal. Catalyst deactivation by coke formation is nevertheless a big concern, and a better understa...

  19. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP) to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system...

  20. Choosing a coke-oven gas desulfurization system: a review of current technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P.A.

    1982-12-01

    Installation of coke-oven gas desulphurizing systems is primarily the result of air pollution control regulations. Although not currently profitable, operating costs can be minimized by choosing the technology most suited to the particular application. The Stretford Holmes, Takahax/Hirohax, Koppers Vacuum Carbonate, Sulfiban and Dravo/Still processes are discussed, together with criteria for economic analysis based on technical and by-product market evaluations.

  1. Estimation of individual dermal and respiratory uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in 12 coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    VanRooij, J G; Bodelier-Bade, M M; Jongeneelen, F.J.

    1993-01-01

    Twelve workers from a coke plant in The Netherlands participated in an intensive skin monitoring programme combined with personal air sampling and biological monitoring during five consecutive eight hour workshifts. The purpose of the study was to make a quantitative assessment of both the dermal and respiratory intake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Pyrene was used as a marker compound for both dermal and respiratory exposure to PAHs. The biological measure for the internal expos...

  2. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  3. Association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and genotoxic effects in coke oven workers

    OpenAIRE

    Siwinska, E; Mielzynska, D; Kapka, L

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Blood and urine samples were collected immediately after a shift at the end of a working week from 50 coke oven workers and 50 control workers not exposed to PAHs. Methods included: (1) biomarkers of exposure: urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (HpU), urinary mutagenicity by the plate Salmonella test with strains TA98 and YG1024 after metabolic activation, expressed as mutagenic rate (MR98 and MR1024, respectively), urinary cotinine; and (2) biomarkers of biological effects in peripheral blood ...

  4. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    OpenAIRE

    J. M. Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG) surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  5. Biological monitoring of workers exposed to benzene in the coke oven industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, L; Luck, R; Afacan, A. S.; Wilson, H K

    1988-01-01

    Workers in the coke oven industry are potentially exposed to low concentrations of benzene. There is a need to establish a well validated biological monitoring procedure for low level benzene exposure. The use of breath and blood benzene and urinary phenol has been explored in conjunction with personal monitoring data. At exposures of about 1 ppm benzene, urinary phenol is of no value as an indicator of uptake/exposure. Benzene in blood was measured by head space gas chromatography but the co...

  6. Equilibrium prediction of CO2 reforming of coke oven gas: Suitability for methanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Menéndez, José Miguel; Arenillas de la Puente, Ana; Menéndez Díaz, José Ángel

    2012-01-01

    [EN] A thermodynamic study of the equilibrium of the CO2 reforming of coke oven gas (COG) was carried out with the aid of Aspen Plus® software. The influence of various operation conditions (temperature, pressure, COG composition and CO2/CH4 ratio) upon different parameters (conversions, yields, outlet composition, carbon production, by-products) was studied in order to evaluate the suitability of the process for producing a synthesis gas appropriate for methanol production. It was establishe...

  7. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Abraham, Grégory; Gillard, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    International audience Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditio...

  8. Dynamics study on effect of temperature to Nitrous nitrification reaction of coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ming-jun; ZHANG Hai-ling; LU Yan-li

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic effects of NO2 - - N accumulation were discussed owing to temperature. In different temperature, a series ofvmax and Ks were found considering the relation between the temperature and rate of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N. The kinetics models, which reflected the conditions of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N in the treatment process of the coking wastewater, were built up. The characteristic coefficient temperature was determined according to Arrhenius.

  9. Health survey of former workers in a Norwegian coke plant: Part. 1. Estimation of historical exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Romundstad, P. R.; Ronneberg, A.; Leira, H. L.; Bye, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate historical exposure levels at a coke plant for all agents considered to be of importance for epidemiological studies of mortality and cancer incidence. METHODS: Time weighted average exposure (8 h TWA) was estimated based on personal measurements for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and carbonaceous particulates. Exposure to quartz was estimated relative to the concentration of carbonaceous particulates. These estimates were adjusted for the use of airstrea...

  10. Fuel Pyrolysis through Porous Media: Coke Formation and Coupled effect on Permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Fau, Guillaume; Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bouchez, Marc; Steelant, Johan

    2012-01-01

    International audience The development of hypersonic vehicles (up to Mach 10) leads to an important heating of the whole structure. The fuel is thus used as a coolant. It presents an endothermic decomposition with possible coke formation. Its additional permeation through the porous structure involves internal convection. This implies very complex phenomena (heat and mass transfers with chemistry). In this paper, the n-dodecane pyrolysis is studied through stainless steel porous medium up ...

  11. Beyond Thomas Mun: the economic ideas of Edward Coke, Francis Bacon and Lionel Cranfield

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Suprinyak

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes to approach the economic ideas which prevailed in England during the early 17th century by moving beyond the historical and analytical exegesis of the printed pamphlets of the time, and focusing instead on the intellectual perspectives brought to bear upon economic matters by three of the most prominent public figures of late Jacobean England: Lionel Cranfield, Francis Bacon, and Edward Coke. As civil servants, all three of them were directly involved in the formulation of...

