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Sample records for beehive coke

  1. Construction and operation of a demonstration plant of Beehive ovens for producing coke with the utilization of the energy of gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, A.D. [Pedagogic and Tecnologic Univ. of Colombia, Tunja (Colombia); White, A. [Colombian Company of Coal Limited, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia)

    1995-12-31

    In Colombia, except the company Acerias Paz de Rio, the production of coke is done using Beehive furnaces and the gases that are produced in the process are expelled to the atmosphere producing a lot of contamination and deterioration of the environment. The Colombia Company of Coal Ltd, Ecocarbon and the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia, state entities, have canalized financial and technical efforts to develop a Demonstrative Plant with 6 Beehive ovens with a duct for collecting the gases and using the energy from de gases in Samaca`s factories of bricks. Samaca is a town with approximately 15.000 habitants, situated in the department of Boyaca at 140 kilometers from Santafe de Bogota, and 25 kilometers from Tunja (where the Pedagogic and Technologic University of Colombia is situated). It`s main activities are coal mining and agriculture.

  2. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  3. A Vision of Dystopia: Beehives and Mechanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas P.; Erlich, Richard D.

    1981-01-01

    Uses the metaphor of the beehive as a well-ordered, each-in-his-own-niche society to represent the outcome of utopian thinking. Cites twentieth-century dystopia films and literature as explicit criticisms of overreliance on planning and technology. Examines "Star Wars,""Clockwork Orange," and the works of Huxley, Forster,…

  4. Detection of pesticides in active and depopulated beehives in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Lucía; Colazzo, Marcos; Pérez-Parada, Andrés; Niell, Silvina; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas; Besil, Natalia; Cesio, María Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio

    2011-10-01

    The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 μg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118) and propolis (60 μg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57) are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 μg/kg) are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  5. Detection of Pesticides in Active and Depopulated Beehives in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Heinzen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of insecticides commonly used for agricultural purposes on beehive depopulation in Uruguay was investigated. Honeycombs, bees, honey and propolis from depopulated hives were analyzed for pesticide residues, whereas from active beehives only honey and propolis were evaluated. A total of 37 samples were analyzed, representing 14,800 beehives. In depopulated beehives only imidacloprid and fipronil were detected and in active beehives endosulfan, coumaphos, cypermethrin, ethion and chlorpyrifos were found. Coumaphos was present in the highest concentrations, around 1,000 µg/kg, in all the propolis samples from active beehives. Regarding depopulated beehives, the mean levels of imidacloprid found in honeycomb (377 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 118 and propolis (60 µg/kg, Standard Deviation: 57 are higher than those described to produce bee disorientation and fipronil levels detected in bees (150 and 170 µg/kg are toxic per se. The other insecticides found can affect the global fitness of the bees causing weakness and a decrease in their overall productivity. These preliminary results suggest that bees exposed to pesticides or its residues can lead them in different ways to the beehive.

  6. The triumphs of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, R.A.

    2004-07-01

    This is a reproduction of a booklet specially written by Dr R.A. Mott and designed by Mr G.E. Hall to mark the jubilee of the Coke Oven Managers' Association, founded in 1915. Whilst mentioning early methods of making coke in Great Britain, it deals particularly with the many developments in coke usage which took place before 1915 and is complementary to the 'History of coke making' written by Dr Mott in 1936. Uses covered include: for malting, for non-ferrous metal making, in an iron blast furnace, in crucible steel making, in the chafery and puddling process, in a foundry cupola, and in railway locomotives. 15 ills.

  7. A coke preparedness monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazanov, V.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Chepurnykh, S.F.; Dobromobov, Yu.I.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Pinchuk, S.I.; Shifrin, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A coke preparedness monitoring device for a door extractor contains sounding electrodes, a stabilized voltage source and a meter to record the electrical resistance of the coke. In order to provide monitoring capacity of the preparedness of the coke in the flow and to increase measuring accuracy the device contains sounding electrodes in the coke-treating door extractor; these are connected together with the recorder via an additional stabilized power supply to a stabilized voltage source.

  8. Effect of coking conditions on Rankin coefficient of coke cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, T.; Fukuda, K.; Kato, K. [Nippon Steel Corp. Ltd., Futtsu (Japan). Environmental & Process Technology Center

    2004-09-01

    An innovative cokemaking process, SCOPE21 (Super Coke Oven for Productivity and Environmental enhancement toward the 21st century), has been developed by JISF (The Japan Iron and Steel Federation) and CCUJ (Center for Coal Utilization, Japan). As a cokemaking process, it is important to guarantee safe and stable pushing. Coke pushing behavior was studied by using a pilot-scale coke oven and influence of coking conditions on the Rankin coefficient was investigated. It was found that Rankin coefficient was dependent on lateral shrinkage and fissure density in coke cake and that it can be controlled by controlling the fissure density in SCOPE21 process.

  9. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  10. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos' kova; N.I. Shkol' naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  11. Coke: its constitution and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth Callcott; Tom Callcott [Callcott Consulting (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Coke made in coke ovens from coal and used in iron blast furnaces is a strategically critical manufactured product for contemporary and future world iron production. The important physical, chemical and microscopic properties of cokes are examined and explained, drawing on both an exhaustive literature review and the extensive R&D, consulting and industrial experience of the authors. The emphasis is on characterising the family of cokes as materials rather than considering the raw materials of carbonisation and the carbonisation processes. The term 'coke' covers a wide range of materials that can be classified in a number of ways based either on properties or utilisation practices. With few exceptions, these materials are manufactured for specific industrial purposes such as metallurgical processes, making gases or filtering fluids. This report primarily concerns industrial cokes with special concern for blast furnace cokes and their utilisation in iron making. Other industrial cokes and those made in pilot plants or laboratory ovens receive attention where their properties help understand primary utilisation as blast furnace coke.

  12. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngama, Steeve; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme; Vermeulen, Cédric; Poulsen, John R

    2016-01-01

    In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  13. How Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steeve Ngama

    Full Text Available In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become "problem animals". To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level.

  14. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  15. Automation of a coke battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Yakushina, E.N.; Mil' ko, M.S.

    1980-10-01

    This paper discusses methods of remote control of machines used for discharging coke ovens. The system, developed by the Construction Office of AiM Giprokoks, consists of a number of detecting and transmitting coupling coils and oscillators installed at various places on a coke battery. A scheme of the automated remote control system is given. Method of placing coupling coils and covering them to prevent damages is explained. Principles of coupling coil operation are described. By means of coupling coils exact position of a quenching car, coke discharging machine, and machine removing the coke oven door, can be controlled. When the position of a machine is not exact, operation of other machines is blocked. Operation of the system is regarded as satisfactory. Principles of operation of another system in which, instead of coupling coils coupling bars are installed, are evaluated. Bars control position of machines. The system has numerous weak points and its introduction is not recommended. (In Russian)

  16. Assessment of coke oven emissions exposure among coking workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.L.; Mao, I.F.; Wu, M.T.; Chen, J.R.; Ho, C.K.; Smith, T.J.; Wypij, D.; Christiani, D.C. [National Yang Ming University, Taipei (Taiwan). Dept. of Public Health

    1999-01-01

    Coking workers are regularly exposed to coke oven emissions, which consist primarily of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. This study measured the workers` exposure to the benzene soluble fraction of total particulates (BSF). Personal breathing-zone samples of BSF and total particulates were taken from all study subjects for 3 consecutive days. The highest BSF concentrations were found among the topside oven workers. Among the samples at the topside oven 84% exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (150 {mu}g/m{sup 3} BSF). The percentage of BSF in total particulates varied across job classifications, ranging from 0.3% in wharf men to 24% in tar chasers. Area sampling indicated that the BSF concentration at the topside area was sixty fold higher than that at the administrative area, which was approximately 2 km from the coke oven plant.

  17. Quantitative determination of trisiloxane surfactants in beehive environments based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2013-08-20

    Organosilicone surfactants are increasingly being applied to agricultural agro-ecosystems as spray adjuvants, and were recently shown to impact the learning ability of honey bees. Here we developed a method for analyzing three trisiloxane surfactants (single polyethoxylate (EO) chain and end-capped with methyl, acetyl, or hydroxyl groups; TSS-CH3, TSS-COCH3, or TSS-H) in beehive matrices based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) approach from less than 2 g of honey, pollen, or beeswax. Recoveries for each oligomer (2-13 EO) were between 66 and 112% in all matrices. Average method detection limits (MDL) were 0.53, 0.60, 0.56 ng/g in honey, 0.63, 0.81, 0.78 ng/g in pollen, and 0.51, 0.69, 0.63 ng/g in beeswax. Five honey, 10 pollen, and 10 beeswax samples were analyzed. Trisiloxane surfactants were detected in every beeswax and 60% of the pollen samples. Total trisiloxane surfactant concentrations were up to 390 and 39 ng/g in wax and pollen. The described method is proved suitable for analyzing trisiloxane surfactants in beehive samples. The presence of trisiloxane surfactants in North American beehives calls for renewed effort to investigate the consequence of these adjuvants to bee health and the ongoing global bee decline.

  18. Trends in the automation of coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  19. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Foundry Coke From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on foundry coke from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from...

  20. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  1. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Investigation on activated semi-coke desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Ju; LI Zhuan-li; LI Chun-hu

    2005-01-01

    An activated semi-coke with industrial-scale size was prepared by high-pressure hydrothermal chemistry activation, HNO3oxidation and calcination activation in proper order from Inner Mongolia Zhalainuoer semi-coke, which is rich in resource and cheap in sale.SO2 adsorption capacity on this activated semi-coke was assessed in the fixed bed in the temperature range of 60-170℃, space velocity range of 500-1300 h-1, SO2 concentration of 1000-3000 ppmv, and N2 as balance. The surface area, elemental and proximate analysis for both raw semi-coke and activated semi-cokes were measured. The experimental results showed that the activated semi-coke has a high adsorption capacity for sulfur dioxide than the untreated semi-coke. This may be the result of increase of surface area on activated semi-coke and surface oxygen functional groups with basicity characteristics. Comparison to result of FTIR, it is known that group of-C-O-C- may be active center of SO2 catalytic adsorption on activated semi-coke.

  3. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  4. Technical Progress of China's Delayed Coking Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lixin; Li Hejie

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces the recent advances of China in the fields of process technology of delayed coking, enlarged equipment size, hydraulic decoking, automatic control and environmental protection. By the end of 2004 the total capacity of delayed coking units in China had reached 37.24Mt/a with the maximum coke drum diameter equating to 9.4 m. This article also presents the investment in delayed cokers and the current production status while pointing out the existing problems and future development trends.

  5. EFFICIENCY OF FORMING NUCLEUS COLONIES IN ORDER TO DECREASE POPULATION OF Varroa destructor (ANDRESON AND TRUEMAN, 2000 IN BEEHIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Puškadija

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Forming of nucleus colonies is efficient method in growth control of Varroa destructor population. Its goal is to decrease parasite’s pressure on bee colony. The advantage of this bio-technical measurement lays in its implement during vegetation season which delays use of the chemical resources for Varroa destructor control population in beehives for the post major honey harvest period. Nucleus colonies were formed from approx. half of sealed brood (35.5 ± 5.8 dm² and average of 5915 ± 912 bees. Results showed that there were 37.2 ± 5.6% mites removed from parental colonies. Minimum was 30.8%, and maximum was 45.5%. Due to such relatively small efficiency, this method cannot be recommended as unique, but it can be effective if it is applied in the post spring's honey harvest period as a part of growth reduction strategy of Varroa destructor population in beehive.

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  7. Cooperative mobile agents search using beehive partitioned structure and Tabu Random search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazani, Saba; Jackson, Delvin L.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2013-05-01

    In search and surveillance operations, deploying a team of mobile agents provides a robust solution that has multiple advantages over using a single agent in efficiency and minimizing exploration time. This paper addresses the challenge of identifying a target in a given environment when using a team of mobile agents by proposing a novel method of mapping and movement of agent teams in a cooperative manner. The approach consists of two parts. First, the region is partitioned into a hexagonal beehive structure in order to provide equidistant movements in every direction and to allow for more natural and flexible environment mapping. Additionally, in search environments that are partitioned into hexagons, mobile agents have an efficient travel path while performing searches due to this partitioning approach. Second, we use a team of mobile agents that move in a cooperative manner and utilize the Tabu Random algorithm to search for the target. Due to the ever-increasing use of robotics and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms, the field of cooperative multi-agent search has developed many applications recently that would benefit from the use of the approach presented in this work, including: search and rescue operations, surveillance, data collection, and border patrol. In this paper, the increased efficiency of the Tabu Random Search algorithm method in combination with hexagonal partitioning is simulated, analyzed, and advantages of this approach are presented and discussed.

  8. [Binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to proteins from honeybees, larvae and beehive products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaldi, F J; Lacunza, J; Alippi, A M; Rule, R

    2010-01-01

    American Foulbrood (AFB) caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the most serious disease of bacterial origin affecting larvae and pupae of honeybees. Antibiotics are used in many countries for the control of AFB in high incidence areas, but their misuse may lead to antibiotic resistance of bacterial strains and honey contamination. The objective of the present work was to determine, through a biological method, the protein binding of tylosin, tilmicosin and oxytetracycline to worker jelly; honey; pollen; adult bees and larvae in order to propose their kinetic routes. The sensitivity limit of the technique used was 0.05 μg/ml for tylosin and tilmicosin and 0.01 μg/ml for oxytetracycline, respectively. The method had intra and inter-assay correlation coefficients over 0.90, respectively and a coefficient variation of intra-and inter-assay for all antibiotics and processed samples under 5%. Tylosin and oxytetracycline presented lower percentages of protein binding in tissues and hive products (average 15%) in relation to those observed for tilmicosin (29%). In conclusion, tylosin is useful for AFB control in honey bee colonies due to its chemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity and levels of protein binding in bees, larvae, and beehive products.

  9. K2 Discovers a Busy Bee: An Unusual Transiting Neptune Found in the Beehive Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Obermeier, Christian; Schlieder, Joshua E; Crossfield, Ian J M; Petigura, Erik A; Howard, Andrew W; Sinukoff, Evan; Isaacson, Howard; Ciardi, David R; David, Trevor J; Hillenbrand, Lynne A; Beichmann, Charles A; Howell, Steve B; Horch, Elliot; Everett, Mark; Hirsch, Lea; Teske, Johanna; Christiansen, Jessie L; Lépine, Sébastien; Aller, Kimberly M; Liu, Michael C; Saglia, Roberto P; Livingston, John; Kluge, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Open clusters have been the focus of several exoplanet surveys but only a few planets have so far been discovered. The \\emph{Kepler} spacecraft revealed an abundance of small planets around small, cool stars, therefore, such cluster members are prime targets for exoplanet transit searches. Kepler's new mission, K2, is targeting several open clusters and star-forming regions around the ecliptic to search for transiting planets around their low-mass constituents. Here, we report the discovery of the first transiting planet in the intermediate-age (800 Myr) Beehive cluster (Praesepe). K2-95 is a faint ($\\mathrm{Kp = 15.5\\,mag}$) $\\mathrm{M3.0\\pm0.5}$ dwarf from K2's Campaign 5 with an effective temperature of $\\mathrm{3471 \\pm 124\\,K}$, approximately solar metallicity and a radius of $\\mathrm{0.402 \\pm 0.050 \\,R_\\odot}$. We detected a transiting planet with a radius of $\\mathrm{3.47^{+0.78}_{-0.53} \\, R_\\oplus}$ and an orbital period of 10.134 days. We combined photometry, medium/high-resolution spectroscopy, ad...

  10. Two 'b's in the Beehive: The Discovery of the First Hot Jupiters in an Open Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Quinn, S N; Latham, D W; Buchhave, L A; Cantrell, J R; Dahm, S E; Fürész, G; Szentgyorgyi, A H; Geary, J C; Torres, G; Bieryla, A; Berlind, P; Calkins, M C; Esquerdo, G A; Stefanik, R P

    2012-01-01

    We present the discovery of two giant planets orbiting stars in Praesepe (also known as the Beehive Cluster), the first known hot Jupiters in an open cluster. Pr0201b orbits a V=10.52 late F dwarf with a period of 4.4264 +/- 0.0070 days and has a minimum mass of 0.540 +/- 0.039 Mjup, and Pr0211b orbits a V=12.06 late G dwarf with a period of 2.1451 +/- 0.0012 days and has a minimum mass of 1.844 +/- 0.064 Mjup. Because they reside in a cluster, the ages of these planets are amongst the best-determined of any planet outside our own solar system. As we endeavor to learn more about the frequency and characteristics of planets, the environment in which most stars form -- open clusters like Praesepe -- may provide essential clues to this end. This discovery will allow, for the first time, a direct estimate of the short-period giant planet frequency in open clusters.

  11. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR A PROCESS ANALYSIS OF A COKE OVEN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhancheng Guo; Huiqing Tang

    2005-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamic model is established for a coking process analysis of a coke oven using PHOENICS CFD package. The model simultaneously calculates the transient composition, temperatures of the gas and the solid phases, velocity of the gas phase and porosity and density of the semi-coke phase. Numerical simulation is illustrated in predicting the evolution of volatile gases, gas flow paths, profiles of density, porosity of the coke oven charge,profiles of temperatures of the coke oven gas and the semi-coke bed. On the basis of above modeling, the flow of coke oven gas (COG) blown from the bottom of the coke oven into the porous semi-coke bed is simulated to reveal whether or not and when the blown COG can uniformly flow through the porous semi-coke bed for the purpose of desulfurizing the semi-coke by recycling the COG. The simulation results show that the blown COG can uniformly flow through the semi-coke bed only after the temperature at the center of the semi-coke bed has risen to above 900 ℃.

  12. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  13. Gasification Reaction Characteristics of Ferro-Coke at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jian-liang; Gao, Bing

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of temperature and atmosphere on the gasification reaction of ferro-coke were investigated in consideration of the actual blast furnace conditions. Besides, the microstructure of the cokes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It is found that the weight loss of ferro-coke during the gasification reaction is significantly enhanced in the case of increasing either the reaction temperature or the CO2 concentration. Furthermore, compared with the normal type of metallurgical coke, ferro-coke exhibits a higher weight loss when they are gasified at the same temperature or under the same atmosphere. As to the microstructure, inside the reacted ferro-coke are a large amount of pores. Contrary to the normal coke, the proportions of the large-size pores and the through holes are greatly increased after gasification, giving rise to thinner pore walls and hence a degradation in coke strength after reaction (CSR).

  14. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  16. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  17. Fundamental Study on Coke Degradation in BF with Oxygen Enriched Blast and High Hydrogen Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; LI Jia-xin; ZHOU Li-ying

    2005-01-01

    The effects of gas composition, temperature, ore to coke ratio and prereduction rate of ore on coke degradation were studied. The results showed that 1% increment in solution loss of coke reduces coke strength by 0.6%, and the coke degradation is accelerated with the temperature. The higher the temperature, the more coke surface is involved in reactions, and the less negative effect on coke strength is. Hydrogen exerts stronger effect on coke degradation than CO at high temperature. The coke degradation is decreased with the reduction of ore to coke ratio and increase of ore prereduction rate.

  18. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  19. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration. PMID:27270486

  20. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-08

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  1. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  2. Coking coals of Mongolia: Distribution and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdenetsogt, Bat-Orshikh; Jargal, Luvsanchultem

    2016-04-01

    The coal deposits of Mongolia tend to become younger from west to east and can be subdivided into two provinces, twelve basins, and three areas. Main controlling factor of coal rank is the age of coal bearing sequences. Western Mongolian coal-bearing province contains mostly high rank bituminous coal in strata from Late Carboniferous. The basins in southern Mongolia and the western part of central Mongolia have low rank bituminous coal in strata from the Permian. The northern and central Mongolian basins contain mainly Jurassic subbituminous coal, whereas the Eastern Mongolian province has Lower Cretaceous lignite. Mongolian known coking coal reserves are located in western, southern and northern Mongolia and related to Carboniferous, Permian and Jurassic sequences, respectively. Pennsylvanian Nuurstkhotgor coal deposit is located in northwestern Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). The coals have 1-7.5 crucible swelling number (CSN) and 0-86 G-index. Vitrinite reflectance value (Rmax in oil) varies from 0.7% to 1.2% and sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.3% to 0.6% with an average of 0.4%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 1.0 billion ton, of which half is coking coal. Upper Permian Khurengol deposit is situated in western Mongolia (in Western Mongolian coal-bearing province). CSN and G-index of coal are 8-9 and 54-99, respectively. The coals have Rmax of 1.1 to 1.7% (average 1.4%) and sulfur content of 0.2 to 0.6% (average 0.4%). Coking coal reserve of the deposit is estimated to be 340 million ton. Upper Permian Tavantolgoi, the largest coking coal deposit, lies in southern Mongolia (in South Gobi coal-bearing basin). The coals have CSN of 1 to 7.5 and Rmax of 0.7% to 1.2%. Sulfur content is low, ranging from 0.5% to 0.9%. Coal reserve is estimated to be 6.0 billion ton, of which 2.0 billion ton is accounted as coking coal. Lower-Middle Jurassic Ovoot coal is located in northern Mongolia (in Orkhon-Selenge coal-bearing area). This is one of

  3. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  4. Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a particular reading of Plan Colombia.…

  5. Targeting "Plan Colombia": A Critical Analysis of Ideological and Political Visual Narratives by the Beehive Collective and the Drug Enforcement Administration Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    This article compares the Beehive Collective's "Plan Colombia" to a museum exhibition representing the official U.S. position on Plan Colombia. Through a dialectical (Kellner & Share, 2007; Greene, 1988) reading of "Plan Colombia" and "Target America," I examine how each uses visual narrative to promote a…

  6. Metallurgical coke quality depending on the variability of properties of coking coal mixes components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kaloc; S. Bartusek; S. Czudek [VSB-TU Ostrava (Czech Republic)

    2005-07-01

    The main sources for this report are the experiences acquired by the long lasting practice of the coking coal mixes preparing and tuning them in accordance with the variable qualitative properties of the coals mined in the coalfields of the OKD Company Ostrava. The systematic database, made by summarizing the values of measured indexes, became a very useful instrument for the coal mixes composing with regard on the two today very important points of view, namely: Contemporary presence and the long lasting availability of the definite coal type from any local source. Price basis influencing strongly the economics of the coke production. The method of prognostic estimating of the metallurgical coke quality dependence on the coking mixes composition, developed some time ago by authors of presented paper, was published in the Cokemaking International Vol. 13, 2/2001 (Czudek S. and al.: Simulation of Carbonization Process under Laboratory Conditions). The original procedure was newly accomplished by implementing a special method of the multi criteria evaluation of the definite coal components. New method is based on special processing of the technologic significant qualitative properties of the mined coal brands enabling deeply estimate the impacts of their application in metallurgical coke production. The importance of this evaluating system exceeds largely the well known method that is incorporated in the international coal classification. The main advantage of the new method is the fully respecting of the specialties marking the geographic different coalfields. (Abstract only)

  7. A device for interlocking coking machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, L.S.; Mil' ko, M.S.; Rodenko, B.V.; Skol' skii, V.M.; Voloshenko, I.P.; Yakushina, E.N.

    1980-03-18

    This device, which contains a high frequency oscillator in the door hoisting mechanism and a high-frequency oscillations receiver in the coke lifting-out device and a communications line for each of the furnaces in the form of tie couplers, is characterized by an arrangement whereby it is equipped with jumpers. This arrangement guarantees a steady operational level of the signal and increases the reliability of the device.

  8. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  9. Study on combustion characteristics of petroleum coke residual oil slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shou Weiyi; Xu Xiaoming; Cao Xinyu [and others

    1997-07-01

    Petroleum coke residual oil slurry (POS) is one of prospect substitute of oil burned in many industrial boilers and utilities in China. It is a mixture of pulverized petroleum coke, residual oil and slurry oil. We carried out a series of experiments to study its ignition and combustion mechanism. Experimental results show that the ignition temperature of petroleum coke is higher than normal anthracite and meager coal, and it is difficult to be burned in oil-fired furnace directly. The petroleum coke`s combustion property is improved greatly after mixing with residual oil and slurry oil. The combustion process of POS can be divided into three phases: preheating, kindling and homogenous combustion, burning of the petroleum coke residue. The combustion condition of POS is close to bituminous and coal-oil-mixture (COM).

  10. Short communication. Platform for bee-hives monitoring based on sound analysis. A perpetual warehouse for swarms daily activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atauri Mezquida, D.; Llorente Martinez, J.

    2009-07-01

    Bees and beekeeping are suffering a global crisis. Constant information on swarms conditions would be a key to study new diseases like colony collapse disorder and to develop new beekeeping tools to improve the hive management and make it more efficient. A platform for beehives monitoring is presented. It is based on the analysis of the colonies buzz which is registered by a bunch of sensors sending the data to a common database. Data obtained through sound processing shows plenty of patterns and tendency lines related to colonies activities and their conditions. It shows the potential of the sound as a swarm activity gauge. The goal of the platform is the possibility to store information about the swarms activity. The objective is to build a global net of monitored hives covering apiaries with different climates, razes and managements. (Author) 21 refs.

  11. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, E A; Zaluski, R; Veiga, N; Orsi, R O

    2016-06-01

    The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), and potassium (K) were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, "intelligent" collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method). During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer's test to compare the mean values (pminerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu), and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca).

  12. Effects of altitude and beehive bottom board type on wintering losses of honeybee colonies under subtropical climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ucak-Koc, A.

    2014-06-01

    The effects of altitude and beehive bottom board types (BBBT) on the wintering performance of honeybee colonies were investigated in the South Aegean Region of Turkey: Experiment I (E-I), with 32 colonies, in 2010-2011, and Experiment II (E-II), with 20 colonies, in 2011-2012. Each lowland (25 m) and highland (797 m) colony was divided randomly into two BBBT subgroups, open screen floor (OSF) and normal bottom floor (NBF), and wintered for about three months. In E-I, the local genotype Aegean ecotype of Anatolian bee (AE) and Italian race (ItR) were used, while in E-II, only the AE genotype was present. In E-I, the effect of wintering altitudes on the number of combs covered with bees (NCCB), and the effects of BBBT on brood area (BA) and the NCCB were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), but the effects of genotype on BA and NCCB were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). In the E-II, the effect of wintering altitude on beehive weight was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05), while its effect on the NCCB was statistically insignificant (p > 0.05). The wintering losses in the highland and lowland groups in E-I were determined to be 25% and 62.5% respectively. In contrast to this result, no loss was observed in E-II for both altitudes. In E-I, the wintering losses for both OSF and NBF groups were the same (43.75%). In conclusion, under subtropical climatic conditions, due to variations from year to year, honeybee colonies can be wintered more successfully in highland areas with OSF bottom board type. (Author)

  13. Coal Beneficiation Technology for Coking & Non-Coking Coal Meant For Steel and Thermal Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Sharma; Gohil Priyank; Nikita Sharma

    2015-01-01

    There are 21 coking coal washeries in production both in private and public sectors. Production of clean coal in these washeries during 1989-90 was 12 million tonne and it is expected to go up to 37 million, tonne during 2015-16. Planning Commission has taken the decision that non-coking coal meant for Thermal Power Plants situated far away from feeding coalfield, should be beneficiated. Coal Washing is a process of separation mainly based on difference in Specific Gravity of Coal and associa...

  14. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Visualization of coke state in hydraulic decoking process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian; Tong, Xinglin; Deng, Chengwei; Zhang, Cui; Huang, Di; Chen, Liang; Xiong, Jiaguo

    2016-05-01

    The relationship model of the sound signal and the coke state can be established through multiple test and comparison of the noise signal and the coke operation. By collecting data, we summarize the main frequency power fluctuation range of the sound signal in kinds of state, and extract the nearest 5 decision results for reference. The weighted value of each result according to the update time has gradually increased. On the basis of that, we developed visualization software, real-time reflect out coke coking tower state. Animation refresh rate is second level, and the vertical height can be accurate to 0.1m.

  16. New functional units for coke machine automatic control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parfenov, G.I.; Bannikov, L.S.; Vakarenko, I.M.; Grishin, S.P.

    1983-01-01

    A new device used in the control systems of coking plants is discussed. The system is capable of operating in fully automatic, semi-automatic, or manual modes. Examples of the usage of the unit include the stopping of coke machines within limits of +/- 200 mm. It is concluded that the use of the units reduce manufacture, adjustment, and service costs.

  17. Rheocasting a Zn-Al composite reinforced with coke dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madroñero, A.; Cruz, J.; Foruria, C.; Coleto, J.

    1997-01-01

    This article details research conducted to establish the optimum parameters needed to rheocast a zinc-aluminum alloy reinforced with coke-dust particles. Based on the experiments, a composite with a 10 vol.% coke-particulate reinforcement was found to exhibit good metallurgical quality (e.g., low porosity and the absence of clustering) in the final product.

  18. Effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Gui; Wang, Bao-Cheng; Sun, Quan

    2010-10-01

    Through different preparation technology, this paper reports that the needle coke is prepared with coal-tar pitch under the effect of magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitation. It studies the effect of physical disturbance on the structure of needle coke. The structure of needle coke is characterized by scanning electron microscope and x-ray diffractometer, and the influence mechanism is analysed. Results showed that the structure and property of needle coke could be effectively improved by magnetic field and ultrasonic cavitations, such as degree of order, degree of graphitization and crystallization. Comparatively speaking, the effect of magnetic field was greater. The graphitization degree of needle coke prepared under the effect of magnetic field is up to 45.35%.

  19. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  20. Research on the evolvement of morphology of coking coal during the coking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiangyun; Wu, Shiyong; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Zhenning; Zhang, Yaru; Bai, Jinfeng; Xu, Jun; Xi, Bai

    2013-12-01

    The evolvement of morphology and structure of the coal with different metamorphic degrees during coking process in the vertical furnace was investigated by infrared Image detector. Moreover, the temperature distribution in the radial direction and the crack formation were also studied in heating process. The results show that the amount of crack and the shrinkage level of char decrease with the coal rank rising. In addition, the initial temperature of crack formation for char increases with the coal rank rising.

  1. Effect of Mineral on Metallurgical Coke Solution Loss Reaction in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun-he; FENG An-zu; DU He-gui

    2003-01-01

    The catalytic effects of minerals (oxides) on solution loss reaction of coke were investigated in detail by adding oxides to coal which produces coke or absorbing oxides on coke surface. The mineral catalysis index (MCI) which can be used to evaluate catalytic effects of minerals on solution loss of coke comprehensively was proposed. Using the volatility of coal in dry basis and MCI of coal as independent variables to control coke reactivity, the mathematical models of predicting coke reactivity index, coke strength of reactivity were constructed on the basis of the experimental results.

  2. Effects of seasonal variations and collection methods on the mineral composition of propolis from Apis mellifera Linnaeus Beehives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of seasonal variations and the methods of collection of propolis produced by Africanized honey bees Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758, on the composition of constituent minerals such as magnesium (Mg, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, sodium (Na, calcium (Ca, copper (Cu, and potassium (K were evaluated. Propolis was harvested from 25 beehives by scraping or by means of propolis collectors (screen, “intelligent” collector propolis [ICP], lateral opening of the super [LOS], and underlay method. During the one-year study, the propolis produced was harvested each month, ground, homogenized, and stored in a freezer at -10 ºC. Seasonal analyses of the mineral composition were carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Tukey-Kramer’s test to compare the mean values (p<0.05. The results showed that seasonal variations influence the contents of 5 minerals (Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, and Cu, and the propolis harvesting method affects the contents of 4 minerals (Mg, Zn, Fe, and Ca.

  3. Three-dimensional beehive-like hierarchical porous polyacrylonitrile-based carbons as a high performance supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Long; Yang, Guangzhi; Han, Pan; Tang, Zhihong; Yang, Junhe

    2016-05-01

    Three-dimensional beehive-like hierarchical porous carbons (HPCs) have been prepared by a facile carbonization of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) core-shell polymer particle followed by KOH activation. The all-organic porogenic core-shell precursor was synthesized by a simple and green surfactant-free emulsion polymerization. The as-obtained HPCs show favorable features for electrochemical energy storage such as high specific surface area of up to 2085 m2 g-1, high volume of pores up to 1.89 cm3 g-1, hierarchical porosity consisting of micro, meso, and macropores, turbostratic carbon structure, uniform pore size and rich oxygen-doping (21.20%). The supercapacitor performance of HPCs exhibit a high specific capacitance 314 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1 and 237 F g-1 at a current density of 20 A g-1, ultra-high rate capability with 83% retention rate from 1 to 20 A g-1 and outstanding cycling stability with 96% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles. The facile, efficient and green synthesis strategy for novel HPCs from polymer sources could find use in supercapacitors, lithium ion batteries, fuel cells and sorbents.

  4. Coke Oven Gas Based Methanol Production Capacity Reached 1.2 Mt/a in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Coke oven gas is one of the main byproducts of coke chemicals industry.One ton of coke formed can generate 430 m3of coke oven gas.Adoption of appropriate chemical processing method can convert methane contained in the coke oven gas into CO that can be further converted into methanol.It is learned that currently China has constructed and commissioned ten projects for manufacture of methanol fromcoke oven gas with the total production capacity reaching 1.2 Mt/a methanol.More than twenty coke gas-to-methanol units are under construction or in the stage of project design with their overall production capacity reaching nearly 3.0 Mt/a methanol.Relevant experts have indicated that the enterprises provided with coke production lines are capable of constructing coke gas-to-methanol projects to realize coproduction of coke and methanol while utilizing their own coke gas resources.

  5. Study and Application of Sealing Material for Coke Oven Chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Feifang; TAI Li

    2005-01-01

    A kind of dry refractory sealing material has been developed to repair the fine cracks in coke oven chamber. With silica sand as the main raw material, the sealing material is blown into coke oven chamber by compressed air while being applied, and bonded to brick surface or filled in fine cracks of chamber under right pressure. The physical properties of the material are similar to those of silica bricks during its application. So it can be adapted to conditions of coke oven and has good service life. The study and application results of the sealing material are described in this paper.

  6. RESEARCH ON THE QUALITY PRICE RATIO OF COKING COAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶树人; 王永君

    1994-01-01

    If assortment price parity of Clean coling coal and its quallty price difference is nonreasortable, it doesn't guide in improving the qualiry metaljurgical eoking coal and may be influence the economic benefit of metallurgical enterprises. This paper propose the principles and mathematic model for determination assortment parity of ciean cokingcoal and its quality difference of ash content in clean coking coa in order to urge wasberies into producing superior clean coking coal which is under condition of consideration both intorest waskcries and interest metallurgical industry. It canbe used as a method in theory to make price stra,iegics under condition of socialism maket economic for washeries of clean coking coal

  7. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    OpenAIRE

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-01-01

    In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  8. Carbonization behaviour of woody biomass and resulting metallurgical coke properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, T.; Ichida, M.; Nagasaka, T.; Kato, K. [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan). Graduate School for Environmental Studies

    2008-07-01

    The technology using waste wood from construction and thinned wood that are not recycled in the woody biomass as one of raw materials for producing metallurgical coke was examined in detail by adding them to coal and carbonizing them. In the carbonization tests, four types of woody biomasses showed substantially almost the same results in respect to material balance and composition of carbonized products. Compared with raw woods, woody biomasses compressively formed to not smaller than 10 mm permit an increase in the addition rate to 1.5% while inhibiting the lowering of coke strength. Hot compressive forming at 200-350 degrees C where pyrolysis of woody biomass occurs inhibits the lowering of coke strength and will therefore permit an increase in the use of woody biomasses. As a result, the possibility to use as a raw material for the coke manufacturing by adding the compressively formed woody biomass was found.

  9. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  10. Mathematical modeling of a rotary hearth coke calciner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde C. Meisingset

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a rotary hearth coke calciner is developed. The model is based on first principles including the most important dynamic phenomena. The model is a thermodynamic model involving heat and mass transfer and chemical reactions. Fundamental mass and energy balance equations for the coke phase, the gas phase and the lining are formulated. For the gas phase, a stationary model is used. The equations are solved numerically, and simulated temperature profiles are shown in this paper.

  11. Repairing the wooden frame of chambers in coking furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nador, Y.; Iruti, M.; Komiya, S.; Matsuno, T.; Ogavakhara, F.

    1983-02-12

    A method and device are proposed for hot repair of the door frames of coking chanbers. The repair is conducted prior to discharge of the coke from the chamber without its cooling or a reduction in temperature. After the doors are removed, a screening plate fettled with a heat insulation material on the chamber side is introduced into the frame, it is attached to the door frame and the required repair is conducted.

  12. Use of thermogravimetry for proximate analysis of coals and cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaway, M.

    1982-08-01

    An alternative method for the proximate analysis of coals and cokes using a thermobalance is described. The test measures water content, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash residue and takes <10 min to complete. The variety of coals and cokes tested in this investigation have given results which showed good correlation with values from the prescribed method. The thermogravimetric technique appears to be a feasible rapid alternative to standard methods for proximate analysis. (11 refs.)

  13. Technology of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budner, Z.; Morawiec, B.

    1989-01-01

    A process to beindustrialised at the Zdzieszowice coking plant and Kedzierzyn fertiliser works is described. Coke oven gas is scrubbed with methanol and subjected to pressure-swing adsorption. The hydrogen-rich fraction is converted with steam to reduce its CO content and then subjected again to pressure-swing adsorption. The methane-rich fraction from the first PSA stage is processed to 90% CH{sub 4} and a fraction containing 35% ethylene and 10% ethane.

  14. Mineral matter in coals and their reactions during coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, Mihaela; French, David [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Sakurovs, Richard [The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) - Energy Technology, Newcastle, NSW 2300 (Australia); Sahajwalla, Veena [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of coke in the blast furnace is influenced by its inherent mineral matter, the formation of which is itself dependent upon the nature of the coal mineral matter. To date few studies have been made of coke mineralogy and its relationship to the mineralogy of the parent coal. In this study the effect of carbonisation on coal mineral matter has been investigated by a detailed quantitative mineralogical examination of nine cokes and their parent coals. The quantitative analysis was performed on X-ray diffraction patterns of the mineral matter of cokes and coals, using SIROQUANT {sup trademark}. Coke mineralogy and its composition varied strongly between cokes, more strongly than variations in elemental composition of the ash. The mineral matter in the studied cokes consisted of crystalline mineral phases and also significant levels of amorphous phase (ranging between 44 and 75%). Decomposition of clays such as kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite and chamosite produced the amorphous phase and some of the crystalline mineral phases such as mullite, {gamma}-alumina, spinel, cristobalite and leucite. The type of association of mineral matter in coals had an important role in how the clays decomposed. For example, association of kaolinite with silica-bearing minerals in intimate intermixture favoured formation of mullite over {gamma}-alumina. Akermanite and diopside result from reaction of kaolinite with associated calcium bearing minerals (calcite, dolomite or ankerite). Quartz, fluorapatite and the three polymorphs of TiO{sub 2} (anatase, brookite and rutile) were the coal minerals that were least affected during carbonisation, as they were also found in the cokes, yet even they were affected in some cases. (author)

  15. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  16. Correlation between porous structure and fracture stress for metallurgical coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardien, J.F.; Lemaire, E.; Dubs, A.; Osmont, P.; Laurent, J.P.; Steiler, J.M. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise, Maizieres-les-Metz (France))

    1994-05-26

    Various samples of coke have been characterized by diametral compression and the geometry of the porous network has been analysed in terms of fractal structure. It is found that the coke studied exhibits a fractal behaviour on at least two decades. Diametral compression test leads to two different ways of breaking; brittle fracture, and in some cases complex fracture. As expected, the fracture stress is not linked with the fractal dimension in case of brittle fracture, but with the mean size of the largest pores. In case of complex loading conditions, the fracture strength is linked with the fractal dimension. The models of Cook and of Anderson, which integrate fractal description of porous materials in Griffith's theory, do not seem to be valid concerning coke material. The present approach of characterising the porous structure of coke by the fractal dimension seems adapted to explain coke strength, especially under complex stress conditions, but should be extended to an increased number of coke type samples.

  17. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects

  19. Widespread Occurrence of Chemical Residues in Beehive Matrices from Apiaries Located in Different Landscapes of Western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Olivier; Piroux, Mélanie; Puyo, Sophie; Thorin, Chantal; L'Hostis, Monique; Wiest, Laure; Buleté, Audrey; Delbac, Frédéric; Pouliquen, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Background The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues. Methodology/Findings A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC−MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28) than in the pollen (n = 23) or honey bee (n = 20) samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods. Conclusions/Significance Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects of these residues

  20. Intercalation mechanisms of lithium into graphitized needle cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玉长; 尹志民; 徐仲榆

    2001-01-01

    A needle coke was graphitized at different heat treatment temperature (2000℃ to 3000℃). The electrochemical intercalation mechanism of Li into the graphitized coke has been studied in Li|1mol*L-1 LiClO4+ethylene carbonate/diethylene carbonate|graphite cells, using an in-situ X-Ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The study of Li-C intercalation processes of the graphitized coke reveals that there are three major types of intercalation behavior. The first is uniformly intercalated at all Li-C compounds in graphitized coke heated at 2250℃; the second is obviously staging phenomenon during intercalating for the graphitized coke heated at 2750℃; the third is cointercalation of solvated Li-ion at high potential (>0.3V) and then lithium electrochemical intercalation at lower potential for that heated at 3000℃, resulting in the decrease of capacity and efficiency of graphite negative electrode for lithium-ion secondary battery.

  1. Disposal of Waste Plastics With Traditional Coking Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jiu-ju; YU Guang-wei; LIAO Hong-qiang; QIAN Kai; ZHAO Pen; HE Ya-bin

    2006-01-01

    A new technology for treating waste plastics (WP) by traditional coking process was introduced. With a thermo-balance and a 10 g atmospheric fixed bed reactor, the thermo-gravimetric behavior and product were studied during co-coking of WP with blended coal. And then, using a coke-oven with capacity of 200 kg, the characteristics of products were assessed. The results showed that there is an overlapping temperature range (200-550 ℃) of decomposition between WP and blended coal, and the pyrolysis synergism index η and synergism strength β proposed could evaluate the synergism between them. 1% of added WP results in the maximum synergism in all series experiments. The increase of added WP decreases the synergism. Tar yield in co-coking is increased with the decrease of water yield for synergism. Moreover, it was also found that the quality indexes of coke, such as M10, M40, CRI and CSR, are degraded with the increase of WP until 4%, though the quality of tar and gas is optimized for WP addition.

  2. Pretreatment of coking wastewater using anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bing; SUN Ying-lan; LI Yu-ying

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was used to pretreat coking wastewater. Inoculated anaerobic granular biomass was acclimated for 225 d to the coking wastewater, and then the biochemical methane potential (BMP)of the coking wastewater in the acclimated granular biomass was measured. At the same time, some fundamental technological factors, such as the filling time and the reacting time ratio (tf/tr), the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode, that affect anaerobic pretreatment of coking wastewater with ASBR, were evaluated through orthogonal tests. The COD removal efficiency reached 38%~50% in the stable operation period with the organic loading rate of 0.37~0.54 kg COD/(m3.d) at the optimum conditions of tf/tr, the mixing intensity and the intermittent mixing mode. In addition, the biodegradability of coking wastewater distinctly increased after the pretreatment using ASBR. At the end of the experiment, the microorganism forms on the granulated sludge in the ASBR were observed using SEM (scanning electron microscope) and fluoroscope. The results showed that the dominant microorganism on the granular sludge was Methanosaeta instead of Methanosarcina dominated on the inoculated sludge.

  3. Industrial Experiment on Coke Spraying With ZBS Additive in Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-zong; ZHANG Zhu-ming; TANG Qi-yong; YANG Xue-feng; ZHANG Kun-hua; ZHAO Xian-sheng

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the thermal properties of coke, an industrial experiment on the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution was carried out at coking plant and No.6 blast furnace (2 000 m3) of Kunming Iron and Steel Co Ltd. The coke reaction index (CRI) of the coke spraying with ZBS additive solution decreases by 10.56%, and the coke strength after reaction (CSR) increases by 7.80% in comparison with those of the un-sprayed coke. During the experiment, the average iron output increases by 66.69 t/d, and the coke rate is reduced by 5.21 kg per ton iron, while the fluctuation of furnace temperture is small, and sulphur content in hot metal and 100% of hot metal are acceptable.

  4. Method for determining the coking of different types of pyrolysed hydrocarbon crude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Grigorovich, B.A.; Liakumovich, A.G.; Galeeva, E.I.; Trifonov, S.V.; Lobanova, E.E.

    1987-01-01

    An express method has been developed for determining coking and the nature of burnout of coke deposits during pyrolysis of hydrocarbon crude. A new, hitherto unknown effect of non-uniform burnout of the carbon deposits (coke) formed during pyrolysis of hydrocarbons has been established. Although the air pulse selected is sufficient to burn out the entire quantity of coke, it is not burnt out uniformly from pulse to pulse, but spasmodically, creating an individual characteristic of the burnout capacity of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbon fractions. The opportunities provided by the method in studying additives that inhibit coke deposition, the rate of formation and burnout of coke in different temperature zones of the pyrolysis coil, and also the nature of burnout of coke formed during pyrolysis of individual hydrocarbons and their mixtures can be broadened significantly, 7 references, 2 figures.

  5. Thermal treatment of a coal blend for coking in a test facility of the Donetsk Coking Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbykovskii, E.I.; Novitskii, P.L.; Logvinov, A.V.; Shuster, Yu.D.; Golomanskii, N.A.; Kharasik, V.V.; Turik, I.A.; Nekhaenko, V.Ya.

    1986-12-01

    Design and operation are discussed for an experimental facility for heat treatment of coal mixtures for coking used in the Donetsk Coking Plant. The mixture consisted of 80% type G coal and 20% type Zh coal. The treatment system developed jointly by the Donetsk Plant and the Donetsk Technical Institute combined advantages of rotary dryers and fluidized-bed dryers. The dryer consisted of 2 parts: a pipe dryer with a temperature to 100-120 C and a long fluidized-bed chamber (relation of length to width 25 to 1) with a temperature of 200-250 C. Such a configuration of 2 temperature zones prevented deterioration of caking coal properties (which occurred in other heat treatment systems with a final temperature of 200-250 C). Properties of coal mixtures which after preheating in the experimental system were coked under standard conditions, as well as coke properties, are shown in 3 tables. Use of heat treatments increased coke compression strength and reduced its wear index. 3 refs.

  6. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  7. Textural changes in metallurgical coke prepared with polyethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislav S.Gornostayev; Jyrki J.Heino; Tommi M.T.Kokkonen; Hannu T.Makkonen; Satu M.M.Huttunen; Timo M.J.Fabritius

    2014-01-01

    The effect of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) on the textural features of experimental coke was investigated using polar-ized-light optical microscopy and wavelet-based image analysis. Metallurgical coke samples were prepared in a laboratory-scale furnace with 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5%HDPE by mass, and one sample was prepared by 100%coal. The amounts and distribution of textures (isotropic, mosaic and banded) and pores were obtained. The calculations reveal that the addition of HDPE results in a decrease of mosaic texture and an increase of isotropic texture. Ethylene formed from the decomposition of HDPE is considered as a probable reason for the texture modifications. The approach used in this study can be applied to indirect evaluation for the reactivity and strength of coke.

  8. Interactions between coking coals and plastics during co-pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sakurovs [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Division of Energy Technology

    2003-10-01

    Blends of three Australian coking coals and polypropylene, polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile and polyphenylene sulfide were prepared and the extent to which the blends fused on heating was monitored using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis in order to identify interactions between them that could affect their fluidity. Different plastics had different effects. Polystyrene strongly reduced the fluidity of all of the coals, confirming previous findings. Polypropylene did not affect the fluidity of the two coking coals of lower rank. Polyphenylene sulfide reduced the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the solidification temperature of the coals, and polyacrylonitrile appeared to increase the fluidity of the coals at temperatures near the softening temperature of the coals. The very different effects different plastics have on coal fluidity show that the interaction between plastics and coals must be carefully examined before plastics are added to coking coal blends. 28 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A method for regulating the temperature of a coke oven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibata, M.; Fukava, R.; Khiesi, M.; Omaye, Y.; Terasi, M.

    1983-08-25

    In the proposed method data from measurements of the temperature of the hearth of the heating partitions of the coke oven are received every two hours. The obtained factual data is fed by radio to a computer (EVM) for building the time and temperature curves (VTK) for rating the operational systems and coke oven loading modes. The time and temperature curves are output to displays. When there is a change in the time of the programmed loading modes, the W shaped time and temperature curves are shifted parallel until they aligned with the standard time and temperature curve, while the velocity of the stream of heating gas is regulated in such a way that the heating mode in the coke oven meets the specifications of the standard time and temperature curve.

  10. Recent trends in the cokemaking of the Ukraine in view of global coke market problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyka, V. [Giprokoks Institute, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation describes the coke making industry in the Ukraine and other CIS countries (Russia, Kazakhstan, and Georgia). The production and export of coke from the Ukraine has recently increased. The restraining factor will be the supply of domestic coking coal. There are plans for new coke oven batteries and introduction of new technologies. The 12-page text is accompanied by a set of 7 slides/overheads. 6 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Function complex for automated system of coke machinery remote control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonov, N.F.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Slatin, E.I.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1979-05-01

    this paper discusses a functional control system for remote control of coking plants introduced at the KBAiM of the Giprokoks. The control block allows for three modes of operation: fully automatic, by predesignated program according to oven design and technology; semi-automatic, in which individual programs perform automatically, checked and initiated by the operator; and remote, in which the operator controls each operation from the control console. The functions of selecting the location for the coke machinery, signal transmission and control selection have been incorporated as three autonomous but interfacing systems. (In Russian)

  12. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations...

  14. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of...

  15. Application research on hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system based on optical fiber sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Tong, Xinglin

    2014-06-01

    With the development of the optical fiber sensing technology, the acoustic emission sensor has become one of the focal research topics. On the basis of studying the traditional hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system, the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor has been applied in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system for the first time, researching the monitoring signal of the optical fiber acoustic emission sensor in the system. The actual test results show that using the acoustic emission sensor in the hydraulic coke cutting monitoring system can get the real-time and accurate hydraulic coke cutting state and the effective realization of hydraulic coke cutting automatic monitoring in the Wuhan Branch of Sinopec.

  16. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  17. Feasibility of Combustion of Petroleum Coke in 230t/h Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong-tai; SONG Zheng-chang; XU Tao

    2003-01-01

    In order to reuse the high sulfur petroleum coke, the waste in chemical industry, as fuel of power plant for energy recovery, the combustion property of petroleum coke was researched experimentally in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The performance of the boiler in burning mixed fuel with different ratios of coal to petroleum coke is obtained. Based on the experimental data, Factors influencing the stability of combustion,thermal efficiency of boiler, and emissions and desulphurisation are discussed. This study demonstrates that the combustion of petroleum coke in CFB boiler is applicable, and has great significance on the design and operation of CFB boiler to burn petroleum coke.

  18. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhattacharyya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  19. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  20. Oil sand process-affected water treatment using coke adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamal El-Din, M.; Pourrezaei, P.; Chelme-Ayala, P.; Zubot, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Oil sands operations generate an array of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that will eventually be released to the environment. This water must be evaluated within conventional and advanced water treatment technologies. Water management strategies propose options for increased reuse and recycling of water from settling ponds, as well as safe discharge. This presentation outlined the typical composition of OSPW. Constituents of concern in OSPW include suspended solids, hydrocarbons, salts, ammonia, trace metals, and dissolved organics such as naphthenic acids (NAs). Petroleum coke is one of the by-products generated from bitumen extraction in the oil sands industry and can be used as one of the possible treatment processes for the removal of organic compounds found in OSPW. Activated carbon adsorption is an effective process, able to adsorb organic substances such as oils, radioactive compounds, petroleum hydrocarbons, poly aromatic hydrocarbons and various halogenated compounds. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the production of activated carbon from petroleum coke using steam as the activation media; to determine the factors affecting the absorption of NAs; and to evaluate the activated coke adsorption capacity for the reduction of NAs and dissolved organic carbons present in OSPW. It was concluded that petroleum non-activated coke has the ability to decrease COD, alkalinity, and NA concentration. tabs., figs.

  1. The history of a unique South Wales coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, P.

    2006-07-01

    During 1914 the Coppee Company was contracted to build two batteries of 30 coke ovens, a washery and by-product plant at Coed Ely in the Ely Valley, South Wales, near to a productive colliery. The coal was formed into a cake by stamping it into a mould slightly smaller than the oven. Straw was used as a binder. The coke produced was ideal for iron making. The article describes the stamp charging process, the cooling process, and the by-product plant producing a 'tar oil winter wash' (ammonium sulphateude benzol and coal gas). It describes the construction and later extensions of the batteries. It recounts the history of the rail system linking the coking plant and the mine and has illustrated descriptions of Locomotive Coedely, Locomotive Ferndale, Locomotive Tynycoed and Locomotive Austerity 0-6-OST. The coking works was finally closed in October 1983, following the 1979 change of government which shut the industry from all sides. Today the hillside is landscaped and grass is beginning to grow where the works once was. This article was fist published in the Archive Magazine, No. 41, of March 2004, pp 3-26. 25 figs.

  2. 29 CFR 1910.1029 - Coke oven emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Exposure to coke oven emissions is a cause of lung cancer, and kidney cancer, in humans. Although... to which other Federal agencies exercise statutory authority to prescribe or enforce standards... status of the program. (7) Training in compliance procedures. The employer shall incorporate all...

  3. Thickness Optimization for Petroleum Coke in Microwave Dehydrating Based on the Analysis of Dynamic Absorption Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaobiao; Chen, Junruo; Peng, Jinhui; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Weifeng; Guo, Shenghui; Chen, Guo

    2015-07-01

    An analytical approach is proposed to optimize the thickness of petroleum coke for achieving maximum microwave power absorption in microwave heating based on analysis of reflection loss (RL). The microwave RL of the petroleum coke layer was studied over the moisture content range of 1%-5% at 20 °C and the petroleum coke (10% moisture content) in the temperature range of 20 to 100 °C at 2.45 GHz. The results show that RL depends sensitively on the thickness of the petroleum coke and the absorption peak shifts towards a larger thickness as the moisture content of the petroleum coke increases. There exists a matching thickness corresponding to the maximum microwave absorption, the maximum absorbing peak decreases when the thickness of petroleum coke exceeds the matching thickness. We also show that the absorption peak is found to move towards a smaller thickness region with increasing petroleum coke temperature.

  4. Soluções conservantes em sorvetão pós-colheita Preservative solutions in beehive ginger post-harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Herbênia Lima Cruz Santos

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar alguns aspectos da fisiologia pós-colheita de inflorescências de sorvetão cultivadas no Submédio São Francisco. Hastes florais recém-colhidas foram submetidas a diferentes tratamentos (água destilada; 75mg L-1 de nitrato de prata - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 de cloreto de cobalto - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de ácido giberélico - GA3 - Progibb® e 10mg L-1 de 6-Benzilaminopurina - BAP, em ambiente com temperatura e umidade controlada por 15 dias. A vida pós-colheita foi acompanhada a partir da escala de notas, da massa da matéria fresca e do consumo da solução conservante. O tratamento com AgNO3 em hastes de sorvetão, foi o mais eficiente na manutenção da vida de vaso de sorvetão, porém, devido a sua toxidez, recomenda-se o uso de GA3.The objective of this research was to study some physiological post-harvest aspect of beehive ginger inflorescences grown in the lower middle San Francisco river basin. Flower stems just harvested were submitted to different treatments (distilled water; 75mg L-1 of silver nitrate - AgNO3; 1000mg L-1 of cobalt chloride - CoCl2; 5mg L-1 de GA3 - Progibb® and 10mg L-1 of 6-benzylamino purine - BAP, in an environment with controlled temperature and humidity, for 15 days. The post-harvest life was monitored from grading scale, fresh weight, and consumption of the preservative solution. The treatment with silver nitrate was the most efficient to keep the vase life of beehive ginger, however due to its toxity, the use of GA3 is recommended.

  5. Combination of beehive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity to study heavy metal pollution impact in a post-mining area (Sardinia, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satta, Alberto; Verdinelli, Marcello; Ruiu, Luca; Buffa, Franco; Salis, Severyn; Sassu, Antonio; Floris, Ignazio

    2012-11-01

    Mining activities represent a major source of environment contamination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of bees and ants as bioindicators to detect the heavy metal impact in post-mining areas. A biomonitoring programme involving a combination of honeybee hive matrices analysis and ant biodiversity survey was conducted over a 3-year period. The experimental design involved three monitoring stations where repeated sampling activities focused on chemical detection of cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr) and lead (Pb) from different matrices, both from hosted beehives (foraging bees, honey and pollen) and from the surrounding environment (stream water and soil). At the same time, ant biodiversity (number and abundance of species) was determined through a monitoring programme based on the use of pitfall traps placed in different habitats inside each mining site. The heavy metal content detected in stream water from the control station was always below the analytical limit of quantification. In the case of soil, the content of Cd and Pb from the control was lower than that of mining sites. The mean heavy metal concentrations in beehive matrices from mining sites were mainly higher than the control, and as a result of regression and discriminant analysis, forager bee sampling was an efficient environmental pollution bioindicator. Ant collection and identification highlighted a wide species variety with differences among habitats mostly associated with vegetation features. A lower variability was observed in the polluted landfill characterised by lack of vegetation. Combined biomonitoring with forager bees and ants represents a reliable tool for heavy metal environmental impact studies.