  12. Coke precursor as an intermediate during the alkylation of isobutane/butene over a solid superacid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE; Wenhua; FU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    Alkylation of isobutane/butene was conducted on a Brφnsted-Lewis conjugated solid superacid. It is found that some hydrocarbons accumulated on the catalyst surface. These hydrocarbons, as called coke precursor, played an intermediate role at the initial stage of the alkylation before they lead the catalyst to lose its activity. The presence of the intermediate is beneficial to the alkylation between isobutane and butene, while increase the TMP content and TMP/DMH ratio in the products.

  13. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ...The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of an expedited review pursuant to section 751(c)(3) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)(3)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within a reasonably foreseeable time. For further information......

  14. Solid mineral fuels - coke - determination of moisture in the general analysis test sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The determination of moisture in the general analysis test sample is required to correct the results of certain analytical determinations, e.g. volatile matter and hydrogen, for the effect of water in the determination and to allow all determinations to be corrected to a dry basis. This standard specifies a method for the determination of moisture in the general analysis test sample of coke.

  15. Determination of reactivity parameters of model carbons, cokes and flame-chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Gjernes, Erik; Jessen, Thomas; Fjellerup, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Reactivity profiles are defined and measured with thermogravimetry for a dense metallurgical Longyear coke, a polymer-derived porous active carbon, Carboxen 1000, and three flame-chars, Illinois #6, Pittsburgh #8 and New Mexico Blue #1. For each sample it is found that the reactivity profile can ...... reactivity measure is used to rank fuels with very different structural profiles, at varying levels of burnout, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Keyword: TGA,Reactivity,Coal...

  16. The aquatic toxicity and chemical forms of coke plant effluent cyanide -- Implications for discharge limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide is present in treated cokemaking process waters at concentrations as high as 8.0 mg/L. In assessing options for managing the discharge of a treated effluent, the development and implementation of discharge limits for cyanide became a critical issue. A study was initiated to evaluate possible alternatives to cyanide permit limits at the US Steel Gary Works Facility. The objectives of the study were to: (1) evaluation the forms of cyanide present in coke plant effluent; (2) determine whether these forms of cyanide are toxic to selected aquatic organisms; (3) compare the aquatic toxicity of various chemical forms of cyanide; (4) identify if the receiving water modifies cyanide bioavailability; and (5) confirm, with respect to water quality-based effluent limits, an appropriate analytical method for monitoring cyanide in a coke plant effluent. The results of aquatic toxicity tests and corresponding analytical data are presented. Toxicity tests were conducted with various pure chemical forms of cyanide as well as whole coke plant effluent (generated from a pilot-scale treatment system). Test species included the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia) and Daphnia magna (D. magna). Analytical measurements for cyanide included total, weak acid dissociable, diffusible cyanide and selected metal species of cyanide. The findings presented by the paper are relevant with respect to the application of cyanide water quality criteria for a coke plant effluent discharge, the translation of these water quality-based effluent limits to permit limits, and methods for compliance monitoring for cyanide

  17. Raw materials inventory management for a Coke plant / by Christoffel van Dijk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Dijk, Christoffel

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of inventory management and logistics for a metallurgical coke plant at Mittal Steel, Vanderbijlpark Works , Gauteng, South Africa. Inventory management and logistics is a concept, which has shown considerable development in the post-World War II era. The concept of applying inventory and logistics as a business function initially emerged during the price wars era and evolved during the quest for quality era. Thereafter, business inventory and logistics had a promotion/marketing focu...

  18. Tried and True: Using Diet Coke and Mentos to Teach Scientific Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tracey Arnold

    2011-01-01

    Adding mint Mentos candy to a two-liter bottle of Diet Coke produces a fountain of soda foam that can reach 3 m high. A demonstration such as this can get a "Wow" out of most audiences, usually followed by a "Do it again!"--but can it be used to teach anything? The answer is a definite "Yes," and what follows is a guided inquiry activity that…

  19. Combustion reactivity of chars from copyrolysis of coal with coke-oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao Hongqiang; Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion

    1997-12-31

    The combustion reactivity of char from pyrolysis of Xianfeng lignite with coke-oven gas (COG) is related to the pyrolysis pressure and heating rate. Decreasing pressure and increasing heating rate enhance the char yields and combustion reactivity. The combustion reactivities of char from coal pyrolysis with COG nearly reach to that of char from hydropyrolysis, but lower than those of char from coal pyrolysis under N{sub 2}. (orig.)

  20. 关于开发薄炉墙焦炉的研讨%Study on development of coke oven with thin oven wall

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶小虎; 鲁彦; 秦瑾; 周向

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of thin oven wall of 6m coke oven battery to coke oven proper strength, coking time, coke output and power consumption.For coke oven battery with thin oven wall,after careful calculation and with suitable measures adopted,coke output can be main-tained,and at the same time,gas consumption and environment pollution are reduced.%研究了6m焦炉炉墙减薄对焦炉炉体强度、结焦时间、焦炭产量以及炼焦能耗的影响。经详细计算及采用适当的调节措施,选用薄炉墙焦炉不但能够保持焦炭产量,还可以减少煤气耗量和环境污染等。

  1. Effect of oxygen potential on sulphur dioxide activation of oil sands fluid coke and characteristics of activated coke in mercury adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) technology was modified for use in copper smelters in order to mitigate mercury and sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Elemental sulphur was captured as a co-product. The study examined the feasibility of reducing levels of SO2 using fluid coke in the copper smelter flue. SIAC properties were optimized in order to capture vapour phase mercury. Raw fluid coke samples were used to measure SO2 flow rates. Gas composition was varied to mimic concentrations found during normal operation of copper converters. Gas chromatography was used to analyze reactions products and to prove the hypothesis that mercury capacity is influenced by the oxygen potential of the activation gas due to changes in surface sulphur types developed from reduced sulphur species. Results of the study showed that oxygen levels at 5 per cent did not play a significant role in pore development. It was concluded that increased residence times contributed to reductions in SO2 and elemental S yields. 13 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  2. 焦炉熄焦车轨道的不停产改造%Coke Oven Coke Quenching Car Track Does not Stop the Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李峰

    2011-01-01

    Our four coke ovens put into operation one after another since 2006,had since put out car rail because design reason coke,rail base,rail fixed false loose,vibration,had been up and down was restricted by one of the bottleneck of the production,brougt a lot to the production security problems,frequent equipment accidents,maintenance cost was high,the health were difficult to maintain.For not influence production,focal car rail based out reform scheme choosing not to stop production maintenance way,six months time,the orbit transformation,the more obvious effects.%我公司4座焦炉自2006年陆续投产以来,熄焦车轨道因为设计原因,轨道基础松动,轨道固定不实,上下振动,一直是制约生产的一大瓶颈,给生产带来很大的安全隐患,频繁出现设备事故,维修成本高,现场卫生难以保持。为不影响生产,熄焦车轨道基础改造方案选择了不停产检修方式,6个月时间,轨道改造完毕,效果比较明显。

  3. Design and operation of the coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havili, M.U.; Fraser-Smyth, L.L.; Wood, B.W. [Geneva Steel, Provo, UT (United States)

    1996-02-01

    The coke-oven gas sulfur removal facility at Geneva Steel utilizes a combination of two technologies which had never been used together. These two technologies had proven effective separately and now in combination. However, it brought unique operational considerations which has never been considered previously. The front end of the facility is a Sulfiban process. This monoethanolamine (MEA) process effectively absorbs hydrogen sulfide and other acid gases from coke-oven gas. The final step in sulfur removal uses a Lo-Cat II. The Lo-Cat process absorbs and subsequently oxidizes H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur. These two processes have been effective in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from coke-oven gas by 95%. Since the end of the start-up and optimization phase, emission rate has stayed below the 104.5 lb/hr limit of equivalent SO{sub 2} (based on a 24-hr average). In Jan. 1995, the emission rate from the sulfur removal facility averaged 86.7 lb/hr with less than 20 lb/hr from the Econobator exhaust. The challenges yet to be met are decreasing the operating expenses of the sulfur removal facility, notably chemical costs, and minimizing the impact of the heating system on unit reliability.

  4. Biomonitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coke oven emissions and reproductive toxicity in nonsmoking workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Hueiwang Anna; Pan, Chih-Hong; Lin, Wen-Yi; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Taylor, Steven; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Zhou, Guodong; Diawara, Norou

    2013-01-15

    The objective of the cross-sectional study was to assess whether exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke oven emissions contributed to alteration of semen quality and sperm DNA integrity in nonsmoking workers. Nonsmoking coke oven workers from a steel plant in Taiwan served as the exposure groups (topside-oven workers for the high exposure group and side-oven workers for the low exposure group), and administrators and security personnel in the plant served as the control. An exposure assessment was conducted to determine both particulate and gaseous phase of PAH levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) levels. Semen quality was analyzed according to WHO guidelines. DNA fragmentation and bulky DNA adducts were measured to assess sperm DNA integrity. There was no significant difference in sperm concentrations, vitality, and DNA fragmentation between the exposed group and the control. The high exposure group experienced significantly lower percentages of normal morphology as compared with the control (p=0.0001). Bulky DNA adducts were detected in the exposed group that were significant higher than the control (p=0.04). Exposure to PAHs from coke-oven emissions could contribute to increased levels of bulky DNA adducts in sperm. PMID:23314003

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Petroleum Coke Calcination in Pot Calciner Using Two-Fluid Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jin; Huang, Jindi; Zhong, Qifan; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Jie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work was to establish a mathematical model for the analysis of calcining process of petroleum coke in a 24-pot calciner via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation method. The model can be divided into two main parts (1) heterogeneous reacting flow of petroleum coke calcination in the pot was simulated using a two-fluid model approach where the gas and solid phase are treated as a continuous phases; and (2) the standard turbulence equations combined with the finite rate/eddy-dissipation combustion model and discrete ordinates model were solved for the turbulent gas reacting flow in the flue. The model of the calcining process was implemented in ANSYS Fluent 15.0 (commercial CFD software) and validated by industrial production data. After the validation research, the model has been applied to inspect the distribution features of the temperature field in the furnace, the concentration field of residual moisture and volatiles in the petroleum coke, and the vector velocity field of gas and solid phases. This research can provide a theoretical basis for optimizing the structure and improving the automatic control level of a pot calciner.