  6. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coking industries in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Mu; Lin Peng; Junji Cao; Qiusheng He; Fan Li; Jianqiang Zhang; Xiaofeng Liu

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from coking industries,with field samplings conducted at four typical coke plants.For each selected plant,stack flue gas samples were collected during processes that included charging coal into the ovens (CC),pushing coke (PC) and the combustion of coke-oven gas (CG).Sixteen individual PAHs on the US EPA priority list were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS).Results showed that the total PAH concentrations in the flue gas ranged from 45.776 to 414.874 μg/m3,with the highest emission level for CC (359.545 μg/m3).The concentration of PAH emitted from the CC process in CP1 (stamp charging) was lower than that from CP3 and CP4 (top charging).Low-molecular-weight PAHs (i.e.,two-to three-ring PAHs) were predominant contributors to the total PAH contents,and Nap,AcPy,Flu,PhA,and AnT were found to be the most abundant ones.Total BaPeq concentrations for CC (2.248 iμg/m3) were higher than those for PC (1.838 μg/m3) and CG (1.082 μg/m3),and DbA was an important contributor to carcinogenic risk as BaP in emissions from coking processes.Particulate PAH accounted for more than 20% of the total BaPeq concentrations,which were significantly higher than the corresponding contributions to the total PAH mass concentration (5%).Both particulate and gaseous PAH should be taken into consideration when the potential toxicity risk of PAH pollution during coking processes is assessed.The mean total-PAH emission factors were 346.132 and 93.173 μg/kg for CC and PC,respectively.

  7. Comparative study of reactivity to CO{sub 2} of cokes used in stone wool production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leth-Miller, R.; Jensen, L.M.; Hansen, P.B. [Rockwool International A/S Hovedgaden 584, DK 2640, Hedehusene (Denmark); Jensen, A.D.; Jensen, J.; Glarborg, P.; Joergensen, S.B. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2005-02-25

    The reactivity towards CO{sub 2} of seven types of commercial coke used in stone wool production has been measured in a thermo gravimetric analyser (TGA). The cokes originated from Western and Eastern Europe and from China. For three of the cokes, the porosity, density and surface area were determined. The directly measured porosities of the cokes was slightly low, indicating that there are pores that are not connected with the outer surface. This is supported by the measured densities and microphotos. The measurements showed that the Chinese cokes were the least reactive while the European cokes made on American coal were the most reactive. The reactivity of the one Eastern European coke in the measurements had an intermediate reactivity. Simulations with a cupola model show that 25% more coke is needed for stone wool production if the coke is changed to a type with half the reactivity towards O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. The TGA method proved to be a good method for ranking the coke with respect to reactivity with CO{sub 2}.

  8. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  9. Research about the Impact of Coke Thermal Performance When Distributing Australian Coke%配入澳煤对焦炭热性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明远; 纪长洋; 万红兵; 蒋成

    2012-01-01

    The impact of coke thermal performance when distributing Australian coke can be researched, according to existing coking coal blending coal plant chongqing small coke oven blending test,coke thermal performance test, coke microcrystalline structure experiment.The results show that different blending option, coke microcrystalline structure and thermal properties are different.If increase the quantity of the Macao coal, in the little change of the thermal properties of coke, the production cost can be reduced greatly.%通过对重钢焦化厂焦化配煤煤种进行特性检测,小焦炉配煤试验,焦炭热性能检测试验及焦炭微晶结构分析,研究澳媒对焦炭热性能的影响。结果表明,澳煤的技术指标接近焦煤,在配煤方案中可代替部分肥煤或焦煤。配入20%左右的澳煤,相应降低肥煤和焦煤配入比例所得到的焦炭其热性能较稳定。

  10. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianhu; Huang, Xiaoming; Pan, Min; Jin, Song; Peng, Suchuan; Fallgren, Paul H

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD)(,) and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  11. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Jer Y.

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  12. Ignition Dynamic Parameters for Coke in Cement Calciners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical ignition model was established and researches of ignition dynamic parameters for coke in some typical coal samples from cement plants was carried out according to circumstances of coal combusted in cement plants.In order to get the ignitioin temperature Tpi of carbon particles more accurately,the temperature rising experimental method was used and the actual heating circumstances for pulverized coal in calciners(in cement plants)were also considered.With this method,the accurate determination of the ignition temperature of coke in coal was achieved,so as to get some ignition dynamic parameters.These research results provide a theoretical basis for investigating coal ignition characteristics more scientifically and more accurately.

  13. Standard method for proximate analysis of coal and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    ASTM methods are cited that cover the determination of moisture, volatile matter, and ash and the calculation of fixed carbon in coals and cokes sampled and prepared by prescribed methods. The methods cited may be used to establish rank of coals, to show the ratio of combustible to incombustible constituents, to provide the basis for buying and selling, and to evaluate for beneficiation or for other purposes. (BLM)

  14. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzina, T.

    1983-03-04

    The patent covers an additive for a petroleum coke and watersuspension which contains soap of an aliphatic acid (AM) and or a salt of a maleic acid copolymer (SMK). The aliphatic acid soap is a salt of an alkaline earth metal of C6 to C22 aliphatic acid, an ammonium salt or a salt of a lower amine. The maleic acid copolymer is a salt (sodium, NH4) of a lower amine of a maleic anhydride copolymer with a copolymerizing vinyl additive. Capric acid, lauric acid, palmatic acid, aleic and other acids may be used as the aliphatic acid, while methylamine, trimethylamine, diethanolamine, morpholine and so on may be used as the lower amine salt. Ethylene, vinylchloride, methyl(meta)acrylate and so on are used as the polymerizing vinyl compound. The molar ratio of the maleic anhydride to the polymerizing vinyl compound is in a range from 1 to 1 to 1 to 10 (preferably 1 to 1 to 1 to 3). The maleic acid copolymer has a mean molecular mass within 1,000 to 5,000. The additive with the optimal composition contains a solvent, a thickener, an anticorrosion substance, anticoagulants, surfacants (PAV) and so on. A highly concentrated suspension of oil coke and water with a 50 to 75 percent concentration of powder form petroleum coke may be produced using the patented additive. Such a suspension is characterized by low viscosity, high stability and forms no foam during processing.

  15. Wet oxidation of real coke wastewater containing high thiocyanate concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulego, Paula; Collado, Sergio; Garrido, Laura; Laca, Adriana; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Coke wastewaters, in particular those with high thiocyanate concentrations, represent an important environmental problem because of their very low biodegradability. In this work, the treatment by wet oxidation of real coke wastewaters containing concentrations of thiocyanate above 17 mM has been studied in a 1-L semi-batch reactor at temperatures between 453 and 493 K, with total oxygen pressures in the range of 2.0-8.0 MPa. A positive effect of the matrix of real coke wastewater was observed, resulting in faster thiocyanate degradation than was obtained with synthetic wastewaters. Besides, the effect of oxygen concentration and temperature on thiocyanate wet oxidation was more noticeable in real effluents than in synthetic wastewaters containing only thiocyanate. It was also observed that the degree of mineralization of the matrix organic compounds was higher when the initial thiocyanate concentration increased. Taking into account the experimental data, kinetic models were obtained, and a mechanism implying free radicals was proposed for thiocyanate oxidation in the matrix considered. In all cases, sulphate, carbonates and ammonium were identified as the main reaction products of thiocyanate wet oxidation.

  16. Human health risk characterization of petroleum coke calcining facility emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Davinderjit; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2015-12-01

    Calcining processes including handling and storage of raw petroleum coke may result in Particulate Matter (PM) and gaseous emissions. Concerns have been raised over the potential association between particulate and aerosol pollution and adverse respiratory health effects including decrements in lung function. This risk characterization evaluated the exposure concentrations of ambient air pollutants including PM10 and gaseous pollutants from a petroleum coke calciner facility. The ambient air pollutant levels were collected through monitors installed at multiple locations in the vicinity of the facility. The measured and modeled particulate levels in ambient air from the calciner facility were compared to standards protective of public health. The results indicated that exposure levels were, on occasions at sites farther from the facility, higher than the public health limit of 150 μg/m(3) 24-h average for PM10. However, the carbon fraction demonstrated that the contribution from the calciner facility was de minimis. Exposure levels of the modeled SO2, CO, NOx and PM10 concentrations were also below public health air quality standards. These results demonstrate that emissions from calcining processes involving petroleum coke, at facilities that are well controlled, are below regulatory standards and are not expected to produce a public health risk.

  17. Factors affecting coke size and fissuring during cokemaking part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Jeff Keating; Susan Woodhouse [BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work; experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling the carbonisation process to achieve required outcomes in terms of coke lump size and distribution. Key outcomes of the work included: A methodology for determination of the minimum spacing between fissures, and the time at which period doublings (i.e. every second fissure stopping) occur, has been developed and implemented. Implementation of the methodology allows the determination of the complete fissure pattern (at least those perpendicular to the oven walls) for a given coke oven/charge configuration. A plausible mechanistic explanation of the formation of lateral fissures (those that are parallel to the oven walls) has been developed. Knowledge of the fissure pattern, combined with the lateral fissuring explanation, enables the determination of typical size and shape of lumps after stabilisation of the coke.

  18. Effect of pretreatment methods of raw material on coking of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking%原料预处理方法对延迟焦化成焦的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴甦; 王磊; 王小冰; 菜闯

    2012-01-01

    介绍了针状焦的工业生产方法,分析了不同的原料软沥青处理方法以及原料的结构和组成对延迟焦化成焦的影响.%The methods of manufacturing needle coke were introduced. And the effects of different pretreatment methods, the structure and composition of the raw material on the formation of needle coke from coal tar pitch by delayed coking were analyzed.

  19. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  20. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  1. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  2. High PCI and low coke rate BF operation in ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauwels, G.; Clairay, S.; Hess, E.; Janz, J.; Goimard, J.C.; Eymond, J.L. [ArcelorMittal (France)

    2008-07-01

    Coke production capacity within ArcelorMittal is not sufficient to provide the amount of coke needed for the total hot metal production. In order to address the challenges regarding coke availability, ArcelorMittal Flat Carbon Europe (FCE) sector has applied a low coke operation pulverized coal injection (PCI) technology to 17 of its blast furnaces across Europe. This paper described the charging pattern, blast conditions, hearth drainage and burden quality needed for high PCI rates. The coal injection rates of the different blast furnaces has been increased from 150-180 kg/thm to 180-200 kg/thm with a good replacement ratio. The lessons learned from high coal injection rate operations were discussed. The long term objective for FCE is to average a coal injection level of 200-220 kg/thm. This paper also discussed issues of coal quality, such as selection of coal; influence of coal quality on the blast furnace operation; and influence of coke quality on hearth drainage and hot metal quality. Coke quality was also discussed in terms of coke requirements and new global coke quality parameters. The difficulties in increasing PCI rate were shown to be associated with ferrous burden quality, particularly sinter. Adjustments to coke layer thickness can prevent instabilities. 8 refs., 23 figs.

  3. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  4. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T. [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y.; Nishioka, K.; Otsuka, J. [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Optimisation of coal blend and bulk density for coke ovens by vibrocompacting technique non-recovery ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, P.P.; Vinoo, D.S.; Yadav, U.S.; Ghosh, S.; Lal, J.P.N. [J.S.W. Steel Ltd, Bellary (India)

    2007-09-15

    The quality of coke produced in a coke oven depends on the coal blend characteristics and carbonisation conditions. Scarcity of good quality coking coal made it necessary to look for techniques capable of producing superior coke from inferior coals. Precarbonisation techniques improve the bulk density of the coal charge and produce good quality coke from inferior coals. The stamp charging technique, the most effective among them requires finer crushing of coal and higher moisture as binder, both requiring additional energy. JSW Steel has adopted vibrocompaction along with non-recovery ovens for its 1.2 Mtpa coke production. This is a highly ecofriendly coke making process producing excellent quality coke from inferior coals. It increases the bulk density of cake, similar to stamp charging, using compaction in place of stamping. A cake density of 1.10 t m{sup -3} has been achieved using the vibrocompacting technique with optimum moisture and crushing fineness. Coal blend containing up to 35% soft coal and coking coal, having 32% volatile matter have been successfully used to produce a coke with coke strength after reaction >65%, coke reactivity index <25% and M10 <6%. The paper discusses the experience of operating vibrocompaction non-recovery coke ovens.

  6. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  7. Preparation and Anti-coking Property of SiO2/S Coating on HP40 Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建新; 徐宏; 张莉; 刘京雷; 戚学贵; 彭博

    2007-01-01

    SiO2/S coating was prepared on the inner surface of an HP40 tube using dimethyldisulfide and tetraethylorthosilicate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) to alleviate catalytic coking on the inner surface of radiant tube for ethylene production in petrochemical plants. The comparative coking experiments with the coated and uncoated HP40 tubes were carried out under the same cracking conditions. SiO2/S coating was compact and had excellent anti-coking property. The coke on the coated HP40 tube was about 22% of that on the uncoated HP40 tube, and only small granular coke was deposited on the coated HP40 tube. However, the filamentous coke formed on the uncoated HP40 tube. The thermal stability of SiO2/S coating was satisfactory at cracking temperature, and the anti-coking property of SiO2/S coating was still over 60% after 3 coking and decoking cycles.

  8. Carbon molecular sieves from bituminous coal by controlled coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Gangadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    Carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and zeolites are widely used as microporous sieving solids for gas and liquid separations. However, due to hydrophobicity, better thermal stability, and neutrality in both acidic and alkaline media, CMSs have definite advantages over zeolites. In the present work, an effort has been made to develop suitable process conditions for synthesizing CMSs from the locally available bituminous coal. The coal was crushed, milled, and agglomerated with sulfate pulp waste liquor (SPWL) or coal-tar pitch (CTP) as the binders, and then carbonized in nitrogen atmosphere at 800{degree}C for about 60 minutes. In order to narrow down the pore mouth sizes, acetylene and benzene were each cracked separately at 800{degree}C to facilitate the deposition of coke on the char. Acetylene and benzene were cracked for 3 to 10 minutes, and 10 to 30 minutes, respectively. Acetylene cracked samples did not show good separation, probably because of over-coking in deeper locations. In contrast benzene cracked samples were found to be highly suitable for CO{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} separation. The best result (i.e. uptake ratio of 39.9) was obtained for feed benzene entrainment in N{sub 2} of 1.27 x 10{sup -4} g/ml, cracking time of 30 minutes, and this ratio was more than 10 times that of non-coked sample. CMS samples produced using SPWL as binder showed poor O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} uptake ratios throughout (1 to 1.5), whereas samples with CTP as binder showed far more encouraging results, the best uptake ratio being 5.5 for benzene-nitrogen feed stream containing 3.508 x 10{sup -4} g/ml benzene and 5 minutes cracking time. This ratio is about 5.5 times more than that of uncoked sample. 4 tabs., 10 figs., 17 refs.

  9. High Heat Flux Surface Coke Deposition and Removal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    etc. have on coke deposition from RP-1 and RP-2 as well as showing that we can oxidize and remove these deposits using ozone , would be very...Meeting; 29 Apr. - 3 May, Colorado Springs, CO. 10Billingsley, M.C. H.Y. Lyu and R.W. Bates (2007). "Experimental and Numerical Investigations of RP...5th Modeling and Simulation Subcommittee Joint Meeting, Denver, CO, 14-17 May. 11Linne, D.L., M. L. Meyer, T. Edwards, and D. A. Eitman (1997

  10. Study on soot purifying of molding shop in coking factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Duo-song; ZHANG Hui; BAI Xiang-yu

    2006-01-01

    Exhaust gas in molding shop was complicated in component and characteristic in Iow thickness asphalt smoke, mass steam-gas and dust. It was difficult to purify the soot with common purifier. So we must consider them roundly and develop new multifunction purifier. PFP multifunction soot purifier was made on the base of design optimization and was installed at Shenhuo Coking Factory in 2004. The combined effects of multi- mechanism in purifier make purifying ratio keep in high level. The remove ratio of smut reaches at 92.8%, and asphalt smoke at 83.7%.

  11. 焦炉推焦粉尘治理工艺选择及设备配置%Technological Selection of Dust Treatment and Equipment Collocation While Coking in Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜乃斌; 邢显昌

    2012-01-01

      The article probes into the technological selection of dust treatment and equipment col ocation while coke choosing in coke oven; makes focus on and analyzes the three main topics of flue dust col ection, transportation and dust filter-ing of dust treatment in coke oven tapping.

  12. Application of fine-grained coke breeze fractions in the process of iron ore sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Niesler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing cycle, described in the paper, included fine-grained coke breeze granulation tests and iron concentrate sintering tests with the use of selected granulate samples. The use of granulated coke breeze in the sintering process results in a higher process efficiency, shorter sintering duration and fuel saving.

  13. RECOVERY AND DESTRUCTIVE TREATMENT OF HARMFUL SUBSTANCE IN COKING PLANT WASTEWATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Jianguang

    2000-01-01

    This paper discussed the comprehensive treatment of coking plant effluent.Cyanide-containing and phenol wastewater was first recovered and utilized respectively, and then, mixed it with other low harmful wastewater for destroying treatment.Treated water was reused in quenching coke.

  14. Interaction of bonding agent with filler in coking-pitch compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firsanov, A.V.; Beylina, N.Yu.; Kolodin, E.A.; Ostrovskiy, V.S.; Proskuryakov, V.A.; Shipkov, N.N.

    1983-01-01

    Coke's selective sorption of highly molecular components of pitch was determined with the aid of gel-penetrating chromatography. It was shown that behavior of pitch in coking-pitch compositions, as well as the nature of release of pyrolysis products is determined by dispersion of the filler.

  15. Characteristics of interaction between petrographically differing coals in mixtures for coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevich, A.S.; Proskuryakov, A.E.; Zolotukhin, Yu.A.

    1983-09-01

    Coal mixtures used for coking in the East of the USSR are characterized by intensive fluctuations of coak rank and petrology. Reflectivity coefficient of vitrinite ranges from 0.73 to 1.70% and content of caking components ranges from 30 to 88%. Evaluations show that fluctuations of reflectivity coefficient of vitrinite and fluctuations of caking component content in coal negatively influence coke mechanical properties and increase coke reactivity. Effects of coal macerals and microlithotypes in black coal from the Kuzbass on coke properties are analyzed. The following microlithotypes are separated from coal: vitrite, clarite, duroclarite, clarodurite, durite, fusite, semivitrinite, mineralized coal and rocks. Effects of macerals and microlithotypes in 50 coal mixtures on coke quality and coke properties are analyzed. Regression analysis is used. On the basis of this analysis equations for forecasting coke properties are derived. Petrologic nonhomogeneity of coal mixtures deteriorates conditions for chemical interaction between components with differing genetics and negatively influences caking of vitrite and fusite (or durite). Coke from coal characterized by petrologic nonhomogeneity has a structure with low degree of order, low mechanical and structural strength and increased reactivity. (5 refs.) (In Russian)

  16. Development and Application of Zero Expansion Silica Brick for Hot Repairing of Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiuqin; ZHI Xiaoming; WANG Hongmei

    2003-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of hot repairing technology of coke oven, the zero expansion silica brick with super properties has been developed, and the problem of poor thermal stability of common silica brick has been overcomned. This product can be directly used after being rapidly heated after construction. At present, it has been applied in coke ovens in Italy and Baosteel.

  17. Environment protection in the area of by-products facilities in coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Tomal; Henryk Zembala; Krzysztof Kalinowski; Milan Fedorov; Ludovt Kosnac; Jan Hromiak [Biuro Projektow Koksoprojekt Sp. z o.o., Zabrze (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    20 slides/overheads outline the presentation on the subject of the environmental protection program implemented at the U.S. Steel Kosice Coking Plant. Actions taken include the control of emissions by a system of cooling coke oven gas. A hermetically sealed system uses nitrogen flow for tar management and hermetic loading of the liquid coal by-product Benzol.

  18. Application of SketchUp in Coke Oven Three-Dimensional Digital Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuguang Ouyang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke oven, which is a large industrial furnace, is complex in structure. A two-dimensional structure diagram can hardly help one observe the inner structure of a coke oven or master its working principle comprehensively. In order to solve this problem, a complete 3D digital model of a coke oven is generated by assembling the three-dimensional models of coke oven components created with SketchUp. It enables users to section the various components of the cove oven. The outer appearance and inner structure of the oven components also can be displayed visually from several different orientations. Moreover, it is convenient to storage and carry, operation easily and fast. It can be displayed on an ordinary computer and occupies no space at the laboratory. Meanwhile, a large sum of money that used for purchasing a physical coke oven model can be saved.

  19. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  20. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by use of a simulated moving bed reactor. Mogi idoso wo mochiita kyusoku shoon ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Sano, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of CArbonaceous Resources Conversion); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Iwakiri, H. (Kobe Steel, Ltd., Kobe (Japan))

    1992-12-20

    An experiment to manufacture coke with rapid temperature raising was carried out using an equipment simulating a vertical moving bed coke oven. Two kinds of trial manufacturing patterns were tested: Pattern A to raise coal temperature rapidly to about 450[degree]C, which is held for about 20 minutes, and then raised again to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min, and pattern B to raise the temperature from about 300[degree]C to 800[degree]C at a rate of about 5[degree]C/min. An experiment on test samples from heavy caking coal (PDH coal) and light caking coal (OP coal) revealed the following results: The PDH coal applied with the pattern A produced in about two hours a coke with quality equivalent to or better than practically used coke; the temperature raising pattern B resulted in no full lump formation even with the PDH coal; according to the temperature raising pattern A, manufacturing coke from the OP coal is impossible; however, if the PDH coal or pitch is mixed with the OP coal, coke may be manufactured. 6 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. The Transient Modal Dynamic Analysis of a Coke Tower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Teng-teng; SUN Tie; XING Ling; ZHANG Su-xiang

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic analysis must be performed when the duration of the applied load is short or if the load is dynamic in nature. Wind load, as a random load, can lead to the vibration of the coke tower. In order to study the influence to the strength of the coke tower by wind, ABAQUS was used to conduct the transient modal dynamic analysis of the wind load. The response of the structure during loading and unloading was mainly observed. The results indicate that, with the effect of wind, the maximal nodal displacement appears at the top of the tower, which is 0.79 mm; while the maximal stress locates at the node around the skirt, the maximum is 3.26 MPa. Both of the displacement and stress cannot cause the failure of the structure. After loading and unloading, the structure engenders vibration along the loading direction. The frequency is 10 Hz, under the effect of external loads, it may easily cause the resonance of the structure, which can cause damage to the structure. So it must be taken into consideration during the process of design and operation.

  2. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzino, T.

    1982-10-18

    An additive to a petroleum coke and water suspension is proposed. The additive consists of a compound with the formula (RCONHCH2C(R')HO(AO)1H, where R is a C1 to C30 unsaturated acyl group, R' is hydrogen, CH3, A is C2 to C4 alkylene, l = 0 to 500, m + n = 0 to 1,000, salt of alkaline metal, salt of ammonium or salt of lower amine and sulfurous ether. The method may be used to produce an aqueous suspension which has a concentration of petroleum coke powder of 50 to 70 percent. The viscosity of the suspension is low, the stability high, no floculation or sedimentation are observed and there is no foam formation. Monoethanolamide, diethanolamide, monoesoproyanolamide and diisopropanolamide of C1 to C30 acid of the fatty series or alkylenoxide (ethylenoxide, propylenoxide, isobutylenoxide and tetrahydrofurane) are used as the (RCONHCH2C(R')HO(AO)1H and a lithium salt

  3. Treatment of coking wastewater by using manganese and magnesium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Tianhu; Huang Xiaoming; Pan Min [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Jin Song, E-mail: sjin@uwyo.edu [MWH Americas, 3665 JFK Parkway, Suite 206, Fort Collins, CO 80525 (United States); Department Civil and Architectural Engineering, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Peng Suchuan [School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei City 230009 (China); Fallgren, Paul H. [Western Research Institute, 365 North 9th Street, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study investigated a wastewater treatment technique based on natural minerals. A two-step process using manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg) containing ores were tested to remove typical contaminants from coking wastewater. Under acidic conditions, a reactor packed with Mn ore demonstrated strong oxidizing capability and destroyed volatile phenols, chemical oxygen demand (COD){sub ,} and sulfide from the coking wastewater. The effluent was further treated by using Mg ore to remove ammonium-nitrogen and phosphate in the form of magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite) precipitates. When pH of the wastewater was adjusted to 1.2, the removal efficiencies for COD, volatile phenol and sulfide reached 70%, 99% and 100%, respectively. During the second step of precipitation, up to 94% of ammonium was removed from the aqueous phase, and precipitated in the form of struvite with phosphorus. The struvite crystals showed a needle-like structure. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the crystallized products.

  4. External structure and properties of coke as a function of the petrographic characteristics of the coal mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankevich, A.S.; Zolotukhin, Yu.A.; Proskuryakov, A.E.; P' yankova, I.S.

    1980-10-01

    Statistical analysis of the results of an investigation of the petrographic composition of carbonisation blends showed that variation in the content of coking components has a marked effect on the porous structure of the coke. As this parameter increases, the quantity of large pores in the coke also increases and the proportion of small and medium-size pores decreases. This leads to a decrease in the mechanical strength of the coke and an increase in reactivity. When selecting carbonisation charges to produce coke of desired quality, it is thus important to take account of the petrographic composition of the blend.

  5. Formation of coke in thermal cracking of jet fuel under supercritical conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong ZHU; Caixiang YU; Zimu LI; Zhentao MI; Xiangwen ZHANG

    2008-01-01

    Continuous-flow reactor experiments were carried out to study coke formation from thermal crack-ing of home-made jet fuel RP-3 under supercritical con-ditions. The mechanism and precursor of coke forming were analyzed. The starting cracking temperature of RP-3 fuel was determined to be 471.8℃ by differential scan-ning calorimetry (DSC). Temperature-programmed oxidation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterizations of the stressed tubes showed that there are three different coke species including chemisorbed carbon, amorphous carbon and filamentous coke in the solid deposits. More than 90% of coke deposits are carried away by the supercritical fluid, which has strong capabilities of extraction for coke deposits and their pre-cursors. There were 17.1 wt-% of iron and 11.1 wt-% of chromium found on the coke surface detected by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) which suggests carbure-tion on alloy. RP-3 fuel and its cracking liquids were analyzed by GC-MS,which showed that the content of alkyl benzene and alkyl naphthalene increased evidently in cracking liquids.

  6. The Release of Trace Elements in the Process of Coal Coking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Konieczyński

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the penetration of individual trace elements into the air through their release in the coal coking process, it is necessary to determine the loss of these elements by comparing their contents in the charge coal and in coke obtained. The present research covered four coke oven batteries differing in age, technology, and technical equipment. By using mercury analyzer MA-2 and the method of ICP MS As, Be, Cd, Co, Hg, Mn, Ni, Se, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn were determined in samples of charge coal and yielded coke. Basing on the analyses results, the release coefficients of selected elements were determined. Their values ranged from 0.5 to 94%. High volatility of cadmium, mercury, and thallium was confirmed. The tests have shown that although the results refer to the selected case studies, it may be concluded that the air purity is affected by controlled emission occurring when coke oven batteries are fired by crude coke oven gas. Fugitive emission of the trace elements investigated, occurring due to coke oven leaks and openings, is small and, is not a real threat to the environment except mercury.

  7. Dependence of optical structure of coke from black coal on petrologic peculiarities of the coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskuryakov, A.E.; Stankevich, A.S.; Podchishchaeva, N.I.; Shkoller, M.B.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes factors that influence optical structure of coke from Kuzbass black coal. An optical microscope (magnification 800-2,000 times) was used. On the basis of investigations 8 types of optical structures in coke were determined: an isotropic structure, fine grain structure, medium grain structure, large grain structure, fibre-like structure, inertinite structure and a relict structure. The following criteria for determining optical structures are used: optical character of coke matter, grain size, grain geometry, microlites and primary structure. Using regression analysis, dependence of the optical structures on the following indices were derived: vitrinite reflectivity, vitrinite content and reduction degree. 12 refs.

  8. Synthesis of carbon molecular sieves by activation and coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, S.N.; Patwardhan, S.R.; Vijayalakshmi, S.; Gandadhar, B. (Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    Carbon molecular sieves were synthesized from indigenous bituminous coal and coconut shell. After preliminary treatment, these materials were subjected to steam or carbon dioxide activation in the range 500-900[degree]C. In other experiments the raw materials were partly air-oxidized at [approximately] 200[degree]C, mixed with binder and extruded to cylindrical pellets, which were subjected to coke deposition by cracking of methane in the range 750-780[degree]C for 5-14 min. All the products were characterized by analysis of kinetic and equilibrium adsorption data. The molecular sieve performance was judged by the O[sub 2]/N[sub 2] uptake ratio. The best carbon molecular sieves, obtained by methane cracking at 780[degree]C at a flow of 100 ml min[sup -1] had an uptake ratio of 2.667. 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. A device for determining the regularity factor of coke yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Bannikov, L.S.; Grishin, S.P.; Parfenov, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device which determines the regularity factor of coke yield, which contains a furnace output monitoring unit, which is connected to the meter's input and an indicator, also contains a programmer, a comparator, a second meter, a multiplier and a divider to increase the efficiency and the reliability of information and to reduce manual labor. Here, the first output from the programmer is connected to the multiplier's input while the second output is connected to the initial inputs of the divider and the comparator, the second input of which is connected to the first indicator's output, while the output is connected to the second indicator's input, the output of which is connected to the divider's second input; the output of the divider is connected to the multiplier's second input and to the indicator which is connected to the multiplier's output.

  10. Influence of carbonization conditions on micro-pore structure of foundry formed coke produced with char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Qiao; Jianjun Wu; Jingru Zu; Zhiyuan Gao; Guoli Zhou

    2009-07-01

    There are few studies on coke's micro-pore structure in recent years, however, micro-pore structure of foundry coke determines its macroscopically quality index and reactivity in cupola furnace. Effect of such factors on micro-pore structure were investigated under different carbonization conditions with certain ratio of raw materials and material forming process in this article as charging temperature (A); braised furnace time (B); heating rate of the first stage (C)and the second stage (D) and holding time of ultimate temperature (E). Research showed that charging temperature was the most influential factor on the coke porosity, pore volume, pore size and specific surface area. It is suggested that formation of plastic mass and releasing rate of volatile during carbonization period are two main factors on microstructure of foundry coke while charging temperature contributes most to the above factors. 6 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Design of 7 m coke scraping device%7m扒焦机的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔海洋; 杜芳蕊; 刘万刚

    2015-01-01

    介绍了一种7m扒焦机,主要由车体、扒焦装置和熄焦输送装置等组成,具有结构简单、模块化拆装和造价低廉等特点,能够安全高效地解决焦炉难推焦问题。%This paper introduces a 7m coke scraping device,which is mainly composed of steel struc-ture platform,coke scraping unit and coke quenching&conveying unit. It has the advantages of sim-ply structure,module assembly & disassembly and low cost,and it could safely and efficiently solve the problem of hard pushing in coke oven battery.

  12. Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM.

  13. Effect of injecting inert particles on coking prohibition and particle velocity uniformization in downer reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.Y.; Zhu, Y.; Tian, Y.J.; Xie, K.C. [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Inst. of Chemical Engineering & Technology

    2007-02-15

    The coking observation and particle flow behaviour in both thermal plasma and cold plexiglas downers were investigated in a binary particle system formed by injecting coarse inert particles (carrying coke away and scouring wall) and fine coal powders into the downer reactor. The results demonstrate that this scheme is a rational selection to prevent coking on downer walls and improve particle velocity distribution along the radial direction. When injected coarse particles mixed with fine powders in downers, the fluctuation of local particle velocity in the radial direction becomes smaller and two peaks in the radial distribution of local particle velocity occur due to the improved dispersing character and flow structure, which are beneficial to the thermo-plasma coal cracking reaction and coking prevention.

  14. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  15. The New Method of XRD Measurement of the Degree of Disorder for Anode Coke Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative analysis by X-ray powder diffraction of two cokes (pitch coke and petroleum coke shows that their crystal structure changed with increasing temperature. The crystal data processing of the crystallization degree of disorder is used with further improvement of the proposed microcrystalline-stacking fault calculation method. With this improvement it is now possible to obtain the degree of stacking disorder of two cokes applied as anode materials at different graphitization temperatures. Raman spectroscopy verified the accuracy of this method, which is more reliable than the crystal structure refinement using the d002 method. This paper provides the theoretical analysis and interpretation of the relationship between the microstructure model of the material and quantitative data, discharge capacity, and the first charge-discharge efficiency.

  16. Chinese Standards on Refractories Fireclay Brick and Semi-silica Brick for Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the technical requirements,test methods,quality appraisal procedure,packing,transportation,storage,and quality certificate of fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven. This standard is applicable to the fireclay brick and semi-silica brick for coke oven,and the bricks for inner linings of carbon furnace,gas generator and shaft furnace.

  17. Temperature-programmed oxidation of coked noble metal catalysts after autothermal reforming of n-hexadecane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauppi, E.I.; Linnekoski, J.A.; Krause, A.O.I.; Veringa Niemelae, M.K. [Aalto University, School of Science and Technology, Department of Biotechnology and Chemical Technology, Research Group Industrial Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland); Kaila, R.K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Biologinkuja 7, Espoo, P.O. Box 1001, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Autothermal reforming (ATR) of n-hexadecane was carried out on zirconia-supported mono- and bimetallic noble metal (Rh, Pt) catalysts at 600, 700, and 800 C. After ATR, the reactivity of coke deposits (2.8-9.9 wt%) on the catalysts was investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Analysis of the results obtained from ATR and TPO experiments at various temperatures and on the different catalysts gave information on the reaction conditions where the detrimental coke can be minimized and allows estimating the nature of carbon deposits. H{sub 2} production increased with temperature on the tested Rh-containing catalysts and the ZrO{sub 2} support, but decreased as a function of temperature on the Pt catalyst. The formation of coke was least at 800 C, evidently due to the intensifying reaction of carbon and steam with increasing temperature, as well as to the better activity of the catalysts. The amount of coke formed was highest at 700 C. Comparison of the TPO profiles obtained for the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts with the bimetallic RhPt revealed differences in the nature of carbon deposits on their surface. At 600 C, the coke formed on the monometallic Rh and Pt catalysts was located mostly on the support, whereas on the bimetallic RhPt catalyst the formation of this type of coke was suppressed. The bimetallic RhPt catalyst also exhibited better tolerance toward coking at 700 C. Therefore, although the selectivity toward hydrogen was not related to the amount of coke formed, the deactivation patterns differed on the mono- and bimetallic catalysts. (author)

  18. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-11-01

    The formation of carbonaceous deposits (coke) in zeolite pores during catalysis leads to temporary deactivation of catalyst, necessitating regeneration steps, affecting throughput, and resulting in partial permanent loss of catalytic efficiency. Yet, even to date, the coke molecule distribution is quite challenging to study with high spatial resolution from surface to bulk of the catalyst particles at a single particle level. To address this challenge we investigated the coke molecules in HZSM-5 catalyst after ethanol conversion treatment by a combination of C K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), 13C Cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR) spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography (APT). XAS and NMR highlighted the aromatic character of coke molecules. APT permitted the imaging of the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon molecules located within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst from surface to bulk at a single particle level. 27Al NMR results and APT results indicated association of coke molecules with Al enriched regions within the spent HZSM-5 catalyst particles. The experimental results were additionally validated by a level-set–based APT field evaporation model. These results provide a new approach to investigate catalytic deactivation due to hydrocarbon coking or poisoning of zeolites at an unprecedented spatial resolution.

  19. Volatiles production from the coking of coal; Sekitan no netsubunkai ni okeru kihatsubun seisei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Y.; Saito, H.; Inaba, A. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    In order to simplify the coke manufacturing process, a coke production mechanism in coal pyrolysis was discussed. Australian bituminous coal which can produce good coke was used for the discussion. At a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, coal weight loss increases monotonously. However, in the case of 3{degree}C, the weight loss reaches a peak at a maximum ultimate temperature of about 550{degree}C. The reaction mechanism varies with the temperature raising rates, and in the case of 50{degree}C per minute, volatiles other than CO2 and propane increased. Weight loss of coal at 3{degree}C per minute was caused mainly by methane production at 550{degree}C or lower. When the temperature is raised to 600{degree}C, tar and CO2 increased, and so did the weight loss. Anisotropy was discerned in almost of all coke particles at 450{degree}C, and the anisotropy became remarkable with increase in the maximum ultimate temperature. Coke and volatiles were produced continuously at a temperature raising rate of 50{degree}C per minute, and at 3{degree}C per minute, the production of the coke and volatiles progressed stepwise as the temperature has risen. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Discrete Element Method Modeling of the Rheological Properties of Coke/Pitch Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Majidi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rheological properties of pitch and pitch/coke mixtures at temperatures around 150 °C are of great interest for the carbon anode manufacturing process in the aluminum industry. In the present work, a cohesive viscoelastic contact model based on Burger’s model is developed using the discrete element method (DEM on the YADE, the open-source DEM software. A dynamic shear rheometer (DSR is used to measure the viscoelastic properties of pitch at 150 °C. The experimental data obtained is then used to estimate the Burger’s model parameters and calibrate the DEM model. The DSR tests were then simulated by a three-dimensional model. Very good agreement was observed between the experimental data and simulation results. Coke aggregates were modeled by overlapping spheres in the DEM model. Coke/pitch mixtures were numerically created by adding 5, 10, 20, and 30 percent of coke aggregates of the size range of 0.297–0.595 mm (−30 + 50 mesh to pitch. Adding up to 30% of coke aggregates to pitch can increase its complex shear modulus at 60 Hz from 273 Pa to 1557 Pa. Results also showed that adding coke particles increases both storage and loss moduli, while it does not have a meaningful effect on the phase angle of pitch.

  1. Catalytic conversion of lignin pyrolysis model compound- guaiacol and its kinetic model including coke formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Wang, Yun; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Rui

    2016-11-01

    Lignin is the most difficult to be converted and most easy coking component in biomass catalytic pyrolysis to high-value liquid fuels and chemicals. Catalytic conversion of guaiacol as a lignin model compound was conducted in a fixed-bed reactor over ZSM-5 to investigate its conversion and coking behaviors. The effects of temperature, weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) and partial pressure on product distribution were studied. The results show the maximum aromatic carbon yield of 28.55% was obtained at temperature of 650 °C, WHSV of 8 h‑1 and partial pressure of 2.38 kPa, while the coke carbon yield was 19.55%. The reaction pathway was speculated to be removing methoxy group to form phenols with further aromatization to form aromatics. The amount of coke increased with increasing reaction time. The surface area and acidity of catalysts declined as coke formed on the acid sites and blocked the pore channels, which led to the decrease of aromatic yields. Finally, a kinetic model of guaiacol catalytic conversion considering coke deposition was built based on the above reaction pathway to properly predict product distribution. The experimental and model predicting data agreed well. The correlation coefficient of all equations were all higher than 0.90.

  2. Effect of mechanochemical treatment on petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianhui Zou; Boli Yang; Kaifeng Gong; Shiyong Wu; Zhijie Zhou; Fuchen Wang; Zunhong Yu [East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China). Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education

    2008-05-15

    The effect of mechanochemical treatment during the grinding of petroleum coke on its gasification by CO{sub 2} was studied. An additive derived by drying the black liquor in papermaking industry is adopted in grinding process. Results show that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke is effectively improved by grinding, and the activation by wet grinding is more noticeable than that by dry grinding. Besides, by wet grinding petroleum coke and additive together, the active metal species in additive are not easily volatilized in gasification, and retain a high catalytic reactivity to the coke-CO{sub 2} reaction throughout most of the conversion range. Changes in crystal structure of the petroleum coke induced by mechanochemical treatment is related to its gasification reactivity. In general, the crystalline-amorphous phase transition is the tendency of long time mechanical grinding, while a crystal structure re-formation stage is observed after wet grinding of petroleum coke with and without additive for some time. Similar phenomenon has also been found in the reported data, but not given attention. Some discussion is made in the paper, and more work should be undertaken to disclose the mechanism. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Experimental study on preheated combustion of pulverized semi-coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Zhu, Jianguo; Lu, Qinggang; Zhou, Zuxu

    2015-06-01

    In a test rig, pulverized semi-coke was preheated to 850oC in a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and then combusted at 1100oC in a down-fired combustor (DFC). Experiments were conducted to reveal the effects of three secondary air nozzle cases (co-axial jet, top circular jet and wall circular jet) on the NO emission. The results show that the optimized secondary air nozzle can reduce NO emission. O2 concentration profile is the major factor affecting NO generation and emission, which is led by the secondary air nozzle. The lower O2 concentration led to the generation of lower initial NO. The NO emission at the exit of the DFC was reduced from 189 to 92 mg/m3 (@ 6% O2) with the decrease of initial generation. The peak of NO at 100 mm below the nozzle should be attributed to the oxidization of NH3 in the syngas, rather than the oxidization of fuel-N in the char. The low and well-distributed O2 concentration contributes to the reduction of initial NO, which helps to reduce the NO emission. The combustion efficiencies of the cases of the co-axial jet, the top circular jet, and the wall circular jet are 97.88%, 98.94% and 98.74%, respectively.

  4. Reduction behavior of hematite in the presence of coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-hong Wang; Guo-feng Li; Yong-sheng Sun; and Ming-zhao He

    2016-01-01

    The reduction kinetics of hematite in the presence of coke as a reductant was studied via isothermal and non-isothermal thermo-dynamic analyses. The isothermal reduction of hematite was conducted at a pre-determined temperature ranging from 1423 to 1573 K. The results indicated that a higher reduction temperature led to an increased reduction degree and an increased reduction rate. The non-isothermal reduction of hematite was carried out from room temperature to 1573 K at various heating rates from 5 to 15 K·min−1. A greater heating rate gave a greater reduction rate but decreased reduction degree. With an increase in temperature, both the reduction rate and the reduction de-gree increased at a smaller rate when the temperature was less than 1150 K, and they increased at a higher rate when the temperature was greater than 1150 K before completion of the reduction reaction. Both the isothermal and the non-isothermal reduction behaviors of hematite were described by the Avrami–Erofeev model. For the isothermal reduction, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were 171.25 kJ·mol−1 and 1.80 × 105 min−1, respectively. In the case of non-isothermal reduction, however, the apparent activation energy and pre-exponential factor were correlated with the heating rate.

  5. Kinetic model on coke oven gas with steam reforming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min; YAN Hong-jie

    2008-01-01

    The effects of factors such as the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 (n(H2O)/n(CH4)), methane conversion temperature and time on methane conversion rate were investigated to build kinetic model for reforming of coke-oven gas with steam. The results of experiments show that the optimal conditions for methane conversion are that the molar ratio of H2O to CH4 varies from 1.1 to 1.3and the conversion temperature varies from 1 223 to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is more than 95% when the molar ratio ofH2O to CH4 is 1.2, the conversion temperature is above 1 223 K and the conversion time is longer than 0.75 s. Kinetic model of methane conversion was proposed. All results demonstrate that the calculated values by the kinetic model accord with the experimental data well, and the error is less than 1.5%.

  6. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. Preliminary Study of Thermal Treatment of Coke Wastewater Sludge Using Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingshu; Li, Shengli; Sun, Demao; Liu, Xin; Feng, Qiubao

    2016-10-01

    Thermal plasma was applied for the treatment of coke wastewater sludge derived from the steel industry in order to investigate the feasibility of the safe treatment and energy recovery of the sludge. A 30 kW plasma torch system was applied to study the vitrification and gas production of coke wastewater sludge. Toxicity leaching results indicated that the sludge treated via the thermal plasma process converted into a vitrified slag which resisted the leaching of heavy metals. CO2 was utilized as working gas to study the production and heat energy of the syngas. The heating value of the gas products by thermal plasma achieved 8.43 kJ/L, indicating the further utilization of the gas products. Considering the utilization of the syngas and recovery heat from the gas products, the estimated treatment cost of coke wastewater sludge via plasma torch was about 0.98 CNY/kg sludge in the experiment. By preliminary economic analysis, the dehydration cost takes an important part of the total sludge treatment cost. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge with 50 wt.% moisture was calculated to be about 1.45 CNY/kg sludge dry basis. The treatment cost of the coke wastewater sludge could be effectively controlled by decreasing the water content of the sludge. These findings suggest that an economic dewatering pretreatment method could be combined to cut the total treatment cost in an actual treatment process.

  8. Comparison between UV and VUV photolysis for the pre- and post-treatment of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Rui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Wen, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis were investigated for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of coking wastewater. First, 6-fold diluted raw coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. It was found that 15.9%-35.4% total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 hr irradiation. The irradiated effluent could be degraded by the acclimated activated sludge. Even though the VUV photolysis removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) than UV, the UV-irradiated effluent demonstrated better biodegradability. After 4 hr UV irradiation, the biological oxygen demand BOD5/COD ratio of irradiated coking wastewater increased from 0.163 to 0.224, and its toxicity decreased to the greatest extent. Second, the biologically treated coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. Both of them were able to remove 37%-47% TOC within 8 hr irradiation. Compared to UV, VUV photolysis could significantly improve the transparency of the bio-treated effluent. VUV also reduced 7% more ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), 17% more nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and 18% more total nitrogen (TN) than UV, producing 35% less nitrite nitrogen (NO3--N) as a result. In conclusion, UV irradiation was better in improving the biodegradability of coking wastewater, while VUV was more effective at photolyzing the residual organic compounds and inorganic N-species in the bio-treated effluent.

  9. Effective adsorption of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions on activated semi coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoming; Dai, Yuan; Zhang, Yu; Fu, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Activated Semi coke was prepared by KOH activation and employed as adsorbent to study adsorption function of phenolic compound from aqueous solutions. The adsorption result showed that the adsorption capacity of the activated semi coke for phenolic compound increased with contact time and adsorbent dosage, and slightly affected by temperature. The surface structure property of the activated semi coke was characterized by N2 adsorption, indicating that the activated semi coke was essentially macroporous, and the BET surface area was 347.39 m2 g-1. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the surface of the activated semi coke had a high developed pore. The adsorption kinetics were investigated according to pseudofirst order, pseudosecond order and intraparticle diffusion, and the kinetics data were fitted by pseudosecond order model, and intraparticle diffusion was not the only rate-controlling step. Adsorption isotherm was studied by Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models. The result indicated that adsorption isotherm data could fit well with Langmuir, Redlich-Peterson, Sips and Toth models.

  10. Colour change of soft denture liners after storage in coffee and coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuccolotti, Bruna Carolina Rossatti; Moreno, Amália; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Dekon, Stefan Fiuza de Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the colour change of soft denture liners after thermocycling and storage in coffee and coke. Four liners, two silicone-based (Sofreliner S and Reline GS) and two acrylic resin-based (Soft Confort and Dentuflex), were evaluated in this study. Ten samples were obtained for each group. After 2000 cycles of thermocycling with baths of 5°C and 55°C, five samples were stored in coffee and the remaining samples in coke. The colour alteration was evaluated in a reflection spectrophotometer before and after thermocycling, and after 1, 3, 24, 48 and 96h of storage in coffee and coke. Data were submitted to anova and Tukey's HSD test (α=0.05). Thermocycling and storage period represented a higher statistically significant influence for the resin liners than for the silicone materials. Coke did not influence the colour stability of the materials during storage. However, the coffee solution generated statistically significant colour alteration in the material Soft Confort. In the comparison between the coffee and coke solutions, there was no statistically significant difference for colour alteration only for the material Dentuflex. The silicone liners presented better colour stability following thermocycling and storage independent of the solution. The coffee solution was a statistically significant factor for colour alteration of the material Soft Confort.

  11. Measurements of volatile hydrocarbons in ambient air coking plant `Walbrzych`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, R.; Weglarz, A.; Skrok, R. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze (Poland). Inst. of Environmental Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The air is a matrix very difficult to handle. In addition, the pollutants are usually present at very low concentrations. Many techniques can be used to collect air samples. The simplest way is to use special containers, but this procedure is expensive and time-consuming. The adsorption of pollutants on adsorbents shows a growing interest, despite the difficulty to choose the appropriate support in order to obtain quantitative yields. To overcome this problem, two or three types of adsorbents may be used in series for collecting a wide range of analytes. In addition, the miniaturization of these techniques (i.e. microtraps and solid-phase microextraction) is also very promising: easy to handle, low cost, no solvent required, detection limits at ppt level when sensitive detectors are used. If we have no money for this modern equipment we must use traditional methods for compounds determination. This paper describes measurements of volatile hydrocarbons (such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and phenol) in ambient air of coking plant `Walbrzych` Measuring points were at streets: Beethoven 4, Dworcowa 2, Kosteckiego 5 and Zamkowa 1. BTEX were collected on graphitized carbon and phenol on Chromosorb 102. After that samples were extracted by solvents (dichloromethane for BTEX or benzene for phenol). Next step was the analysis by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector without preconcentration. The lower limit of detection was circa 0.01 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for each of the determined compounds. These measurements of hydrocarbons in town of Walbrzych were performed for two years from 1996 to 1998. 2 tabs.

  12. Model Predictive Control with Feedforward Strategy for Gas Collectors of Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Li; Dewei Li; Yugeng Xi; Debin Yin

    2014-01-01

    In coking process, the production quality, equipment life, energy consumption, and process safety are all influenced by the pressure in gas collector pipe of coke oven, which is frequently influenced by disturbances. The main control objectives for the gas collector pressure system are keeping the pressures in collector pipes at appropriate operating point. In this paper, model predictive control (MPC) strategy is introduced to control the collector pressure system due to its ability to handle constraint and good control performance. Based on a method proposed to simplify the system model, an extended state space model predictive control is designed, which combines the feedforward strategy to eliminate the disturbance. The simulation results in a system with two coke ovens show the feasibility and effectiveness of the control scheme.

  13. Effect and mechanism of coking residual ammonia water treating by flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of coking residual ammonia water has been a bigdifficult problem at home and abroad, and there is no breakthrough research achievement in the past. The invention patent "The method of treating all coking wastewater or treating coking residual ammonia water by flue gas" has been successfully used in Huaian Steel Works for high concentration and organic industry wastewater treatment. Not only can it realize the wastewater zero discharge, but also the wastewater treatment has an effect of de-sulfur and de-nitrogen for flue gas. So that the flue gas exhaustcan meet the requirement of emission standard. The mass transfer and heat transfer, fly ash absorption and coagulation, acid and alkali neutralization reaction, catalysis oxidation and reduction reaction in flue gas would be the major factors.

  14. Thermodynamic analysis for a regenerative gas turbine cycle in coking process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Yanlin Ge, Fengrui Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A regenerative gas turbine cycle driven by residual coke oven gas is proposed in this paper. The thermal efficiency and the work output (per ton of coke of the system are analyzed based on thermodynamics and the theory of gas turbine cycle. The influences of the gas release rate, the residual gas rate and the effectiveness of regenerator on the performance of the cycle are analyzed by using numerical examples. It is found that the work output increases with the increase of the residual gas rate while decreases with the increase of the gas release rate. The cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency and bigger work output, which means that the coke oven gas is used more effectively. Moreover, there exist two optimal pressure ratios of compressor which lead the maximum thermal efficiency and the maximum specific work, respectively.

  15. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 88th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2007 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2005-6 and of the annual general meeting 2005 are included. The Presidential address by R.G.W. Sargent looks at the situation faced by coke oven managers through the decades with some predictions for the future. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Nine transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  16. The year-book of the Coke Oven Managers' Association 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The 89th volume of the Year Book outlines activities of the Coke Oven Managers' Association throughout 2008 and reproduces transactions presented to the industry through its various sections. It includes lists of Council and Committee members and representation on committees and past presidents, and a full list of members. Reports of Council 2006-7 and of the annual general meeting 2007 are included. The Presidential address by A. Moore is about his experiences at Redcar Coke Ovens. Carbonisation and briquetting works in the United Kingdom, Koppers carbon materials and chemical works in the UK and Europe, European coking plants, their addresses and managers are listed. Six transactions are abstracted separately on the Coal Abstracts database.

  17. 41 CFR 101-26.4904-416 - DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. 101-26.4904-416 Section 101-26.4904-416 Public Contracts and... DD Form 416: Purchase Request for Coal, Coke, or Briquettes. Note: The form illustrated in §...

  18. Peculiarities of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates in shoots of various species of acer genus in conditions of coke process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bilchuk

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The research results on influence of the by-product-coking industry emission on starch and saccharose accumulation in sprouts of the Acer L. species are presented. The toxic ingredients of the coke production wastes inhibit the process of starch hydrolysis that provokes considerable decrease of the sugars content and negative influence on the plants’ winter hardiness are established.

  19. Pre-commissioning of 120 kt/a Unit for Hydrotreating Crude Coke Oven Benzene Implemented at Baoyuan Chemical Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Baoyuan Chemical Company, Ltd. in Taiyuan has per-formed the precommissioning of a 120 kt/a unit for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene. This unit is the phase II construction of the 300 kt/a crude benzene hydrotreating project, which adopts the process technology for hydrotreating crude coke oven benzene developed indepen-dently by our own efforts.

  20. The treatment of a deposited lignite pyrolysis wastewater by adsorption using activated carbon and activated coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiessner, A.; Remmler, M.; Kuschk, P.; Stottmeister, U. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Remediation Research

    1998-07-31

    This paper investigated activated carbon and activated coke adsorption for the treatment of highly contaminated discoloured industrial wastewater with a wide molecular size distribution of organic compounds. Lignite pyrolysis wastewater from a filled open-cast coal mine was used for continuous and discontinuous experiments. The investigations were performed using water samples taken from various depths of the deposits ponds. A comparison of the capacities of the adsorption materials used showed, that because of its large number of macro and mesopores, activated coke is more suitable for wastewater treatment and in addition cheaper than activated carbon.

  1. Systems for the coke dedusting and oven pushing; Sistema de despoeiramento do desenfornamento de coque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vander L. da; Silvares, Paulo T.B.; Tardin, Jose G.C.; Nemtzoff, Vladimir; Vasconcelos, Celso P. de; Morimoto, Tsutomu; Diesel, Adilson [Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao, ES (Brazil)

    1989-12-31

    With the evolution of the siderurgy industrial set-ups, it became necessary to protect the environment and the environment control turned into a factor of great influence in the viability and expansion of existing plants or new projects. In the coke oven plants a great pollution source is related to the oven pushing.In order to reduce the environmental impact related to this procedure, C.S.T. implemented a dedusting system in the coke guide, remarkably improving the working conditions. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Construction solutions applied at coke oven battery no. 7 in the aspect of international requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadeusz Maj; Mariola Honisz; Wladyslaw Latocha; Wiktor Humer; Ludwik Kosyrczyk [' Zdzieszowice' Coking Plant Ltd. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    15 slides/overheads outline this presentation. In February 2003 a new coke oven battery was put into operation in Zdzieszowice. In view of Poland's joining the European Union a series of technical solutions were implemented to improve working conditions in addition to improving the technology of the coking process. The paper describes the actions taken over one and a half years of operation. These include maintaining the recommended low level of NOx emission (comparable to that of CO) by waste gas recirculation.

  3. Decomposition of Organic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Ultrasonic Irradiation and Its Combined Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jin-qiu; JIA Jin-ping; WANG Jing-wei

    2004-01-01

    The paper deals with the degradation of the organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge. The influence factors of the ultrasonic degradation effect such as air atmosphere, initial concentration, ultrasonic power density and the category and consumption of catalyst were investigated. A water quality model was used to explain the degradation of different kinds of organic compounds in the coke plant wastewater by ultrasonic irradiation. After the wastewater was treated by the combined process of ultrasonic irradiation and activated sludge, the COD degradation efficiency was 95. 74 %, which is 63. 49% higher than that by the process of activated sludge alone.

  4. Effet des proprietes du coke sur les proprietes d'anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Arunima

    One of the major components of the primary aluminum fabrication process is carbon anode manufacturing. High density, low electrical resistivity, and consistence of the quality of anodes are of utmost interest in aluminum industry. This work was undertaken to determine the desired coke properties which have notable impact on coke/pitch wetting and the influence of some of these properties on anode quality, and finally to identify the factors effecting the consumption of industrial anodes throughout the entire process. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  5. 焦炉热工测试分析%Thermal test analysis of coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强生; 王丽丽; 赵春竹; 丛伟; 谢国威

    2014-01-01

    通过对焦炉的热工测试分析,定量反应了焦炉炉况,并对焦炉各项指标进行了评定,为进一步采取措施提升焦炉热效率,实现低能高效生产具有指导意义。%The thermal test analysis reflected the energy characteristic of coke oven in quantify .It e-valuated the indicators of coke oven , had a guiding significance to increase thermal efficiency by tak-ing further measures and realize efficient production by low energy consumption .

  6. Coke fouling process on the oil refining; Processo de incrustacao por coque no refino do petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Fiorentin, Leila D.; Negrao, Cezar O.R.; Franco, Admilson T. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Parana (CEFET-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais (PPGEM)

    2004-07-01

    The heavy crude fraction processing is performed under very high vacuum to minimize thermal cracking which cause coke deposition and damage the equipment. The current tendency is to process heavier oil leading to higher process temperatures and consequently to greater fouling. This situation demands better knowledge fouling process by carbonization. This problem is pronounced in the residual gasoil region of a vacuum distillation unit because it obstructs the recirculation circuits and the spray system with serious environmental and economics implications. This paper review the main correlated published work related to coke generation and fouling and presents a discussion about the works. (author)

  7. Reduction in toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms by vertical tubular biological reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Siyun; Watanabe, Haruna; Wei, Chang; Wang, Dongzhou; Zhou, Jiti; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Zhang, Ying

    2015-05-01

    We conducted a battery of toxicity tests using photo bacterium, algae, crustacean and fish to evaluate acute toxicity profile of coking wastewater, and to evaluate the performance of a novel wastewater treatment process, vertical tubular biological reactor (VTBR), in the removal of toxicity and certain chemical pollutants. A laboratory scale VTBR system was set up to treat industrial coking wastewater, and investigated both chemicals removal efficiency and acute bio-toxicity to aquatic organisms. The results showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenol reductions by VTBR were approximately 93% and 100%, respectively. VTBR also reduced the acute toxicity of coking wastewater significantly: Toxicity Unit (TU) decreased from 21.2 to 0.4 for Photobacterium phosphoreum, from 9.5 to 0.6 for Isochrysis galbana, from 31.9 to 1.3 for Daphnia magna, and from 30.0 to nearly 0 for Danio rerio. VTBR is an efficient treatment method for the removal of chemical pollutants and acute bio-toxicity from coking wastewater.