  6. Effect of paste humidity on kinetics of carbothermal reduction of extruded barite and coke mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Jamshidi, S.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the moisture content of barite-coke paste on the kinetics of carbothermal reduction was investigated to understand the role of extrusion technique on this type of solid-gas reaction. The pastes were formulated using the typical natural barite and coke powders normally used in the industrial scale. 0.65 wt.% carboxyl methyl cellulose and different amounts of distilled water, ranging 24.3-34.4% were added to the mixed powders. The obtained pastes were then shaped by a laboratory extruder. The extrusion process was assessed by determining the total porosity of dry samples. The samples in the form of disc were isothermally heated at different temperatures in the range of 800-950 °C and the conversion of barite into barium sulfide was measured by the iodometry. The reduction data were analyzed by a modified kinetic model and the frequency factor and activation energy were calculated to evaluate the reduction mechanism. It was found that the moisture content of the paste significantly affects the active site density due to increasing contact surface area between coke and barite particles.

  7. The Effect of Sulfur Concentration in Liquid Iron on Mineral Layer Formation During Coke Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Michael W.; Monaghan, Brian J.; Nightingale, Sharon A.; Mathieson, John G.; Nightingale, Robert J.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of sulfur concentration in liquid iron on mineral layer development between coke and iron as coke dissolves in a 2 mass pct carbon-iron liquid have been investigated at 1773 K (1500 °C). The initial sulfur in iron concentrations used ranged from 0.006 to 0.049 mass pct. Key findings include that the two-stage dissolution behavior exhibited in the carbon transfer from coke to iron, as reported in a previous study by the authors, at low initial sulfur in iron contents, was also apparent at the higher values used in this study. This two-stage behavior was attributed to a change in the mineral layer density as a result of changes in mineral morphology at the interface. In addition to confirming the two-stage behavior of the carbon-transfer kinetics at the higher sulfur concentration in iron levels, after a period of time, a solid calcium sulfide layer formed on the mineral layer. The sulfide layer formed after approximately 40 minutes, and the proportion of sulfide in the mineral layer increased with increased experimental time and initial sulfur concentration in iron. It was usually found at the iron side of the mineral layer and was associated with calcium-enriched calcium aluminates. Thermodynamic analysis of this layer confirmed that the sulfide is stabilized as the mineral layer is enriched by calcium.

  8. Use of shungite rock in place of some coke for ferroalloy smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakhov, V.M.; Maksimov, Yu.S.

    1986-07-01

    A study is described of the feasibility of using Class III shungite (20-35% carbon content) for ferroalloy production. Heat treatment analysis of samples showed that separation of CO began at 1300 C and reached a maximum at 1550-1650 C. Trial production of 25% ferrosilicon showed that coke carbon could be replaced with shungite carbon, resulting in a charge composition of 20-5 mm coke, 70-25 mm quartzite and 80-20 mm shungite rock. Use of 3% and 6% shungite in charges reduced coke consumption by 10.6-14.8%, quartzite consumption by 3.5-6.9% and electricity consumption by 0.5-2.7%. Overall cost reductions were 5.8% in first period (3% shungite) and 1.8% in second period (6% shungite). It is concluded that production of FS25 and FS18 ferroalloys at ferroalloy plants in the south would require about 29 kt of shungite rock and lead to savings of over 400,000 rubles. 11 references.

  9. The effect of treatment stages on the coking wastewater hazardous compounds and their toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Zi-yang; Fan, Qing-lan; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Guo, Dong-sheng

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the change of hazardous materials in coking wastewater at different treatment stages (anaerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic/photo degradation, anaerobic/aerobic/ozone oxidation treatment) and the effects of them on the development of maize embryos and the activity of amylase and protease in maize seeds. Moreover the interaction of refractory organic matters in the wastewater at different treatment stages with amylase and protease also were determined in vitro. The results show that the biodegradable and the refractory organic compounds in the wastewater both can affect maize embryo development (germination inhibition rate is 19.3% for biodegradable organic compounds). As the treatment stage preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the development of the maize embryo (for germination inhibition rates change from 49.3% to 24.6%) and on enzymatic activity (inhibition rates change from 63.9% to 22.4% for amylase) decreases gradually, but the photo-degradation treatment to anaerobic/aerobic effluent can increase its toxicity. The changes in the ability of the refractory organic compounds to bind with enzyme proteins, combined with the analysis of the organic components by GC/MS, show that in the process of coking wastewater treatment no new toxic chemicals were produced. PMID:23022415

  10. Automation of the works over coke oven; Kokusu ro rojo sagyo no jidoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitayama, Y.; Saji, T. [Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-25

    As a recent trend on the coke manufacture, some requirements for environmental countermeasures and working environment improvements have become stronger. As a countermeasure against such requirements, automation of moving machines is cited. Recently, Kashima Iron works conducted automation of the works over the coke oven. Here is introduced its outline. As its basic concept, it was adopted following items; all coal waggons was renewed with manless operation, all works over coke oven were mechanized and became manless, integrated monitoring and controlling from central control room were conducted, simplification of system was conducted by the co-ownership of information with present automation system, and so forth. As a result, energy saving of the operators was established. As its system construction, in order to use effectively interlocks and information transfers with each moving machine, a construction to cooperate with the present system and to execute automatic remote operation of new equipments was built up. At present, some countermeasures have been examined mainly on improvement of unsufficient items in the program, and its automation ratio is above 99%. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weiling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm{sup -1} is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  12. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm-1 is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption

  13. Identification and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coking wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanhui; Feng, Chunhua; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Wu, Chaofei; Li, Ning

    2012-12-01

    GC-MS analysis was performed on the coking sludge from a coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to allow detailed chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The identification and characterization of the isomers of PAHs was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of their isomers with mass spectra databases or based on a comparison of electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of target compounds with those reference compounds. In total, 160 PAH compounds including numerous N-, O-, S-, OH-, and Cl-containing derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target compounds was performed in the selected ion-monitoring mode using the internal standard method. The total concentrations of selected compounds in the coking sludge samples from the anaerobic tank, aerobic tank, hydrolytic tank, and secondary clarifier of the WWTP ranged from 1690 ± 585 to 6690 ± 522 mg/kg, which were much higher than those in other industrial and municipal sludges. PAHs with four and five rings were found to be the dominant compounds, and diagnostic ratios of these compounds suggested that they had the characteristics of coal combustion and pyrolysis. PMID:23184371

  14. Development and Commercial Application of High-Platinum CCR Catalyst with Low Coke Deposition Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Aizeng; Pan Jincheng; Yang Sennian

    2007-01-01

    By means of selecting proper additives and optimizing catalyst composition and preparation procedures,a high-platinum and low coke deposition catalyst PS-Ⅶ for continuous catalytic reforming (CCR)without reducing its specific surface area has been successfully developed.This catalyst PS-Ⅶ was evaluated in a 100-mL pilot test unit.Study results showed that under the same reaction conditions the newly developed catalyst PS-Ⅶ achieved a 26%reduction in coke deposition as compared to the existing high-platinum CCR catalyst.This catalyst upon its first commercial application in a 1.39Mt/a CCR unit had exhibited good anti-attrition performance and good stability in terms of its specific surface area.Compared to the original CCR catalyst this PS-Ⅶ type catalyst could reduce the coke deposition by 27.32%when operating on feedstock with low potential aromatic content,along with apparent increase in C6+liquid yield,hydrogen yield and aromatics yield,which could grapple with the problem associated with the catalyst regeneration constraints after CCR capacity expansion to ensure the longcycle high-load operation of the CCR unit.

  15. Phenolic resin binder for the production of metallurgical quality briquettes from coke breeze: Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benk, Ayse; Coban, Abdullah [University of Erciyes, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, 38039, Kayseri (Turkey); Talu, Muzaffer [University of Gazi, Faculty of Art and Science, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    Phenol based novalac, resol and the blend of both resins were used as binders in briquette production from coke breeze. The effects of the amount of catalyst on the tensile strength of the cured briquette were studied. The results obtained have indicated that the highest tensile strength could not be attained unless the blend of novalac and resol was used as binder. The most suitable blend was the binder prepared from the hydrochloric acid catalyzed novalac of F/P = 0.5 and the N/P = 0.3 catalyzed resol of F/P = 2.0. When this blend was used as a binder the tensile strength of the cured briquettes did not drop even if they were carbonized at 470 C and 570 C. Their strengths at these carbonization temperatures were 67 MPa and 72 MPa respectively, and the rise in the temperature resulted in some increase in their strength. These results show the fact that as the formed coke briquettes descends from the top of the blast furnace, the rise in temperature will not deteriorate their strength; it will probably improve their properties. Therefore, only curing at 200 C for 2 h will be sufficient for the briquettes to be used as substitute for metallurgical coke in the blast furnace. (author)

  16. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  17. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huawei Zhang; Jitao Chen; Peng Liang; Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission.Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements,X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC,Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption.The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke,such as the specific surface area,pore structure and surface chemical functional groups.The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature,but much higher at high temperature.Amorphous Mn7+,Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0,which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it.Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mnx+ on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46.However,due to the formation of amorphous MnOx,the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased,which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  18. Health-hazard evaluation report No. HETA-88-377-2120, Armco Coke Oven, Ashland Kentucky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union, a study was made of possible hazardous working conditions at ARMCO Coke Oven (SIC-3312), Ashland, Kentucky. The facility produces about 1,000,000 tons of coke annually. Of the approximately 400 total employees at the coke oven site, 55 work in the by products area. Air quality sampling results indicated overexposure to both benzene (71432) and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs). Airborne levels of benzene ranged as high as 117 parts per million (ppm) with three of 17 samples being above the OSHA limit of 1ppm. Airborne concentrations of CTPVs ranged as high as 0.38mg/cu m with two of six readings being above OSHA limit of 0.2mg/cu m. Several polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were also detected. The authors conclude that by products area workers are potentially overexposed to carcinogens, including benzene, CTPVs, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. An epidemiologic study is considered unlikely to yield meaningful information at this time, due to the small number of workers and the short follow up period. The authors recommend specific measures for reducing potential employee exposures, including an environmental sampling program, a preventive maintenance program, improved housekeeping procedures, and reducing exposure in operators' booths

  19. Mortality due to respiratory cancers in the coke oven plants of the Lorraine coalmining industry (Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine).