  8. Predicting the amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets through image analysis and soft computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingqiong; Zhang, Wenbiao; He, Yuting; Yan, Yong

    2016-11-01

    The amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets is one of the most important indexes of catalytic property and service life. As a result, it is essential to measure this and analyze the active state of the catalysts during a continuous production process. This paper proposes a new method to predict the amount of coke deposition on catalyst pellets based on image analysis and soft computing. An image acquisition system consisting of a flatbed scanner and an opaque cover is used to obtain catalyst images. After imaging processing and feature extraction, twelve effective features are selected and two best feature sets are determined by the prediction tests. A neural network optimized by a particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to establish the prediction model of the coke amount based on various datasets. The root mean square error of the prediction values are all below 0.021 and the coefficient of determination R 2, for the model, are all above 78.71%. Therefore, a feasible, effective and precise method is demonstrated, which may be applied to realize the real-time measurement of coke deposition based on on-line sampling and fast image analysis.

  9. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue analysis for sweetener recognition in coke drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Gere, Attila; Sípos, László; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2011-09-01

    Consumption of beverages with low energy has an increasing role. Furthermore hydrolyzed starch products such as inverted syrup show a wide application in the beverage industry. Therefore the importance of methods which can monitor the usage of natural and artificial sweeteners is increasing. The task was to describe the relevant sensory attributes and to determine the applicability of the electronic tongue to discriminate the coke drink samples with different sweeteners. Furthermore the aim was to find relationship between the taste attributes and measurement results provided by electronic tongue. An Alpha Astree Electronic Tongue and a trained sensory panel were used to evaluate the coke samples. Panelists found significant differences between the samples in 15 cases from the 18 sensory attributes defined previously by the consensus group. Coke drinks containing different kind of sweeteners can be characterized according to these sensory attributes. The samples were definitely distinguished by the electronic tongue. The main difference was found between the samples made with natural and artificial sweeteners. However electronic tongue was able to distinguish samples containing different kind of artificial and different kind of natural sweeteners, as well. Taste attributes of coke drinks determined by sensory panel were predicted by partial least squares regression method based on the results of electronic tongue with close correlation and low prediction error.

  10. Application of CyboCon Advanced Adjustment and Control Software Package in Delayed Coking Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hua

    2002-01-01

    This article refers to application of the CyboCon software package based upon the model-free adaptive control (MFA) in the 800-kt/a delayed coking unit to realize an advanced adjustment and control strategy for the temperature control of the heater. Operation tests have revealed the convenience in operating system and simplicity in maintenance, leading to good economic benefits.

  11. Derivation of heat value of coke/char from proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, R.R.P. (and others)

    From experimental data on high-, medium- and low-temperature cokes or chars, the following formulae were derived: gross CV (kcal/kg) 80(FC) + 76(VM); hydrogen content 0.224(VM). All values are on the air-dried basis.

  12. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. (Harvard Center for Risk Analysis, Boston, MA (United States))

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  13. Coke drums inspection and evaluation using stress and strain analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haraguchi, Marcio Issamu [Tricom Tecnologia e Servicos de Manutencao Industrial Ltda., Piquete, SP (Brazil); Samman, Mahmod [Houston Engineering Solutions, Houston, TX (United States); Tinoco, Ediberto Bastos; Marangone, Fabio de Castro; Silva, Hezio Rosa da; Barcelos, Gustavo de Carvalho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Coke drums deform due to a complex combination of mechanical and thermal cyclic stresses. Bulges have progressive behavior and represent the main maintenance problem related to these drums. Bulge failure typically result in through-wall cracks, leaks, and sometimes fires. Such failures generally do not represent a great risk to personnel. Repairs needed to maintain reliability of these vessels might require extensive interruption to operation which in turn considerably impacts the profitability of the unit. Therefore the condition, progression and severity of these bulges should be closely monitored. Coke drums can be inspected during turnaround with 3D Laser Scanning and Remote Visual Inspection (RVI) tools, resulting in a detailed dimensional and visual evaluation of the internal surface. A typical project has some goals: inspect the equipment to generate maintenance or inspection recommendations, comparison with previous results and baseline data. Until recently, coke drum structural analysis has been traditionally performed analyzing Stress Concentration Factors (SCF) thought Finite Element Analysis methods; however this technique has some serious technical and practical limitations. To avoid these shortcomings, the new strain analysis technique PSI (Plastic Strain Index) was developed. This method which is based on API 579/ ASME FFS standard failure limit represents the state of the art of coke drum bulging severity assessment has an excellent correlation with failure history. (author)

  14. Shift from coke to coal using direct reduction method and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okonkwo Paul Chukwuleke; Jiu-ju Cai; Sam Chukwujekwu; Song Xiao [Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, Vic. (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    Ironmaking involves the separation of iron ores. It not only represents the first step in steelmaking but also is the most capital-intensive and energy-intensive process in the production of steel. The main route for producing iron for steelmaking is to use the blast furnace, which uses metallurgical coke as the reductant. Concerns over the limited resources, the high cost of coking coals, and the environmental impacts of coking and sinter plants have driven steelmakers to develop alternative ironmaking processes that can use non-coking coals to reduce iron ores directly. Since the efficiency and productivity of modern large capacity blast furnaces will be difficult to surpass, blast furnaces will continue to retain their predominant position as the foremost ironmaking process for some time to come. The alternative ironmaking processes are therefore expected to play an increasingly significant role in the iron and steel industry, especially in meeting the needs of small-sized local and regional markets. It is likely that the importance of direct reduced iron (DRI) and hot metal as sources of virgin iron will continue to increase, especially in the developing countries where steelmaking is, and will be, primarily based on electric arc furnace (EAF) minimills. Consequently, the challenges that are faced by the new technology have to be embraced.

  15. ANGULAR DISTORTION ALLOWABLE VALUE AND ASSESS METHOD OF WELD ON COKE TOWER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A graph as the new engineering method for estimate the safety of bulging deformation of coke tower is proposed. Through stresses analysis of circumferential weld of coke tower and comparing the stresses produced by pressure with heat stress of steady state, residual stress, bending stress produced by both itself weight and wind loads, it showed that the stresses produced by pressure on the angle distortion are the main factor of equivalent stress of the combined stress. After comparing four kinds of stress controlling conditions, the relation to stress with depth of angular distortion, grade of curvature of angular distortion and half of region of angular distortion has been inferred. Graph of deformation allowable value of coke tower for different condition by angular distortion and half of region of angular distortion has been plotted. The five steps for its engineering use have been explained. The lighter the grade of curvature is, the larger of bulge allowance, may be, and the bigger of depth of angular distortion may pose too. For the coke tower with a popular structure of Dg 5 400 mm×28 mm, the result by graph is nearly more than the result of two formulas formed by other research, the error is less than 7.0%. But, the graph can be easily applied to different size of angular distortion.

  16. Ceramic Lithium Ion Conductor to Solve the Anode Coking Problem of Practical Solid Oxide Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Chen, Yubo; Qu, Jifa; Tadé, Moses O; Shao, Zongping

    2015-09-07

    For practical solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operated on hydrocarbon fuels, the facile coke formation over Ni-based anodes has become a key factor that limits their widespread application. Modification of the anodes with basic elements may effectively improve their coking resistance in the short term; however, the easy loss of basic elements by thermal evaporation at high temperatures is a new emerging problem. Herein, we propose a new design to develop coking-resistant and stable SOFCs using Li(+) -conducting Li0.33 La0.56 TiO3 (LLTO) as an anode component. In the Ni/LLTO composite, any loss of surface lithium can be efficiently compensated by lithium diffused from the LLTO bulk under operation. Therefore, the SOFC with the Ni/LLTO anode catalyst layer yields excellent power outputs and operational stability. Our results suggest that the simple adoption of a Li(+) conductor as a modifier for Ni-based anodes is a practical and easy way to solve the coking problem of SOFCs that operate on hydrocarbons.

  17. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J.M. (Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 78 - Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)); Lao, D.; Eymond, J.L.; Fauchoit, P. (Sollac, 59 - Dunkerque (France)); Eibes, C.; Blaise, G.; Urvoy, A.; Helleisen, M.; Giroldini, F.; Hartig, M.; Rausch, H.

    1993-04-01

    Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful mean to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF 2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials until the centre of the BF. Up-to-now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained with this probe allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and the operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is more lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced for 4.25 m in the furnace. In 20 months, it is more than 40 coke core borings which have been achieved on 9 different furnaces of 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it authorizes the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, the effect of the BF size. This text presents our approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings. 6 refs., 17 figs.

  19. Coke state determination in the blast furnace hearth using a tuyere probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, P.; Pierret, H.; Steiler, J. [and others] [Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), Saint-Germain-en-Laye (France)

    1996-11-01

    Coke samplings at blast furnace tuyeres are a powerful means to study the behaviour of the lower part of the furnace. A tuyere probe has been installed since April 1985 on the BF2 at Sollac Fos. This probe is 19 m long and 11 tons in weight. It uses a 265 mm internal diameter pipe which samples materials in the centre of the BF. Up to now, 28 trials have been completed. The results obtained allow: a better understanding of the phenomena occurring in the blast furnace hearth, to establish several relationships between the internal state of the hearth and operation conditions, to build and validate a new image of the cohesive zone and the coke state, to measure and understand the influence of coal injection on the BF operation. Since April 1991, a movable tuyere probe has been in operation within Usinor Sacilor Group. This machine is lighter than the fixed one weighing only 5.5 tons and smaller measuring 5 m long for 1.3 m width. The probe is a 260 mm internal diameter pipe which can be introduced 4.25 m into the furnace. In 20 months, more than 40 coke core borings have been achieved on 9 different furnaces in 4 different plants. These two probes are complementary. The fixed probe is only used through one tuyere of one BF. In addition, this probe can reach the centre of the furnace and give a complete description of the materials present along the radius. The movable machine cannot reach the centre of the BF, but it enables the study of: some very different BF operating conditions, the influence of the feed materials qualities in a large range, the heterogeneity between several tuyeres of one BF, and the effect of the BF size. This paper presents an approach in coke quality research, relying upon the results of coke core borings.

  20. Experience in the adoption of a coke battery with ovens 41. 6 m/sup 3/ in volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemarda, N.A.; Khlebnikov, O.F.; Dobrovinskii, G.B.; Stel' makh, V.A.; Maslova, L.R.; Muzychuk, V.D.

    1982-11-06

    The performance, product quality and design differences of a new, 41.6 m/sup 3/ coking oven battery have been evaluated and compared with those of older smaller units over two years. Improvement in the uniformity of coke bed heating was attained by optimization of combustion air supply and the degree of recirculation of combustion products. Coke produced compares favorably with that from smaller ovens, but has a slightly smaller particle size. Product moisture content is adversely affected by design deficiencies in the wet quenching system. They are being corrected by adoption of a pulsed quenching system and a new irrigation device.

  1. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part Two: Methane Thermal Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolyse des hydrocarbures. Deuxième partie : pyrolyse du méthane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billaud F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Part one of this article dealt with coking in a steam cracking furnace. In this process, coke deposition is a very complex phenomenon due to the number of parameters involved. Nevertheless, for this process, coke deposition is a secondary reaction which does not affect steam cracking yields. It is completely different for methane thermal cracking. Coke is one of the main products of this reaction. Part two of this article deals with coke deposition on the walls of the reactors used for methane thermal cracking. After a brief description of the different set-ups used to study coke deposition, the main parameters involved are listed. The importance of temperature, conversion, type of diluent, and hydrocarbon partial pressure will be enhanced. To conclude, two approaches to the mechanism are proposed to explain coke formation during methane thermal cracking. La première partie de cet article faisait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage : dans le cadre de ce procédé, la formation de coke est un phénomène complexe du fait du nombre important de paramètres mis en jeu. Toutefois, pour ce procédé, la réaction de formation du coke à la paroi des réacteurs est une réaction secondaire qui n'affecte pas les rendements de vapocraquage. Ceci est complètement différent dans le cas de la pyrolyse thermique du méthane, procédé pour lequel le coke est un produit principal et indésirable de la réaction. La seconde partie de cet article est consacrée plus particulièrement à la formation du coke, lors de la pyrolyse du méthane et présente les principaux résultats expérimentaux décrits dans la littérature. Parmi les différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir des travaux de la littérature, les 2 techniques suivantes : - la technique de la paroi chaude, - la technique du fil chaud. Pour la première technique, les montages exp

  2. Cyanides in a soil of a former coking plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfeldt, T.; Gehrt, S.B. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Geographisches Inst.; Friedl, J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde

    1998-12-31

    Soils of former coking plant sites are frequently contaminated with cyanide, which mainly occurs as the pigment Berlin blue, Fe{sup III}{sub 4}[Fe{sup II}(CN){sub 6}]{sub 3}, and soluble iron cyanide complexes, Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-/4-}. Berlin blue is only slightly soluble under acidic conditions. The cyanide mobility in a strongly acid soil (pH about 3) of such a site was studied by assessing the distribution of cyanides in the soil and sediment and by conducting batch experiments at different pH levels. The soil is based on a disposal layer (0-32 cm) overlying sandy loess (32-145 cm) overlying glaciofluvial sand (145-250 cm) overlying marlstone (250-500 cm). Highest cyanide concentrations were found in the disposal layer (62-2865 mg CN{sup -} kg{sup -1}), medium concentrations in the sandy loess (16-29 mg CN{sup -} kg{sup -1}), concentrations of about 100 mg CN{sup -} kg{sup -1} in the glaciofluvial sand and lowest concentrations in the marlstone (0.22-0.49 mg CN{sup -} kg{sup -1}). The surfaces of macropores, which occur in the sandy loess and finish in the glasicofluvial sand, are dark-blue dyed and have much higher cyanide concentrations than the surrounding bulk soil. Thus, the accumulation of cyanides in the sand layer may partly be the result of macropore flow. Batch experiments show a strong pH dependence of the solubility of cyanide in the soil as well as of Berlin blue which was found by Moessbauer spectroscopy to be the dominating or sole iron cyanide. The time necessary to transport the cyanides solely as hexacyanoferrate into the undisturbed horizons is estimated to 1000 yr. However, because Berlin blue is known to form colloids, we discuss the possibility of cyanide transport as colloid not requiring dissolution and reprecipitation. We postulate that colloidal Berlin blue transported by macropore flow is responsible for the high mobility of cyanides in this acid soil. (orig.) [Deutsch] Boeden ehemaliger Kokereistandorte sind haeufig mit Cyaniden

  3. Surface modification of graphite by coke coating for reduction of initial irreversible capacity in lithium secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Songhun; Kim, Hanjun; Oh, Seung M.

    Surface modification of graphite to reduce the irreversible capacity loss during the first charging period of graphite anodes is described. For the surface modification, artificial graphite (Lonza KS44) is dispersed in a tetrahydrofuran/acetone solution which contains coal tar pitch. The solvent is then evaporated. The loaded pitch component is converted to coke by a heat treatment at 1000°C in argon atmosphere. The resulting coke-coated graphite has a smaller surface area than that of the pristine one. The reduction of surface area, which is due to the coverage of pores of <10 nm by the coke component, causes a decrease in the irreversible capacity on the first cycle. The extent of electrolyte decomposition, gas evolution and surface film growth is also less with the coke-coated graphite electrode.

  4. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  5. 焦罐车旋转机构的改进%Improvement of Rotary Device of Coke Tank Truck

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫文龙

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly analyzes the research status of the coke tank truck rotary device ,and then discusses the advatages and disadvantages of traditional coke tank truck rotary device .On this basis ,some measures to improve the rotary device are put for-ward ,and the superiority of the improved coke tank truck rotary device is discussed .This work may lay the basis for the design of large coke tank truck rotary device and other rotating mechanism .%对焦罐车旋转机构的现状进行了分析 ,探讨了传统焦罐车旋转机构的优劣 ,在此基础上对旋转机构进行了改进 ,改进后的焦罐车旋转机构可作为大型焦罐车旋转机构的设计依据.

  6. Results of the simulation of gasification of the mexican petroleum coke from the refineries of Ciudad Madero and Cadereyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Urquiza–Beltrán

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates in terms of energy the gasification of the petroleum coke from the refineries of Cd Madero and Cadereyta in Mexico. The energy evaluation of the synthetic gas (syngas focuses mainly on the chemical composition of the clean syngas (gasl and its energy characteristics: heating value, the energy power, the cold gas efficiency and the thermal efficiency of gasification. The results of the simulation indicate that the gasification of the petroleum coke from Cadereyta called CRC, produces a gasl with better performance and energy characteristics than those obtained when gasifying the coke of petroleum from Cd. Madero, called CRM. When the CRC is gasified, the rate of production of gasl obtained is of 2.07 kggasl/kgcoque, while the rate of production of gasl for the CRM is 1.89 kggasl/kgcoque. The HHV of the gasl of the CRC is 12 729.56 kJ/kggasl while for the CRM is 11 639.13 kJ/kggasl. The energy power of the gasl of the CRC is greater, with a difference of 25.87 GJ/h, with regard to the energy power of the gasl of the CRM. Under the specified conditions of operation, energy is generated ata rate of 26.46 MJ/kgcoque coke in the gasification of the CRC coke of petroleum, while when gasifying the CRM coke of petroleum 22.09 MJ/kgcoque are generated. Currently, the petroleum coke produced in the refinery of Madero is consumed in the power plants of Tamuín, San Luis Potosí, Mexico, while the petroleum coke produced by the refinery of Cadereyta is used in the cement industry.

  7. STUDY OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING GAS TURBINE FUEL FROM THE PRODUCTS OF CATALYTIC CRACKING AND COKING,

    Science.gov (United States)

    52.5% of the cracked raw material. (2) For getting light, low-ash gasturbine fuels with traces of vanadium, the process of coking heavy petroleum...residues, should be accomplished with recirculation. (3) In contact coking of raw material with recirculation of the sulfurous pitch, tar and cracking residue, the yield of low-ash gasturbine fuel, amounted to 45, 56.2, and 64.4%.

  8. Reaction Mechanism for the Formation of Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) During Coke Oxidation in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units

    KAUST Repository

    Chaparala, Sree Vidya

    2015-06-11

    Fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) units in refineries process heavy feedstock obtained from crude oil distillation. While cracking feed, catalysts get deactivated due to coke deposition. During catalyst regeneration by burning coke in air, nitrogen oxides (NOx) are formed. The increase in nitrogen content in feed over time has resulted in increased NOx emissions. To predict NOx concentration in flue gas, a reliable model for FCC regenerators is needed that requires comprehensive understanding and accurate kinetics for NOx formation. Based on the nitrogen-containing functional groups on coke, model molecules are selected to study reactions between coke-bound nitrogen and O2 to form NO and NO2 using density functional theory. The reaction kinetics for the proposed pathways are evaluated using transition state theory. It is observed that the addition of O2 on coke is favored only when the free radical is present on the carbon atom instead of nitrogen atom. Thus, NOx formation during coke oxidation does not result from the direct attack by O2 on N atoms of coke, but from the transfer of an O atom to N from a neighboring site. The low activation energies required for NO formation indicate that it is more likely to form than NO2 during coke oxidation. The favorable pathways for NOx formation that can be used in FCC models are identified. Copyright © 2015 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Thermal and electrochemical studies of carbons for Li-ion batteries. 1. Thermal analysis of petroleum and pitch cokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, W.; Tran, T.; Song, X.; Kinoshita, K.

    Thermal analyses involving simultaneous thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study the air oxidation of petroleum (fluid and needle cokes) and coal-tar pitch cokes. The intent of this study is to understand the relationship between the structure of carbonaceous materials and their thermal oxidation behavior in air (Part 1). A correlation between the thermal oxidative properties of cokes and their electrochemical Li-intercalation performance is discussed in the following paper (Part 2). The carbon samples were heat-treated at temperatures up to 2800°C, and three thermal parameters were determined — ignition temperature ( Ti), temperature maximum ( Tm) in the DTA curves, and the temperature at which 15% carbon weight loss was attained ( T15). The measurements showed trends that are consistent with prior reports that the active sites on the surface and not the total surface area (TSA) are responsible for the thermal behavior of the carbons. Because of the difference in the graphitizability of petroleum and pitch cokes that was obtained by heat treatment, variations in the thermal parameters were observed. Needle cokes are the most easily graphitized and this is reflected in the higher values of the thermal parameters compared to the fluid and pitch cokes.

  10. Combustion characteristics of Daqing oil shale and oil shale semi-cokes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO Zhen-yong; WU Guo-guang; LI Ping; ZHAO Na; WANG Pan-cheng; MENG Xian-liang

    2009-01-01

    Thermo-gravimetric-analysis (TGA) was used to analyze the combustion characteristics of an oil shale and semi-cokes prepared from it. The effect of prior pyrolysis and TGA heating rate on the combustion process was studied. Prior pyrolysis affects the initial temperature of mass loss and the ignition temperature. The ignition temperature increases as the volatile content of the sample decreases. TG/DTG curves obtained at different heating rates show that heating rate has little effect on ignition temperature. But the peak of combustion shifts to higher temperatures as the heating rate is increased. The Coats-Redfern integration method was employed to find the combustion-reaction kinetic parameters for the burning of oil shale and oil shale semi-coke.

  11. Functionalization of Petroleum Coke-Derived Carbon for Synergistically Enhanced Capacitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xuejin; Huang, Jufeng; Xing, Wei; Yan, Zifeng

    2016-03-01

    Petroleum coke is a valuable and potential source for clean energy storage if it could be modified legitimately and facilely. In the present study, porous carbon with high surface area and abundant oxygen-containing groups was prepared from petroleum coke by chemical activation and modification processes. The as-prepared carbon exhibits a high surface area (1129 m2 · g-1) and stable micrographic structure. It presents a high specific capacitance and excellent rate performance in KOH electrolyte. Even at an ultrahigh current density of 50 A · g-1, the specific capacitance of the prepared carbon can still reach up to an unprecedented value of 261 F · g-1 with a superhigh retention rate of 81 %. In addition, the energy density of this material in aqueous electrolyte can be as high as 13.9 Wh · kg-1. The high energy density and excellent rate performance ensure its prosperous application in high-power energy storage system.

  12. Reducibility mill scale industrial waste via coke breeze at 850-950ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is a very attractive industrial waste due to its elevated iron content (about = 69.33% Fe besides being suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characteristics of raw materials and the briquettes produced from this mill scale were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of coke breeze at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. The activation energy of this reaction ≈ 61.5 kJ/mole for reduction of mill scale with coke breeze in the form of briquettes with 2% molasses where the chemical reaction interface model is applicable.

  13. Development and Application of High Quality Silica Brick for Coke Ovens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongmei; XIAOChangyu

    1998-01-01

    As coke oven becoming larger,silica brick for coke oven is required to be of high uqality,Luoyang Refractories(Grop)Co.Ltd.(LRCO) has re-searched the mineralizer which contains Ca2+,R+,Al3+,F-,emphatically and proposed the principle of composite mineralizer basd on the properties of raw materials used .High performance silia brick which is characterized by low thermal expansion rate,good high temperature properties,residual quartz<0.5%,true density 2.31,and high bulk density silica brick for carbonization room with apparent porosity 13% ,bulk density l.96 g/cm3 have been developed and produced successfully by LR-CO.The quality of the bricks has reached the inter-national advenced level.

  14. Effects of three industrial wastes on kinetic characteristics of petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou Jian-hui; Zhou Zhi-jie; Dai Zheng-hua; Liu Hai-feng; Wang Fu-chen; Yu Zun-hong [East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China). Institute of Clean Coal Technology

    2008-07-01

    Three industrial wastes including black liquor from papermaking industry, coal slag, and sludge were used as catalysts for petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification. The gasification kinetics characteristics with and without a catalyst were studied using a pressurized thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA). It is shown that gasification rate increases with increasing conversion and then decreases after reaching a maximal rate for noncatalytic gasification, while decreases in whole course for catalytic gasification. The proposed normal distribution function model describes well the kinetic curve for both noncatalytic and catalytic gasification. The calculated activation energy of noncatalytic petroleum coke-CO{sub 2} gasification is 197.7 kJ/mol, which is in accordance with the reported data. The activities of three catalysts are contributed to the content of metal species. The black liquor in papermaking industry rich in Na species has the best activity, and its gasification rate is six times as that of noncatalytic gasification. 19 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Coke Oven Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockette, H E; Redmond, C K

    1985-05-01

    The current standard for exposure to coke oven emissions sets a permissible exposure of 150 micrograms benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter/m3. The major epidemiologic study that formed the basis for this standard including a review of the evidence of a dose-response relationship between exposure to coal tar pitch volatiles and lung cancer is reviewed. Particular attention was given to the selection of the cohort, follow-up procedures, and the evolution of the analysis.

  16. [Enhanced bioremediation of coking plant soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiao-Xia; Li, Xiu-Li; Ma, Jie; Wu, Shu-Ke; Chen, Chao-Qi; Wu, Wei

    2011-03-01

    Soil samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from Beijing Coking Plant. The purposes were to isolate PAHs degrading bacteria from the soils, determine their appropriate living condition, enrich them and apply them in the enhanced bioremediation of the contaminated soils. Using each of the 16 USEPA priority PAHs as the sole carbon source, PAHs degrading bacteria were isolated using the method of plate streaking and identified by genetic analysis. In total seven species of PAHs degrading bacteria were obtained. When mixed, these bacteria could degrade the 16 (2-6 cyclic) PAHs studied at appropriate concentrations. In the liquid medium, when the total concentration of the 16 PAHs (sigma PAH16) was 17 microg/mL, single bacteria could grow well and degrade the PAHs. However, when sigma PAH16 was 166 microg/mL, the growth and activity of either single PAHs degrading bacteria or a mixture of the seven PAHs degrading bacteria were inhibited. Aiming at the contaminated soils from Beijing coking plant, five treatments were performed, i.e., control (C), addition of nutrient (N), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria (N + B), addition of nutrient and surfactant (N +S), addition of nutrient and PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant (N + B + S). After five weeks of experiment, compared to the C treatment, the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B treatment was increased 32%, and the mean removal rate of the 16 PAHs in the N + B + S treatment was increased 46% (the mean removal rate of the 10 4-6 cyclic PAHs was increased 52%). The addition of PAHs degrading bacteria and surfactant could significantly enhance the degradation of PAHs in the soils. This study provides evidence for the enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil for Beijing coking plant and other coking plants.

  17. Dynamics study on effect of temperature to Nitrous nitrification reaction of coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Ming-jun; ZHANG Hai-ling; LU Yan-li

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic effects of NO2 - - N accumulation were discussed owing to temperature. In different temperature, a series ofvmax and Ks were found considering the relation between the temperature and rate of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N. The kinetics models, which reflected the conditions of ammonia nitrogen transforming into NO2 - - N in the treatment process of the coking wastewater, were built up. The characteristic coefficient temperature was determined according to Arrhenius.

  18. CO2 recycling by means of reforming of coke oven gas for methanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Bermúdez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The steelmaking industry is the largest energyconsuming manufacturing sector. As a consequence of this, the CO2 emissions from this sector account for about 5-7 % of the total anthropogenic CO2 emissions. For this reason, increasing efforts are being made to find solutions that might help diminish these emissions and increase energy efficiency. A better management of the coke oven gas (COG surplus is one of the proposed solutions...

  19. Thermal and hydraulic effects of coke deposit in hydrocarbon pyrolysis process

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Fuel pyrolysis can be of benefit for regenerative cooling techniques due to its endothermic effect in ensuring the thermal resistance of hypersonic vehicles and structures. Among pyrolysis species production, there is that of coke formation. A numerical code is used in this paper to investigate the related phenomena, based on two experiments using Titanium (Ti) and Stainless Steel (SS) reactors, which present different pyrolysis rates under similar operating conditions...

  20. Determination of reactivity parameters of model carbons, cokes and flame-chars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Gjernes, Erik; Jessen, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Reactivity profiles are defined and measured with thermogravimetry for a dense metallurgical Longyear coke, a polymer-derived porous active carbon, Carboxen 1000, and three flame-chars, Illinois #6, Pittsburgh #8 and New Mexico Blue #1. For each sample it is found that the reactivity profile can ...... reactivity measure is used to rank fuels with very different structural profiles, at varying levels of burnout, temperature and oxygen partial pressure. Keyword: TGA,Reactivity,Coal...

  1. Effect of oxygen potential on sulphur dioxide activation of oil sands fluid coke and characteristics of activated coke in mercury adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Jia, C.Q. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry; Tong, S. [Wuhan Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hobei (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A sulphur-impregnated activated carbon (SIAC) technology was modified for use in copper smelters in order to mitigate mercury and sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions. Elemental sulphur was captured as a co-product. The study examined the feasibility of reducing levels of SO{sub 2} using fluid coke in the copper smelter flue. SIAC properties were optimized in order to capture vapour phase mercury. Raw fluid coke samples were used to measure SO{sub 2} flow rates. Gas composition was varied to mimic concentrations found during normal operation of copper converters. Gas chromatography was used to analyze reactions products and to prove the hypothesis that mercury capacity is influenced by the oxygen potential of the activation gas due to changes in surface sulphur types developed from reduced sulphur species. Results of the study showed that oxygen levels at 5 per cent did not play a significant role in pore development. It was concluded that increased residence times contributed to reductions in SO{sub 2} and elemental S yields. 13 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  2. Use of shungite rock in place of some coke for ferroalloy smelting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakhov, V.M.; Maksimov, Yu.S.

    1986-07-01

    A study is described of the feasibility of using Class III shungite (20-35% carbon content) for ferroalloy production. Heat treatment analysis of samples showed that separation of CO began at 1300 C and reached a maximum at 1550-1650 C. Trial production of 25% ferrosilicon showed that coke carbon could be replaced with shungite carbon, resulting in a charge composition of 20-5 mm coke, 70-25 mm quartzite and 80-20 mm shungite rock. Use of 3% and 6% shungite in charges reduced coke consumption by 10.6-14.8%, quartzite consumption by 3.5-6.9% and electricity consumption by 0.5-2.7%. Overall cost reductions were 5.8% in first period (3% shungite) and 1.8% in second period (6% shungite). It is concluded that production of FS25 and FS18 ferroalloys at ferroalloy plants in the south would require about 29 kt of shungite rock and lead to savings of over 400,000 rubles. 11 references.

  3. Ionic Liquid Catalyst Used in Deep Desulfuration of the Coking Benzene for Producing Sulfurless Benzene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Xia-Ping; WANG Yan-Liang; MENG Fan-Wei; FAN Xing-Ming; QIN Song-Bo

    2008-01-01

    For the widening need of benzene used in organic synthesis, ionic liquid catalyst was prepared to study the process of deep desulfuration in the coking benzene. The result shows that the effect of de-thiophene by the ionic liquid catalyst (N-methyl imidazolium hydrogen sulfate [Hmim][HSO4]) is related to its acid function value.Hammett indicator was used to determine the acid function value H0 of the ionic liquid. It can be concluded that while the acid function value is in the range from -4 to -12, the ionic liquid catalyst can make the concentration certain acid quantity and strength, the ionic liquid catalyst helps to form alkyl thiophene through Friedel-Crafts reaction, which differs from the character of benzene and it is absolutely necessary for the separation and refinement of benzene. But overabundant quantity and higher acid value of [Hmim][HSO4] are more suitable for the side copolymerization of benzene, thiophene and alkene, thereby affecting repeated use of the ionic liquid catalyst([Hmim][HSO4]). In our research, thiophene derivant produced by desulfurization in the coking benzene was used as the polymer to provide the passing channel of the charges. The ionic liquid composition in poor performance after repeated use was made to prepare conductive material (resisting to static electricity) as an "electron-receiving" and "electron-giving" doping agent. The result shows that thiophene derivant after desulfuration in the coking benzene can be used to prepare doping conductive materials.

  4. The effect of treatment stages on the coking wastewater hazardous compounds and their toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao-xue; Zhang, Zi-yang; Fan, Qing-lan; Yuan, Xiao-ying; Guo, Dong-sheng

    2012-11-15

    This study investigated the change of hazardous materials in coking wastewater at different treatment stages (anaerobic, anaerobic/aerobic, anaerobic/aerobic/photo degradation, anaerobic/aerobic/ozone oxidation treatment) and the effects of them on the development of maize embryos and the activity of amylase and protease in maize seeds. Moreover the interaction of refractory organic matters in the wastewater at different treatment stages with amylase and protease also were determined in vitro. The results show that the biodegradable and the refractory organic compounds in the wastewater both can affect maize embryo development (germination inhibition rate is 19.3% for biodegradable organic compounds). As the treatment stage preceding, the inhibition effect of coking wastewater on the development of the maize embryo (for germination inhibition rates change from 49.3% to 24.6%) and on enzymatic activity (inhibition rates change from 63.9% to 22.4% for amylase) decreases gradually, but the photo-degradation treatment to anaerobic/aerobic effluent can increase its toxicity. The changes in the ability of the refractory organic compounds to bind with enzyme proteins, combined with the analysis of the organic components by GC/MS, show that in the process of coking wastewater treatment no new toxic chemicals were produced.

  5. Oxygen-containing coke species in zeolite-catalyzed conversion of methanol to hydrocarbons

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Zhaohui

    2016-10-06

    Zeolites are the most commonly used catalysts for methanol-to-hydrocarbon (MTH) conversion. Here, we identified two oxygen-containing compounds as coke species in zeolite catalysts after MTH reactions. We investigated the possible influences of the oxygen-containing compounds on coke formation, catalyst deactivation, product selectivity, and the induction period of the MTH reaction through a series of controlled experiments in which one of the identified compounds (2,3-dimethyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one) was co-fed with methanol over a zeolite H-ZSM-5 catalyst. Our results allow us to infer that once produced, the oxygen-containing compounds block the Brønsted acid sites by strong chemisorption and their rapid conversion to aromatics expedites the formation of coke and thus the deactivation of the catalyst. A minor effect of the production of such compounds during the MTH reaction is that the aromatic-based catalytic cycle can be slightly promoted to give higher selectivity to ethylene.

  6. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huawei Zhang; Jitao Chen; Peng Liang; Li Wang

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission.Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements,X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC,Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption.The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke,such as the specific surface area,pore structure and surface chemical functional groups.The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature,but much higher at high temperature.Amorphous Mn7+,Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0,which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it.Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mnx+ on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46.However,due to the formation of amorphous MnOx,the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased,which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  7. Mercury oxidation and adsorption characteristics of potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huawei; Chen, Jitao; Liang, Peng; Wang, Li

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of virgin and potassium permanganate modified lignite semi-coke (SC) for gaseous Hg0 were investigated in an attempt to produce more effective and lower price adsorbents for the control of elemental mercury emission. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the surface physical and chemical properties of SC, Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC before and after mercury adsorption. The results indicated that potassium permanganate modification had significant influence on the properties of semi-coke, such as the specific surface area, pore structure and surface chemical functional groups. The mercury adsorption efficiency of modified semi-coke was lower than that of SC at low temperature, but much higher at high temperature. Amorphous Mn7+, Mn6+ and Mn4+ on the surface of Mn-SC and Mn-H-SC were the active sites for oxidation and adsorption of gaseous Hg0, which oxidized the elemental mercury into Hg2+ and captured it. Thermal treatment reduced the average oxidation degree of Mn(x+) on the surface of Mn-SC from 3.80 to 3.46. However, due to the formation of amorphous MnOx, the surface oxidation active sites for gaseous Hg0 increased, which gave Mn-H-SC higher mercury adsorption efficiency than that of Mn-SC at high temperature.

  8. Beneficiation of an Indian non-coking coal by column flotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Vasumathi; T.V.Vijaya Kumar; S.Ratchambigai; S.Subba Rao; S.Prabhakar; G.Bhaskar Raju

    2016-01-01

    Beneficiation of non-coking coal is gaining ground in India.It not only reduces the volume of inert content to be transported to the power plant and also lowers the wear in the boiler houses.For special applications such as the fuel for integrated gasification combined cycle plant (IGCC),the ash content in the coal should preferably be below 15 %.Indian coals are characterized by high inter-grown ash content mainly due to ‘drift origin’ of Gondwana formation in Permian age.This warrants fine grinding of non-coking coal in order to liberate the ash forming minerals from coal macerals.A noncoking coal sample of vitrinite type from India was ground to 44 tm (d80) and subjected to column flotation to improve its quality.The non-coking coal analyzing 34.6 % ash,26.2 % volatile matter,1.3 % moisture and 37.9 % fixed carbon could be upgraded to a concentrate/froth of 14.83 % ash at 72.18 % yield by optimizing collector and frother dosages and flotation column operating parameters,namely,froth depth,superficial feed velocity and superficial air velocity.The concentrate produced by this process is suitable as fuel for IGCC in coal-to-electricity route.

  9. Electrochemical behavior of surface-modified petroleum cokes in propylene carbonate containing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga, Kazuhisa; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Aimura, Shinya; Ohzawa, Yoshimi [Department of Applied Chemistry, Aichi Institute of Technology, Yakusa, Toyota 470-0392 (Japan); Zemva, Boris; Mazej, Zoran [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Groult, Henri [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, LI2C Laboratoire Electrochimie, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris 05 (France); Yoshida, Akira [Faculty of Engineering, Musashi Institute of Technology, 1-28-1 Tamazutsumi, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8557 (Japan)

    2007-05-01

    Surface modification of petroleum coke (PC) and those heat-treated at 1860, 2300 and 2800 C (PC1860, PC2300 and PC2800) has been performed by F{sub 2}, ClF{sub 3} and NF{sub 3} to improve their charge/discharge characteristics in propylene carbonate containing solvents. Surface fluorination by F{sub 2} increased surface disorder of PC1860, PC2300 and PC2800, leading to increase in their first coulombic efficiencies in 1 mol dm{sup -3} LiClO{sub 4}-ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC)/propylene carbonate (PPC) (1:1:1 in volume) solution. First coulombic efficiencies were the largest in fluorinated PC1860 with the highest surface disorder. However, surface modification by ClF{sub 3} and NF{sub 3} did not increase surface disorder of petroleum cokes, being not as effective as the fluorination with F{sub 2} to increase first coulombic efficiencies of petroleum cokes. The reactions of ClF{sub 3} and NF{sub 3} with carbon materials are radical reactions while the reaction with F{sub 2} is an electrophilic reaction yielding fluorinated layers with high disorder. Surface modification using F{sub 2}, ClF{sub 3} and NF{sub 3} also increased first charge capacities of PC and PC1860. (author)

  10. Coupling thermogravimetric and acoustic emission measurements: its application to study the inhibition of catalytic coke deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropital, Francois; Dascotte, Philippe; Marchand, Pierre [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 Avenue Bois Preau, 92952 Rueil-Malmaison (France); Faure, Thierry; Lenain, Jean-Claude; Proust, Alain [Euro Physical Acoustics, 27 Rue Magellan, 94373 Sucy-en-Brie Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    In order to improve the knowledge on the high temperature behaviour of metallic materials, the coupling of several in situ physical analysis methods is a promising way. For this purpose a thermogravimetric balance has been equipped with a specific acoustic emission device in order to continuously measure the mass variation of the corrosion sample and the acoustic emission transient under experimental conditions of temperature and gas phase compositions that are representative of the industrial environments. The catalytic coke deposition condition that is a major problem for the refinery and petrochemical industries, has been studied with such a device. The carbon deposition on reactor walls can induce localised disruption in the process such as heat-transfer reduction and pressure drops. To prevent these perturbations, proper selections of the metallurgical or internal coating compositions of the equipment, or the injection of accurate amount of inhibitors have to be decided. The feasibility of the coupling at high temperature of thermogravimetric and acoustic emission has been demonstrated. This new technique has been applied to study the inhibition of the catalytic coke deposition on pure iron by sulphur additives in the temperature range of 650 deg. C and under different mixed atmospheres of hydrocarbon and hydrogen contents. Good correlation has been obtained between the coking rates measured by thermogravimetric measurements and the intensities of the acoustic emission parameters. (authors)

  11. Adsorption of organic pollutants from coking and papermaking wastewaters by bottom ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Weiling [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)], E-mail: sunweiling@iee.pku.edu.cn; Qu Yanzhi; Yu Qing; Ni Jinren [Department of Environmental Engineering, Peking University, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2008-06-15

    Bottom ash, a power plant waste, was used to remove the organic pollutants in coking wastewater and papermaking wastewater. Particular attention was paid on the effect of bottom ash particle size and dosage on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD). UV-vis spectra, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) photographs were investigated to characterize the wastewaters and bottom ash. The results show that the COD removal efficiencies increase with decreasing particle sizes of bottom ash, and the COD removal efficiency for coking wastewater is much higher than that for papermaking wastewater due to its high percentage of particle organic carbon (POC). Different trends of COD removal efficiency with bottom ash dosage are also observed for coking and papermaking wastewaters because of their various POC concentrations. Significant variations are observed in the FEEM spectra of wastewaters after treatment by bottom ash. New excitation-emission peaks are found in FEEM spectra, and the fluorescence intensities of the peaks decrease. A new transmittance band in the region of 1400-1420 cm{sup -1} is observed in FTIR spectra of bottom ash after adsorption. The SEM photographs reveal that the surface of bottom ash particles varies evidently after adsorption.

  12. Development of phased array and tofd simultaneous inspection system for coke drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, M. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Toyo Works, Quality Assurance Dept., Ehime (Japan); Kawashima, K. [S.H.I. Examination and Inspection, Ltd., Inspection and Engineering Dept., Ehime (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    Our current AUT (automatic ultrasonic testing) system is ''phased array linear scan and dual TOFD (time of fight diffraction) simultaneous inspection system'' which has been applied to the pre-service inspection at shop in lieu of radiography as per ASME Code case 2235-4 and the in-service inspection at user's turnaround stage for the circumferential and longitudinal weld joints of shell courses of coke drum. The coke drum is 13-30 feet in diameter and 80-100 feet in height. The base material of coke drum is either C-1/2Mo steel, 1Cr-1/2Mo steel, 1.25Cr-1/2Mo steel, or 2.25Cr-1Mo steel with type 410S or 405 stainless steel cladding material, and clad restoration weld material is either Inconel 82, Inconel 625 or same material as the cladding material (13Cr stainless steel). It is too difficult to detect the flaws in the clad restoration weld by the conventional manual UT and/or TOFD, but phased array can clearly detect them. In order to improve the capability to detect and size the low cycle fatigue crack caused in the clad restoration weld and its heat affected zone due to the cyclic operation of coke drum ''phased array sector scan'' has been adopted. This paper reports the verification test results of ''dual phased array sector scan'' (the simultaneous scanning by a pair of phased array probes placed equally for the centerline of weld joint) in comparison with the verification test results of TOFD, and introduces the characteristic of our current AUT system. In consideration with the verification test results in this paper, we would like to propose that ''dual phased array sector scan and dual TOFD simultaneous inspection system'' (the simultaneous inspection by four (4) kinds of AUT) will be applied to the in-service inspection for the coke drum and other important reactors overlaid inside by stainless steel or inconel at the oil refineries and/or petrochemical plants. (orig.)

  13. Temperature Control of 5.5 m Tamping Coke Oven%浅谈5.5米捣固焦炉的温度控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵广磊

    2016-01-01

    The maturity condition of the coke near the machine side and the coke side is poor due to the temperature differ⁃ence between the machine side and the coke side. Throttle orifice plates were adopted in the horizontal tube grid to change the the gas flow distribution in the coke side, the temperatures in the machine side and the coke side were changed and the quality of the machine⁃side coke and the coke side coke were improved. Fire⁃fall management was combined with standard temperature to rectify standard temperature required for coke maturity.%由于捣固焦炉机焦侧温差较小,且焦侧高于机侧,导致机焦侧焦炭成熟情况不佳,通过在横排管中采用节流孔板的方法,改变机焦侧煤气流量分布,从而改变机焦侧温度,提高了机焦侧焦炭质量,并通过采用火落管理与标准温度相结合,修正焦炭成熟所需的标准温度。

  14. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  15. Effects of coal properties on acetylene formation and coking in H{sub 2}/Ar plasma pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, W.; Lu, Y.; Liu, S.; Xie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-10-01

    The formation of acetylene by coal plasma pyrolysis is strongly dependent on coal properties. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the effects of coal properties on the acetylene formation and coking in plasma pyrolysis in H{sub 2}/Ar. 12 kinds of coals with different coal rank were chosen and the effects of coal properties, including the content of volatile matter, oxygen and ash, on the yields of acetylene and coking were investigated in details. The results show that the bituminous coals containing the volatile matter from 30 to 40% have higher acetylene yield, while the coals with high oxygen content have lower acetylene yield, which corresponds to an increase in carbon conversion to carbon oxides. The content of mineral matter in coal has no significant relationship with the acetylene yield though it would increase the formation of CO. The higher mineral-matter content in coal is found to have a specific effect on the coking. The results of the tests by adding SiO{sub 2} and sands indicate that the high content of mineral-matter would increase the coke formation and affect the configuration of coke. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Combined XRD and Raman studies of coke types found in SAPO-34 after methanol and propene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Grønvold, Arne; Voronov, Alexey;

    2013-01-01

    We have used a combination of high resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPD), Raman spectroscopy, in situ powder diffraction and nitrogen adsorption measurements to study the effect on and nature of coke in the zeotype catalyst SAPO-34 during the methanol to olefin (MTO) and propene oligomerisat......We have used a combination of high resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPD), Raman spectroscopy, in situ powder diffraction and nitrogen adsorption measurements to study the effect on and nature of coke in the zeotype catalyst SAPO-34 during the methanol to olefin (MTO) and propene...... correspond to the phase fractions of the two cell types used in the Rietveld refinement, suggesting a link between the two phases and the two coke types. The PO Raman spectra have a stronger polyaromatic band at low coke, suggesting that polyaromatics form faster. In situ powder XRD studies suggest...... that the C3 feeds do not penetrate the crystallites to the same extent as methanol as the zeolite cages fill with coke. This proposal is supported by nitrogen adsorption measurements....

  17. 降低焦炉机车电器运行重复故障率%Reduce the Repetition Rate of Electric Operation of the Coke Oven Locomotive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉怀

    2016-01-01

    the coking coal coking company of masteel outdated 1 # 4 # coke oven in order to real-ize the coal charging and coke pushing, blocking water coke dry quenching, quenching, screen coke and dust removal, etc. By the four major locomotive ( coke pusher, coal car, stop coke car, coke quenching car) , due to the special environment of the equipment operation ( mobile, high tempera-ture, dust, stop frequent restart, etc. ) , make the equipment in the process of running frequent fail-ure, not only increase the workload of maintenance, because maintenance delayed production at the same time, reduces the coke oven coke rate, thus the ascension of the whole economic benefit of mas-teel.%马钢煤焦化公司老区焦化1#-4#焦炉为了实现装煤、推焦、拦焦、干熄焦、水熄焦、筛焦、除尘等工艺。由四大机车(推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、熄焦车)来实现,由于设备运行的特殊环境(移动、高温、多灰尘、停启动频繁等),使得设备在运行过程中故障频发,这不仅仅增加了维修工作量,同时因为检修耽误了生产,降低了焦炉的出焦率,从而影响了整个马钢的经济效益的提升。

  18. Combustion of coked sand in a two-stage fluidized bed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coronella, C.J.; Seader, J.D. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-02-01

    An advanced multiple-stage fluidized bed reactor system has been devised for the energy-efficient extraction and conversion, from tar sand, of bitumen into synthetic crude oil. The reactor consists of four fluidized beds arranged as stages in series with respect to flow of sand. In the first stage, tar sands are heated, causing the bitumen to pyrolyse into coke, which is deposited on the sand, and gas, which is mostly condensed into oil. The coke is partially combusted with air or enriched oxygen in the second stage, which is thermally coupled to the first stage by multiple vertical heat pipes. Combustion is completed adiabatically in the third stage and heat recovery from the sand is carried out in the fourth stage. By conducting the coke combustion in two stages in this manner, the overall reactor residence time to produce clean sand is greatly reduced from that for a single combustion stage. Laboratory experimental studies have confirmed the ability to operate and control the two thermally coupled stages. The two-phase bubbling bed model of Grace, amended to account for bubble growth in the axial direction, has been adopted to model the mass transfer and fluid mechanics of the fluidized beds. The model for the first and second combustion stages is complete. Predictions for exit reactor conditions at various operating conditions are in reasonable agreement with experimental observations. The operating parameters have been found to exert a much greater influence on the predictions of the model than do the values of the physical parameters, indicating a desirable degree of reactor stability. Extension of the model to the pyrolysis and heat recovery stages will permit the optimization of the reactor configuration and operating conditions. 26 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Identifying the causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity to aquatic invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttaswamy, Naveen; Liber, Karsten

    2011-11-01

    A previous study found that coke leachates (CL) collected from oil sands field sites were acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia; however, the cause of toxicity was not known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to generate CL in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity response of C. dubia and perform chronic toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests to identify the causes of CL toxicity. Coke was subjected to a 15-d batch leaching process at pH 5.5 and 9.5. Leachates were filtered on day 15 and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-d median lethal concentration (LC50) was 6.3 and 28.7% (v/v) for pH 5.5 and 9.5 CLs, respectively. Trace element characterization of the CLs showed Ni and V levels to be well above their respective 7-d LC50s for C. dubia. Addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved survival and reproduction in pH 5.5 CL, but not in pH 9.5 CL. Cationic and anionic resins removed toxicity of pH 5.5 CL only. Conversely, the toxicity of pH 9.5 CL was completely removed with an anion resin alone, suggesting that the pH 9.5 CL contained metals that formed oxyanions. Toxicity reappeared when Ni and V were added back to anion resin-treated CLs. The TIE results combined with the trace element chemistry suggest that both Ni and V are the cause of toxicity in pH 5.5 CL, whereas V appears to be the primary cause of toxicity in pH 9.5 CL. Environmental monitoring and risk assessments should therefore focus on the fate and toxicity of metals, especially Ni and V, in coke-amended oil sands reclamation landscapes.

  20. Lignite coke moving bed adsorber for cement plants - BAT or beyond BAT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberger, H. [European Commission, Seville (Spain). Joint Research Center

    2011-06-15

    The IPPC Directive requires permits which must contain emission limit values and other conditions based on BAT. The BAT are characterised and the terms 'conditional BAT' and 'beyond BAT' are defined and explained. The borderline between BAT and beyond BAT is explained by means of an outstanding example which is the lignite coke moving bed adsorber for the abatement of the waste gas from a cement plant where waste for co-incineration is fed to a considerable extent is described in detail. Worldwide, this technique has been successfully applied at one cement plant for sixteen years.

  1. Purification of coke oven wastewater; Depuracion de aguas residuales de coqueria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rancano, A.; Gutierrez, A.; Diaz, J.M.

    1998-06-01

    Coke oven wastewater are one of the most problematic that are produced by the iron and steel industry. They must be purified to minimise their impact on the environment. In this work a general vision about the different treatments that the wastewater must subject before being poured is showed. The options and efficiencies of every step were studied, taking special attention to the organic removal, studying the different ways to carry out this removal, centring on the biological treatment, the most used in this kind of wastewaters. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Gradient utilization of coking waste heat%焦化余热的梯级利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐营营; 刘旭明; 赵永宽

    2015-01-01

    利用焦化生产过程中的余热进行冬季采暖,可将采暖后的余热供蔬菜大棚利用,再回收低品质热能,实现热量梯级利用。%This paper presents the method of utilizing the coking waste heat for winter heating, and the waste heat after winter heating is further supplied to vegetable greenhouse, which has recovered low quality heat energy and realized gradient utilization of heat energy.

  3. Eight-term cyclic phosphites as coke deposit inhibitors and a method for producing them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vershinin, P.V.; Chebotareva, E.G.; Kadyrova, V.Kh.; Kirpichnikov, P.A.; Pozdnev, V.V.; Vershinin, Yu.P.; Zharkova, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    It is proposed that a eight-term cyclic phosphite formula be used where R = methyl, R' = tertiary-butyl or alpha-methylcyclohexyl, R'' = tertiary-butyl, R''' = hydrogen, methyl, tertiary-butyle, bromine, X = methylene and sulfur as coke deposit inhibitors in the pyrolysis of petroleum raw materials. A method for producing the eight-term cyclic phosphite formula is proposed where a cyclic chlorophosphite formula interacts with a phenol formula in a medium of polar aprotic solvent using a base at 80-100 degrees.

  4. Coke Formation in a Zeolite Crystal During the Methanol-to-Hydrocarbons Reaction as Studied with Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joel E; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Attila, Özgün; Fu, Donglong; de Winter, D A Matthijs; Meirer, Florian; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the formation of carbon deposits in zeolites is vital to developing new, superior materials for various applications, including oil and gas conversion processes. Herein, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to spatially resolve the 3D compositional changes at the sub-nm length scale in a single zeolite ZSM-5 crystal, which has been partially deactivated by the methanol-to-hydrocarbons reaction using (13) C-labeled methanol. The results reveal the formation of coke in agglomerates that span length scales from tens of nanometers to atomic clusters with a median size of 30-60 (13) C atoms. These clusters correlate with local increases in Brønsted acid site density, demonstrating that the formation of the first deactivating coke precursor molecules occurs in nanoscopic regions enriched in aluminum. This nanoscale correlation underscores the importance of carefully engineering materials to suppress detrimental coke formation.

  5. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Baohua; Chen, Jinyang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2009-10-15

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 C to 650 C. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 C. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration. (author)

  6. Using the stable HSPA1A promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    信丽丽

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using the stable HSPA1A(HSP70-1) promoter-driven luciferase reporter HepG2 cells(HepG2/HSPA1A cells) to assess the overall toxicity of coke oven emissions. Methods The stable HepG2/HSPA1A cells were treated with different concentrations of coke oven

  7. Significant Positive Correlation of Plasma BPDE-Albumin Adducts to Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in Coke Oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; TANG-CHUN WU; XIAO-BO YANG; AI-LIN LIU; HONG-YAN ZHEN; LIANG GUO; HUA-SHAN LIANG; YONG-YI BI; YUN BAI; YONG-WEN CHEN

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of BPDE-albumin adducts as monitoring biomarkers for coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs)and to explore possible relationship between BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP)levels in them.Methods Thirty-seven coke oven workers from a coke plant and 47 controls without the occupational exposure to PAHs were recruited in this study.The levels of plasma BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography.Results The median levels of BPDE-albumin adducts(42.10 fmol/mg albumin)and urinary 1-OHP(5.46 μmol/mol creatinine)were significantly higher in coke oven workers than in controls(14.16 fmol/mg albumin,2.96 μmol/mol creatinine,respectively;P<0.01).Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that coke oven workers were at higher risk of having BPDE-albumin adduct levels above 25.30 prnol/mg albumin(OR=1.79,P<0.01)and urinary 1-OHP levels above 4.13 μmol/mol creatinine(OR=2.45,P<0.05).There was a positive correlation between the levels of BPDE-albumin adducts and urinary 1-OHP in all subjects(rs=0.349,P<0.01).Conclusion BPDE-albumin adduct is a useful biomarker for monitoring long-term exposure to PAHs,and plasma BPDE-albumin adducts level is significantly correlated to urinary 1-OHP levels in coke oven workers.

  8. Influence of thermoplastic properties on coking pressure generation: Part 1 - A study of single coals of various rank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; Merrick R. Mahoney; Karen M. Steel [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre

    2010-07-15

    In this study a number of high coking pressure coals with different fluidities were evaluated alongside a number of low pressure coals also with differing fluidities. This was to establish rheological parameters within which a coal may be considered potentially dangerous with regards to coking pressure. The results have confirmed and elaborated on previous findings which show that parallel plate displacement ({Delta}L) and axial force profiles can be used to distinguish between high and low pressure coals, with peak values indicating cell rupture and subsequent pore network formation. This is thought to correspond with plastic layer compaction in the coke oven. For low pressure coals pore coalescence occurs quite early in the softening process when viscosity/elasticity are decreasing and consequently a large degree of contraction/collapse is observed. For higher pressure coals the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. If or when a pore network is established, a lower degree of contraction/collapse is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification, where viscosity and elasticity are increasing. For the higher fluidity, high coking pressure coals, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, and this is considered to be the primary reason for the high coking pressure observed with these coals. An additional consequence of these events is that high pressure coals are likely to contain a higher proportion of closed cells both at and during resolidification, reducing permeability in both the semi-coke and high temperature plastic layers, respectively. Using a rheological mapping approach to follow viscoelastic changes during carbonisation it has been possible to identify specific regions associated with dangerous coals. 76 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Study and modelling of deactivation by coke in catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons on Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst; La microbalance inertielle: etude et modelisation cinetique de la desactivation par le coke en reformage catalytique des hydrocarbures sur catalyseur Pt-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu-Deghais, S.