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, J P; Chau, N.; Patris, A.; Mur, J M; Pham, Q T; Moulin, J J; Morviller, P; Auburtin, G; Figueredo, A; Martin, J.

    1987-01-01

    The main activity of the Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine (Lorraine Collieries), employing 23,000 operatives and executives, is coalmining. The coke production is carried out by two coke oven plants with a workforce of respectively 747 and 552 workers. The coal coking process entails the emission of noxious products such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the ovens. The influence of occupational exposure on mortality due to respiratory cancers, and particularly to lung and upper r...

  20. Mechanical strength of extrusion briquettes (BREX) for blast-furnace and ferroalloy production: II. Effect of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength of extrusion briquettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizhanov, A. M.; Kurunov, I. F.; Dashevskii, V. Ya.

    2015-05-01

    The influence of the method of grinding coke breeze on the strength and the behavior of extrusion briquette (BREX) during static loading is studied. It is found that the size, the shape, and the surface relief of coke breeze particles affect the character of BREX fracture. The application of a shearing extruder for preliminary refinement of coke breeze can result in viscoelastic fracture of BREX due to an increase in its impact toughness.

  1. Natureza do coque formado sobre a mordenita durante a transalquilação de benzeno Nature of the coke formed on mordenite during benzene transalkylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Rangel

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Zeolite catalysts have been extensively used in petroleum refining and the chemical industry although they are deactivated by coke deposition. In order to find the best condition to avoid deactivation, the coke formation on H-mordenite was studied in this work. The coke was produced during benzene transalkylation with C9+ aromatics, under several reaction conditions. It was found that hydrogenated coke was produced in all samples without affecting the selectivity of toluene and xylene formation. This is explained in terms of the mordenite structure and the presence of hydrogen.

  2. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  3. A novel approach to mitigating sulphur dioxide emissions and producing a mercury sorbent material using oil-sands fluid coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrometallurgical smelting operations are a major source of sulphur dioxide (SO2) which is a precursor to acid rain and increased levels of UV-B penetration in boreal lakes. Mercury is also released in copper smelter off-gas, which can bioaccumulate and cause neurological disorders and death in humans. Fluid coke is produced in massive quantities as a by-product of bitumen upgrading at Syncrude Canada's facility in Fort McMurray, Alberta. Oilsands fluid coke can be used to reduce SO2 and produce elemental sulphur as a co-product. This process was dubbed SOactive. The reaction physically activates the fluid coke to produce a sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) which is known as ECOcarbon. Some studies have indicated that SIAC is well suited for the removal of vapour phase mercury, mainly due to the formation of stable mercuric sulphide species. This paper discussed the findings made to date in relation to the SOactive process and the characterization of ECOcarbons. The paper discussed the use of fluid coke for reducing SO2 emissions while producing elemental sulphur as well as coke-SO2-oxygen (O2) and coke-SO2-water (H2O) systems. The paper also examined the production of SIAC products for use in capturing vapour phase mercury. The paper presented the materials and methodology, including an illustration of the apparatus used in reduction of SO2 and activation of fluid coke. It was concluded that more work is still needed to analyse the effect of O2 and SO2 reduction and SIAC properties under smelter flue gas conditions. 10 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs

  4. The Practice of Top-charged Coke Oven Being Modified into Stamp-charged Coke Oven%顶装炼焦改造为捣固炼焦的生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄书明

    2012-01-01

    介绍了JN43-80型焦炉由顶装炼焦改为捣固炼焦的改造工程,对比了改造前后炼焦用煤质量指标、配煤煤种和比例、用煤量、焦炭质量指标、化工产品回收率等.顶装炼焦改为捣固炼焦具有减少主焦煤配入量、增加气煤的配入量、提高焦炭产量等优势,通过改造,可使焦化企业降本增效.%The revamping of the model JN43-80 coke oven from the top-charged oven into the stamp-charged one was introduced. The feed coal quality, the number of coal blends, their blending ratio, coal consumption, the quality of the coke produced, the recovery ratio of the chemical products, etc. before and after the revamping were compared, which indicated that such a revamping resulted in a reduction of the main coking coal, an increase of the gas coal blend, and an increase of the coke output. The coking enterprise can thus reduce its production cost and increase its profitability.

  5. Influence of electrolytes (TEABF4 and TEMABF4) on electrochemical performance of graphite oxide derived from needle coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Bae, Mi-Kyeong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2013-05-01

    The structure of needle coke was changed to graphite oxide structure after oxidation treatment with 70 wt.% of nitric acid and sodium chlorate (NaClO3), and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle coke was expanded to 6.9 angstroms. The first charge profile of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEMABF4/acetonitrile solution displayed that the intercalation of electrolyte ions into the inter-layer occurred at 1.0 V, which value is lower than 1.3 V of the oxidized needle coke-cell with 1.2 M TEABF4/acetonitrile solution. After first charge/discharge, the cell using TEMABF4 electrolyte exhibited smaller electrode resistance of 0.05 omega, and larger specific volume capacitance of 25.5 F/ml at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0-2.5 V than those of the cell using TEABF4 electrolyte. Compared to the TEABF4 electrolyte, better electrochemical performance of the TEMABF4 electrolyte in the oxidized needle coke may be caused by the smaller cation (TEMA+) size and better ion mobility in the nanopores between inter-layers. PMID:23858941

  6. Reduction of FeO in EAF steelmaking slag by blends of metallurgical coke and end-of-life tyre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dankwah, James R.; Koshy, Pramod; Sahajwalla, Veena [Centre for Sustainable Materials Research and Technology, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia); O' Kane, Paul [OneSteel Sydney Mill, Rooty Hill, NSW (Australia)

    2012-08-15

    The reduction of FeO-containing slag by blends of metallurgical coke and end-of-life tyres (RT) have been investigated through experiments conducted in a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets of EAF slag (47.1% FeO) with coke, RT, and blends of coke/RT (in four different proportions) were rapidly heated at 1550 C under high purity argon gas and the off gas was continuously analyzed for CO and CO{sub 2}using an online infrared (IR) gas analyzer. The extent of reduction after 10 min, level of carburization and desulfurization, and the total amount of CO{sub 2} emissions were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results indicate that the extent of reduction, level of carburization and desulfurization of the reduced metal are significantly improved when coke is blended with RT. Blending of coke with RT resulted in a decrease in direct CO{sub 2} emissions from the reduction reactions. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  8. 7.63 m捣固焦炉配套焦罐车的设计%The Design of 7.63 m Hot Coke Buskets Car for 7.63 Meters of Tamping Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫文龙; 左强

    2014-01-01

    7.63 meters hot coke buskets car is one of the key dry quenching machine for 7.63 m series of tamping coke oven ,is the first largest domestic tamping tank car ,use the advanced technology such as oven number identification ,automatic registra‐tion ,and successfully built a tamping coke oven with environmental protection machinery and equipment .%7.63 m捣固焦炉配套焦罐车是为7.63 m捣固系列焦炉配套的干熄焦机械之一,是国内首台最大的捣固焦罐车,采用炉号识别、自动对位等先进技术,成功地打造了又一捣固焦炉用的环保型机械设备。

  9. Genetic damage induced by organic extract of coke oven emissions on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Qingfeng; Duan, Huawei; Wang, Yadong; Huang, Chuanfeng; Niu, Yong; Dai, Yufei; Bin, Ping; Liu, Qingjun; Chen, Wen; Ma, Junxiang; Zheng, Yuxin

    2012-08-01

    Coke oven emissions are known as human carcinogen, which is a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. In this study, we aimed to clarify the mechanism of action of coke oven emissions induced carcinogenesis and to identify biomarkers of early biological effects in a human bronchial epithelial cell line with CYP1A1 activity (HBE-CYP1A1). Particulate matter was collected in the oven area on glass filter, extracted and analyzed by GC/MS. DNA breaks and oxidative damage were evaluated by alkaline and endonucleases (FPG, hOGG1 and ENDO III)-modified comet assays. Cytotoxicity and chromosomal damage were assessed by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. The cells were treated with organic extract of coke oven emissions (OE-COE) representing 5, 10, 20, 40μg/mL extract for 24h. We found that there was a dose-effect relationship between the OE-COE and the direct DNA damage presented by tail length, tail intensity and Olive tail moment in the comet assay. The presence of lesion-specific endonucleases in the assays increased DNA migration after OE-COE treatment when compared to those without enzymes, which indicated that OE-COE produced oxidative damage at the level of pyrimidine and purine bases. The dose-dependent increase of micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear buds in exposed cells was significant, indicating chromosomal and genomic damage induced by OE-COE. Based on the cytotoxic biomarkers in CBMN-Cyt assay, OE-COE may inhibit nuclear division, interfere with apoptosis, or induce cell necrosis. This study indicates that OE-COE exposure can induce DNA breaks/oxidative damage and genomic instability in HBE-CYP1A1 cells. The FPG-comet assay appears more specific for detecting oxidative DNA damage induced by complex mixtures of genotoxic substances. PMID:22522113

  10. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes. PMID:21898553

  11. Lung function changes in coke oven workers during 12 years of follow up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, J.; Griffiths, D.; Kreis, I.A.; Darling, C. [University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW (Australia). Graduate School of Public Health

    2004-08-01

    The paper investigates the effect of exposure to coke oven emissions on the lung function of coke oven workers. The study population, followed from 1978 and 1990, was 580 male workers with at least two sets of lung function measurements (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and FEF25-75%). An annual rate of change (time slope) for age and height adjusted lung function index was estimated for each subject. This 'time slope' was then treated as the response variable in a weighted multiple regression analysis with selected predictors. For all 580 subjects, each year of working in the 'operation' group (the most exposed) was found to increase the FVC decline by around 0.7 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.3 ml/year). After the exclusion of 111 subjects without detailed work history, the above finding was confirmed and each year of exposure in 'operation'' was also found to increase the FEV1 decline by around 0.8 ml/year (95% CI 0.1 to 1.4 ml/year). These findings are consistent with the results of previous cross-sectional studies. Work duration in the most exposed position in the coke ovens was associated with increased annual decline for FVC and FEV1. The estimated effect of one year of work exposure in 'operation' is equivalent, in terms of the reduction in lung function, to an estimated 2.1 pack-years of smoking for FVC and 1.2 pack-years of smoking for FEV1.