    2004-07-01

    Catalytic reforming is the refining process that produces gasoline with a high octane number. During a reforming operation, undesired side reactions promote the formation of carbon deposits (coke) on the surface of the catalyst. As the reactions proceed, the coke accumulation leads to a progressive decrease of the catalyst activity and to a change in its selectivity. Getting this phenomenon under control is interesting to optimize the industrial plants. This work aims to improve the comprehension and the modeling of coke formation and its deactivating effect on reforming reactions, while working under conditions chosen within a range as close as possible to the industrial conditions of the regenerative process. The experimental study is carried out with a micro unit that is designed to observe simultaneously the coke formation and its influence on the catalyst activity. A vibrational microbalance reactor (TEOM - Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance) is used to provide continuous monitoring of coke. On-line gas chromatography is used to observe the catalyst activity and selectivity as a function of the coke content. The coking experiments are performed on a fresh Pt-Sn/alumina catalyst, with mixtures of hydrocarbon molecules of 7 carbon atoms as hydrocarbon feeds. The coking tests permitted to highlight the operating parameters that may affect the amount of coke, and to identify the hydrocarbon molecules that behave as coke intermediate. A kinetic model for coke formation could be developed through the compilation of these results. The catalytic activity analysis permitted to point out the coke effect on both of the active phases of the catalyst, to construct a simplified reforming kinetic model that simulates the catalyst activity under the reforming conditions, and to quantify deactivation via deactivation functions. (author)

  10. Research progress on additives in coking coal blending%添加剂在配煤炼焦中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪恭二; 史世庄; 罗永辉; 鲁帅; 林志龙

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the mechanism of using binder and leaning agent in coking coal blending,and summarizes the improvement effect of binder and leaning agent on coke quality. Appli-cation of blending additives for coking could improve coke quality,and there is a broad prospect for its application in coke industry.%介绍了黏结剂和瘦化剂配煤炼焦的机理,总结了常用黏结剂和瘦化剂对焦炭的改质效果. 配入添加剂炼焦可改善焦炭质量,在焦化行业应用前景广泛.

  11. Performance and microbial community analysis of the anaerobic reactor with coke oven gas biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Xie, Li; Luo, Gang;

    2013-01-01

    (HFM). With pH control at 8.0, the added H2 and CO were fully consumed and no negative effects on the anaerobic degradation of sewage sludge were observed. The maximum CH4 content in the biogas was 99%. The addition of SCOG resulted in enrichment and dominance of homoacetogenetic genus Treponema......A new method for simultaneous coke oven gas (COG) biomethanation and in situ biogas upgrading in anaerobic reactor was developed in this study. The simulated coke oven gas (SCOG) (92% H2 and 8% CO) was injected directly into the anaerobic reactor treating sewage sludge through hollow fiber membrane...

  12. DTA and TGA study of MeSo4 (Me = Fe, Co, Ni dissociation in the presence of coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyanov B.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available MeSO4 (Me = Fe, Co, Ni dissociation is investigated in order to estimate the effect of temperature, time and presence of coke as reducer on the degree and mechanism of dissociation. It is proved that the presence of coke decreases the dissociation temperature considerably and increases the degree of MeSO4 dissociation. Based on the obtained experimental data, a mechanism of the processes is proposed. The obtained results can be used in the industrial production of non-ferrous metals for explaining the processes that take place in the reduction of zinc and lead cakes in order to achieve favorable environmental, technical and economic results.

  13. The optimisation of the fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission set-up for moisture measurement of coke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywicka-Jakiel, T; Łoskiewicz, J; Tracz, G

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, modelling calculations with the Monte Carlo (MCNP4C) code were performed for the optimisation of the fast neutron and gamma-ray transmission, set-up, used for the humidity measurement of coke. The optimisation focused on maximising the sensitivity of the neutron flux to humidity changes and on lowering neutron-counting error, both leading to higher accuracy of coke moisture determination. Different materials used for the source shielding and neutron collimation, together with different dimensions of the neutron collimators were studied. The results obtained from the Monte Carlo modelling correlate with the real instrument performance.

  14. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  15. Urinary profiles to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure in coke-oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Laura; Rossella, Federica; Pavanello, Sofia; Mielzynska, Danuta; Siwinska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2010-01-15

    Aim of the study was the assessment of exposure of coke-oven workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by determination of urinary profiles of hydroxylated and unmetabolized PAHs. Fifty-five Polish coke-oven workers were investigated by measurement of 12 hydroxylated metabolites of PAHs (OHPAHs) (1-, 2-hydroxynaphthalene; 2-, 9-hydroxyfluorene; 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 9-hydroxyphenanthrene; 1-hydroxyypyrene, 6-hydroxychrysene and 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene) and 13 unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) (from naphthalene to benzo[a]pyrene), in spot urine samples collected at the end of the workshift. U-PAHs with four or less rings were detected in all samples. In particular, median levels for urinary naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene and benz[a]anthracene were 0.806, 0.721, 0.020, 0.032 and 0.035 microg/L. OHPAHs up to 1-hydroxypyrene were found in all samples, while high molecular-weight OHPAHs were always below quantification limit. Median level of 1-hydroxyypyrene was 15.4 microg/L. In all subjects significant correlations between OHPAHs and U-PAHs were observed (0.27 < r < 0.70, p < 0.01). Our results suggest that both hydroxylated metabolites and unmetabolized PAHs in urine are useful biomarkers of exposure to PAHs. Moreover, the simultaneous determination of several biomarkers permits to obtain specific excretion profiles that might help in exposure characterization and in better defining the excretion patterns.

  16. Refrigeration cycle for cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun CHANG; Qing LI; Qiang LI

    2008-01-01

    Ten billion cubic meters of hydrogen are dissip-ated to the environment along with the emission of coke-oven gas every year in China. A novel cryogenic separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas is proposed to separate the hydrogen and liquefy it simultaneously, and the cooling capacity is supplied by two refrigeration cycles. The perform-ance of the ideal vapor refrigeration cycle is analyzed with methane and nitrogen as refrigerant respectively. The results show that the coefficient of performance (COP) of methane refrigeration cycle is 2.7 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle, and the figure of merit (FOM) of methane refrigera-tion cycle is 1.6 times that of nitrogen refrigeration cycle. The performance of ideal gas refrigeration cycle is also analyzed with neon, hydrogen and helium as refrigerant respectively. The results show that both the coefficient of performance and figure of merit of neon refrigeration cycle is the highest. It is thermodynamically possible to arrange the refrigeration cycle with methane and neon as refrigerant, respectively.

  17. Kinetics of petroleum coke/biomass blends during co-gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-liang; Guo, Jian; Wang, Guang-wei; Xu, Tao; Chai, Yi-fan; Zheng, Chang-le; Xu, Run-sheng

    2016-09-01

    The co-gasification behavior and synergistic effect of petroleum coke, biomass, and their blends were studied by thermogravimetric analysis under CO2 atmosphere at different heating rates. The isoconversional method was used to calculate the activation energy. The results showed that the gasification process occurred in two stages: pyrolysis and char gasification. A synergistic effect was observed in the char gasification stage. This effect was caused by alkali and alkaline earth metals in the biomass ash. Kinetics analysis showed that the activation energy in the pyrolysis stage was less than that in the char gasification stage. In the char gasification stage, the activation energy was 129.1-177.8 kJ/mol for petroleum coke, whereas it was 120.3-150.5 kJ/mol for biomass. We also observed that the activation energy calculated by the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) method were larger than those calculated by the Kissinger-Akahira-Sunosen (KAS) method. When the conversion was 1.0, the activation energy was 106.2 kJ/mol when calculated by the KAS method, whereas it was 120.3 kJ/mol when calculated by the FWO method.

  18. Fly ashes from coal and petroleum coke combustion: current and innovative potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Aixa; Navia, Rodrigo; Moreno, Natalia

    2009-12-01

    Coal fly ashes (CFA) are generated in large amounts worldwide. Current combustion technologies allow the burning of fuels with high sulfur content such as petroleum coke, generating non-CFA, such as petroleum coke fly ash (PCFA), mainly from fluidized bed combustion processes. The disposal of CFA and PCFA fly ashes can have severe impacts in the environment such as a potential groundwater contamination by the leaching of heavy metals and/or particulate matter emissions; making it necessary to treat or reuse them. At present CFA are utilized in several applications fields such as cement and concrete production, agriculture and soil stabilization. However, their reuse is restricted by the quality parameters of the end-product or requirements defined by the production process. Therefore, secondary material markets can use a limited amount of CFA, which implies the necessity of new markets for the unused CFA. Some potential future utilization options reviewed herein are zeolite synthesis and valuable metals extraction. In comparison to CFA, PCFA are characterized by a high Ca content, suggesting a possible use as neutralizers of acid wastewaters from mining operations, opening a new potential application area for PCFA that could solve contamination problems in emergent and mining countries such as Chile. However, this potential application may be limited by PCFA heavy metals leaching, mainly V and Ni, which are present in PCFA in high concentrations.

  19. Treatment of coke plant wastewater by SND fixed biofilm hybrid system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Rong; YANG Kun; YU Zhao-xiang

    2007-01-01

    In this article, coke plant wastewater was treated by a simultaneous nitrifying and denitrifying (SND) fixed biofilm hybrid system. The results showed that suitable parameters of the system were important for the performance of the bio-degradation system. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency in this system was satisfactory, higher than 94%, and ammonia nitrogen was higher than 95%. The effluent COD concentration could meet the discharge standard, except for very few situations. The results showed that a sufficient carbon source was important for making ammonia nitrogen concentration meet the discharge standard. Then the TN removal efficiency in this system can be brought higher than 94%. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is very important to the performance of the SND bio-degradation system, and the suitable DO is about 3.5-4.0 mg/L at the forepart of reactor. In addition, the performance of the system was almost not affected by pH value. The results show that the system is feasible to treat coke plant wastewater.

  20. The assessment of the coke wastewater treatment efficacy in rotating biological contractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cema, G; Żabczyński, S; Ziembińska-Buczyńska, A

    2016-01-01

    Coke wastewater is known to be relatively difficult for biological treatment. Nonetheless, biofilm-based systems seem to be promising tool for such treatment. That is why a rotating biological contactor (RBC) system focused on the Anammox process was used in this study. The experiment was divided into two parts with synthetic and then real wastewater. It was proven that it is possible to treat coke wastewater with RBC but such a procedure requires a very long start-up period for the nitritation (190 days), as well as for the Anammox process, where stable nitrogen removal over 70% was achieved after 400 days of experiment. Interestingly, it was possible at a relatively low (20.2 ± 2.2 °C) temperature. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) based monitoring of the bacterial community showed that its biodiversity decreased when the real wastewater was treated and it was composed mainly of GC-rich genotypes, probably because of the modeling influence of this wastewater and the genotypes specialization.

  1. Shift From Coke to Coal Using Direct Reduction Method and Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonkwo Paul Chukwuleke; CAI Jiu-ju; Sam Chukwujekwu; XIAO Song

    2009-01-01

    Ironmaking involves the separation of iron ores. It not only represents the first step in steelmaking but also is the most capital-intensive and energy-intensive process in the production of steel. The main route for producing iron for steelmaking is to use the blast furnace, which uses metallurgical coke as the reduetant. Concerns over the limited re-sources, the high cost of eoking coals, and the environmental impacts of eoking and sinter plants have driven steel-makers to develop alternative ironmaking processes that can use non-coking coals to reduce iron ores directly. Since the efficiency and productivity of modern large capacity blast furnaces will be difficult to surpass, blast furnaces will continue to retain their predominant position as the foremost ironmaking process for some time to come. The alterna-tive ironmaking processes are therefore expected to play an increasingly significant role in the iron and steel industry, especially in meeting the needs of small-sized local and regional markets. It is likely that the importance of direct re-duced iron (DRI) and hot metal as sources of virgin iron will continue to increase, especially in the developing coun-tries where steelmaking is, and will be, primarily based on electric arc furnace (EAF) minimills. Consequently, the challenges that are faced by the new technology have to be embraced.

  2. Treatment of coke plant wastewater by A/O fixed biofilm system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Zhaoxiang; QI; Rong; YIN; Yanjun

    2005-01-01

    Coke plant wastewater was treated by an anaerobic-aerobic (A/O) biofilm system. A lab-scale experiment, during which semi-soft media were packed in both the anaerobic and the aerobic reactors, was carried out. The influence parameters, such as HRT, C/N ratio, OLR, and the recycling flow rate on the performance of the system, were studied. The results showed that a sufficient carbon source was important to the performance of bio-degradation system. The COD removal rate increased from 64.15% to 83.28% by raising C/N in wastewater from 2.5 (no external carbon source) to 5. But the effluent COD concentration was still a little higher than the discharge standard. In order to make it meet the discharge standard, a deep treatment, coagulation, was applied, which was proved as an effective method. Then the effluent COD concentration can be brought to lower than 200 mg·L-1. The NH4-N removal rate in this system was satisfactory, being higher than 99%. In addition, it was almost not affected by both C/N ratio and coagulation treatment. The results show that the system is feasible to treat coke plant wastewater.

  3. Study on the adsorption characteristics of modified semi-coke used for treating biologically treated effluent from coking wastewater%改性兰炭对焦化废水生化出水的吸附特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽娜; 刘尚超; 张垒; 付本全

    2012-01-01

    Semi-coke that has been modified with steam at high temperature is used for the static adsorption of TOC in biochemically treated effluent from coking wastewater. The effects of influencing factors, such as adsorption time, pH,adsorbent dosage,particle size,etc.,on the treatment efficiency are investigated. The results show that after adding 20 g/L 1 -2 mm of modified semi-coke to wastewater whose pH is 4, at room temperature and adsorption time 30 min,the TOC removing rate of biochemically treated effluent from the coking wastewater is more than 60%. The concentration and variety of the organisms in samples after the adsorption process have decreased greatly.%利用水蒸气高温改性后的兰炭静态吸附焦化废水生化出水中的TOC,考察了吸附时间、pH、吸附剂用量、粒径等因素对处理效果的影响.结果表明,向废水(pH=4)中投加20 g/L改性兰炭(粒径1~2 mm),室温下吸附30 min后,对焦化废水生化出水的TOC去除率在60%以上.吸附后水样中的有机物浓度和种类都大幅下降.

  4. Catalytic wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater on ruthenium-based eggshell catalysts in a bubbling bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Sun, Y; Xu, A H; Lu, X Y; Du, H Z; Sun, C L; Li, C

    2007-07-01

    Catalytic wet air of coke-plant wastewater was studied in a bubbling bed reactor. Two types of supported Ru-based catalysts, eggshell and uniform catalysts, were employed. Compared with the results in the wet air oxidation of coke-plant wastewater, supported Ru uniform catalysts showed high activity for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia/ammonium compounds (NH3-N) removal at temperature of 250 degrees C and pressure of 4.8 MPa, and it has been demonstrated that the catalytic activity of uniform catalyst depended strongly on the distribution of active sites of Ru on catalyst. Compared to the corresponding uniform catalysts with the same Ru loading (0.25 wt.% and 0.1 wt.%, respectively), the eggshell catalysts showed higher activities for CODcr removal and much higher activities for NH3-N degradation. The high activity of eggshell catalyst for treatment of coke-plant wastewater can be attributed to the higher density of active Ru sites in the shell layer than that of the corresponding uniform catalyst with the same Ru loading. It has been also evidenced that the active Ru sites in the internal core of uniform catalyst have very little or no contribution to CODcr and NH3-N removal in the total oxidation of coke-plant wastewater.

  5. Refinaria do Nordeste: petroleum coke handling system; Refinaria do Nordeste: desafios do sistema de movimentacao de coque verde de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, Luiz G. de; Cabral, Jose Mauro B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Ipojuca, PE (Brazil). Refinaria do Nordeste (RNEST); Lucredi, Hedewandro A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Paulinia, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia (REPLAN); Barros, Francisco Carlos da C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    The Delayed Coking Units - DCU - are adequate to the scheme for processing heavy oils where the market of fuel oil or asphalt is low or not profitable. The DCU's are conversion units that produce, in addition to the gas and liquid distilled products, the petcoke. The petcoke, depending on the characteristics, is used in various applications like as in the aluminum, iron, thermoelectric and cement industries. The petcoke is solid and its logistics is quite different from most of the products handled by PETROBRAS; therefore, this product has been a constant challenge in relation to the market requirements. Due to the importance of the DCU at Refinaria do Nordeste, and the petcoke production capacity, the coke handling system was projected in order to ensure the refinery operational continuity. The project permits the expedition and loading of 10,000 tons of petcoke within a period of 12 hours of work for cargo vessel. In the development of the processing project of Refinaria do Nordeste efforts were made to optimize the Delayed Coking Unit for the production of distilled products and the quality of the coke. The DCU operating conditions were projected so as to produce petcoke with quality adequate to the iron and aluminum industry. (author)

  6. Gas Production with Coproduction of Methanol through Dry Quenching of Coke Developed by Yantai Tonqve Chemical/Yantai University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Yantai Tongye Chemical Technology Co.,Ltd.and Yantai University have jointly studied and developed the proprietary technology for gas generation through dry quenching of coke with co-production of methanol.Currently this technology has been successfully licensed and the engineering and the design work is underway.

  7. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste to upgraded bio-oil products via pre-coked modified HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhong, Zhaoping; Ding, Kuan; Xue, Zeyu

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, HZSM-5 catalyst was modified by pre-coked to cover the strong external acid sites by methanol to olefins reaction, and the modified catalysts were then applied to conduct the catalyst fast pyrolysis of mushroom waste for upgraded bio-fuel production. Experiment results showed that the strong external acid sites and specific surface area decreased with pre-coked percentage increasing from 0% to 5.4%. Carbon yields of hydrocarbons increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 53.47%. While the obtained oxygenates presented an opposite variation tendency, and the minimum values could be reached when pre-coked percentage was 2.7%. Among the achieved hydrocarbons, toluene and p-xylene were found to be the main products, and the selectivity of p-xylene increased at first and then decreased with a maximum value of 34.22% when the pre-coked percentage was 1.3%, and the selectivity of toluene showed the opposite tendency with a minimum value of 25.47%.

  8. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  9. Synthesis of silicon carbide from cokes rice hulls and coked bamboos; Shirasu to momigaratan chikutan kara SiC no gosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tateyama, H.; Kimura, K.; Jinnai, K. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Sagas (Japan); Hamasaki, H.

    1995-07-25

    Silicon carbide is an important industrial material as used for high-temperature ceramics. In the pre-sent study silicon carbide powders were synthesized at different temperature (1,250-1,400{degree}C) by reaction of a mixed power of shirasu and caked rice hulls or caked bamboos. The results are summarized as follows; (1) Two kinds of shirasu are used as the source of SiO2, one mainly consists of volcanic glass and the other includes volcanic glass and crystalline materials, such as feldspar and quartz. Coked rice hulls contain large amounts of unburnt component, but caked bamboos include a very small amount of one. (2) Pure powders of silicon carbide are synthesized from shirasu and caked bamboos under relatively low temperature as compared with synthetic conditions of {beta}-silicon carbide on the market. (3) The structural and quantitative analyses of the synthesized silicon carbide were carried out using the X-ray powder diffraction refinement method on the basis of the cubic and hexagonal close packed models. The profile calculated on the basis of Paterson model shows that the peak of (102) reflection moves toward the lower angle with increasing the amount of stacking faults, however, in the case of t Wilson model the peak position of (102) reflection does not move any more with increasing the stacking faults. The content of the stacking faults in the present synthesized silicon carbide is very small as compared with that of silicon carbide on the sail. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  10. [Advanced treatment of coking wastewater with a novel heterogeneous electro-Fenton technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Tao; Li, Yu-Ping; Zhang, An-Yang; Cao, Hong-Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Zhang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    A novel electro-catalytic reactor, with oxygen-reduction cathode (PAQ/GF), dimensionally stable anode (IrO2-RuO2 -TiO2/ Ti) and heterogeneous catalysts, is developed for advanced treatment of coking wastewater after biological process, integrating cathodic and anodic simultaneous oxidation processes. A PAQ/GF electrode was synthesized by the electro-polymerization of 2-ethyl anthraquinone on graphite felt, which was characterized with cyclic voltametry measurements; the results indicated that the PAQ/GF electrode showed high reversibility for oxidation-reduction reaction of anthraquinone and catalytic activity for O2 reduction to H2O2; 13.5 mmol/L H2O2 was obtained after electrolysis for 6 h at -0.7 V (vs. SCE) and pH 6 with a current efficiency of 50% in a membrane reactor. Fe-Cu/Y350 catalysts, prepared by impregnation method, could catalyze the production of hydroxyl radicals (*OH) from H2O2, which was confirmed both by fading reaction of crystal violet and oxidation of *OH-probe compound (p-chlorobenzoic acid); Fe-Cu/Y350 also showed high catalytic-activity for the oxidation of organics by hypochlorous sodium, because COD removal of coking wastewater reached 26% in the catalytic process while only 11% of COD removal was obtained in the absence of Fe-Cu/Y350. COD removal of coking wastewater reached 49.4% (26.0% and 23.4% in cathodic system and anodic system, respectively) in the developed electrolytic-reactor, which was higher than that of conventional cathodic-anodic-oxidation process (29.8%). At optimal reaction condition of initial COD = 192 mg/L, I = 10A x m(-2) and pH 4-5, more than 50% COD were removed after electrolysis for 1 h. The mechanism might be as follows: in cathodic system, H2O2 is generated from reduction of O2 on PAQ/GF cathode, and catalyzed by Fe-Cu/Y350 for production of *OH, which causes mineralization and degradation of organic pollutants; in anodic system, Cl2 and HClO are generated from Cl- oxidation on IrO2-RuO2-TiO2/Ti anode and the

  11. Comparison of steam-gasification characteristics of coal char and petroleum coke char in drop tube furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Ding; Zhijie Zhou; Wei Huo; Guangsuo Yu

    2015-01-01

    The steam-gasification reaction characteristics of coal and petroleum coke (PC) were studied in the drop tube fur-nace (DTF). The effects of various factors such as types of carbonaceous material, gasification temperature (1100–1400 °C) and mass ratio of steam to char (0.4:1, 0.6:1 and 1:1 separately) on gasification gas or solid products were investigated. The results showed that for al carbonaceous materials studied, H2 content exhibited the larg-est part of gasification gaseous products and CH4 had the smal est part. For the two petroleum cokes, CO2 content was higher than CO, which was similar to Zun-yi char. When the steam/char ratio was constant, the carbon con-version of both Shen-fu and PC chars increased with increasing temperature. When the gasification temperature was constant, the carbon conversions of al char samples increased with increasing steam/char ratio. For al the steam/char ratios, compared to water gas shift reaction, char-H2O and char-CO2 reaction were further from the thermodynamic equilibrium due to a much lower char gasification rate than that of water gas shift reaction rate. Therefore, kinetic effects may play a more important role in a char gasification step than thermodynamic ef-fects when the gasification reaction of char was held in DTF. The calculating method for the equilibrium shift in this study wil be a worth reference for analysis of the gaseous components in industrial gasifier. The reactivity of residual cokes decreased and the crystal layer (L002/d002) numbers of residual cokes increased with increasing gasification temperature. Therefore, L002/d002, the carbon crystallite structure parameter, can be used to evaluate the reactivity of residual cokes.

  12. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel

  13. High-pressure co-gasification of coal with biomass and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermoso, J.; Arias, B.; Plaza, M.G.; Pevida, C.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain); Garcia-Pena, F.; Casero, P. [Elcogas S.A. C.T. GICC Puertollano, Carretera Calzada de Calatrava, km 27, 13500 Puertollano, Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2009-07-15

    The effects of the main operation variables (temperature, pressure and gasifying agent composition) on gas production and other process parameters, such as carbon conversion, cold gas efficiency and high heating value, during the steam-oxygen gasification of a bituminous coal were studied. It was observed that temperature and oxygen concentration were the most influential variables during the gasification process. In addition, co-gasification tests of binary blends of a bituminous coal with different types of biomass (up to 10%) and petroleum coke (up to 60%), as well as ternary blends of coal-petcoke-biomass (45-45-10%) were conducted in order to study the effect of blending on gas production and carbon conversion. (author)

  14. New Coke Oven Facilities at Linhuan Coal Chemical Company Adopt LyondellBasell's Aromatics Extraction Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The new 80 kt/a coal chemical unit at the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company in Anhui province will adopt the aro-matics extraction process licensed by LyondellBasell Company. This unit is expected to come on stream by 2009.This technology is suitable for manufacture of high-purity aromatics with broad adaptability and large scale produc-tion capability. In the previous year LyondellBasell was awarded six patents on aromatics extraction process. It is told that the achievements to be adopted by the Linhuan Coal Chemical Company are partly a series of aromatics extrac-tion processes for recovery of coke oven light oil performed by LyondellBasell.

  15. Performance of block lining in the zone of slanted ducts of a coke dry quenching unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolova, L.S.; Drozd, V.I.; Zadorozhnaya, T.A.; Minasov, A.N.; Surenskii, O.N.; Ershov, N.A.; Ignashin, G.I.; Mishin, E.N. (UkrNIIO (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Discusses service life and wear of concrete blocks used for construction of dry coke quenching chambers. Concrete blocks replaced conventional refractory bricks. A filler from calcinated bauxites and a high-alumina cement were used for concrete block production. The blocks were used for construction of the zones of slanted ducts. Concrete block properties are analyzed: dimensions, weight, ultimate compression strength, open porosity, apparent density, linear shrinkage at 1,400 C and holding for 5 hours, content of calcium, aluminium and iron oxides. Abrasive wear and spalling of the working surface of the slanted duct zone made of the concrete blocks was 1.5-2.0 lower than that of conventional refractory bricks in chambers with the same service life. Tests carried out 8 years long showed that the slanted duct zones made of concrete blocks were characterized by higher abrasion resistance and heat resistance, reduced number of joints and increased rigidity of the slanted duct structure. 4 refs.

  16. Mössbauer analysis of coal coke samples from Samacá, Boyacá, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Serrano, W. A.; Quintão Lima, D.; Fabris, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    Three samples of coke produced from coal from a mine in the municipality of Samacá, department of Boyacá, Colombia, were studied essentially with Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were treated with NaOH 5 mol L - 1 in order to increase the proportion of iron oxides, by selectively dissolving silicate minerals and any remaining gibbsite, before the physical analysis. Room temperature Mössbauer data revealed that all samples do contain major proportions (>50 % of the relative subspectral area) of hematite along with (super) paramagnetic species as iron-bearing chemical compounds. The superparamagnetic contribution may be due to very fine grains of iron oxides, including nanometric hematite.

  17. Fully automatic apparatus for proximate analysis and total sulfur analysis of coal and coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Y.; Fukumoto, K.; Maeda, K.; Ogawa, A.; Goto, K.; Ishii, T.

    1987-02-01

    For the purpose of saving labor and improving working conditions, the full automatic apparatus for the proximate analysis and total sulfur analysis of coal and coke was developed. Objects of this automation were to quantify inherent moisture, ash, volatile matter and total sulfur. Quantitative determination of inherent moisture, ash and volatile matter was made gravimetrically. Total sulfur was measured by combustion and acid and base titration, using a conductivity glass electrode sensor. The robot was set to the center of the automatic apparatus and relevant apparatuses were arranged in concentric circular locations. The computer carried out condition control of each apparatus, sequence control by operating demand and operation completing signal, and progress control of analysis. Very high correlation between the conventional method and this automatic method was confirmed. 4 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in coking industrial liquid waste treatment process based on Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ya-Nan; Wang, Gui-Shi; Tan, Tu; Cai, Ting-Dong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Gong-Dong; Mei, Jiao-Xu

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative analysis of ammonium salts in the process of coking industrial liquid waste treatment is successfully performed based on a compact Raman spectrometer combined with partial least square (PLS) method. Two main components (NH4SCN and (NH4)2S2O3) of the industrial mixture are investigated. During the data preprocessing, wavelet denoising and an internal standard normalization method are employed to improve the predicting ability of PLS models. Moreover, the PLS models with different characteristic bands for each component are studied to choose a best resolution. The internal and external calibration results of the validated model show a mass percentage error below 1% for both components. Finally, the repeatabilities and reproducibilities of Raman and reference titration measurements are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 41405022 and 61475068).

  19. STUDY ON REDUCING AND MELTING BEHAVIOR OF MILL SCALE/PETROLEUM COKE BLEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Deves Flores

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-reducing tests were carried out under isothermal and non-isothermal condition in a muffle furnace, aiming to assess the reduction and melting of a self-reducing blend of mill scale and petroleum coke (85-15% in weight. The products obtained were analyzed by mass loss and wet analysis. Further investigations for the products from the non-isothermal condition were done by X-ray diffraction, nude eye inspection and carbon analyzer. It was observed that mass loss fraction and metallization degree are directly related and both increase with time and temperature. In the non-isothermal maximum mass loss was achieved in 8 minutes, reaching metallization degrees above 90%. It was observed that the reduction of iron oxide occurs mainly in solid state and the smelting of the samples is directly related to the iron carburization process. Thus, the use of self-reducing mixtures shows a possible way to recycle mill scale.

  20. Discerning the Location and Nature of Coke Deposition from Surface to Bulk of Spent Zeolite Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun; Vijayakumar, Murugesan; Bao, Jie; Guo, Mond F.; Derewinski, Miroslaw A.; Xu, Zhijie; Gray, Michel J.; Prodinger, Sebastian; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.

    2016-11-23

    The nanoscale compositional mapping of fresh HZSM-5 catalyst synthesized using hydrothermal process as well as after just steaming and after ethanol conversion reaction for 72 hours at realistic catalytic conditions was investigated using atom probe tomography. Atom probe tomography permitted direct atomic scale imaging of non-uniform distribution of Al within the HZSM-5 as well as for the first time image the hydrocarbon coking after ethanol reaction. Clear evidences for existence of multiple C-H molecular species which appear to aggregate as clusters within the pores of spent HZSM-5 catalyst materials is provided. These results provide evidence for the ability of atom probe tomography, a powerful 3D characterization tool in interrogating the atomic scale chemistry of zeolite catalyst materials at industrially relevant catalytic conditions.

  1. Oil Coking Prevention Using Electric Water Pump for Turbo-Charge Spark-Ignition Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Ching Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Turbocharger has been widely implemented for internal combustion engine to increase an engine's power output and reduce fuel consumption. However, its operating temperature would rise to 340°C when engine stalls. This higher temperature may results in bearing wear, run-out, and stick, due to oil coking and insufficient lubrication. In order to overcome these problems, this paper employs Electric Water Pump (EWP to supply cool liquid to turbocharger actively when the engine stalls. The system layout, operating timing, and duration of EWP are investigated for obtaining optimal performance. The primarily experimental results show that the proposed layout and control strategy have a lower temperature of 100°C than the conventional temperature 225°C.

  2. The Development of Coke Carried—Heat Gasification Coal—Fired Combined Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiZhao; XiangdongXu

    1999-01-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992,The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in china is much lower than that of the advanced countries,but the coal consumption is much higher,which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment.With the deep study of the gasification technology,Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle,as the improved system,came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one,At the end of 1997,a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created.This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University,depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion,making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  3. Joint Implementation Analysis: A Case Study of the Japan-China Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One of the key issues for "Joint Implementation" is how to define a plausible baseline, a necessary benchmark for calculating net Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emission reductions through a comparative approach. Based on a thorough case study of the China-Japan Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) project, the first approved pilot project in China under the "Activities Implemented Jointly" (AIJ) framework, the paper not only describes in detail the complete procedure of baseline definition of the case project, but also discusses its approach to baseline determination. Furthermore, cost-benefit analysis of GHGs mitigation is conducted according to the baseline. This empirical case study, based on real AIJ project data, will be beneficial for the development of future projects under Kyoto mechanisms such as "Clean Development Mechanism" and "Joint Implementation".

  4. Coking-resistant Ni-ZrO2/Al2O3 catalyst for CO methanation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu; Fangna Gu; Jiajian Gao; Huifang Li; Guangwen Xu∗; Fabing Su∗

    2014-01-01

    Highly coke-resisting ZrO2-decorated Ni/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation were prepared by a two-step process. The support was first loaded with NiO by impregnating method and then modified with ZrO2 by deposition-precipitation method (IM-DP). Nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, H2 temperature-programmed reduction and desorption, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption, and zeta potential analysis were employed to characterize the samples. The results revealed that, compared with the catalysts with the same composition prepared by co-impregnation (CI) and sequential impregnation (SI) methods, the Ni/Al2O3 catalyst prepared by IM-DP showed much enhanced catalytic performance for syngas methanation under the condition of atmospheric pressure and a high weight hourly space velocity of 120000 mL·g−1·h−1. In a 80 h life time test under the condition of 300–600◦C and 3.0 MPa, this catalyst showed high stability and resistance to coking, and the amount of deposited carbon was only 0.4 wt%. On the contrary, the deposited carbon over the catalyst without ZrO2 reached 1.5 wt%after a 60 h life time test. The improved catalytic performance was attributed to the selective deposition of ZrO2 nanoparticles on the surface of NiO rather than Al2O3, which could be well controlled via changing the electrostatic interaction in the DP procedure. This unique structure could enhance the dissociation of CO2 and generate surface oxygen intermediates, thus preventing carbon deposition on the Ni particles in syngas methanation.

  5. Petroleum coke adsorption as a water management option for oil sands process-affected water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubot, Warren [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Research and Development, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6N 1H4 (Canada); MacKinnon, Michael D. [OSPM Solutions Ltd., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8H 6X2 (Canada); Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Smith, Daniel W. [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada); Gamal El-Din, Mohamed, E-mail: mgamalel-din@ualberta.ca [University of Alberta, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2W2 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Water is integral to both operational and environmental aspects of the oil sands industry. A water treatment option based on the use of petroleum coke (PC), a by-product of bitumen upgrading, was examined as an opportunity to reduce site oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) inventories and net raw water demand. Changes in OSPW quality when treated with PC included increments in pH levels and concentrations of vanadium, molybdenum, and sulphate. Constituents that decreased in concentration after PC adsorption included total acid-extractable organics (TAO), bicarbonate, calcium, barium, magnesium, and strontium. Changes in naphthenic acids (NAs) speciation were observed after PC adsorption. A battery of bioassays was used to measure the OSPW toxicity. The results indicated that untreated OSPW was toxic towards Vibrio fischeri and rainbow trout. However, OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not acutely toxic towards these test organisms. Removal of TAO was found to be an adsorption process, fitting the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. For TAO concentrations of 60 mg/L, adsorption capacities ranged between 0.1 and 0.46 mg/g. This study demonstrates that freshly produced PC from fluid cokers provides an effective treatment of OSPW in terms of key constituents' removal and toxicity reduction. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) using petroleum coke (PC) adsorption was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC was effective at adsorbing naphthenic acids with higher cyclicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OSPW treated with PC at appropriate dosages was not toxic towards Vibrio fisheri and rainbow trout. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The adsorption of organic acids fitted the Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PC has the potential to be an effective adsorbent to treat OSPW either directly or as a pretreatment step.

  6. Anti-corrosion paint and varnish coatings employing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.B. Pavlovich; N.M. Alekseeva; V.P. Dolgopolov; A.A. Popov [West Siberian Metallurgical Combine, Siberia (Russian Federation)

    2004-06-01

    The various shops of the West Siberian Metallurgical Combine operate 392 gas-cleaning units, and the combine annually spends 1.5 million rubles a year on major repairs to this equipment. The need to increase the service life of the air ducts is obvious. At the same time, the production of phthalic anhydride (PA) from commercial grades of naphthalene made at coke and coal chemicals plants also yields large quantities of waste products formed in oxidation reactions - still residues from the distillation of PA. These residues are currently used in coking charges. It is important that a way be found to recycle wastes from the production of phthalic anhydride, which is the main raw material used to make corrosion-resistant paints and lacquers. The goal of the research was to use PA production wastes to help develop promising new environmentally clean materials to protect metal from corrosion. The Combine has developed and mastered the production of two types of powdered polymer-based paint: quick-drying epoxide paint PEFAN-501; decorative epoxide-polyester paint NOVOLAN-1605. A section to make these paints has been set up and equipped with three units that apply the paints in an electrostatic field. The Combine has also developed a technology for using PA still residues to obtain an alkyl-epoxide primer for protecting gas pipes from corrosion. Experimental batches of the primer have been successfully tested on a section of gas pipe connected to the car dumper in the crushing-sorting plant operated by the sinter-lime department.

  7. Application of unroofing renovation in hot repair of coke oven battery%揭顶翻修技术在焦炉热维修中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟彪

    2015-01-01

    针对焦炉炉体出现的墙面剥蚀、炉间框缝缺料、过顶砖裂缝、炉底砖龟裂和破损等问题,采用揭顶翻修技术对焦炉进行热维修,维修效果良好,焦炉生产正常,具有一定的借鉴意义。%Regarding to the problems of coke oven proper such as denudation of oven wall, gap between oven bricks,crack on the crossover bricks,chopping and damage of bottom bricks,unroofing renovation technique is adopted to repair coke oven battery under hot state.The result is good and the coke oven battery after repair is in normal operation.The application of this technique in Jiusteel has reference significance for other coking plants.

  8. Discussion about Dust Collector for Coke Pushing Car of Top Charging Coke Oven%顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊海莲

    2015-01-01

    针对顶装焦炉推焦车烟尘捕集装置存在的问题 ,提出了相应的解决措施 ,以提高环保效果为目标 ,使太重公司的产品成为具有市场竞争力的高可靠性、实用性的设备.%In this article ,to the problems in dust collector for coke pushing car of top charging coke oven ,a relevant solution is giv-en ,which aims at high environmental protection ,to makes our products have high reliability and practicality in market competitive-ness .

  9. COSIPA company technical development in what concerns coke during the 90`s; Desenvolvimento tecnico da COSIPA na area de carvoes nos anos 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Carlos Henrique Azevedo; Oliveira Vargas, Carlos Henrique de; Mainardi, Henrique; Silva, Jose Claudio da; Yazaki, Kiyohiko; Lia, Luiz Renato Bastos; Oliveira, Marcia de; Araujo Jorge, Roberto Carlos de; Maranha, Silvio Pereira Diniz [Companhia Siderurgica Paulista, Cubatao, SP (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This work reports the main activities developed by COSIPA company in what concerns coke studies during the 90`s. The results obtained are presented both in terms of raw material costs and quality of the obtained coke. With the increase in the soft coals rate utilization and the optimization of the mixtures it is projected an yearly economy around ten million dollars 1 tab., 7 figs.

  10. Solutions for coking in settler of FCC%浅析炼油厂催化装置沉降器防结焦技改措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王进; 刘强

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the mechanism of coke formation.The reasons of coking in settler of FCC unit and solutions are provided as well.%本文阐述了结焦形成的机理的类型,分析了炼油厂在使用催化装置沉降器过程中结焦的成因和沉降器的防结焦技术改进方法.

  11. Treated results study on organic substance and ammonia from coke plant wastewater by SBR method in different operating mode and aeration time conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jian-guang; CHEN ping

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a research was made on the treatment of distillation ammonia wastewater from Tai'an Coke-Plant by SBR(sequencing batch reactors). The feasibility and cost effectiveness was tested. Performance of SBR process treating organic substance and ammonia was presented for different operating pattern and aeration time. The mechanism of the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification from coke plant were analysed on SBR process.

  12. Semi-coke briquettes: towards reducing emissions of primary PM2.5, particulate carbon, and carbon monoxide from household coal combustion in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Duan, Lei; Ge, Su; Zhang, Qi; Deng, Jianguo; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    Direct household use of unprocessed raw coals for cooking and heating without any air pollution control device has caused serious indoor and outdoor environment problems by emitting particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. This study examined household emission reduction by switching from unprocessed bituminous and anthracite coals to processed semi-coke briquettes. Two typical stoves were used to test emission characteristics when burning 20 raw coal samples commonly used in residential heating activities and 15 semi-coke briquette samples which were made from bituminous coals by industrial carbonization treatment. The carbonization treatment removes volatile compounds from raw coals which are the major precursors for PM formation and carbon emission. The average emission factors of primary PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and carbon monoxide for the tested semi-coke briquettes are much lower than those of the tested raw coals. Based on the current coal consumption data in China, switching to semi-coke briquettes can reduce average emission factors of these species by about 92%, 98%, 91%, and 34%, respectively. Additionally, semi-coke briquette has relatively lower price and higher burnout ratio. The replacement of raw coals with semi-coke briquettes is a feasible path to reduce pollution emissions from household activities.

  13. Determination of Pt from coke samples by ICP-MS after microwave assisted digestion and microwave assisted cloud point extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemela, M.; Huttunen, S.M.; Gornostayev, S.S.; Peramaki, P. [University of Oulu, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    2009-09-15

    Platinum in coke samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after microwave-assisted sample digestion and temperature controlled microwave assisted cloud point extraction (MW-CPE). Interferences due to hafnium were successfully eliminated using MW-CPE with 2-MBT prior to the determination of platinum by ICP-MS. The validity of the method was studied by spike recovery tests and by analyzing certified reference material (BCR-723 street dust). The results obtained for platinum in the BCR-723 were generally in good agreement with the certified values. Furthermore, the preliminary platinum results obtained for coke sample by ICP-MS after MW-CPE were compared to those obtained by a reference method (NiS-Fire Assay preconcentration/Te coprecipitation and ICP-MS determination).

  14. [Studies on the Ras p21 levels in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wu, Y; Chen, C

    1998-09-30

    To study the effects of serum p21 levels on the health of coal tar pitch(CTP) and coke oven volatiles (COV) workers recognized as the high risk population of pulmonary carcinoma, serum p21 levels among 24 cases of CTP workers, 25 cases of COV workers and 12 cases of normal control were detected with the method of Western Blotting. The results showed that the mean serum p21 level in exposed group was significantly higher than that in the normal control (366.8 vs 1270.7, P < 0.001). In the COV workers, serum p21 level in coke furnace workers was remarkably higher than that in the workers with other types of work. There were no differences for p21 among workers with different work years and between workers with or without smoking history. It indicates that CTP and COV can cause the p21 protein level increase in the occupational population.

  15. Photocatalytic degradation of coking wastewater by nanocrystalline (Fe,N) co-doped TiO2 powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The yellowish nitrogen and iron co-doped nanocrystalline titanium dioxide ((Fe,N) co-doped TiO2) powders have been prepared by hydrothermal method using TiOSO4 and CO(NH2)2 as starting materials.The grain size of the synthesized powders was estimated as 11 nm by Scherrer’s method.The UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra indicated that the light absorption edge of the powders was red-shifted up to 605 nm.And the doped TiO2 powders exhibited good photocatalytic activities during the photo-degradation of coking wastewater under sunshine irradiation.The biotreatability of the coking wasterwater after photocatalytic degradation was improved greatly and it is more suitable to be further treated by biochemical method.

  16. The association of XRCC1 haplotypes and chromosomal damage levels in peripheral blood lymphocyte among coke-oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuguang Leng; Juan Cheng; Linyuan Zhang; Yong Niu; Yufei Dai; Zufei Pan; Bin Li; Fengsheng He; Yuxin Zheng [Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). National Institute of Occupational Health and Poison Control

    2005-05-15

    Theoretically, a haplotype has a higher level of heterozygosity than individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and the association study based on the haplotype may have an increased power for detecting disease associations compared with SNP-based analysis. In this study, we investigated the effects of four haplotype-tagging SNPs (htSNP) and the inferred haplotype pairs of the X-ray cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) gene on chromosome damage detected by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. The study included 141 coke-oven workers with exposure to a high level of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 66 nonexposed controls. The frequencies of total MN and MNed cells were borderline associated with the Arg{sup 194}Trp polymorphism (P = 0.053 and P = 0.050, respectively) but not associated with the Arg{sup 280}His, Arg{sup 399}Gln and Gln{sup 632}Gln polymorphisms among coke-oven workers. Five haplotypes, including CGGG, TGGG, CAGG, CGAG, and CGGA, were inferred based on the four htSNPs of XRCC1 gene. The haplotype CGGG was associated with the decreased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells, and the haplotypes TGGG and CGAG were associated with the increased frequencies of total MN and MNed cells with adjustment for covariates among coke-oven workers. This study showed that the haplotypes derived from htSNPs in the XRCC1 gene were more likely than single SNPs to correlate with the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced chromosome damage among coke-oven workers.

  17. Synergetic effects leading to coke-resistant NiCo bimetallic catalysts for dry reforming of methane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Lidong

    2015-01-08

    A new dry reforming of methane catalyst comprised of NiCo bimetallic nanoparticles and a Mgx(Al)O support that exhibits high coke resistance and long-term on-stream stability is reported. The structural characterization by XRD, TEM, temperature-programmed reduction, and BET analysis demonstrates that the excellent performance of this catalyst is ascribed to the synergy of various parameters, including metal-nanoparticle size, metal-support interaction, catalyst structure, ensemble size, and alloy effects.

  18. A case study of potential human health impacts from petroleum coke transfer facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourson, Michael L; Chinkin, Lyle R; MacIntosh, David L; Finn, Jennifer A; Brown, Kathleen W; Reid, Stephen B; Martinez, Jeanelle M

    2016-11-01

    Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a solid material created during petroleum refinement and is distributed via transfer facilities that may be located in densely populated areas. The health impacts from petcoke exposure to residents living in proximity to such facilities were evaluated for a petcoke transfer facilities located in Chicago, Illinois. Site-specific, margin of safety (MOS) and margin of exposure (MOE) analyses were conducted using estimated airborne and dermal exposures. The exposure assessment was based on a combined measurement and modeling program that included multiyear on-site air monitoring, air dispersion modeling, and analyses of soil and surfaces in residential areas adjacent to two petcoke transfer facilities located in industrial areas. Airborne particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10) were used as a marker for petcoke. Based on daily fence line monitoring, the average daily PM10 concentration at the KCBX Terminals measured on-site was 32 μg/m(3), with 89% of 24-hr average PM10 concentrations below 50 μg/m(3) and 99% below 100 μg/m(3). A dispersion model estimated that the emission sources at the KCBX Terminals produced peak PM10 levels attributed to the petcoke facility at the most highly impacted residence of 11 μg/m(3) on an annual average basis and 54 μg/m(3) on 24-hr average basis. Chemical indicators of petcoke in soil and surface samples collected from residential neighborhoods adjacent to the facilities were equivalent to levels in corresponding samples collected at reference locations elsewhere in Chicago, a finding that is consistent with limited potential for off-site exposure indicated by the fence line monitoring and air dispersion modeling. The MOE based upon dispersion model estimates ranged from 800 to 900 for potential inhalation, the primary route of concern for particulate matter. This indicates a low likelihood of adverse health effects in the surrounding community. Implications: Handling of petroleum coke at

  19. Processes forming Gas, Tar, and Coke in Cellulose Gasification from Gas-Phase Reactions of Levoglucosan as Intermediate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2015-07-01

    The gas-phase pyrolysis of levoglucosan (LG), the major intermediate species during cellulose gasification, was studied experimentally over the temperature range of 400-900 °C. Gaseous LG did not produce any dehydration products, which include coke, furans, and aromatic substances, although these are characteristic products of the pyrolysis of molten LG. Alternatively, at >500 °C, gaseous LG produced only fragmentation products, such as noncondensable gases and condensable C1 -C3 fragments, as intermediates during noncondensable gas formation. Therefore, it was determined that secondary reactions of gaseous LG can result in the clean (tar- and coke-free) gasification of cellulose. Cooling of the remaining LG in the gas phase caused coke formation by the transition of the LG to the molten state. The molecular mechanisms that govern the gas- and molten-phase reactions of LG are discussed in terms of the acid catalyst effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding to promote the molten-phase dehydration reactions.

  20. 可乐鸡翅生产工艺研究%Processing technology of chicken wing with coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓霞; 张怀珠; 冯晓群; 彭涛

    2011-01-01

    Chicken wings were taken as raw materials in this paper;single-factor and the orthogonal experiments were employed to study the effects of pickling time,coke content in soup and boiling time on epidermis chromatic difference of chicken wing and sensory quality.The result indicated that pickling for 18h,coke content of 66%,boiling for 25 min,the product was delicious,with brightly color and retained coke flavor.There will be a broad market prospect for this product.%以鸡翅为主要原料,通过单因素试验和正交试验,重点研究腌制时间、煮汤中可乐的百分含量、煮制时间等因素对可乐鸡翅表皮色差和感官品质的影响。结果表明:腌制时间18h,煮汤中可乐的百分含量66%,煮制时间25min。该产品味道鲜美,色泽艳丽,保留了可乐的香气,市场前景广阔。

  1. Different solvents for the regeneration of the exhausted activated carbon used in the treatment of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Qiantao; He, Binbin; Yuan, Xiaoying

    2011-02-28

    The solvents n-pentane, methylene dichloride, ethyl ether and dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid sodium were used to regenerate exhausted activated carbon used in the process of treating coking wastewater, and the efficiency, ability, and optimum conditions of the different solvents on this regeneration were investigated. The results indicate that n-pentane could effectively remove refractory organic compounds in the coking wastewater adsorbed on the surface of activated carbon and could repeatedly regenerate the exhausted activated carbon to recover its adsorption activity. Under the conditions of a regeneration time of 20 min, a regeneration temperature of 25°C, an activated carbon drying time of 300 min, and an activated carbon drying temperature of 150°C, n-pentane had the best regeneration efficiency, at 98.27%, for exhausted activated carbon. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis results show that the nature of the activated carbon regenerated by organic solvents had no remarkable change in adsorption for the main types of organic compounds in coking wastewater. The good regenerative effect of n-pentane on the activated carbon may be due its stronger desorption of esters embedded within the internal structure of activated carbon.

  2. Limitations of the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater by ozonation and by the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueyo, N; Miguel, N; Ovelleiro, J L; Ormad, M P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficiency of ozonation and the hydrogen peroxide-ozone process for the removal of cyanide from coking wastewater. The most efficient oxidation process is combined with coagulation-flocculation-decantation and lime-soda ash softening pretreatments. The oxidation in aqueous solution and industrial wastewater (at pH 9.5-12.3) by O3 was carried out using a range of concentration of consumed O3 from 10 to 290 mg/L. A molar ratio of H2O2/O3 from 0.1 to 5.2 with different concentrations of O3 constants was used for the H2O2-O3 process. The maximum cyanide removal obtained in coking wastewater was 90% using a mass ratio of O3/CN(-) of 9.5. Using lower concentrations of O3, cyanide is not removed and can even be generated due to the presence of other cyanide precursor organic micropollutants in the industrial matrix. The concentration of O3 is reduced to half for the same cyanide removal efficiency if the pretreatments are applied to reduce the carbonate and bicarbonate ions. The cyanide removal efficiency in coking wastewater is not improved if the O3 is combined with the H2O2. However, the preliminary cyanide removal treatment in aqueous solution showed an increase in the cyanide removal efficiency for the H2O2-O3 process.

  3. NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in an oxidizing medium; Elimination des NO{sub x} par le coke depose sur Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} en milieu oxydant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunati, S.

    1997-12-12

    NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied in excess oxygen. Continuous analysis of the effluent was performed with a mass spectrometer. The coking reaction was carried out under reducing conditions with two different coking agents: cyclopentane and heptanal. In general, NO{sub x} reduction by coke deposited on Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} occurs in a wide temperature range (200 deg Ccoke reducing ability and the temperature window depend closely on the chemical nature of the carbon deposits. Thereby, a coke made from heptanal which contains oxygenated functions (carbonyl and hydroxyl groups) within the carbon structure, is more selective and reduce NO{sub x} at lower temperature than a coke made from cyclopentane which does not contain these functional groups. Based on our results, we proposed a `dual-site` reaction for NO{sub x} reduction on coked Pt/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. Platinum allows O{sub 2} activation by dissociative adsorption, and NO{sub 2} formation by oxidation of NO. NO{sub x} reduction occurs on carbon deposits. Reaction between NO{sub x} and coke leads to the formation of N-containing species which are decomposed in CI{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O by reaction with activated O{sub 2}. (author) 205 refs.

  4. Effect of the catalyzing combustion of coke breeze on the energy saving in sinter process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The mechanism of additive ZC-1 for catalyzing combustion of coke breeze in sintering of iron one fines was studied by using X-ray Diffraction, TGA and GC (Gas Chromatographer), by which energy saving was achieved on sinter pot test. The results show that the distance between cleavage planes is enlarged and the π-electrons are re-distibuted because of the insertion of cations/molecules of ZC-1 into the cleavage planes of carbon , resulting in the weakening of C-C bond, improving the adsorption of oxygen and lowering the activation energy of gasification of carbon from 25.8 kJ/mol to 18.9 kJ/mol , and the burning rate being increased and combustion residual reduced, all of which can lead to lower solid fuel consumption . Compared with the sintering test without addition of additives , the solid fuel consumption is reduced by 16.0%, meanwhile, the rate of finished sinter, the output of finished sinter and the tumbling index are increased by 2.03%, 7.0% and 3.71%, respectively, with incorporating 0.2% of additive ZC-1 in the sintering mixture, which is in agreement with the catalyzing mechanism of ZC-1.

  5. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Maryam; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater) was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11) that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275) mgL(-1) was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  6. Treatment of soil eluate containing nitro aromatic compounds by adsorption on activated coke (AC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiping; Jiang, Zhenming; Zhao, Quanlin; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Su, Hongping; Gao, Xuewen; Ye, Zhengfang

    2016-01-01

    Soil washing is a kind of physical method to remove organic matters from contaminated soil. However, its eluate after washing may result in secondary pollution to the environment. In this study, activated coke (AC) was used to remove organic pollutants from contaminated soil eluate. The effect of temperature, initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) and AC dosage on COD removal efficiency was investigated. The results showed that the organic matter can be removed in the eluate because the COD dropped a lot. When the AC dosage was 20 g·L(-1), 88.92% of COD decreased after 480 min of adsorption at 50 °C. The process of adsorption can be described by the Redlich-Peterson isotherm. The adsorption was spontaneous and endothermic. The pseudo-second-order model can be used to describe the adsorption process. After adsorption, the acute toxicity of the eluate was reduced by 76%, and the water qualities were in agreement with Chinese discharge standard GB 14470.1-2002, which means the eluate could be discharged to the environment.

  7. Sustainable membrane operation design for the treatment of the synthetic coke wastewater in SMBR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Xu, Zhen-Liang; Munib, Shahda; Chen, Gui-e; Lu, Qiong

    2009-01-01

    Membrane fouling in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) is typically caused by the interaction of microbial characteristics, hydrodynamic behavior, operation environment, wastewater characteristics and membrane properties, which result in the deterioration of performance and increasing energy consumption and cost of membrane replacement. The effect of the crucial MBR parameters (the microbial loading and characteristics, dissolved oxygen (DO), hydraulic retention time (HRT), backwashing conditions and membrane characteristics) on membrane fouling was investigated in a submerged membrane bioreactor (SMBR) during the long term treatment of synthetic coke wastewater. Also the optimum operation strategies were further utilized in order to satisfy the minimal membrane fouling operation through a long-term evaluation of the MBR performance. It has been demonstrated that with application of these optimal designed conditions, significant membrane fouling improvements were achieved over a long operating time, so it was possible to perform in sustainable operation for MBR. In this study, the upper limit of the sustainable flux is found to be as much as 18.6 L/m(2) h and the optimum sustainable flux value should be 50 approximately 75% of critical flux to satisfy the desired sustainable operation period.

  8. Heterotrophic nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. Y1 isolated from coke plant wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, YuXiang; Hu, Tingting; Song, Yujie; Chen, Hongping; Lv, YongKang

    2015-11-01

    A strain of Acinetobacter sp. Y1, which exhibited an amazing ability to remove ammonium, nitrite and nitrate, was isolated from the activated sludge of a coking wastewater treatment plant. The aim of this work was to study the ability, influence factors and possible pathway of nitrogen removal by Acinetobacter sp. Y1. Results showed that maximum removal rate of NH4(+)-N by the strain was 10.28 mg-N/L/h. Carbon source had significant influence on the growth and ammonium removal efficiencies of strain Y1. Pyruvate, citrate and acetate were favourable carbon sources for the strain. Temperature, pH value and shaking speed could affect the growth and nitrogen removal ability. Nitrate or nitrite could be used as a sole nitrogen source for the growth and removed efficiently by the strain. N2 levels increased to 53.74%, 50.21% and 55.13% within 36 h when 100 mg/L NH4(+)-N, NO2(-)-N or NO3(-) -N was used as sole nitrogen source in the gas detection experiment. The activities of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase (HAO), nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), which are key enzymes in heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification, were all detectable in the strain. Consequently, a possible pathway for ammonium removal by the strain was also suggested.

  9. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11 that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275 mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  10. [Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing coking plant by Lasiodiplodia theobromae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Cui-ping; Liu, Hai-bin; Sun, Hong-wen

    2012-08-01

    Bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil from Beijing Coking Plant was performed using a novel fungal strain Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae). Moreover, enhanced bioremediation of PAHs contaminated soil was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of Tween 80 and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD). The correlation of the dynamics of enzyme activities during remediation and the degradation of PAHs was analyzed. The results showed that the degradation rate of PAHs increased to 45.3% on the 70th day after addition of L. theobromae, which was 30 percentage points higher than that of the control group. At an optimum concentration of 2 g x kg(-1) for Tween 80 and 1 g x kg(-1) for HPCD, the degradation rate of PAHs was enhanced to 65.8% and 63.9%, respectively, which was 50 percentage points higher than that of the control group. Hydrogen peroxidase and invertase activities in soil in the bioremediation group with only L. theobromae and the surfactant enhanced group were both enhanced twice more than that of the control group. These results showed that L. theobromae may produce hydrogen peroxidase and invertase or have synergic effect with indigenous microorganisms. Correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficients of PAHs degradation rate and maximum enzyme activities of hydrogen peroxidase and invertase were 0.781 and 0.837, respectively. Therefore, the correlation between invertase activities and degradation rate was higher.

  11. Removal of detergents by activated petroleum coke from a clarified wastewater treated for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Zamora, R M; Durán Pilotzi, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A

    2004-01-01

    The removal of detergents from clarified wastewaters by activated petroleum coke (CAPA) was assessed. These substances, owing to their foamy properties, constitute a problem for ammonia removal by the air stripping process that could be installed in a wastewater treatment train to produce reclaimed water. CAPA was evaluated as a more economical alternative than a commercial activated carbon. Experimental work was divided in three stages: 1) production and characterisation of materials; 2) pretreatment of raw wastewater through the Fenton's reagent or coagulation-flocculation process with Al2(SO4)3; and 3) adsorption and bio-adsorption tests of clarified effluents. These tests were carried out in the laboratory in discontinuous and continuous reactors, the former by the "point-by-point" technique, with and without a previous fixing of bacteria, and the latter by the Rapid Small Scale Column Test. Detergents content, color, COD and UV254nm were measured in raw and treated wastewaters. Results show that the best pretreatment for the adsorption process was coagulation-flocculation rather than Fenton's method. Oxidation by this process decreased the adsorptive properties of detergents. Biomass fixed on the CAPA particles significantly increased the UV254nm and COD removal efficiencies (20% and 170% respectively). The breakthrough curves showed that CAPA could attain the expected detergents removal efficiency (66%) for the alum effluent.

  12. Optimization and modification of non-caking coal blending for conventional coking%不黏煤改性及配煤炼焦优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱子宗; 徐军; 李硕; 宋楠

    2012-01-01

    A new type of coal modifying additive(ZBS)was developed to modify the non-coking coal, so it can be used for coking. A series of 40 kg coking-oven experiments were performed and the results show that the quality of the coke deteriorates with the addition of 4% of anthracite and 6% of Long Flame Coal,while it is improved significantly with the ZBS modifying additive. The best improvement is achieved when 0.08 % of ZBS is mixed with the non-coking coal,which causes coke properties such as the anti-broken strength of coke(M40 ) to increase by 5.94% ,wear resist- ance strength (M~0) to decrease by 7.12%, coke reactivity index(CRI) to reduce by 4.61% and strength after reac- tion(CSR) to increase by If. 42%. The quality of the coke obtained is very close to the production index of coking coal and the production requirements can be met.%利用自主研发的煤粉改性剂对非炼焦煤进行改性后配煤炼焦,可以达到有效利用非炼焦煤的目的。通过40 kg焦炉试验研究表明:直接加入4%的无烟煤和6%的长焰煤后,焦炭质量变差,然而,加入煤粉改性剂对其改性后炼焦,焦炭质量改善;当煤粉改性剂量低于或高于配合煤质量的0.08%时,焦炭质量改善幅度较小;当煤粉改性剂量达到0.08%时,焦炭质量改善明显,其M40提高5.94%,M10降低7.12%,CRI降低4.61%,CSR提高11.42%,接近原配合煤的炼焦指标,符合生产要求。

  13. Renewable synthesis-gas-production. Do hydrocarbons in the reactant flow of the reverse water-gas shift reaction cause coke formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.; Kern, C.; Jess, A. [Bayreuth Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    In a two-step synthetic fuel production process based on carbon dioxide and renewable hydrogen, the best possible selectivity towards liquid hydrocarbons (Hc) shall be implemented. The process consists of a combination of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift reaction and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. To achieve this goal, gaseous short-chained Hc from the FTS reactor are recycled in the RWGS unit. In this paper, challenges coming up with the implementation of a recycle loop are discussed. First of all, it has to be examined whether Hc are converted under conditions present in the RWGS reactor. The coking caused by the recycle of Hc is regarded, including thermal coking in the heating zone of the reactor and catalytic coking in the catalyst bed. Coking of course is unwanted, as it deactivates the catalyst. The scope of this work is to find out to which extent and under which conditions gaseous Hc can be recycled. Therefore, experiments were carried out in both, a quartz glass reactor using a commercial Ni-catalyst at ambient pressure and in a pressurized steel reactor (without catalyst) to examine coking during the thermal decomposition of Hc. The catalytic experiments at atmospheric pressure showed that a recycle of CH{sub 4} did not cause coking up to a ratio of CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2} below one. For these conditions, long term stability was proved. The reaction rates of the CH{sub 4} conversion were below those of the RWGS reaction. However, replacing CH{sub 4} by C{sub 3}H{sub 8} leads to thermal and catalytic coking. Catalytic coking hits the maximum level at about 700 C and decreases for higher temperatures and, thus is not regarded as a problem for the RWGS reactor. In contrast to that, thermal coking raises with higher temperatures, but it can be supressed efficiently with additional injection of H{sub 2}O, which of course shifts the equilibrium towards the undesired reactant side. (orig.)

  14. Comparative study on stability and coke deposition over supported Rh and FePO4 catalysts for oxy-bromination of methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronghe; Lin; Yunjie; Ding; Runqin; Wang

    2014-01-01

    Rhodium- and iron phosphate-based catalysts are by far the most promising catalysts for oxy-bromination of methane(OBM) reaction. However, most literature reported either Rh- or FePO4-based catalysts, and the results were rarely studied in a uniform environmental condition. In this report, comparative study was conducted on silica- and silicon carbide-supported rhodium and iron phosphate catalysts with the main focuses on stability performance and coke deposition. The catalytic results demonstrated that the stability of both Rh- and FePO4-based catalysts was greatly influenced by the supports used, and silicon carbide-supported catalysts showed much better anti-coking ability as compared with silica-supported ones. Temperature-programmed oxidation over the used catalysts further indicated that the coke formation mechanisms were completely different between silica-supported rhodium and iron phosphate catalysts. While cokes might be caused by condensation of CH2Br2over supported iron phosphate, methane decomposition might be the reason for coke formation over silica-supported rhodium catalyst. These findings might pave the way for designing highly efficient and stable catalysts of the OBM reaction.

  15. Coking wastewater treatment for industrial reuse purpose: Combining biological processes with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewen Jin; Enchao Li; Shuguang Lu; Zhaofu Qiu; Qian Sui

    2013-01-01

    A full-scale plant using anaerobic,anoxic and oxic processes (A1/A2/O),along with a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR),nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) integrated system developed by Shanghai Baosteel Chemical Co.Ltd.,was investigated to treat coking wastewater for industrial reuse over a period of one year.The removals reached 82.5% (COD),89.6% (BOD),99.8% (ammonium nitrogen),99.9% (phenol),44.6% (total cyanide (T-CN)),99.7% (thiocyanide (SCN-)) and 8.9% (fluoride),during the A1/A2/O biological treatment stage,and all parameters were further reduced by over 96.0%,except for fluoride (86.4%),in the final discharge effluent from the currently operating plant.The pilot-scale MBR process reduced the turbidity to less than 0.65 NTU,and most of the toxic organic compounds were degraded or intercepted by the A1/A2/O followed MBR processes.In addition,parameters including COD,T-CN,total nitrogen,fluoride,chloride ion,hardness and conductivity were significantly reduced by the NF-RO system to a level suitable for industrial reuse,with a total water production ratio of 70.7%.However,the concentrates from the NF and RO units were highly polluted and should be disposed of properly or further treated before being discharged.

  16. Impact of Coal-Coking Effluent on Sediment Microbial Communities: a Multivariate Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayler, Gary S.; Sherrill, Timothy W.; Perkins, Richard E.; Mallory, Lawrence M.; Shiaris, Michael P.; Pedersen, Deana

    1982-01-01

    The functional response to and recovery from coal-coking waste effluent was evaluated for sediment microbial communities. Twenty estimates of microbial population density, biomass, and activity were measured five times during a 15-month period. Significant effects on microbial communities were observed in response to both wastewater contamination and diversion of the wastewater. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis indicated that accurate differentiation between uncontaminated and contaminated sediments required a minimum of nine estimates of community response. Total viable population density, ATP, alkaline phosphatase, naphthalene, and phenanthrene mineralization rates were found to be highly weighted variables in site discrimination. Lipid and glucose mineralization, nitrogen fixation, and sediment protein also contributed significantly to explaining variation among sites. Estimates of anaerobic population densities and rates of methane production contributed little to discrimination among sites in the environment examined. In general, total viable population density, ATP, and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly depressed in contaminated sediments. However, after removal of this contamination, the previously affected sites demonstrated greater temporal variability but a closer approximation of the mean response at the control site. Naphthalene and phenanthrene mineralization did not follow the general trend and were elevated at the contaminated sites throughout the investigation. Results of the investigation supported the hypothesis that multiple functional measures of microbial community response are required to evaluate the effect of and recovery from environmental contamination. In addition, when long-term effects are evaluated, select physiological traits, i.e., polyaromatic hydrocarbon mineralization, may not reflect population and biomass estimates of community response. PMID:16346132

  17. Ways to improve the removal of hydrogen sulfide from coke-oven gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, M.D.; Lyannaya; No. 1, Z.G.; Ignatova, E.P.; Zbykovskii, I.I.; Shukh, Ya.I.; Andreiko, I.M.; Garkushenko, I.Ya.

    1979-01-01

    Our calculations showed that, if the gas temperatures ahead of the scrubbers were reuced to 30/sup 0/C and 300 to 400 liters/h of concentrated ammonia water were added to the circuit, the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption could be brought to 58 to 65%, i.e., the hydrogen sulfide content in the return gas would be less than 2.5 g/m/sup 3/. All the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas would enter the concentrated ammonia water, which would be delivered to facilities for production of soda by the ammonia method. The ammonium sulfide formed in the liquor would be a desirable component, acting to inhibit corrosion. This would provide the simplest solution to the problem of utilizing the hydrogen sulfide removed from the gas. Our investigation thus showed that the hydrogen sulfide content of the coke-oven gas can be reduced to a permissible level in the department as it now exists, without substantial remodelling of the scrubber department. Implementation of the proposed measures (installation of an additional gas cooler beyond the blower and introduction of 300 to 400 liters/h of 20% ammonia liquor into the circuit) will make it possible to improve air-pollution conditions in the carbonization department and adjoining areas, reduce the corrosion of the gaslines, utilize that portion of the gas now discharged into the atmosphere, and eliminate the need for construction of an expensive special facility for removal of hydrogen sulfide. Addition of concentrated ammonia liquor into the scrubber-liquor circuit in the amounts indicated above raised the degree of hydrogen sulfide absorption from 31 to 43 to 47%.

  18. Naphthenic acids speciation and removal during petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation of oil sands process-affected water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal El-Din, Mohamed; Fu, Hongjing; Wang, Nan; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas; Drzewicz, Przemysław; Martin, Jonathan W; Zubot, Warren; Smith, Daniel W

    2011-11-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands industry produces large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) as a result of bitumen extraction and upgrading processes. Constituents of OSPW include chloride, naphthenic acids (NAs), aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace heavy metals, among other inorganic and organic compounds. To address the environmental issues associated with the recycling and/or safe return of OSPW into the environment, water treatment technologies are required. This study examined, for the first time, the impacts of pretreatment steps, including filtration and petroleum-coke adsorption, on ozonation requirements and performance. The effect of the initial OSPW pH on treatment performance, and the evolution of ozonation and its impact on OSPW toxicity and biodegradability were also examined. The degradation of more than 76% of total acid-extractable organics was achieved using a semi-batch ozonation system at a utilized ozone dose of 150 mg/L. With a utilized ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the treated OSPW became more biodegradable and showed no toxicity towards Vibrio fischeri. Changes in the NA profiles in terms of carbon number and number of rings were observed after ozonation. The filtration of the OSPW did not improve the ozonation performance. Petroleum-coke adsorption was found to be effective in reducing total acid-extractable organics by a 91%, NA content by an 84%, and OSPW toxicity from 4.3 to 1.1 toxicity units. The results of this study indicate that the combination of petroleum-coke adsorption and ozonation is a promising treatment approach to treat OSPW.

  19. Effects of operating conditions on compositional characteristics and reaction kinetics of liquid derived by delayed coking of nigerian petroleum residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Bello

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal upgrading of Nigerian petroleum residue was studied at relatively low pressure in a delayed coking reactor system. In this work, the intent was to investigate the effects of process variables such as reaction temperature (200(0C to 600(0C, reaction time (0 to 120min, additive concentration loading and additive-to-residue ratio on the amounts and quality of organic liquid product (OLP. The liquid products derived from the delayed coking process were characterized by means of instrumental analysis of gas-liquid chromatography. Results obtained from the analyses of the OLP revealed an upward trend of the conversion process and the selectivity of the aromatic compounds with additive-to-residue ratio (ARR and increase in temperature. This led to maximum yield of 37.2% achieved with ARR of 5 compared to 31% achieved with ordinary thermal conversion. The selectivity for aromatic hydrocarbons was maximum at 83.1wt% the selectivity towards aromatics and aliphatic hydrocarbons were highest for methanol-potassium hydroxide and methanol respectively. In all additive system cases, maximum OLP was produced at an optimum reaction temperature of 370(0C in the delayed coking reactor and at higher residence time. The gaseous product consisted of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide and C1 - C6 hydrocarbons, which amounted to about 20 to 30 wt% of liquid distillate. The information obtained in this study show that the organic liquid products are amenable to characterization procedure and provided the basis for the identification of processes for upgrading Nigerian petroleum residue and such other starting materials such as bitumen or fossil fuel coal liquids.

  20. [Detection of sister chromatic exchange in workers exposed to coal tar pitch and to coke oven volatiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Chen, C; Wu, Y; Xu, Y

    1998-07-01

    In order to know the changes of genetic toxicological effects on workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), sister chromatic exchange(SCE) was detected by the methods of peripheral lymphocyte culture in 23 workers exposed to coal tar pitch (CTP) and in 19 workers exposed to coke oven volatiles (COV) and 12 normal controls. The results suggested that the SCE in occupational workers was significantly higher than that in controls (11.31 vs 6.37, P 0.05). It is indicated that CTP and COV caused strong genetic toxicity and injury to chromosome.

  1. Environmental impact of heavy metals on the soils and plants around a coke-making factory of Jiyuan city, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun Leung, Kwun

    2010-05-01

    The combustion of coal usually leads to many different kinds of pollution around coke-making factories. Among these pollutions, the heavy metal contamination in the soil and plants is one of the major concerns by people living around. Heavy metals are highly attracted to the biological tissue, and can stay in bodies of organisms for long period of time, causing a lot of hazardous diseases to human beings, animal and plants. In the developing regions of China, developing of industries has been based on the sacrifices of environments and human health. In order to evaluate the danger of heavy metal contamination from a coke factory to citizens of close inhabitants, a survey on soil and plants was conducted in the region around a coke-making factory in Jiyuan city, which is a major electricity supplying city for the Henan Province in China. In this study, 8 surface soil samples and 11 plant samples were collected from 8 different places around the coke-making factory in Jiyuan city. The collected samples are then treated in the laboratory, and 8 types of heavy metals, which include arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel and zinc, are analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The concentration data of heavy metals that collected from the analysis are then used to evaluate their toxicity towards living organisms and ecology by applying several biological effect standards, such as effect-range low (ERL), effect-range median (ERM) and several maximum allowances standards of heavy metal concentrations in soils and plants that established by different countries. Moreover, the relationship between the distance from the factory and the concentration of heavy metals in soils and plants are also evaluated in order to find out the contamination ranges of those heavy metals from the source. The result shows that the concentration of these 8 types of heavy metals in the

  2. Sectionalizing Transformation of the Electricity Supply System for Friction Power Tracks of Coking Ovens%焦炉摩电道供电系统分段改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜颖

    2015-01-01

    对焦炉的四大车即推焦车、装煤车、拦焦车、息焦车的摩电道进行改造,并对摩电道的供电电源进行改造,以提高焦炉四大车摩电道检修时的分段灵活性,从而消除安全隐患,提高焦炉的生产效率。%The friction power-delivery tracks for the four coking oven servicing ma-chines, namely the coke pusher car, charger car, guider car and quenching car, were trans-formed. At the same time the power supply source of the tracks was also upgraded. As a re-sult the maintenance of the friction power tracks was more flexibly sectionalized, which has e-liminated safety dangers and improved coking productivity.

  3. 首钢焦炉煤气系统的优化分析%Analysis of Shougang coke oven gas system optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈浩; 任红艳

    2012-01-01

    Based on the optimization of coke oven gas system, the surplus coke oven gas will be applied in boiler combustion to generate electricity and be converted to the mixed gas, the radiation of coke oven gas reduced effectively and the cost of electricity generation also reduced to a certain extent, the stability of converter gas system guaranteed and the recycling economy is realized.%通过对焦炉煤气系统的优化,将富余焦炉煤气应用于锅炉燃烧发电及合成混合煤气,可有效地降低焦炉煤气的放散,在一定程度上降低发电成本,同时保证转炉煤气系统的稳定,实现循环经济.

  4. 当前炼焦煤市场行情及未来走势分析%Analysis on Present Coking Coal Market Prices and Coming Tendency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常毅军; 武建文

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzed the present coking coal market prices in China and the influence factors to the coming coal sup- ply and demand. The comprehensive analysis showed that the Shanxi coal industry policy would he the key factor affected to the coming coking coal supply. The paper had an outlook on the setup and prospect of the coking coal imports in China.%分析了当前我国炼焦煤市场行情以及影响未来炼焦煤需求的影响因素,综合分析得出山西省煤炭产业政策是影响我国炼焦煤供应的关键因素,对我国炼焦煤进口格局与前景进行了展望。

  5. Advances in coke formation rule of heavy oil at the molecular level%分子水平重油生焦规律研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中亚; 申海平; 范启明

    2016-01-01

    At the molecular level, advances of coke formation rule of heavy oil were reviewed.The relation between four components of heavy oil and coke formation was induced,so was the research in the coke formation of heavy oil model compounds.For group constituents of heavy oil,researches show that proper amounts of saturates lead to high-quality coke;the quality of coke gets worse with more rings;resins and asphaltenes coke easily and the quality of coke is bad;heteroatoms lead to bad coke,but hazard extent of heteroatoms is different.For heavy oil model compounds,researches show that thermal condensation of toluene is hard to react;from naphthalene to pyrene,the condensation difficulty becomes lower and lower;because of side chains,the quality of dimethylnaphthalene coke is worse than that of naphthalene;because of its special spatial configuration,1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene cokes easily and quality of the coke is pretty good;the worse the quality of heteroatom model compound coke,the worse the quality of aromatics with that kind of heteroatom model compounds.With the development of the ultra high resolution mass spectrometry technology,there are more possibilities that aromatics thermal condensation reaction mechanism will be explored further.%阐述了重油缩合生焦规律分子水平的研究进展,主要从重油中四组分的分子组成与生焦的关系以及重油模型化合物生焦的研究两方面进行了概述。研究表明,对于重油各族组分来说:适量的饱和分有助于提升生焦质量;芳香分环数越多生焦越明显,生焦质量越差;中、重胶质和沥青质易生焦,生焦质量差;杂原子会降低生焦质量,但各个杂原子的危害程度不同。而对于各个重油模型化合物来说:甲苯极难发生热缩合反应;萘、菲、蒽、芘的热缩合反应难度逐渐降低;二甲基萘由于侧链的作用,生焦质量比萘要差;1,2,4,5-四甲基苯由于其特殊的空间构型较易

  6. 细度对瘦煤成焦性能的影响%The influence of fineness to the coking properties of lean coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永建

    2016-01-01

    Size grading was conducted to a lean coal sample with relatively high content of inertinite.Coking tests were carried out on the samples of raw coal and products of different size in size grading, followed by coal-blending coking tests with a fat coal sample.The results have showed that the coal qualities changed during the size grading and that higher coal qualities were found of the products of smaller size. Higher coking properties were found of cokes derived from lean coal of smaller size, especially coke strength after reaction (CSR), both in the coking tests of single coal and blending coal.%选择惰质组含量相对较高的瘦煤样品进行粒度分级,对原样及各粒级样品进行炼焦实验,并选择某肥煤样品与之进行配煤炼焦实验。结果表明:筛分会导致瘦煤的煤质出现变化,粒度小的样品其综合煤质特征较好;无论是单种煤成焦实验还是配煤成焦实验,以小粒度瘦煤为主的配煤方案所制备的焦炭质量较好,尤其焦炭反应后强度 CSR 有较大提升。

  7. Hydrogen Effect on Coke Removal and Catalytic Performance in Pre-Carburization and Methane Dehydro-Aromatization Reaction on Mo/HZSM-5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Ma; Ryoichi Kojima; Satoshi Kikuchi; Masaru Ichikawa

    2005-01-01

    In this study,the effects of pre-carburization of catalyst,hydrogen addition to methane feed and the space velocity of methane on the catalytic performance in methane to benzene (MTB) reaction were discussed in detail over Mo/HZSM-5 catalyst at 1023 K and 0.3 MPa. Compared with the non-precarburized catalyst,the Mo catalyst pre-carburized under the flow of CH4+4H2 at 973 K was found to have the higher activity and better stability. Further 6% H2 addition to the methane feed suppressed the aromatic type of coke formation effectively,and improved the stability of catalyst markedly,moreover gave a much longer reaction life of catalyst (53 h at 1023 K and 5400 ml/(g·h)) and much more formation amounts of benzene and hydrogen. With increase of methane space velocity,both the naphthalene formation selectivity and the coke formation selectivity were decreased by the shortened contact time;the benzene formation selectivity and total formation amount before the complete deactivation of catalyst were increased ly,while the total naphthalene and coke formation amounts did not change much.At high methane space velocity (≥5400 ml/(g·h)),a new middle temperature coke derived from the high temperature aromatic coke was formed on the catalyst; all the coke formed could be burnt off at lower temperature in oxygen,compared with those obtained at low space velocity. Considering the benzene formation amount and catalyst stability together,5400 ml/(g·h) was proved to be the most efficient methane space velocity for benzene production.

  8. 对各种炼焦工艺及无回收焦炉的评述%Commentary on Various Cokemaking Process and No Recovery Coke Oven Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟英飞

    2001-01-01

    The present developing situation and direction of cokemaking processes in the counties all over the world is described and comment is made mainly on the advantages and disadvantages of no recovery coke oven batteries and on the limitation of no recovery coke oven battery developing in our country.%介绍了世界各国炼焦工艺的开发现状及发展方向,重点评述了无回收焦炉的优缺点,及在我国发展无回收焦炉的局限性。

  9. 6m 焦炉结石墨情况分析及控制措施%Graphite Cementation in 6 m Coke Oven and Control Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超

    2015-01-01

    Graphite cementation in 3-4#coke oven of JISCO coking plant was a serious problem, analyses the reasons for formation of the graphite cementation was analyzed and some specific measures to prevent the large formation of graphite ce-mentation were puts forward.%针对酒钢焦化厂3#-4#焦炉结石墨比较严重的问题,分析了石墨生成的原因,并提出了防止石墨大量生成的具体措施。

  10. Semi-Coke and Needle Coke Production with 3-Chloronitrobenzene Modified Coal Tar Pitch%对3-CNB改性煤沥青制备半焦和针状焦性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴韵杰; 苏蕾; 曹青; 董亚威; 靳利娥

    2015-01-01

    Coal tar pitch (CTP) is often modified to enhance its potential value. In this study, CTP was modified with 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB), andp-methyl benzenesulfonic was used as the catalyst. The carbonization yield increases and the optical texture of the products show a long-range fibrous structure after modification. Viscosity, soft point, coking value, toluene insoluble (TI) and quinoline insolubles (QIs) originated from coking process were measured. The properties of the intermediate products (semi-coke and needle coke) were analyzed by TG, FT-IR,1H-NMR and XRD. The results reveal that the viscosity andβ-resin content of the modified CTP (MCTP) are increased, and TI, QI and degree of polymerization are increased simultaneously with the increase of 3-CNB.Iar andA880/A1600results from IR studies show that both aromaticity and polymerization of MCTP increase. Moreover,1H-NMR results show that the number ofβ proton andγ proton decreases and the number ofHarandHα increases, which confirms that the aromatic index and aromatic hydrogen are increased. XRD spectra indicate that the interplanar crystal spacing became narrower and the stack height is increased when comparing with those of CTP. These results indirectly confirm that the order of the needle coke is increased. The existence of nitro-group can reduce the density of electronic cloud of metaposition chloride. This property is beneficial for enhancing reaction with compounds containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon.%为提升煤沥青(coal tar pitch-CTP)的潜在价值,以3-氯硝基苯(3-chloronitrobenzene,3-CNB)为改性剂,对甲基苯磺酸为催化剂,对其进行了成功改性。利用偏光显微镜、TG、FT-IR、1H-NMR和XRD对中间产物半焦和针状焦性质进行了分析。偏光显微组织分析表明,改性后煤沥青(modified CTP,MCTP)的碳化产率增加,中间相光学组织呈典型的长程纤维结构;其黏度、β树脂含量、TI和QIs均随3-CNB量的增加而增加

  11. Speciation of vanadium in oilsand coke and bacterial culture by high performance liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X. Sherry [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Le, X. Chris [Department of Chemistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G2 (Canada); Analytical and Environmental Toxicology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2G3 (Canada)], E-mail: xc.le@ualberta.ca

    2007-10-17

    A simple and sensitive method for the speciation of vanadium(III), (IV), and (V) was developed by using high performance liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS). The EDTA-complexed vanadium species were separated on a strong anion exchange column with an eluent containing 2 mM EDTA, 3% acetonitrile, and 80 mM ammonium bicarbonate at pH 6. Each analysis was complete in 5 min. The detection limits were 0.6, 0.7 and 1.0 {mu}g L{sup -1} for V(III), V(IV), and V(V), respectively. The method was applied to coke pore water samples from an oilsand processing/upgrading site in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada and to Shewanella putrefaciens CN32 bacterial cultures incubated with V(V). In the coke pore water samples, V(IV) and V(V) were found to be the major species. For the first time, V(III) was detected in the bacterial cultures incubated with V(V)

  12. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and phenols from coking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite in a one-step process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhenhua Wu; Lizhong Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The optimal condition for a one-step process removing organic compounds from coiking wastewater by simultaneously synthesized organobentonite as a pretreatment was investigated.Results showed that sorption of organic compounds by organobentonite was positively correlated to the cation surfactant exchange on the bentonite and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of the solutes.With 0.75 g/L bentonite and 180 mg/L (60% of bentonite cation exchange capacity) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,the removal efficiencies of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency in coking waste0water except naphthalene were more than 90%,and that of benzo(a)pyrene was 99.5%.At the same time,the removal efficiencies of CODCr,NH3-N,volatile phenols,colour and turbidity were 28.6%,13.2%,8.9%,55% and 84.3%,respectively,and the ratio of BOD5/CODcr increased from 0.31 to 0.41.These results indicated that the one-step process had high removal efficiency for toxic and refractory hydrophobic organic compounds,and could improve the biodegradability of the coking wastewater.Therefore it could be a promising technology for the pretreatment of toxic and refractory organic wastewater.

  13. Modeling the kinetics of methane conversion in steam reforming process of coke-oven gas based on experimental data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-yuan; ZHOU Jie-min

    2007-01-01

    Steam-reforming is an effective approach for upgrading methane and hydrocarbon of coke-oven gas into CO and H2, but the kinetic behavior needs more study. We investigated the conversion of methane in coke-oven gas by steam reforming process in an electric tubular flow at 14 kPa with temperature varying from 500℃ to 950℃, and developed a kenetic model for , ignoring the effects of adsorption and diffusion. The optimal dynamic conditions for methane conversion 14 kPa are as follows: the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is from 1.1 to 1.3; the reaction temperature is from 1 223 K to 1 273 K. The methane conversion rate is larger than 95% when the ratio of the amount of water to the amount of methane is 1.2 at a temperature above 1 223 K with the residence time up to 0.75 s.

  14. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shu; Li, Xinrong; Yang, Yu; Coveney, Raymond M; Lu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Haitao; Shen, Weiran

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA, procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from approximately 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from approximately 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 +/- 2.87 ng/m3 on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m3, 41% of the entire population lives within this area.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of coke-plant soil for the assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon availability and the feasibility of phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Sungwoo; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2005-09-01

    Coke oven site soil was characterized to assess the particle association and availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We identified various carbonaceous materials including coal, coke, pitch, and tar decanter sludge. Most of the PAHs were associated with the polymeric matrix of tar sludge or hard pitch as discrete particles, coatings on soil mineral particles, or complex aggregates. The PAH availability from these particles was very low due to hindered diffusive release from solid tar or pitch with apparent diffusivities of 6 x 10(-15) for phenanthrene, 3 x 10(-15) for pyrene, and 1 x 10(-15) cm2/s for benzo[a]pyrene. Significant concentrations of PAHs were observed in the interior of solid tar aggregates with up to 40,000 mg/kg total PAHs. The release of PAHs from the interior of such particles requires diffusion over a substantial distance, and semipermeable membrane device tests confirmed a very limited availability of PAHs. These findings explain the results from three years of phytoremediation of the site soil, for which no significant changes in the total PAH concentrations were observed in the test plot samples. The observed low bioavailability of PAHs probably inhibited PAH phytoremediation, as diffusion-limited mass transfer would limit the release of PAHs to the aqueous phase.

  16. Influences of hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙红明; 王宏涛; 狄瞻霞; 春铁军; 柳政根

    2016-01-01

    It is of great importance to elucidate reduction swelling behaviors and reaction mechanism of oxidized pellet in hydrogen-enriched atmosphere under coke oven gas injection. In this work, the effects of hydrogen concentration in N2−CO−H2 atmosphere with unchanged CO content on reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K were studied, to clarify the mechanism of hydrogen-enriched reduction and exclude the influences of CO. Then, the reduction swelling behaviors of oxidized pellet at 1173 K in actual atmosphere under coke oven gas (COG) injection, got from the simulation results of multi-fluid blast furnace model, were investigated. The results show that with the concentration of hydrogen increasing in N2−CO−H2 gas from 2% to 18%, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases from 10.12% to 5.57% while the reduction ratio of pellet increases obviously from 39.85% to 69.58%. In addition, with COG injection rate increasing from 0 to 152.34 m3/t, the reduction swelling index of pellet decreases slightly from 10.71% to 9.54% while the reduction ratio of pellet is increased from 31.57% to 36.39%. The microstructures of pellet are transformed from the platy structure to the flocculent structure.

  17. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  18. Fabrication of cost effective iron ore slime ceramic membrane for the recovery of organic solvent used in coke production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Singh; N.K.Meena; A.K.Golder; C.Das

    2016-01-01

    Improvement of coking properties of sub-bituminous coal (A) and bituminous coal (B) was done using blended organic solvents,namely,n-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) and ethylenediamine (EDA).Various solvent blends were employed for the coal extraction under the total reflux condition.A low-cost ceramic membrane was fabricated using industrial waste iron ore slime of M/s TATA steel R&D,Jamshedpur (India) to separate out the dissolved coking fraction from the solvent-coal mixture.Membrane separations were carried out in a batch cell,and around 75 % recovered NMP was reused.The fractionated coal properties were determined using proximate and ultimate analyses.In the case of bituminous coal,the ash and sulfur contents were decreased by 99.3 % and 79.2 %,respectively,whereas,the carbon content was increased by 23.9 % in the separated coal fraction.Three different cleaning agents,namely deionized water,sodium dodecyl sulphate and NMP were used to regain the original membrane permeability for the reusing.

  19. Direct methane solid oxide fuel cells based on catalytic partial oxidation enabling complete coking tolerance of Ni-based anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehee; Myung, Jaeha; Tan, Jeiwan; Hyun, Sang-Hoon; Irvine, John T. S.; Kim, Joosun; Moon, Jooho

    2017-03-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) can oxidize diverse fuels by harnessing oxygen ions. Benefited by this feature, direct utilization of hydrocarbon fuels without external reformers allows for cost-effective realization of SOFC systems. Superior hydrocarbon reforming catalysts such as nickel are required for this application. However, carbon coking on nickel-based anodes and the low efficiency associated with hydrocarbon fueling relegate these systems to immature technologies. Herein, we present methane-fueled SOFCs operated under conditions of catalytic partial oxidation (CPOX). Utilizing CPOX eliminates carbon coking on Ni and facilitates the oxidation of methane. Ni-gadolinium-doped ceria (GDC) anode-based cells exhibit exceptional power densities of 1.35 W cm-2 at 650 °C and 0.74 W cm-2 at 550 °C, with stable operation over 500 h, while the similarly prepared Ni-yttria stabilized zirconia anode-based cells exhibit a power density of 0.27 W cm-2 at 650 °C, showing gradual degradation. Chemical analyses suggest that combining GDC with the Ni anode prevents the oxidation of Ni due to the oxygen exchange ability of GDC. In addition, CPOX operation allows the usage of stainless steel current collectors. Our results demonstrate that high-performance SOFCs utilizing methane CPOX can be realized without deterioration of Ni-based anodes using cost-effective current collectors.

  20. Polyphasic bacterial community analysis of an aerobic activated sludge removing phenols and thiocyanate from coke plant effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfoldi, T.; Szekely, A.J.; Goral, R.; Barkacs, K.; Scheirich, G.; Andras, J.; Racz, A.; Marialigeti, K. [Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Microbiology

    2010-05-15

    Biological purification processes are effective tools in the treatment of hazardous wastes such as toxic compounds produced in coal coking. In this study, the microbial community of a lab-scale activated sludge system treating coking effluent was assessed by cultivation-based (strain isolation and identification, biodegradation tests) and culture-independent techniques (sequence-aided T-RFLP, taxon-specific PCR). The results of the applied polyphasic approach showed a simple microbial community dominated by easily culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Comamonas badia was identified as the key microbe of the system, since it was the predominant member of the bacterial community, and its phenol degradation capacity was also proved. Metabolism of phenol, even at elevated concentrations (up to 1500 mg/L), was also presented for many other dominant (Pseudomonas, Rhodanobacter, Oligella) and minor (Alcaligenes, Castellaniella, Microbacterium) groups, while some activated sludge bacteria (Sphingomonas, Rhodopseudomonas) did not tolerate it even in lower concentrations (250 mg/L). In some cases, closely related strains showed different tolerance and degradation properties. Members of the genus Thiobacillus were detected in the activated sludge, and were supposedly responsible for the intensive thiocyanate biodegradation observed in the system. Additionally, some identified bacteria (e.g. C. badia and the Ottowia-related strains) might also have had a significant impact on the structure of the activated sludge due to their floc-forming abilities.

  1. Occupational coke oven emissions exposure and risk of abnormal liver function: modifications of body mass index and hepatitis virus infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Hu; B. Chen; J. Qian; L. Jin; T. Jin; D. Lu [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Department of Occupational and Environmental Health

    2010-03-15

    Occupational coke oven emissions (COEs) have been considered an important health issue. However, there are no conclusive data on human hepatic injury due to COE exposure. The association of COE exposure with liver function was explored and the effects of modification of potential non-occupational factors were assessed. 705 coke oven workers and 247 referents were investigated. Individual cumulative COE exposure was quantitatively estimated. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), {gamma}-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody were measured. Among those with high COE exposure, the adjusted ORs of abnormal ALT and AST were 5.23 (95% CI 2.66 to 10.27) and 1.95 (95% CI 1.18 to 3.52), respectively. Overweight individuals (body mass index (BMI) {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}) with high COE exposure had elevated risks of abnormal ALT (adjusted OR 23.93, 95% CI 8.73 to 65.62) and AST (adjusted OR 5.18, 95% CI 2.32 to 11.58). Risk of liver damage in hepatitis B virus- or hepatitis C virus-positive individuals with COE exposure was also elevated. Long-term exposure to COE increases the risk of liver dysfunction, which is more prominent among those with higher BMI and hepatitis virus infection. The risk assessment of liver damage associated with COE exposure should take BMI and hepatitis virus infection into consideration.

  2. 山西焦化工业持续发展之浅见%On Sustained Deveioment to Shanxi Provincial Coking Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增旭

    2000-01-01

    简要阐述了山西焦化工业现状及存在的问题,提出了持续发展的建议。%The status quo and existing problem arebriefly expounded on Shanxi Coking Industry, and the sug-gestion of its sustained development therefor are put forward.

  3. Coke industry and steel metallurgy as the source of soil contamination by technogenic magnetic particles, heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachwał, Marzena; Magiera, Tadeusz; Wawer, Małgorzata

    2015-11-01

    Application of integrated magnetic, geochemical and mineralogical methods for qualitative and quantitative assessment of forest topsoils exposed to the industrial emissions was the objective of this manuscript. Volume magnetic susceptibility (κ) in three areas of southern Poland close to the coke and metallurgical plants was measured directly in the field. Representative topsoil samples were collected for further chemical and mineralogical analyses. Topsoil magnetic susceptibility in the studied areas depended mainly on the content of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) and decreased downwind at increasing distance from the emitters. In the vicinity of coking plants a high amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed, especially the most carcinogenic ones with four- and five-member rings. No significant concentration of TMPs (estimated on the base of κ values) and heavy metals (HM) was observed in area where the coke plant was the only pollution source. In areas with both coke and metallurgical industry, higher amounts of TMPs, PAHs and HM were detected. Morphological and mineralogical analyses of TMPs separated from contaminated soil samples revealed their high heterogeneity in respect of morphology, grain size, mineral and chemical constitution. Pollution load index and toxicity equivalent concentration of PAHs used for soil quality assessment indicated its high level of pollution.

  4. Degradation of p-Nitrophenol using magnetic Fe(0)/Fe3O4/Coke composite as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Dong; Li, Wenbing; Wang, Guanghua; Lu, Lulu; Wei, Xiaobi

    2017-01-01

    A Coke supported Fe3O4 and Fe(0) composite (Fe(0)/Fe3O4/Coke) was prepared for the first time with the aim of evaluating its ability to be used as heterogeneous catalyst for the Fenton degradation of p-Nitrophenol (p-NP). A four factor Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to evaluate the effects of several operating parameters, namely Fe(0)/Fe3O4/Coke dosage, reaction temperature, initial pH and H2O2 concentration, on the removal efficiency of p-NP. A significant quadratic model (p-valuep-NP (100mg/L) conversion and 81% of COD removal were achieved after 120min of reaction time, respectively, under the optimum conditions, which agreed well with the modeling prediction. The recyclability of Fe(0)/Fe3O4/Coke was also investigated after three successive runs, in which p-NP degradation performances showed a slight difference with the first oxidation cycle with an acceptable iron leaching. Moreover, according to the main intermediate products identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), a possible pathway of p-NP degradation was proposed based on hydrogen radicals ([H]) or hydroxyl radicals (•OH) mechanism.

  5. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions.

  6. 褐煤活性焦烟气脱汞的实验研究%Mercury removal from flue gas by lignite activated coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中华; 史亚微; 张旭辉; 杨文辉; 张向洲; 石长江; 赵玉冰

    2014-01-01

    Coal-fired power plant mercury pollution has attracted a growing concern, now the current mercury removal method which has an application prospect is the adsorption of mercury removal, and therefore the development of cost-effective mercury removal sorbent been studied extensively. An experiment was conducted to study the effects of lignite activated coke on the mercury adsorption using a bench-scale fixed bed,including the inlet concentration of mercury pollutants,the quality of adsorbent,the composition of flue gas and the type of adsorbent and so on.The results show that the lignite activated coke has some adsorption capacity for mercury in flue gas,the activated coke adsorption rate increases with the increase of entrance mercury concentration and the quality of activated coke.The SO2,NO in flue gas can improve mercury adsorption capacity of activated coke.Although the mercury adsorption capacity of activated coke is lower than activated carbon with S solution and activated carbon only for mercury adsorption,the improvement of activation way of activated coke can enhance the performance of its mercury adsorption.%燃煤电厂汞污染越来越受到关注,目前具有应用前景的脱汞方法为吸附脱汞,因此研发高效低成本的脱汞吸附剂被广泛研究。在搭建的固定床吸附反应系统上对自制的褐煤活性焦脱汞性能进行了实验研究,研究了汞污染物的入口浓度,吸附剂的量、烟气成分及吸附剂的种类对吸附汞的影响。结果表明:活性焦吸附剂对烟气中的气态汞均有一定的吸附能力,其吸附效果随着入口汞浓度和吸附剂量的增加而增加;烟气中的SO2、NO气体对活性焦吸附汞有一定的促进作用。活性焦脱汞效率与载硫活性炭、脱汞专用活性炭相比还存在一定差距,但可通过改进活性焦的活化方式提高脱汞性能。

  7. Etude de la desactivation des catalyseurs d'hydrotraitement par cokage. Synthèse bibliographique Study of the Deactivation of Hydrotreating Catalysts by Coking. Bibliographic Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualda G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Ce travail effectue la synthèse de la littérature disponible en février 1987 sur le phénomène de cokage en hydrotraitement entraînant la désactivation des catalyseurs. Il propose trois angles d'étude apportant chacun un éclairage complémentaire sur le sujet : - un angle physico-chimique qui décrit les méthodes de caractérisation du coke et des catalyseurs usés utilisées par les auteurs, et les informations qu'elles fournissent; - un angle d'observation macroscopique du phénomène de désactivation par cokage, par la confrontation de modèles et de résultats expérimentaux; - un angle plus fondamental faisant état des mécanismes proposés pour la formation du coke dans les conditions d'hydrotraitement des fractions lourdes du pétrole en particulier. Il ressort de cette étude la très grande hétérogénéité des travaux, tant du point de vue des protocoles expérimentaux que des interprétations mécanistiques. Une étude rigoureuse et systématique s'impose donc dans ce domaine. Toutefois, il semble bien établi que l'on puisse faire la différence entre un coke fatal formé par dégradation thermique des hydrocarbures, et un coke dépendant des propriétés des catalyseurs mis en oeuvre. This article makes a synthesis of the literature available in February 1987 on the coking phenomenon in hydrotreating causing catalyst deactivation. It proposes three angles of study, each giving complementary light on the subject:(a a physicochemical angle describing methods of characterizing the coke and catalysts used by the authors, and the information they provide;(b a macroscopic observation angle of the deactivation phenomenon by coking, by comparing models and experimental results;(c a more fundamental angle bearing on the mechanisms proposed for coke formation under hydrotreatment conditions of heavy oil fractions in particular. This study shows the great heterogeneity of research, from the standpoint of both experimental

  8. 俄罗斯进口 K9焦煤在本钢的应用研究%Application research of Russian imported K9 coking coal in Bensteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢毅; 王文光; 翟向军; 韩颖; 李利凯

    2015-01-01

    通过质量检测、煤的岩相分析、40 kg试验焦炉炼焦试验,对俄罗斯进口K9焦煤的煤质特性和结焦特性进行了研究。结果表明K9煤低灰、低硫,为单一煤层煤,煤质稳定,配煤炼焦时有利于焦炭质量稳定,提高焦炭平均粒度和抗碎强度。在使用K9焦煤时,还可以配入高硫肥煤。%Russian imported K9 coking coal was investigated on coal quality and coking property by means of quality detection, petrographic analysis of coal and 40kg testing coke oven test.The result in-dicated that K9 coal was featured with low ash, low sulfur and stable quality, belonging to single coal seam.So it is beneficial to stabilize coke quality and improve coke average particle size and crushing strength in coal blending and coking.Meanwhile, fat coal with high sulfur content can be used in co-king.

  9. Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China%国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟

    2012-01-01

    Current status of patent technologies of coke oven gas to natural gas in China is described in this paper. Two main production processes of coke oven gas to natural gas are analyzed, named " coke oven gas methanation to natural gas" process and "coke oven gas purification and separation to natural gas" process. Patent applications of conversion technologies from coke oven gas to natural gas by organizations or individuals who have the technologies in China are introduced. It is pointed out that the project implementation of coke oven gas to natural gas has a very important significance for coking industry to develop energy-saving and emission-reduction circular economy.%综述了国内焦炉气制天然气专利技术发展现状,分析了国内焦炉气制天然气技术的2种主要工艺,“焦炉气甲烷化制备天然气”工艺和“焦炉气联合净化分离制备天然气”工艺.介绍了目前国内焦炉气制天然气技术拥有单位或个人专利申请情况,指出焦炉气制天然气项目的实施对焦化行业节能减排及发展循环经济等具有重要意义.

  10. Construction of a pilot plant of 500 KW it solar gasification of coke of oil. Synpet project; Construccion de una planta piloto de 500 kW para la gasificacion solar de coke de petroleo. Proyecto Synpet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal; Denk, T.; Valverde, A.; Steinfeld, A.; Zacarias, L.; Jesus, J. C. de; Romero, M.

    2008-07-01

    Solar thermochemistry is a novel and very promising route for the production of valuable fuels and chemicals, in which solar energy is collected and concentrated in order to supply the high temperature process heat necessary to drive highly endothermic chemical reactions. Some high temperature endothermic reactions for converting solar energy to chemical fuels have been investigated; the steam-gasification of petroleum derivatives and residues using concentrated solar radiation has been proposed more recently as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. This paper reviews this study which is being carried out within collaboration between Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), the Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH) in Zurich/Switzerland, and the CIEMAT in Spain to study the feasibility of thermochemical falsification form petroleum coke. (Author)

  11. 焦炉烟囱 NO x排放控制刍议%Comment on control of NOx emission from chimney of coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡承祐

    2013-01-01

    The new national standard“ Emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry”regulates the requirement for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery .The techni-cal measures on design of heating system of coke oven battery and treatment of oven flue gas after it is discharged from the battery for control of NO x emission are expounded in this paper .The author also makes brief description of technology on denitrification of flue gas by using SCR process and sug -gests that in order to meet the requirement of the national standard for control of NO x emission from chimney of coke oven battery located in the “special region”, flue gas discharged from the coke oven battery should be further treated by using SCR denitrification technology with learning experience of Tokyo Gas gained from test of pilot plant and engineering .%新的国家标准《炼焦化学工业污染物排放标准》提出了焦炉烟囱的NOx 排放控制要求。本文从焦炉加热系统的设计和对焦炉烟道废气的后处理2个层面论述了焦炉烟囱NOx 排放控制的技术措施,简要介绍了SCR烟气脱硝技术,提出了借鉴日本东京煤气公司的中试与工程经验,采用SCR脱硝技术对焦炉烟道废气进行后处理,以达到国家标准对“特别地区”焦炉烟囱的NOx排放控制要求。

  12. Methylation of CpG island of p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) genes in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Li, X; Ge, L; Yang, J; Sun, J; Niu, Q

    2015-02-01

    To detect the blood genomic DNA methylation in coke oven workers and find a possible early screening index for occupational lung cancer, 74 coke oven workers as the exposed group and 47 water pump workers as the controls were surveyed, and urine samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected. Airborne benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) levels in workplace and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OH-Py) levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DNA damage of PBMCs and the p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene CpG island methylation in the promoter region were detected by comet assay and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction techniques, respectively. Results show that compared with the controls, concentration of airborne B[a]Ps was elevated in the coke plant, and urinary 1-OH-Py's level and DNA olive tail moment in comet assay were significantly increased in the coke oven workers, and p14(ARK), p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation rates were also significantly increased. With the working years and urinary 1-OH-Py's level, the rates of p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation were significantly increased while that of p15(INK4b) gene methylation displayed no statistical change. We conclude that PBMCs' p14(ARK) and p16(INK4a) gene methylation may be used for screening and warning lung cancer in coke oven workers.

  13. Startup and initial operation of a DFGD and pulse jet fabric filter system on Cokenergy's Indiana Harbor coke oven off gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.J.; Gansley, R.R.; Schaddell, J.G.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes the design, initial operation and performance testing of a Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (DFGD) and Modular Pulse Jet Fabric Filter (MPJFF) system installed at Cokenergy's site in East Chicago, Indiana. The combined flue gas from the sixteen (16) waste heat recovery boilers is processed by the system to control emissions of sulfur dioxide and particulates. These boilers recover energy from coke oven off gas from Indiana Harbor Coke Company's coke batteries. The DFGD system consists of two 100% capacity absorbers. Each absorber vessel uses a single direct drive rotary atomizer to disperse the lime slurry for SO{sub 2} control. The MPJFF consists of thirty two (32) modules arranged in twin sixteen-compartment (16) units. The initial start up of the DFGD/MPJFF posed special operational issues due to the low initial gas flows through the system as the four coke oven batteries were cured and put in service for the first time. This occurred at approximately monthly intervals beginning in March 1998. A plan was implemented to perform a staged startup of the DFGD and MPJFF to coincide with the staged start up of the coke batteries and waste heat boilers. Operational issues that are currently being addressed include reliability of byproduct removal. Performance testing was conducted in August and September 1998 at the inlet of the system and the outlet stack. During these tests, particulate, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and HCI emissions were measured simultaneously at the common DFGD inlet duct and the outlet stack. Measurements were also taken for average lime, water, and power consumption during the tests as well as system pressure losses. These results showed that all guarantee parameters were achieved during the test periods. The initial operation and performance testing are described in this paper.

  14. 某焦化厂焦炉工职业紧张及其影响因素分析%Occupational Stress and Influencing Factors of Coke Oven Workers in a Coking Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬帆; 刘卫花; 智永芬; 吕懿; 张红明; 郑金平

    2016-01-01

    [目的]调查焦炉工职业紧张状况,分析其主要影响因素,为合理防控职业危害提供依据. [方法]采用整群抽样方法,选取山西某焦化厂焦炉工335人、非焦炉工246人为研究对象,调查表收集研究对象的一般情况,采用职业紧张量表(OSI-R)进行职业任务、个体紧张反应及个体应变反应三方面调查.采用高效液相色谱法测定工作场所空气中苯并[a]芘浓度,比较各作业区的暴露水平. [结果]工作场所空气中苯并[a]芘浓度变化趋势是非焦炉区<炉底<炉侧<炉顶(P=0.001).焦炉工职业任务平均得分[(182.87±27.28)分]和个体紧张反应得分[(102.97±18.74)分],均高于非焦炉工(均P<0.001);个体应变能力问卷得分[(124.47±22.27)分]低于非焦炉工得分[(126.54±23.07)分](P<0.05).根据OSI-R量表的3个问卷得分将职业紧张分级,焦炉工职业任务和个体紧张反应分级,处于高度紧张工人的比例为10.8%和11.6%,中度紧张的比例为31.0%和25.1%,高于非焦炉工(2.8%和1.2%,15.4%和22.8%,均P<0.05).logistic回归分析显示,任务过重、炉侧作业和工作环境差是引起个体紧张反应增强的危险因素,OR值分别为3.187,2.307和1.813;增加兴趣爱好、休闲娱乐、体育锻炼及充足的睡眠是职业紧张的保护性因素,OR值分别为0.240,0.451,0.566及0.480. [结论]焦炉作业可导致焦炉工职业紧张度升高,任务过重、炉顶炉侧作业和工作环境差可升高焦炉工职业紧张度;增加兴趣爱好、休闲娱乐机会和体育锻炼参与度以及充足的睡眠可缓解焦炉工职业紧张度.%[Objective] To assess occupational stress level of coke oven workers,analyze main influencing factors,and provide a basis for rational control of occupational injuries.[Methods] Coke oven workers (n=335) and control workers (n=246) from a coking plant in Shanxi Province were selected by cluster sampling method and interviewed on basic

  15. Characterization of coal- and petroleum-derived binder pitches and the interaction of pitch/coke mixtures in pre-baked carbon anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn

    Carbon anodes are manufactured from calcined petroleum coke (i.e. sponge coke) and recycled anode butts as fillers, and coal tar pitch (SCTP) as the binder. During the manufacturing of carbon anodes, coal tar pitch is mixed with calcined petroleum coke. The mix of binder, filler and some additives is heated to about 50°C above the softening point of the pitch, typically 160°C. This temperature is sufficient to enable the pitch to wet the coke particles. The mix is then either extruded, vibrated, or pressed to form a green anode. The binding between coke and pitch is very important to the anode properties. There are different binder pitches used in this work, which were standard coal tar pitch (SCTP-2), petroleum pitch (PP-1), gasification pitch (GP-115), coal-extract pitch (WVU-5), and co-coking pitches (HTCCP and OXCCP). Petroleum pitch is a residue produced from heat-treatment and distillation of petroleum fractions. Production of coal-extract pitch involves a prehydrogenation of coal followed by extraction using a dipolar solvent. Gasification pitches are distilled by-product tars produced from the coal gasification process. Co-coking pitch was developed in this work and was obtained from the liquid distillate of co-coking process of coal and heavy petroleum residue. Understanding of composition and structures of pitches from different sources and processes would lead to greater understanding of the binding properties of pitch in carbon anodes and was one of the main focuses in this study. Characterization of pitches by using different techniques including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/mass spectrometry (MALDI/MS), 1H and 13C solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C solid-state NMR yield important chemistry and structural information. The binding, or in other words the interactions in the pitch/coke mixture, is another interest in this

  16. γ-射线透射技术在炉管测焦方面的应用%APPLICATION OF MEASURING COKING IN CRACKING FURNACE TUBE WITH γ-RAY TRANSMISSION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封瑞江; 时维振

    2001-01-01

    In this paper,the basic principle of γ-ray transmission technique is introduced. Through the study of single tube coking experiments,the possibility of the application of γ-ray transmission technique in furnace tubes is also discussed. The effects of cracking temperature,retention period and steam dilution ratio on coking rate are investigated .Comparing to the results by means of coupon weighing weight,γ-ray transmission technique is feasible for coking measurement. The results are consistent with other reported data in literature.

  17. 大型焦炉荒煤气导出和外逸状况的剖析%Analysis of raw gas transmission and leakage from large scale coke oven battery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚俊库

    2014-01-01

    Based on the influencing factors of gas transmission , three devices to inhale gas from large scale coke oven battery are introduced in this paper .Gas leakage during coking and coal charging to large scale coke oven battery is analyzed .%根据荒煤气导出的影响因素,介绍了大型焦炉荒煤气导出使用的3种装置,同时分析了大型焦炉在结焦过程中和装煤操作时荒煤气的外逸状况。

  18. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris A J Al-Doghachi

    Full Text Available A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  19. Influence of carrier filling ratio on the performance of moving bed biofilm reactor in treating coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qiyuan; Sun, Tichang; Wu, Gen; Li, Mingyue; Qiu, Wei

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of carrier filling ratio on the performance of a moving bed biofilm reactor in degrading chemical oxygen demand, phenol, thiocyanate, and ammonia from coking wastewater at 20h of hydraulic retention time. The operational experiments under different carrier filling ratios ranging from 20% to 60% were investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of 89%, 99% and 99% for COD, phenol and thiocyanate, and minimum sensitivity to the increasing contaminants concentration in the influent were achieved at 50% carrier filling ratio. The Haldane competitive substrate inhibition kinetics model was used to describe the relationship between the oxygen uptake rate of ammonium oxidizers and the concentration of free ammonium. The highest biofilm microbial community functional diversity (Shannon's diversity index, H') and evenness (Shannon's evenness index, E') were obtained at 50% carrier filling ratio in all runs using a Biolog ECO microplate.

  20. Design of a new PID controller using predictive functional control optimization for chamber pressure in a coke furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianming

    2016-11-25

    An improved proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller based on predictive functional control (PFC) is proposed and tested on the chamber pressure in an industrial coke furnace. The proposed design is motivated by the fact that PID controllers for industrial processes with time delay may not achieve the desired control performance because of the unavoidable model/plant mismatches, while model predictive control (MPC) is suitable for such situations. In this paper, PID control and PFC algorithm are combined to form a new PID controller that has the basic characteristic of PFC algorithm and at the same time, the simple structure of traditional PID controller. The proposed controller was tested in terms of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection, where the obtained results showed that the proposed controller had the better ensemble performance compared with traditional PID controllers.

  1. Hierarchical Porous ZSM-5 Zeolite Synthesized by in situ Zeolitization and Its Coke Deposition Resistance in Aromatization Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张珂; 柳云骐; 赵晋翀; 刘晨光

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites with micro-, meso- and macroporosity were prepared from diatomite zeolitization through a vapor-phase transport process on solid surfaces. The aromatization performance of the catalysts was in- vestigated on a fixed bed reactor by using FCC gasoline as feedstock. The crystal phase, morphology, pore struc- tures, acidity and coke depositions of the hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolites were characterized by means of X-ray diffrac- tion (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), N2 adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry-mass spectrogram (TG-MS), respectively. The results show that the prepared hierarchical ZSM-5 zeolite possesses excellent porosity and high crystallinity, displaying an improved aromatization performance and carbon deposition resistance due to its meso- and macroporous structures.

  2. Application of the Refrigerating Machine in Coking Plant%制冷机在焦化厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林文; 鲁伟

    2012-01-01

    Five refrigerating machines of gas purification plan from coke - oven plant of handan iron steel was introduced. Fistly ,They were improved and disposed by equipments and technology; in addition,they are vindicated in daily production operatio. So refrigerating machines are in good state. Thus,lower warm water from 15 to18 degre could be provided by refrigerating machines, contenting produce demand.%介绍了邯钢新区焦化厂煤精车间的5台制冷机,经过对设备和工艺进行改造以及特殊情况的处理,在日常生产操作上的维护。保证了制冷机良好的运行状态。为煤精车间提供了15—18℃的低温水,满足生产的需求。

  3. Analysis of denitrifier community in a bioaugmented sequencing batch reactor for the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yaohui; Xing, Rui; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Sun, Qinghua [Peking Univ., Beijing (CN). Key Lab. of Water and Sediment Sciences (Ministry of Education); Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing (China). Inst. of Environmental Health and Related Product Safety

    2011-05-15

    The denitrifier community and associated nitrate and nitrite reduction in the bioaugmented and general sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) during the treatment of coking wastewater containing pyridine and quinoline were investigated. The efficiency and stability of nitrate and nitrite reduction in SBR was considerably improved after inoculation with four pyridine- or quinoline-degrading bacterial strains (including three denitrifying strains). Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on the nosZ gene revealed that the structures of the denitrifier communities in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented reactors were distinct and varied during the course of the experiment. Bioaugmentation protected indigenous denitrifiers from disruptions caused by pyridine and quinoline. Clone library analysis showed that one of the added denitrifiers comprised approximately 6% of the denitrifier population in the bioaugmented sludge. (orig.)

  4. Study on Coke Formation and Stability of Nickel-Based Catalysts in CO2 Reforming of CH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎先财; 吴敏; 杨沂凤; 何琲

    2004-01-01

    CO2 reforming of CH4 over nickel-based catalysts was investigated by using a fixed-bed reactor. Catalytic activity and amount of carbon deposition effects by nickel loading content, rare earth promoter and promoter contents were evaluated. It is found that nickel loading as well as reaction temperature can influence the activity and carbon deposition amounts,and with the addition of rare earth promoter, it can greatly improve the catalytic activity and exert a strong effect on the anticoking performance of the catalysts. The 5.0%(mass fraction)Ni-0.75%La-BaTiO3 catalyst shows great resistance to coke formation and higher thermal stability as well as the catalytic activity.

  5. High Coke-Resistance Pt/Mg1-xNixO Catalyst for Dry Reforming of Methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Doghachi, Faris A J; Islam, Aminul; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Saiman, Mohd Izham; Embong, Zaidi; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2016-01-01

    A highly active and stable nano structured Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalysts was developed by a simple co-precipitation method. The obtained Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst exhibited cubic structure nanocatalyst with a size of 50-80 nm and realized CH4 and CO2 conversions as high as 98% at 900°C with excellent stability in the dry reforming of methane. The characterization of catalyst was performed using various kinds of analytical techniques including XRD, BET, XRF, TPR-H2, TGA, TEM, FESEM, FT-IR, and XPS analyses. Characterization of spent catalyst further confirms that Pt/Mg1-xNixO catalyst has high coke-resistance for dry reforming. Thus, the catalyst demonstrated in this study, offers a promising catalyst for resolving the dilemma between dispersion and reducibility of supported metal, as well as activity and stability during high temperature reactions.

  6. Electrical Conductivity Of Carbon Pellets Prepared From Mixtures Of Pyropolymers From Oil Palm Bunches and Petroleum Green Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deraman, M.; Awitdrus, Talib, I. A.; Omar, R.; Jumali, M. H.; Ishak, M. M.; Saad, S. K. M.; Taer, E.; Saman, M. M.; Farma, R.; Yunus, R. M.

    2010-12-01

    Green pellets (GPs), prepared at different compression pressures (cs = 6, 7.5 and 12 metric tonne) from mixtures containing self-adhesive carbon grains (sacg) from the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) and different percentages (pr = 0 to 90%) of a non self-adhesive powder of petroleum green coke (ppgc), were carbonized (800° C) and activated with CO2 to produce carbon pellets (CPs). The measured electrical conductivity (σ) of the CP for all cs showed a curve having a minimum value at pr around 50%, indicating that the conducting phase displays a nonlinear σ- pr relationship. A significant increase in the σ due to CO2 activation was observed. For a sufficienctly high cs, an existence of a pr range in which the σ varies linearly with the density was also observed. These results provide some new information for modifying the electrical conductivity of carbon derived from the sacg from EFB or other types of biomass.

  7. 6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉相关配套机械的改造%Relevant Mechanical Revamping for the 6m Top-charged Coke Oven after being Upgraded into a Stamp-charged Coke Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙乃鑫

    2011-01-01

    介绍了6m顶装焦炉改为捣固焦炉炼焦后,对推焦车、拦焦车、装煤车进行的改造;并介绍了新增加的设备,包括捣固装煤车、30锤固定捣固机、摇动给料机.改为捣固焦炉后,增大了炼焦煤料的可选范围,降低了炼焦成本,焦炭产量由110万t/a提高到130万t/a.改造后配套的6m捣固焦炉设备具有技术水平先进,劳动生产率较高,综合生产成本低,环境污染小,且全部国产化等特点.%Introduced in this paper are the relevant mechanical revamping on the pushing car, coke guiding car and charging car, and also the additional equipment involved (e.g. Stamping/charging car, 30 hammer fixed stamping machine and the reciprocating feeders) after the 6m top-charged coke oven had been upgraded into a stamp-charged coke oven. After such a revamping, the selection of the feed coal range could be extended, and the coking cost could be reduced, as the weakly caking coal and less high-quality coking coal could be used. Meanwhile, the coke production capacity rose from 1 100 OOOt/a to 1 300 OOOt/a. The revamped battery is now advanced in technology, high in labor productivity, low in comprehensive production cost, less in adverse environmental impact, last but not least, the localization rate could be up to 100%.

  8. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking wastewater treatment plant residual by an O3/ultraviolet fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Zhang, Wanhui; Yuan, Mengyang; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) represents a typical point source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the water environment and threatens the safety of drinking water in downstream regions. To enhance the removal of residual PAHs from bio-treated coking wastewater, a pilot-scale O3/ultraviolet (UV) fluidized bed reactor (O3/UV FBR) was designed and different operating factors including UV irradiation intensity, pH, initial concentration, contact time, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were investigated at an ozone level of 240 g h(-1) and 25 ± 3 °C. A health risk evaluation and cost analysis were also carried out under the continuous-flow mode. As far as we know, this is the first time an O3/UV FBR has been explored for PAHs treatment. The results indicated that between 41 and 75 % of 18 target PAHs were removed in O3/UV FBR due to synergistic effects of UV irradiation. Both increased reaction time and increased pH were beneficial for the removal of PAHs. The degradation of the target PAHs within 8 h can be well fitted by the pseudo-first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.920). The reaction rate was also positively correlated with the initial concentrations of PAHs. The health risk assessment showed that the total amount of carcinogenic substance exposure to surface water was reduced by 0.432 g day(-1). The economic analysis showed that the O3/UV FBR was able to remove 18 target PAHs at a cost of US$0.34 m(-3). These results suggest that O3/UV FBR is efficient in removing residuals from CWWTP, thus reducing the accumulation of persistent pollutant released to surface water.

  9. 焦化废水深度处理技术%Advanced treatment technology of coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟冠华; 刘鹏; 邱菲; 方玲; 司晨浩

    2015-01-01

    焦化废水含有大量有机污染物和有毒无机物,成分十分复杂,污染物色度高,属较难降解的高浓度有机工业废水.经预处理和生化处理后的焦化废水存在COD、氨氮、总氮及氰化物不达标的问题.通过高级氧化法、混凝沉淀法、吸附法、膜分离法、生物化学法以及组合工艺等深度处理方法可以使出水满足新标准的要求.介绍了目前国内焦化废水深度处理的工艺现状以及展望.%The coking-plant wastewater contains lots of organic contaminants and toxic inorganic contaminants. This kind of highly concentrated organic industrial wastewater is hard to be biodegraded due to its complex components and high chroma. COD,NH3-N,total nitrogen and the contents of cyanide can not meet the standard after pretreated and bio-chemical treatment. Advanced oxidation process,coagulation sedimentation method,adsorption method,membrane sepa-ration method,biological chemical method and their combined process can make the effluent meet the requirements of the new standard. In addition,the present status of advanced treatment processes of coking wastewater in China are described and prospected.

  10. Mini-PROven. Reduced emissions from small and medium-size coke ovens thanks to single-chamber pressure control; Mini-PROven. Emissionsreduzierung an kleinen und mittleren Koksoefen mit einer Einzelkammerdruckregelung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhn, Friedrich; Krebber, Frank; Kuehn-Gajdzik, Joanna; Ueberschaer, Kerstin [ThyssenKrupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany). Coke Plant Technologies Div.

    2012-07-01

    For environment and occupational health reasons it is becoming increasingly important for coke plants to be operated with the lowest possible level of emissions. In the past, changing pressure conditions in each individual oven, with particularly high values at the beginning of the coking period, often resulted in considerable emissions at the oven closures. To prevent this happening on modern large-scale ovens, ThyssenKrupp Uhde developed the PROven trademark (Pressure Regulated Oven), a single-chamber pressure control system which regulates the pressure in the individual coke chambers down to a constantly low level. In the meantime, after many years of successful service, the system has been upgraded in both its design and process engineering. The result is Mini-PROven, which in future can also be retro-fitted to old small and medium-size coke oven batteries in the interest of better environmental protection. (orig.)

  11. Oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption optimization at hot stove of Usiminas blast furnace 3; Otimizacao do consumo de oxigenio e GCO nos regeneradores do alto forno 3 da Usiminas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervino, Marco Antonio; Bastos, Moises Hofer [Usiminas, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the model developed for determination of the correlation between oxygen and coke oven gas (COG) consumption in the hot stove at Usiminas blast furnace 3, the applicability and results obtained. (author)

  12. Effect of Boron Quaternary Ammonium Salt on Improving Coke Thermal Property%新型含硼季铵盐对焦炭热态性能的改善研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽志; 李龙; 王留成; 王福安

    2011-01-01

    The effect of spraying boron quaternary ammonium salt(which was as a new type deterioration inhibitor) on coke thermal property was investigated.The structure and morphology of coke were scanned for explaining boron quaternary ammonium salt's inhibition mechanism to coke by SEM.The results indicate that the coke reactivity index(CRI) is decreased by 8.69% and the coke strength after reaction(CSR) is improved by 7.94% when spraying 1.0% boron quaternary ammonium salt on coke samples.The SEM scanning results show that the coke surface pore diameter and the depth decrease,this helps to reduce CO2 to erode coke.%以含硼季铵盐(N-甲基溴代十二烷基二乙醇胺硼酸酯)作为新型焦炭劣化抑制剂,考察其对焦炭的热态性能改善影响,并对焦炭结构和形貌进行表征,初步探讨了含硼季铵盐改善焦炭热态性能的机理。结果表明:喷洒含硼季铵盐溶液后焦炭热态性能指标得到明显改善,1.0%的含硼季铵盐能使焦炭反应性CRI降低8.69%,反应后强度CSR提高7.94%,焦炭表面积、气孔直径和深度显著减小,减弱了二氧化碳对焦炭的侵蚀劣化作用,这为改善焦炭性能指标开拓了新途径。

  13. 煤沥青型焦制备与固结机理%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永斌; 钟强; 姜涛; 李骞; 徐斌

    2016-01-01

    以煤沥青为黏结剂,对焦粉型焦制备新工艺及其固结机理进行研究。研究结果表明:助剂BJ可激发煤沥青中芳香烃等化合物的活性,使煤沥青常温下具有黏结性,实现型焦的冷压成型,其湿块2 m落下强度大于50次;超细磨填充料可填充煤沥青收缩产生的孔隙,充实煤沥青炭化骨架,强化型焦的炭化固结;煤沥青最大的热分解挥发速率和热缩聚速率分别出现在336℃和629℃,湿块经370℃挥发15 min及600℃炭化30 min后制备的型焦抗压强度达20 MPa;煤沥青在挥发和炭化中解脱除H和N等并吸收O缩聚形成C—C键的炭化骨架,其C与H的物质的量比由1.69提高至2.80,C与O的物质的量比由91.77降低至67.23;型焦炭化块主要由C及少量O构成,煤沥青形成的C—C键炭化骨架将焦炭颗粒牢固地黏结成块,使得型焦内部结构紧密、均质性好。%Preparation and mechanism of formed coke with coal tar pitch as binder were studied. The results show that assistant reagent BJ can excite the activity of aromatic compounds of coal tar pitch and make coal tar pitch have the cold state cohesiveness, which realizes briquetting of coke breeze at room temperature without heating process. The drop resistance of the wet briquette is 50 times per 2 m. Filling material of ultrafine particle can fill the pore produced by shrinkage of coal tar pitch, enrich the skeleton of coal tar pitch, intensify carbonization consolidation of formed coke, and improve the strength of formed coke. The best thermal decomposition rate and thermal decomposition rate of coal tar pitch appear at 336℃and 629℃, respectively. The compressive strength of formed coke volatilized at 370℃for 15 min and carbonized at 550℃for 30 min is 20 MPa. Through volatilization and carbonization, the molar rate of C and H in coal tar pitch increases from 1.69 to 2.80 and molar rate of C and O decreases from 91.77 to 67.23. The formed

  14. Coke- and sintering-resistant monolithic catalysts derived from in situ supported hydrotalcite-like films on Al wires for dry reforming of methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianjun; Zhang, Dengsong; Shi, Liyi; Gao, Ruihua; Zhang, Jianping

    2013-03-01

    Monolithic catalysts derived from in situ supported hydrotalcite-like films on Al wires display high resistance to coke formation and sintering in the dry reforming of methane due to their hierarchical porous structure, well dispersed metallic nickel species, more basic sites and strong metal-support interaction effect.Monolithic catalysts derived from in situ supported hydrotalcite-like films on Al wires display high resistance to coke formation and sintering in the dry reforming of methane due to their hierarchical porous structure, well dispersed metallic nickel species, more basic sites and strong metal-support interaction effect. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, XRD patterns, SEM images, and TEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33921a

  15. Behaviour of the elements introduced with the fuels in their distribution and immobilization between the coal-petroleum coke IGCC solid products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramon Alvarez-Rodriguez; Carmen Clemente-Jul; Juan A. Martin-Rubi [Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Madrid (Spain). Mining School

    2007-09-15

    In this research on the solid products of the Elcogas IGCC plant (Puertollano, Spain) the influence of the two fuels, coal and pet coke, on the composition of the fly ashes and slag is demonstrated and how the majority of the elements are provided by the coal and only some as V, Ni and Mo are provided by the pet coke. The different nature of slag and fly ashes is highlighted and how the different elements are distributed between them that in general follow the indications of the mathematical models. The passage of the elements into gaseous phase is calculated. The fly ashes are some products of very fine granulometry that present problems of solubilization of a series of elements and therefore of deposition. Their inertization has been investigated by calcination at 1000{sup o}C and with additives. Some good results have been obtained. 20 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. 清洁型热回收焦炉节能措施%Energy conservation measures of cleaning heat recovery coke oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    要长维; 薛恺; 李振文; 王慎国

    2011-01-01

    Based on the operation condition of SYR stamping and cleaning heat recovery coke oven, emphasize the main factors affecting energy consumption such as market factors, burn-off rate, water content of coal as fired. According to the (Access Conditions of Coking Industry) (2008 amendment) ,put forward reasonable suggestions to reduce energy consumption and improve benefit of enterprises.%结合SYR型捣固式清洁型热回收焦炉运行状况,着重分析影响其能耗的主要因素,包括市场因素、烧失率、入炉煤水分等,针对这些影响因素并根据《焦化行业准入条件》(2008年修订)相关要求,为进一步降低企业能耗,提高企业效益提出合理化建议.

  17. Microwave-assisted ultraviolet digestion of petroleum coke for the simultaneous determination of nickel, vanadium and sulfur by ICP-OES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jussiane S S; Picoloto, Rochele S; Bizzi, Cezar A; Mello, Paola A; Barin, Juliano S; Flores, Erico M M

    2015-11-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of Ni, V and S in petroleum coke by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted ultraviolet digestion (MW-UV) in closed vessels was proposed. Digestion was performed using electrodeless discharge lamps positioned inside quartz vessels and turned on by microwave radiation. The following parameters were evaluated: HNO3 concentration (15 mL of 1, 4, 7, 10 or 14.4 mol L(-1)), volume of H2O2 (30%, 1 or 3 mL), sample mass (100, 250 or 500 mg) and heating time (40 or 60 min) with or without the use of UV lamps. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by the determination of the residual carbon content (RCC) in digests. Using UV lamps lower RCC was obtained and the combination of 4 mol L(-1) HNO3 with 3 mL of H2O2 and 60 min of heating allowed a suitable digestion of up to 500 mg of petroleum coke (RCCdigestion of petroleum coke by microwave-induced combustion) and with a certified reference material of petroleum coke was between 96 and 101%. The proposed method was considered as advantageous when compared to American Society for Testing and Materials method because it allowed the simultaneous determination of Ni, V and S with lower limit of detection (0.22, 0.12 and 8.7 µg g(-1) for Ni, V and S, respectively) avoiding the use of concentrated nitric acid and providing digests suitable for routine analysis by ICP-OES.

  18. Application of oily sludge treatment technology in delayed coking unit%延迟焦化装置处理含油污泥的技术应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐先财; 蔡海军; 陈凯; 王成章

    2016-01-01

    介绍了中国石油乌鲁木齐石化公司炼油厂采用1.2 Mt/a延迟焦化装置的焦炭余热掺炼含油污泥的技术。采用该技术在焦炭塔冷焦期间,成功处置了含油污泥,并根据掺炼过程中出现的问题,提出了相关注意事项及对策。实际应用结果表明,采用该技术处理含油污泥达到了无害化、资源化和减量化的处理原则,降低了危险废物的处置费用,是炼化企业清洁生产的可行之法。适量掺炼含油污泥对延迟焦化装置的平稳生产和石油焦产品的质量无较大影响,石油焦产品仍能满足3B级产品的质量要求。%Oily sludge was treated through blending process in a 1.2 Mt/a delayed coking unit of Urumqi Petrochemical Company utilizing used heat in coke. Aimed at the problems in the blending process,relevant measures were put forward. It was showed that,through practical application, the oily sludge became harmless and could be used as resource,and the cost of the waste disposal was reduced. By blending the right amount of the oily sludge,the delayed coking unit could smoothly produce petroleum coke product which could meet the quality requirements.

  19. 活性焦烟气脱硫技术及其应用前景%Desulfurization Technology for Flue Gas by Active Coke and Its Application Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪家铭

    2012-01-01

    Desulfurization technology for flue gas by active coke was using its inherent functions of adsorption, catalysis and filtration,it was a dry purification treatment for the sulfur contained flue gas, in same one of reactor the three functions of desulfurization, de-nitride and de-dust were finished. Author hasintroduced the basic principle,process flow,technical feature,studying and developing situation taking coal as mainraw material to produce the active coke ; has compared the desulfurization hy active coke with the other some kinds of conventional desulfurization processes. Result indicates that the desulfurization technology of flue gas by active coke has an obvious superiority in the aspects of desulfurization rate,utilization of by-product,investment of plant and operating cost etc.%活性焦烟气脱硫技术利用活性焦特有的吸附、催化和过滤功能,对含硫烟气进行干法净化处理,在同1个反应器内完成脱硫、脱硝、除尘3种功能。介绍了以煤为主要原料生产活性焦的基本原理、工艺流程、技术特点和研发概况;将活性焦脱硫工艺与其他几种常用的脱硫工艺进行了对比,结果表明,活性焦烟气脱硫技术在脱硫率、副产品利用、装置投资及运行费用等方面均具有明显优势。

  20. Biomass fuels and coke plants are important sources of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ruifang; Li, Junnan; Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; He, Dechun; Zhou, Yuanxiu; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Wei, Fusheng; Li, Jihua

    2014-11-01

    Large amounts of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene and toluene (BT) might be emitted from incomplete combustion reactions in both coal tar factories and biomass fuels in rural China. The health effects arising from exposure to PAHs and BT are a concern for residents of rural areas close to coal tar plants. To assess the environmental risk and major exposure sources, 100 coke plant workers and 25 farmers in Qujing, China were recruited. The levels of 10 mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs), four BT metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in the urine collected from the subjects were measured. The 8-OHdG levels in the urine were determined to evaluate the oxidative DNA damage induced by the PAHs and BT. The results showed that the levels of the OH-PAHs, particularly those of 1-hydroxynathalene and 1-hydroxypyrene, in the farmers were 1-7 times higher than those in the workers. The concentrations of the BT metabolites were comparable between the workers and farmers. Although the exact work location within a coke oven plant might affect the levels of the OH-PAHs, one-way ANOVA revealed no significant differences for either the OH-PAHs levels or the BT concentrations among the three groups working at different work sites. The geometric mean concentration (9.17 µg/g creatinine) of 8-OHdG was significantly higher in the farmers than in the plant workers (6.27 µg/g creatinine). The levels of 8-OHdG did not correlate with the total concentrations of OH-PAHs and the total levels of BT metabolites. Incompletely combusted biomass fuels might be the major exposure source, contributing more PAHs and BT to the local residents of Qujing. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of naphthalene and fluorene for all of the workers and most of the farmers were below the reference doses (RfDs) recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), except for the pyrene levels in two farmers. However, the EDIs of benzene in the workers and local

  1. [Environmental and biological monitoring of exposure to PAHs in Taranto coke-oven workers and in two groups of the general population from Apulia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, L; Vimercati, L; Carrus, A; Bisceglia, L; Pesatori, A C; Bertazzi, P A; Assennato, G; Fustinoni, S

    2012-01-01

    The exposure to PAHs was assessed by personal air sampling and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in 100 coke-oven workers (CW) of the Taranto plant and in subjects from the general population living close (NC, 18) and far away (FC, 15) from the plant. Median airborne benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and 1-OHP levels were 152, 1.5, and 3.6 ng/m3 and 2.0, 0.5 and 0.6 microg/g creatinine in CW, NC, and FC, respectively. BaP exposure exceeded the German acceptable (70 ng/m3) and tolerable (700 ng/m3) limit risk based values in 82 and 11% of CW and the European target value for ambient air (1 ng/m3) in about 65% of NC and FC. 1-OHP levels exceed the proposed biological limit value for the coke-oven industry (4.4 microg/g crt) in 21% of CW and the Italian reference value (0.3 microg/g crt) in about 90% of NC and FC. The exposure resulted lower than in the past, but this study highlights that PAHs exposure from the coke plant still poses a health risk for workers and the general population.

  2. 梅钢焦炉用后硅砖显微结构分析%Microstructure analysis of silica brick used in coke oven of Meisteel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪建国; 周宁生; 姚金甫; 高振昕

    2011-01-01

    Microstructure analysis shows quartz remains more or less silica brick used in coking chamber of coke oven,and quartz gradually becomes metastable cristobalite and then translates into tridymite in silica brick used in higher temperature combustion chamber. Phase change of silica brick only limits to transformation of quartz and metastable cristobalite. When finished,structure of silica brick trends to stable. Carbon sedimentates and graphitizes which helps to protect the silica brick and improve heat conductivity of silica brick used in coking chamber.%显微结构分析表明:焦炉炭化室用后硅砖中或多或少存在残余石英,而燃烧室由于温度较高,其硅砖中的石英逐渐经亚稳方石英转变为鳞石英.焦炉用后硅砖的相变过程只限于石英和亚稳方石英的转化,随着石英和亚稳方石英逐渐转变成鳞石英,硅砖结构趋于稳定.炭化室用后硅砖表面出现碳沉积并石墨化,对硅砖起到保护作用,并有利于提高炭化室的热导率.

  3. Research on the Coal Blend Additive for Coking%煤种适应性及配煤炼焦探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亢树新

    2012-01-01

    The factors which impact the coal coking process have been probed into, and the actual practice of using medium temperature pitch, tar residue, waste plastics, anthracite or coke powder as additive for coal blend has been introduced. Proper coal blend can lead to a sensible and effective utilization of the coal resource, and the study results have important theory significance and practical value for the commercial production in the coking industry.%讨论了原料煤及煤中显微组分对煤的成焦过程的影响;分析了中温沥青、焦油渣、废塑料、无烟煤、焦粉作为添加剂进行配煤炼焦时的实际情况.选用合适的添加剂进行配煤炼焦,能更好地实现煤炭资源合理有效利用,对工业生产具有重要的理论意义和实用价值.

  4. 用氯甲基化脱除焦化苯中噻吩的研究%Study on Removal of Thiophene from Coking Benzene by Chloromethylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗国华; 徐新; 杨春育; 张国英

    2001-01-01

    The method of removal of thiophene in coking benzene and lightbenzene by chloromethylation is studied. The investigation on thiophene to chloromethylation reaction temperature and feedstock blending proportion shows that thiophene in coking benzene can completely convert into thiophene polymer. Under the reaction temperature of 70℃ and under the ratio condition of coking benzene(containing thiophene 1.4g/L)∶ formaldehyde∶ HCl=6∶1∶1, with the agitating time of 3h, the removal efficiency for thiophene in benzene can be up to 100% .%研究了用氯甲基化脱除焦化苯及轻苯中噻吩的方法。通过对噻吩的氯甲基化反应的温度与原料配比的考察表明,焦化苯中的噻吩可完全转化为噻吩聚合物。在反应温度为70℃、焦化苯(含噻吩1.4g/L)∶甲醛∶HCl=6∶1∶1的条件下,搅拌反应3h,苯中的噻吩脱除率可达100%。

  5. Cold test with a benchtop set-up for fluidized bed reactor using quartz sand to simulate gasification of coal cokes by concentrated solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokon, Nobuyuki; Tanabe, Tomoaki; Shimizu, Tadaaki; Kodama, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The impacts of internal circulation of a mixture of coal-coke particles and quartz sand on the fluidization state in a fluidized bed reactor are investigated by a cold test with a benchtop set-up in order to design 10-30 kWth scale prototype windowed fluidized-bed reactor. Firstly, a basic relationship between pressure loss of inlet gas and gas velocity was experimentally examined using quartz sand with different particle sizes by a small-scale quartz tube with a distributor at ambient pressure and temperature. Based on the results, an appropriate particle range of quartz sand and layer height/layer diameter ratio (L/D ratio) was determined for a design of the fluidized bed reactor. Secondly, a windowed reactor mock-up was designed and fabricated for solar coke gasification using quartz sand as a bed material. The pressure loss between the inlet and outlet gases was examined, and descending cokes and sand particles on the sidewall of the reactor was observed in the reactor mock-up. The moving velocity and distance of descending particles/sands from the top to bottom of fluidized bed were measured by the visual observation of the colored tracer particles on outside wall of the reactor.

  6. 废塑料在炼焦配煤中的应用研究%Study on application of waste plastics in coking coal blending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海桥; 崔洁; 阎定兵; 陈战州

    2015-01-01

    介绍了宁钢应用塑料型煤技术,在满足焦炭质量要求的前提下,扩大了炼焦煤中添加废塑料的比例,而且在限定废塑料添加比例的条件下稳定了焦炭质量,为科学、合理、经济地治理"白色污染"提供了理论依据和工业经验.%This paper introduces the practice of Ningbo Steel in applying plastic coal briquette tech-nology. On condition of matching the coke quality requirement,the ratio of blended waste plastic in coking coal is increased,and the coke quality is stabilized on condition of limiting the blending ratio of waste plastic. The study provides theoretical basis and industrial reference in scientific,reasonable and economical control of "white pollution".

  7. Development of reduced crude processing technology in delayed coking units; Desenvolvimento da tecnologia de processamento de residuo atmosferico em unidade de coqueamento retardado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Gloria Maria Gomes; Bartros, Francisco Carlos da Costa; Goncalves, Natalie Jorge; Pala, Danielle Marins; Nadolni, Aline Voigt [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Delayed Coking Technology can be described as thermal cracking of low value refinery residual streams into high-value products. This process has been applied in petroleum refining schemes in order to upgrade heavy and ultra-heavy crude oils. The typical feedstock is vacuum residue (VR). When we have an increasing medium distillates demand and refining schemes which have gas oil and VR excess, the simultaneous conversion of these streams becomes economically attractive, due mainly to the increase of diesel production. Thus, the processing of atmospheric residue (AR) in Delayed Coking Units (DCU) has fueled great interest for PETROBRAS. This work presents the results of industrial and pilot plant tests with AR and VR showing the increasing of diesel yields and decreasing of coke yields processing AR as feedstock. When we process all the AR in the DCU with high recycle rate we observe an increasing of 25% on refinery diesel production related to conventional schemes. The refining scheme of the new PETROBRAS refinery at Northeast of Brazil is based on this technology. This refinery will process heavy oils maximizing diesel production with minimum investment. (author)

  8. 焦化-钢铁多联产系统分析与优化%Analysis and optimization for coking-steel co-production system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪福; 温燕明; 周贵友; 白皓; 李会泉; 陈丽云

    2012-01-01

    From the point of view energy saving and environmental protection, analyzed the problems of the unreasonable structure of iron and steel industry which 65% of coke consumption was provided by independent coking enterprises. The potential and direction for improving resources and energy efficiency was pointed out clearly. The advantages of the coking - steel co - production system were analyzed in the respects of the use of coal resources, coal gas and waste heat.%针对我国钢铁行业所消耗焦炭有65%由独立焦化企业供应的状况,重点从节能、环保的角度分析了这种产业结构带来的问题,明确了提高资源、能源利用效率的潜力和方向,系统分析了焦化-钢铁多联产系统在实现煤炭资源、煤气资源、余热资源的高效利用和过程清洁方面的技术集成与流程优势.

  9. Co-Slurry Ability of Refinery Oil Sludge and High Sulphur Petroleum Coke%炼油厂含油污泥与高硫石油焦的共成浆性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴颜; 张强; 李伟锋; 刘海峰

    2012-01-01

    利用炼油厂产生的含油污泥和高硫石油焦,采用萘系分散剂制成油泥焦浆.分别考察了含油污泥处理前后与石油焦的成浆性能.结果表明,未经处理的含油污泥可与石油焦共成浆,但成浆浓度远低于石油焦浆;加入硫酸铁后油泥焦浆表观黏度和流动性得到改善,成浆浓度提高;电解质对浆体的降黏效果优于表面活性剂.含油污泥的加入改变了石油焦浆体的流变类型,随着剪切速率增大,油泥焦浆的表观黏度降低,属于假塑性流体;含油污泥的加入提高了石油焦浆体的稳定性,起到了稳定剂的作用.%The co-slurry ability of the refinery oil sludge and high sulfur petroleum coke and with naphthalene condensate as dispersant was investigated, including concentration, rheology and stabilization. Results showed that oil sludge could mix with petroleum coke to make slurry, but the slurry concentration was lower than that of the single petroleum coke slurry. The apparent viscosity of oil sludge-petroleum coke-slurry was reduced and its flow ability was improved both by the addition of ferric sulfate, at the same time, the slurry concentration was increased. The electrolyte ferric sulfate could reduce the apparent viscosity of oil sludge-petroleum coke-slurry more than surfactant. The addition of oily sludge into the petroleum coke slurry changed slurry rheological type, and as increase of shearing rate, the apparent viscosity of oil sludge-petroleum coke-slurry decreased, so oil sludge-petroleum coke-slurry belonged to pseudoplastic fluid. Oil sludge played the role of stabilizer in oil sludge-petroleum coke-slurry and the more addition of oil sludge, the better stabilization of petroleum coke-slurry.

  10. 冶金焦的本质特性与现代高炉冶炼的对应关系%Relationship between essential characteristic of metallurgical coke and modern blast furnace smelting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德军

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of scientific analysis for the current quality of Ansteel coke,the influences of coke strength, thermal state performance,chemical composition,particle size and quality fluctuation on blast furnace smelting were studied. Through sampling the coke in the blast furnace tuyere and further validation with experiment,the blast furnace operation practice could be guided well,at the same time good results were achieved. The study made the blast furnace operator and coking plant personnel in Ansteel access to knowledge related to coke quality,the influence of coke quality on blast furnace smelting,and the coke quality evaluation methods and so on,especially the use of"tuyere sampling"for which it needs to know the change rule of coke in the furnace hearth working condition. The study provides a power-ful technical support for the blast furnace operation,at the same time provides the basis for coking plant about how to implement low cost to meet the requirements of the blast furnace operation coke.%在对鞍钢焦炭质量现状进行科学分析的基础上,研究了焦炭强度、热态性能、化学组成、粒度及质量波动等对高炉冶炼的影响规律,并通过对高炉风口焦炭的实际取样与研究加以验证,指导高炉操作实践;同时,系统地掌握焦炭质量、焦炭质量对高炉冶炼的影响、焦炭质量的评价方法等;尤其是利用“风口取样”,掌握焦炭在炉内的变化规律和炉缸工作状况,为高炉操作提供技术支持,同时为焦化厂低成本生产出符合高炉运行要求的焦炭提供了依据。

  11. 原料沥青的变化对延迟焦化生产的影响%Influence of raw pitch on the delayed coking production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建华; 程俊霞

    2014-01-01

    一直以来,人们在煤系针状焦生产的原料选择上认为煤沥青为大众原料,只要物化指标符合要求即可选择使用。通过在生产过程中采取不同产地、不同厂家的两种沥青按照不同的比例混配,在控制其理化指标相近或相似的情况下,经过大量的生产数据整理与总结发现:具有相似指标的煤沥青,用于延迟焦化生产反应过程中的热解产物、产品收率以及产品质量是有差异的。因此,在针状焦的生产过程中原料沥青的选择方面,不能完全依赖几个物化指标,也应该重视不同产地沥青的使用性能,重视实际生产过程中的技术研究所积累的经验。%All the time the coal tar pitch is thought as the preferred selection raw material for the production of coal-based needle cokes, as long as the physical and chemical indexes meet the requirements. In this paper the coal based needle cokes were produced using two pitches as feedstock from different producing manufacturers with the different mixing ratio, through controlling their chemi-cal indicators close or similar. A number of production data were achieved. The results showed that there are the differences in py-rolysis products, such as product yield and product quality of the delayed cokes from pitches with the similar properties during cok-ing. Therefore, the choice of raw material of pitch in the process of needle coke production can not rely solely on several physical and chemical indicators, should also be paid attention to the performance of pitch from different sources of origin and the experience accumulated during the production processes.

  12. Application of Air Gun in Coal Bunker of Coke Oven%空气炮在焦炉煤仓的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琴; 曹春娟; 王昆鹏

    2011-01-01

    To solve the bad influence caused by the coal blockage in coal bunker of coke oven during coals' falling on coking process, the installation methods and application of air gun in coal bunker was put forward according to aerodynamics principle. It was proposed that air gun was added in the coal bunker of coke oven and made use of potential energy that compressed air (0. 4~0. 8 Mpa) released abruptly to produce the powerful shock-wave. As a result, the arching and the cohering coal materials were recovered gravity flow. These methods made the blockage disappear and achieved a continuous operation for coal loading. Air gun should be designed and installed as spirals in each coal bunker and the specific demand during the operation was introduced as well. The result shows that the application of air gun in coal bunker of coke oven can not only reduce labor intensity,protect equipment, improve coke quality, but also achieve a safe production.%针对焦炉煤仓在下煤时出现的易堵塞现象对焦炉生产造成的诸多不利影响,根据空气动力学原理,提出了在焦炉1煤仓增设空气炮,利用压缩空气(0.4~0.8 MPa)突然释放的势能,产生强烈冲击波,使起拱的或粘着的煤料再次恢复重力流动,使堵塞消除,实现装煤连续作业.介绍了每个煤仓应按螺旋上升布置空气炮的安装要求,以及空气炮在使用过程中的具体要求.结果表明:在焦炉煤仓使用空气炮不仅可以降低操作人员的劳动强度,保护设备,而且可以改善焦炭质量,并实现焦炉安全生产.

  13. Effect of sulfur impurity on coke reactivity and its mechanism%硫杂质对焦反应性的影响及其机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖劲; 邓松云; 仲奇凡; 叶绍龙

    2014-01-01

    Effect of sulfur impurity on coke reactivity was investigated by simulating petroleum coke with low-impurity pitch coke and impurities doping. And its mechanism was discussed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The results show that sulfur has strong catalysis on both air and CO2 reactivity of coke in the case of no other impurity interference. Its catalysis is probably realized by triggering organic sulfur→H2S→SO2→COS and elemental sulfur (Sx)→SO2 and organic sulfur→H2S→COS→Sx→C2S→COS reaction systems during coke−O2 and coke−CO2 reactions, respectively, which are partly circular with functions of increasing carbon consumption and enlarging coke specific surface area.%采用以低杂质沥青焦模拟石油焦和外掺杂的方式,研究硫杂质元素对焦反应性的影响,并通过XRD、SEM和EDS等检测手段探讨其作用机理。结果表明:在无其他杂质元素干扰的情况下,硫实际上是一种对焦的空气和CO2反应性都具有明显催化性的杂质元素。其催化作用可能是通过在焦的空气和CO2反应过程中分别引发有机硫→H2S→SO2→COS和单质硫(Sx)→SO2和有机硫→H2S→COS→Sx→C2S→COS两组可部分循环并具有增加碳耗和增大焦比表面积作用的反应体系来实现的。

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter in coking wastewater during bio-treatment: full-scale plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Ou, Huase; Yu, Xubiao; He, Runsheng; Lin, Chong; Wei, Chaohai

    2015-01-01

    This paper taking a full-scale coking wastewater (CWW) treatment plant as a case study aimed to characterize removal behaviors of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by UV spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and investigate the correlations between spectroscopic indices and water quality parameters. Efficient removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN) after the bio-treatment were 91.3%, 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. UV270 was proven to be a stable UV absorption peak of CWW that could reflect the mixture of phenols, heterocyclics, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Molecular weight and aromaticity were increased, and also the content of polar functional groups was greatly reduced after bio-treatment. Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC: C1 (tyrosine-like), C2 (tryptophan-like) and C3 (humic-like). The removal rate of protein-like was higher than that of humic-like and C1 was identified as biodegradable substance. Correlation analysis showed UV270 had an excellent correlation with COD (r=0.921, n=60, Ptreatment.

  15. Analysis of organic compounds' degradation and electricity generation in anaerobic fluidized bed microbial fuel cell for coking wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinmin; Wu, Jianjun; Guo, Qingjie

    2017-02-22

    A single-chambered packing-type anaerobic fluidized microbial fuel cell (AFBMFC) with coking wastewater (CWW) as fuel was built to treat CWW, which not only has high treating efficiency, but also can convert organic matter in wastewater into electricity. AFBMFC was constructed by using anaerobic sludge that was domesticated as inoculation sludge, which was used to biochemically treat CWW. The organic compounds in CWW were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction step by step every day. The extraction phase was concentrated by a rotary evaporator and a nitrogen sweeping device and was analyzed by GC-MS. And the electricity-generation performances of AFBMFC were investigated. The results show that the composition of CWW was complicated, which mainly contains hydrocarbons, phenols, nitrogenous organic compounds, alcohols and aldehydes, esters and acids and so on. After a cycle of anaerobic biochemical treatment, the content of organic compounds in the effluent decreased significantly. After the treatment of AFBMFC, 99.9% phenols, 98.4% alcohol and aldehydes and 95.3% nitrogenous compounds were biodegraded. In the effluent, some new compounds (such as tricosane and dibutyl phthalate) were produced. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of CWW decreased from 3372 to 559 mg/L in the closed-circuit microbial fuel cell, and the COD removal was 83.4 ± 1.0%. The maximum power density of AFBMFC was 2.13 ± 0.01 mW m(-2).

  16. Classifying run-of-the-mine coals in connection with the deteriorating raw materials base for coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurochka, Eh.F.; Nikitin, I.N.; Chupakhin, A.M.; Stel' makh, N.A.; Litvinenko, A.M.; Tereshkina, R.S.

    1984-05-01

    In order to relieve the overloading of jigging machines and to cut down on coal loss and wastes in jigging high ash coals, a more expedient distribution of large and small coals on the machines could be achieved by changing the classification scale for run-of-the-mine coal to machine classes. The relationship between size of the limiting granule, process efficiency, distribution of the greater than 1800 kg/m/sup 3/ fraction by machine class and degree of comminution of the prepared batch were investigated at the Enakievskii coking plant. The feasibility of classifying run-of-the-mine coal according to a limiting granule of 16 mm was demonstrated. This made it possible to reduce the load on jigging machines of large coal sizes by 4-5% and resulted in reduction in the screened product of the quantity of the less than 13 mm size classes from 35 to 9%. Jigging efficiency was increased and loss of concentrate in wastes was reduced about 1.5 times.

  17. Coking and Deactivation of Catalyst Inhibited by Silanization Modification in Oxidation of Benzene to Phenol with Nitrous Oxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丕沐; 王立秋; 刘长厚; 张守臣

    2005-01-01

    The main cause to the deactivation of ZSM-5 catalyst, used for oxidation of benzene to phenol (BTOP) by nitrous oxide, is that the carbon deposition on the catalyst surface blocks the mouth of pores of the catalyst.In the experiments, ZSM-5 catalyst was modified by chemical surface deposition of silicon, and then the effect of modification condition on the catalyst activation was studied. The catalyst samples were characterized by XRF,EPS, XRD, TEM, N2 adsorption at low temperature, pyridine adsorption-infrared technique and etc. All the above results show that the uniform SiO2 membrane can be formed on ZSM-5 crystal surface. The SiO2 membrane covers the acid centers on ZSM-5 surface to inhibit surface coking, to avoid or decrease the possibility of ZSM-5 pore blockage so that the catalyst activity and stability can be improved efficiently. The optimum siliconiting conditions determined by the experiments are as follows: 4% load of silanizing agent, volume (ml)/mass (g) ratio of hexane/ZSM-5=15/1, and 16 h of modification time. Compared with the samples without siliconiting treatment,the samples treated under the above optimum condition can increase the productivity of phenol by 14% for 3 h reaction time and by 41% for 6 h reaction time respectively.

  18. Low-temperature SCR of NO with NH3 over activated semi-coke composite-supported rare earth oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinping; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Yingyi; Zhang, Zuotai; Wang, Xidong

    2014-08-01

    The catalysts with different rare earth oxides (La, Ce, Pr and Nd) loaded onto activated semi-coke (ASC) via hydrothermal method are prepared for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 at low temperature (150-300 °C). It is evidenced that CeO2 loaded catalysts present the best performance, and the optimum loading amount of CeO2 is about 10 wt%. Composite catalysts by doping La, Pr and Nd into CeO2 are prepared to obtain further improved catalytic properties. The SCR mechanism is investigated through various characterizations, including XRD, Raman, XPS and FT-IR, the results of which indicate that the oxygen defect plays an important role in SCR process and the doped rare earth elements effectively serve as promoters to increase the concentration of oxygen vacancies. It is also found that the oxygen vacancies in high concentration are favored for the adsorption of O2 and further oxidation of NO, which facilitates a rapid progressing of the following reduction reactions. The SCR process of NO with NH3 at low temperature over the catalysts of ASC composite-supported rare earth oxides mainly follows the Langmuir-Hinshlwood mechanism.

  19. Effect of Hydrothermal Treatment on Suppressing Coking of ZSM-5 Zeolite during Methanol-to-Propylene Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Binbo; Zhou Bingjie; Yan Lixia; Wei Lingze; Xu Caixia; Liao Zuwei; Huang Zhengliang; Wang Jingdai; Yang Yongrong

    2016-01-01

    Fresh ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts were pretreated at 460℃ and 500℃ with various cumulative amount of water feed (CAWF) in a ifxed bed reactor. The catalytic process was carried out under the following conditions: a temperature of 480℃; a methanol WHSV of 3 h-1; a methanol partial pressure of 30 kPa; and a time on stream of 12 h, 24 h and 48 h, respectively. The BET parameters of catalysts and diffusion coefficients of toluene showed that there were two types of mesopores generated under different hydrothermal conditions. Mild temperature and moderate CAWF conditions led to external open mesopores which could be entered from the external surface of the zeolite, while a high temperature or a high CAWF condition resulted in the generation of macropores or internal isolated mesopores, which were occluded in the microporous matrix. The TGA results showed that catalyst with external open mesopores had good ability to resist coke accumulation and good performance on propylene selectivity, while the internal isolated mesopores did no contribute to the increased diffusivity of reactants and products.

  20. Sequential dynamic artificial neural network modeling of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant with fluidized bed reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Hua-Se; Wei, Chao-Hai; Wu, Hai-Zhen; Mo, Ce-Hui; He, Bao-Yan

    2015-10-01

    This study proposed a sequential modeling approach using an artificial neural network (ANN) to develop four independent models which were able to predict biotreatment effluent variables of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP). Suitable structure and transfer function of ANN were optimized by genetic algorithm. The sequential approach, which included two parts, an influent estimator and an effluent predictor, was used to develop dynamic models. The former parts of models estimated the variations of influent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N. The later parts of models predicted effluent COD, volatile phenol, cyanide, and NH4 (+)-N using the estimated values and other parameters. The performance of these models was evaluated by statistical parameters (such as coefficient of determination (R (2) ), etc.). Obtained results indicated that the estimator developed dynamic models for influent COD (R (2)  = 0.871), volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.904), cyanide (R (2)  = 0.846), and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.777), while the predictor developed feasible models for effluent COD (R (2)  = 0.852) and cyanide (R (2)  = 0.844), with slightly worse models for effluent volatile phenol (R (2)  = 0.752) and NH4 (+)-N (R (2)  = 0.764). Thus, the proposed modeling processes can be used as a tool for the prediction of CWWTP performance.

  1. Production of oil and coke from sludges containing organic pollutants; Gewinnung von Oel und Koks aus organisch belasteten Schlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steger, M. [Martin Steger GmbH, Eggenfelden (Germany); Meissner, W.; Herold, R. [Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Since the mid-eighties, Messrs. Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH at Hammerau, Germany have been investigating sewage sludge pyrolysis. Laboratory experiments and semi-industrial investigations led to the construction of a combined sludge drying and conversion plant (``Aicher sludge recycling process``), in which the organic sludge fraction is converted into recyclable or combustible oils. Carbon is obtained as a by-product in solid form as conversion coke which can be utilized. Apart from sewage sludge, also industrial sludges with high organic fractions can be processed, e.g. sludges and sewage sludges from petroleum processing. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der Bundesrepublik Deutschland beschaeftigt sich die Max Aicher Umwelttechnik GmbH in Hammerau seit Mitte der Achtzigerjahre mit der Niedertemperaturkonvertierung (Pyrolyse) von Klaerschlamm. Versuche im Labor- und im halbtechnischen Massstab fuehrten zur Realisierung einer betriebstechnischen Anlage mit den Komponenten Schlammtrocknung und Konvertierung. Ziel des Aicher-Schlamm-Recycling-Verfahrens ist die Umwandlung der organischen Schlammfraktion in stofflich und energetisch verwertbare Oele. Bei der Umwandlung entsteht fixer Kohlenstoff, der im festen Rueckstand (Konversionskoks) angereichert wird. Neben dem gewonnenen Oel ist auch der produzierte Koks verwertbar. Einsatzstoffe fuer das Verfahren sind neben Klaerschlamm aus der kommunalen Abwasserreinigung vor allem industrielle Schlaemme mit hohen organischen Anteilen z.B. Schlaemme und Klaerschlaemme aus der Erdoelverarbeitung. (orig.)

  2. Exergoeconomic analysis of the power generation system using blast furnace and coke oven gas in a Brazilian steel mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Modesto; S.A. Nebra [Federal University of ABC, Santo Andre (Brazil). Center of Engineering

    2009-08-15

    The rational use of energy has become a priority for all industries in Brazil, mainly after the energy rationing in 2001. Methodologies to quantify and improve the performance of plants that consume and generate electricity and thermal energy are being used to reach this goal. Exergoeconomic analysis provides a complete diagnosis of a plant, both in exergetic and in monetary values. This study shows the methodology used to assess the power generation system of the Companhia Siderurgica Tubarao (CST). The current system is based on a regenerative Rankine cycle using two gases from steel production - blast furnace gas (BFG) and coke oven gas (COG) - to generate electric power and occasionally steam for the process. Use of the Theory of Exergetic Cost allowed determination of monetary and exergetic costs. Moreover, indicators such as cost variation, relative cost variation, and exergoeconomic factors were calculated to determine the influence of each component in the make-up of plant costs and to find the best way of decreasing generation costs of energy and process steam.

  3. Performance of Electric Double Layer Capacitors using Active Carbons Prepared from Petroleum Coke by KOH and Vapor Re-Etching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The electrochemical storage of energy in a special kind of active carbon materials used as capacitor electrodes isconsidered. Pet roleum coke was used for preparation of carbons with different porosities by KOH and vapor etchingwith catalysis of FeCl3 in turn. Carbon electrodes were fabricated and used as electrodes of double layer capacitors.Nitrogen adsorption was used to characterize the porous structure of the carbons. The electrochemical performanceof the capacitors in 6 mol/L KOH was investigated with constant current charge and discharge experiments. Aspecific capacitance larger than 160 F/g was achieved with an electrode composed of 75% active carbon with aspecific surface area of 1180 m2/g and 20% graphite as conductive agent. Evaluation of capacitor performance wasconducted by different techniques, e.g. voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Characteristics of the capacitorwere also discussed. A hybrid power source consisting of nickel- hydrogen and double layer capacitor was demonstratedby powering successfully a simulated power load encountered in communication equipment.

  4. Contrasting microbial community composition and function perspective in sections of a full-scale coking wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuang; Wu, Haizhen; Wei, Chaohai; Zhou, Lin; Xie, Junting

    2016-01-01

    To characterize the microbial community of the coking wastewater (CWW) treatment system and to study the effects of CWW characteristics and operational parameters on microbial communities, active sludge samples were collected from a full-scale CWW treatment plant using three-phase fluidized bed biological reactors. High-throughput MiSeq sequencing was used to examine the 16S rRNA genes of microbiology, revealing a distinct microbial composition among the active sludge samples of three sequential bioreactors. Pseudomonas, Comamonas, and Thiobacillus-related sequences dominated in the anaerobic bioreactor A, aerobic bioreactor O1, and aerobic bioreactor O2 active sludge with relative abundance of 72.59, 56.75, and 27.82 %, respectively. The physico-chemical characteristics of CWW were analyzed by standard methods and operational parameters were recorded to examine their effects on the microbial communities. The redundancy analysis (RDA) results showed that the bacterial communities of bioreactors A, O1, and O2 correlated strongly with cyanides, phenols, and ammonia, respectively. These results expand the knowledge about the biodiversity and population dynamics of microorganisms and discerned the relationships between bacterial communities and environmental variables in the biological treatment processes in the full-scale CWW treatment system.

  5. Use of Coke Oven Gas during shutdown period of Direct Reduced Iron Plant for Steam Generation: Experimentation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish C. Dalai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of any country is largely based on its magnitude of industrial growth. Steel industries in India took a leading role in the world after mid-sixties. During the last five decades, the steel industries all over the world made considerable developments in new methods for reducing iron ore directly to metallic iron for use as commercial scrap substitute in the manufacture of steels. BSL has been producing steel and other products over last two decades and the above process is used in BSL for one decade. Direct reduction is a process, which extracts high metallic solid iron by removing oxygen from iron ore or any other iron oxides without passing through molten stage, i.e. solid state reduction. The product, so formed is known as directly reduced tron (DRI or Sponge Iron. Due to shortage of raw material or any other problem in DRI sections, the DRI section undergoes a temporary short down. During the shutdown period the equipments tend to be idle. To keep the equipment ready for operation as well as to maintain the plants economy an alternate methodology is used in this research. Various operations are: CO gas from Coke Oven, DRI, Steam Generation, and Power Generation.

  6. Characterization of coke deposited on nano-sized Pt-Pd/H-beta spent during long-chain paraffin hydroisomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F.; Einicke, W.D.; Ficht, K.; Glaeser, R. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Bertmer, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Experimental Physics II; Kuchling, T. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Energy Process Engineering and Chemical Engineering

    2013-11-01

    The hydroisomerization of long-chain n-paraffins were studied in the temperature range 205- 230 C at p{sub H2}=50 bar using a bench scale trickle-bed continuous-flow reactor. The bimetallic catalysts consisted of mixtures of platinum and palladium supported on commercially available nano-sized zeolites Beta (n{sub Si}/n{sub Al} = 12 and 25) extruded with a binder ({gamma}-alumina). For hexadecane conversion, high yields to isomers (25 and 45 wt.% of mono- and multibranched isomers, respectively) without extensive cracking (>10 wt.%) were obtained at a conversion of 80 %. Long-term tests with C{sub 16}H{sub 34} and blends of solid n-paraffins for 30-60 days on stream clearly indicate that a minor loss in catalyst activity can easily be compensated by increasing the reaction temperature from 230 C to 235 C. The zeolite sample with a 'mild acidity' revealed low hydrocracking at isomerization yield up to 70 wt.% and high stability. Carbonaceous deposits formed during n-paraffin hydroisomerization were investigated by temperature-programmed oxidation, elemental analysis, ATR-FTIR and {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectroscopy showing the formation of low-temperature, hydrogen-rich coke. (orig.)

  7. Study on characteristics of co-gasification of biomass and petroleum coke%生物质与石油焦共气化特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许桂英; 孙国刚

    2011-01-01

    在内径为50mm,高约950mm的固定床反应器上对生物质与石油焦共气化特性进行了研究。研究了气化模式、石油焦添加比例、添加方式、粒径大小及气化温度对气化效果及焦油量的影响。结果表明,石油焦可以起到催化裂解生物质焦油的作用。随着氧气的体积分数从2%增加到15%时,气体的热值从5.35MJ/m3降低到2.98MJ/m3。在气化温度为700℃时,四种氧气含量下生物质单独气化时焦油产率平均值为6.4%,气体热值为4.31 MJ/m3;生物质和石油焦混合气化时焦油产率平均值为2.9%,气体热值为5.19 MJ/m3。石油焦的最佳添加比例为1∶1。生物质和石油焦不混掺焦油的产率最大,混掺其次,石油焦提前加入效果最好。随着添加石油焦粒径的增大,石油焦对生物质气化焦油的裂解率逐渐降低。在两种气化模式下,随着气化温度的升高,焦油的产率均逐渐降低。%The gasification experiments of co-gasification of biomass and petroleum coke were conducted in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effect of the gasification mode, mix mode and proportion, particle size of petroleum coke on the tar yield and gas heat value, which was intended to provide the support for the idea of decoupled dual fluidized bed co-gasification of biomass and petroleum coke. The results show that the gas heat value decreases from 5.35 MJ/m3 to 2. 98 MJ/m3 with the increasing of oxygen content from 2% to 15% . The average tar yield is 6.4% , and gas heat value is 4.31 MJ/m3 as biomass is gasified alone at 700 ℃. For the co gasification, the average tar yield is 2. 9% , and gas heat value is 5. 19 MJ/m3. At the temperature of 700 ℃, the best ratio of the petroleum coke to biomass is 1:1 as the oxygen content is 4%. The largest tar yield is produced for the gasification with petroleum coke alone, and the smallest tar yield for the co-gasification with feeding the petroleum coke first

  8. 褐煤与煤直接液化残渣共热解产物半焦性能研究%Properties of semi-coke from co-pyrolysis of lignite and direct liquefaction residue of Shendong coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓红; 马江山; 薛艳利; 李文英

    2015-01-01

    为使煤直接液化残渣得到清洁高效再利用,采用常压固定床反应器,对神东煤直接液化残渣与呼伦贝尔褐煤共热解制取的半焦进行了研究。结合扫描电镜、N2-吸附、X射线衍射、拉曼光谱以及热重分析发现,共热解过程中存在的软化熔融现象导致液化残渣与褐煤相互黏结,共热解半焦比表面积与孔体积减小,半焦结构有序化程度增加。与褐煤单独热解半焦相比,共热解半焦CO2气化反应性能低。%In order to make use of coal direct liquefaction residue efficiently, co-pyrolysis of Hulunbuir lignite and direct liquefaction residue ( DLR) of Shendong coal were conducted in a fixed bed reactor under atmospheric pressure. The physicochemical properties of co-pyrolysis semi-coke were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results show that DLR semi-coke and lignite semi-coke are cohered each other, because the DLR is softened and melted during co-pyrolysis. The specific surface area and pore volume of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decrease. Characterization of both XRD and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the order degree of co-pyrolysis semi-coke increases with the addition of DLR. Compared with the lignite semi-coke, the CO2 gasification reactivity of co-pyrolysis semi-coke decreases.

  9. 中高硫瘦煤配煤炼焦试验及应用研究%Experiment and application of middle and high sulfur lean coal blending coking technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立岗

    2014-01-01

    为扩大炼焦煤资源,降低配煤成本,采用鄂尔多斯盆地南部渭北煤田西部矿区10号煤层的中高硫瘦煤为试验煤样,分析了煤样基本性质,说明其具有高硫、低灰的特点,黏结指数和胶质层厚度较一般瘦煤高,活惰比接近2,黏结性和结焦性较好。通过中高硫瘦煤单独成焦试验、煤岩学模拟配煤、工业焦炉炼焦试验,验证中高硫瘦煤配煤炼焦的可行性,确定中高硫瘦煤配煤炼焦优化方案。结果表明:中高硫瘦煤配煤炼焦可行,应尽量控制中高硫瘦煤配入量在10%以下,多配入强黏结性煤,以提高焦炭的热态强度。中高硫瘦煤配煤炼焦工业应用表明:配入中高硫瘦煤3%~7%可生产出质量合格的焦炭,扩大了炼焦用煤范围,降低了配煤成本。%In order to expand the coking coal resources and reduce the cost of coal blending,taking the middle and high sulfur lean coal as the test sample,which is taken from No. 10 coal seam of western areas of Weibei coalfield in the southern of Erdos Basin.The middle and high sulfur lean coal contains low ash,its bond index and thickness of plastic layer is higher than that of generally lean coal,the inert and alive of petrography is close to 2,and the coking property is well.Through the coking test of middle and high sulfur lean coal,simulated coal blending of coal petrography,industrial coke oven coking test,verify the feasibility and determine the optimizations of middle and high sul-fur lean coal blending coking.The results show that middle and high sulfur lean coal can be used in coal blending for coking,the blending content of middle and high sulfur lean coal should be controlled below 10%,and high content of strong caking index blending coal can en-hance the thermal state index of coke.According to coal blending coking in industrial application of middle and high sulfur lean coal,show that using middle and high sulfur lean coal coking can produce quality

  10. Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis for the Pipe Flanged Jiont with Belleville Spring in Delayed Coking Unit%延迟焦化装置中带碟簧的管法兰接头三维数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董智; 仇性启; 赵宗彬

    2011-01-01

    FEA was used to analyze the force and deformation of coke tower and the pipe in delayed coking unit. Three - dimensional numerical analysis for the pipe flanged joint with belleville spring was carried on to investigate belleville spring's effects on gasket stress under the elevated temperature condition of coking stage. The results of the simulation show that coke tower produces thermal expansion, so induces the bend deformation of pipeline in the coking stage. High temperature's effects on them are more obvious than the pressure's. Proper use of belleville spring is more favourable for maintaining the working stress of gasket of the pipe flanged joint under the condition of elevated temperature.%应用有限元法分析延迟焦化装置中焦炭塔和管道的受力和变形,并针对生焦高温工况,对带有碟形弹簧的管法兰接头进行三维数值模拟,分析碟形弹簧对垫片应力的影响.模拟结果表明,生焦时焦炭塔受高温膨胀,导致管道弯曲变形,而内压对此影响相对要小很多;高温下选用适当的碟形弹簧,有利于维持管法兰接头的垫片工作应力.

  11. Laboratory scale investigation to improve the productivity of stamp charge coke oven through optimisation of bulk density of coal cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Sharma, R.; Banerjee, P.K.; Haldar, S.K. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    In the recent past, it was realised that the gross coke yield was going down as a result of lower oven throughput in the stamp charged batteries of Tata Steel. The basic reason for this being the net reduction in the ash content of the coal blend used due to the incorporation of higher percentage of low ash imported coals and reduction in the ash content of captive coals through washing. The coals having higher ash content improves the bulk density, as the specific gravity of ash is higher than that of pure coal. Moreover, the ash components have affinity for water and pure coal repels water, which in case of pure coal, works against the holding together of the blend. Hence, lower the ash content, less is the bulk density of cake under identical stamping energy and lower the bulk density, less is the oven throughput. In order to maximise the oven throughput and productivity, a study was conducted in the laboratory mainly to assess the effect of various blend constituents and their ash content on the bulk density of coal charge. The effect of ash content on the coal cake stability has also been dealt with. This study, in short, is a useful tool for selecting the right type of coals and designing the optimum blend for stamp charging to achieve maximum throughput and productivity. In addition, studies were also carried out to assess the effect of addition of various binders on coal cake stability at lower moisture level which would also help in achieving higher throughput and productivity.

  12. Leaching of Vanadium From Petroleum Coke by Alkali Solution%从高钒石油焦中碱浸钒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨利群; 张亚莉; 化茜; 于先进

    2013-01-01

    研究了用碱法从氧化后的高钒石油焦中浸出钒,进行了槽浸、柱浸、堆浸试验。试验结果表明:在温度110℃、液固体积质量比6∶1、NaO H质量浓度150 g/L最佳条件下,槽浸钒浸出率为67.89%;在NaO H质量浓度为75 g/L时,槽浸钒浸出率最大为53.76%;在 NaO H 质量浓度为75 g/L时,堆浸钒浸出率最大为47.97%。%Leaching of vanadium from high vanadium oxidized petroleum coke using alkali solution was investigated .The tank-leaching ,column-leaching and heap-leaching tests were conducted .The results show that under the optimal temperature of 110 ℃ ,the ratio between liquid volume and solid mass of 6∶1 ,NaOH concentration of 150 g/L ,the tank-leaching rate of vanadium reaches 67 .89% .Under the condition of NaOH concentration of 75 g/L ,the volumn-leaching rate of vanadium reaches 53 .76% . The heap-leaching rate of vanadium reaches 47 .97% under the NaOH concentration of 75 g/L .

  13. Conversion and reaction kinetics of coke oven gas over a commercial Fe-Mo/Al2O3 catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈一新; 徐贺明; 赵见峰; 王志彦; 王亚涛

    2016-01-01

    Producing methanol from coke oven gas (COG) is one of the important applications of COG. Removal of sulfur from COG is a key step of this process. Conversion and reaction kinetics over a commercial Fe−Mo/Al2O3 catalyst (T-202) were studied in a continuous flow fixed bed reactor under pressures of 1.6−2.8 MPa, space time of 1.32−3.55 s and temperatures of 240−360 °C. Though the COG contains about 0.6 mol/mol H2, hydrogenation of CO and CO2 is not significant on this catalyst. The conversions of unsaturated hydrocarbons depend on their molecular structures. Diolefins and alkynes can be completely hydrogenated even at relatively low temperature and pressure. Olefins, in contrast, can only be progressively hydrogenated with increasing temperature and pressure. The hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of CS2 on this catalyst is easy. Complete conversion of CS2 was observed in the whole range of the conditions used in this work. The original COS in the COG can also be easily converted to a low level. However, its complete HDS is difficult due to the relatively high concentration of CO in the COG and due to the limitation of thermodynamics. H2S can react with unsaturated hydrocarbons to form ethyl mercaptan and thiophene, which are then progressively hydrodesulfurized with increasing temperature and pressure. Based on the experimental observations, reaction kinetic models for the conversion of ethylene and sulfur-containing compounds were proposed; the values of the parameters in the models were obtained by regression of the experimental data.

  14. Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) Processes for Treatment of Coking Wastewater%焦化废水的MBR处理工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国正; 何义亮

    2013-01-01

    针对焦化废水治理难题,将传统生化处理工艺A/A/O改造成A/A/O+MBR组合处理工艺,运行结果表明:A/A/O+MBR组合工艺对NH3-N去除效果好,处理出水NH3-N浓度一般为5~10 mg/L,CODcr浓度为200 mg/L左右,较A/A/O工艺有明显改善和提高;剩余污泥产量为系统改造前的10%左右,大大节约了污泥处理处置成本;MBR膜组件模块化自动控制,简化了操作维护,有效减缓了膜污染.%Advanced treatment for coking wastewater was investigated experimentally by A/A/O+MBR combination treatment process, due to the water quality usually could not meet the discharge standards after conventional biological treatment A/A/O process. The results showed that A/A/O+MBR was more effective than A/A/O process for removing ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and other refractory compounds. The concentration of NH3-N and CODGr after the treatment by A/A/O+MBR process were 5~10 mg/L and 200 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, it was found that the excessive sludge yielded reduced by 10 % relatived to the system before the transformation, which was a significant reduction in the cost of sludge treatment and disposal. Also, modular-automatic control of MBR membrane modules simplified the operation and maintenance, and eliminated the membrane fouling effectively.

  15. Impact of impregnation pressure on desulfurization performance of Zn-based sorbents supported on semi-coke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianrong Zheng; Weiren Bao; Qingmai Jin; Ruiyuan He; Liping Chang; Kechang Xie

    2012-01-01

    High-pressure impregnation,a new preparation method for sorbents to remove H2S from hot coal gas,is introduced in this paper.Semi-coke (SC) and ZnO is selected as the support and active component of sorbent,respectively.The sorbent preparation process includes high-pressure impregnation,filtration,ovendry and calcination.The aim of this research is to primarily study the effects of the impregnation pressure on physical properties and desulfurization ability of the sorbent.The desulfurization experiment was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at 500 ℃ and a simulated coal gas used in this work was composed of CO (33 vol%),H2 (39 vol%),H2S (300 ppm in volume),and N2 (balance).Experimental results show that the pore structure of the SC support can be improved effectively and ZnO active component can be uniformly dispersed on the support,with the small particle size of 10-500 nm.Sorbents prepared using high-pressure impregnation have better desulfurization capacity and their active components have higher utilization rate.P20-ZnSC sorbent,obtained by high-pressure impregnation at 20 atm,has the best desulfurization ability with a sulfur capacity of 7.54 g S/100g sorbent and a breakthrough time of 44 h.Its desulfurization precision and efficiency of removing H2S from the middle temperature gases can reach < 1 ppm and >99.7%,respectively,before sorbent breakthrough.

  16. Study on kinetics of passivated-coke reaction with CO2%钝化焦炭反应动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶勇; 林诚

    2012-01-01

    以硼酸、硼砂、硅酸铝黏土按不同比例(纯硼酸,1∶0∶1,3∶2∶5,2∶1∶7,0∶1∶1,纯硼砂)混合作为钝化剂.研究用不同配比钝化剂钝化后的焦炭与CO2的反应动力学,利用未反应核收缩模型建立相应的动力学关系式,获得不同配比钝化剂钝化后的焦炭与CO2反应的相关动力学参数,并对这些参数以及反应过程中各步骤阻力进行分析.结果表明:钝化焦炭反应符合未反应核收缩模型,钝化剂的作用效果主要体现在内扩散步骤,并且不同钝化剂配比的效果依次为纯硼酸>2∶1∶7>1∶0∶1>3∶2∶5>0∶1∶1>纯硼砂>空白;钝化焦炭反应在开始阶段受界面化学反应和内扩散联合控制,反应一段时间后主要受内扩散控制.%Abstract:Passivators for coke were made of boric acid,borax and aluminium silicate clay in different proportions(bor-icacid,l: 0 : 1,3 : 2 : 5 ,2 : 1 : 7,0 : 1 : 1,borax). The kinetics of the reaction between passivated-coke and C02 was studied by using the shrinking unreacted core model, and a relational expression of reaction kinetics was established. The kinetics parameters of the reaction between coke passivated by using different proportion passivators and CO2 were calculated by the relational expression. The kinetics parameters and resistance in various steps of the reaction process were analyzed. The results show that reaction of passivated-coke with CO2 is consonant with the shrinking unreacted core model. The order of the effects of different passivation on the passivated-coke reaction with CO2 is bo-ricacid >2 : 1: 7 >1 : 0 : 1> 3: 2 - 5 >0 : 1 : 1 > borax >blank and the effect is mainly reflected in the internal diffusion. The passivated-coke reaction with CO2 is controlled by a combination of chemical reaction and internal diffusion in the initial stage. After a period of time,the reaction is mainly controlled by the internal diffusion.

  17. Feasibility of semi coke combustion in industrial pulverized coal boiler%煤粉工业锅炉燃烧兰炭试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛芳

    2015-01-01

    In order to burn semi coke in industrial pulverized coal boiler,taking the semi coke produced by Shaanxi Coal and Chemical In-dustry Group as research object,the pulverized coal combustion test in industrial boiler was conducted. The ignition,stable combustion and after-combustion were investigated. The corresponding reform measures were provided. The results showed that,the unique double-cone structure of the combustor and the mode of dense phase combustion provided favorable conditions for the ignition and stable combustion of semi coke. The blue coke could be ignited and burned stably when the excess air coefficient was 1. 2 and the proportion of primary air,sec-ondary air and tertiary air was 0. 11,0. 47,0. 42,the combustor was preheated for 3 minutes and the semi coke burned with oil for 4 mi-nutes. During combustion,the temperature in the back of furnace remained 550 ℃,while the temperature in the middle was over 800 ℃. In order to lower burning point,improve temperature in the fire area and make semi coke full combustion,the structure and size of combus-tor was adjusted,the preheating time was prolonged.%为提高兰炭在煤粉工业锅炉上的燃烧效率,以陕西煤业化工集团生产的兰炭为原料,进行煤粉工业锅炉燃烧试验,分析了兰炭着火、稳燃、燃烬情况;针对兰炭燃烧过程中存在的问题提出解决方案。结果表明:高效煤粉工业锅炉双锥燃烧器的独特结构和浓相燃烧的方式,为兰炭的着火和稳燃提供了良好条件。在过量空气系数1.2,一、二、三次风比例分别为0.11、0.47、0.42,预热时间3 min,伴燃时间4 min的条件下,实现了兰炭粉的着火和自维持稳定燃烧,燃烧期间后部温度保持在550℃,炉膛中部温度大于800℃。针对兰炭燃烧存在燃烧器内燃点靠后、着火区域温度低和兰炭燃烧不完全等问题,提出可通过调整燃烧室的结构和尺寸,使燃烧器蓄热能力增强,

  18. Study on Catalytic Oxidation Treatment of Coking Wastewater%催化氧化法处理焦化废水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹琳琳; 黄冲; 潘一; 杨双春

    2013-01-01

    As high concentration organic wastewater, coking wastewater is poisonous, harmful and difficult biodegradable. Catalytic oxidation process can decompose organic macromolecular material and reduce coking wastewater toxicity. In this article, research status of catalytic oxidation treatment of coking wastewater was mainly introduced, including electrode catalytic method, electrochemical catalysis method, wet catalytic oxidation, supercritical water oxidation method, catalytic coupling method, titanium dioxide photo catalysis method and ultrasonic collaborative light catalysis, and so on. Various methods were summarized and evaluated. Then, some suggestions of research direction in the future were put forward.%  焦化废水是一种有毒有害、难生物降解的高浓度有机废水,催化氧化法能够分解有机大分子物质、降低焦化废水毒性,近年来国内外学者对其研究较多。介绍了催化氧化法处理焦化废水的研究现状,包括电极催化法、电解催化法、湿式催化氧化法,超临界水氧化法、催化耦合法、二氧化钛光催化法和超声协同光催化等。对各种方法进行了综述和评价,同时对催化氧化法处理焦化废水今后的研究方向提出了建议。

  19. Engineering Practice of Dealing with Ammonia Nitrogen in Coking Wastewater%焦化废水氨氮处理的工程实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚林波

    2012-01-01

    指出了在焦化行业中,氨是在煤干馏的过程中,碳氢代合物热裂解时产生的。针对焦化废水的特点,结合多年的焦化废水设计及运行经验,对于氨氮处理提出了一些见解。其中对好氧池中硝化反应的温度、溶解氧、pH值、抑制性物质和缺氧池中反硝化反应的温度、溶解氧、碳源,提出了一些看法。在生化池中投加特定生物酶,能增强生化池的处理能力和抗冲击能力。%In the coking industry,the ammonia is generated by thermal cracking of hydrocarbon in the process of coal carbonization. Aimingat the characteristics of coking wastewater and combined with years of coking wastewater operating experience, this article puts forward some opinions of the controlling factors for the ammonia treatment,especially for the temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and inhibitory substances of nitra- tion in aerobic tank, and the temperature, dissolved oxygen and carbon source of denitrification in anoxic tank. Besides,the article also propose that dosing a particular bio-enzyme to the biochemical pool can enhance the processing capacity and impact resistance of the biochemical pool.

  20. 我国焦化废水处理工业化技术探讨%Industrial Technology Investigation of Coking Wastewater Treatment in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金学坤

    2016-01-01

    Coking wastewater generated during coal coking process is a kind of refractory organic wastewater, causing serious environmental pollution. The development status of treatment process in domestic was reviewed, a more mature industrial processing technology of flat membrane bioreactor technology, high phenol ammonia wastewater treatment technology of Harbin institute of technology, "yujie dominant bacterium group" biological treatment technology, bio-contact oxidation wastewater treatment system technology, active semi-coke purification treatment technology and gasification utilization technology in its residual ammonia furnace was mainly introduced. In addition, the problems existing in present treatment technology were analyzed, and the development trends were put forward.%焦化废水是煤焦化过程中产生的一种难处理有机废水,造成了严重的环境污染。本文综述了国内处理工艺发展现状,重点介绍了较成熟的工业化处理技术平板膜生物反应器技术、哈工大高酚氨废水处理技术、“宇洁优势菌群”生物处理技术、生物接触氧化系统废水处理技术、活性半焦净化处理技术及剩余氨水炉内气化资源化利用技术。此外,本文分析了现有处理技术存在问题,并提出了其发展趋势。

  1. 电絮凝用于焦化废水脱色的研究%Study on decolorization of coking wastewater by continuous electrocoagulation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垒; 薛改凤; 张楠; 刘尚超; 段爱民; 刘璞

    2011-01-01

    The decolorization and chemical oxygen demand(COD) reduction of coking wastewater has been carried out by electrocoagulation process.In the meanwhile effects of operating parameters,such as current density,pH of solution,electrolyte concentration and hydraulic residence time(HRT) on decolorization by continuous electrocoagulation are further studied in order to optimize process performance.The UV-Vis spectrum data proves that organic pollutants of the coking wastewater can be effectively degraded and decolorized by electrocoagulation.Results show that the effects of electrocoagulation process on the decolorization of the coking wastewater are obvious and up to 91% of color removal efficiency is obtained after 80 min reaction at 25 ℃ with a current density of 30 mA /cm2,a pH of 8.0,an electrode distance of 1.0 cm and a supporting electrolyte concentration of 0.5 g /L.%采用了连续电絮凝工艺对焦化废水进行深度处理,考察了电流密度、溶液pH值、电解质密度和水力停留时间等工艺参数对脱色效率的影响。UV-Vis谱图证实了电絮凝能有效地对有机物进行降解和脱色。结果表明,电絮凝工艺对焦化废水脱色效果明显,当电流密度为30 mA/cm2,pH值为8.0,极板距为1.0 cm,支持电解质浓度为0.5 g/L,在25℃下反应80 min后脱色效率达91%以上。

  2. The dose-response decrease in heart rate variability: any association with the metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke oven workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohai Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiopulmonary mortality and decreased heart rate variability (HRV. However, it is unclear whether coke oven emissions (COEs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are associated with HRV. OBJECTIVES: Our goal in the present study was to investigate the association of exposure to COEs and the urinary metabolite profiles of PAHs with HRV of coke oven workers. METHODS: We measured benzene soluble matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matters, and PAHs at different workplaces of a coke oven plant. We determined 10 urinary PAH metabolites and HRV indices of 1333 workers using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and a 3-channel digital Holter monitor, respectively. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was a significant COEs-related dose-dependent decrease in HRV, and an inverse relationship between the quartiles of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene and five HRV indices (p(trend<0.01 for all. After adjustment for potential confounders, elevation per interquartile range (IQR (1.81 µg/mmol creatinine of urinary 2-hydroxynaphthalene was associated with a 5.46% (95% CI, 2.50-8.32 decrease in standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN. As workers worked more years, SDNN gradually declined in the same quartiles of 2-hydroxynaphthalene levels (p(trend = 1.40×10(-4, especially in workers with the highest levels of 2-hydroxynaphthalene. CONCLUSIONS: Occupational exposure to COEs is associated with a dose-response decrease in HRV. In particular, increased exposure to 2-hydroxynaphthalene is associated with significantly decreased HRV. Increase of working years and exposure levels has resulted in a gradual decline of HRV.

  3. Cytochrome P450 1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chinese coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Tsugane, Shoichiro [Epidemiology and Biostatistics Division, National Cancer Center Research Institute East, 6-5-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, 277-8577 Chiba (Japan); Yamano, Yuko; Kagawa, Jun [Tokyo Womens' Medical University, 8-1 Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, 162-8666 Tokyo (Japan); Pan, Guowei; Zhang, Shujuan [Liaoning Provincial Center for Disease Prevention and Control, 42-1 Jixian Street, 110005 Shenyang (China); Hara, Kunio [Institute for Science of Labour, 2-8-14 Miyamae-ku, 216-8501 Kawasaki (Japan); Ichiba, Masayoshi; Zhang, Jiusong [Saga Medical School, 5-1 Nabeshima, Saga-shi, 849-8501 Saga (Japan); Liu, Tiefu; Li, Landi [Angang Public Health and Anti-epidemic Station Lishan District, 23 Shengoushi Yutian Street, 114034 Anshan (China); Takahashi, Ken [University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, 807-8555 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2002-09-16

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is induced through the Ah receptor and is involved in the activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To determine the validity of a quantitative analysis of CYP1B1 mRNA in peripheral human blood cells for the estimation of PAH exposure, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used to measure the relative levels of CYP1B1 mRNA in 37 Chinese coke oven workers and 13 control workers. A large inter-individual difference in the levels was observed. The average level of the CYP1B1 mRNA in workers at the top work site, where the PAH exposure level from the coke ovens was highest, was significantly higher than in workers at the middle site (P<0.01) or the controls (P=0.02). A non-significant positive correlation was found between the CYP1B1 mRNA levels and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (R=0.22, P=0.13), and a significant correlation between these mRNA levels and urinary cotinine (R=0.33, P=0.02). It was interesting that a significant positive correlation between CYP1B1 mRNA and 1-hydroxypyrene was observed in subjects with the Leu/Leu type of CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism (R=0.33, P=0.02, n=38) and a non-significant correlation in subjects with the Leu/Val and Val/Val types (R=-0.36, P=0.25, n=12), although the number of subjects in this strata analysis was small. Our preliminary study suggests that PAH exposure in coke ovens and smoking maybe associated with CYP1B1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood cells although mRNA is generally unstable and could be expressed following exposure to other agents.

  4. Experimental study on delayed coking process with coal tar pitch%煤焦油沥青延迟焦化工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪彬; 黄新龙; 李节; 刘淑芳

    2012-01-01

    在选定的条件下,对煤焦油沥青进行了延迟焦化工艺试验,结果表明:以煤沥青直接作为焦化进料时,可以获得质量分数为10% ~ 20%的液体产品;以煤沥青混兑蒽油为延迟焦化进料时,其液体收率大幅提高,达到28.89%,同时改善了加热炉进料性质,从而可延长装置的运行周期.由于以煤沥青作为焦化的进料,其所产的焦炭符合石油焦1B的标准,可在炼铝工业中使用,从而提高了煤沥青的附加值,增加了煤焦油加工企业的经济效益.针对煤沥青焦化液体产品性质差的特点,应采用较高氢分压、较高反应温度和较低空速对其进行加氢处理.%The experiment of delayed coking of coal tar pitch has been performed at the selected conditions. The results showed that the liquid product yield of 10% to 20% could be achieved with the feed of coal tar pitch, and it could be greatly increased to 28. 89% with the coal tar pitch feed mixed with anthracene oil. The feed properties of heaters were improved and operating cycle of the unit was extended. As the coal tar pitch was used as the feed of delayed coker, the coke product met the 1B standard for petroleum coke, which could be used in aluminum industry. As the result, the added value of coal tar pitch was raised and the economic benefits of the company were improved. The liquid products from coal tar pitch coking should be hydro-treated at a higher hydrogen partial pressure, higher reactor temperature and lower space velocity because of the low quality.

  5. Discussions on denitration technology for exhaust gas of coke oven battery%焦炉烟气脱硝工艺技术探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良华; 刘杰; 曹银平

    2015-01-01

    介绍了控制焦炉烟气氮氧化物生成的低氮燃烧技术和焦炉烟气脱硝技术,阐述了干法和湿法烟气脱硝技术的适用性和需解决的问题。%This paper introduces the low-nitrogen combustion technology to control NOx generation in exhaust gas of coke oven battery and the denitration technology for exhaust gas,and it also elaborates the applicability of dry denitration and wet denitration method and the problems to be solved.

  6. Experimental Research on Coke Powder Removal From Coker Oils by Mini-Hydrocyclone%焦化油品微旋流脱焦粉实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志明; 杨强; 沈其松; 王剑刚; 阎超; 左鹏; 汪华林

    2012-01-01

    焦化油品(包括焦化汽油、焦化柴油和焦化蜡油等)通常不同程度携带焦粉,20 μm以下焦粉难以脱除,严重影响下游装置正常生产.笔者设计了25 mm液-固微旋流分离器,考察微旋流除焦粉分离性能,并与理论计算值对比.结果表明,微旋流器分离焦粉的分离效率随着流量增加先上升后下降,并存在最优分流比;在进口焦粉颗粒平均粒径为25 μm、流量为0.86 m3/h、分流比为5%时,分离效率在92%以上,分割粒径为6μm,适用于含焦粉焦化油品的分离净化.在旋流器的高效工作区,采用平衡轨道模型和停留时间模型计算的分割粒径值均比较接近实验值,而在小流速时偏差较大.%Coker oils, including coker gasoline, coker gas oil and coker wax oil, generally contain coke powder to some extent. Coke powder with diameter below 20 jum is rather difficult to be removed from coker oils, which will severely affect normal operation of downstream plant. A mini-hydrocyclone with 25 mm diameter was designed, and the separation performance of the hydrocyclone in coke powder removal from tap water was experimentally investigated and compared with the theoretical values. Results showed that the separation efficiency of the mini-hydrocyclone increased with inlet flow rate increasing, and then decreased after increasing to a sufficient value. There existed an optimal flow ratio. Under the inlet average particle size of 25 um, flow rate of 0. 86 m3/h and flow ratio of 5%, the separation efficiency was over 92%, and cut size was 6 um, being suitable for separation and purification of coker oils containing coke powder. In highly effective operation range of the hydrocyclone, the values of cut size predicted by both equilibrium orbit model and residence time model were comparatively close to the experimental value, but had large errors in low flow rate range.

  7. Development of scientific and technological bases for application of brown coal semi coke in the technology of non- milled silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, A. E.; Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Nozdrin, E. V.; Galevsky, S. G.

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics is investigated, and the optimum temperature and time modes of carbonization of a briquetted silica fume batch- brown coal semi coke are defined. The complete carbonization of the batch in the conditions of heat treatment is achieved at a temperature of 1923 - 1973 K within 15 - 20 minutes. The conditions and indicators of the chemical enrichment of carbonization products are established. After enrichment, the carbide content is more than 90%. Silicon carbide micro-powder is obtained with a specific surface area 8000 - 9000 m2/kg.

  8. Improving coke thermal property and ensuring the blast furnace to operate stably%通过提升焦炭热态性能确保高炉稳定顺行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任培兵; 任雁; 刘玉

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the coke thermal property is expounded,and the impacts of alkali metal,al-kali-earth metal,zinc,lead and chloride on the coke thermal property are analyzed.Furthermore,some measurements are proposed like improving the coke thermal property and standardizing the operation of blast furnace,which will be instructive for the blast furnace to operate stably and trouble-freely.%阐述了焦炭的热态性能,分析了碱金属、碱土金属、锌、铅、氯化物对焦炭热态性能的影响。提出了提升焦炭热态性能、规范高炉操作等措施,对高炉稳定顺行具有一定的指导意义。

  9. 半水煤气发生炉掺烧型焦的生产实践%Production Practice of Mixed Burning Coke in Semi Water Gas Producer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念吉红

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces the situation of using the method of the type of burning coke in the synthesis of 100 000 t/a ammonia synthesized gas.The coke production capacity,gas composition and gas composition of the mixture were significantly different compared with that of pure coke gas,and it had no effect on the whole synthetic ammonia system,and has certain economic benefits.%介绍了10万 t/a 合成氨气化装置采用型焦掺烧方式进行制气的情况。掺烧型焦产气能力、气体成分等指标与纯焦炭制气相比显著没有差异,对整个合成氨系统不会造成影响,且具有一定的经济效益。

  10. Reform Practice and Benefit Analysis on Flue Gas Waste Heat Recovery Project of Coke Oven%焦炉烟道废气余热回收项目改造实践及效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志强

    2015-01-01

    文章结合山西金桃园煤焦化集团有限公司的实际运行情况,分析焦炉烟道废气余热回收改造实践及效益,为众多焦化企业实现节能降耗提供参考。%In this paper, the author combin with the actual operation of Shanxi Jintaoyuan Coking Group Co., Ltd., It ana-lyzes coke oven flue gas waste heat recovery and the practice of rebuilding of benefit, provides the reference for the numer-ous coking enterprises to achieve energy saving.

  11. Effects of Coke Deposits on the Catalytic Performance of Large Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals during Alcohol-to-Hydrocarbons Reactions as Investigated by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Emily Catherine; Borodina, Elena; Ruiz-Martínez, Javier;

    2015-01-01

    single crystal UV/Vis and confocal fluorescence micro-spectroscopy, allowing the observation of the spatiotemporal formation of intermediates and coke species during the MTO and ETO conversions. It was observed that rapid deactivation at elevated temperatures was due to the fast formation of aromatics...... at the periphery of the H-ZSM-5 crystals, which are transformed into more poly-aromatic coke species at the external surface, preventing the diffusion of reactants and products into and out of the H-ZSM-5 crystal. Furthermore, we were able to correlate the operando UV/Vis spectroscopy results observed during......The catalytic activity of large zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals in methanol (MTO) and ethanol-to-olefins (ETO) conversions was investigated and, using operando UV/Vis measurements, the catalytic activity and deactivation was correlated with the formation of coke. These findings were related to in situ...

  12. Emission Control on № 5 & 6 Coke Oven Batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex%邯钢5、6号焦炉的烟尘治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡汉; 许波; 吴云强

    2001-01-01

    The process of emission control on № 5 & 6 coke oven batteries of Handan Iron & Steel Complex is introduced, and the control mode, software feature, problems occurred in production and improving method for automatic control system of coke oven emission control are described.%介绍了邯钢5、6号焦炉烟尘的治理工艺及其自动控制系统的控制方式、软件特点、生产中出现的问题及改进方法。

  13. The protection effect of garlic on biological membrane and on cellular immunity in workers exposed to coke oven volatiles%大蒜对锅炉工生物膜和细胞免疫的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ The workers exposed to coke oven volatile are the risk population of occupational lung cancer than genera population. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs),a component of coke oven volatile (COE), are the species considered to be the responsible for this high risk of occupational lung cancer. One of most important mechanism of occupational lung cancer induced by PAHs is believed to be due to the accumulation of free radicals associated with COV and subsequent biological member injury caused by free radical reaction as well as decrease in cell immunity. Garlic is the consumed vegetable with a variety of medical functions.

  14. Evaluation of the productive development of Melipona scutellaris beehives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela de Lima Alves

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stingless beekeeping has drawn the general attention of beekeepers because of the easy management and the quality of products. Nevertheless, little is known about their production and biology. The present study evaluated the development of Melipona scutellaris hives, considering the production parameters in a beekeeping environment. The growth parameter of hives is food storage. In the case of M. scutellaris, storage is made inside beeswax pots. Therefore, beeswax pots in the hives were classified and counted as nectar pots, pollen pots, open pots, closed pots and empty pots. Hive dimensions were also taken and evaluated. The results indicated that hives show different amounts of pots that vary as a function of the number of individuals in the hive. It was confirmed that the availability of food resources determines the utilization of food storage, i.e., if there is resource limitation and foraging is compromised, bees utilize the food that is stored inside the pots.

  15. Combustion Simulation and Quick-freeze Observation of a Cupola-furnace Process Using a Bio-coke Fuel Based on Tea Scum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kazuyoshi; Murata, Hirotoshi; Kuwana, Kazunori; Mizuno, Satoru; Morita, Akihiro; Ida, Tamio

    Global environment problems have become more and more serious in recent years, and reduction of greenhouse gas emission based on Kyoto Protocol adopted at the 3rd conference of the parties of the United nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3); securement of primary energy source and development of clean and renewable energy sources have been pressingly needed in consideration of the predicted depletion of fossil fuel in the future. In this study, we explore the use of a solidified biomass-derived fuel, having the maximum compressive strength of 100MPa and calorific value of 21MJ/kg, in iron-casting or iron-making processes as an alternative fuel to be mixed with coal coke. This study, carried out for internal observation using a quick-freeze technique, observed an actual working cupola furnace under the 20% alternative coal coke operation condition. After quick freeze of the cupola furnace, the solidified biomass fuel was found to inhabit near the iron-melting zone. Especially, this solidified biomass fuel smoothly changes carbonized fuel through high-density state during the operating process. On the other hand, this study tried to simulate gasification combustion under a high temperature environment instead of actual internal combustion of solidified biomass fuel. These combustion mechanisms were confirmed to be similar to diffusion-flame phenomena in general.

  16. 7m焦炉煤塔授煤控制系统改造%Transformation of the Control System for the Coal Tower of Coking Oven

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙光辉

    2014-01-01

    The application performance of coal receiving control system of the coal tower at the 7m top charging coke oven in Tongling Xinyaxing Coking is introduced. The abnormal shutdowns and failures caused by defects of electrical components at the coal tower mouth were analyzed in detail. The original control system was modified by adopting PLC combining with industrial wireless Ethernet technology, which has greatly enhanced the operation safety of the coal tower equipment such as the charging cars and improved production efficiency.%介绍了7m顶装焦炉煤塔授煤控制系统在铜陵新亚星焦化厂的应用情况,对煤塔漏嘴电气元件缺陷造成异常停机和事故进行了详细的分析,采用PLC结合工业无线以太网技术对原控制系统进行改造,大大增强了煤塔及装煤车等设备在运行过程中的安全性能,提高了生产效率。

  17. An experimental study on coking wastewater pretreatment by ozone oxidation%臭氧氧化法预处理焦化废水的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福勤; 牛红兰; 裴浩; 安晓婵; 付先龙; 李硕

    2011-01-01

    为了提高焦化废水的可生化性,对焦化废水进行了臭氧氧化预处理的试验研究.结果表明:当废水初始pH值为9,气水反应时间为3 min,臭氧投加量为30 mg/L时,废水m(BOD5)/m(CODCr)值由原水的0.068提高到0.281.臭氧用于焦化废水的预处理是可行的,有利于焦化废水的后续生化处理.%In order to improve the biodegradability of coking wastewater, ozone oxidation was used for its pretreatment. The results of the test showed that: when the initial pH value of the wastewater was 9, the ozone-water contact time was 3 min, the ozone dosage was 30 mg/L, the m(B0D5)/m(C0DCr) value increased from 0.068 to 0.281. It could be seen that, the application of ozone in coking wastewater pretreatment was feasible and of benefit to the subsequent biochemical treatment.

  18. The importance of new delayed coking units in he fuel market; A importancia das novas unidade de coqueamento retardado no mercado de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Fabricia S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos 13; Seidl, Peter R.; Guimaraes, Maria Jose O.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The increase in production of heavier oils and the recent changes in the demand for petroleum derivatives requires modifications in refining schemes of Brazilian refineries, which were originally projected for processing light oils and production of mainly gasoline by fluid catalytic cracking units. This is necessary because forecasts indicate a larger increase in demand for diesel oil instead of gasoline. These same forecasts reveal an expressive reduction in the demand for fuel oil, which still is produced in large amounts in Brazilian refineries due to the quality of the oils from local fields that are processed. The current challenge for the local oil industry is to adapt the present refineries to produce more valuable derivatives from heavy oils. For this purpose, PETROBRAS is investing in the construction of conversion units with technology for processing heavier feeds, especially in the Delayed Coking process. This work has as an objective to identify the importance of the delayed coke units in the current scenario of the oil industry, highlighting the main investments in construction of new units and evaluating the impact of the existing units on the market for petroleum derivatives. (author)

  19. Aapplication of Activated Coke in Flue Gas Purification%活性焦在烟气净化中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李盼宋; 李建军; 张序; 贺尧祖; 余洋

    2016-01-01

    活性焦烟气净化技术具有流程简单、投资少、无二次污染等特点,很好地顺应了目前国家发展循环性经济、推广产物可资源化、干法节水和高性能的环保技术的现状。文章分析了活性焦烟气净化的机理、流程及影响其净化效率的因素,提出活性焦烟气净化技术作为目前比较前卫的烟气净化技术,具有广阔的应用前景。%With simple process, less investment and no secondary pollution etc,the flue gas purification technology used of activated coke was well complied with the countries’present situation, needing to develop circular economy and promoting environmental protection technology that whose product could recycle, saving water and high performance. The mechanism, process and factors which affected its purification efficiency of these technology were analyzed. It was found that flue gas purification technology used of activated coke as currently compares halfback flue gas purification technology had broad application prospects.

  20. Applicability of a dense-medium cyclone and Vorsyl separator for upgrading non-coking coal fines for use as a blast furnace injection fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.K. Majumder; H. Shah; S. Choubey; J.P. Barnwal; A.K. Kundu; P.S. Dhillon [Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute, Bhopal (India)

    2009-01-15

    Replacement of metallurgical coke by high injection rates of thermal coal into the blast furnace is an important technology as it reduces the cost of hot metals significantly. However, one of the main problems that prevents the use of thermal coals is their high mineral-matter contents. Although, the ash content of coals to be injected in a blast furnace should be as low as possible, a maximum of 16% ash is acceptable. A non-coking coal sample from Chhattisgarh area, India, having a feed ash content of around 27% was collected for beneficiation studies to a grade acceptable for the injection purposes. A series of experiments were conducted in a 76-mm diameter dense-medium cyclone (DMC) and a Vorsyl separator (VS). It is observed that a clean coal having around 16% ash can be produced using both the cyclones if the variables are properly optimized. Further, it is observed that at the same ash level the yield of clean coal was 5%-6% more in VS than in DMC. It has also been demonstrated that at the same ash level, the magnetite medium stability in a VS was better than a DMC. 4 refs.

  1. Application of the salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Fagioli, F.; Viola, V.

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on pitch and coke and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity (benzene, chloroform, methanol and acetone). The results showed: (a) the presence of extraordinarily high PAH (carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic) contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch (3.6 wt% of total PAH) and of airborne particulate samples (up to 0.35 wt% of total PAH), in correlation with very high indirect mutagenic responses of benzene extracts; (b) very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; (c) the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutagens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  2. Assessment of industrial operation at low coke rate and coal injection in excess of 220 kg/tHM. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, D.; Godijn, R. [IRSID, Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    2002-07-01

    High coal injection rates have been achieved on several blast furnaces, but only for limited periods. The aim of this project was to establish the required conditions for achieving very low coke rates (greater than 300 kg/tHM) and coal rate in excess of 220 kg/tHM, under long-term industrial conditions. But despite some improvement in the coke and coal ratio ratios, the search for safe operation, on the one hand, and some technological problems, on the other, did not enable the initial objectives to be reached. Despite this result, various studies undertaken during the course of the project produced some interesting conclusions related to the search for high coal rate operation. These studies dealt with: the comparison of the burden at both plants; the way to promote coal combustion; evaluation of the thermo-chemical conditions of the shaft at coal rates around 18 kg/tHM; monitoring the evolution in time of the hearth ocnditions at high coal injection practice; the blast furnace process at high coal injection rate.

  3. 焦化废水中溶解性有机物组分的特征分析%Composition characterization of dissolved organic matters in coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万辉; 韦朝海; 晏波; 任曼; 彭平安

    2012-01-01

    Coking wastewater is the representative wastewater containing various organic pollutants.In order to ascertain the composition,XAD-8 resin was applied to concentrate and isolate the organic compounds in coking wastewater.Dissolved organic matter in coking wastewater was fractionated into four different fractions: hydrophobic acids(HOA),hydrophobic bases(HOB),hydrophobic neutrals(HON) and hydrophilic substances(HIS).Thereafter,the dissolved organic carbon(DOC),ultraviolet-visible(UV) absorption spectroscopy,chroma and the organic component were determined.The DOC values of HIS and HOA showed these two were the main fractions of DOM,comprising 44.3% and 32.4% of the total sample.The characteristic absorption wavelength of coking wastewaater ranged from 200 nm to 250 nm and 300 nm to 400 nm,and the intension order was HISHOAHONHOB.The chroma of coking wastewater was composed of HOA and HON,and their absorbance at 525 nm and 436 nm contributed 42.9%,42.1% and 21.4%,15.8% of the total.The dominant compounds were aniline,phenol,quinoline and isoquinoline for HIS,various alkyl phenols for HOA,aniline bases and polycyclic nitrogen-containing aromatics for HOB and indole with its ramifications for HON.%焦化废水是典型的具有复杂有机质的工业废水,其复杂的有机构成制约了水处理的水质达标,且可能对排入水体构成危害.为了探明其溶解性有机物的组成,采用XAD-8大孔树脂将焦化废水中的溶解性有机物分为亲水性组分(HIS)、疏水酸性组分(HOA)、疏水碱性组分(HOB)和疏水中性组分(HON),分析了各组分的溶解性有机物(DOC)、紫外-可见光谱、色度,并采用GC/MS对各组分中有机物进行定性分析.结果表明,焦化废水中的有机物主要为HIS和HOA组分,其DOC含量分别占总DOC的44.3%和32.4%;焦化废水在200—250 nm和300—400 nm范围内有特征吸收峰,且吸收光强度顺序为HIS〉HOA〉HON〉HOB;焦化废水

  4. Microstructural analysis and the mechanism if the coke formation in a refractory castable used in a fluidized catalytic cracking unit; Analise microestructural e mecanismo de formacao do coque em um concreto refratario utilizado em unidades de craqueamento catalitico fludizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Rodrigues, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (GEMM/UFSCAR), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais], Email: marcelodezena@gmail.com; Medeiros, J. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Toledo Filho, R.D. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Estruturas e Materiais

    2010-07-01

    The cokes formation in the refractory castables for FCC's unit is cited as one the most relevant problem in the internal face of the petrochemical Riser, but its mechanism is still unknown. In this sense, was made a microstructural study with a anti-erosive refractory castable class C, exposed to a cokemaker atmosphere, aiming to identify a mechanism to explain the coke's formation. For this reason, test samples were molded and subjected to a cokemaker process in the reactor pilot from CENPES-PETROBRAS-RJ, under an atmosphere of propene, as one temperature of 540 deg C and soaking time ranging between 10 and 480h. These samples had their internal and surface microstructures analyzed by Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The results showed that the aggregates had deterioration and your internal pores were filled with coke. In this point, starts the growth of microspheres of coke on the external face, coalescing and forming 'columns' in which become denser when increasing the exposure time to a saturated atmosphere with hydrocarbon. (author)

  5. Effects of Coke Deposits on the Catalytic Performance of Large Zeolite H-ZSM-5 Crystals during Alcohol-to-Hydrocarbon Reactions as Investigated by a Combination of Optical Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordvang, Emily C.; Borodina, Elena; Ruiz-Martinez, Javier; Fehrmann, Rasmus; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic activity of large zeolite H-ZSM-5 crystals in methanol (MTO) and ethanol-to-olefins (ETO) conversions was investigated and, using operando UV/Vis measurements, the catalytic activity and deactivation was correlated with the formation of coke. These findings were related to in situ sing

  6. 煤沥青对不同变质程度煤成焦性能的影响%EFFECT OF COAL TAR PITCH ON THE COKING PERFORMANCES FROM DIFFERENT RANK OF COALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永建; 许德平; 王永刚

    2013-01-01

    To study the co-carbonization between coal tar pitch and different rank of coal, experiments of charring between 5% and 10% of coal tar pitch and coals were studied, which were test in coke oven of 40 kg. The results showed that, the microstructures of cokes charred from different rank of coals and coal tar pitch were different. The pitch increased the Optical Texture Index (OTI) of the coke from low rank of coals and high rank of coals, and had little effect on that from middle rank of coals. The mechanical behaviors of cokes charred from different rank of coals and coal tar pitch were also different. The cokes from low rank of coals had high mechanical strength because of obviously dissolution; the cokes from middle rank of coals had little effect with pitch; however, the pitch obviously improves the mechanical capacities and thermal properties of the coke charred from high rank of coals.%为了考察煤沥青与不同变质程度煤的共炭化特性,利用40 kg小焦炉模拟炼焦试验,进行了单种煤5%与10%的煤沥青添加的各煤种的炭化研究.研究结果表明,沥青对不同变质程度煤生成焦炭的显微结构影响不同,对低变质程度的中低黏结性煤,增加了焦炭光学组织指数OTI;对黏结组分充足的中等变质程度煤的OTI影响较小;对高变质程度煤OTI影响显著.沥青对不同变质程度煤生成焦炭的机械性能影响不同.对低变质程度的中低黏结性煤,溶解作用较明显,对机械强度有较大改善;对黏结组分充足的中等变质程度煤的成焦性能影响较小;对高变质程度煤成焦性能影响最为明显,可显著改善焦炭机械性能和热性质.

  7. 乙醇脱水制乙烯中亚微米ZSM-5分子筛催化剂的积碳研究%Coking Behavior of Submicron ZSM-5 Zeolite Catalyst in Dehydration of Ethanol to Ethylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 罗漫; 肖文德; 程晓维; 龙英才

    2011-01-01

    Reactions and coking behaviors of ethanol, diethyl ether or ethylene on a submicron ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst, which was used in dehydration of ethanol to ethylene, were studied in a fixbed reactor. The coking behavior and the dehydration mechanism were analyzed by means of TG, N2 adsorption-desorption techniques, pyridine adsorption FTIR and 13C NMR. Experimental results showed that diethyl ether was an intermediate of the ethanol dehydration to ethylene and that ethylene oligomerization was responsible for the coke formation. The coke might consist mainly of alkyl aromatics and the coke deposition rate was correlated to the olefin content and the water content in the reaction mixture. The coke deposition rate on the ZSM-5 zeolite catalyst lowered in the following order: ethylene > ethylene and water > diethyl ether > ethanol, which were used as feeds separately.After 100 h on stream, the coke deposits blocked more than 70% of the catalyst pores, and consumed more than 80% of acid sites on the catalyst, which caused a loss of catalyst activity.%在固定床反应器中研究了乙醇脱水反应中亚微米ZSM-5分子筛催化剂上乙醇、乙醚和乙烯的反应及积碳行为,采用TG、低温氮气吸附-脱附、吡啶吸附红外光谱和13C NMR等方法对催化剂进行了表征,以考察分子筛催化剂的积碳行为及乙醇脱水反应机理.实验结果表明,乙醚是乙醇脱水生成乙烯的中间体,而乙烯低聚是积碳的主要来源;积碳的主要组成可能是烷基芳烃,而积碳速率与反应混合物中的烯烃含量及水含量有关,ZSM-5分子筛催化剂上各物质积碳速率由快到慢的顺序:乙烯>乙烯+水>乙醚>乙醇;在线反应100h后,积碳堵塞了70%以上的催化剂孔道,并且消耗了80%以上的催化剂酸中心,因而导致催化剂活性有所降低.

  8. 氢氩等离子体热解煤焦油制乙炔结焦机理分析∗%Coking mechanism during thermal plasma pyrolysis of coal tar to acetylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轩; 程炎; 韩建涛; 郭屹; 颜彬航; 程易

    2015-01-01

    氢氩等离子体热解煤焦油在反应过程中产生的结焦物,主要是由气态碳气相沉积和煤焦油缩聚反应产生的。分析表明,结焦物在不同的操作条件下性质具有较大差异,结焦物中的各元素含量和平均粒径也会随着反应条件的变化而出现差异,碳纳米纤维状的结焦物主要在低氢气浓度和低输入比焓条件下产生;片状和球状结焦物主要在高氢气浓度和高输入比焓下产生;结焦物的石墨化程度随着反应气氛中氢气浓度增加而减弱。煤焦油反应过程中的转化程度越高结焦越严重,控制反应温度和提高气相反应中的氢浓度越可以控制反应过程中的结焦。%The coking products are generated by vapor deposition of gaseous carbon and coal tar condensation reactions during the reaction process of thermal plasma pyrolysis of coal tar to a-cetylene. The analysis results indicated that coking products generated at different conditions which showed various characteristics,structures and average particle size,such as coking materi-als of carbon nanofibers were generated at low hydrogen concentration and low coal tar specific enthalpy;plate-shaped and globular-shaped particles were generated at high hydrogen concentra-tion and high coal tar specific enthalpy. The graphitization degree of coking materials decreased at high hydrogen concentration in the plasma working gas. The higher coal tar conversion results in the higher coking degrees. The higher coal tar conversion resulted in the higher coking degrees. The cokes could be reduced by adj usting suitable reaction temperature and increasing hydrogen concentration.

  9. Coking Mechanism During the Process of Acetylene Preparation from Coal Pyrolysis in Hydrogen Plasma%氢等离子体裂解煤制乙炔结焦物形成机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方世东; 李绪奇; 赵颖; 陈龙威; 沈洁; 孟月东

    2013-01-01

    For further understanding the mechanism of coking,we analyzed coke samples at the mixing section,the first reaction section,and the second reaction section of a reactor by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that the micro structural aspects and the degree of graphitization of the cokes at different locations were different.The coke samples at the mixing section were dominated by carbon nanotubes and carbon microbeads,with the highest degree of graphitization among the three sections; at the first reaction section,the particles of carbon microbeads in sample were relatively coarse,and the degree of graphitization was relatively high; and at the second reaction section,the coke samples contained carbon black particles,but the degree of their graphitization was relatively low.In combination with chemical equilibrium theoretical analysis,it was speculated that the cause of different cokes was that the pyrolysis product had undergone different ways of formation of carbon deposits.The coal powder particles,gaseous carbon,solid-state carbon,and ionic carbon at the mixing section were on the wall surface; the effect of vapor deposition of gaseous carbon at the first reaction section on the coke on wall surface increased; the coke at the second reaction section took place in the form of solid-state adsorption.By conducting pyrolysis of coal with two different kinds of volatiles,it was found that the coking of the coal with high volatiles content was severe.In order to reduce or inhibit coke formation,low volatile coal should be adopted.%为研究氢等离子体裂解煤制乙炔过程中的结焦物形成机理,用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)对反应器内混合段和反应段结焦物进行了分析.结果表明不同位置的结焦物形貌和石墨化程度不同:混合段结焦物以碳纳米管和碳微球为主,石墨化程度最高;第一反应段结焦物中碳微球颗粒较大,石墨化程度较高;

  10. 煤气化黑水作为石油焦浆稳定剂的实验研究%Experimental study on black water of coal gasification as stabilizer of petroleum coke-water slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾嘉; 展秀丽; 周志杰; 王辅臣

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum coke has higher calorific value and lower price compared with coal. It has great advantages that petroleum coke-water slurry is used to prepare syngas. The first step of gasification with petroleum coke-water slurry is to prepare the coke-water slurry. With chilling black water of coal gasification as stabilizer of petroleum coke-water slurry, it can not only save the cost of stabilizer, but also resolve the problems of treating black water and environmental pollution. The way of producing petroleum coke-water slurry is dry grinding and humid mixing; the adding ratio of black water to deionized water is gradually increased; and the viscosity of the slurry was determined when the shear rate was 100 s-1. The liquidity and stable time of the slurry were observed. The effect of black water as stabilizer on the slurry properties of petroleum coke-water was investigated. The results show that black water can effectively improve the stability and yield stress of petroleum coke-water slurry. Petroleum coke added with black water can produce the coke-water slurry with solid mass fraction as high as 73% , and its stability, viscosity and liquidity can satisfy the demand of slurry for gasification in industry.%石油焦比煤具有更高的热值,同时价格低廉,利用石油焦浆气化制备合成气具有很大的优势.石油焦浆气化的第1步是制备水焦浆,采用煤气化黑水作为石油焦浆的稳定剂,不仅节约了稳定剂的成本,还解决了黑水的处理和对环境的污染问题.文中通过逐步提高石油焦浆制备过程中黑水与去离子水的添加比例,采用干磨湿混的方式制浆,测定了石油焦浆在剪切应力为100 s-1时的黏度,并观察其流动性及稳定时间等各项指标,考察了黑水对石油焦浆稳定性的影响.结果表明:黑水能够有效提高石油焦浆的稳定性,提高屈服应力.石油焦添加黑水最高可制备出固体颗粒质量分数为73%的水焦浆,其稳定性和

  11. 焦化酚氰废水深度处理工艺的改进%Improvement of Coking Phenol Cyanogen Wastewater Advanced Treatment Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竹英

    2015-01-01

    焦化废水中含有大量的氨氮、酚类及油分物质,其中以酚氰类化合物为主。由于浓度高,有毒及生物抑制性物质较多,成分复杂,生化处理难以实现有机污染物的完全降解,对环境造成了严重污染,随着环保工作要求的逐年提高,酚氰废水的处理效果问题愈发凸显。本文针对目前焦化行业水处理现状,对国内焦化废水处理与利用情况进行了调研,采用新技术“初级电催化氧化+中和曝气池+强化沉淀池+二级电催化氧化+电絮凝+电气浮+超滤系统+反渗透系统”的工艺进行深度处理回用,经过生产实践,取得了良好的社会和经济效益。%Coking wastewater contains large amounts of ammonia nitrogen,phenols an d oil content material, which is given priority to with phenol cyanogen compounds.Because of high concentration,the toxic and biological inhibitory substances are more,composition is complex,biochemical treatment is difficult to realize the complete deg-radation of organic pollutants,it causes serious pollution to the environment,as the requirement of environmental pro-tection increase year by year,phenol cyanogen waste water treatment effect problem is increasingly protruding.In view of the present situation of coking industry water treatment,domestic coking wastewater treatment and utilization for the research,adopt new technology primary electric catalytic oxidation +neutralization aeration tank +strengthen sedimentation basin +secondary electric catalytic oxidation +electric flocculation tank +electric floating +ultra-filtration system +reverse osmosis system for advanced treatment and recycling.Through production practice,it a-chieves good social and economic benefits.

  12. Determination of Minor Elements in Petroleum Coke by X-ray Fluoresence Spectrometry%石油焦微量元素XRF测定方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马慧侠

    2012-01-01

    研究了石油焦(生焦和煅后焦)样品压片法制样的条件,确定了压片法使用的粘结剂,制定了利用X射线荧光光谱仪测定石油焦中微量和痕量元素的方法。选用PC和GPW系列标准样品,采用仪器软件SuperQ中提供的飞利浦模式的经验系数(Classic)和铑(Rh)靶康普顿散射线内标法校正元素间的谱线重叠干扰和基体效应,通过充分研磨样品消除颗粒效应。使用Magix(PW2403)X射线荧光光谱仪对样品中的Na、Mg、Al、Si、P、S、Cl、K、Ca、Ba、Ti、V、Cr、Mn、Fe、Ni、Cu、和Zn共18个元素进行测定,11次测定的相对标准偏差小于10%,用PC和GPW标准样品验证,测量结果与标准值的误差在化学分析允许差范围内。%Conditions of pressed powder pellet of petroleum coke samples for XRFS analysis were studied,Determined pressed powder pellet of using binder,A methed has been Developed using XRF Determination of minor and trace elements in petroleum coke.Selected PC and GPW serial standard samples,The interelement and matrix effects were corrected by using empirical alpha(α)coefficient program(Classic)provided by the SuperQ software and by using RhK compton scattered line as internal standard.Determination Na,Mg,Al,Si,P,S,Cl,K,Ca,Ba,Ti,V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Cu and Zn using XRF(Magix PW2403).The precision of the mehtod has been examined by analyzing a petroleum coke sample 11 times,The relative standard deviations(RSD)obtained for those elements were less than 10%.The accuracy of the method has been evaluated by analyzing PC and GPW standard reference samples,the discrepancies between the results obtioned by the present method and the certified values were within the allowable range of chemical analysis.

  13. The Introduction of ATR Instrumentation Design in the Methanol Plant Based on Coke-oven Gas%焦炉气制甲醇装置中ATR仪表设计浅谈

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余博

    2011-01-01

    焦炉气是炼焦过程的副产品,除部分返回炼焦炉用作加热燃料外,剩余的气体主要用作城市居民的燃料气,也有相当数量通过火炬燃烧放空.随着国家节能减排的深入,利用焦炉气制甲醇一方面减少对大气CO2的排放,另一方面还可以产生经济效益.开发了纯氧部分氧化制合成气的技术,在焦炉气制甲醇装置中采取ATR技术,其主要包括仪表选型、复杂控制及联锁逻辑三方面的内容.合理的设计实现对装置的工艺过程实时监控、设备的安全运行,提高工艺气转化率.%The coke oven gas is the by-product in coking process and is flammable.Partial coke oven gas returns to coke burner as heating fuel, the surplus gas is largely applied as urban fuel gas, and quite a lot is vented to flare stack.With the support from the state for energy-saving and pollution-reducing project, the methanol project based on coke oven gas is a favorble option: it can reduce CO2 emmission and also yield economic benefit.After years' exploration and research, a synthetic gas production technology by the partial oxidation of pure oxygen has been developed, therefore ATR technology will be widely applied in this process.Instrumentation design plays an important role in application of ATR technology.

  14. The application of coke performance prediction of Kunming steel using coking coals blending methods of fuzzy sets metrics%模糊集合度量配煤方法在昆钢焦炭性能预测的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学梅; 程实; 魏亚玲; 李东; 张昆华

    2015-01-01

    利用模糊集合配煤方法处理实测的镜质组数值型反射率分布和活惰比数据,可先计算配合煤 PSI 和 PCBI 两个集合中的所有元素,再计算 SI 和 CBI 两个数值。用剩余标准差推定完全二次二元二项式回归方程为最佳回归方程,以 SI、CBI 为自变量,用相对应的焦炭反应性 CRI、焦炭反应后强度 CSR、焦炭抗碎强度 M 40和焦炭耐磨强度 M 10进行回归分析,利用 MATLAB 软件绘制其相应的可视曲面和等值曲线,并预测焦炭性能。将预测值和实测值进行比较,吻合度较高,说明模糊集合配煤方法对焦炭性能的预测有一定的可靠性。%Treating vitrinite numeric reflectance distribution and ratio of reactive component and inertinite by coking coals blending methods of fuzzy sets metrics, all the elements in Pseudo-Strength Index (PSI) and Pseudo-Composition Balance Index (PCBI) of blending coal could be calculated, and then, Strength Index (SI) and Composition Balance Index (CBI) could be calculated.By using residual standard deviation, we can know the binary quadratic binomial expression is the best regression equation, taking SI、CBI as the independent variables, and using corresponding coke properties such as CRI, CSR, M40 and M10, the regression analysis was done.Use the MATLAB to make the corresponding visual surface and contour curves and then, predict the coke performance.The Predicted and actual values were compared, we can find that the goodness of fit was relatively high, so it was demonstrated that the fuzzy sets metrics is reliable for prediction of coke performance.

  15. 硫磺回收装置的腐蚀及防护措施%Corrosion of Equipment in Sulfur Recovery of Coke Oven Gas Unit and Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯江华; 李慧敏; 张继明; 张方

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of coke oven gas desulfurization production process with vacuum carbonate method,corrosion and its mechanism in the form of important devices,morphology and characteristics of metal sulfide corrosion layers,and made against the different forms of corrosion problems of the improved process control,equipment,appropriate protection measures.%分析了焦炉煤气采用真空碳酸盐法脱硫的生产过程中,重要装置存在的腐蚀形式及其发生的机理,金属硫化腐蚀层的形态与特征,并针对不同形态的腐蚀问题提出了工艺控制、设备改进等相应的防护措施。

  16. Study on purge gas generated in coke oven gas boilers mixing-firing process%焦炉气锅炉掺烧弛放气探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔

    2012-01-01

    It' s not an environmental friendly and economy way to discharged purge gas from methanol plant into the atmosphere. How to recycle methanol purge gas? The treatment of purge gas had been a general concern problem. The problem could be solved by incorpo- rating the decompression purge gas into boilers burning coke oven gas used as burning gas.%甲醇厂弛放气直接排人大气,既对环境产生污染,又无法实现经济价值。通过将弛放气减压掺入焦炉煤气中供锅炉燃烧使用的方法,可以解决弛放气的去向问题。

  17. Study on Modified Activated Coke and its Desulphurization Performance%改性活性焦及其脱硫性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀娟; 苏永渤

    2001-01-01

    以褐煤为主要原料,以煤焦油为粘结剂,加入一定量的金属氧化物制成的改性活性焦,具有良好的吸附能力和机械性能,脱硫效率高并易于再生,为烟气脱硫提供了一种新的吸附剂.%Modified activated coke is manufactured from brown coal as raw material,coal tar as cohesive agent and a certain quantity of metal oxide.It has great adsorbing capacity and good mechanical property,and is characterized by high desulphurization efficiency and easy regeneration,providing a new adsorbent for flue gas desulphurization.

  18. Pollution characteristics of residues from coal coking process%煤焦化固体残渣污染特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章丽萍; 刘青; 崔炜; 张凯霞; 何绪文

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce residue from coal coking,tar,tar slag,coke powder,precipitator dustⅠ andⅡ were as test objects. Two dif-ferent leaching solutions were obtained from five residues using sulfuric and nitric acid method and horizontal vibration method respective-ly. These leaching solutions were tested for the 13 heavy metal ion concentrations using inductive coupling plasma emission spectrograph. Meanwhile,16 prior pollutants of all PAHs,listed by US EPA,from residues were analyzed through ultrasonic extraction and GC-MS. The composition of PAHs,different ring distribution of PAHs and∑BEQ were investigated. The results showed that,only Cr6+was not detected,the other 12 heavy metal ion concentrations of the ten leaching solutions did not exceed the limitation concentration of national standard. The∑PAHs concentrations (mg/kg) of five residues in sequence from high to low was tar(175000),tar slag(75630),precipita-tor dustⅠ(405. 76),coke powder(210. 35),precipitator dustⅡ(37. 69),and the PAHs concentrations were much higher than the regula-tions of international public environment organization. The∑BEQ ( mg/kg ) of five residues in sequence from high to low was tar (5761. 3),tar slag(2058. 42),coke powder(6. 59),precipitator dustⅠ(0. 99),precipitator dustⅡ(0. 07). Tar slag and tar were poten-tially more carcinogenic.%为减少煤焦化过程中产生的残渣,以某企业煤焦化过程中产生的煤焦油、焦油渣、焦粉、除尘灰等为研究对象,采用硫酸硝酸法和水平振荡法对5种残渣样品进行重金属浸出,通过电感耦合等离子体发射光谱仪分析浸出液中13种重金属离子浓度. 同时采用超声波仪对5种残渣中的多环芳烃进行萃取并采用气-质联用仪分析参考美国环保部优先控制的16类多环芳烃,探讨了多环芳烃的组分、单体环数分布以及等效致癌毒性等. 结果表明:5种残渣浸出液中除Cr6+未检出,其余12种重金属均未超出国家标准

  19. Improving the technology for sulfuric acid purification of BTK fraction at the Makeyevsk Coke Chemical Plant. Sovershenstvovaniye tekhnologii sernokislotnoy ochistki fraktsii BTK na Makeyevskom koksokhimzavode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobchanskiy, V.I.; Dobrovolskaya, L.Ye.; Dzekunov, S.N.; Grebennikova, S.S.; Korobchanskiy, Yu.V.

    1983-01-01

    Data are cited about a study of the operation of an installation for sulfuric acid purification of a BTK fraction at the Makeyevsk Coke Chemical Plant (KKhZ). The purification is performed in a radiator mixer with the addition of unsaturated compounds, a piperylene fraction. The capability is shown of producing benzene for nitration of a high quality in existing equipment with an unchanged expenditure of raw material and secondary materials. The following ways for improvement are recommended: reduce the final boiling point of the fraction to 125 to 130 degrees; feed the piperylene fraction in two stages: behind the mixer pump and in the central part of the radiator mixer; and reduce the process length to 6 to 8 minutes.

  20. 降低焦炉炼焦耗热量的实践与探索%Practice and research of battery coking heat consumption redu ction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张发刚

    2014-01-01

    结合焦炉生产实践,通过降低焦饼中心温度、降低炉顶空间温度、提高炭化室单孔加煤量、稳定空气过剩系数等措施降低焦炉耗热量,取得了较好的经济效益。%By the battery production practice ,the battery heat consumption has been reduced by the measures such as lower coke cake central temperature ,lower free space temperature ,increase char-ging quantity of each chamber and stable coefficient of excess air etc .And better economic results have been achieved .

  1. Spatial mapping of lead, arsenic, iron, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia: community impact from the coke ovens and steel plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Timothy W; Boehmer, Jennifer; Feltham, Jason; Guyn, Lindsay; Shahid, Rizwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents spatial maps of the arsenic, lead, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) soil contamination in Sydney, Nova Scotia, Canada. The spatial maps were designed to create exposure cohorts to help understand the observed increase in health effects. To assess whether contamination can be a proxy for exposures, the following hypothesis was tested: residential soils were impacted by the coke oven and steel plant industrial complex. The spatial map showed contaminants are centered on the industrial facility, significantly correlated, and exceed Canadian health risk-based soil quality guidelines. Core samples taken at 5-cm intervals suggest a consistent deposition over time. The concentrations in Sydney significantly exceed background Sydney soil concentrations, and are significantly elevated compared with North Sydney, an adjacent industrial community. The contaminant spatial maps will also be useful for developing cohorts of exposure and guiding risk management decisions.

  2. 脱硫废液对焦化废水的影响%Influence of waste desulfidation solution to coking wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白永玲

    2013-01-01

    通过分析真空碳酸钾法脱硫废液的主要成分,确定脱硫废液对焦化废水的影响因素,制定可行的控制措施。在保证废水处理系统稳定运行的前提下,计算脱硫废液掺入废水处理系统的最佳比例。%This paper analyzes the main content in the waste desulfidation solution in the method of vacuum potash gas purification process ,fixes the influencing factors to coking wastewater ,and works out feasible control measures accordingly .It also calculates the optimal proportion of waste desulfida-tion solution entering the waste water treatment system ,provided the stable operation of waste water treatment system is ensured .

  3. Analysis of waste heat recovery from coke oven waste gas flue%焦炉烟道气余热回收工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆达; 丁震; 李昌胤; 刘云

    2014-01-01

    By comparison of old and new technologies in waste gas flue heat exchange,with descrip-tion of waste heat recovery unit and by analysis of economic benefit for the new technology,the waste heat recovery unit from coke oven waste gas flue is highlighted in this paper,which is characterized with lower investment,short payback period,lower operational & maintenance cost and a remarkable economic benefit.%对比了烟道废气换热新、旧工艺,介绍了废气余热回收装置。分析了新工艺的经济效益。焦炉烟道废气热回收装置投资省,见效快,运行、维护成本低,经济效益明显。

  4. Research on Method of Coke oven Gas Desulfurization Process%焦炉煤气脱硫效率分析及工艺选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛辉; 马强

    2012-01-01

    煤气中所含的硫会造成环境污染、催化剂中毒和设备腐蚀等不良影响。文章探讨了脱除焦炉煤气中硫化氢常用工艺方法的原理及利弊,总结出提高脱硫效率的方法,为选择合理、高效的脱硫工艺提供了帮助。%The sulfur contained in the gas will cause the adverse effects of environmental pollution,catalyst poisoning and equipment corrosion.The paper discussed the principle and the pros and cons of the removal of hydrogen sulfide in the coke oven gas commonly used process,summed up to improve the desulfurization efficiency for the selection of a reasonable,efficient desulfurization process has helped.

  5. Separation process of coking xylene residue%焦化二甲苯残液的分离工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王春玉; 唐旭博; 陆平; 华超

    2016-01-01

    针对苯加氢过程中产生的二甲苯残液进行分离,通过减压精馏实验并结合化工模拟软件PRO II 9.0建立的二甲苯残液分离模型对其工艺进行研究。研究表明:通过高效精馏,可以实现焦化二甲苯残液中组分的分离;在理论板为60,压力为10kPa,回流比为15时,可以获得w>99.0%的茚满,回流比为20时,可获得w>99.0%的四氢化萘,单程收率可以达到95%以上。实验与模拟结果为实现工业化分离二甲苯残液制备茚满和四氢化萘产品提供了必要的基础数据。%The separation process for the xylene residue from coking crude benzene hydrogenation process was investigated by vacuum distillation experiments and the xylene residue separation model established by the chemical simulation software PRO II 9.0. Results show that using efficient distillation technology, the separation of coking xylene residue could be realized. To obtain a product purity of above 99% by mass with a recovery of above 95% for indane and tetrahydronaphthalene, the reflux ratios are 15 and 20, respectively, at the theoretical plate number of 60 and pressure of 10kPa. The results provide the necessary basic data for industrial separation of indane and tetrahydronaphthalene products from the xylene residue.

  6. 氯化铁对高硫石油焦-CO2气化的催化作用%Catalytic Activity of Ferric Chloride for High-Sulfur Petroleum Coke-Carbon Dioxide Gasification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡启静; 周志杰; 刘鑫; 于广锁

    2012-01-01

    以FeCl3为催化剂,采用热天平考察了FeCl3添加量、气化温度、FeCl3添加方法对高硫石油焦-CO2气化反应转化率和气化反应速率的影响,采用4种动力学模型对石油焦-CO2催化气化动力学曲线进行拟合,并对石油焦催化气化残渣进行XRD分析.结果表明,高硫石油焦催化气化反应速率随气化温度、FeCl3添加量的增加而增大,随转化率的增加而减小,与非催化石油焦气化的单峰动力学曲线不同;采用离子交换法添加FeCl3比采用浸渍法的催化气化效果好.FeCl3催化石油焦-CO2气化反应初始阶段,铁主要以Fe3C形式存在,随着反应的进行大部分Fe3C与石油焦中的S结合形成FeS,导致催化剂活性降低.4种动力学模型拟合结果表明,随机孔模型效果最好,相关系数在0.96以上.%FeCl3 was used as a catalyst for high-sulfur petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. The gasification reactivity of petroleum coke with different FeCl3 loadings and loading methods was examined by using a thermogravimetric analyzer. Four kinetic models were used to fit the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke. The residue of catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification was analyzed by XRD. The results showed that the gasification rate of petroleum coke increased with increase of FeCl3 loadings within the experiment range, and decreased with the increase of conversion in whole course of catalytic gasification, which is different from the single-peak kinetic curve of non-catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification. In catalytic petroleum coke-CO2 gasification, the catalytic activity of FeCl3 loaded by ion exchange method was higher than that by impregnation method. At the initial stage of gasification the precipitated iron existed as Fe3C, which quickly reacted with S in petroleum coke to form FeS, leading to the catalytic activity loss. The random pore model described well the kinetic curve for catalytic gasification of petroleum coke

  7. 混沌粒子群算法的烧结碳耗BP神经网络模型%BP neural network model of coke consumption of sintering process based on chaotic PSO algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鑫; 翁卫卫; 吴敏; 曹卫华

    2013-01-01

    Efficient calculation and prediction of the coke consumption of the sintering process are pivotal to optimize the sintering process to reduce the coke consumption. A reasonable coke consumption indicator is defined and its calculation mode is developed. Then, the factors affecting the consumption of coke are determined through the integrated use of the mechanism analysis and gray correlation analysis method. At last, a CPSO-BPNN predictive model is developed, in which the particle swarm optimization combined with chaotic local search is used to optimize the initial connection weights and translate scaling factors of the BP neural network model. The simulation result demonstrates that CPSO-BPNN provides an effective way to predict the coke consumption, which serves as a basis to optimize sintering process and reduce the coke consumption.%有效地计算和预测烧结碳耗,是有针对性地优化烧结生产以降低烧结碳耗的关键前提。文章首先提出了烧结过程碳耗指标--综合焦比并给出合理可行的烧结过程碳耗指标计算模型;再次,结合机理进行分析和灰色关联度分析方法,确定了影响碳耗的主要因素;最后,建立了基于混沌局部搜索粒子群算法的烧结碳耗BP神经网络预测模型(CPSO-BPNN),用带混沌局部搜索的粒子群算法对烧结碳耗BP神经网络预测模型的初始网络权值、阈值进行寻优,以克服BP算法参数寻优时陷入局部极小的缺点。仿真结果表明,CPSO-BPNN可有效地对烧结碳耗进行预测,为优化烧结生产过程,降低烧结碳耗奠定了基础。

  8. 流化床三维电极电催化氧化深度处理焦化废水%Advanced treatment of coking wastewater using three-dimensional fluid bed electrode reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张垒; 段爱民; 王丽娜; 付本全; 刘霞; 吴高明

    2012-01-01

    研究了以焦粒为粒子电极的流化床三维电极反应器对二级生化处理后的焦化废水进行深度处理.结果表明:采用以焦粒为粒子电极的流化床三维电极反应器能有效降解废水中的有机物,COD去除率依赖于粒子投加量、电流密度、电导率、pH值、曝气量等操作参数的影响.在电导率(以S计)为7.1m·cm-1,曝气量为160 L·h-1,电流密度(以A计)为48 m·cm-2,pH值为5.0,投加量30 g·L-1时,电解30 min,COD的去除率超过60%,表明流化床三维电极反应器在焦化废水深度处理中有很好工程应用前景.%Advanced treatment of secondary bio-treatment coking wastewater by three-dimensional fluid electrode using coking particles was studied. The experimental results showed that the refractory organics in coking wastewater can be effectively removed by this process, and COD removal rate was affected by the operating parameters, such as coking doze quantity, current density, supporting electrolyte, initial pH, aeration amount. For electrolyses under the conditions of supporting electrolyte: 7.1 mScm-1, aeration amount: 160 L-h-1, current density: 48 mAcm-2, initial pH: 5.0, and coking doze quantity: 30 g-L-1, the electrochemical reactor could have a COD removal rate of more than 60%, which revealed great potential of three-dimensional fluid bed electrode reactor in engineering application as an advanced treatment of coking wastewater.

  9. 微波预处理焦化废水有机组分的GC-MS分析%GC-MS anaIysis on the organic components in coking wastewater by micro-pretreatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙敬; 蔡昌凤; 罗飞翔; 丁庠生

    2015-01-01

    Microwave irradiation method has been used for the degradation of the raw water in the coking wastewater from a coking plant. The effects of wastewater pH value,initial concentration,and microwave irradiation time and power on the COD removal are investigated. The experimental results show that when pH=9 ,microwave power 800 W,and microwave irradiation time 4 min,the highest COD removing rate can be as high as 29%. Under these conditions,the coking wastewater is treated by microwave method. The changes of the organic components in coking wastewater before and after microwave treatment are analyzed with the combined instrument ,GC-MS. The results show that nitrogen-containing heterocyclic and other polycyclic organic pollutants in coking wastewater are reduced , but the phenol single ring organics which are easy to be biodegraded,are increased. Therefore,the microwave pre-treatment of coking wastewater can improve its biodegradability.%采用微波辐射的方法对某焦化厂的焦化废水原水进行降解,考察了废水的pH、初始浓度、微波辐射的时间和功率对去除COD的影响。试验结果表明:pH=9、微波功率800 W、微波辐射4 min时,COD去除率最高达到29%。在此条件下,对焦化废水进行微波处理,用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(GC-MS)分析微波处理前后焦化废水中有机物组分的变化情况。结果表明,焦化废水经微波预处理后含氮杂环及其他多环有机物减少,而易生物降解的苯酚类单环有机物增多,其可生化性得到改善。

  10. 下行床反应器中惰性颗粒射入对结焦抑止和颗粒速度均匀化的影响%Effect of Injecting Inert Particles on Coking Prohibition and Particle Velocity Uniformization in Downer Reactors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张济宇; 祝媛; 田亚峻; 谢克昌

    2007-01-01

    The coking observation and particle flow behaviour in both thermal plasma and cold plexiglas downers were investigated in a binary particle system formed by injecting coarse inert particles (carrying coke away and scouring wall) and fine coal powders into the downer reactor. The results demonstrate that this scheme is a rational selection to prevent coking on downer walls and improve particle velocity distribution along the radial direction.When injected coarse particles mixed with fine powders in downers, the fluctuation of local particle velocity in the radial direction becomes smaller and two peaks in the radial distribution of local particle velocity occur due to the improved dispersing character and flow structure, which are beneficial to the thermo-plasma coal cracking reaction and coking prevention.

  11. Effect of the exposure time in coke making atmosphere on the microstructure and properties of a refractory castable used in the petrochemical industry; Efeito do tempo de exposicao a uma atmosfera coqueificante na microestrutura e nas propriedades de um concreto refratario usado na industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrelon, M.D.; Pereira, A.H.A.; Rodrigues, J.A., E-mail: marcelodezena@gmail.com [Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais - GEMM, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - DEMa, Universidade Federal de S. Carlos - UFSCar, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Medeiros, J. [CENPES, Petroleo Brasileiro S/A - PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Toledo-Filho, R.D. [Laboratorio de Estruturas e Materiais - LABEST, COPPE, UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Refractory castables used in Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Units (FCCU) are said to deteriorate due coke formation during the production of light hydrocarbons, causing a shortening in the operating time of the reactor. Consequently, a significant financial loss for the petrochemical will occur. Several studies have been carried out, but none of them showed clearly how much is the contribution of the coke for the concrete final deterioration. It still remains the doubt if the coke is the responsible for the damage observed macroscopically in a FCCU's riser. In this way, this work aimed to study the effect of the time in a coke making atmosphere on an anti-erosive class-C refractory castable, seeking for microstructural changes or on physical properties that indicate degradation mechanisms and give support to the understanding of the phenomenon. Samples of an industrial refractory castable used in petrochemical units were prepared and subjected to a forced coke making process in a simulation reactor. The temperature and the heating rate were kept constant at 540 deg C and 50 deg C/h, respectively. The values of 10, 60, 120, 240 and 480 h were used for the time of exposition to the propene gas. The microstructure of the samples was characterized through optical and scanning electron microscopy and its mineralogical phases through X-ray diffraction. Complementary analyses were necessary to a better understanding of the phenomenon. The results show that the surface and the microstructure are gradually impregnated by coke, which fills up pores, microcracks and cracks. Evidences of microcracking around the coke filled pores were not found. However, many aggregates present some type of deterioration related to the time of exposition to propene. Those damages are not necessarily caused by coke directly (author)

  12. The Waste Heat Power Generation Project of 200 kt/a Coke Oven Gas Methanol Project%20万t/a焦炉煤气甲醇项目的余热发电技改工程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏作为

    2012-01-01

    To use waste heat power to generate electricity by analyzing the baIace of steam in methanol production by coke-oven gas and basing the actual situation of the chemical industrial park. After implementation of the project, not only banning all coke-oven gas heating furnaces and variety small low pressure boilers in the park and obtaining high- er economic benefits,but also reducing enviromental pollution.%分析了焦炉煤气制甲醇项目蒸汽平衡情况,结合所在化工园区实际,利用余热进行发电。不仅取缔了园区内所有焦炉气加热炉和各种小型低压锅炉,取得较高的经济效益,而且减少了环境污染。

  13. 改性褐煤活性焦对模拟烟气中汞的脱除研究%Influence of modified lignite activated coke on mercury removal from simulated flue gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴鹏; 滕济林; 张旭辉; 赵悦菊

    2015-01-01

    为降低烟气脱汞成本,提高活性焦脱汞性能,以内蒙古锡林浩特褐煤为原料制备活性焦并进行化学改性,分析载硫、Na2 S溶液和ZnCl2溶液浸渍等改性方法对活性焦结构及性能的影响,研究改性方法、吸附温度、负载量和汞渗透量对活性焦脱汞性能的影响。结果表明,活性焦改性后,比表面积和孔容积有所降低,载Na2 S、硫、ZnCl2活性焦对汞的吸附量比原始活性焦分别提高了60%、113%和140%;吸附温度升高,化学反应变快,活性焦的初始脱汞效率由75.8%提高至95%以上,但穿透时间并不呈比例增加;当ZnCl2负载量由5%提高至15%后,50%穿透率对应时间由75 min延长至120 min,活性焦对汞的吸附值由10.1μg/g增至17.5μg/g。随着汞渗透量的增加,活性焦脱汞效率有所提高,50%穿透率的对应时间由110 min缩短至95 min,最终总吸附值仅由14.4μg/g增至16.2μg/g。%In order to reduce mercury removal cost from flue gas and improve mercury removal performance of activated coke,the Xilinhot lignite was chosen to prepare activated coke which was further modified by a series of chemical methods. The influence of sulfur,Na2 S, ZnCl2 impregnating on the structure and properties of activated coke was studied. Further more,the effects of modified methods,adsorbent temperature,capacity and mercury infiltration capacity on activated coke mercury removal performance were researched. The results showed that,after modification,the specific surface area and pore volume of activated coke decreased. Compared to the original activated coke,mer-cury adsorption of AC-Na2 S,AC-S and AC-ZnCl2 was respectively increased by 60%,113% and 140%. With the proportion of modifier to activated coke increased,the mercury adsorption capacity increased. With the adsorption temperature increased,the chemical reaction became faster,the initial efficiency of mercury removal could be increased from 75. 8% to

  14. STUDY ON PREPARATION OF COAL WATER SLURRY WITH INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER FROM COKING PLANT%焦化厂工业废水制备水煤浆的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵凡飞; 张明旭; 李寒旭

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied on preparation of coal water slurry with three kinds of industrial waste water from coking plant and compared those with tap water.The results showed that the industrial waste water from coking plant can prepare coal water slurry with good features,especially the stability better than tap water.%研究了用焦化厂三种工业废水制备水煤浆并与自来水制备的水煤浆的性能进行了比较,结果表明,用三种工业废水可以制备出性能较好的水煤浆,而且,某些废水制出的水煤浆在性能上,特别是稳定性上好于用自来水制出的水煤浆。

  15. Discussion on Evaluation Methods for Corrosion Inhibitors Used in Delayed Coking Unit%延迟焦化装置缓蚀剂评价方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵英; 宫红; 姜恒

    2014-01-01

    Delayed coking process is the primary means for deep processing of residue. However, large amounts of hydrogen sulfide gas produced in this process will dissolved in coking wastewater. H2S ionizes in a humid environment to form a galvanic cell with elemental iron, which can cause serious corrosion of equipments. Corrosion inhibitor is often used to slow down the corrosion of the unit. Currently, the content of Fe2+ in coking wastewater is the major evaluation index of inhibitor. Usually, the content of Fe2+ should be less than 3.0 mg/L. In this paper, content of Fe2+ dissolved in wastewater under different conditions was calculated by the solubility product of FeS. The results show that the content of Fe2+in wastewater even without inhibitor is less than 3.0 mg/L which was provided in existing regulations. More reliable methods to evaluate the corrosion are the corrosion coupon or corrosion probe suspended in the pipeline or equipment and its monitoring data can embody the real corrosion condition.%延迟焦化工艺是目前渣油深度加工的主要手段,但在加工过程中会产生大量硫化氢气体并溶解于焦化酸性水中。在湿硫化氢环境中,硫化氢会电离,并与单质铁发生原电池反应,从而对设备造成严重腐蚀,常采用添加缓蚀剂的方法来减缓其对装置的腐蚀。目前评价缓蚀剂性能的指标是检测焦化酸性水中的铁离子含量,通常规定焦化酸性水中铁含量应小于3.0 mg/L。通过FeS的溶度积,计算了不同pH值、不同H2S含量的水溶液中 Fe2+的含量。结果显示:即使不添加缓蚀剂,焦化酸性水中 Fe2+的理论最大浓度也不会高于现行标准中所规定的3.0 mg/L。比较可靠的缓蚀评价方法是将腐蚀挂片或腐蚀探针悬挂于管道设备内部,其监测数据能够比较真实体现腐蚀状况。

  16. 焦炉工人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡特征分析%Characteristics of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Apoptosis in Coke-oven Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志鹏; 张红明; 李卫星; 张晶; 宋秋坤; 王保平; 李治玉; 郑金平

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究焦炉工人外周血淋巴细胞凋亡特征及其影响因素,为加强焦炉工的健康防护提供指导依据.[方法]收集343名焦炉工人班后尿,高效液相色谱法测定尿1-羟基芘(1-OHP)浓度,按尿1-OHP浓度将研究对象分为低、中、高暴露组.分光光度法测定血浆乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活性和丙二醛(MDA焓量,流式细胞仪测定淋巴细胞凋亡率.[结果]以低暴露组淋巴细胞凋亡率95%上限值(7.90%)为界值判断淋巴细胞凋亡阳性,结果显示,低、中、高暴露组淋巴细胞凋亡阳性率随剂量升高而升高(趋势检验P<O.01).经多因素Logistic回归分析,中暴露组、高暴露组和夜班是淋巴细胞凋亡阳性的主要危险因素(OR分别为3.42、8.58和5.05,P值均小于0.05 o相关分析结果显示,淋巴细胞凋亡率与尿1-OHP含量呈正相关(r=0.113,P<0.05).[结论]焦炉逸散物暴露可导致部分焦炉工人淋巴细胞凋亡率升高,且与尿1-OHP水平有关.夜班是主要影响因素.%[Objective]To investigate the characteristics of lymphocytes apoptosis in peripheral blood of coke-oven workers and its influential factors.[Methods]In this study, a total of 343 coke-oven workers were included.1-Hydroxypyrene ( 1-OHP ) in worker's post-shift urine sample was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.Subjects were divided into low, medium or high exposure group according to the 1-OHP concentration.Lactic dehydrogenase ( LDH )activity and malondialehehyche( MDA )concentration in plasma were determined using speetrophotometry.Lymphocyte apoptosis in peripheral blood was determined using flow cytometry.[Results]The upper bound lymphocyte apoptosis rates of 95% subjects in the low exposure group ( 7.9% ) was defined as the threshold to determine positive lymphocyte apoptosis.The positive rate of lymphocyte apoptosis in the low, medium and high exposure groups were increased with the exposure levels( chi-square trend test, P< 0

  17. 改性焦粉对氟离子吸附热力学及机理%Mechanism and thermodynamics of fluor hydronium adsorption on modified coke powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒和明; 杨鹏; 冯辉霞; 赵霞; 张建强

    2011-01-01

    以废弃焦粉为原料,50%硝酸为改性剂,借助JSM、XRD和XPS现代分析测试方法表征其结构。考察了改性焦粉对氟离子吸附模型、热力学参数、粘附几率和活化能,初步探讨了吸附机理。结果表明,硝酸改性焦粉是硝酸刻蚀焦粉表面增加孔结构,增大表面积,表面氧化形成较为丰富含氧功能组的过程;吸附符合Langmuir和Langmuir吸附等温方程;吸附焓变为3.6596 kJ/mol,自由能变在-1.5004~-2.0107 kJ/mol之间,熵变为0.0173 kJ/(mol·K);粘附几率和活化能分别为S=1.78×10-3、21.35 kJ/mol,表明该吸附过程是界面上混乱度增加的自发吸热过程;吸附氟离子过程是颗粒内扩散吸附,表面杂质与氟离子之间形成配位化合物、氟化钙胶体及表面含氧基团与氟离子形成氢键三者共同作用的结果,而颗粒内扩散吸附是该吸附的主要过程。%The structure of waste coke powders modified by 50% HNO3 was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) , X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) , etc. Adsorption model, the thermodynamics parameters, sticking probability and activation energy of fluor hydronium on modified coke powders were investigated. The adsorption mechanism was also primarily discussed. The result showed that the modified coke powders' pore structure was enlarged, surface area increased and abundant oxygenous function groups grew on the surface. In addition, the adsorption equation was consistent with the Langmuir and Langmuir absorption model. The enthalpy change was 3.6596 Kj/mol, the free energy changed from - 1.5004 to - 2. 0107 kj/mol, the entropy change was 0. 0173 Kj/( mol · K) , sticking probability was 1. 78 X 10 ~ and the activation energy was 21. 35 kj/mol. These results proved that this adsorption was a spontaneous and endother-mic process accompanied with the interface chaos increasing. And the adsorption process to fluor

  18. Study of the sulfur mechanism on the formation of coke deposition on iron surfaces; Etude des mecanismes d'action du soufre sur le cokage catalytique du fer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, F.

    2001-12-01

    The formation of coke deposition which occurs in a range of temperature 500 deg C-650 deg C is a major problem in many chemical and petrochemical processes where hydrocarbons or other strongly carburizing atmospheres are involved. To reduce the rate of coke deposition, sulfur can be added in the gas phase. The topic of this work is to study the sulfur mechanism on the formation of coke deposition on iron surfaces. Firstly, we study the mechanism of graphitic filament formation on reduced and oxidised iron surfaces. A new mechanism of catalytic particle formation is proposed when the surface is initially oxidised. This mechanism is based on thermodynamic, kinetic and structural considerations. The results show that oxide/carbide transitions are involved in the transformation of the oxide layer in catalytic particles. Although the different iron oxides are precursors for the formation of catalytic particles, wustite (FeO) has a better reactivity than magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) and hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Sulfur acts on different steps of the coke formation, preventing phase transformations (carburation, graphitization) which occur during the formation of catalytic particles. Sulfur activity required to prevent these transformations changes with the temperature, the chemical state of iron (reduced or oxidised) and the carbon activity in the gas phase. Sulfur/ethylene co-adsorption studies were performed on mono-crystal of iron (110). The results show that sulfur can prevent adsorption and decomposition of this hydrocarbon on metallic surface (Fe) and on magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Then, sulfur prevents the reaction leading to the carburation and graphitization of the surface. (author)

  19. 浅谈6.25m捣固焦炉推焦车的电气控制%Introduction to Electric Control System of 6.25 m Stamp-charging Coke Oven Pusher

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武海虹

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the 6 .25 m stamping coke oven pusher ,including electrical structure ,speed control mode ,program structure diagram ,operation mode and automatic positioning system .%详细介绍了6.25 m捣固焦炉设备之推焦车的电气结构、调速方式、程序框图、操作方式及自动定位系统。

  20. Characterization of phenol-degrading Diaphorobacter strain P2 and removing phenol in coking wastewater%DiaphorobacterP2菌株酚降解特性及其在焦化废水中的除酚作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙小俊; 张玉秀; 杜海迪; 张璇

    2014-01-01

    Biodegradation of phenolic compounds is a key problem for the discharge of COD index requrirements, it is expected to have a more broad application prospect in coking wastewater with the development of biological treatment technology. The phenol-degrading characteristics of Diaphorobacter P2 and the potential for removal of phenol in the coking wastewater were evaluated. Hydroxylase gene expression and enzyme activity analysis showed that the degradation of phenol was catalyzed by catechol2, 3 dioxygenase. The 412. 267 mg·L-1 phenols from 1/2 coking wastewater were completely degraded after incubation Diaphorobacter P2 for 4 days. Those results show that strain P2 has the potential for removing phenolic compounds in coking wastewater.%通过研究分离鉴定DiaphorobacterP2菌株的苯酚降解特性和在焦化废水中的除酚作用,苯酚羟化酶基因克隆表达和酶活测定分析表明,P2菌株的苯酚代谢途径通过邻苯二酚2,3-双加氧酶催化开环降解, P2菌株4 d可完全生化降解1/2焦化原水中的酚类物质,说明P2菌株具有生物处理焦化废水酚类物质的潜力。

  1. Cytochrome P450 (CYP and glutathione S-transferases (GST polymorphisms (CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1 and urinary levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in Turkish coke oven workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Oguz Ada

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes have been associated with cancer risk. We evaluated the influences of genetic polymorphisms of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH metabolizing enzymes on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP excretion in Turkish coke oven workers. Urinary 1-OHP was analyzed by HPLC after enzymatic hydrolysis. Lymphocyte DNA was used for PCR-based genotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP polymorphisms (CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 and glutathione S-transferases (GST polymorphisms (GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1. The mean urinary 1-OHP levels of coke oven workers were significantly higher than that of controls. No significant difference was detected in the mean urinary 1-OHP levels of smokers and non-smokers either for coke oven workers or controls. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYPs and GSTs studied had no significant influence on 1-OHP excretion in coke oven workers, but in the control group the urinary 1-OHP levels of individuals carrying the GSTT1- genotype were significantly higher than those of individuals carrying GSTT1+ genotype. The duration of occupational exposure and metabolic genotype for GSTT1 were the significant predictors of urinary 1-OHP levels. The control individuals carrying combined GSTM1-/GSTT1- genotypes also had significantly higher levels of urinary 1-OHP than those of individuals carrying GSTM1+/GSTTI+, GSTM1-/GSTT1+, and GSTM1+/GSTT1- genotypes. These results indicate that urinary 1-OHP is a sensitive indicator of recent human exposure to PAHs and that genetic polymorphism of GSTT1 may also to some extent reflect the interindividual variation in susceptibility to PAHs only at low PAH exposure.

  2. COD removal from real semi-coke wastewater by electro-Fenton technology%电芬顿法去除兰炭废水COD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕强; 薛娟琴; 郭莹娟; 李国平; 雷美美

    2012-01-01

    An improved electro-Fenton technology with stainless steel anode and cathode of graphite-based gas diffusion electrode is introuced in this work to enhance removal rate of COD in semi-coke wastewater which is famous for high treatment cost as its biodegradation is hard. By several exhaustive experiments, the optimum re- moval rate of COD is up to 78.62% at the optimized conditions in the laboratory of the oxygen sparging rates of 2.5 L/min, the optimal electrode plates distance of 2 cm, current density of 5.2 mA/cm2 , solution pH of 3, and duration of 240 min, which provides a high efficiency pretreatment for semi-coke wastewater, and an promis- ing new method for the treatment of non-biodegradable high concetration wastewater in the future.%为处理高浓度生物难降解兰炭废水,考查了利用不锈钢作阳极和石墨气体扩散电极作阴极构成的电芬顿体系对兰炭废水COD的去除效果。系统地考察了空气流速、电流密度、溶液pH值及极板间距等因素对废水COD去除率的影响。电解过程的较佳条件:空气流速为2.5L/min;电流密度为5.2mA/cm^2;溶液pH值为3;极板间距为2cm。电芬顿法处理兰炭废水240min之后,COD最高去除率可达78.62%,实现了对兰炭废水的预处理,为兰炭废水的处理提供了新的途径。

  3. Application of high-efficient obligate microorganism in coking wastewater treatment%高效专性微生物在焦化废水处理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴阳云

    2011-01-01

    High-efficient obligate microorganism was used to treat coking wastewater, a comparison between the treatment effects by it and by the processes with ordinary microorganisms such as A/O, AVO and A/O2 were carried out. The results showed that, for coking wastewater treatment, high-efficient obligate microorganism had characteristics of high pollutants removal efficiency and strong anti -shock loading capability, the mass concentration of CODCr and ammonia nitrogen was much lower than the discharge standard. Therefore, the application of high-efficient obligate microorganism in treatment of complicated industrial wastewater especially coking wastewater should be the research direction in the future.%以高效专性微生物处理焦化废水工程为例,对采用高效专性微生物和采用常规微生物的A/O、A2/O、A/O2工艺处理焦化废水的效果进行比较.高效专性微生物处理焦化废水,对污染物的去除效率高,耐冲击性强,出水CODCr、氨氮浓度远低于排放标准.采用高效专性微生物菌种处理复杂工业废水,特别是焦化废水应该是今后研究的方向.

  4. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Velásquez José de Jesús

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  5. Chemical structure of semifusinite and fusinite of steam and coking coal from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) and its changes during heating as inferred from micro-FTIR analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morga, R. [Institute of Applied Geology, Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize internal structure of semifusinite and fusinite in inertinite concentrates (I content - 80-81%) before and after heat-treatment (400-1200 C), under inert conditions. Maceral concentrates were prepared using gravity separation from two samples of steam coals (R{sub r} = 0.98 and 0.99%) and two samples of coking coals (R{sub r} = 1.01 and 1.42%) collected from the same seam. Micro-FTIR and reflectance (R{sub r}) measurements were carried out. Mass loss of the concentrates upon heating was also determined. Semifusinite in concentrates before heating is characterized by lower aromaticity and condensation of the structure (lower values of CH{sub ar}/CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and CH{sub ar}/C=C{sub ar} ratios) than fusinite. The difference in aromaticity between semifusinite and fusinite is similar despite the rank of the parent coal. Semifusinite from the coking coal is characterized by lower C=O/C=C{sub ar} ratio as well as higher aromaticity than semifusinite in the steam coal. Statistical analysis showed occurrence of two types of semifusinite which differed in aromaticity and condensation of the structure. Fusinite from the higher rank coal has higher aromaticity in comparison to fusinite from the lower rank coal. Under heating, semifusinite of both types and fusinite experience an increase in aromaticity and condensation of the structure, which results in significant reflectance increase. Strong correlations between the values of both CH{sub ar}/CH{sub 2} + CH{sub 3} and CH{sub ar}/C=C{sub ar} ratio and reflectance of semifusinite and fusinite in concentrates before and after heating have been found. The most significant alteration of the chemical structure of semifusinite occurs at 600 C and 800 C (coking coal) as well as 800 C and 1000 C (steam coal) and for fusinite at 600 C and 800 C. After heating at 1200 C, semifusinite in the steam coal concentrates has lower C=O/C=C{sub ar} ratio and much higher aromaticity than

  6. 焦炉煤气制天然气工艺中甲烷化的仿真系统%Simulation of Methanation Reaction for Substitute Natural Gas Production by Coke Oven Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    来翊; 刘金刚; 刘振峰; 吴迪镛

    2011-01-01

    焦炉煤气制天然气对拓宽天然气的供应渠道和提高焦炉煤气的清洁利用效率具有重要意义,与焦炉煤气制甲醇等相比,有能源利用率高、耗水量低、无二氧化碳排放等优势.为了提高能源利用率,提出了焦炉煤气制天然气专利工艺,建立了首套焦炉煤气甲烷化合成天然气全流程工业试验装置.甲烷化催化剂及配套工艺是项目的核心部分,因此对甲烷化反应进行准确的仿真计算,对于指导项目设计和生产操作有着重要意义.通过建立甲烷化反应的数学模型,并运用化工动态流程仿真优化系统(Dynamic Simulation& Optimization System,DSO)平台对工业化装置和工业试验装置进行了全过程仿真.实验结果表明,整个过程能够很好地反映装置正常工况时的运行情况.%It is important that Coke oven gas to natural gas can widen the supply channels of natural gas and improve the clean efficiency of using Coke oven gas. It has higher energy efficiency, lower water consumption than coke oven gas - to - methanol, and without carbon dioxide emissions. We proposed a patented process of coke oven gas to natural gas, and completed the first set of industrial test equipments' 1000 - hour non - stop working, in which coke oven gas was methanated into natural gas. Because methanation catalyst and its supporting technology are the core of the project, accurate simulatione for the methanation reaction is significant to instruct both the project design and production operations. Through building the mathematic model of methanation reaction and using the Dynamic Simulation & Optimization System ( DSO), the industrial equipment and industrial test equipment were simulated. The result of application indicates that the whole simulation process can reflect the running of the equipment under normal conditions.

  7. Hydrogen and energy recovery by gasification of petroleum coke from heavy crude refining; Recuperacion de hidrogeno y energia mediante gasificacion de coques de petroleo provenientes de refinacion de crudos pesados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paniagua-Rodriguez, J.C [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Jimenez-Garcia, G. [Instituto Tecnologico del Valle de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); Maya-Yescas, R. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolas de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmayay@umich.mx

    2013-03-15

    Heavy oils exhibit high yields to bottom-of barrel products (low commercial value); depending on the metals content and on carbon residue the upgrading of bottoms could follow either hydroprocessing or carbon rejection. In particular the Mexican Maya, which is the most refined crude in Mexico, is upgraded by carbon rejection via delayed coking of vacuum residue. In order to obtain acceptable economic profit, it is necessary to transform that carbon (mainly petroleum coke) into useful higher added value products. Coke gasification could be used to obtain hydrogen and/or energy (preferable electrical), via the reaction of coke molecules with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water. Departing from the empiric formulas of five petroleum cokes, a kinetic scheme that consists of three linearly independent stoichiometric equations was recently developed; by including the enthalpy of each reaction and considering the gasification reactor as adiabatic, it is possible to predict product stream composition and high pressure steam that could be generated by the process. [Spanish] Los crudos pesados exhiben rendimientos altos a productos de-fondo-de-barril (de bajo valor comercial); dependiendo del contenido de metales y del residuo carbonoso, la mejora de fondos puede llevarse a cabo por hidrotratamiento o rechazo de carbon. En particular el crudo Maya, que es el mas refinado en Mexico, se mejora via rechazo de carbon por coquizacion retardada del residuo de vacio. A fin de obtener ganancias aceptables, es necesario transformar ese carbon (coque de petroleo, principalmente) en producto util de alto valor agregado. La gasificacion de coque puede usarse para obtener hidrogeno y/o energia (electrica de preferencia), via la reaccion de moleculas de coque con oxigeno, dioxido de carbono y agua. Recientemente se desarrollo un esquema cinetico que consiste de tres reacciones linealmente independientes, partiendo de las formulas empiricas de cinco coques de petroleo; incluyendo la entalpia

  8. Modulation of coal tar pitch for needle coke%针状焦用煤沥青的调制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余文凤; 周霞萍; 徐东升; 尹思聪; 张丕祥

    2011-01-01

    The requirements and modulation methods of raw materials for coal needle coke is introduced. Two kinds of raw material refining processes in industry are discussed. Highlight the technical development of raw materials properties such as components,reactivity,softening point,rheology,residual carbon value and crystallinity at home and abroad. The development prospects of coal tar pitch modulation in China is forecasted.%介绍了煤系针状焦用原料的要求及调制方法,讨论了2种工业上原料精制的工艺,并重点阐述了国内外对原料的组分、反应性、软化点、流变性、残炭值和结晶度等方面的改性研究进展.在此基础上对煤沥青调制研究在国内的发展前景进行了展望.

  9. Adsorption characteristics of ammonium exchange by zeolite and the optimal application in the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Natural zeolite is a favorable NH(4)(+)-ion exchanger in the tertiary wastewater treatment. In this study, a natural Chinese zeolite was anatomized using the mercury injection method, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron micrographs. The kinetic process of ammonium adsorption onto the zeolite was best described by the pseudo second order model; the adsorption equilibrium data fitted better to the Freundlich isotherm; and the exchange between ammonium and alkali/alkaline earth cations was in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+). Finally, the zeolite powder was applied for the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater, which still contained high concentration of ammonium after the secondary treatment by a sequencing batch reactor. The Box-Behnken design was used to design the experimental protocol, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of adsorption factors. The RSM analysis showed the optimal adsorption factors as particle size, 0.03 mm; initial dosage of zeolite powder, 50.0 g/L; and contact time, 24 h. The highest ammonium removal rate was 75.0% predicted by the RMS. Considering settleability of the zeolite powder, the particle size of 0.25 mm was recommended in practice with a little loss of the ammonium removal: 70.9% as the RMS predicted.

  10. In situ DRIFTS studies on MnOx nanowires supported by activated semi-coke for low temperature selective catalytic reduction of NOx with NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Zuotai; Liu, Lili; Mi, Liang; Wang, Xidong

    2016-03-01

    To mitigate the threat of NOx on the environment, MnOx nanowires were fabricated on activated semi-coke (MnOx NW/ASC) for the first time. The prepared MnOx NW/ASC was used for the low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with NH3, which achieved an efficiency of over 90% with a low loading content of 1.64 wt% at 150-210 °C. This high performance could be ascribed to synergistic effect between MnOx and ASC. Specifically, the large specific surface area and reducible property of ASC facilitated the dispersion of MnOx and the formation of Mn3+, respectively. Meanwhile, MnOx nanowires provided more redox sites and lattice oxygen species due to the coexistence of Mn3+ and Mn4+, which accelerated the catalytic cycle. The in situ DRIFTS studies revealed that ASC was conducive to the adsorption of NO and NH3. Most importantly, the existence of Mn3+ favored the formation of amide species and the subsequent reduction reaction. Furthermore, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) route between coordinated NH3 and bidentate nitrate was predominating in the SCR process and responsible for the high catalytic activity at low temperature.

  11. Research and Application of Advanced Treatment Technology for Coking Wastewater%焦化废水深度处理技术研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高漫春

    2014-01-01

    对焦化蒸氨废水生化处理工艺优化及深度处理技术进行研究,结合原有生化处理系统工艺特点和生产条件,制定实施优化改造项目方案,并对工程应用情况进行跟踪,分析水处理系统进出水水质达标提升结果。%Research was carried out on the optimization of biochemical treatment process and advanced treatment technology for ammonia distill wastewater of coking plant. According to the characteristics of the original biochemical treatment system process and production conditions, an optimization and modification program was drawn up and implemented and the application results of the project were tracked. Analysis of water at both entry and exit of the treatment system showed that the water quality has reached requirement.

  12. Study on Reduction Kinetics of Briquettes of Hematite Fines with Boiler Grade Coal and Coke Dust in Two Different Forms: Intermixing and Multilayered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gopal Ghosh; Sarkar, Bitan Kumar; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh; Mitra, Manoj Kumar; Dey, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    An attempt has been made to utilise hematite ore fines in the form of briquettes with two different form of mixing i.e. intermixing and multilayered by means of carbothermal reduction along with boiler grade coal and coke dust. The influence of reduction temperature (1323, 1373 and 1423 K) and reduction time (10, 20, 30, 45 and 60 min) has been investigated in detail and the reduced briquettes are characterised by XRD, SEM analyses. The reducibility of intermixing briquettes is found to be higher for multilayered briquettes. In addition, isothermal kinetic study has also been carried out for both intermixing and multilayered briquettes. The activation energy for intermixing briquettes are evaluated to be 125.88 kJ/mol for the initial stage of reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism) and 113.11 kJ/mol for the later part of reaction (D3 controlled mechanism), respectively. In case of multilayered briquettes, the corresponding activation energy is found to be 235.59 kJ/mol for reaction (CG3 controlled mechanism). These results corroborate the observed better reducibility of the intermixing briquettes over multilayered briquettes.

  13. Homogeneous kinetics and equilibrium predictions of coking propensity in the anode channels of direct oxidation solid-oxide fuel cells using dry natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Kevin M.; Dean, Anthony M.; Zhu, Huayang; Kee, Robert J.

    Direct electrochemical oxidation (DECO) solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer the potential to generate electrical power from hydrocarbon fuels without the need for upstream fuel processing, such as reforming. However, with pure hydrocarbon fuel entering the flow channels at temperatures typically above 700 °C, fuel pyrolysis can cause molecular-weight growth and the formation of deleterious carbonaceous deposits. This paper, which develops a plug-flow model for fuel (natural gas surrogate) within the anode channels, considers the elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics of fuel pyrolysis and oxidation. It also considers the limiting case of local chemical equilibrium. Formation of cyclic hydrocarbon species is used to indicate deposit propensity. Results show that the likelihood of deposit formation depends strongly on cell temperature, current density, and residence time. Generally speaking, equilibrium favors deposit formation early in the channel whereas, owing to limited residence time, the homogeneous finite-rate kinetics predicts relatively low levels of deposit precursors. In the downstream portions, because of electrochemical oxygen flux though the electrode-electrolyte membrane, chemical equilibrium shifts strongly away from deposit formation to volatile carbon-oxygen species. However, the homogeneous finite-rate kinetics predictions show a continuing increase in coking propensity.

  14. Distribution and Health Risk Assessment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soil from a Typical Contaminated Urban Coking Sites in Shenyang City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wei; Zhang, Le; Li, Yue; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Shuxian; Ji, Lan; Dan, Su

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the level of PAH pollution in typical contaminated coking sites in Shenyang. Sixty surface soil samples were collected from an area of 1.3 × 10(5) m(2) polluted by PAHs. The concentrations, sources and possible health risks of 16 PAHs in the area were analyzed. The average content of Σ16 PAHs was 6.1 × 10(3) mg/kg. In oral intake, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) presented the largest exposure risk (hazard quotient HQ = 1.17 × 10(-5)), followed by dibenz(a,h)anthracene (DbA) (HQ = 1.14 × 10(-5)). The non-carcinogenic hazard indices and carcinogenic risks of the PAHs were arranged in the order of BaP > DbA > benzo(b)fluoranthene (BbF) > benz(a)anthracene (BaA) > indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (InP) > benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF) > chrysene (Chr). Bap and DbA were the principal pollution sources, followed by BbF, BaA, InP, BkF and Nap successively. Oral intake was the main route of PAH entry into the human body.

  15. Application of the Salmonella mutagenicity assay and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in workplaces exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monarca, S.; Pasquini, R.; Sforzolini, G.S.; Viola, V.; Fagioli, F.

    1982-02-01

    Workplaces of an Italian carbon electrode factory, exposed to petroleum pitch and petroleum coke, were studied using a coupled chemical and biological approach to evaluate occupational mutagenic/carcinogenic hazards. Analytical procedures for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity tests were performed on both industrial ingredients and airborne particulate matter of the working environment, after fractionating by sequential Soxhlet extractions with four organic solvents of increasing polarity. The results showed: the presence of extraordinarily high PAH contents in the benzene extracts of petroleum pitch and of airborne particulate samples, in correlation with very high indirect (after metabolic activation) mutagenic responses of benzene extracts with strain TA98; very high indirect mutagenic responses in the other extracts of the airborne particulate samples; the production during the processing at high temperatures of directly acting mutaggens which were absent in the starting materials and their release in the air of workplaces. The comparison of chemical analytical and mutagenicity data has proved to be an interesting approach for better defining the relative health hazards due to occupational exposure to potentially mutagenic/carcinogenic petroleum products.

  16. Corrosion and Protection of Delayed Coking Units%延迟焦化装置腐蚀与防护分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓龙; 杨剑锋; 刘文彬

    2015-01-01

    在某石化公司160万t/a延迟焦化装置停工检修期间,进入现场开展腐蚀检查工作,运用宏观检查、腐蚀产物能谱分析、坑度测量及垢物灼烧实验等手段,分析该工艺单元内设备的腐蚀类型及腐蚀原因。并根据分析结果,提出相应的防腐对策。%During the downtime of the 1.6 Mt/a delayed coking unit in a petrochemical company, corrosion inspection work was carried out. Many testing methods, such as macroscopic examination, corrosion production spectrum analysis, pit measurement and burning experiments were used in order to analyze the corrosion type and corrosion reasons of equipments in this process unit. Then according to the analysis results, some suggestions on corrosion prevention were put forward.

  17. Analysis on accumulation, distribution and origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils under a coking plant%焦化厂土壤中PAHs的累积、垂向分布特征及来源分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾晓洋; 姜林; 夏天翔; 姚珏君; 梁竞; 樊艳玲; 钟茂生

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are one of the most major pollutants in soil under coking plants. In order to understand the characteristics of accumulation and vertical distribution of 16 USEPA priority PAHs in soil, GC/MS was used to analyze 16 PAHs in 587 soil samples taken from different depths of 0-18 m under coking plant. The results showed that, the highest and average concentration of total PAHs were 14363. 7 mg · kg-1 and 190. 4 mg · kg-1 respectively, indicating that the soil under coking plant had been polluted. The dominant components were low molecular weight PAHs, accounting for about 85%. The concentrations of PAHs had obvious fluctuation at various layers, and their concentration change was parallel. There was an obvious cumulative effect in 5-6 m soil layer, which might be due to different filtration capability of soil in different layers and PAHs leaching ability. Based on the principal component and Q-clustering analysis, the entire soil profile could be classified into 5 different layers: 0-1 m, 1-3 m, 3-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-18 m. The concentration order of low molecular weight PAHs was 5-6 m>0-1 m>3-5 m >1-3 m>6-18 m, whereas that of high molecular weight PAHs 0-1 m>5-6 m>1-3 m>3-5 m > 6-18 m. Assessment of the PAHs compound ratios, Ant/(Ant + Phe) and Flt/(Flt + Pyr), suggested that coal combustion was the main contamination source of the soil under this coking plant and the emission of coking gas and the leak of coal tar might also be primary contamination routes. In summary, the results in this paper illustrated the accumulation and distribution rules of PAHs in 0-18 m soil profile under a coking plant, and also provided some important data which would be used to manage the soil remediation and environment risk produced by coking industry.%引言多环芳烃(polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons,PAHs)在环境中普遍存在,由于具有强烈的诱变、致癌和致畸作用而受到越来越多的关注[1].以

  18. An Evaluation of the Delayed-Coking Product Yield of Heavy Feedstocks Using Asphaltene Content and Carbon Residue Évaluation du rendement en produit de cokéfaction différée de pétrole lourd à l'aide de la teneur an asphaltènes et du résidu de coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schabron J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Six residua from different crude oils were evaluated for composition and carbon residue forming tendencies. The whole residua were evaluated for elemental composition, trace metals content, carbon residue, and specific gravity. Each residuum was deasphaltened in heptane, and the heptane-soluble materials were separated into saturate, aromatic, and polar fractions on activated silica gel. The asphaltenes were evaluated for elemental composition, trace metals content, molecular weight, and carbon residue. The relationship between carbon residues and features of the asphaltenes was studied, and a correlation of contributing features was developed. The asphaltenes were further separated into four fractions according to apparent molecular size by preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC. The preparative size exclusion chromatographic fractions from the asphaltenes were evaluated for sulfur content, molecular weight, and trace metals content. Material balances showed that the data obtained on the fractions account for the data obtained on the original material. This indicates that the contributions of the properties of the fractions can be studied and related to properties of the whole material. La composition et le résidu de coke de six résidus de raffinage de différents pétroles lourds ont été évalués afin de déterminer des tendances. La composition élémentaire, la teneur en métaux-traces, le résidu de coke et la densité spécifique ont été déterminés sur le résidu complet. Chaque résidu a été désasphalténé dans l'heptane et les produits solubles dans l'heptane ont été séparés en fractions saturée, aromatique et polaire sur du gel de silice activée. La composition élémentaire, la teneur en métaux-traces, la masse moléculaire et le résidu de coke ont été déterminés sur les asphaltènes. La relation entre les résidus de coke et les caractéristiques des asphaltènes a été étudiée, ce qui a permis d

  19. Modified semi-coke-supported cerium oxide-doped zinc ferrites for the removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, J.; Guo, T.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, J. [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China); Feng, G. [Shanghai Research Institute of Petrochemical Technology SINOPEC, Shanghai (China); Han, L. [Key Laboratory of Coal Science and Technology of Shanxi Province and Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China); College of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Cerium oxide-doped ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} sorbents supported on modified semi-coke (MSC) were prepared to improve the desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrites. The sulfidation tests of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MSC sorbents with and without Ce were carried out using a fixed-bed reactor at 450 C. The effect of the CeO{sub 2}/ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} molar ratio of the sorbents on the sulfur capacity was studied. The characteristics of the sorbents were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that cerium oxide could greatly improve the desulfurization reactivity of the ZnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}/MSC sorbents. The molar ratio of Ce to Zn and Fe influences the desulfurization reactivity, and a good sulfur capacity of the sorbent can be obtained with a Ce/Zn/Fe ratio of 4:4:1. It was also found that the addition of CeO{sub 2} could enlarge the surface area and the pore volume, thus improving the dispersion of active components. Ce doping results in an increment of the oxygen adsorbed on the sorbent surface, which facilitates the adsorption of H{sub 2}S. The Ce ions could act as carriers of the oxidation and reduction reactions and the oxygen transfer could be accelerated during the desulfurization process of coal gas. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Treatment of Semi-coke Production Wastewater by Emulsion Liquid Membrane Process%乳状液膜法处理煤制兰炭废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 程迪; 李鹏

    2013-01-01

    The semi-coke production wastewater was treated by emulsion liquid membrane method using tributyl phosphate (TBP) as carrier,kerosene as membrane solvent,and NaOH solution as aqueous phase.The experimental results show that when the TBP volume fraction is 4%,the surfactant mass fraction is 4%,the mass concentration of NaOH in the internal phase is 12%,the volume ratio of oil to internal phase is 3 ∶ 2,the volume ratio of emulsion liquid to wastewater is 1 ∶ 5 and the extraction time is 15 min,the removal rats of phenols (calculated in phenol) and COD are above 85% and 83% respectively.%以磷酸三丁酯(TBP)为载体、煤油为膜溶剂、NaOH水溶液为内水相,采用乳状液膜法处理兰炭废水.实验结果表明:当TBP体积分数为4%、表面活性剂质量分数为4%、内水相NaOH质量分数为12%、油内比(乳状液的油相与内水相的体积比)为3∶2、乳水比为1∶5、萃取时间为15 min时,废水中的酚类(以苯酚计)去除率达到85%以上,COD去除率达83%以上.