  12. Using the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using the stable HSPA1A(HSP70-1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells(HepG2/HSPA1A cells) to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions. Methods The stable HepG2/HSPA1A cells were treated with different concentrations of coke oven

  13. KRESS INDIRECT DRY COOLING SYSTEM, BETHLEHEM STEEL'S COKE PLANT DEMONSTRATION AT SPARROWS POINT, MARYLAND - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDICES A-F

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report evaluates the Kress Indirect Dry Cooling (KIDC) process, an innovative system for handling and cooling coke produced from a slot-type by-product coke oven battery. he report is based on the test work and demonstration of the system at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Spar...

  14. The effect of high and low dissolved oxygen on the toxicity of oil sands coke and its leachate to Chironomus tentans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to assess the effect of low dissolved oxygen on the long-term leaching potential of the toxic constituents found in coke. Coke is one of the waste products produced during the oil sand upgrading process used at Syncrude Canada Ltd. and Suncor Energy Inc. Coke is contaminated by metals and organic compounds which can leach into the environment. In this study, coke from both companies was exposed to reconstituted water and high dissolved oxygen for a period of 30 days, during which time the overlying water containing the leachate and the coke pore-water was chemically analyzed. The benthic macroinvertebrate, Chironomus tentans, was exposed to the aged coke and the overlying leachate after the 30 day period. The study did not reveal any major difference in the survival or growth between the dissolved oxygen treatments or any of the leachate treatments. The macroinvertebrate in the aged Syncrude grew significantly while the Suncor coke strongly inhibited both survival and growth of the macroinvertebrate. The study demonstrates that coke has the potential to negatively affect benthic organisms if it is used uncovered in an aquatic reclamation effort

  15. 配型煤炼焦技术的研究与实践%Research and Practice of Coal Blending Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丽

    2013-01-01

    Coal blending coking technology could improve the adhesion of coal, enhanced coke strength, high quality coal resource saving. Paper analyzed properties of coking coal blending for coking coal mechanism, introduced Nippon Steel iftted with Sumitomo Metal and coal briquette coke making process, as well as various coking plants matched the result through the coke oven experiment and the production practice which the coal coking obtained.%配型煤炼焦技术可以改善煤料的粘结性,增强焦炭强度,节约优质煤资源。文章分析了配型煤炼焦对炼焦煤料性能的影响机理,介绍了新日铁配型煤和住友金属配型煤炼焦工艺,以及各焦化厂通过焦炉实验和生产实践总结的配型煤炼焦的结果。

  16. Organic extracts of coke oven emissions can induce genetic damage in metabolically competent HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Lili; Wang, Jianshu; Guo, Sifan; Wu, Yanhu; Li, Xiaohai; Deng, Huaxin; Kuang, Dan; Xiao, Wei; Wu, Tangchun; Guo, Huan

    2014-05-01

    Coke oven emissions (COEs) containing various carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent the coal-burning pollution in the air. Organic pollutants in the aerosol and particulate matter of COEs were collected from the bottom, side, and top of a coke oven. The Comet assay and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay were conducted to analyze the genetic damage of extractable organic matter (EOM) of COEs on HepG2 cells. All the three EOMs could induce significant dose-dependent increases in Olive tail moment, tail DNA, and tail length, micronuclei, nucleoplasmic bridges, and nuclear buds frequencies, which were mostly positively correlated with the total PAHs concentration in each EOM. In conclusion, EOMs of COEs in the three typical working places of coke oven can induce DNA strand breaks and genomic instability in the metabolically competent HepG2 cells. The PAHs in EOMs may be important causative agents for the genotoxic effects of COEs. PMID:24709322

  17. Partial briquetting of coal charges as a means of utilizing lower-grade coal for coke making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieters, B.J. (Iscor Limited, Newcastle (South Africa))

    1991-08-01

    The paper describes the difficulties experienced with inferior coking coals as Iscor began using larger blast furnaces for the production of liquid iron. Research conducted at Iscor from 1977 to 1979 showed that benefits could be gained from the use of partially briquetted charges, and it was decided to install briquetting plants at the Vanderbijlpark and Newcastle Works. Details are given of the latter plant, which was supplied by a consortium consisting of Voest Alpine, Didier Engineering, and Sumitomo Metal Industries. Sumitomo also supplied information on the optimization of coke quality along the lines of their Sumicoal System. The results have been a marked improvement in coke quality, much better blast-furnace operation, and increased productivity. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Baohua; Chen, Jinyang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 C to 650 C. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 C. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration. (author)

  19. The adsorption of oil sands naphthenic acids from process-affected tailings water using activated petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, C.C.; Hashisho, Z.; Ulrich, A.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Eighty percent of the organic acids in the Athabasca oil sands region are comprised of naphthenic acids that are toxic to a variety of aquatic life-forms as well as being highly corrosive. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of adsorbing naphthenic acids from process-affected water. Activated petroleum coke was studied in order to investigate optimal physical activation conditions for adsorbing oil sands naphthenic acids. Experimental tests were conducted in a centrifuge and analyzed with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrometry. The study demonstrated that delayed and fluid petroleum cokes can be turned into high surface area carbons with increased activation time, temperature, and steam rate. The coke can be used as an adsorbent to remove oil sands naphthenic acids. tabs., figs.

  20. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 oC to 650 oC. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 oC. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration.