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Sample records for beef tallow biodiesel

  1. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  2. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  3. Characterization of beef tallow biodiesel and their mixtures with soybean biodiesel and mineral diesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Couto, Marcelo B.; Filho, Miguel Andrade; Assis, Julio C.R.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Almeida, Selmo Q. [Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Souza, Giancarlos S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA, Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    Tallow is a raw material for biodiesel production that, due to their highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energy, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. However beef tallow biodiesel have unfavorable properties due the presence of high concentration of saturated fatty esters. One way to overcome these inconveniences is using blending procedures. In this way, blends of beef tallow biodiesel with soybean biodiesel and with conventional mineral diesel fuel were prepared and the quality of the mixtures was monitored with the purpose to study ideal proportions of the fuels. By measurement of the viscosity, density, cold filter plugging point, and flash point, it was demonstrated that tallow biodiesel can be blended with both mineral diesel and soybean biodiesel to improve the characteristics of the blend fuels, over that of the tallow. (author)

  4. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale

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    da Cunha, Michele Espinosa; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Almeida, Suelen Rodrigues; Caramao, Elina Bastos [Chemistry Institute/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS - Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacques, Rosangela Assis [Federal University of Pelotas/Federal University of Pampa (UFPel/UNIPAMPA-Bage) (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves [Department of Organic Chemistry (DQO), Chemistry Institute (IQ), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitario, s/n - Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas/RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality and also with a good conversion rate. The process is possible but the economical viability must be improved by recovering methanol and glycerin. The obtained results have been used for industrial scale up of the process. (author)

  5. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  6. Comparing the environmental impacts of ethyl biodiesel production from soybean oil and beef tallow through lca for brazilian conditions

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    Rafael Alves Esteves

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper sought compare the environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of biodiesel production obtained from the two raw materials most used in Brazil (soybean oil and beef tallow through the process ethyl transesterification in an alkaline medium. The reference flow adopted for the work was the generation of power supplied 1GJ from the produced biodiesel. The data used in the inventory life cycle were calculated based on similar scientific papers. The method of assessment of environmental impacts chosen was the CML 2001 modified. Altogether, it were analyzed nine categories of environmental impacts for both processes (abiotic depletion (kg Sb eq, land use (m2a, global warming (kg CO2 eq, ozone layer depletion (kg CFC-11 eq, human toxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, freshwater ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, terrestrial ecotoxicity (kg 1,4-DB eq, acidification (kg SO2 eq and eutrophication (kg PO43- eq. The results of evaluation of environmental impacts show that the biodiesel production process from soybean oil presents major environmental damage in seven categories of analyzed impacts (destruction of abiotic resources, destruction of the ozone layer, human toxicity, freshwater ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification and eutrophication. The production process of biodiesel from tallow presents major environmental damage in two categories of impacts analyzed (land use and global warming. However, the results show that the absolute values of environmental damage caused by impacts of the production process using beef tallow are much more aggressive.

  7. Power generation and gaseous emissions performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of soybean and beef tallow biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Waldir Nagel; Gauer, Mayara Ananda; Tomaz, Edson; Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Pinto; de Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari; Chaves, Luiz Inácio; Villetti, Lucas; Olanyk, Luciano Zart; Cabral, Alexandre Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the performance of an internal combustion engine fed with blends of biodiesel produced from soybean and diesel, and blends of biodiesel produced from beef tallow and diesel. Performance was evaluated in terms of power generated at low loading conditions (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kW) and emission of organic and inorganic pollutants. In order to analyse inorganic gases (CO, SO2 and NOx), an automatic analyser was used and the organic emissions (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene - BTEX) were carried out using a gas chromatograph. The results indicate that the introduction of the two biodiesels in the fuel caused a reduction in CO, SO2 and BTEX emissions. In addition, the reduction was proportional to the increase in loading regime. Beef tallow biodiesels presented better results regarding emission than soybean biodiesels. The use of pure biodiesels also presented a net reduction in pollutant gas emissions without hindering the engine generator performance.

  8. Mistura de biodiesel de sebo bovino em motor diesel durante 600 horas Blend of biodiesel from beef tallow in a diesel engine during 600 hours of tests

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    Ila Maria Corrêa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O biodiesel de sebo bovino é considerado uma alternativa de baixo custo e de grande disponibilidade por ser resíduo da produção agropecuária brasileira, que é uma das maiores do mundo. Raros são os trabalhos que mostram a utilização do biodiesel de sebo bovino em motores diesel. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da mistura de biodiesel bovino na proporção de 5% ao óleo diesel comercial no desempenho do motor, possíveis consequências internas no motor e nas características do óleo lubrificante após o uso prolongado em motor diesel. Foram realizados ensaios em bancada dinamométrica utilizando um trator agrícola. O desempenho do motor foi determinado através da tomada de potência (TDP. O motor foi operado por 600h durante as quais foi determinada a potência, o consumo de combustível e analisadas as amostras de óleo lubrificante a cada 100h. Ao final do ensaio, o motor foi aberto e inspecionado. A análise do óleo lubrificante mostrou nível de contaminação crítico a partir das 400h, mas a inspeção visual do motor não detectou nenhum desgaste interno. O motor funcionou normalmente, embora tenha ocorrido tendência de redução na potência e aumento de consumo de combustível ao longo das 600h.Biodiesel from beef tallow has been considered a low-cost and high availability alternative due to be residue from the Brazilian livestock production, one of the world's largest. Papers that show the use of biodiesel from beef tallow in diesel engine are rare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of blend of biodiesel from beef tallow (B5 in commercial diesel oil on engine performance, analyzing possible internal consequences and characteristics of lubricating oil after the prolonged use in a diesel engine. Engine performance was evaluated through tractor power take off (PTO tests. The engine was operated for 600 hours. Power and fuel consumption were measured. Samples of lubricating oil were

  9. Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribeau, A.; Bradley, R.; Brown, P.; Goodwin, J.; Kihm, U.; Lotero, E.; O' Connor, D.; Schuppers, M.; Taylor, D.

    2007-03-15

    This document presents a systematic survey of current knowledge about the risk to human and animal health posed by the processing of tissues from animals potentially infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or 'prion disease') into biodiesel. It is organised into an introductory background section on TSE, followed by chapters treating the sequential stages of biodiesel production. The principal conclusions are: Animal tissue sources. The choice of geographic origin, based on published scientific evaluations of the risk of TSE to be present in a given country, can largely reduce or even eliminate the entry of contaminated tissue into the biodiesel feedstock. Further safeguards can be provided by selection of animal species not susceptible to TSE, and of tissues without any detectable infectivity even in susceptible species. None of these measures, however, would be applied to the biodiesel projects under consideration, which have the specific aim of using animals and tissues (including specified risk material, or SRM) considered to have sufficient potential risk to be unacceptable for use in food, feed, fertilisers, or pharmaceuticals (including biologicals and medical devices) and therefore are designated for other approved uses, or destruction. Tissue rendering to produce tallow. Experiments to test the survival of TSE infectivity in the products of rendering failed to detect any infectivity in the crude tallow fraction, even following processing methods that allowed survival of infectivity in the co-produced meat and bone meal fraction. It is therefore extremely unlikely that pure tallow originating from diseased animals would be infectious; however, lower grade tallow might contain infectious impurities. A requirement that tallow derived from SRM for use in biodiesel contain no detectable protein would reduce this possibility. Transesterification of tallow to biodiesel. Several steps in the manufacturing process have at least the

  10. Effect of beef tallow on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, and lipid profile of growing lambs

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    Shahana Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets with inclusion of beef tallow on growth, and carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid profile in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted with 15 lambs for 63 days. The lambs were randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T0, T1, and T2 with five animals in each group; T0 (control diet without beef tallow, T1 (diet with 2% beef tallow, and T2 (diet with 4% beef tallow. The body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly (P0.05 on meat quality and chemical composition among the three dietary groups. Group T1 showed the highest increase of cholesterol concentration (11.5% at the end of experiment, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly (P>0.05 correlated with any of the three dietary groups. To sum up, the use of beef tallow at 2% level in lamb diet can increase their performance without having any deleterious effect on carcass, meat quality and lipid profile. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 346-352

  11. Enzyme-catalyzed synthesis and kinetics of ultrasonic-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewale, Peter; Dumont, Marie-Josée; Ngadi, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The use of ultrasonic processing was evaluated for its ability to achieve adequate mixing while providing sufficient activation energy for the enzymatic transesterification of waste tallow. The effects of ultrasonic parameters (amplitude, cycle and pulse) and major reaction factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) on the reaction kinetics of biodiesel generation from waste tallow bio-catalyzed by immobilized lipase [Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB)] were investigated. Three sets of experiments namely A, B, and C were conducted. In experiment set A, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and cycle) were investigated at three levels; in experiment set B, two factors (molar ratio and enzyme concentration) were examined at three levels; and in experiment set C, two factors (ultrasonic amplitude and reaction time) were investigated at five levels. A Ping Pong Bi Bi kinetic model approach was employed to study the effect of ultrasonic amplitude on the enzymatic transesterification. Kinetic constants of transesterification reaction were determined at different ultrasonic amplitudes (30%, 35%, 40%, 45%, and 50%) and enzyme concentrations (4, 6, and 8 wt.% of fat) at constant molar ratio (fat:methanol); 1:6, and ultrasonic cycle; 5 Hz. Optimal conditions for ultrasound-assisted biodiesel production from waste tallow were fat:methanol molar ratio, 1:4; catalyst level 6% (w/w of fat); reaction time, 20 min (30 times less than conventional batch processes); ultrasonic amplitude 40% at 5 Hz. The kinetic model results revealed interesting features of ultrasound assisted enzyme-catalyzed transesterification (as compared to conventional system): at ultrasonic amplitude 40%, the reaction activities within the system seemed to be steady after 20 min which means the reaction could proceed with or without ultrasonic mixing. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography indicated the biodiesel yield to be 85.6±0.08%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Uso da cromatografia gasosa bidimensional abrangente (GC×GC na caracterização de misturas biodiesel/diesel: aplicação ao biodiesel de sebo bovino

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    Maria Silvana A Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of biodiesel market and the implementation of regulations related to biodiesel production and biodiesel/diesel blending has encouraged the development of appropriate analytical methods to control the composition of this type of mixture. In this study, an evaluation of the potential of GC×GC for the characterization of samples of beef tallow biodiesel and the composition of blends of biodiesel/diesel is presented. The methodology was applied to beef tallow biodiesel and its mixtures with petrodiesel, ranging from B2 to B50. Results allowed not only the identification and quantification of the biodiesel esters, but also the biodiesel percentage in biodiesel/diesel blends.

  13. Effects of dietary beef tallow and soy oil on glucose and cholesterol homeostasis in normal and diabetic pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woollett, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Toe valuate whether dietary fats of different degrees of unsaturation alter glucose and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-CH) homeostasis, normal and alloxan-diabetic pigs were fed diets containing either beef tallow or soy oil as the primary source of fat for 6 weeks. After intra-arterial and oral doses of glucose, pigs fed soy oil had similar glucose and greater insulin concentrations in plasma when compared with pigs fed beef tallow. Beef tallow-fed pigs additionally were 40% more glucose effective than were soy oil-fed pigs. Disappearance of injected autologous 14 C-VLDL-CH was analyzed in pigs using a two-pool model. Diabetes resulted in a twofold increase in half-lives and a 60-fold increase in pool sizes of the primary and secondary components of VLDL-CH disappearance when compared with those of normal pigs. In normal pigs, feeding beef tallow resulted in longer half-lives of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance and no effect in pool size of both components of VLDL-CH disappearance than did feeding soy oil. In comparison, diabetic pigs fed beef tallow had a similar half-life of the primary component, a twofold shorter half-life of the secondary component, and threefold larger pool size of the primary component, and a similar pool size of the secondary component of VLDL-CH disappearance than did diabetic pigs fed soy oil. Thus, dietary fat seems to play an important role in regulation of glucose and VLDL-CH homeostasis in normal and diabetic animals

  14. Soybean oil and beef tallow in the diet of semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions

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    R. A. Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the productive performance and physical quality of eggs from semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions and fed diets containing soybean oil or beef tallow. The experiment had a duration of 63 days divided into three cycles of 21 days each. A total of 160 semi-heavy Hisex Brown laying hens at 50 weeks of age and with an initial weight of 1.755 ± 0.172 kg were used. The birds were reared in a floor system and housed in boxes. A completely randomized design consisting of two treatments and five replicates was used, with 16 birds per experimental unit (box. Two experimental diets based on corn and soybean meal were formulated and soybean oil or beef tallow was added, corresponding to treatments 1 and 2, respectively. The following parameters were evaluated: egg production (%, feed intake (g/bird/day, egg mass (g/bird/day, feed conversion per egg mass (kg/kg, feed conversion per dozen eggs (kg/dozen, egg weight, percentage of yolk, egg white and shell (%, specific gravity (g/cm3, animal viability (%, and body weight variation (g. No differences (P>0.05 were observed in any of the parameters studied. The dietary inclusion of soybean oil or beef tallow does not influence the productive performance or egg quality of semi-heavy laying hens reared in hot climate regions.

  15. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oener, Cengiz [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey); Altun, Sehmus [Technical Education Faculty, Automotive Division, Batman University, 72060 Batman (Turkey)

    2009-10-15

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO{sub x} emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  16. Biodiesel production from inedible animal tallow and an experimental investigation of its use as alternative fuel in a direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oener, Cengiz; Altun, Sehmus

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a substitute fuel for diesel engines was produced from inedible animal tallow and its usability was investigated as pure biodiesel and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel in a diesel engine. Tallow methyl ester as biodiesel fuel was prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification of the fat with methanol in the presence of NaOH as catalyst. Fuel properties of methyl ester, diesel fuel and blends of them (5%, 20% and 50% by volume) were determined. Viscosity and density of fatty acid methyl ester have been found to meet ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 specifications. Viscosity and density of tallow methyl esters are found to be very close to that of diesel. The calorific value of biodiesel is found to be slightly lower than that of diesel. An experimental study was carried out in order to investigate of its usability as alternative fuel of tallow methyl ester in a direct injection diesel engine. It was observed that the addition of biodiesel to the diesel fuel decreases the effective efficiency of engine and increases the specific fuel consumption. This is due to the lower heating value of biodiesel compared to diesel fuel. However, the effective engine power was comparable by biodiesel compared with diesel fuel. Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and smoke opacity were reduced around 15%, 38.5%, 72.7% and 56.8%, respectively, in case of tallow methyl esters (B100) compared to diesel fuel. Besides, the lowest CO, NO x emissions and the highest exhaust temperature were obtained for B20 among all other fuels. The reductions in exhaust emissions made tallow methyl esters and its blends, especially B20 a suitable alternative fuel for diesel and thus could help in controlling air pollution. Based on this study, animal tallow methyl esters and its blends with petroleum diesel fuel can be used a substitute for diesel in direct injection diesel engines without any engine modification. (author)

  17. Hybrid striped bass feeds based on fish oil, beef tallow, and eicosapentaenoic acid/docosahexaenoic acid supplements: Insight regarding fish oil sparing and demand for -3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowzer, J; Jackson, C; Trushenski, J

    2016-03-01

    Previous research suggests that saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) rich lipids, including beef tallow, can make utilization or diet-to-tissue transfer of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) more efficient. We hypothesized that using beef tallow as an alternative to fish oil may effectively reduce the LC-PUFA demand of hybrid striped bass × and allow for greater fish oil sparing. Accordingly, we evaluated growth performance and tissue fatty acid profiles of juvenile fish (23.7 ± 0.3 g) fed diets containing menhaden fish oil (considered an ideal source of LC-PUFA for this taxon), beef tallow (BEEF ONLY), or beef tallow amended with purified sources of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and/or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to achieve levels corresponding to 50 or 100% of those observed in the FISH ONLY feed. Diets were randomly assigned to quadruplicate tanks of fish ( = 4; 10 fish/tank), and fish were fed assigned diets to apparent satiation once daily for 10 wk. Survival (98-100%) was equivalent among treatments, but weight gain (117-180%), specific growth rate (1.1-1.5% BW/d), feed intake (1.4-1.8% BW/d), thermal growth coefficient (0.50-0.70), and feed conversion ratio (FCR; 1.1-1.4, DM basis) varied. Except for FCR, no differences were observed between the FISH ONLY and BEEF ONLY treatments, but performance was generally numerically superior among fish fed the diets containing beef tallow supplemented with DHA at the 100% or both EPA and DHA at the 50% or 100% level. Tissue fatty acid composition was significantly distorted in favor among fish fed the beef tallow-based feeds; however, profile distortion was most overt in peripheral tissues. Results suggest that beef tallow may be used as a primary lipid source in practical diets for hybrid striped bass, but performance may be improved by supplementation with LC-PUFA, particularly DHA. Furthermore, our results suggest that -3 LC-PUFA requirements reported for hybrid striped bass may not be

  18. Properties and Sustainability of Biodiesel from Animal Fats and Fish Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Teresa M.; Mendes, Adélio M.; Caetano, Nídia Sá; Martins, António A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents and analyses the fat and fuel properties and the methyl ester profile of biodiesel from animal fats and fish oil (beef tallow, pork lard, chicken fat and sardine oil). Also, their sustainability is evaluated in comparison with rapeseed biodiesel and fossil diesel, currently the dominant liquid fuels for transportation in Europe. Results show that from a technological point of view it is possible to use animal fats and fish oil as feedstock for biodiesel producti...

  19. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Organic Wastes of Frying Oils and Beef Fats: Valorization for Biodiesel Production

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    Yasmine Souissi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the different approaches of biodiesel production by exploiting low cost feedstocks such as organic wastes of frying oils (WFO and wastes of beef fats (WBF. The aim was to compare not only two different sources of waste raw materials but also different approaches of biodiesel production. Biodiesel which refers to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME was produced by both chemical and enzymatic transesterification. The characterization of the biodiesel produced by both approaches was performed according to the European standard EN 14214. The results showed that the biological method gave a richer FAME biodiesel through the catalysis of whole-cell lipase. However, for the chemical method, better biodiesel physicochemical properties were observed for the two raw materials. Therefore, it would be interesting to compromise by optimizing the biological biodiesel production approach in order to obtain a better quality in coherence with EN 14214 requirements.

  20. Uruguayan tallow characterization

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    Cecilia Rodríguez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Eatable tallow is the product  obtained fusing oily, from clean and  healthy tissues (included the fats of clippings, and from muscles or bones adherents of bovine animals (Bos tsurus,  lambs (Ovis aries in good conditions of health in the moment of its sacrifice and whose has been treated and therefore are considered suitable for the human consumption.To obtain fat from the raw, this material must surrender to a previous treatment that breaks the adipose cells, by  mechanical destruction, boiling or by treatment with alcáli. The easiest  way  consists of the mechanical disintegration (breakup under heat, using steam in direct or indirect form. This product can be obtained by one of the following : discontinuous merger, humid constant merger and  continues merger at low temperature. At present is used in the  cosmetic industry (production of soaps, for nutrition (raw material for margarine, ranching (for the manufacture of food concentrated for animals, for the self propelling industry (raw material for the production of biodiesel. The major purpose of this work is the tallow characterization from the determination of the following parameters :Moisture and Volatile Matter (g/100g of sample, Melting Point (1C, Free Acidity (g. Oleic acid /100g of sample, Colour (yellow and red and Insoluble Matter (g/100g.de shows of 15 samples of animal tallow from Uruguay, in order to provide useful information for the selection of the material. The Norm used as reference was the AOCS (American Oil Chemistry Society. With the obtained information it has been realized a statistical exploratory analysis. The preliminary results, due to the high variability of the studied factors, do not allow to establish with the current number of samples a  model who explains the above mentioned variability, neither at first, to reduce the quantity of factors to consider; in effect, the regression of the moisture against the rest of the factors determined the

  1. Environmental sustainability of biodiesel in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldes Castanheira, Érica; Grisoli, Renata; Freire, Fausto; Pecora, Vanessa; Coelho, Suani Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel production in Brazil has grown from 736 m 3 in 2007 to 2.7 Mm 3 in 2012. It is an emergent bioenergy for which it is important to guarantee environmental sustainability. The objective of this article is to characterise the biodiesel production chain in Brazil, to identify potential environmental impacts and to analyse key drivers and barriers for biodiesel environmental sustainability. This article explores these aspects and focusses on the increasing demand for the main feedstocks for biodiesel production in Brazil: soybean oil and beef tallow. The impacts of land use and land-use change on greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity and water, as well as the energy balance, were found to be critical for the environmental sustainability assessment and development of biodiesel chains. Increasing agriculture yields, diversifying feedstocks and adopting ethyl transesterification can contribute to minimise environmental impacts. It was also found that environmental impacts could be mitigated by appropriate policies aiming at an integrated optimisation of food and bioenergy production and through agro-economic–ecological zoning, allowing adequate use of land for each purpose. Despite the limitation and weakness of some sustainability tools and initiatives, certification and zoning can play an important role in the sustainability of the emerging biodiesel production in Brazil

  2. Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petrodiesel that is prepared from plant oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is prepared via transesterification and the resulting fuel properties must be compliant with international fuel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. Numerous catalysts, methods, and l...

  3. The emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil: Current figures and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingos Padula, Antonio; Silveira Santos, Manoela; Ferreira, Luciano; Borenstein, Denis

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to characterize and analyze the emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil, and provide an assessment of the extent to which the goals established by the National Biodiesel Production and Usage Program have been reached. In relation to the goal of including biodiesel within the Brazilian energy matrix, the program can be seen to be responding dynamically and ahead of schedule. In 2010, the B5 blend was already part of the diesel consumed in Brazil, with 81% of the biodiesel coming from soybean oil and 14% from beef tallow. By contrast, the plans to diversify the feedstocks used to produce biodiesel and improve production in the poorest regions of Brazil have failed to prosper. Regarding the goal of fostering social inclusion by encouraging the participation of family-based farming, this has been partially achieved. Finally, the goal of cost-efficiently producing biodiesel is far from being achieved. The economic feasibility of the production and use of biodiesel in Brazil can be questioned since it is still strongly supported by tax incentives and production and marketing subsidies. - Highlights: ► This paper examines the emergence of the biodiesel industry in Brazil. ► Biodiesel produced from soybean in large plants represents 80% of total production. ► Soybean-based biodiesel costs 30% more than the most economical alternatives. ► The production and trade of biodiesel in Brazil are highly subsidized. ► Feedstock diversification and family farming integration goals have so far failed.

  4. APPLICATION OF THE MULTIRESPONSE OPTIMISATION SIMPLEX METHOD TO THE BIODIESEL - B100 OBTAINING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyane Karolyne Teixeira da Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of obtaining B100 biodiesel from vegetable oil and animal fat mixtures by transesterification under basic conditions was optimised using the super-modified simplex method. For simultaneous optimisation, yield, cost, oxidative stability and Cold Filter Plugging Point (CFPP, were used as responses, and the limits were established according to the experimental data and the conformity parameters established by legislations. Based on the predictive equations obtained from the simplex-centroid design-coupled functions, the multi-response optimisation showed an optimal formulation containing 38.34 % soybean oil, 21.90 % beef tallow and 39.25 % poultry fat. The validation showed that there are no significant differences between the predicted and experimental values. The simplex-centroid mixture design and simplex optimisation methods were effective tools in obtaining biodiesel B100, using a mixture of different raw materials.

  5. Investigating the compression ignition combustion of multiple biodiesel/ULSD (ultra-low sulfur diesel) blends via common-rail injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, Michael; Kiani, Farshid; Mattson, Jonathan; Tabakh, Daniel; Petka, James; Depcik, Christopher; Peltier, Edward; Stagg-Williams, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Researchers across the globe are searching for energy sources to replace the petroleum-based fuels used by the transportation sector. A fuel of particular interest is biodiesel, produced from a diverse variety of feedstock oils with differing fuel properties that alter the operation and emissions of the engines using them. As biodiesel may be mixed with petroleum-based diesel, the fuel being used by a diesel engine may vary by both biodiesel blend percentage and source. Therefore, the influence of biodiesel properties as a function of blend is important to understand. In this study, four biodiesels, produced from palm, jatropha, soybean, and beef tallow, are tested with blends of petroleum diesel at ratios of 5%, 10%, 20%, and 50% biodiesel content. The results are compared with tests of neat diesel and each biodiesel. Using electronic injection, timing is modulated to normalize combustion phasing for all fuels tested to directly investigate the effects of biodiesel on combustion. Results indicate that fuel viscosity, energy content, and molecular structure have distinct influences on combustion that must be considered for engine calibration. When adjusted for combustion timing, biodiesel blends also showed a general decrease in NO x emissions compared to ultra-low sulfur diesel. - Highlights: • Biodiesel injection timing is adjusted to remove cetane number effect on combustion. • When combustion is normalized, biodiesel NO x emissions are lower than those of ULSD. • Four distinct biodiesels used in blends from 0% to 100% biodiesel/ULSD fraction. • Correlating fuel properties to combustion/emissions is useful for engine calibration

  6. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  7. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putzig, Mollie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    This fact sheet (updated for 2017) provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, the difference between biodiesel and renewable diesel, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  8. Biodiesel Basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends and specifications. It also covers how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance (including in cold weather) and whether there are adverse effects on engines or other systems. Finally, it discusses biodiesel fuel quality and standards, and compares biodiesel emissions to those of diesel fuel.

  9. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefelmeyer, K.; Mussell, A.; Moore, T.L.; Liu, D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  10. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of biodiesel in the United States with induced land use change impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Rui; Qin, Zhangcai; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael; Taheripour, Farzad; Tyner, Wallace; O' Connor, Don; Duffield, James

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted the updated simulations to depict a life cycle analysis (LCA) of the biodiesel production from soybeans and other feedstocks in the U.S. It addressed in details the interaction between LCA and induced land use change (ILUC) for biodiesel. Relative to the conventional petroleum diesel, soy biodiesel could achieve 76% reduction in GHG emissions without considering ILUC, or 66-72% reduction in overall GHG emissions when various ILUC cases were considered. Soy biodiesel’s fossil fuel consumption rate was also 80% lower than its petroleum counterpart. Furthermore, this study examined the cause and the implication of each key parameter affecting biodiesel LCA results using a sensitivity analysis, which identified the hot spots for fossil fuel consumption and GHG emissions of biodiesel so that future efforts can be made accordingly. Finally, biodiesel produced from other feedstocks (canola oil and tallow) were also investigated to contrast with soy biodiesel and petroleum diesel

  11. Mississippi State Biodiesel Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafael Hernandez; Todd French; Sandun Fernando; Tingyu Li; Dwane Braasch; Juan Silva; Brian Baldwin

    2008-03-20

    tallow tree and tung tree. High seed yields from these species are possible because, there stature allows for a third dimension in yield (up). Harvest regimes have already been worked out with tung, and the large seed makes shedding of the seed with tree shakers possible. While tallow tree seed yields can be mind boggling (12,000 kg seed/ha at 40% oil), genotypes that shed seed easily are currently not known. Efficient methods were developed to isolate polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters from bio-diesel. The hypothesis to isolate this class of fatty acids, which are used as popular dietary supplements and prescription medicine (OMACOR), was that they bind transition metal ions much stronger than their harmful saturated analogs. AgBF4 has the highest extraction ability among all the metal ions tested. Glycerol is a key product from the production of biodiesel. It is produced during the transesterification process by cleaving the fatty acids from the glycerol backbone (the fatty acids are used as part of the biodiesel, which is a fatty acid methyl ester). Glycerol is a non-toxic compound with many uses; however, if a surplus exists in the future, more uses for the produced glycerol needs to be found. Another phase of the project was to find an add-on process to the biodiesel production process that will convert the glycerol by-product into more valuable substances for end uses other than food or cosmetics, focusing at present on 1,3-propanediol and lactic acid.All three MSU cultures produced products at concentrations below that of the benchmark microorganisms. There was one notable isolate the caught the eye of the investigators and that was culture J6 due to the ability of this microorganism to co-produce both products and one in particularly high concentrations. This culture with more understanding of its metabolic pathways could prove a useful biological agent for the conversion of glycerol. Heterogeneous catalysis was examined as an alternative to overcome the

  12. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  13. Mechanical and physical properties of composite panels manufactured from Chinese tallow tree furnish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; Leslie H. Groom; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Timothy G. Rials; Chung Y. Hse; Thomas Pesacreta

    2006-01-01

    Chinese tallow tree is a noxious, invasive plant in the southeastern United States. It is generally considered a nuisance and has no current commercial use. The objective of this research was to determine the technical feasibility of using the stem wood of this species for particleboard, fiberboard, and structural flakeboard. Due to its rapid growth, Chinese tallow...

  14. Selected mechanical and physical properties of Chinese tallow tree juvenile wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd F. Shupe; LEslie H. Groom; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Thomas C. Pesacreta; Timothy G. Rials

    2008-01-01

    Chinese tallow tree is a noxious, invasive plant in the Southeastern United States. It is generally considered a nuisance and has no current commercial use. The objective of this research was to determine the moduli of rupture (MOR) and elasticity (MOE) of the stem wood of this species at different vertical sampling locations. Three Chinese tallow trees were felled and...

  15. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Diogo Mueller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabricio Fredo; Santos, Vinicius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jessica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto, E-mail: lmazzini@uol.com.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas RS (Brazil); Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de [Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  16. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Diogo Müller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabrício Fredo; Santos, Vinícius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jéssica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto; Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de; Samios, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 – triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 – nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 – thin layer chromatography, 4 – as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  17. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  18. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  19. Biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mono-alkyl esters, most commonly the methyl esters, of vegetable oils, animal fats or other materials consisting mainly of triacylglycerols, often referred to as biodiesel, are an alternative to conventional petrodiesel for use in compression-ignition engines. The fatty acid esters that thus com...

  20. New heterogeneous acid catalysts in the synthesis of biodiesel; Estudo de novos catalisadores heterogeneous acidos na sintese de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soldi, Rafael A.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Lab. de Polimeros Sinteticos], e-mail: mafco@quimica.ufpr.br; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Ramos, Luiz P. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica. Centro de Pesquisa em Quimica Aplicada (CEPESQ)

    2007-07-01

    In this work, sulfonated polystyrene compounds (PSS) were synthesized from linear polystyrene (PS). Several methods and experimental conditions were investigated for the sulfonation of PS, producing catalytically active polymeric materials with sulfonation degrees in the range of 5.0-6.2 mmol -SO{sub 3}H/g of dry polymer. The performance of these catalysts was evaluated in transesterification reactions of beef tallow and vegetable oils with ethanol and methanol. For the sake of comparison, the same reaction conditions employed for the PSS catalysts were also used for an Amberlyst 15 (3,7 mmol SO{sub 3}H/g - Aldrich). The PSS samples were shown to be insoluble in the reaction media, leading to conversion rates of 85%, 75% and 80% of the refined soybean oil, beef tallow and crude corn oil in to ethyl esters, respectively, and 94% of the refined soybean oil methyl esters. Amberlyst 15 was studied as an alternative to the process, but its conversion rate to alkyl esters was very low in the employed conditions. These results demonstrated that our synthetic PSS materials have a great potential to act as heterogeneous catalysts for transesterification. (author)

  1. The biodiesel handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knothe, Gerhard; Krahl, Jurgen; Van Gerpen, Jon Harlan

    2010-01-01

    .... The Biodiesel Handbook delivers solutions to issues associated with biodiesel feedstocks, production issues, quality control, viscosity, stability, applications, emissions, and other environmental...

  2. Variation of diesel soot characteristics by different types and blends of biodiesel in a laboratory combustion chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omidvarborna, Hamid; Kumar, Ashok [Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Kim, Dong-Shik, E-mail: dong.kim@utoledo.edu [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Very little information is available on the physical and chemical properties of soot particles produced in the combustion of different types and blends of biodiesel fuels. A variety of feedstock can be used to produce biodiesel, and it is necessary to better understand the effects of feedstock-specific characteristics on soot particle emissions. Characteristics of soot particles, collected from a laboratory combustion chamber, are investigated from the blends of ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel with various proportions. Biodiesel samples were derived from three different feedstocks, soybean methyl ester (SME), tallow oil (TO), and waste cooking oil (WCO). Experimental results showed a significant reduction in soot particle emissions when using biodiesel compared with ULSD. For the pure biodiesel, no soot particles were observed from the combustion regardless of their feedstock origins. The overall morphology of soot particles showed that the average diameter of ULSD soot particles is greater than the average soot particles from the biodiesel blends. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of oxidized soot particles are presented to investigate how the addition of biodiesel fuels may affect structures of soot particles. In addition, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were conducted for characterization of soot particles. Unsaturated methyl esters and high oxygen content of biodiesel are thought to be the major factors that help reduce the formation of soot particles in a laboratory combustion chamber. - Highlights: • The unsaturation of biodiesel fuel was correlated with soot characteristics. • Average diameters of biodiesel soot were smaller than that of ULSD. • Eight elements were detected as the marker metals in biodiesel soot particles. • As the degree of unsaturation increased, the oxygen content in FAMEs increased. • Biodiesel

  3. Risk assessment: progress of quarantine biocontrol research on Chinese Tallow, Melaleuca, and Downy Rose Myrtle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk assessments of two biocontrol candidates for Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphoriales: Euphorbiaceae), and one for Melaleuca, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), were conducted during 2009 and continuing into 2010 by USDA scientists located at the Florida Department of Agricul...

  4. Remote sensing survey of Chinese tallow tree in the Toledo Bend Reservoir area, Louisiana and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Rangoonwala, Amina; Bannister, Terri; Suzuoki, Yukihiro

    2013-01-01

    We applied Hyperion sensor satellite data acquired by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite in conjunction with reconnaissance surveys to map the occurrences of the invasive Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera) in the Toledo Bend Reservoir study area of northwestern Louisiana and northeastern Texas. The rationale for application of high spectral resolution EO-1 Hyperion data was based on the successful use of Hyperion data in the mapping of Chinese tallow tree in southwestern Louisiana in 2005. In contrast to the single Hyperion image used in the 2005 project, more than 20 EO-1 Hyperion and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) images of the study area were collected in 2009 and 2010 during the fall senescence when Chinese tallow tree leaves turn red. Atmospherically corrected reflectance spectra of Hyperion imagery collected at ground and aerial observation locations provided the input datasets used in the program for spectral discrimination analysis. Discrimination analysis was used to identify spectral indicator sets to best explain variance contained in the input databases. The expectation was that at least one set of Hyperion-based indicator spectra would uniquely identify occurrences of red-leaf Chinese tallow tree; however, no combination of Hyperion-based reflectance datasets produced a unique identifier. The inability to discover a unique spectral indicator resulted primarily from relatively sparse coverage by red-leaf Chinese tallow tree within the study area (percentage of coverage was less than 5 percent per 30- by 30-meter Hyperion pixel). To enhance the performance of the spectral discrimination analysis, leaf and canopy spectra of Chinese tallow tree were added to the input datasets to guide the indicator selection. In addition, input databases were segregated by land class obtained from an ALI-based landcover classification in order to reduce the input variance and to promote spectral discrimination of red

  5. Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil: A potential source for biodiesel production in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utkarsh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic development of a country is highly dependent on the supply of fossil fuels which are constrained by its limited availability and pollution characteristics. India is among the world’s fourth-largest petroleum consumer due to which the vehicular emissions increased eight times over the last two decades. Due to the environmental awareness and depletion of fossil fuel reserves, attention has been given to find an alternative energy source. Among the alternatives existing, Biodiesel is the one which is less polluting and eco-friendly. So it can be used in industrial, commercial, agricultural and other sectors as a substitute for diesel. Biodiesel can be produced from crude vegetable oil, non-edible oil, frying oils (waste, animal tallow and algae by a process of chemical reaction called Transesterification. Biodiesel is also known as methyl or ethyl esters of the feedstock from which it is produced. It is miscible with diesel oil which allows the use of blends of petro diesel and biodiesel in any percentage. The C.I. engines fuelled with biodiesel perform more or less in the same fashion as that with the conventional fuel. Comparative to diesel, biodiesel has high Cetane number and lower compressibility. Additionally, the heat release rate of biodiesel is slightly lower than diesel owing to low calorific value, low volatility and high viscosity. The problem of high viscosity can be eradicated by transesterification process and by adding additives which help us to store the biodiesel for a longer duration of time without any decay. Exhaust emissions are significantly reduced with the use of biodiesel or its blends. The present paper investigates the potential of Mahua (Madhuca Indica oil for biodiesel production as it can be extracted from seeds of Mahua tree which are indigenous to India. It can grow even in dry regions and are found abundantly in several parts of India

  6. Identification of regulatory barriers in the production of biodiesel in Brazil; Identificacao de entraves regulatorios na producao de biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Santana [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia (IFBA), Santo Amaro, BA (Brazil)], email: marcelosilva@ifba.edu.br; Teixeira, Francisco Lima Cruz [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Torres, Ednildo Andrade [Universidade Federal da Bahia (CIEnAm/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Centro Interdisciplinar de Energia e Ambiente

    2010-07-01

    At a time when biofuels are in evidence in the international arena, it is essential to discuss this new market, in particular the biodiesel. To achieve agricultural and industrial sustainability, the main argument is that replacing oil with biofuels raises some questions, because of the lack of experience with the new productive chains. Due to the way the Biodiesel program is being implemented, this program presents several obstacles. Thus, this study aims to investigate the elements in the regulatory hurdles for the production of Biodiesel. In this work it was adopted qualitative descriptive and exploratory procedures, including desk research and recognition of perceptions through questionnaires to staff intentionally selected from different parts of the productive chain, through non-probabilistic sampling. The survey showed the following barriers: differentiated subsidies, which hinder the production of biodiesel by intensive agriculture and benefit familiar agriculture, do not encourage other regions of the country, or other raw material (animal tallow and ORG); incoherent taxation considering the quantity purchased raw materials; strict control on the region distribution to claim the Social Fuel Seal; it isn't prioritized environmental issues in their regulatory context; there's no prestige to small industry, cooperatives and associations; there is a tax for alcohol applied in biodiesel production; and the law penalizes biodiesel plants for the sale of hydrated alcohol. It was observed that these obstacles hinder the increase in biodiesel production, resulting in countless idle biodiesel plants. In this sense, it was found that the regulatory framework needs to be revised due to the investigated barriers. (author)

  7. Development of integrated management practices for the control of Chinese tallow on Parris Island Marine Corps Recruit Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauren S. Pile; G. Geoff Wang; Patricia A. Layton

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small] is an aggressive, fast-growing, highly adaptable invasive tree of the southeastern United States coastal region. Since its introduction in the early 1800s, Chinese tallow has become a serious threat to native grassland and forest communities from mid-coastal North Carolina to Northern Florida and West to Central Texas

  8. The Effect of Tallow As Lipase Inducer on Total of Aspergillus Niger, Lipolitic Activity and Lipase Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Eirry Sawitri

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research was to determined of tallow addition with different concentration as lipase Aspergillus niger inducer to total of A. niger, lipolitic activity and lipase yield. The result showed that tallow addition as inducer in the lipase A. niger production gave no significant effect on total of A. niger (5.3 x 107 – 1.7 x 108 cfu/gram in the medium. Tallow addition gave a highly significant effect on lipolytic activity and yield of lipase A. niger. Lipolytic activity ranged between 32.0354 – 53.1197 U/mg protein, while the yield of lipase was 6.6418–7.8941 µg/ml. The conclusion of this research was the addition of tallow for 8% as the lipase inducer of A. niger on lipase production was  more effective to obtain the optimal result. Keywords : Tallow, lipase, inducer, Aspergillus niger

  9. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  11. Effects of an invasive plant, Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), on development and survival of anuran larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor B. Cotten; Matthew A. Kwiatkowski; Daniel Saenz; Michael Collyer

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians are considered one of the most threatened vertebrate groups. Although numerous studies have addressed the many causes of amphibian population decline, little is known about effects of invasive plants. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) is an exotic deciduous tree that has invaded the southeastern United States. Amphibian larvae in environments invaded by T....

  12. Extraction and characterization of seed oil from naturally-grown Chinese tallow trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Qin Yang; Hui Pan; Tao Zeng; Todd F. Shupe; Chung-Yun Hse

    2013-01-01

    Seeds were collected from locally and naturally grown Chinese tallow trees (CTT) and characterized for general physical and chemical properties and fatty acid composition of the lipids. The effects of four different solvents (petroleum ether, hexane, diethyl ether, and 95 % ethanol) and two extraction methods (supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) and conventional...

  13. Effects of Chinese tallow leaf litter on water chemistry and surfacing behaviour of anuran larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Cory K. Adams

    2017-01-01

    The establishment of exotic invasive species, including plants, has been linked to the decline of some amphibian populations. Of particular concern with invasive plants, from an amphibian conservation perspective, is that they are disproportionately wetland or riparian species. Recent evidence suggests that Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), an...

  14. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of this...

  15. The Effect of Tallow As Lipase Inducer on Total of Aspergillus Niger, Lipolitic Activity and Lipase Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Manik Eirry Sawitri; Abdul Manab; Khotibul Umam Al Awaly; Rista Nur Diningtyas

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this research was to determined of tallow addition with different concentration as lipase Aspergillus niger inducer to total of A. niger, lipolitic activity and lipase yield. The result showed that tallow addition as inducer in the lipase A. niger production gave no significant effect on total of A. niger (5.3 x 107 – 1.7 x 108 cfu/gram) in the medium. Tallow addition gave a highly significant effect on lipolytic activity and yield of lipase A. niger. Lipolytic activity rang...

  16. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  17. Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO; Biodiesel na TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Antonio Carlos C. da; Machado, Tupinamba da Conceicao S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    TRANSPETRO took the challenge, in early 2007, to design and install in less than one year, the systems of injection of Biodiesel in its Distribution Bases with loading truck. The basics premises, adopted for the development of the project, were based on the criteria of safety, operational reliability and to complying with legal deadline. These points guided the actions of Coordinating with two goals: Ensure the injection of Biodiesel according to time by law and the future flexibility of the system. Two to three sets were installed in each Distribution Base, respecting the characteristics of the market and the distance from centers producers of Biodiesel. TRANSPETRO was one of the first companies in Brazil using cutting-edge technology in injection of this product through the use of digital valves in the control of flow of the product. Sum up the storage capacity of Biodiesel the first and second phase of the project, TRANSPETRO will provide 8 to 10 days' stock of Biodiesel to its customers based on the injection of 5% to Diesel Oil. The Project Biodiesel at TRANSPETRO was differentiated by working in teams, the strategy for deployment and the modular aspect with focus on future demand. (author)

  18. Supercritical Synthesis of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Vaultier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of biodiesel fuel from lipids (vegetable oils and animal fats has gained in importance as a possible source of renewable non-fossil energy in an attempt to reduce our dependence on petroleum-based fuels. The catalytic processes commonly used for the production of biodiesel fuel present a series of limitations and drawbacks, among them the high energy consumption required for complex purification operations and undesirable side reactions. Supercritical fluid (SCF technologies offer an interesting alternative to conventional processes for preparing biodiesel. This review highlights the advances, advantages, drawbacks and new tendencies involved in the use of supercritical fluids (SCFs for biodiesel synthesis.

  19. Catalysis in biodiesel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    A substantial industry has grown in recent years to achieve the industrial scale production of biodiesel, a renewable replacement for petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The prevalent technology for biodiesel production at this time involves use of the long known single-use catalysts sodium hydroxide (o...

  20. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  1. Obtenção de biodiesel por transesterificação em dois estágios e sua caracterização por cromatografia gasosa: óleos e gorduras em laboratório de química orgânica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Müller de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grapeseed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - gas chromatography and its quantitative methods.

  2. Tallow Candles and Meaty Air in 'Bleak House'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Henchman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Charles Dickens’s 'Bleak House' there is a strange (and disgusting pattern of characters feeling that they can ‘taste’ the air, and that that air tastes either meaty or greasy. Esther notices that snuffing ‘two great office candles in tin candlesticks’ at Mrs Jellyby’s ‘made the room taste strongly of hot tallow’, the mutton or beef fat out of which inexpensive candles were made. In 'Bleak House', candles retain their sheepy atmospheres and release them into the surrounding air when consumed. Mrs Jellyby’s home and Mr Vholes’s office are just two places in which Dickens suggests that the process of turning organic animal bodies into urban commodities (candles, parchment, wigs has not quite been completed. Candles and parchment are part animal, part object, and they constantly threaten to revert back into their animal forms. The commodification of animal bodies occurs primarily in the city, where parts of formerly living bodies are manufactured into things. Filled with the smell of burning chops or a spontaneously combusted human, Dickens’s greasier atmospheres contain animal matter suspended in the air that the characters smell, taste, and touch. Once we realize that the apparent smell of chops and candles is, in fact, Krook’s body, this act of taking the air becomes a form of cannibalism that is at least as unsettling as Michael Pollan’s recent account of cows being fed cow parts in factory farms. Drawing on this insight and on Allen MacDuffie’s analyses of energy systems in 'Bleak House', this article focuses on instances in which Dickens defamiliarizes the human consumption of energy by having his characters unintentionally ingest animal particles. Studying Dickens’s treatment of animal fat suspended in air adds a new dimension to recent work on systems of energy expenditure and exchange in an age of industrial capitalism.

  3. Robust new NIRS coupled with multivariate methods for the detection and quantification of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabood, Fazal; Abbas, Ghulam; Jabeen, Farah; Naureen, Zakira; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Hamaed, Ahmad M; Hussain, Javid; Al-Nabhani, Mahmood; Al Shukaili, Maryam S; Khan, Alamgir; Manzoor, Suryyia

    2018-03-01

    Cows' butterfat may be adulterated with animal fat materials like tallow which causes increased serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels upon consumption. There is no reliable technique to detect and quantify tallow adulteration in butter samples in a feasible way. In this study a highly sensitive near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometric methods was developed to detect as well as quantify the level of tallow adulterant in clarified butter samples. For this investigation the pure clarified butter samples were intentionally adulterated with tallow at the following percentage levels: 1%, 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11%, 13%, 15%, 17% and 20% (wt/wt). Altogether 99 clarified butter samples were used including nine pure samples (un-adulterated clarified butter) and 90 clarified butter samples adulterated with tallow. Each sample was analysed by using NIR spectroscopy in the reflection mode in the range 10,000-4000 cm -1 , at 2 cm -1 resolution and using the transflectance sample accessory which provided a total path length of 0.5 mm. Chemometric models including principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), and partial least-squares regressions (PLSR) were applied for statistical treatment of the obtained NIR spectral data. The PLSDA model was employed to differentiate pure butter samples from those adulterated with tallow. The employed model was then externally cross-validated by using a test set which included 30% of the total butter samples. The excellent performance of the model was proved by the low RMSEP value of 1.537% and the high correlation factor of 0.95. This newly developed method is robust, non-destructive, highly sensitive, and economical with very minor sample preparation and good ability to quantify less than 1.5% of tallow adulteration in clarified butter samples.

  4. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  5. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....

  6. LiGAPS-Beef 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  7. LiGAPS-Beef 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  8. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  9. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Biodiesel Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedi...

  10. Detection of Prion Proteins and TSE Infectivity in the Rendering and Biodiesel Manufacture Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.; Keller, B.; Oleschuk, R. [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-03-15

    This paper addresses emerging issues related to monitoring prion proteins and TSE infectivity in the products and waste streams of rendering and biodiesel manufacture processes. Monitoring is critical to addressing the knowledge gaps identified in 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction' (IEA's AMF Annex XXX, 2006) that prevent comprehensive risk assessment of TSE infectivity in products and waste. The most important challenge for monitoring TSE risk is the wide variety of sample types, which are generated at different points in the rendering/biodiesel production continuum. Conventional transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) assays were developed for specified risk material (SRM) and other biological tissues. These, however, are insufficient to address the diverse sample matrices produced in rendering and biodiesel manufacture. This paper examines the sample types expected in rendering and biodiesel manufacture and the implications of applying TSE assay methods to them. The authors then discuss a sample preparation filtration, which has not yet been applied to these sample types, but which has the potential to provide or significantly improve TSE monitoring. The main improvement will come from transfer of the prion proteins from the sample matrix to a matrix compatible with conventional and emerging bioassays. A second improvement will come from preconcentrating the prion proteins, which means transferring proteins from a larger sample volume into a smaller volume for analysis to provide greater detection sensitivity. This filtration method may also be useful for monitoring other samples, including wash waters and other waste streams, which may contain SRM, including those from abattoirs and on-farm operations. Finally, there is a discussion of emerging mass spectrometric methods, which Prusiner and others have shown to be suitable for detection and characterisation of prion proteins (Stahl

  11. Business management for biodiesel producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpen, Jon Van [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  12. Production of Biodiesel from Microalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Veillette, Marc; Chamoumi, Mostafa; Nikiema, Josiane; Faucheux, Nathalie; Heitz, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be...

  13. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  14. Biodiesel production technologies: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemelis Nigatu Gebremariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a fuel with various benefits over the conventional diesel fuel. It is derived from renewable resources, it has less emission to environment, it is biodegradable so has very limited toxicity and above all its production can be decentralized so that it could have a potential in helping rural economies. However, there are also some worth mentioning challenges associated with production of biodiesel. Among them repeatedly mentioned are the cost of feedstock and the choice of convenient technology for efficient production of the fuel from diverse feedstock types. There are four main routes by which raw vegetable oil and/or animal fat can be made suitable for use as substituent fuel in diesel engines without modification. These are direct use or blending of oils, micro-emulsion, thermal cracking or pyrolysis and transesterification reaction. Due to the quality of the fuel produced, the transesterification method is the most preferred way to produce biodiesel from diverse feedstock types. Through this method, oils and fats (triglycerides are converted to their alkyl esters with reduced viscosity to near diesel fuel levels. There are different techniques to carry out transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. Each technique has its own advantages and disadvantages as well as its own specifically convenient feedstock character. There are also some very important reaction conditions to be given due attention in each of this techniques for efficient production of biodiesel, such as molar ratio of alcohol to oil, type and amount of catalyst, reaction temperature, reaction time, reaction medium, type and relative amount of solvents, among others. This review is meant to investigate the main transesterification techniques for biodiesel production in terms of their choice of feedstock character as well as their determinately required reaction conditions for efficient biodiesel production, so that to give an overview on their advantages

  15. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Amanlou, H.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Bassiri, S.; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A.; Salamatdust, R.; Moosavi, A.; Karimi, V.

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplement...

  16. Sustainable Biocatalytic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Güzel, Günduz

    and chemical equilibria as part of his main sustainable biodiesel project. The transesterification reaction of vegetable oils or fats with an aliphatic alcohol – in most cases methanol or ethanol – yields biodiesel (long-chain fatty acid alkyl esters – FAAE) as the main product in the presence of alkaline......As part of his PhD studies, Gündüz Güzel examined the thermodynamics of reactions involved in biocatalytic biodiesel production processes, with a specific focus on phase equilibria of reactive systems. He carried out the thermodynamic analyses of biocatalytic processes in terms of phase....../acid catalysts or biocatalysts (free or immobilised lipase enzymes). The reaction by-product glycerol is immiscible with the ester products (FAAE and oils/fats) in addition to the partial miscibility problem of methanol or ethanol with oils/fats. The insoluble parts of alcohol feeds or by-products form emulsion...

  17. Biodiesel Handling and Use Guide (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alleman, T.L.; McCormick, R.L.; Christensen, E.D.; Fioroni, G.; Moriarty. K.; Yanowitz, J.

    2016-11-08

    This document is a guide for those who blend, distribute, and use biodiesel and biodiesel blends. It provides basic information on the proper and safe use of biodiesel and biodiesel blends in engines and boilers, and is intended to help fleets, individual users, blenders, distributors, and those involved in related activities understand procedures for handling and using biodiesel fuels.

  18. Integrating spread dynamics and economics of timber production to manage Chinese Tallow invasions in southern U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang; William E. Grant; Jianbang Gan; William E. Rogers; Todd M. Swannack; Tomasz E. Koralewski; James H. Miller; John W. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    Economic costs associated with the invasion of nonnative species are of global concern. We estimated expected costs of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) invasions related to timber production in southern U.S. forestlands under different management strategies. Expected costs were confined to the value of timber production losses plus costs for search and...

  19. The Influence of Tallow on Rumen Metabolism, Microbial Biomass Synthesis and Fatty Acid Composition of Bacteria and Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Rumen metabolism, microbial biomass synthesis and microbial long chain fatty acid composition were studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM) with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at the low feed level (L0, L4 and L6) and 0, 2, 4 and 6% at the high...... feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Fibre digestibility was not significantly affected by tallow addition. Increasing tallow level in the diet decreased the total VFA concentration, the ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid and the ammonia concentration in the rumen. Crude fat and fatty acid content...... in bacterial and protozoal dry matter increased with increased tallow level, especially due to an increase in fatty acids originating from the feeds. Microbial synthesis in the rumen and flow of amino acids to the duodenum was highest for medium fat intake at the high feed level....

  20. A quantitative assessment of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy by tallow-based calf milk-replacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, J.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation model was constructed to assess the risk of BSE transmission to calves by calf milk-replacer (CMR). We assumed that any BSE infectivity in the CMR would be associated with the allowable levels of impurities in tallow used to manufacture the milk-replacer. Simulations used...

  1. Analysis of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is a biogenic alternative to diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced by a transesterification reaction from materials consisting largely of triacylglycerols such as vegetable and other plant oils, animal fats, used cooking oils, and “alternative” feedstocks such as algal oils. T...

  2. Why Teach about Biodiesel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Proposes that study of biodiesel as a healthier alternative to petroleum diesel be included in the curriculum. Suggests that teachers will play a critical role during the transition away from fossil fuel technologies. Provides background information and web-based resources. (DLH)

  3. Beef Production & Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, Jennifer; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  4. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  5. Prion infected meat-and-bone meal is still infectious after biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrin E Bruederle

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has led to a world-wide drop in the market for beef by-products, such as Meat-and-Bone Meal (MBM, a fat-containing but mainly proteinaceaous product traditionally used as an animal feed supplement. While normal rendering is insufficient, the production of biodiesel from MBM has been suggested to destroy infectivity from transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. In addition to producing fuel, this method simultaneously generates a nutritious solid residue. In our study we produced biodiesel from MBM under defined conditions using a modified form of alkaline methanolysis. We evaluated the presence of prion in the three resulting phases of the biodiesel reaction (Biodiesel, Glycerol and Solid Residue in vitro and in vivo. Analysis of the reaction products from 263K scrapie infected MBM led to no detectable immunoreactivity by Western Blot. Importantly, and in contrast to the biochemical results the solid MBM residue from the reaction retained infectivity when tested in an animal bioassay. Histochemical analysis of hamster brains inoculated with the solid residue showed typical spongiform degeneration and vacuolation. Re-inoculation of these brains into a new cohort of hamsters led to onset of clinical scrapie symptoms within 75 days, suggesting that the specific infectivity of the prion protein was not changed during the biodiesel process. The biodiesel reaction cannot be considered a viable prion decontamination method for MBM, although we observed increased survival time of hamsters and reduced infectivity greater than 6 log orders in the solid MBM residue. Furthermore, results from our study compare for the first time prion detection by Western Blot versus an infectivity bioassay for analysis of biodiesel reaction products. We could show that biochemical analysis alone is insufficient for detection of prion infectivity after a biodiesel process.

  6. Biodiesel scenario in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taj, S. [Bangalore Univ., Al-Ameen College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Prasad, H. [Bangalore Univ., Central College, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Chemistry; Ramesh, N. [Reva College, Bangladore (India); Papavinasam, S. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). CANMET Materials Technology Lab

    2009-08-15

    This article presented an overview of biodiesel production in India. Biodiesel has gained widespread acceptance in the United States and the European Union as a substitute for diesel. In early 2003, the Indian National Planning Commission launched a program to also foster development of vegetable oil based biofuels in order to address the energy challenges facing India. Approximately 57 per cent of rural Indian households are still not connected to the power grid, and India imports 75 per cent of its total petroleum. The National Planning Commission advocated widespread planting of an inedible, but high-yielding tree-born oilseed known as jatropha curcas that would serve as the primary feedstock for the production of vegetable oil based biofuels. Jatropha and pongamia are widely recognized as the most economically viable and environmentally neutral feedstock options. Both of these tree-borne oilseeds are adaptable to reasonably harsh climatic and growing conditions, enabling them to be cultivated on wastelands that are not currently used in agricultural production. The Commission recommended that 11.2 million hectares of jatropha be cultivated on marginal waste lands which would, over time, replace 20 per cent of total national diesel consumption with biodiesel. Both public and private sector players have begun to act on the Commission's plan. More than a hundred thousand hectares of jatropha have been planted and private firms have begun to build biodiesel processing plants. State-owned petroleum product marketing firms have committed to distributing biodiesel through some existing distribution channels. 8 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Biodiesel Fuel Technology for Military Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frame, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    This program addressed the effects of biodiesel (methyl soyate) and blends of biodiesel with petrofuels on fuel system component and material compatibility, fuel storage stability, and fuel lubricity...

  8. Biodiesel production using heterogeneous catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semwal, Surbhi; Arora, Ajay K; Badoni, Rajendra P; Tuli, Deepak K

    2011-02-01

    The production and use of biodiesel has seen a quantum jump in the recent past due to benefits associated with its ability to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG). There are large number of commercial plants producing biodiesel by transesterification of vegetable oils and fats based on base catalyzed (caustic) homogeneous transesterification of oils. However, homogeneous process needs steps of glycerol separation, washings, very stringent and extremely low limits of Na, K, glycerides and moisture limits in biodiesel. Heterogeneous catalyzed production of biodiesel has emerged as a preferred route as it is environmentally benign needs no water washing and product separation is much easier. The present report is review of the progress made in development of heterogeneous catalysts suitable for biodiesel production. This review shall help in selection of suitable catalysts and the optimum conditions for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proceedings of the 2008 marine biodiesel symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In addition to producing lower hydrocarbon emissions, marine biodiesel is biodegradable and does not harm fish. This symposium was held to discuss current marine biodiesel applications and examine methods of increasing the use of biodiesel in marine environments in British Columbia (BC). Biofuel policies and mandates in the province were reviewed, and methods of expanding the biodiesel market were explored. Updates on the use of biodiesel in ferries, tugboats, and smaller marine diesel engine applications were provided. Biodiesel projects in the United States were discussed. The environmental impacts of marine biodiesel were evaluated, and federal policies and standards for biodiesel were also outlined. The symposium was divided into the following 5 main sessions: (1) policy, (2) overviews, (3) using biodiesel in marine engines, (4) biodiesel in larger marine vessels, and (5) biodiesel quality and environmental considerations. The conference featured 13 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  10. Pyrolysis of energy cane bagasse and invasive Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera L.) biomass in an inductively heated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkel, Charles; Muley, Pranjali D.; Abdollahi, Kamran K.; Marculescu, Cosmin; Boldor, Dorin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy cane & Chinese tallow tree (CTT) biomass was pyrolyzed via induction heating. • Increasing temperature (500–700°C) increased gas yield & decreased liquid yield. • Highest liquid yield was achieved for energy cane at 500 °C. • Nitrogen and hydrogen content of CTT bio-oil increased as the temperature increased. • CTT bio-oil had higher % fatty alcohols; energy cane bio-oil was richer in phenols. - Abstract: The growing demand for energy and the increasing opposition to fossil fuels has given rise to the need for alternative fuels. The pyrolysis process is one viable option that converts lignocellulosic biomass into liquid fuel. This study focuses, for the first time, on the use of an induction heating mechanism to pyrolyze biomass from energy cane (Saccharum complex) bagasse and invasive Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera L.). Energy cane and tallow wood were pyrolyzed at 500, 550, 600, 650, and 700 °C at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory scale batch process with an initial loading of 15 g and 30 g for energy cane bagasse and CTT respectively. The results indicate that the highest liquid yield was obtained at 500 °C for both biomasses. The yields of char declined and the gas yields increased as the reaction temperature increased, as the biomass was more thoroughly decomposed at the higher reaction temperatures. GC–MS results show that the liquid product was rich in oxygenated compounds such as phenols, ketones and alcohols for biomasses at all temperatures. Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Chinese tallow tree showed small concentration of fatty alcohols. Concentration of smaller compounds in the liquid product increased as the reaction temperature increased. Highest energy content and liquid yields (34 MJ/kg and 35.4%) amongst the tested temperatures was obtained at 500 °C for both energy cane and tallow wood pyrolysis. Higher heating values were obtained for bio-oil from energy cane compared to tallow tree biomass.

  11. Production of biodiesel from microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilović Bojana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more attention has been paid to the use of third generation feedstocs for the production of biodiesel. One of the most promising sources of oil for biodiesel production are microalgae. They are unicellular or colonial photosynthetic organisms, with permanently increasing industrial application in the production of not only chemicals and nutritional supplements but also biodiesel. Biodiesel productivity per hectare of cultivation area can be up to 100 times higher for microalgae than for oil crops. Also, microalgae can grow in a variety of environments that are often unsuitable for agricultural purposes. Microalgae oil content varies in different species and can reach up to 77% of dry biomass, while the oil productivity by the phototrophic cultivation of microalgae is up to 122 mg/l/d. Variations of the growth conditions and the implementation of the genetic engineering can induce the changes in the composition and productivity of microalgal oil. Biodiesel from microalgae can be produced in two ways: by transesterification of oil extracted from biomass or by direct transesterification of algal biomass (so called in situ transesterification. This paper reviews the curent status of microalgae used for the production of biodiesel including their isolation, cultivation, harvesting and conversion to biodiesel. Because of high oil productivity, microalgae will play a significant role in future biodiesel production. The advantages of using microalgae as a source for biofuel production are increased efficiency and reduced cost of production. Also, microalgae do not require a lot of space for growing and do not have a negative impact on the global food and water supplies. Disadvantages of using microalgae are more difficult separation of biomass and the need for further research to develop standardized methods for microalgae cultivation and biodiesel production. Currently, microalgae are not yet sustainable option for the commercial

  12. The State High Biodiesel Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heasley, Paul L.; Van Der Sluys, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Through a collaborative project in Pennsylvania, high school students developed a method for converting batches of their cafeteria's waste fryer oil into biodiesel using a 190 L (50 gal) reactor. While the biodiesel is used to supplement the school district's heating and transportation energy needs, the byproduct--glycerol--is used to make hand…

  13. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  14. Importance of biodiesel as transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirbas, Ayhan

    2007-01-01

    The scarcity of known petroleum reserves will make renewable energy resources more attractive. The most feasible way to meet this growing demand is by utilizing alternative fuels. Biodiesel is defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats. Biodiesel is the best candidate for diesel fuels in diesel engines. The biggest advantage that biodiesel has over gasoline and petroleum diesel is its environmental friendliness. Biodiesel burns similar to petroleum diesel as it concerns regulated pollutants. On the other hand, biodiesel probably has better efficiency than gasoline. One such fuel for compression-ignition engines that exhibit great potential is biodiesel. Diesel fuel can also be replaced by biodiesel made from vegetable oils. Biodiesel is now mainly being produced from soybean, rapeseed and palm oils. The higher heating values (HHVs) of biodiesels are relatively high. The HHVs of biodiesels (39-41 MJ/kg) are slightly lower than that of gasoline (46 MJ/kg), petrodiesel (43 MJ/kg) or petroleum (42 MJ/kg), but higher than coal (32-37 MJ/kg). Biodiesel has over double the price of petrodiesel. The major economic factor to consider for input costs of biodiesel production is the feedstock, which is about 80% of the total operating cost. The high price of biodiesel is in large part due to the high price of the feedstock. Economic benefits of a biodiesel industry would include value added to the feedstock, an increased number of rural manufacturing jobs, an increased income taxes and investments in plant and equipment. The production and utilization of biodiesel is facilitated firstly through the agricultural policy of subsidizing the cultivation of non-food crops. Secondly, biodiesel is exempt from the oil tax. The European Union accounted for nearly 89% of all biodiesel production worldwide in 2005. By 2010, the United States is expected to become the world's largest single biodiesel market, accounting for roughly 18% of world biodiesel consumption

  15. Optimizing biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leduc, Sylvain; Natarajan, Karthikeyan; Dotzauer, Erik; McCallum, Ian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contribute to the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodiesel production in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In order to produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain - from biomass harvesting to biodiesel delivery to the consumers - is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order to determine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based on minimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportation costs. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are considered where yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivity analysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissions of the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence on the biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lower effect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locations highly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the production plant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum. In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements.

  16. Er biodiesel en god ide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jannick

    2007-01-01

    Biodiesel opfattes som en grøn miljøvenlig teknologi. Men har dette 'grønne' alternativ til konventionel diesel en skjult bagside af medaljen? Og kan det være, at man i stedet for at få et bedre miljø, medvirker til øgede miljøpåvirkninger i form af emissioner og naturødelæggelse, når man skifter...... til biodiesel? I artiklen belyses nogle af de mest sejlivede myter omkring biodiesel. Udgivelsesdato: Januar...

  17. Obtention and characterization of biodiesel; Obtencao e caracterizacao do biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Leonidas B.O. dos; Caitano, Moises; Aranda, Donato A.G.; Mothe, Cheila G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an ester resulting from the transesterification reaction of an alcohol and an oil obtained from biomass. The products of the transesterification are an ester and the glycerol. The biodiesel and the petroleum commercial diesel have similar properties, and they can be mixed and used in diesel motors. The use of biodiesel will allow a better exploration of the energetic potential of our cultures. The biodiesel has some advantages compared to others combustibles, such as adaptability to usual diesel motors and non-generation of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} compounds. Many experiments with biodiesel have been made in Brazil since the 70's. This work made samples of biodiesel by transesterification batch reactions to many blends of soybean oil and residual fry oil, at room temperature, using mechanical mixture or magnetic agitation by a magnetic stirrer, using as catalysts sodium methoxide and potassium hydroxide. For each obtained sample tests to determine the Acidity Index (ABNT-MB-74), Saponification Index (ABNT-MB-75), Iodine Wijz Index (ABNT-MB- 77), thermal analysis by DTA and TG (TA Instruments SDT 2960, 30 to 800 deg C, 10 deg C/min at nitrogen atmosphere) and rheological test (Haake RS 150 Rheo Stress rheometer) were done. (author)

  18. Toxicology of Biodiesel Combustion products

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Introduction The toxicology of combusted biodiesel is an emerging field. Much of the current knowledge about biological responses and health effects stems from studies of exposures to other fuel sources (typically petroleum diesel, gasoline, and wood) incompletely combusted. ...

  19. New technologies in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacesaria, E.; Di Serio, M.; Tesser, R.

    2009-01-01

    The cost of biodiesel is nowadays affected by the cost of the raw materials, because the currently used method of preparation requires highly refined vegetable oils containing very low amounts of free fatty acids and moisture. Alternatively, less expensive technologies are possible using heterogeneous catalysts. In the present paper examples of these new technologies, based on the use of heterogeneous catalysts, in the production of biodiesel are described and discussed. [it

  20. Biodiesel Fuel Quality and the ASTM Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and used cooking oils with alternative feedstocks such as algae receiving increasing interest. The transesterification reaction which produces biodiesel also produces glycerol and proceeds stepwise via mono- and diacylglycerol intermedia...

  1. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF... Association Louisiana Beef Industry Council Maryland Beef Council Michigan Beef Industry Commission Minnesota...

  2. Contaminantes em Biodiesel e Controle de Qualidade

    OpenAIRE

    Daiane P. C. de Quadros; UFSC; Eduardo S. Chaves; UFSC; Jessee S. A. Silva; UFSC; Leonardo S. G. Teixeira; UFBA; Adilson J. Curtius; UFSC; Pedro A. P. Pereira; Universidade Federal da Bahia

    2011-01-01

    A review on inorganic and organic contaminants in biodiesel used as fuel is presented. The main contaminants normally present in biodiesel that may affect the final product quality are discussed. The possible sources, as well as the effects of the contaminants in the production process, in the biodiesel stability and in its performance in the motor as fuel are also discussed. The criterions for the quality control of biodiesel and the limits established by the regulator agencies are described...

  3. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Blinová Lenka; Bartošová Alica; Sirotiak Maroš

    2017-01-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from ...

  4. Biodiesel Analytical Methods: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks, B.; Pruszko, R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is receiving great attention worldwide. The material contained in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about biodiesel engines and fuels, analytical methods used to measure fuel properties, and specifications for biodiesel quality control.

  5. Ecological Impact of Biodiesel Use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbis, V.; Shmigins, R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents a study of biodiesel application and its ecological impacts. Our study is based on the comparison of exhaust emission composition produced by the combustion of rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) and conventional diesel fuel (DD) and its blends in a direct injection diesel engine XD2P (YTT). The engine was tested in biofuels laboratory of LUA Motor Vehicle Institute. Fuelling the engine with biodiesel and biodiesel/diesel blend reduced oxides of nitrogen by 17.5% (100RME) and by 5.6% (35RME) and carbon monoxide by 49.8% (100RME) and by 45.3% (35RME). Fuelling the engine with biodiesel and different biodiesel/diesel blends reduced the absorbtion coefficient by 33.9% (5RME), by 44.3% (20RME) and by 51.2% (100RME) on free acceleration regime. In these tests soot reduced by 28...76.7% at full opened throttle position with 100RME. (Authors)

  6. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relat...

  7. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    G. HOLLÓ; A. KOVÁCS; G. ZSARNÓCZAY; J. SEREGI; I. HOLLÓ

    2008-01-01

    In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids) and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian) was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the ...

  8. Integrating spread dynamics and economics of timber production to manage Chinese tallow invasions in southern U.S. forestlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Hsuan Wang

    Full Text Available Economic costs associated with the invasion of nonnative species are of global concern. We estimated expected costs of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L. Small invasions related to timber production in southern U.S. forestlands under different management strategies. Expected costs were confined to the value of timber production losses plus costs for search and control. We simulated management strategies including (1 no control (NC, and control beginning as soon as the percentage of invaded forest land exceeded (2 60 (Low Control, (3 25 (Medium Control, or (4 0 (High Control using a spatially-explicit, stochastic, bioeconomic model. With NC, simulated invasions spread northward and westward into Arkansas and along the Gulf of Mexico to occupy ≈1.2 million hectares within 20 years, with associated expected total costs increasing exponentially to ≈$300 million. With LC, MC, and HC, invaded areas reached ≈275, 34, and 2 thousand hectares after 20 years, respectively, with associated expected costs reaching ≈$400, $230, and $200 million. Complete eradication would not be cost-effective; the minimum expected total cost was achieved when control began as soon as the percentage of invaded land exceeded 5%. These results suggest the importance of early detection and control of Chinese tallow, and emphasize the importance of integrating spread dynamics and economics to manage invasive species.

  9. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  10. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš

    2017-06-01

    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  12. Recent trends in biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Tabatabaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article fully discusses the recent trends in the production of one the most attractive types of biofuels, i.e., biodiesel.with a focus on the existing obstacles for its large scale production. Moreover, recent innovations/improvements under three categories of upstream, mainstream, and downstream processes are also presented. Upstream strategies are mainly focused on seeking more sustainable oil feedstocks and/or enhancing the quality of waste-oriented ones. The mainstream strategies section highlights the numerous attempts made to enhance agitation efficiency including chemical and/or mechanical strategies. Finally, the innovative downstream strategies basically dealing with 1 separation of biodiesel and glycerin, 2 purification of biodiesel and glycerin, and 3 improving the characteristics of the produced fuel, are comprehensively reviewed.

  13. Marine biodiesel use in the Puget Sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, N.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation explored the use of marine biodiesel in the Puget Sound region. Marine vessels are now adopting biodiesel fuels as a means of expressing corporate commitments to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and the environmental impacts of hydrocarbons released into marine environments. Various biodiesel blends have been designed for use in small commercial, recreational, and research vessels. Biodiesel has also been adopted by charter and whale watching vessels in the Puget Sound. The Guemes Island Ferry has recently been re-configured to use biodiesel fuels, with 2 fuel tanks capable of receiving 2200 gallons at a time. The ferry adopted biodiesel after receiving soot complaints from marinas, and hopes to serve as a model for other vessels in the region. Four fueling docks supply the biodiesel blend to marine vessels. The sale of biodiesel has doubled in some marinas over the last 5 years. Deterrents to biodiesel use include parts incompatibilities and warranty problems. Some marinas have stopped selling biodiesel as a result of low sales and high prices. It was concluded that educational programs are needed to ensure the widespread adoption of biodiesel in the Puget Sound. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  15. Leaf litter of invasive Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera) negatively affects hatching success of an aquatic breeding anuran, the southern leopard frog (Lithobates sphenocephalus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.K. Adams; D. Saenz

    2012-01-01

    Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera (L.) Small) is an aggressive invasive tree species that can be abundant in parts of its non-native range. This tree species has the capability of producing monocultures, by outcompeting native trees, which can be in or near wetlands that are utilized by breeding amphibians. Existing research suggests that leaf litter from invasive...

  16. Using internet images to gather distributional data for a newly discovered Caloptilia species (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) specializing on Chinese tallow in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese tallow tree (Triadica sebifera (L.), Euphorbiaceae) is a noxious and highly invasive species that was deliberately introduced to GA in 1772. In early 2009, an unfamiliar caterpillar was independently discovered feeding on T. sebifera trees in Gainesville, FL and Slidell, LA. Adult moths were...

  17. Digestibility of Fatty Acids in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Dairy Cows Fed with Tallow or Saturated Fats Rich in Stearic Acid or Palmitic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben; Børsting, Christian Friis

    1992-01-01

    Fatty acid digestibility was studied with five lactating cows fed three different fat sources in a 5 × 5 latin square experiment. The treatments were 500 g of tallow, 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in stearic acid (C18:0) (SARF) or 500 or 1000 g of saturated fat rich in palmitic acid (C16...

  18. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    ' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  19. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus have been reported previously. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem muscle and can influence fresh beef color stability. However, the role of mitochondrial functionality in intramuscular color variations in beef semimembranosus is yet to be ...

  20. Beef Production and Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, J.; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  1. Biodiesel via hydrotreating of fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    Biodiesel production via transesterification to fatty acid alkyl esters is rising rapidly worldwide due to the limited availability of fossil resources and the problems of global warming. Often, however, the use of 2nd-generation feedstock like animal waste fat and trap greases etc. is made...

  2. Dry aging of beef; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashmaa Dashdorj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow, eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness, microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %, trims loss (3 to 24 %, risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as “dry-aged beef”. But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  3. Chemical alternative to the energetic use of biodiesel; Chemische Alternativen zur energetischen Nutzung von Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwel, S; Ruesch genannt Klaas, M.; Harperscheid, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Getreide-, Kartoffel- und Fettforschung, Muenster (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Technologie der Fette - H.P. Kaufmann-Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Biodiesel is environment-friendly, but much more costly to produce than `normal` diesel fuel. Higher economic efficiency can be achieved by using biodiesel as a chemical feedstock instead. Tenside and polymers offer a wide range of applications. (orig) [Deutsch] Biodiesel ist ein umweltfreundlicher Kraftstoff, jedoch in der Herstellung deutlich teurer als Mineraloel-Dieselkraftstoff. Eine signifikant hoehere Wertschoepfung koennte errreicht werden, wenn Biodiesel nicht im Kraftstoffsektor, sondern als chemischer Rohstoff verwendet wird. Tenside und Polymere sind hierbei grossvolumige Einsatzbereiche. (orig)

  4. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    OpenAIRE

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI; M. F. M. GUNAM RESUL; R. YUNUS; T. C. SHEAN YAW

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR) is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing b...

  5. New regulatory landmark for biodiesel use; Novo marco regulatorio para usos de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rosangela Moreira de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Biodiesel Production and Use of Biodiesel - PNPB, made possible the insert of Biodiesel in the Brazilian energy matrix. The National Agency of the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels - ANP was responsible to create the outline regulatory that established the rules for entrance and commercialization of this new fuel in the country. This work seeks to present the effects of the implantation of the new relative rules to the biodiesel use. (author)

  6. Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Digestive Tract of Lactating Cows Fed Tallow in Increasing Amounts at Two Feed Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Børsting, Christian Friis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1992-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acid metabolism in the digestive tract was studied in lactating cows fed at two levels of dry matter intake (L, 8.6 kg DM and H, 12.6 kg DM), with 0, 4 and 6% added tallow at low feed level (L0, L4 and L6), and 0, 2, 4 and 6% fat at high feed level (H0, H2, H4 and H6). Mean fatty...... in the diet. As a mean 68% of the unsaturated C18 fatty acids were hydrogenated in the rumen. Fatty acid and crude fat true digestibilities decreased with increasing fat intakes owing to a decrease in stearic acid (C18:0) digestibility....

  7. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness....... The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...

  8. Biodiesel research progress 1992-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyson, K.S. [ed.

    1998-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fuels Development began evaluating the potential of various alternative fuels, including biodiesel, as replacement fuels for traditional transportation fuels. Biodiesel is derived from a variety of biological materials from waste vegetable grease to soybean oil. This alkyl ester could be used as a replacement, blend, or additive to diesel fuel. This document is a comprehensive summary of relevant biodiesel and biodiesel-related research, development demonstration, and commercialization projects completed and/or started in the US between 1992 and 1997. It was designed for use as a reference tool to the evaluating biodiesel`s potential as a clean-burning alternative motor fuel. It encompasses, federally, academically, and privately funded projects. Research projects are presented under the following topical sections: Production; Fuel characteristics; Engine data; Regulatory and legislative activities; Commercialization activities; Economics and environment; and Outreach and education.

  9. Are subsidies for biodiesel economically efficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassell, Charles S.; Dittmer, Timothy P.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel produces less pollution than petrodiesel; however, it is more expensive and will only be a viable alternative if market prices of the products are comparable. This paper examines whether the external benefits from biodiesel use justify subsidies required for adoption outside of niche alternative fuel markets. The authors establish a range of subsidies required to make biodiesel a viable substitute for petrodiesel. Published estimates of the emissions reductions from biodiesel and the dollar benefits of unit reductions in emissions are used to compute a per-gallon external benefit from use of biodiesel, versus petrodiesel. Under conservative estimates of the benefits from biodiesel use in non-road equipment, the external benefits outweigh the required subsidies.(JEL Q48, Q42, H2)

  10. Three years operational experience with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, J.

    2008-01-01

    TSI Terminal Systems Inc. is the largest container terminal operator in Canada, and has an annual payroll exceeding $150 million. The company started a biodiesel test program with the Canadian Bioenergy Corporation in order to assess the emission reduction impacts of using biodiesel. The pilot was tested with 6 different pieces of equipment used at the terminal over an initial period of 3 weeks. Emissions testing was then conducted for different biodiesel blend levels and compared with baseline data in relation to particulate matter, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and nitrous oxides (NO x ). Results of the tests confirmed that the biodiesel blends significantly reduced emissions at the terminal and confirmed the operability of biodiesel. Overall emissions were reduced by 30 per cent. The fuel is now being used in all the company's equipment. The use of the biodiesel has not resulted in any engine failures or power losses. tabs., figs

  11. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  12. Genetic Engineering Strategies for Enhanced Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Krishnamoorthy; Chandra, Niharika; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Veeranki, Venkata Dasu

    2015-07-01

    The focus on biodiesel research has shown a tremendous growth over the last few years. Several microbial and plant sources are being explored for the sustainable biodiesel production to replace the petroleum diesel. Conventional methods of biodiesel production have several limitations related to yield and quality, which led to development of new engineering strategies to improve the biodiesel production in plants, and microorganisms. Substantial progress in utilizing algae, yeast, and Escherichia coli for the renewable production of biodiesel feedstock via genetic engineering of fatty acid metabolic pathways has been reported in the past few years. However, in most of the cases, the successful commercialization of such engineering strategies for sustainable biodiesel production is yet to be seen. This paper systematically presents the drawbacks in the conventional methods for biodiesel production and an exhaustive review on the present status of research in genetic engineering strategies for production of biodiesel in plants, and microorganisms. Further, we summarize the technical challenges need to be tackled to make genetic engineering technology economically sustainable. Finally, the need and prospects of genetic engineering technology for the sustainable biodiesel production and the recommendations for the future research are discussed.

  13. Oxidation stability and risk evaluation of biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshino Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes oxidation and thermal stability and hazardous possibility of biodiesel by auto-oxidation. As it can be distributed using today’s infrastructure biodisel production has increased especially in the European Union. Biodiesel has many surpassing properties as an automotive fuel. Biodiesel is considered safer than diesel fuel because of the high flash point, but it has oxygen and double bond(s. Fatty acid methyl esters are more sensitive to oxidative degradation than fossil diesel fuel. The ability of producing peroxides is rather high, therefore we should care of handling of biodiesel.

  14. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than 10...

  15. Purification of crude biodiesel using dry washing and membrane technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Atadashi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purification of crude biodiesel is mandatory for the fuel to meet the strict international standard specifications for biodiesel. Therefore, this paper carefully analyzed recently published literatures which deal with the purification of biodiesel. As such, dry washing technologies and the most recent membrane biodiesel purification process have been thoroughly examined. Although purification of biodiesel using dry washing process involving magnesol and ion exchange resins provides high-quality biodiesel fuel, considerable amount of spent absorbents is recorded, besides the skeletal knowledge on its operating process. Further, recent findings have shown that biodiesel purification using membrane technique could offer high-quality biodiesel fuel with less wastewater discharges. Thus, both researchers and industries are expected to benefit from the development of membrane technique in purifying crude biodiesel. As well biodiesel purification via membranes has been shown to be environmentally friendly. For these reasons, it is important to explore and exploit membrane technology to purify crude biodiesel.

  16. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  17. BiodieselAnalyzer: a user-friendly software for predicting the properties of prospective biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Farhad Talebi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The procedures used to experimentally determine the quality parameters of a biodiesel are lengthy and expensive. Occasionally it may be impossible to obtain a sufficient amount of oil for the relevant analyses. This is often the case for algal biodiesel, for example. Here we report on a new software package, the BiodieselAnalyzer© Version 1.1, for predicting the properties of a prospective biodiesel. BiodieselAnalyzer© can estimate 16 different quality parameters of a biodiesel based on the fatty acid methyl ester profile of the oil feedstock used in making it. The current version of the BiodieselAnalyzer© is intended for the Windows platform and is publically available at http://www.brteam.ir/biodieselanalyzer.

  18. WSF Biodiesel Demonstration Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington State University; University of Idaho; The Glosten Associates, Inc.; Imperium Renewables, Inc.

    2009-04-30

    In 2004, WSF canceled a biodiesel fuel test because of “product quality issues” that caused the fuel purifiers to clog. The cancelation of this test and the poor results negatively impacted the use of biodiesel in marine application in the Pacific Northwest. In 2006, The U.S. Department of Energy awarded the Puget Sound Clean Air Agency a grant to manage a scientific study investigating appropriate fuel specifications for biodiesel, fuel handling procedures and to conduct a fuel test using biodiesel fuels in WSF operations. The Agency put together a project team comprised of experts in fields of biodiesel research and analysis, biodiesel production, marine engineering and WSF personnel. The team reviewed biodiesel technical papers, reviewed the 2004 fuel test results, designed a fuel test plan and provided technical assistance during the test. The research reviewed the available information on the 2004 fuel test and conducted mock laboratory experiments, but was not able to determine why the fuel filters clogged. The team then conducted a literature review and designed a fuel test plan. The team implemented a controlled introduction of biodiesel fuels to the test vessels while monitoring the environmental conditions on the vessels and checking fuel quality throughout the fuel distribution system. The fuel test was conducted on the same three vessels that participated in the canceled 2004 test using the same ferry routes. Each vessel used biodiesel produced from a different feedstock (i.e. soy, canola and yellow grease). The vessels all ran on ultra low sulfur diesel blended with biodiesel. The percentage of biodiesel was incrementally raised form from 5 to 20 percent. Once the vessels reached the 20 percent level, they continued at this blend ratio for the remainder of the test. Fuel samples were taken from the fuel manufacturer, during fueling operations and at several points onboard each vessel. WSF Engineers monitored the performance of the fuel systems and

  19. Mathematical Modeling Applied Transesterification Reaction Product of Synthesis from Animal Fats and Vegetable Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Thaís Chendynski; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Karina G. Angilelli; Universidade Estadual de Londrina; Bruna A. D. Ferreira; Unversidade Esadual de Londrina; Dionisio Borsato; Universidade Estadual de Londrina

    2009-01-01

    The high availability and low cost of animal fat have promoted industrial interest as a partial substitute for soybean oil for transesterification reaction product of synthesis, to reduce costs and maximize profits. This study aimed to apply experimental design for biodiesel production from a mixture of soybean oil, poultry fat, beef tallow and pork lard in order to obtain predictive equations to model the transesterification reaction yield, cloud point, pour point and oxidative stability, wi...

  20. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... onions, or onion powder; (3) Garlic, including fresh garlic, dehydrated garlic, or garlic powder; (4) Water; (5) Beef broth or beef stock; (6) Monosodium glutamate; (7) Hydrolyzed plant protein; (8) Beef...

  1. Comparison of lactational and metabolic responses of postpartum dairy heifers and cows fed diets supplemented with corn, calcium stearate and tallow

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Laurie A.

    1986-01-01

    Twenty first-calf heifers and 24 cows in their second or greater lactation were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments from day 15 to day 61 postpartum. Mixed diets consisted of corn silage, alfalfa haylage, orchard grass hay, and a pelleted concentrate. Concentrates were control (C), C + additional corn (H), C + 4% calcium stearate (S), or C + 4% tallow (T). C, S, and T contained 50:50 forage and concentrate dry matter and H contained 40:60.

  2. Bio-diesel: A candidate for a Nigeria energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, T.; Dim, L. A.; Funtua, I. I.; Oladipo, M. O. A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a review of bio-diesel development and economic potentials. The basics of biodiesel and its production technology are described. Attention is given to development potential, challenges and prospests of bio-diesel in Nigeria with ground facts on bio-diesel production feasibility in Nigeria highlighted.

  3. Biodegradability of diesel and biodiesel blends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... The biodegradability of pure diesel and biodiesel and blends with different proportions of biodiesel (2%. (commercial); 5% and 20%) was evaluated employing the respirometric method and the redox indicator. 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol (DCPIP) test. In the former, experiments simulating the ...

  4. Georges Chavanne and the first biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article discusses the first production and use of a fuel around 1937 now called biodiesel, which is obtained from a vegetable or plant oil through a straightforward chemical reaction called transesterification. Biodiesel has become an alternative or supplement to conventional diesel fuel derive...

  5. The uses of biodiesel in buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smigins, R.; Gulbis, V.

    2003-01-01

    In November 2001 in Naukseni, Valmiera district the biodiesel - methyl ester of rapeseed oil (RME) - plant first in Latvia and in all Baltic States began to work. The production capacity of the plant is 2500 t of biodiesel per year. In the summer and autumn period of the last year the first experiment using 100% RME on one city bus line was carried out. The bus Ikarus-280 in total turned 30700 km consuming 11 tons or 12600 litres of biodiesel. The fuel consumption with biodiesel was 0.9 kg/h (14.2%) or 3.01/100 km higher as with fossil diesel fuel. The engine power and the driving speed on the line were practically unchanged in spite that the heat capacity of biodiesel is lower than of ordinary diesel fuel (according 37.1 l and 42.1 MJ/kg). Using biodiesel the toxicity of the exhaust gases dropped down very essentially. It was controlled regularly by measuring the absorption coefficient and smokiness. At the end of second month of the experiment the absorption coefficient was 2.09 m -1 and 47.8%. This shows that by the influence of biodiesel the compression chambers of the engine clean from burnt parts and the combustion process most completely thanks to the oxygen content in the biodiesel (authors)

  6. Persistent organic pollutants in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in Northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this project was to study 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethans (DDTs), 12 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 6 polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in meat, liver, tallow and bone marrow from semi-domesticated reindeer. Methods Meat, liver, tallow, and bone marrow samples (n= 30) were collected from semi-domesticated reindeer in Northern Norway. Determination of the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentrations was done by using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Dependent sample t-test and Pearson’s correlation test were used in statistical analysis. Results Concentrations of the persistent organic pollutants in the samples from semi-domesticated reindeer were generally low and slightly above the limit of detection (LOD). For PCBs and OCPs, ≥ 50% of the samples had concentrations above LOD. For the DDTs and PBDEs, the proportion of samples with concentrations above LOD varied between 3.7 and 45.5% depending on the sample type. Concentrations of PCB 99, 105, 138/163, 153 and 187 differed significantly between meat and liver, whereas concentrations of PCB 183 were significantly different between tallow and bone marrow. Furthermore, concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were significantly different between meat and liver. Significant correlations were revealed in concentrations of 5 PCB congeners between the studied tissue types. Conclusion Concentrations of the POPs revealed in this study were generally low. PMID:23938064

  7. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Zhu, Zhi; Wang, Weihua; Lu, Xuefeng

    2013-12-01

    The sustainable supply of lipids is the bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here microbial recycling of glycerol, byproduct of biodiesel production to biodiesel in engineered Escherichia coli strains was reported. The KC3 strain with capability of producing fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) from glucose was used as a starting strain to optimize fermentation conditions when using glycerol as sole carbon source. The YL15 strain overexpressing double copies of atfA gene displayed 1.7-fold increase of FAEE productivity compared to the KC3 strain. The titer of FAEE in YL15 strain reached to 813 mg L(-1) in minimum medium using glycerol as sole carbon source under optimized fermentation conditions. The titer of glycerol-based FAEE production can be significantly increased by both genetic modifications and fermentation optimization. Microbial recycling of glycerol to biodiesel expands carbon sources for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process development for scum to biodiesel conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Chong-hao; Min, Min; Nie, Yong; Xie, Qing-long; Lu, Qian; Deng, Xiang-yuan; Anderson, Erik; Li, Dong; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A novel process was developed for converting scum, a waste material from wastewater treatment facilities, to biodiesel. Scum is an oily waste that was skimmed from the surface of primary and secondary settling tanks in wastewater treatment plants. Currently scum is treated either by anaerobic digestion or landfilling which raised several environmental issues. The newly developed process used a six-step method to convert scum to biodiesel, a higher value product. A combination of acid washing and acid catalyzed esterification was developed to remove soap and impurities while converting free fatty acids to methyl esters. A glycerol washing was used to facilitate the separation of biodiesel and glycerin after base catalyzed transesterification. As a result, 70% of dried and filtered scum was converted to biodiesel which is equivalent to about 134,000 gallon biodiesel per year for the Saint Paul waste water treatment plant in Minnesota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Differentiation between fresh beef and thawed frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Yang, W D; Guo, S L

    1988-01-01

    In order to prevent meat retailers offering thawed, imported frozen beef as fresh domestic beef, the method of Gottesmann and Hamm for differentiating between fresh and frozen/thawed meat is recommended. The principle of this method is based on the fact that freezing and thawing of meat results in a release of the enzyme β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HADH) from the mitochondrion into the sarcoplasm; an elevated HADH activity in the muscle press-juice indicates freezing and thawing of tissue. The HADH colour test of Gottesmann and Hamm was modified by replacing the electron-transmitter meldolablue by resazurin which results in a much higher colour stability after reaction with fresh meat extracts. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Influence of high dose of phytase and an emulsifier on performance, apparent metabolisable energy and nitrogen retention in broilers fed on diets containing soy oil or tallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaefarian, F; Romero, L F; Ravindran, V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of high dose of microbial phytase and an emulsifier on the performance, apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention in broilers fed on diets containing different fat sources were examined in a 5-week trial. Two fat sources (soy oil and tallow), two inclusion levels of E. coli phytase (500 or 1000 phytase units (FTU)/kg diet) and two inclusion levels of lysolecithin emulsifier (0 or 3.5 g/kg of diet) were evaluated in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Throughout the 5-week trial, soy oil supplementation improved weight gain and feed per gain compared with tallow, but had no effect on feed intake. The high dose of phytase increased the weight gain and feed intake and lowered the feed per gain during d 1-21, but had no effect on performance parameters over the whole trial period. An effect of emulsifier was observed for feed intake during d 1-21 and over the whole trial period. Addition of emulsifier increased feed intake compared with diets without emulsifier. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher nitrogen-corrected AME (AMEN) compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, the effect of phytase was significant for AMEN, with the high dose increasing the AMEN. During week 2, AMEN was increased with emulsifier addition. During weeks 1, 2, 3 and 5, birds fed on soy oil-based diets had higher fat retention compared with those fed on tallow-based diets. The high dose of phytase improved the retention of fat during week 5 and the addition of emulsifier resulted in higher fat retention during week 1. During weeks 2, 3 and 5, an interaction between fat source × phytase × emulsifier was observed for N retention. In soy oil-based diets, emulsifier plus 1000 FTU/kg phytase increased N retention compared with other groups, while in tallow-based diets, emulsifier addition increased N retention in diets with 500 FTU/kg, but not in 1000 FTU/kg diet. Overall, the

  11. Analysis of recycled poly (styrene-co-butadiene) sulfonation: a new approach in solid catalysts for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Garnica, Efrén; Paredes-Casillas, Mario; Herrera-Larrasilla, Tito E; Rodríguez-Palomera, Felicia; Ramírez-Arreola, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    The disposal of solid waste is a serious problem worldwide that is made worse in developing countries due to inadequate planning and unsustainable solid waste management. In Mexico, only 2% of total urban solid waste is recycled. One non-recyclable material is poly (styrene-co-butadiene), which is commonly used in consumer products (like components of appliances and toys), in the automotive industry (in instrument panels) and in food services (e.g. hot and cold drinking cups and glasses). In this paper, a lab-scale strategy is proposed for recycling poly (styrene-co-butadiene) waste by sulfonation with fuming sulfuric acid. Tests of the sulfonation strategy were carried out at various reaction conditions. The results show that 75°C and 2.5 h are the operating conditions that maximize the sulfonation level expressed as number of acid sites. The modified resin is tested as a heterogeneous catalyst in the first step (known as esterification) of biodiesel production from a mixture containing tallow fat and canola oil with 59% of free fatty acids. The preliminary results show that esterification can reach 91% conversion in the presence of the sulfonated polymeric catalyst compared with 67% conversion when the reaction is performed without catalyst.

  12. THE BEEF COW REPLACEMENT DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.; Short, Sara D.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis examines effects of several common assumptions on net present values (NPVs) of beef cows. While effects on NPVs vary over a price cycle or successive price cycles, several generalities manifest themselves. A cow is not likely to recover the lost revenue from not having just one calf. Incorporating genetic improvement into the herd increases the probability of an older cow being culled. Variable net replacement/culling rates make sense in the context of cattle inventory and price...

  13. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    add CO2 to the atmosphere, but recycles existing atmospheric CO2. The use of fossil fuels on the other hand, releases carbon that has been stored...in this test was made from recycled greases (used cooking and frying oils). 2.1.2 Test Platform and Location The RDC selected the 49’ Buoy Utility... polypropylene ) over time, so these should not be used in fuel storage and transfer systems. Biodiesel/Cummins CRADA Report 5 UNCLAS//Public | CG-926 R&DC

  14. Um desafio novo: o biodiesel Biodiesel: a new challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Leite da Silva Dias

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta nota procura mostrar a natureza da regulação de combustíveis no Brasil dentro de um monopólio de fato, com preços casados para os biocombustíveis em relação a seus substitutos fósseis mais próximos. Isso cria um ambiente de remuneração para o biodiesel muito baixo, além de subordiná-lo à logística de distribuição do monopólio. Um ambiente fora do monopólio, isento de carga fiscal e de comercialização a curtas distâncias, seria mais adequado para o ambiente requerido de incentivos para a inovação tecnológica.The regulatory framework for fuels in Brazil is an effective monopoly, with matching prices for close substitutes. Biodiesel prices are unattractive because domestic diesel prices are below international relative oil prices, transportation logistics burden furthermore with unnecessary routes designed for fossil fuels, beyond heavy indirect taxation. An alternative framework, without taxation, for short distance supply, with a large variety of raw materials is better suited for technological innovation.

  15. Biodiesel production by transesterification using immobilized lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narwal, Sunil Kumar; Gupta, Reena

    2013-04-01

    Biodiesel can be produced by transesterification of vegetable or waste oil catalysed by lipases. Biodiesel is an alternative energy source to conventional fuel. It combines environmental friendliness with biodegradability, low toxicity and renewability. Biodiesel transesterification reactions can be broadly classified into two categories: chemical and enzymatic. The production of biodiesel using the enzymatic route eliminates the reactions catalysed under acid or alkali conditions by yielding product of very high purity. The modification of lipases can improve their stability, activity and tolerance to alcohol. The cost of lipases and the relatively slower reaction rate remain the major obstacles for enzymatic production of biodiesel. However, this problem can be solved by immobilizing the enzyme on a suitable matrix or support, which increases the chances of re-usability. The main factors affecting biodiesel production are composition of fatty acids, catalyst, solvents, molar ratio of alcohol and oil, temperature, water content, type of alcohol and reactor configuration. Optimization of these parameters is necessary to reduce the cost of biodiesel production.

  16. Empirical Study of the Stability of Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends: Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Westbrook, S. R.

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a database that supports specific proposals for a stability test and specification for biodiesel and biodiesel blends. B100 samples from 19 biodiesel producers were obtained in December of 2005 and January of 2006 and tested for stability. Eight of these samples were then selected for additional study, including long-term storage tests and blending at 5% and 20% with a number of ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels.

  17. Chemical Engineering Aspects of Biodiesel Production I. Biofuels, Biodiesel Properties and Production Technology Fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinčić, D.

    2014-01-01

    The common industrial process of biodiesel production is a sequence of particular unit operations starting with raw material preparation, followed by transesterification reaction stage and ending with reaction mixture separation and treatment. The main product is biodiesel of prescribed quality while the treatment of glycerol and salt containing phase is carried out so that the by-products obtained maximize profitability of the entire undertaking. The biodiesel production process is often ...

  18. Scale up of a novel tri-substrate fermentation for enhanced production of Aspergillus niger lipase for tallow hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwinoliver, N G; Thirunavukarasu, K; Naidu, R B; Gowthaman, M K; Kambe, T Nakajima; Kamini, N R

    2010-09-01

    A novel tri-substrate fermentation (TSF) process was developed for the production of lipase from Aspergillus niger MTCC 2594 using agro-industrial residues, wheat bran (WB), coconut oil cake (COC) and an agro-product, wheat rawa (WR). The lipase activity was 628.7+/-13 U/g dry substrate (U/gds) at 30 degrees C and 96 h and growth studies indicated that addition of WR significantly augmented the biomass and lipase production. Scale up of lipase production at 100g and 3 kg (3 x 1 kg) tray-level batch fermentation resulted in 96% and 83.0% of enzyme activities, respectively, at 72 h. Maximum activity of 745.7+/-11U/gds was obtained, when fermented substrate was extracted in buffer containing 1% (w/v) sodium chloride and 0.5% (w/v) Triton X-100. Furthermore, the direct application of fermented substrate for tallow hydrolysis makes the process economical for industrial production of biofuel. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  20. Process Simulation of enzymatic biodiesel production -at what cost can biodiesel be made with enzymes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Christensen, Knud Villy; Rong, Benguang

    The industrial production of biodiesel has had a very turbulent lifetime due to drastic changes in prices of raw materials and fossil fuels as well as regulatory changes and produced amounts of biodiesel. Biodiesel production is carried out by various forms of catalysts, but industrially only...... as well as environmental impacts of the alternative process must be evaluated towards the conventional process. With process simulation tools, an evaluation will be carried out looking at what it will cost to produce biodiesel with enzymes. Different scenarios will be taken into account with variations...

  1. Prediction of cold flow properties of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Saxena

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel being environmentally friendly is fast gaining acceptance in the market as an alternate diesel fuel. But compared to petroleum diesel it has certain limitations and thus it requires further development on economic viability and improvement in its properties to use it as a commercial fuel. The cold flow properties play a major role in the usage of biodiesel commercially as it freezes at cold climatic conditions. In the present study, cold flow properties of various types of biodiesel were estimated by using correlations available in literature. The correlations were evaluated based on the deviation between the predicted value and experimental values of cold flow properties.

  2. Aqueous solubility, dispersibility and toxicity of biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollebone, B.P.; Fieldhouse, B.; Lumley, T.C.; Landriault, M.; Doe, K.; Jackman, P.

    2007-01-01

    The renewed interest in the use of biological fuels can be attributed to that fact that feedstocks for fatty-acid ester biodiesels are renewable and can be reclaimed from waste. Although there are significant benefits to using biodiesels, their increased use leaves potential for accidental release to the environment. Therefore, their environmental behaviours and impacts must be evaluated along with the risk associated with their use. Biodiesel fuels may be made from soy oil, canola oil, reclaimed restaurant grease, fish oil and animal fat. The toxicological fate of biofuel depends on the variability of its chemical composition. This study provided an initial assessment of the aqueous fate and effects of biodiesel from a broad range of commonly available feedstocks and their blends with petroleum diesels. The study focused primarily on the fate and impact of these fuels in fresh-water. The use of chemical dispersion as a countermeasure for saltwater was also investigated. The exposure of aquatic ecosystems to biodiesels and petroleum diesel occurs via the transfer of material from the non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) into the aqueous phase, as both soluble and dispersed components. The aqueous solubilities of the fuels were determined from the equilibrium water-accommodated fraction concentrations. The acute toxicities of many biodiesels were reported for 3 test species used by Environment Canada for toxicological evaluation, namely rainbow trout, the water flea and a luminescent bacterium. This study also evaluated the natural potential for dispersion of the fuels in the water column in both low and high-energy wave conditions. Chemical dispersion as a potential countermeasure for biodiesel spills was also evaluated using solubility testing, acute toxicity testing, and dispersibility testing. It was shown that biodiesels have much different fates and impacts from petroleum diesels. The compounds partitioning into the water column are also very different for each

  3. Biodiesel: Small Scale Production and Quality Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerpen, Jon

    Biodiesel is produced by reacting vegetable oils or animal fats with alcohol in the presence of an alkaline catalyst. The resulting methyl esters, which are the biodiesel fuel, are separated from the by-product glycerin, and then washed with water and dehydrated to produce fuel that must meet standardized specifications. Degraded oils containing high levels of free fatty acids can also be converted to biodiesel, but pretreatment with acid-catalyzed esterification is required. The resulting fuel is suitable for use as a neat fuel in diesel engines or blended with conventional diesel fuel.

  4. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  5. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  6. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  7. Potential for organic beef production by communal farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers perceive organic beef as healthier and safer than conventional beef, and are willing to pay a premium. Civic engagement amongst all stakeholders through efficient management of indigenous knowledge systems and science is required for establishing organic beef niche market. Keywords: Organic beef, Nguni ...

  8. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  9. Virginia 4-H Contest Guide - Beef Ambassador Contest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Beef Ambassador Contest provides the opportunity for youth to educate consumers about beef nutrition, food safety and stewardship practices of the beef industry. This program utilizes youth to tell the beef production story to consumers through promotion, education, media and the online environment.

  10. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  11. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  12. Survey of alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summarized will be results obtained from the production of biodiesel from several alternative feedstocks with promising agronomic characteristics. Such feedstocks include camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (Limnanth...

  13. Biodiesel production with immobilized lipase: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acid alkyl esters, also called biodiesel, are environmentally friendly and show great potential as an alternative liquid fuel. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils or fats with chemical catalysts or lipase. Immobilized lipase as the biocatalyst draws high attention because that process is "greener". This article reviews the current status of biodiesel production with immobilized lipase, including various lipases, immobilization methods, various feedstocks, lipase inactivation caused by short chain alcohols and large scale industrialization. Adsorption is still the most widely employed method for lipase immobilization. There are two kinds of lipase used most frequently especially for large scale industrialization. One is Candida antartica lipase immobilized on acrylic resin, and the other is Candida sp. 99-125 lipase immobilized on inexpensive textile membranes. However, to further reduce the cost of biodiesel production, new immobilization techniques with higher activity and stability still need to be explored. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Current status of biodiesel development in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Wilhelm, Helena Maria

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the concept of producing biodiesel from renewable lipid sources has regained international attention. In Brazil, a national program was launched in 2002 to evaluate the technical, economic, and environmental competitiveness of biodiesel in relation to the commercially available diesel oil. Several research projects were initiated nationwide to investigate and/or optimize biodiesel production from renewable lipid sources and ethanol derived from sugarcane (ethyl esters). Once implemented, this program will not only decrease our dependence on petroleum derivatives but also create new market opportunities for agribusiness, opening new jobs in the countryside, improving the sustainability of our energy matrix, and helping the Brazilian government to support important actions against poverty. This article discusses the efforts to develop the Brazilian biodiesel program in the context of technical specifications as well as potential oilseed sources.

  15. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...... conditions can not be elucidated. These effects have been observed with isothermal calorimetry bringing forth new information about the reaction of enzymes catalyzing transesterification. Enzymatic biodiesel production has until now not been investigated with isothermal microcalorimetry, but the results...

  16. Enzymatic biodiesel production: Technical and economical considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Nielsen, Per; Brask, Jesper; Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    It is well documented in the literature that enzymatic processing of oils and fats for biodiesel is technically feasible. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process design...... and a lack of available costeffective enzymes. The technology to re-use enzymes has typically proven insufficient for the processes to be competitive. However, literature data documenting the productivity of enzymatic biodiesel together with the development of new immobilization technology indicates...... that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. This work reviews the enzymatic processing of oils and fats into biodiesel with focus on process design and economy....

  17. Sustainable Future for Biodiesel in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Maria Amélia de Paula

    This thesis aims to study alternatives to biodiesel industry in Brazil, for 2030, taking in account the sustainability dimensions, namely economic, environmental, ecological, social, national and international politics, territorial, cultural, and technological, through the development of scenarios...... for agriculture and pasture. Thus, a simulation, using linear programming models, was made in order to verify the alternatives of feedstock to produce biodiesel. It was observed that it is possible to decentralize the market, reduce land use, and regionalize production, making better use of the availability...... to identify the driving forces to develop the scenario storylines. This proposition was tested in an in-depth interview with the biodiesel market stakeholders. Based on the findings of the two approaches, the simulations and the interviews, it was possible to obtain future alternatives, where the biodiesel...

  18. Indigenous algae: Potential factories for biodiesel production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maharajh, Dheepak M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental effects of burning fossil fuels and the increased crude oil prices have triggered increased interest in biofuels. Biodiesel is traditionally produced from oil seed crops, which have lower yields per land area and threaten food...

  19. Environment Friendly Biodiesel Fuel in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Gudriniece, E.; Strēle, M.; Skujiņš, V.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiesel fuel (RME and REE) are alternative, environment friendly fuels for diesel engines, obtained from rapeseed oil and methanol or ethanol. RME are produced with capacity 2500 t/year at SIA “Delta Riga” experimental factory Naukseni in Latvia. The laboratory method of production biodiesel fuel (REE) from rapeseed oil and ethanol has been worked out at RTU. Blends RME and REE with fossil diesel fuel are applied, as well.

  20. Degradation of automotive materials in palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    As compared to petroleum diesel, biodiesel is more corrosive for automotive materials. Studies on the characterization of corrosion products of fuel exposed automotive materials are scarce. Automotive fuel system and engine components are made from different ferrous and non-ferrous materials. The present study aims to investigate the corrosion products of different types of automotive materials such as copper, brass, aluminum and cast iron upon exposure to diesel and palm biodiesel. Changes in fuel properties due to exposure of different materials were also examined. Degradation of metal surface was characterized by digital camera, SEM/EDS and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Fuel properties were examined by measuring TAN (total acid number), density and viscosity. Among the metal investigated, copper is found to be least resistant in biodiesel and formed comparatively more corrosion products than other metals. Upon exposure of metals in biodiesel, TAN number crosses the limit given by standard while density and viscosity remain within the acceptable range of limit. -- Highlights: ► Order of incompatible metals in palm biodiesel: copper > brass > aluminum > cast iron. ► The possible reactions for the degradation of copper and cast iron have been discussed. ► For metal exposed biodiesel, only TAN number crosses the limit while density and viscosity remain within the limit. ► Copper and copper based alloy (brass) increase TAN number comparatively more than other metals.

  1. Butter as a feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michael J; Adawi, Nadia; Berry, William W; Feldman, Elaine; Kasprzyk, Stephen; Ratigan, Brian; Scott, Karen; Landsburg, Emily Bockian

    2010-07-14

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were produced from cow's milk (Bostaurus) butter by esterification/transesterification in the presence of methanol. The product was assayed according to the Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel Blend Stock (B100) for Middle Distillate Fuels (ASTM D 6751). The preparation failed to meet the specifications for flash point, free and total glycerin contents, total sulfur, and oxidation stability. Failures to meet the flash point and free/total glycerin specifications were determined to be due to interference with standard assays for these parameters by short-chain-length fatty acid esters. The oxidation stability of the butterfat FAME was improved by supplementation with a commercial antioxidant formulation. Approximately 725 ppm of antioxidant was required to meet the ASTM-specified stability value for biodiesel. This work indicates that, without further purification to reduce a slightly excessive sulfur content, fatty acid ester preparations produced from butter are unacceptable as sole components of a biodiesel fuel. However, it is possible that even without further purification a butter-based ester preparation could be mixed with biodiesel from other feedstocks to produce a blend that meets the current quality standards for biodiesel. The results presented here also illustrate some potential weaknesses in the accepted methods for biodiesel characterization when employed in the analysis of FAME preparations containing mid- and short-chain fatty acid esters.

  2. Production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in organic lambs' feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Antunović

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the production traits, blood metabolic profile and fatty acids of meat and tallow in response to the partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' feed. The research was conducted on 30 Merinolandschaf lambs of 90 days' age over 30 days. Lambs were fed with feed mixture (1000 g day−1 lamb−1. In the control group protein supplement was soybean meal (SC, while in the experimental groups soybean meal was partially replaced with 13 % peas (P13 and 26 % peas (P26. In the haematological parameters of lambs' blood, concentrations of minerals (Ca, P, Mg and Fe and biochemical parameters (urea, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulins, cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglyceride, β-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids as well as enzyme activity (ALT, AST, ALP, GGT and CK were determined. After slaughter, carcass development was measured. Samples of m. semimembranosus and tallow were taken in which concentrations of fatty acids were analysed. Values of meat pH and colour were taken 45 min 24 h post mortem, and water-holding capacity was calculated. By analysing the production properties of lamb, we found that slaughtering characteristics of lamb carcasses, haematological and most of the biochemical indicators did not differ. Urea concentrations were reduced in the blood of lambs in P13 and P26. Concentration of C18:2 n-6 increased in tallow of lambs of group SC compared to group P26 of lambs. The above-mentioned results indicate the possibility of partial replacement of soybean meal with peas in lambs' diets in organic farming without changes in production.

  3. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel

  4. Model Biaya Produksi Biodiesel Berbasis Minyak Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilita Tryana Sembiring

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable energy source in Indonesia of which the use is regulated by the government in the form of mandatory policy of biodiesel and diesel fuel blending. The production of biodiesel in Indonesia is not developed (the need is 3.4 million kiloliters but the total national production is only 1,703 kiloliters. It is because the selling price (referring to Mean of Platts Singapore is always lower than the production cost. Biodiesel production is influenced by raw materials and process technology, so it needs to be conducted biodiesel production modeling as a basis in determining the supporting policies of biodiesel selling price. The purpose of this study is to identify the raw materials, process technology, and modeling the production cost structure of palm oil-based biodiesel. Identification of raw materials was conducted by literature study and field survey to biodiesel producers. Identification of process technology was conducted by field survey and mass balance calculation using Grand Inizio technology to get the number of yield of each raw material. Then, production cost study was based on the specifications of raw materials and process technology with heuristic approach. Types and specifications of palm oil widely used by Indonesian producers are Crude Palm Oil (CPO FFA<5%, Refined Palm Oil (RPO FFA<5%, Refined Oil FFA<1%, Palm Fatty Acid Distillated (PFAD FFA 90%. The technology process used was transesterification for FFA level <1% and esterification-transesterification for FFA level <5%. The resulting yield for 1000 kg of raw material is 1051.75 kg CPO, 975.94 kg RPO and PFAD, 973.81 kg Refined Oil with Grand Inizio technology approach. The production cost model represents the total production cost influenced by the costs of Inside Battery Limit, Outside Battery Limit, general cost and glycerol value-added.ABSTRAKBiodiesel adalah sumber energi terbarukan di Indonesia yang diatur penggunaannya oleh pemerintah dalam bentuk

  5. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yihe

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model.

  6. Algae biodiesel - a feasibility report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Algae biofuels have been studied numerous times including the Aquatic Species program in 1978 in the U.S., smaller laboratory research projects and private programs. Results Using Molina Grima 2003 and Department of Energy figures, captial costs and operating costs of the closed systems and open systems were estimated. Cost per gallon of conservative estimates yielded $1,292.05 and $114.94 for closed and open ponds respectively. Contingency scenarios were generated in which cost per gallon of closed system biofuels would reach $17.54 under the generous conditions of 60% yield, 50% reduction in the capital costs and 50% hexane recovery. Price per gallon of open system produced fuel could reach $1.94 under generous assumptions of 30% yield and $0.2/kg CO2. Conclusions Current subsidies could allow biodiesel to be produced economically under the generous conditions specified by the model. PMID:22540986

  7. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  8. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Bellika, Siri Karlsen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  9. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  10. Improved oxidative stability of biodiesel fuels : antioxidant research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is a domestic, renewable fuel that is gaining wide acceptance, especially in Europe. : When blended with conventional petroleum diesel, biodiesel reduces hydrocarbon, particulate : and carbon monoxide emissions, while having minimal to no e...

  11. Business Management for Biodiesel Producers: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.

    2004-07-01

    The material in this book is intended to provide the reader with information about the biodiesel and liquid fuels industry, biodiesel start-up issues, legal and regulatory issues, and operational concerns.

  12. Performance and emission characteristics of double biodiesel blends with diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuthalingam Arun Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research on biodiesel focused on performance of single biodiesel and its blends with diesel. The present work aims to investigate the possibilities of the application of mixtures of two biodiesel and its blends with diesel as a fuel for diesel engines. The combinations of Pongamia pinnata biodiesel, Mustard oil biodiesel along with diesel (PMD and combinations of Cotton seed biodiesel, Pongamia pinnata biodiesel along with diesel (CPD are taken for the experimental analysis. Experiments are conducted using a single cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with different loads at rated 3000 rpm. The engine characteristics of the two sets of double biodiesel blends are compared. For the maximum load, the value of Specific Fuel consumption and thermal efficiency of CPD-1 blend (10:10:80 is close to the diesel values. CPD blends give better engine characteristics than PMD blends. The blends of CPD are suitable alternative fuel for diesel in stationary/agricultural diesel engines.

  13. In situ Transesterification of Microalgal Oil to Produce Algal Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This research was to process whole microalgae cells for biodiesel production without first extracting lipids. The ultimate : goal is develop a novel process for algal biodiesel production directly from microalgae cells in a single step, i.e., in situ...

  14. Evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production from wet microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Li, Shuhong; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Wet microalgae hydrolysis-esterification route has the advantage to avoid the energy-intensive units (e.g. drying and lipid extraction) in the biodiesel production process. In this study, techno-economic evaluation of hydrolysis-esterification biodiesel production process was carried out and compared with conventional (usually including drying, lipid extraction, esterification and transesterification) biodiesel production process. Energy and material balance of the conventional and hydrolysis-esterification processes was evaluated by Aspen Plus. The simulation results indicated that drying (2.36MJ/L biodiesel) and triolein transesterification (1.89MJ/L biodiesel) are the dominant energy-intensive stages in the conventional route (5.42MJ/L biodiesel). By contrast, the total energy consumption of hydrolysis-esterification route can be reduced to 1.81MJ/L biodiesel, and approximately 3.61MJ can be saved to produce per liter biodiesel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of stakeholders' attitudes towards biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul; Mahadi, Zurina; Ibrahim, Maznah; Ismail, Khaidzir

    2017-01-01

    Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, may play a decisive role in steering the direction of biodiesel development throughout the world. Past studies have suggested that public acceptance of biofuels could be shaped by critical consideration of the risk-benefit perceptions of the product, in addition to the impact on the economy and environment. The purpose of this study was to identify the relevant factors influencing stakeholders' attitudes towards biodiesel derived from crops such as palm oil for vehicle use, as well as to analyse the interrelationships of these factors in an attitude model. A survey of 509 respondents, consisting of various stakeholder groups in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia, was undertaken. The results of the study have substantiated the premise that the most important direct predictor of attitude to biodiesel is the perceived benefits ( β  = 0.80, p  < 0.001). Attitude towards biodiesel also involves the interplay between other factors, such as engagement to biotechnology, trust of key players, attitude to technology, and perceived risk. Although perceived benefit has emerged as the main predictor of public support of biodiesel, the existence of other significant interactions among variables leads to the conclusion that public attitude towards biodiesel should be seen as a multi-faceted process and should be strongly considered prior to its commercialisation.

  16. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that biodiesel produced from different oil to methanol ratios, alcohol types and shaking time exhibited considerable differences. There was also a considerable difference of biodiesel yield produced by using methanol, ethanol and 1- butanol. The biodiesel yield increased in the order of 1-butanol ...

  17. Potentials of Microalgae Biodiesel Production in Nigeria | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is high potential for largescale production of biodiesel from microalgae in Nigeria. Establishment of biodiesel production industries in Nigeria will have positive effects on socio-economic development of the country. It has been estimated that Nigeria currently needs about 27 thousand barrels of biodiesel per day to be ...

  18. Base catalyzed transesterification of sunflower oil biodiesel | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, sunflower oil was investigated for biodiesel production. Sunflower is one of the leading oil seed crop, cultivated for the production of oil in the world. It has also been considered as an important crop for biodiesel production. Seeds for biodiesel production were procured from local farmers of Attock and ...

  19. Systematic sustainable process design and analysis of biodiesel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad Imran; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is a promising fuel alternative compared to traditional diesel obtained from conventional sources such as fossil fuel. Many flowsheet alternatives exist for the production of biodiesel and therefore it is necessary to evaluate these alternatives using defined criteria and also from...... a biodiesel production case study....

  20. Increasing the extraction efficiency of algal lipid for biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-09

    Apr 9, 2014 ... for production of hydrogen, methane, vegetable oils. (triglycerides, for biodiesel), hydrocarbons and ethanol. The high calorific value lipids generated by the micro- algae and cyanobacteria are used for biodiesel (Illman et al., 2000). A mechanism that could concept-tually scale- up the yield of biodiesel ...

  1. Economic feasibility of biodiesel production from Macauba in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, Daniela de Carvalho; Steidle Neto, Antonio José; Mendes, Adriano Aguiar; Pereira, Débora Tamires Vítor

    2013-01-01

    In this work the economic feasibility of biodiesel production in Brazil by using the Macauba oil as raw matter is studied. The software SIMB-E, in which a cash flow model applied to biodiesel production is implemented, was used during simulations. Economic indexes related to biodiesel production features, as well as the competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel were considered. It was found that all of the 8 simulated scenarios were potentially profitable, but only 2 of them presented competitive biodiesel selling prices, being considered as worthwhile projects. These were seed-oil plants with alkaline transesterification. Results also indicated that the success of biodiesel production still requires additional revenues beyond that derived from biodiesel itself, including income from the feedstock coproducts and glycerol. Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. However, the domestication and improvement on processing of this species are indispensable to ensure its availability of long-term use. - Highlights: • Competitiveness between selling prices of biodiesel and petrodiesel was the main evaluated criterion. • The main criterion to suggest worthwhile projects was the biodiesel selling price. • Biodiesel plants with integrated oil mill and alkaline transesterification were profitable. • Macauba showed to be a potential crop to be used in biodiesel production. • The domestication and improvement on processing of Macauba are indispensable

  2. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  3. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML. An integrated analysis considering both agricultural and industrial sectors was identified as a key requirement to the system. Therefore, farmers and industry are the main actors in the use case diagram. As the raw material represents around 70% of the industrial cost of biodiesel production, the price negotiation of raw material (oilseeds is the central use case. Configuration, agriculture, industry, results and scenarios are the modules, which encompass the functionalities derived from the UML diagrams. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has made the BiodieselFAO available, free of charge, to around 180 professionals from 17 Latin American countries. Additionally, the developing team has supported the usage of the BiodieselFAO in several biodiesel investment analyses throughout Latin America. The system was also useful in the design and analysis of policy related to biodiesel industry in Brazil.

  4. Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products.

  5. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  6. Hypomagnesaemia in beef cows wintered in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Thompson, B K; Ho, S K; Proulx, J G

    1981-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken in northern Ontario in order to assess the magnesium status of beef cattle raised in the area. Magnesium status was assessed using several criteria including blood and urine magnesium levels, and bone biopsy samples. Eighteen groups each containing four pregnant Shorthorn beef cows were used. Each of the following three mineral feeds were offered to six groups throughout the experiment: a mineral feed without magnesium, a mineral feed containing 8% magnesium ...

  7. Australian Beef Exports: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Northern Australia's live cattle exports to Southeast Asia have increased dramatically in recent years. In Australia's current political environment calling for greater domestic value-adding, the issue of potential trade-offs between Australia's live cattle and slaughtered beef exports are examined. From an investigation into the origins of Australia's live cattle export industry and the production and marketing of beef in Australia's major live cattle importing countries, it is concluded tha...

  8. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  9. Sustainable Algae Biodiesel Production in Cold Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudras Baliga

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This life cycle assessment aims to determine the most suitable operating conditions for algae biodiesel production in cold climates to minimize energy consumption and environmental impacts. Two hypothetical photobioreactor algae production and biodiesel plants located in Upstate New York (USA are modeled. The photobioreactor is assumed to be housed within a greenhouse that is located adjacent to a fossil fuel or biomass power plant that can supply waste heat and flue gas containing CO2 as a primary source of carbon. Model results show that the biodiesel areal productivity is high (19 to 25 L of BD/m2/yr. The total life cycle energy consumption was between 15 and 23 MJ/L of algae BD and 20 MJ/L of soy BD. Energy consumption and air emissions for algae biodiesel are substantially lower than soy biodiesel when waste heat was utilized. Algae's most substantial contribution is a significant decrease in the petroleum consumed to make the fuel.

  10. Environmental accounting of biodiesel from soybeans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanelli, T.L. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    As nonrenewable energy sources are depleted globally new sources of energy are becoming necessary. One option that has been explored in recent years is biodiesel production using agricultural products such as soybeans. The emergy accounting method gives value to environmental flows of energy and it quantifies the total amount of energy that has gone in to a product. Also, it provides an inventory of inputs and outputs that can be used to analyze what, if any, types of changes can be made to specific processes within the production as well as improvements in the efficiency of the system as a whole in order to increase the viability of biodiesel as a fuel source. This evaluation uses the concept of emergy to quantify the costs and returns of biodiesel production. This study showed that, currently in the typical production system in the US, biodiesel is not competitive to fossil fuel sources regarding energy providing. But, considering the depletion of the latter source it may become part of source for society. For biodiesel from soybean oil to become more energetically competitive the agricultural production has to be improved since it demands more than 80% of the used resources. Within the soybean production, topsoil loss was responsible for more than 40% which also negatively affects the renewability of this energy source. (author)

  11. Enzymatisk omestring til produktion af biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2007-01-01

      Biodiesel er i dag sammen med bioethanol et bud på, hvordan transportsektoren kan nedbringe sin netto CO2-emission til atmosfæren og lagrene af fossilt brændstof kan strækkes. På verdensplan forventes der en produktion af biodiesel på 7,9 mio. tons i 2007. Ved den industrielle fremstilling af...... biodiesel benyttes i dag kemiske katalysatorer såsom H2SO4, NaOH, MeONa eller KOH, der efterfølgende fjernes fra den producerede biodiesel med store mængder vand og derved produceres store mængder spildevand. Ved at benytte enzymer i processen kan man reducere mængden af spildevand, der skal renses. Enzymer...... benyttes ikke i de eksisterende processer, men det forventes, at udviklingen af processerne vil øge deres anvendelse i biodieselproduktion. I artiklen præsenteres fordele og ulemper ved anvendelse af enzymer til biodiesel produktion....

  12. Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have a wide area of usage and one of them it can be used for biodiesel production. In biodiesel production, lipids containing triglyceride or free fatty acid are converted into methyl ester through trans/esterification reactions. Lipids from microalgae can be extracted by acetone and dimethyl carbonate using homogenizer. Esterification of the lipids was investigated using various catalysts and source of methyl group. Activity of homogeneous catalyst such as HCl and H2SO4 and heterogeneous catalysts such as montmorillonit K-10 and ledgestone was investigated. Moreover, methanol and dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group were also studied. Among of catalysts with methanol as source of methyl group, it was found that yield of crude biodiesel derived from Choelestrella Sp. microalgae was high over H2SO4 catalyst. On the other hand, over H2SO4 catalyst using dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group, yield of crude biodiesel significant increase. However, FAME composition of crude biodiesel was high over HCl catalyst.

  13. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  14. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  15. Mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghan; Yang, Haizhen; Wang, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Biodiesel from microalgae provides a promising alternative for biofuel production. Microalgae can be produced under three major cultivation modes, namely photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation, and mixotrophic cultivation. Potentials and practices of biodiesel production from microalgae have been demonstrated mostly focusing on photoautotrophic cultivation; mixotrophic cultivation of microalgae for biodiesel production has rarely been reviewed. This paper summarizes the mechanisms and virtues of mixotrophic microalgae cultivation through comparison with other major cultivation modes. Influencing factors of microalgal biodiesel production under mixotrophic cultivation are presented, development of combining microalgal biodiesel production with wastewater treatment is especially reviewed, and bottlenecks and strategies for future commercial production are also identified.

  16. Biodiesel as a motor fuel price stabilization mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, Teresa; Gil, José M.

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the capacity of biofuels to reduce motor fuel price fluctuations. For this purpose, we study dependence between crude oil and biodiesel blend prices in Spain. Copula models are used for this purpose. Results suggest that the practice of blending biodiesel with diesel can protect consumers against extreme crude oil price increases. - Highlights: ► We study the capacity of biofuels to reduce fuel price fluctuations. ► We focus on Spanish biodiesel market. ► Biodiesel and crude oil price dependence is studied using copula functions. ► Biodiesel can protect consumers against extreme crude oil price increases.

  17. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  18. Biodiesel Basics (Spanish Version); Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    This Spanish-language fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  19. Energy aspects of microalgal biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Martinez-Guerra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Algal biodiesel production will play a significant role in sustaining future transportation fuel supplies. A large number of researchers around the world are investigating into making this process sustainable by increasing the energy gains and by optimizing resource-utilization efficiencies. Although, research is being pursued aggressively in all aspects of algal biodiesel production from microalgal cell cultivation, cell harvesting, and extraction and transesterification steps to the final product separation and purification, there is a large disparity in the data presented in recent reports making it difficult to assess the real potential of microalgae as a future energy source. This article discusses some of the key issues in energy consumption in the process of algal biodiesel production and identifies the areas for improvement to make this process energy-positive and sustainable.

  20. Valorization of crude glycerol from biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinović Sandra S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased production of biodiesel as an alternative fuel involves the simultaneous growth in production of crude glycerol as its main by-product. Therefore, the feasibility and sustainability of biodiesel production requires the effective utilization of crude glycerol. This review describes various uses of crude glycerol as a potential green solvent for chemical reactions, a starting raw material for chemical and biochemical conversions into value-added chemicals, a substrate or co-substrate in microbial fermentations for synthesis of valuable chemicals and production of biogas and biohydrogen as well as a feedstuff for animal feed. A special attention is paid to various uses of crude glycerol in biodiesel production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 45001

  1. Isothermal calorimetry on enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk, Lene

    2008-01-01

    information about effects taking place when using lipases immobilized on an inert carrier for transesterification of a triglyceride and an alcohol as for biodiesel production. The biodiesel is produced by rapeseed oil and methanol as well as ethanol and a commercial biocatalyst Novozym 435 from Novozymes......Calorimetric investigations are very useful for real-time monitoring of reaction rate and heat. Various chemical and physical effects can be revealed and observed closely such as adsorption, mixing, evaporation, stirring and chemical reactions during a calorimetric experiment. For enzymatic...... containing a Candida Antarctica B lipase immobilized on an acrylic resin. The reaction investigated is characterized by immiscible liquids (oil, methanol, glycerol and biodiesel) and enzymes imm. on an inert carrier during reaction, which allows several effects to take place that during normal reaction...

  2. Perspectives on biodiesel as a sustainable fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janaun, Jidon [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chemical Engineering Programme, School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia); Ellis, Naoko [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The present global economy downturn affects every corner of the world including the vehicular fuel industry. This paper highlights some of the perspectives for the biodiesel industry to thrive as an alternative fuel, while discussing benefits and limitations of biodiesel. This includes the improvement of the conversion technology to achieve a sustainable process at cheaper cost, environmentally benign and cleaner emissions, diversification of products derived from glycerol, and policy and government incentives. More specifically, an overview is given on making the production process more economical by developing high conversion and low cost catalysts from renewable sources, and utilizing waste oil as feedstock. Further emphasis is given on the need for public education and awareness for the use and benefits of biodiesel, while promoting policies that will not only endorse the industry, but also promote effective land management. (author)

  3. Environmental Sustainability Analysis of Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg; Hauschild, Michael Michael Zwicky; Birkved, Morten

    like these require a life cycle perspective on the biofuel - from the cradle (production of the agricultural feedstock) to the grave (use as fuel). An environmental life cycle assessment is performed on biodiesel to compare different production schemes including chemical and enzymatic esterification...... with the use of methanol or ethanol. The life cycle assessment includes all processes needed for the production, distribution and use of the biodiesel (the product system), and it includes all relevant environmental impacts from the product system, ranging from global impacts like climate change and loss...... of non-renewable resources over regional impacts like acidification, eutrophication and photochemical ozone to more local impacts like ecotoxicity and physical impacts like land use, to allow judging on the overall environmental sustainability of the biodiesel and to support identification of the main...

  4. [Studies of enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Tan, Tian-Wei; Wang, Fang

    2003-01-01

    Biodiesel, an alternative diesel fuel, fatty acid alkyl ester, is made from renewable biological sources such as vegetable oils and animal fats. Two processes for biodiesel synthesis, enzymatic lipase catalytic esterification from fatty acid and transesterification from oils and fats, was investigated. The effects of various lipases, enzyme amount and purity, solvent, water absorbent, inhibition of short chains alcohol, specificity of substrate, molar ratio of substrate on esterification were studied in detail. The esterification degree with the optimal parameter and process can reach up to 92%. The purity of biodiesel obtained by separation and purification is up to 98%, and the half-life of the immobilized lipase for the esterification process can be up to 360hr, Moreover, the preliminary studies of the transesterification including the amount of methanol and mode of adding methanol into reaction system were made. The transesterification degree with adding methanol stepwise can reach 83%.

  5. Improvement of biodiesel methanol blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Datta Bharadwaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to improve the performance of biodiesel–methanol blends in a VCR engine by using optimized engine parameters. For optimization of the engine, operational parameters such as compression ratio, fuel blend, and load are taken as factors, whereas performance parameters such as brake thermal efficiency (Bth and brake specific fuel consumption (Bsfc and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide (CO, unburnt hydrocarbons (HC, Nitric oxides (NOx and smoke are taken as responses. Experimentation is carried out as per the design of experiments of the response surface methodology. Optimization of engine operational parameters is carried out using Derringers Desirability approach. From the results obtained it is inferred that the VCR engine has maximum performance and minimum emissions at 18 compression ratio, 5% fuel blend and at 9.03 kg of load. At this optimized operating conditions of the engine the responses such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbons, nitric oxide, and smoke are found to be 31.95%, 0.37 kg/kW h, 0.036%, 5 ppm, 531.23 ppm and 15.35% respectively. It is finally observed from the mathematical models and experimental data that biodiesel methanol blends have maximum efficiency and minimum emissions at optimized engine parameters.

  6. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group......Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  7. Improving the low temperature properties of biodiesel fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhale, Purnanand Vishwanathrao; Deshpande, Nishikant V.; Thombre, Shashikant B. [Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, Mechanical Engineering, South Ambazari Road, Near Bajaj Nagar, 440011 Nagpur, Maharashtra (India)

    2009-03-15

    The use of biodiesel as a diesel fuel extender and lubricity improver is rapidly increasing. While most of the properties of biodiesel are comparable to petroleum based diesel fuel, improvement of its low temperature flow characteristic still remains one of the major challenges when using biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. The biodiesel fuels derived from fats or oils with significant amounts of saturated fatty compounds will display higher cloud points and pour points. This paper is aimed to investigate the cold flow properties of 100% biodiesel fuel obtained from Madhuca indica, one of the important species in the Indian context. In this paper, the cold flow properties of biodiesel were evaluated with and without pour point depressants towards the objectives of identifying the pumping and injecting of these biodiesel in CI engines under cold climates. Effect of ethanol, kerosene and commercial additive on cold flow behavior of this biodiesel was studied. A considerable reduction in pour point has been noticed by using these cold flow improvers. The performance and emission with ethanol blended Mahua biodiesel fuel and ethanol-diesel blended Mahua biodiesel fuel have also been studied. A considerable reduction in emission was obtained. Ethanol blended biodiesel is totally a renewable, viable alternative fuel for improved cold flow behavior and better emission characteristics without affecting the engine performance. (author)

  8. Microbial degradation of palm (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Lutz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of biodegradation of palm-derived fatty methyl and ethyl esters (Elaeis guineensis biodiesel by a wild-type aerobic bacterial population was measured at 20 °C, as the rate of oxygen uptake by a manometric technique. The methyl and ethyl biodiesels were obtained by potassium-hydroxide catalysed transesterification of palm oil, respectively. The bacterial flora included the genera Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter and Enterobacter. The rate of oxygen uptake for palm biodiesel is similar to the quantity observed in the biodegradation of 1.0 mM solutions of simple substrates such as carbohydrates or amino acids.Palm methyl or ethyl biodiesel is subjected to facile aerobic biodegradation by wild-type bacteria commonly present in natural open environments. This result should lessen any environmental concern for its use as alternative fuel, solvent or lubricant. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(1: 59-63.Epub 2006 Mar 31.La cinética de la biodegradación de los ésteres metílicos y etílicos derivados de palma (biodiesel por una población silvestre de bacterias aeróbicas fue medida a 20 °C, como medición manométrica del consumo de oxígeno. Los ésteres metílicos y etílicos se obtuvieron por transesterificación del aceite de palma con metanol y etanol,respectivamente. La flora bacteriana incluyó a los géneros Bacillus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Citrobacter y Enterobacter. Las velocidades de consumo de oxígeno para las muestras de biodiesel fueron similares a lo observado en la biodegradación de disoluciones 1.0 mM de sustratos sencillos solubles en agua, tales como carbohidratos, aminoácidos y albúmina de huevo.

  9. Anaerobic Biodegradation of soybean biodiesel and diesel blends under sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotransformation of soybean biodiesel and its biodiesel/petrodiesel blends were investigated under sulfate-reducing conditions. Three blends of biodiesel, B100, B50, and B0, were treated using microbial cultures pre-acclimated to B100 (biodiesel only) and B80 (80% biodiesel and ...

  10. Algal biodiesel economy and competition among bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the possible results of policy support in developed and developing economies for developing algal biodiesel through to 2040. This investigation adopts the Taiwan General Equilibrium Model-Energy for Bio-fuels (TAIGEM-EB) to predict competition among the development of algal biodiesel, bioethanol and conventional crop-based biodiesel. Analytical results show that algal biodiesel will not be the major energy source in 2040 without strong support in developed economies. In contrast, bioethanol enjoys a development advantage relative to both forms of biodiesel. Finally, algal biodiesel will almost completely replace conventional biodiesel. CO(2) reduction benefits the development of the bio-fuels industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Karin; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Gerd; Hagemann, Elke; Kienast, Walter

    2013-07-09

    The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 intervention the amounts of 18:3 n -3, EPA and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n -3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3 n -3 and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n -3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  12. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  13. Isothermal calorimetry of enzymatic biodiesel reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjerbæk Søtoft, Lene; Westh, Peter; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2010-01-01

      Isothermal calorimetry ITC has been used to investigate enzymatic biodiesel production. The transesterification of rapeseed oil with methanol and ethanol was catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Novozym 435 at 40°C. The ITC-experiments clearly demonstrate the possibilities of investigating complex...... and composition change in the system, the heat of reaction at 40°C for the two systems has been determined to -9.8 ± 0.9 kJ/mole biodiesel formed from rapeseed oil and methanol, and - 9.3 ± 0.7 kJ/mole when rapeseed oil and ethanol is used....

  14. Cetane Number of Biodiesel from Karaya Oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wasfi, Bayan

    2017-04-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable fuel alternative to petroleum Diesel, biodiesel has similar characteristic but with lesser exhaust emission. In this study, transesterification of Karaya oil is examined experimentally using a batch reactor at 100-140°C and 5 bar in subcritical methanol conditions, residence time from 10 to 20 minutes, using a mass ratio 6 methanol-to-vegetable oil. Methanol is used for alcoholysis and sodium hydroxide as a catalyst. Experiments varied the temperature and pressure, observing the effect on the yield and reaction time. In addition, biodiesel from corn oil was created and compared to biodiesel from karaya oil. Kinetic model proposed. The model estimates the concentration of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and methyl esters during the reaction. The experiments are carried out at temperatures of 100°C and above. The conversion rate and composition of methyl esters produced from vegetable oils are determined by Gas Chromatography Analysis. It was found that the higher the temperature, the higher reaction rate. Highest yield is 97% at T=140°C achieved in 13 minutes, whereas at T=100°C yield is 68% in the same time interval. Ignition Quality Test (IQT) was utilized for determination of the ignition delay time (IDT) inside a combustion chamber. From the IDT cetane number CN inferred. In case of corn oil biodiesel, the IDT = 3.5 mS, leading to a CN = 58. Whereas karaya oil biodiesel showed IDT = 2.4 mS, leading to a CN = 97. The produced methyl esters were also characterized by measurements of viscosity (υ), density (ρ), flash point (FP) and heat of combustion (HC). The following properties observed: For corn biodiesel, υ = 8.8 mPa-s, ρ = 0.863 g/cm3, FP = 168.8 °C, and HC = 38 MJ/kg. For karaya biodiesel, υ = 10 mPa-s, ρ = 0.877 g/cm3, FP = 158.2 °C, and HC = 39 MJ/kg.

  15. Cottonseed oil for biodiesel production; Oleo de algodao para a producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna L.M.T.; Park, Kil J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Ferrari, Roseli A.; Miguel, Ana M.R.O. [Instituto de Tecnologia de Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)], Emails: roseliferrari@ital.sp.gov.br, anarauen@ital.sp.gov.br, kil@feagri.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    Crude cottonseed oil is an alternative for biodiesel production, mostly in Mato Grosso State, where its production is the biggest of Brazil. Even being an acid oil, esterification reaction, followed by transesterification, could make possible the biodiesel production. In this study, crude cottonseed oil obtained from expelled process was reacted to evaluate molar ration and catalyst concentration effects in biodiesel yield. Molar ratio varied from 3 to 15 moles of ethanol to 1 mol of oil, and catalyst, from 1 to 5% by oil mass. Statistic analysis showed that none of studied variables was significant, for the values range. Biodiesel yield had a maximum of 88%, for molar ratio of 4.7 and 4.42% of catalyst concentration. A combination of oil with high free fatty acid content and ethanol as alcohol, affected the separation between esters and glycerol. (author)

  16. Exhaust gas emissions and mutagenic effects of modern diesel fuels, GTL, biodiesel and biodiesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schroeder, Olaf [Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas, Forestry and Fisheries, Braunschweig (Germany)], E-mail: axel.munack@vti.bund.de; Krahl, Juergen [Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences (Germany); Buenger, Juergen [University of Bochum (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel can be used alone (B100) or blended with petroleum diesel in any proportion. The most popular biodiesel blend in the U.S.A. is B20 (20% biodiesel, 80% diesel fuel), which can be used for Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) compliance. In the European Union, the use of biofuel blends is recommended and was introduced by federal regulations in several countries. In Germany, biodiesel is currently blended as B5 (5% biodiesel) to common diesel fuel. In 2008, B7 plus three percent hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) as well is intended to become mandatory in Germany. To investigate the influence of blends on the emissions and possible health effects, we performed a series of studies with several engines (Euro 0, III and IV) measuring regulated and non-regulated exhaust compounds and determining their mutagenic effects. Emissions of blends showed an approximate linear dependence on the blend composition, in particular when regulated emissions are considered. However, a negative effect of blends was observed with respect to mutagenicity of the exhaust gas emissions. In detail, a maximum of the mutagenic potency was found in the range of B20. From this point of view, B20 must be considered as a critical blend, in case diesel fuel and biodiesel are used as binary mixtures. (author)

  17. Thermodegradation of biodiesel: thermoanalytical and rheological characterization; Degradacao termica de biodiesel: caracterizacao termoanalitica e reologica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Everson L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Gilmar T.; Gadelha, Tatiana S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Brazil is a country of extensive agricultural land and great oil consumption and these factors favor biodiesel production in this country. In order for diesel/biodiesel mixtures to be effectively employed in diesel engines, a rigid quality control of these mixtures is needed. Biodiesel and mixtures must have their quality monitored with respect to oxidative resistance, thermal stability, fluidity and volatility, properties which can be modified by the adverse transport and stock conditions prior to consumption. Oxidation is the main degradation mechanism of products under transport and stock conditions, which can lead to significant economical losses. In this work sought the thermal degradation of neat biodiesel, synthesized in our laboratories was monitored. Thermal aging was conducted at 210 deg C for up to 1000 h. Virgin and thermally degraded samples were characterized by rheological measurements (in different shear conditions); FTIR; density and by color changes. We concluded that the soy biodiesel was successfully synthesized and that thermal exposure caused thermal-oxidative degradation of the biodiesel sample, significantly changing its properties as a function of thermal exposure times. (author)

  18. KINETIKA TRANSESTERIFIKASI BIODIESEL JARAK PAGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchori Luqman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel were produced by trans-etherification of castor oil with alcohol in the presence of NaOH catalyst. Thereaction mechanism and model of castor oil trans-etherification isA + 3B C + 3 DA, B, C, and D were castor oil, alcohol, glycerol, and ester. The reaction rate equation was r=-dCA/dt =k1(CA(CB3–k2(CC(CD3. In this study was used two measurement method of free fat acid as the rest content ofcastor oil with SNI 01-3555-1998 and AOAC (Association of Analytical Chemist. It found that SNI 01-3555-1998 method was the easier and the acurate measurement. The classification of alcohol used was methanol andethanol to compare the action both of them. Methanol produces the higher conversion than ethanol. The reactionin a batch reactor with temperature 40, 50, and 60°C in atmospheric pressure as the operation condition tolooking for kinetics parameter of trans-etherification. Coefficient reaction rate and activation energy were lookinto kinetics study. Reaction rate was a mathematics model as a function of concentration and time which solvedby Runge-Kutta, multivariable optimization and SSE (some square error method using Matlab. The activationenergy (Ea and impact factor (A obtained by linier regression method. The result of study obtained the kineticsparameter of trans-etherification with methanol k1=1.9313x1031exp (-41.940/RT average error 0.0010 andk2=2.7678x1025exp(-37.362/ RT average error 0.0003. While kinetics parameter of trans-etherification withethanol obtained k1=1.168x1019exp(-24.588/ RT average error 0.0306 and k2=4.9966x106exp(-10.328/RTaverage error 0.1589. It means, more reactive alcohol then bigger the value of kinetics parameter.

  19. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  20. The economic analysis of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic efficiency of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State. In this regard, the different marketing function performed by the beef sellers were identified and evaluated. Also the size and different components of beef marketing costs and margins were determined. A total sample of 110 respondents ...

  1. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  2. Biodiesel waste products as soil amendments : evaluation of microbial, biological, and plant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-22

    During biodiesel production, about 200 lbs of glycerol, commonly called glycerin, is produced for every 1 ton of biodiesel. As the : biodiesel industry grows, so does the need to dispose of this waste product. While potential uses for glycerin exist,...

  3. Biodiesel generation from oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula glutinis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-19

    Sep 19, 2007 ... This study explored a strategy to convert agricultural and forestry residues into microbial lipid, which could be further transformed into biodiesel. Among the 250 yeast strains screened for xylose assimilating capacity, eight oleaginous yeasts were selected by Sudan Black B test. The lipid content of these 8 ...

  4. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied

  5. Assessment of indigenous bacteria from biodiesel effluents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to identify indigenous microorganisms which have the capability to degrade biodiesel contaminated sites. Bacterial isolates were identified on the basis of morphological and biochemical characterization in which nine bacteria were isolated from the site, Staphylococcus aureus and ...

  6. Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Gerpen, J.; Shanks,B.; Pruszko,R.; Clements, D.; Knothe, G.

    2004-07-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe. The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the process and issues involved in producing this fuel.

  7. WI Biodiesel Blending Progream Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redmond, Maria E; Levy, Megan M

    2013-04-01

    The Wisconsin State Energy Office's (SEO) primary mission is to implement cost effective, reliable, balanced, and environmentally friendly clean energy projects. To support this mission the Wisconsin Biodiesel Blending Program was created to financially support the installation infrastructure necessary to directly sustain biodiesel blending and distribution at petroleum terminal facilities throughout Wisconsin. The SEO secured a federal directed award of $600,000 over 2.25 years. With these funds, the SEO supported the construction of inline biodiesel blending facilities at two petroleum terminals in Wisconsin. The Federal funding provided through the state provided a little less than half of the necessary investment to construct the terminals, with the balance put forth by the partners. Wisconsin is now home to two new biodiesel blending terminals. Fusion Renewables on Jones Island (in the City of Milwaukee) will offer a B100 blend to both bulk and retail customers. CITGO is currently providing a B5 blend to all customers at their Granville, WI terminal north of the City of Milwaukee.

  8. Evaluation of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel Produced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-edible vegetable oils of Jatropha curcas, neem, castor, rubber and edible oils of soyabean and cotton were investigated for their use as biodiesel feedstock. The analysis of different oil properties, fuel properties of non-edible and edible vegetable oils were investigated in detail. A two-step and transesterification ...

  9. Uncertainties in the Bidirectional Biodiesel Supply Chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bot, Pieter; van Donk, Dirk Pieter; Pennink, Bartjan; Simatupang, Togar M.

    2015-01-01

    For remote areas, small-scale local biodiesel production is particularly attractive if producers and consumers are the same. Such supply chains are labeled as bidirectional. However, little is known on how raw material supply, transportation, logistics, production and operations uncertainties impact

  10. Biodiesel Technical Update for Purdue Road School

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Steve; Calvin, Mick

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is endorsed by all major diesel engine manufacturers and continues to change the landscape as an alternative to conventional diesel fuel. Its usage and demand are on the rise because of EPA regulations and the fact that it is better for the environment and reduces our demand for hydrocarbon fossil fuels. Join us to learn more about this clean-burning fuel.

  11. Sustainable biodiesel production by catalytic reactive distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter outlines the properties of biodiesel as renewable fuel, as well as the problems associated with its conventional production processes. The synthesis via fatty acid esterification using solid acid catalysts is investigated. The major challenge is finding a suitable catalyst that is

  12. Lipases as biocatalysts for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjanović Nevena D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases can be used for a variety of biotechnological applications: synthesis of fine chemicals, therapeutics, agrochemicals, cosmetics, flavors, biopolymers and biodiesel. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is environmentally acceptable. Conventionally, biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides and short chain alcohols in the presence of an acid or an alkaline catalyst. There are several problems associated with this kind of production that can be resolved by using lipase as the biocatalyst. The usage of lipases has several advantages over the conventional chemical methods. It is considered as less energy intensive and environmentally friendly. However, there are two main obstacles associated with the effective utilization of lipases in the production of biodiesel. The main one is the cost of the enzyme and its poor stability in the presence of excess alcohol. Several strategies are proposed to overcome these drawbacks: immobilization of lipases, stepwise addition of alcohol, and the usage of novel acyl acceptors and the usage of whole cell biocatalysts.

  13. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature. Prepared for submission to Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry as a communication.

  14. Biodiesel intercity passenger rail revenue service test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Amtrak, with the support of the Federal Railroad Administration, operated a P-32 passenger locomotive in revenue service for a : period of 12 months, on a blend of 20 percent pure biodiesel and 80 percent #2 ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel. The G...

  15. Novel polymeric products derived from biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel (produced by reacting a triglyceride with an alcohol) is increasingly being used as diesel fuel and heating oil, especially in Europe. Because of its availability and favorable environmental profile, it may be useful as a renewable feedstock for new polymers. In this work we introduced t...

  16. Hydrotreatment of Oils and Fats for Biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    The use of renewable biofuels in the transport sector represents an important step towards a sustainable society. Biodiesel is currently produced by the transesterification of fats and oils with methanol, but another viable method could be reaction of the feedstock with H2 to produce long...

  17. Biodiesel's Characteristics Preparation from Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilani Hamid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Using vegetable oils directly as an alternative diesel fuel has presented engine problems. The problems have been attributed to high viscosity of vegetable oil that causes the poor atomization of fuel in the injector system and pruduces uncomplete combustion. Therefore, it is necessary to convert the vegetable oil into ester (metil ester by tranesterification process to decrease its viscosity. In this research has made biodiesel by reaction of palm oil and methanol using lye (NaOH as catalyst with operation conditions: constant temperature at 60 oC in atmosferic pressure, palm oil : methanol volume ratio = 5 : 1, amount of NaOH used as catalyst = 3.5 gr, 4.5 gr, 5 gr and 5.5 gr and it takes about one hour time reaction. The ester (metil ester produced are separated from glycerin and washed until it takes normal pH (6-7 where more amount of catalyst used will decrease the ester (biodiesel produced. The results show that biodiesels' properties made by using 3.5 (M3.5 gr, 4.5 gr (M4.5 and 5 (M5.0 gr catalyst close to industrial diesel oil and the other (M5.5 closes to automotive diesel oil, while blending diesel oil with 20 % biodiesel (B20 is able to improve the diesel engine performances.

  18. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of biodiesel and its blends synthesized from coconut oil (CNO) via alkali catalyzed transeterification on the key fuel properties and corrosion characteristics of copper were investigated. The transesterification of the CNO via ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide was performed and the resulting coconut ...

  19. Determination of optimum growth conditions and biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... exposure time (during the 90 min). The results of the experiment on the effect of simultaneous exposure to sunlight and CO2 for certain times daily, for 25 days, show that the growth rate is directly proportional to the increase of sunlight and CO2 exposure time. Key words: Algal oil, biodiesel, transesterification, glycerine.

  20. Blending Biodiesel in Fishing Boat Fuels for Improved Fuel Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Cherng-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel is a renewable, clean, alternative energy source with advantages, such as excellent lubricity, superior biodegradability, and high combustion efficiency. Biodiesel is considered for mixing with fishing boat fuels to adjust their fuel characteristics so that toxic pollutants and greenhouse-effect gas emissions from such shipping might be reduced. The effects of blending fishing boat fuels A and B with various weight proportions of biodiesel are experimentally investigated in this study. The results show that biodiesel blending can significantly improve the inferior fuel properties of both fishing boat fuels and particularly fuel B. The flash points of both of these fuels increases significantly with the addition of biodiesel and thus enhances the safety of transporting and storing these blended fuels. The flash point of fishing boat fuel B even increases by 16% if 25 wt.% biodiesel is blended. The blending of biodiesel with no sulfur content is found to be one of the most effective ways to reduce the high sulfur content of fishing boat fuel, resulting in a reduction in the emission of sulfur oxides. The addition of only 25 wt.% biodiesel decreased the sulfur content of the fishing boat fuel by 37%. The high kinematic viscosity of fishing boat fuel B was also observed to be reduced by 63% with the blending of just 25 wt.% biodiesel. However, biodiesel blending caused a slight decrease in heating value around 1–4.5%.

  1. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  2. Mackerel biodiesel production from the wastewater containing fish oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.P.; Huang, H.M.; Lin, Y.F.; Huang, W.D.; Huang, Y.J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine fish such as mackerel are important for coastal fisheries in Taiwan. Nearly 60,000 tons of mackerel are produced in Suao, I-lan, Taiwan every year. In this study, oil from the discarded parts of mackerel fish contained in wastewater stream were used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The major fuel properties of MB (mackerel biodiesel), including the iodine value, dynamic viscosity, flash point, and heat value, were determined and compared with sunflower seed oil methyl ester (SFM), JCB (Jatropha curcas biodiesel), and premium diesel (D). MB had a higher iodine value, dynamic viscosity, density, and flash point, but a lower heat value, than did D. MB was also used as fuel in a regular diesel engine to verify its emission characteristics. The MB fuel used for exhaust emission test included pure MB (MB100) and a 20% MB blend with premium diesel (MB20). The exhaust emission of MB was also compared with the exhaust emissions of D and JCB. The results showed that MB20 provided a significant reduction in NO, NO x , and SO 2 emissions under varied engine loads, and required no engine modification. - Highlights: • Biodiesel was produced from wastewater containing mackerel fish oil. • Mackerel biodiesel is compared with Jatropha biodiesel and sunflower seed biodiesel. • MBE (mackerel biodiesel) was found to contain higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids. • Mackerel biodiesel, diesel, and Jatropha biodiesel emissions are compared

  3. Profitability and sustainability of small - medium scale palm biodiesel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, Maharani Dewi; Kismanto, Agus; Raksodewanto, Agus; Peryoga, Yoga

    2017-06-01

    The mandatory of biodiesel application at 20% blending (B20) has been started since January 2016. It creates huge market for biodiesel industry. To build large-scale biodiesel plant (> 100,000 tons/year) is most favorable for biodiesel producers since it can give lower production cost. This cost becomes a challenge for small - medium scale biodiesel plants. However, current biodiesel plants in Indonesia are located mainly in Java and Sumatra, which then distribute biodiesel around Indonesia so that there is an additional cost for transportation from area to area. This factor becomes an opportunity for the small - medium scale biodiesel plants to compete with the large one. This paper discusses the profitability of small - medium scale biodiesel plants conducted on a capacity of 50 tons/day using CPO and its derivatives. The study was conducted by performing economic analysis between scenarios of biodiesel plant that using raw material of stearin, PFAD, and multi feedstock. Comparison on the feasibility of scenarios was also conducted on the effect of transportation cost and selling price. The economic assessment shows that profitability is highly affected by raw material price so that it is important to secure the source of raw materials and consider a multi-feedstock type for small - medium scale biodiesel plants to become a sustainable plant. It was concluded that the small - medium scale biodiesel plants will be profitable and sustainable if they are connected to palm oil mill, have a captive market, and are located minimally 200 km from other biodiesel plants. The use of multi feedstock could increase IRR from 18.68 % to 56.52 %.

  4. Production and application of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuly, S. S.; Saha, M.; Mustafi, N. N.; Sarker, M. R. I.

    2017-06-01

    Biodiesel has been identified as an alternative and promising fuel source to reduce the dependency on conventional fossil fuel in particular diesel. In this work, waste cooking oil (WCO) of restaurants is considered to produce biodiesel. A well-established transesterification reaction by sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalytic and supercritical methanol (CH3OH) methods are applied to obtain biodiesel. In the catalytic transesterification process, biodiesel and glycerine are simultaneously produced. The impact of temperature, methanol/WCO molar ratio and sodium hydroxide concentration on the biodiesel formation were analysed and presented. It was found that the optimum 95% of biodiesel was obtained when methanol/WCO molar ratio was 1:6 under 873 K temperature with the presence of 0.2% NaOH as a catalyst. The waste cooking oil blend proportions were 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% and named as bio-diesel blends B-10, B-15, B-20, and B-25, respectively. Quality of biodiesel was examined according to ASTM 6751: biodiesel standards and testing methods. Important fuel properties of biodiesel, such as heating value, cetane index, viscosity, and others were also investigated. A four-stroke single cylinder naturally aspirated DI diesel engine was operated using in both pure form and as a diesel blend to evaluate the combustion and emission characteristics of biodiesel. Engine performance is examined by measuring brake specific fuel consumption and fuel conversion efficiency. The emission of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and others were measured. It was measured that the amount of CO2 increases and CO decreases both for pure diesel and biodiesel blends with increasing engine load. However, for same load, a higher emission of CO2 from biodiesel blends was recorded than pure diesel.

  5. Novel process integration for biodiesel blend in membrane reactive divided wall (MRDW) column

    OpenAIRE

    Sakhre Vandana; Jain Sanjeev; Sapkal Vilas S.; Agarwal Dev P.

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a novel process integration for biodiesel blend in the Membrane assisted Reactive Divided Wall Distillation (MRDW) column. Biodiesel is a green fuel and grade of biodiesel blend is B20 (%) which consist of 20% biodiesel and rest 80% commercial diesel. Instead of commercial diesel, Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (TAEE) was used as an environment friendly fuel for blending biodiesel. Biodiesel and TAEE were synthesized in a pilot scale reactive distillation column. Dual reactive d...

  6. BIODIESELS AS A FUNCTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available As of July 1st 2013. the Republic of Croatia will be a member of the European Union, which will primarily bring necessary harmonisation of ecological standards and requirements. Biodiesel, as a renewable source of energy, can be produced from algae, vegetable oil, and animal fats, and thus it is biodegradable. Biodiesel in Croatia is mainly produced from oilseed rape which, as an agricultural plant, has an increasing share in the past three years and records positive trends. This paper analyses the trend of production in the Republic of Croatia, and compares it with the production and consumption of fossil fuels. On the grounds of Croatia’s favourable agriculture-related climatic characteristics, in particular in the region of Slavonija and Baranja, more intense exploitation of farm land under the cultures intended for biodiesel production can be organised aiming at bumper yield and production. Croatia has already harmonised its standards of production of biodiesel, and by 2020 the consumption of biodiesel is bound to reach 20%. The data used in this paper are obtained from the sources available by Croatian Institute of Statistics, Market Information System in Agriculture, as well as Eurostat, and the rest used here are translated from the sources in the English language. The reviewed are the surfaces planted with oilseed rape in the period between 2007. and 2011., an average yield, and overall production. On the grounds of available information, the calculations of the quantity of bio fuel to be consumed in Croatia by 2020. and the percentage of the land surfaces planted with oilseed rape have been made.

  7. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack......Executive summary 1. This report describes and analyses the market for fresh beef in Europe including both supply and demand issues. The report is made on the basis of published and unpublished reports and supplemented by in-depth interviews with industrialists in various types of companies...

  8. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  9. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  10. Influence of biodiesel blending on physicochemical properties and importance of mathematical model for predicting the properties of biodiesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakil, M.A.; Kalam, M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Atabani, A.E.; Rizwanul Fattah, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Short identification of selected biodiesel feedstock. • Review of physicochemical properties for blended biodiesel. • Mathematical model for predicting properties of various biodiesel blends. - Abstract: The growing demand for green world serves as one of the most significant challenges of modernization. Requirements like largest usage of energy for modern society as well as demand for friendly milieu create a deep concern in field of research. Biofuels are placed at the peak of the research arena for their underlying benefits as mentioned by multiple researches. Out of a number of vegetable oils, only a few are used commercially for biodiesel production. Due to various limitations of edible oil, non-edible oils are becoming a profitable choice. Till today, very little percentage of biodiesel is used successfully in engine. The research is still continuing for improving the biodiesel usage level. Recently, it is found that the blended biodiesel from more than one feedstock provides better performance in engine. This paper reviews the physicochemical properties of different biodiesel blends obtained from various feedstocks with a view to properly understand the fuel quality. Moreover, a short description of each feedstock is given along with graphical presentation of important properties for various blend percentages from B0 to B100. Finally, mathematical model is formed for predicting various properties of biodiesel blend with the help of different research data by using polynomial curve fitting method. The results obtained from a number of literature based on this work shows that the heating value of biodiesel is about 11% lower than diesel except coconut (14.5% lower) whereas kinematic viscosity is in the range of 4–5.4 mm 2 /s. Flash point of all biodiesels are more than 150 °C, except neem and coconut. Cold flow properties of calophyllum, palm, jatropha, moringa are inferior to others. This would help to determine important properties of

  11. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  12. Environmental impacts the of production and use of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Živković, Snežana; Veljković, Milan

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel as renewable, environmental friendly, less toxic, and biodegradable is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels and is produced mainly from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is expected, globally, that the use of renewable biofuels, in general, will increase rapidly in the near future. The growing biodiesel production and usage have encouraged assessment of its impact on the environment. The present paper reviews various aspects of biodiesel production using commercial processing technology and biodiesel use through evaluation and analysis of the studies concerning environmental impacts of biodiesel. As a general conclusion, it can be said that biodiesel has the potential to offer a series of perceived benefits such as political, economical, and agricultural, as well as environmental (due to its biodegradability, less toxicity, renewability) and health (greenhouse gas-saving, less harmful exhaust emissions).

  13. Biodiesel production with special emphasis on lipase-catalyzed transesterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisen, Prakash S; Sanodiya, Bhagwan S; Thakur, Gulab S; Baghel, Rakesh K; Prasad, G B K S

    2010-08-01

    The production of biodiesel by transesterification employing acid or base catalyst has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. Downstream processing costs and environmental problems associated with biodiesel production and byproducts recovery have led to the search for alternative production methods. Recently, enzymatic transesterification involving lipases has attracted attention for biodiesel production as it produces high purity product and enables easy separation from the byproduct, glycerol. The use of immobilized lipases and immobilized whole cells may lower the overall cost, while presenting less downstream processing problems, to biodiesel production. The present review gives an overview on biodiesel production technology and analyzes the factors/methods of enzymatic approach reported in the literature and also suggests suitable method on the basis of evidence for industrial production of biodiesel.

  14. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegl Breda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity are determined experimentally and compared to those of mineral diesel. The experimentally obtained results are used to analyze the most important injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics. Furthermore, the influence of biodiesel usage on lubrication is presented briefly. The results indicate that, by using biodiesel, harmful emissions (NOx, CO, HC, smoke, and PM can be reduced to some extent by adjusting the injection pump timing properly while keeping other engine characteristics within acceptable limits. Furthermore, the results indicate better lubrication conditions when biodiesel is used.

  15. Effects of biodiesel on emissions of a bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel (D2) under various operating regimes. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound velocity...

  16. Influence of biodiesel on injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Pehan, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of biodiesel on the injection, spray, and engine characteristics with the aim to reduce harmful emissions. The considered engine is a bus diesel engine with injection M system. The injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics, obtained with biodiesel, are compared to those obtained with mineral diesel under peak torque and rated conditions. The considered fuel is neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil. Its density, viscosity, surface tension, and sound veloci...

  17. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    OpenAIRE

    W Widayat; Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-01-01

    Production of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation inwhich the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production iscommonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate masstransfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA) whichmay reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours). Ultrasonificationhas been used in many applicati...

  18. Combustion and Performance Characteristics of CI Engine Running with Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfa, Belachew; Mishra, Rakesh; Gu, Fengshou; Ball, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels which is renewable and environmentally friendly and can be used in diesel engines with little or no modifications. In the present study, experimental investigations were carried out on the effects of biodiesel types, biodiesel fraction and physical properties on the combustion and performance characteristics of a compression ignition (CI) engine. The experimental work was conducted on a four-cylinder, four -stroke, direct injection (DI) and turbocharg...

  19. Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zummo, Michael M; Munson, J; Derr, A; Zemple, T; Bray, S; Studer, B; Miller, J; Beckler, J; Hahn, A; Martinez, P; Herndon, B; Lee, T; Newswanger, T; Wassall, M

    2012-03-30

    Many obvious and significant concerns arise when considering the concept of small-scale biodiesel production. Does the fuel produced meet the stringent requirements set by the commercial biodiesel industry? Is the process safe? How are small-scale producers collecting and transporting waste vegetable oil? How is waste from the biodiesel production process handled by small-scale producers? These concerns and many others were the focus of the research preformed in the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation project over the last three years. This project was a unique research program in which undergraduate engineering students at Messiah College set out to research the feasibility of small-biodiesel production for application on a campus of approximately 3000 students. This Department of Energy (DOE) funded research program developed out of almost a decade of small-scale biodiesel research and development work performed by students at Messiah College. Over the course of the last three years the research team focused on four key areas related to small-scale biodiesel production: Quality Testing and Assurance, Process and Processor Research, Process and Processor Development, and Community Education. The objectives for the Messiah College Biodiesel Fuel Generation Project included the following: 1. Preparing a laboratory facility for the development and optimization of processors and processes, ASTM quality assurance, and performance testing of biodiesel fuels. 2. Developing scalable processor and process designs suitable for ASTM certifiable small-scale biodiesel production, with the goals of cost reduction and increased quality. 3. Conduct research into biodiesel process improvement and cost optimization using various biodiesel feedstocks and production ingredients.

  20. A First Law Thermodynamic Analysis of Biodiesel Production from Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzek, Tad W.

    2009-01-01

    A proper First Law energy balance of the soybean biodiesel cycle shows that the overall efficiency of biodiesel production is 0.18, i.e., only 1 in 5 parts of the solar energy sequestered as soya beans, plus the fossil energy inputs, becomes biodiesel. Soybean meal is produced with an overall energetic efficiency of 0.38, but it is not a fossil…

  1. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le

    2015-01-01

    sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution...... centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains....

  2. Pembuatan Biodiesel Dari Minyak Nyamplung Menggunakan Pemanasan Gelombang Mikro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ridho Muhammad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Energi fosil yang selama ini menjadi tumpuan penduduk seluruh dunia, jumlahnya semakin menipis dari waktu ke waktu. Peran minyak bumi dalam penyediaan energi nasional pun masih dominan. Sekitar 53% kebutuhan energi nasional dipenuhi dari minyak bumi. Oleh karena itu, pencarian energi alternatif pengganti minyak bumi harus dikembangkan, salah satunya biodiesel. Penggunaan microwave sebagai sumber energi pembuatan biodiesel dapat mempercepat waktu reaksi. Sehingga microwave dipandang lebih efisien. Biji nyamplung (Calophyllum inophyllum memiliki kandungan minyak sebesar 60,1% berat. Dengan kandungan minyak sebesar ini maka biji nyamplung memiliki potensi yang besar bila digunakan sebagai bahan baku pembuatan biodiesel. Nyamplung tersebar luas di pantai-pantai Indonesia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mensintesa biodiesel dari minyak mentah nyamplung (Callophyluminophyllum dengan proses trans-esterifikasi dengan menggunakan microwave, mempelajari daya optimal dalam pembuatan biodiesel, mempelajari jumlah katalis yang dibutuhkan untuk mendapatkan biodiesel yang paling baik, mempelajari yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan serta mempelajari pengaruh penambahan ratio mol minyak-metanol terhadap kualitas biodiesel yang dihasilkan. Langkah awal pembuatan biodiesel nyamplung adalah proses degumming atau penghilangan impurities seperti getah, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan esterifikasi yang bertujuan untuk mengubah free fatty acid (FFA menjadi metil ester. Setelah esterifikasi, larutan dititrasi dengan NaOH dan indicator pp hingga konsentrasi FFA menjadi < 2%. Kemudian masuk proses trans-esterifikasi yang merubah trigliserida dalam minyak menjadi metil ester dan gliserol. Proses selanjutnya adalah pemisahan biodiesel dan gliserol dan terakhir proses pencucian. Variabel percobaan adalah kadar katalis CaO 2, 3, 4, 5, dan 6% berat minyak. Ratio mol minyak-metanol 1:9 dan 1:12. Variabel terakhir adalah daya microwave sebesar 100W, 264W dan 400W. Dari hasil

  3. Study about the particularities of biodiesel in Brazil; Estudo sobre as particularidades do biodiesel no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Marcia Franca Ribeiro Fernandes dos [Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Peixoto, Jose Antonio Assuncao; Souza, Cristina Gomes de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The environmental concern associated with the impending shortage of oil, which is pressing to raise the price of the barrel, has forced governments and society to seek alternatives that will replace the use of fossil fuels. The biodiesel, in particular, has been set up as an alternative energy by it of fuel come from renewable sources, and less polluting the environment. In this context, the objective of this article is to present some features of the production of biodiesel in Brazil, identifying the characteristics of the main oil used, as well as regional motivations for the use of biodiesel in Brazil. The methodology adopted in this study was exploratory in nature based on a literature search and documentary from a survey of information available in literature. The main results, the article points out that: unlike alcohol, which is in sugar cane their ideal raw material, biodiesel is still in a stage of intensive research and development in order to identify the most appropriate its oil production - with emphasis on soybean and castor bean, and the motivations for regional use of biodiesel are different for the Brazilian regions. The study aims to contribute to the discussion on the subject, emphasizing that technological research should be directed taking into consideration the conditions and needs of Brazil. (author)

  4. PRELIMINARY DESIGN OF OSCILLATORY FLOW BIODIESEL REACTOR FOR CONTINUOUS BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM JATROPHA TRIGLYCERIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZHARI T. I. MOHD. GHAZI

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a continuous process in producing biodiesel from jatropha oil by using an Oscillatory Flow Biodiesel Reactor (OFBR is discussed in this paper. It has been recognized that the batch stirred reactor is a primary mode used in the synthesis of biodiesel. However, pulsatile flow has been extensively researcehed and the fundamental principles have been successfully developed upon which its hydrodynamics are based. Oscillatory flow biodiesel reactor offers precise control of mixing by means of the baffle geometry and pulsation which facilitates to continuous operation, giving plug flow residence time distribution with high turbulence and enhanced mass and heat transfer. In conjunction with the concept of reactor design, parameters such as reactor dimensions, the hydrodynamic studies and physical properties of reactants must be considered prior to the design work initiated recently. The OFBR reactor design involves the use of simulation software, ASPEN PLUS and the reactor design fundamentals. Following this, the design parameters shall be applied in fabricating the OFBR for laboratory scale biodiesel production.

  5. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istadi Istadi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.7115.23-31 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/7115

  6. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Tri Nugroho

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production has received considerable attention in the recent past as a renewable fuel. The production of biodiesel by conventional transesterification process employs alkali or acid catalyst and has been industrially accepted for its high conversion and reaction rates. However for alkali catalyst, there may be risk of free acid or water contamination and soap formation is likely to take place which makes the separation process difficult. Although yield is high, the acids, being corrosive, may cause damage to the equipment and the reaction rate was also observed to be low. This research focuses on empirical modeling and optimization for the biodiesel production over plasma reactor. The plasma reactor technology is more promising than the conventional catalytic processes due to the reducing reaction time and easy in product separation. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 August 2009, Revised: 5 September 2009, Accepted: 12 October 2009][How to Cite: I. Istadi, D.D. Anggoro, P. Marwoto, S. Suherman, B.T. Nugroho (2009. Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oil over Plasma Reactor: Optimization of Biodiesel Yield using Response Surface Methodology. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 23-31. doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.23.23-31

  7. Biodiesel fuel costs and environmental issues when powering railway locomotives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza, Abdul; Ziemer, Norbert; Tatara, Robert; Moraga, Reinaldo; Mirman, Clifford; Vohra, Promod

    2010-09-15

    Issues for adopting biodiesel fuel, instead of petrodiesel, to power railroad locomotives are engine performance and emissions, fuel infrastructure, and fuel cost. These are evaluated for B2 through B100 blends. Biodiesel's solvent action on fuel systems is addressed. With biodiesel, hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, and particulate emissions are unchanged or reduced. Nitrogen oxides are elevated but it is believed that engine alterations can minimize these emissions. A Transportation Model, using data from a major railway, has demonstrated that refueling depots can be fully supplied with biodiesel at a pricing premium of 1% to 26%, depending on blend and geographical location.

  8. Biodiesel production from sediments of a eutrophic reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchkina, A.Yu.; Gladyshev, M.I.; Sushchik, N.N.; Kravchuk, E.S.; Kalachova, G.S.

    2011-01-01

    Sediments from eutrophic reservoir Bugach (Siberia, Russia) were tested for possibility to produce biodiesel. We supposed that the sediments could be a promising biodiesel producer. The major reason of high price of biodiesel fuel is cost of a raw material. The use of dredging sediments for biodiesel production reduces production costs, because the dredging sediments are by-products which originated during lake restoration actions, and are free of cost raw materials. Lipid content in sediments was 0.24% of dry weight. To assess the potential of from sediments as a substitute of diesel fuel, the properties of the biodiesel such as cetane number, iodine number and heat of combustion were calculated. All of this parameters complied with limits established by EN 14214 and EN 14213 related to biodiesel quality. -- Highlights: → Dredging sediments were considered as a new feedstock for biodiesel production. → Lipid and fatty acid content in the sediments were determined. → Main properties of the biodiesel were calculated basing on fatty acid composition. → The properties well complied with limits established in biodiesel standards.

  9. Prospects of Tectona Grandis as a Feedstock for Biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarin, Amit; Singh, Meetu; Sharma, Neerja; Singh, N. P.

    2017-01-01

    The limited availability of fossil fuels has encouraged the need of replacement fuels of renewable nature. Among the renewable fuels, biodiesel produced from oil seeds and food wastes has been favored by the majority of researchers. In this study, Tectona Grandis seed oil has been investigated as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel. The oil content of seed is 43% which makes it suitable for commercial production of biodiesel. The synthesis of biodiesel from T. Grandis oil was done with transesterification reaction giving high percentage yield of biodiesel which reached to 89%. The T. Grandis biodiesel was subjected to determine various physicochemical parameters by standard testing methods and found in agreement with the ASTM D-6751 and EN-14214 standards. The fatty-acid methyl ester composition for the biodiesel is composed of 42.71% oleic acid, 13.1% palmitic acid, and 31.51% linoleic acid. The biodiesel showed low oxidation stability which is attributed to high percentage of unsaturation. To address this issue, synthetic antioxidants were added to increase its resistance towards oxidation. By considering all the parameters, the present study reveals that T. Grandis seed oil is reliable for the production of biodiesel with encouraging probability in future.

  10. Investigation of friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazal, M.A.; Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Both wear and friction decrease with the increase of biodiesel concentration. ► Wear and friction appear to decrease more at the range of 10–20% biodiesel in diesel blend. ► The wear of steel ball in biodiesel (B100) was 20% lower than that in diesel (B0). ► Lubricity in terms of wear and friction decreases with the increase of rotating speed. - Abstract: Use of biodiesel in automobile engine is creating tribology related new challenges. The present study aims to assess the friction and wear characteristics of palm biodiesel at different concentration level by using four-ball wear machine. The investigated fuels were biodiesel (B100), diesel (B0) and three different biodiesel blends such as B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B20, B50. Tests were conducted at 75 °C under a normal load of 40 kg for 1 h at four different speeds viz, 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 rpm. Worn surfaces of the balls were examined by SEM. Results showed that wear and friction decreased with the increase of biodiesel concentration. The wear of steel ball in B100 was appeared to be 20% lower than that in diesel (B0)

  11. Prospects of Tectona Grandis as a Feedstock for Biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Amit, E-mail: amit.sarin@yahoo.com [Department of Physical Sciences, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala (India); Singh, Meetu [Department of Applied Sciences, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala (India); Sharma, Neerja [PG Department of Physics and Electronics, DAV College, Amritsar (India); Singh, N. P. [Department of Planning and External Development, I.K. Gujral Punjab Technical University, Kapurthala (India)

    2017-10-26

    The limited availability of fossil fuels has encouraged the need of replacement fuels of renewable nature. Among the renewable fuels, biodiesel produced from oil seeds and food wastes has been favored by the majority of researchers. In this study, Tectona Grandis seed oil has been investigated as a non-edible feedstock for biodiesel. The oil content of seed is 43% which makes it suitable for commercial production of biodiesel. The synthesis of biodiesel from T. Grandis oil was done with transesterification reaction giving high percentage yield of biodiesel which reached to 89%. The T. Grandis biodiesel was subjected to determine various physicochemical parameters by standard testing methods and found in agreement with the ASTM D-6751 and EN-14214 standards. The fatty-acid methyl ester composition for the biodiesel is composed of 42.71% oleic acid, 13.1% palmitic acid, and 31.51% linoleic acid. The biodiesel showed low oxidation stability which is attributed to high percentage of unsaturation. To address this issue, synthetic antioxidants were added to increase its resistance towards oxidation. By considering all the parameters, the present study reveals that T. Grandis seed oil is reliable for the production of biodiesel with encouraging probability in future.

  12. Environmental sustainability assessment of palm biodiesel production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.

    2012-01-01

    The study assesses the environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production systems in Thailand by focusing on their energy efficiency and environmental impact potentials. The Net Energy Balance (NEB) and Renewability indicate energy gain for palm biodiesel and its co-products as compared to fossil energy inputs. In addition, life cycle assessment also reveals lower values of environmental impact potentials of biodiesel as compared to conventional diesel. For example, palm biodiesel can provide greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. Nitrogen-fertilizer production and application in the plantation and the air emissions from the ponds treating palm oil mill effluent (POME) are found to be the major environmental aspects. However, the energy and environmental performances depend on various factors such as the management efficiency of empty fruit bunches (EFB) and POME and the possible land-use change in the future. Recommendations are made for improving environmental performance of palm biodiesel and for securing the long-term availability of crude palm oil supply with a view towards sustainable palm biodiesel production. -- Highlights: ► Environmental sustainability of palm biodiesel production in Thailand is assessed. ► Palm biodiesel can provide GHG reduction of around 46–73% as compared to diesel. ► Net energy ratio and renewability of palm biodiesel both range between 2 and 4. ► Efficient use of by-products in the value chain enhances environmental benefits.

  13. Assessment of the biodiesel distribution infrastructure in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagace, C.

    2007-08-01

    Canada's biodiesel industry is in its infancy, and must work to achieve the demand needed to ensure its development. This assessment of Canada's biodiesel distribution infrastructure was conducted to recommend the most efficient infrastructure pathway for effective biodiesel distribution. The study focused on the establishment of a link between biodiesel supplies and end-users. The current Canadian biodiesel industry was discussed, and future market potentials were outlined. The Canadian distillate product distribution infrastructure was discussed. Technical considerations and compliance issues were reviewed. The following 2 scenarios were used to estimate adaptations and costs for the Canadian market: (1) the use of primary terminals to ensure quality control of biodiesel, and (2) storage in secondary terminals where biodiesel blends are prepared before being transported to retail outlets. The study showed that relevant laboratory training programs are needed as well as proficiency testing programs in order to ensure adequate quality control of biodiesel. Standards for biodiesel distribution are needed, as well as specifications for the heating oil market. It was concluded that this document may prove useful in developing government policy objectives and identifying further research needs. 21 refs., 12 tabs., 13 figs

  14. Purification of biodiesel by choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niawanti, Helda; Zullaikah, Siti; Rachimoellah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Purification is a crucial step in biodiesel production to meet the biodiesel standard. This study purified biodiesel using choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent (DES). DES was used to reduce unreacted oil and unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil based biodiesel. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction time using DES on the content and yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Rice bran used in this work contains 16.49 % of oil with initial free fatty acids (FFA) of 44.75 %. Acid catalyzed methanolysis was employed to convert rice bran oil (RBO) into biodiesel under following operation conditions: T = 60 °C, t = 8 h, molar ratio of oil to methanol = 1/10, H2SO4 = 1% w/w of oil. Rice bran oil based biodiesel obtained contain 89.05 % of FAME with very low FFA content (0.05 %). DES was made from a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol with molar ratio of 1/2. Molar ratio of crude biodiesel to DES were 1/2 and 1/4. Extraction time was varied from 15 minutes to 240 minutes at 30 °C. The highest FAME content was obtained after purification for 240 min. at molar ratio crude biodiesel to DES 1/4 was 96.60 %. This work shows that DES has potential to purify biodiesel from non-edible raw material, such as RBO.

  15. Impact of ternary blends of biodiesel on diesel engine performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Pongamia and waste cooking oils are the main non edible oils for biodiesel production in India. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the fuel properties and investigate the impact on engine performance using Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel and their ternary blend with diesel. The investigation of the fuel properties shows that Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel have poor cold flow property. This will lead to starting problem in the engine operation. To overcome this problem the ternary blends of diesel, waste cooking biodiesel and Pongamia biodiesel are prepared. The cloud and pour point for ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 were found to be 7 °C and 6.5 °C which are comparable to cloud and pour point of diesel 6 °C and 5 °C, respectively. The result of the test showed that brake specific fuel consumption for Pongamia biodiesel and waste cooking biodiesel is higher than ternary blend, (WCB20:PB20:D60 due to their lower energy content. The brake thermal efficiency of ternary blend and diesel is comparable while the Pongamia and waste cooking biodiesel have low efficiency. The result of investigation showed that ternary blend can be developed as alternate fuel.

  16. Modeling Irrigation Benefits on Beef Ranches

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Johnson, Roger G.; Schluntz, Larry J.; Ali, Mir B.

    1988-01-01

    A major irrigation benefit for beef ranchers is herd size stability. A sequential multiyear linear programming model was developed to trace the effect of drought with and without irrigation on a South Dakota ranch over 31 years. Irrigation benefits were higher with the dynamic model than with traditional static analysis.

  17. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, namely longissimus dorsi (LD), serratus ventralis (SV) and semitendinosus (ST). Multiple parameters were ranked in the descending order of ST > SV > LD, and.

  18. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate the mating performance of bulls used in such herds. One facet which appears to warrant attention is that ... more females over a limited breeding season (Blockey, 1980). Fifty-four virgin beef bulls undergoing a phase D2 ... active pursuit of the female with persistent sexual interest. 4 one mount or mounting attempt, ...

  19. Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ) — its effect on animal performance and soil fertility. ... These by-products of animal digestion contain many ingredients necessary for plant growth, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Disadvantages include a tendency for K levels to ...

  20. Analysis of the Industrial Biodiesel Production Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nicola, G.; Moglie, M.; Santori, G.

    2009-01-01

    The reaction of transesterification is the chemical transformation through which you get biodiesel from vegetable oils. The purpose of this work is to plan carefully all the stages of various biodiesel production processes on the basis of recent results obtained in the experimental research. These results allow defining the proper thermodynamic models to be used, the right interpretation of the phenomena and identifying the parameters which affect the process. The modelling was done with ASPENPLUS (R) defining three possible processes used in industrial purpose. A subsequent sensitivity analysis was done for each process allowing the identification of the optimal configurations. By comparing these solutions it is possible to choose the most efficient one to reduce the costs of the final product. [it

  1. Enzymatic biodiesel production from free fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Afonso, Marise da Costa Pereira

    2009-01-01

    O ácido oleico é um co-produto da refinação de óleos alimentares e é removido num passo antecedente à catalise alcalina na produção industrial de biodiesel. Este ácido gordo livre é uma fonte alternativa de biodiesel. Neste trabalho estudou-se a esterificação enzimática do acido oleico com metanol ou etanol. Definiu-se um planeamento experimental 22 para estudar a influência das variáveis razão molar álcool/ácido oleico(R) e concentração de enzima(E), as variáveis dependentes, na percentag...

  2. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Nivea de Lima; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Batistella, César Benedito; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    The transesterification of castor oil with ethanol in the presence of sodium ethoxide as catalyst is an exceptional option for the Brazilian biodiesel production, because the castor nut is quite available in the country. Chemically, its oil contains about 90% of ricinoleic acid that gives to the oil some beneficial characteristics such as its alcohol solubility at 30 degrees C. The transesterification variables studied in this work were reaction temperature, catalyst concentration and alcohol oil molar ratio. Through a star configuration experimental design with central points, this study shows that it is possible to achieve the same conversion of esters carrying out the transesterification reaction with a smaller alcohol quantity, and a new methodology was developed to obtain high purity biodiesel.

  3. Evaluating the economics of biodiesel in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulugetta, Yacob

    2009-01-01

    Road transport in Sub-Saharan Africa is expected to rise in the coming years. Paradoxically, this expansion is occurring at a time when oil prices have reached new heights. Unstable oil prices do indeed increase the vulnerability of importers. However, it also presents them with a unique opportunity to explore promising technical options to help reduce their over-reliance on imported petroleum fuels. This paper takes a closer look at the potential for biodiesel, with an emphasis on fuels produced from oil palm, castor oil and jatropha in Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania, respectively. The paper provides an economic appraisal of biodiesels from these feedstocks, and sets the context for further discussions on biofuels in Africa. (author)

  4. Biodiesel: uma energia alternativa e verde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Carvalho Teixeira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto busca expor a importância do uso de energias alternativas. O biodiesel é apontado como uma das soluções para o esgotamento do petróleo e seus derivados e para o problema do aquecimento global, e o Brasil, por apresentar biodiversidade e forte economia agrícola, permitiu que o Governo Federal criasse o Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso de Biodiesel (PNPB com chances de sucesso. O programa explora várias fontes energéticas, de culturas temporárias e perenes ao uso do óleo residual, além de trazer benefícios ao desenvolvimento do país, gerando emprego e renda, e, principalmente, redução nas emissões de gás carbônico.

  5. Fast gas chromatographic separation of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, R E

    2011-05-01

    A high-speed gas chromatographic method has been developed to determine the FAME distribution of B100 biodiesel. The capillary column used in this work has dimensions of 20 m × 0.100 mm and is coated with a polyethylene glycol film. Analysis times are typically on the order of 4-5 min depending upon the composition of the B100. The application of this method to a variety of vegetable and animal derived B100 is demonstrated. Quantitative results obtained with this method were in close agreement with those obtained by a more conventional approach on a 100 m column. The method, coupled with solid-phase extraction, was also found suitable to determine the B100 content of biodiesel-diesel blends.

  6. Landfill gas, canola, and biodiesel. Working towards a sustainable system [Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Terrill; Carveth, Deanna

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to grow this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  7. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budy Rahmat

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glycerol separation was able to compensate for the decreased use of the reactant methanol from 6:1 to 5:1 molar ratio, and changed the mass balance in the product, including: (i the increase of biodiesel productionfrom 42.37% to 49.34%, and (ii the reduction of methanol in excess from 42.37% to 32.89%. The results suggested that the efficiency of biodiesel production could be increased with the glycerol separation engineering.

  8. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails: mpires@uesc.br; jaenes@uesc.br; jalmeida@uesc.br; roserpa@uesc.br

    2004-07-01

    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  9. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  10. Strategic planning of biodiesel supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    García Cáceres, Rafael Guillermo; Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia - UPTC

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:A stochastic biobjective MIP model for designing the network of biodiesel supply chains is presented. Ultimately intending to support the strategic decisions of stakeholders. The constraints included are: economies of scale, location of facilities, production capacity, raw material supply, product demand, bill of materials and mass balance.Objectives:The model aims to minimize, both, the total cost and environmental impact of five chain echelonsMetodology:The solution procedure r...

  11. Biodiesel production by enzyme-catalyzed transesterification

    OpenAIRE

    Stamenković Olivera S.; Lazić Miodrag L.; Veljković Vlada B.; Skala Dejan U.

    2005-01-01

    The principles and kinetics of biodiesel production from vegetable oils using lipase-catalyzed transesterification are reviewed. The most important operating factors affecting the reaction and the yield of alkyl esters, such as: the type and form of lipase, the type of alcohol, the presence of organic solvents, the content of water in the oil, temperature and the presence of glycerol are discussed. In order to estimate the prospects of lipase-catalyzed transesterification for industrial appli...

  12. Determinants of stakeholders? attitudes towards biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Latifah; Hashim, Hasrizul; Mahadi, Zurina; Ibrahim, Maznah; Ismail, Khaidzir

    2017-01-01

    Background Concern about the inevitable depletion of global energy resources is rising and many countries are shifting their focus to renewable energy. Biodiesel is one promising energy source that has garnered much public attention in recent years. Many believe that this alternative source of energy will be able to sustain the need for increased energy security while at the same time being friendly to the environment. Public opinion, as well as proactive measures by key players in industry, ...

  13. Biodiesel Production from Azolla filiculoides (Water Fern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The presence of myristic acid (C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), myristic acid (C14:0), stearic acid (C18:3), oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid 9C18:2), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5), erucic acid (C22:1) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) in the macroalgae biodiesel ...

  14. An experimental investigation of biodiesel steam reforming

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stefan; Kraaij, Gerard; Ascher, Torsten; Wails, David; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Recently, liquid biofuels have attracted increasing attention as renewable feedstock for hydrogen production in the transport sector. Since the lack of hydrogen infrastructure and distribution poses an obstacle for the introduction of fuel cell vehicles to the market, it is reasonable to consider using liquid biofuels for on-board or on-site hydrogen generation. Biodiesel offers the advantage of being an environmentally friendly resource while also having high gravimetric and volumetric energ...

  15. Dezentrale Wasserstofferzeugung aus Diesel und Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Stefan; Ascher, Torsten; Kraaij, Gerard; Dietrich, Ralph-Uwe; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Der Energieträger Wasserstoff wird im Verkehrssektor in den kommenden Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewinnen. Eine mögliche Alternative zur zentralen H2-Erzeugung aus Erdgas ist die dezentrale Bereitstellung von Wasserstoff durch Reformierung von Flüssigbrennstoffen. Im Rahmen des EU-Projektes NEMESIS2+ (www.nemesis-project.eu) wird ein Wasserstoffgenerator (50 Nm3/h) auf Basis von Diesel und Biodiesel entwickelt. Am DLR Stuttgart werden im Rahmen des Projektes grundlegende experimentelle Unt...

  16. Fremtidens Biodiesel: Kom fedtaffald i tanken!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Taarning, Esben; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2009-01-01

    Mange tror måske, at det er svært for menigmand at lave biobrændstof. Det er faktisk forkert, fordi biodiesel nemt kan laves af kemikalier, der er ret almindelige i laboratorier og hos købmanden og materialisten. Det kræver blot en såkaldt om-estring af planteolie eller fedt med methanol, samt...

  17. del biodiesel de aceite de palma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Nel Benjumea

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El deficiente desempeño del biodiesel de aceite de palma (BAP a bajas temperaturas constituye su mayor deficiencia de calidad y el limitante para propiciar el uso de este combustible alternativo para motores diesel puro o mezclado en altas proporciones con el combustible diesel convencional derivado del petróleo (ACPM. En este trabajo se evalúan varias alternativas para mejorar las propiedades de flujo a baja temperatura (PFBT del BAP. Mediante la producción del biodiesel utilizando alcoholes ramificados como el isopropanol, isobutanol, 2-butanol e isopentanol se obtienen alquilésteres del aceite de palma con puntos de nube y fl uidez más bajos que los correspondientes a los metilésteres. La sustitución del grupo metil por el isopentil permite obtener reducciones en los puntos de nube y fluidez de 8 y 21 ºC, respectivamente. Los isopropilésteres del aceite de palma poseen un punto de nube 10 ºC menor que el de los metilésteres. El punto de nube de las mezclas BAP-ACPM se incrementa en forma lineal con el contenido del biodiesel en la mezcla. Para las mezclas probadas (B5, B20 y B30 solo se presentan problemas de filtrabilidad del combustible a temperaturas por debajo de -4 ºC. En este trabajo se evaluó la efectividad de dos aditivos comerciales mejoradores de flujo para reducir el punto de obstrucción de filtros en frío (POFF del biodiesel puro y las mezclas probadas. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que con dichos aditivos solamente es posible obtener reducciones en el POFF de la mezcla B5 cuando se usa la menor de las tres concentraciones de aditivo probadas.

  18. Light vehicle regulated and unregulated emissions from different biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the regulated and unregulated emissions profile and fuel consumption of an automotive diesel and biodiesel blends, prepared from two different biodiesels, were investigated. The biodiesels were a rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and a palm-based methyl ester (PME). The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Athens Driving Cycle (ADC), using a Euro 2 compliant passenger vehicle. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biodiesel chemical structure on the emissions, as well as the influence of the applied driving cycle on the formation of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NOx emissions were influenced by certain biodiesel properties, such as those of cetane number and iodine number. NOx emissions followed a decreasing trend over both cycles, where the most beneficial reduction was obtained with the application of the more saturated biodiesel. PM emissions were decreased with the palm-based biodiesel blends over both cycles, with the exception of the 20% blend which was higher compared to diesel fuel. PME blends led to increases in PM emissions over the ADC. The majority of the biodiesel blends showed a tendency for lower CO and HC emissions. The differences in CO2 emissions were not statistically significant. Fuel consumption presented an increase with both biodiesels. Total PAH and nitro-PAH emission levels were decreased with the use of biodiesel independently of the source material. Lower molecular weight PAHs were predominant in both gaseous and particulate phases. Both biodiesels had a negative impact on certain carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant aldehydes emitted from both fuels.

  19. Light vehicle regulated and unregulated emissions from different biodiesels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karavalakis, George; Stournas, Stamoulis; Bakeas, Evangelos

    2009-05-01

    In this study, the regulated and unregulated emissions profile and fuel consumption of an automotive diesel and biodiesel blends, prepared from two different biodiesels, were investigated. The biodiesels were a rapeseed methyl ester (RME) and a palm-based methyl ester (PME). The tests were performed on a chassis dynamometer with constant volume sampling (CVS) over the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) and the non-legislated Athens Driving Cycle (ADC), using a Euro 2 compliant passenger vehicle. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biodiesel chemical structure on the emissions, as well as the influence of the applied driving cycle on the formation of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. The results showed that NO(x) emissions were influenced by certain biodiesel properties, such as those of cetane number and iodine number. NO(x) emissions followed a decreasing trend over both cycles, where the most beneficial reduction was obtained with the application of the more saturated biodiesel. PM emissions were decreased with the palm-based biodiesel blends over both cycles, with the exception of the 20% blend which was higher compared to diesel fuel. PME blends led to increases in PM emissions over the ADC. The majority of the biodiesel blends showed a tendency for lower CO and HC emissions. The differences in CO(2) emissions were not statistically significant. Fuel consumption presented an increase with both biodiesels. Total PAH and nitro-PAH emission levels were decreased with the use of biodiesel independently of the source material. Lower molecular weight PAHs were predominant in both gaseous and particulate phases. Both biodiesels had a negative impact on certain carbonyl emissions. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were the dominant aldehydes emitted from both fuels.

  20. Use of waste materials for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitiello, R.; Tesser, R.; Di Serio, M.; Santacesaria, E. [Napoli Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Chimiche; Buonerba, A.; Grassi, A. [Salerno Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Biologia

    2012-07-01

    Waste raw materials obtained by several sources of both food and agro industries could be considered for biofuel production. In the last years, this topic has growing in interest. At this purpose, our research, has been focused on the development of new technologies to obtain biodiesel from the mentioned wastes feedstock. In particular from oleins, that are mixtures of free fatty acids (FFAs) and triglycerides. Therefore, we are studying the way to produce biodiesel in two steps: an esterification reaction of FFAs with glycerol and a transesterification with methanol of the whole mixture. The esterification of FFAs with glycerol has the advantage of using a relatively high temperature favouring the stripping of water formed during the esterification. In this way esterification equilibrium is shifted to the right. Then, the mixture of mono-, di- and triglycerides, obtained by esterification with glycerol, can be submitted to transesterification with methanol, in the usual way, to produce biodiesel Catalysts promoting esterification, normally, are mineral acids or heterogeneous Bronsted acid catalysts. At this purpose, the classical sulphonated polystyrene acid resins cannot be used at temperature greater than 120 C. Therefore, a new class of sulfonated polymers, with enhanced temperature resistance, has been developed by selective and quantitative sulfonation of olefinic butadiene units in multiblock copolymers syndiotactic polystyrene-co-1,4-cis-polybutadiene. This catalytic system has been successfully tested in the above mentioned esterification reaction and compared to classic commercial strong acid catalysts like Amberlyst {sup registered}, Nafion {sup registered} and sulfuric acid. (orig.)

  1. Producing affordable high-quality biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draak, H. D.

    2004-12-31

    A novel process to produce biodiesel fuel, used to power an automobile and heat a single-family home, including a domestic hot water heater, is discussed. Although currently used on a very small scale, the process is said to be capable of producing biodiesel on a commercial scale and marketed at the same wholesale price as petro-diesel, with enough price flexibility to adjust up or down to keep pace with fluctuations in oil prices. The basic materials used are canola oil and used fryer oil from restaurants. The crucial points are to pre-treat the used fryer oil to remove impurities, and to wash the newly-produced biodiesel afterwards. Using these materials, production cost is 19 cents per liter (before overhead). Public apathy and the lack of an infrastructure for distribution are major obstacles to commercial-scale production, but the inventor of the process is confident that with a dwindling oil supply and ever-rising oil prices, the opportunities for change to alternative sources of energy are constantly improving. photos.

  2. Production of biodiesel using the microwave technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakinaz A. El Sherbiny

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production is worthy of continued study and optimization of production procedures because of its environmentally beneficial attributes and its renewable nature. Non-edible vegetable oils such as Jatropha oil, produced by seed-bearing shrubs, can provide an alternative and do not have competing food uses. However, these oils are characterized by their high free fatty acid contents. Using the conventional transesterification technique for the production of biodiesel is well established. In this study an alternative energy stimulant, “microwave irradiation”, was used for the production of the alternative energy source, biodiesel. The optimum parametric conditions obtained from the conventional technique were applied using microwave irradiation in order to compare the systems. The study showed that the application of radio frequency microwave energy offers a fast, easy route to this valuable biofuel with the advantages of enhancing the reaction rate (2 min instead of 150 min and of improving the separation process. The methodology allows for the use of high free fatty acid content feedstock, including Jatropha oil. However, this emerging technology needs to be further investigated for possible scale-up for industrial application.

  3. Technoeconomic study of supercritical biodiesel production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, J.M.; Errazu, A.F.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last years, biodiesel has gained more market due to its benefits and because it appears as the natural substitute for diesel. However, the highest cost of this process is associated with the raw material employed, making it a less competitive and more expensive fuel. Therefore, research is being done in order to use low price raw material, such as acid oils, frying oils or soapstocks. In this work, a biodiesel production plant was developed using supercritical methanol and acid oils as raw materials. This technology was compared with some other alternatives previously described with the aim of making a comparative study, not only on the technical aspects but also on the economic results. A process simulator was employed to produce the conceptual design and simulate each technology. Using these models, it was possible to analyze different scenarios and to evaluate productivity, raw material consumption, economic competitiveness and environmental impacts of each process. Although the supercritical alternative appears as a good technical possibility to produce biodiesel, today, it is not an economic alternative due to its high operating costs

  4. Biodiesel production using a membrane reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, M A; Tremblay, A Y; Liu, J

    2007-02-01

    The immiscibility of canola oil in methanol provides a mass-transfer challenge in the early stages of the transesterification of canola oil in the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME or biodiesel). To overcome or rather, exploit this situation, a two-phase membrane reactor was developed to produce FAME from canola oil and methanol. The transesterification of canola oil was performed via both acid- or base-catalysis. Runs were performed in the membrane reactor in semi-batch mode at 60, 65 and 70 degrees C and at different catalyst concentrations and feed flow rates. Increases in temperature, catalyst concentration and feedstock (methanol/oil) flow rate significantly increased the conversion of oil to biodiesel. The novel reactor enabled the separation of reaction products (FAME/glycerol in methanol) from the original canola oil feed. The two-phase membrane reactor was particularly useful in removing unreacted canola oil from the FAME product yielding high purity biodiesel and shifting the reaction equilibrium to the product side.

  5. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  6. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  7. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  8. Cleaning up a biodiesel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The project at Biodiesel Producers Limited in Victoria involved remediation of a wastewater treatment process containing a large covered anaerobic lagoon, an aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and a series of downstream open ponds. The pond downstream of the SBR was heavily loaded with a thick hard grease cap. The CAL was believed to have a metre-plus grease cap and the SBR had developed a thick foam cap that prevented aeration and mixing. Environmental Biotech was called in to assist with bioremediation using its Grease Eradication System bacteria cultures, with the aim of reducing the fats, oil and grease in the CAL discharge to less than 150 milligrams per litre, eliminating the stable fat foam in the SBR to allow the denitrification sequencing program to be reinstated and to clean up the hard fat layer from the surfaces of the comany's open ponds. The inflow to the CAL was designed for a flow of 210kL per day with a loading of 6900mg/L biochemical oxygen demand and FOG of 425mg/L. The actual load, as measured by Environmental Biotech, was 100kL with 20,000mg/L BOD and 1800mg/L (180kg) FOG. The CAL had been in use for more than two years, generating methane but assumed to be working well in the breakdown of chemical oxygen demand and FOG. In December 2009 the quality of the effluent began to decrease, overloading the SBR with FOG. It caused the formation of dense foam on aeration and mixing. The foam would not break down despite a variety of methods being employed and would overflow from the walls of the SBR. “Due to the foaming issue the SBR became a large holding tank for the fat and because of the reduced mixing, the solids were settling on the bottom of the tank,” Environmental Biotech project manager and franshisee Craig Barr said. “We were brought in to start work inApril 2010 and initially we slug dosed the CAL with 400 litres of GES bacteria in addition to a constant metered dosing rate of 400 litres per fortnight with the

  9. Lipids from yeasts and fungi: Tomorrow's source of Biodiesel?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeuwse, P.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2013-01-01

    In the search for new transport fuels from renewable resources, biodiesel from microbial lipids comes into view. We have evaluated the lipid yield and energy use of a process for production of biodiesel from agricultural waste using lipid-accumulating yeast and fungi. We included different

  10. Direct transesterification of spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies of spent coffee grounds (SCGs) as a potential biodiesel feedstock in recent years mostly started from solvent extraction to obtain coffee oil, and then converted it into coffee biodiesel in two steps, acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification. This paper presents a direct ...

  11. Optimization of biodiesel production from castor oil by response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work investigated the possibility of using response surface methodology based on a four factor five level central composite design to optimize biodiesel production from castor oil. The reaction variables were oil: ethanol ratio, lipozyme concentration, time and temperature. The properties of the biodiesel produced were ...

  12. An investigation of biodiesel production from wastes of seafood restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendy, Nour Sh; Hamdy, A; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2014-01-01

    This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp.) in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield) and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  13. Production of Biodiesel from Parinari polyandra B. Seed Oil using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    of converting vegetable oil to alkyl of fatty acids esters. (biodiesel) by reacting it with alcohol. Specifically, oil triglyceride reacts with methanol to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and glycerol in the presence of a catalyst. The oil or fat used for biodiesel production is determined by the abundance of seed oils that are ...

  14. An Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Wastes of Seafood Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Sh. El-Gendy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work illustrates a comparative study on the applicability of the basic heterogeneous calcium oxide catalyst prepared from waste mollusks and crabs shells (MS and CS, resp. in the transesterification of waste cooking oil collected from seafood restaurants with methanol for production of biodiesel. Response surface methodology RSM based on D-optimal deign of experiments was employed to study the significance and interactive effect of methanol to oil M : O molar ratio, catalyst concentration, reaction time, and mixing rate on biodiesel yield. Second-order quadratic model equations were obtained describing the interrelationships between dependent and independent variables to maximize the response variable (biodiesel yield and the validity of the predicted models were confirmed. The activity of the produced green catalysts was better than that of chemical CaO and immobilized enzyme Novozym 435. Fuel properties of the produced biodiesel were measured and compared with those of Egyptian petro-diesel and international biodiesel standards. The biodiesel produced using MS-CaO recorded higher quality than that produced using CS-CaO. The overall biodiesel characteristics were acceptable, encouraging application of CaO prepared from waste MS and CS for production of biodiesel as an efficient, environmentally friendly, sustainable, and low cost heterogeneous catalyst.

  15. Optimization of biodiesel production from rice bran oil via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid. The fourier transform infrared spectrum of biodiesel also showed the characteristic bands of C=O, O-C-O, C=C and –(CH2)n-. Key words: Rice bran oil, biodiesel, response surface methodology, gas chromatography mass spectrometry, fourier transform infrared spectrum ...

  16. Biodiesel by catalytic reactive distillation powered by metal oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiss, A.A.; Dimian, A.C.; Rothenberg, G.

    2008-01-01

    The properties and use of biodiesel as a renewable fuel as well as the problems associated with its current production processes are outlined. A novel sustainable esterification process based on catalytic reactive distillation is proposed. The pros and cons of manufacturing biodiesel via fatty acid

  17. Rapid biodiesel production using wet microalgae via microwave irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahidin, Suzana; Idris, Ani; Shaleh, Sitti Raehanah Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Lipid was directly extracted from wet microalgae using microwave irradiation. • The microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted solvent extraction are applied. • Cell walls are significantly disrupted under microwave irradiation. • Highly disrupted cell walls led to higher biodiesel yield in microwave irradiation. • Microwave irradiation is a promising direct technique with high biodiesel yields. - Abstract: The major challenges for industrial commercialized biodiesel production from microalgae are the high cost of downstream processing such as dewatering and drying, utilization of large volumes of solvent and laborious extraction processes. In order to address these issues the microwave irradiation method was used to produce biodiesel directly from wet microalgae biomass. This alternative method of biodiesel production from wet microalgae biomass is compared with the conventional water bath-assisted solvent extraction. The microwave irradiation extracted more lipids and high biodiesel conversion was obtained compared to the water bath-assisted extraction method due to the high cell disruption achieved and rapid transesterification. The total content of lipid extracted from microwave irradiation and water bath-assisted extraction were 38.31% and 23.01% respectively. The biodiesel produced using microwave irradiation was higher (86.41%) compared to the conventional method. Thus microwave irradiation is an attractive and promising technology to be used in the extraction and transesterification process for efficient biodiesel production

  18. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    glycerine to liquid fuel for blending gasoline as alternative engine fuel. Energy Convers. Manage. 41:1741-1748. Demirbas, A (2009) Production of biodiesel from algae oils, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery,. Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 31: 163-. 168. Demirbas, A (2005) Biodiesel production from vegetable oils ...

  19. Moringa oleifera oil: Studies of characterization and biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Silva, Jhosianna P.V.; Serra, Tatiana M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Laboratorio de Oleoquimica, Maceio, Alagoas, CEP 57072-970 (Brazil); Gossmann, Marcelo; Wolf, Carlos R.; Meneghetti, Mario R. [Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Instituto de Quimica, Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, CEP 92420-280 (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    This work describes studies with the seeds of Moringa oleifera (MO), obtained in the northeast of Brazil, evaluating some properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The studied physicochemical properties of the MO biodiesel, suggest that this material may be used as fuel in diesel engines, mainly as a mixture to petrodiesel. (author)

  20. Enzymatic biodiesel production from sludge palm oil (SPO) using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biodiesel is a non-toxic, renewable and environmental friendly fuel. This study involved the production of biodiesel from sludge palm oil (SPO), a low-cost waste oil via enzymatic catalysis. The enzyme catalyst was a Candida cylindracea lipase, locally-produced using palm oil mill effluent as the low cost based medium.

  1. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel from African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Grape (Lannea microcarpa) seed oil was extracted and subjected to fuel properties tests according to standard method for oil and fuel analysis to evaluate its suitability as oil crop for biodiesel production in Nigeria. The oil was transesterified using alkali hydrolysis to biodiesel. The yields of the oil and its methyl ...

  2. SVOC emissions from diesel trucks operating of biodiesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. currently produces roughly 5 billion liters of biodiesel per year. Use of biodiesel is projected to increase based on its potential economic, energy, and environmental benefits. Despite these benefits, there is public health concern about the possible direct and indirect...

  3. Overview on the current trends in biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, N.N.A.N.; Kamarudin, S.K.; Yaakub, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various method for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil were reviewed. → Such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. → The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. → Finally, the economics of biodiesel production was discussed using Malaysia as a case study. -- Abstract: The finite nature of fossil fuels necessitates consideration of alternative fuels from renewable sources. The term biofuel refers to liquid, gas and solid fuels predominantly produced from biomass. Biofuels include bioethanol, biomethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. Biodiesel, defined as the monoalkyl esters of vegetable oils or animal fats, is an attractive alternative fuel because it is environmentally friendly and can be synthesized from edible and non-edible oils. Here, we review the various methods for the production of biodiesel from vegetable oil, such as direct use and blending, microemulsion, pyrolysis and transesterification. The advantages and disadvantages of the different biodiesel-production methods are also discussed. Finally, we analyze the economics of biodiesel production using Malaysia as a case study.

  4. Biodiesel: A fuel, a lubricant, and a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is well-known as a biogenic alternative to conventional diesel fuel derived from petroleum. It is produced from feedstocks such as plant oils consisting largely of triacylglycerols through transesterification with an alcohol such as methanol. The properties of biodiesel are largely compet...

  5. Biodiesel production--current state of the art and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Palligarnai T; Briggs, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Biodiesel is a clean-burning fuel produced from grease, vegetable oils, or animal fats. Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of oils with short-chain alcohols or by the esterification of fatty acids. The transesterification reaction consists of transforming triglycerides into fatty acid alkyl esters, in the presence of an alcohol, such as methanol or ethanol, and a catalyst, such as an alkali or acid, with glycerol as a byproduct. Because of diminishing petroleum reserves and the deleterious environmental consequences of exhaust gases from petroleum diesel, biodiesel has attracted attention during the past few years as a renewable and environmentally friendly fuel. Since biodiesel is made entirely from vegetable oil or animal fats, it is renewable and biodegradable. The majority of biodiesel today is produced by alkali-catalyzed transesterification with methanol, which results in a relatively short reaction time. However, the vegetable oil and alcohol must be substantially anhydrous and have a low free fatty acid content, because the presence of water or free fatty acid or both promotes soap formation. In this article, we examine different biodiesel sources (edible and nonedible), virgin oil versus waste oil, algae-based biodiesel that is gaining increasing importance, role of different catalysts including enzyme catalysts, and the current state-of-the-art in biodiesel production.

  6. Investigating the Production of Biodiesel from Alphonso Mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This necessitated a three steps esterification of the oil sample for reduction of the %FFA to 0.547mgKOH/g and later transesterification of the oil. The effect of reaction temperature, reaction time and oil to methanol ratio on production of biodiesel from the oil was then investigated. Optimum yield of biodiesel from this oil were ...

  7. Production and characterization of biodiesel from the traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, acid pretreatment followed by base-catalyzed transesterification reaction was carried out to produce biodiesel. At the pretreatment stage, the acid value and FFA level were reduced to 3.93 mg KOH/g and 1.96%, respectively through sulfuric acid catalyzed esterification reaction. Key words: Animal fat, biodiesel, ...

  8. Biodiesel production from waste soybean oil biomass as renewable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... Uso de centrífugas para los procesos de biodiesel. Aceites Grasas, 13: 98-105. Hossain ABMS, Boyce AN (2009a). Biodiesel production from waste sunflower cooking oil as an environmental recycling process and renewable energy. Bulgarian J. Agric. Sci. 15(4): 313-318. Hossain ABMS, Boyce AN ...

  9. Production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil (Curcas Oil) | Oladeji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work deals with the production of Biodiesel from Jatropha oil also known as Curcas oil. Material used for the production was sourced for locally. Basic test for the suitability of the Jatropha oil was carried out in the lab. The test carried out to determine if the produced Biodiesel met standards set was carried out at the ...

  10. Biodiesel from Soybean Promotes Cell Proliferation in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioda, Adriana; Rodríguez-Cotto, Rosa I.; Amaral, Beatriz Silva; Encarnación-Medina, Jarline; Ortiz-Martínez, Mario G.; Jiménez-Vélez, Braulio D.

    2016-01-01

    Toxicological responses of exhaust emissions of biodiesel are different due to variation in methods of generation and the tested biological models. A chemical profile was generated using ICP-MS and GC-MS for the biodiesel samples obtained in Brazil. A cytotoxicity assay and cytokine secretion experiments were evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Cells were exposed to polar (acetone) and nonpolar (hexane) extracts from particles obtained from fuel exhaust: fossil diesel (B5), pure soybean biodiesel (B100), soybean biodiesel with additive (B100A) and ethanol additive (EtOH). Biodiesel and its additives exhibited higher organic and inorganic constituents on particles when compared to B5. The biodiesel extracts did not exert any toxic effect at concentrations 10, 25, 50, 75, and 100 μg mL -1. In fact quite the opposite, a cell proliferation effect induced by the B100 and B100A extracts is reported. A small increase in concentrations of inflammatory mediators (Interleukin-6, IL-6; and Interleukin-8, IL-8) in the medium of biodiesel-treated cells was observed, however, no statistical difference was found. An interesting finding indicates that the presence of metals in the nonpolar (hexane) fraction of biodiesel fuel (B100) represses cytokine release in lung cells. This was revealed by the use of the metal chelator. Results suggest that metals associated with biodiesel’s organic constituents might play a significant role in molecular mechanisms associated to cellular proliferation and immune responses. PMID:27179667

  11. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  12. A Comparative Characteristic Study of Jatropha and Cardanol Biodiesel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugazhenthi, R.; Chandrasekaran, M.; Muthuraman, R. K.; Vivek, P.; Parthiban, A.

    2017-03-01

    The demand in fuel needs and the depleting fossil fuels raised the need towards bio-fuels. The emerging trend in research field is highly focused on biodiesel production and their characteristic analysis. Since pollution is a major threat to the environment, emission parameter analyses are much important to be concentrated. As the entire world contains plenty of biofuels, it is necessary to explore them for its efficiency and analyze their parameters. In this experimental work jatropha and cashew nut shell biodiesel (Cardanol) was extracted and they were blended with diesel. The characteristics of jatropha and cardanol biodiesel were studied in the DI diesel engine by varying the load at the same speed. In brief, this experimental analysis is carried out to compare the emission characteristics between Jatropha biodiesel at 20% (B20) and 40% (B40) and Cardanol biodiesel blends at 20% (C20) and 40% (C40).

  13. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  14. Studies of Terminalia catappa L. oil: characterization and biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, I C F; de Carvalho, S H V; Solleti, J I; Ferreira de La Salles, W; Teixeira da Silva de La Salles, K; Meneghetti, S M P

    2008-09-01

    Since the biodiesel program has been started in Brazil, the investigation of alternative sources of triacylglycerides from species adapted at semi-arid lands became a very important task for Brazilian researchers. Thus we initiated studies with the fruits of the Terminalia catappa L (TC), popularly known in Brazil as "castanhola", evaluating selected properties and chemical composition of the oil, as well any potential application in biodiesel production. The oil was obtained from the kernels of the fruit, with yields around 49% (% mass). Also, its fatty acid composition was quite similar to that of conventional oils. The crude oil of the TC was transesterified, using a conventional catalyst and methanol to form biodiesel. The studied physicochemical properties of the TC biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines.

  15. Enzymatic transesterification of lipids from microalgae into biodiesel: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is considered as a potential interesting alternative diesel substitute due to its many advantages, such as biodegradability and non-toxicity. Biodiesel production worldwide is low and does not meet the needs of society. Therefore, biodiesel production policies have been implemented by various countries. This paper addresses the issues of plant materials containing lipids for biodiesel production and explores also the avenue of microalgae as an alternative. Various conversion technologies of lipids into biodiesel are also described and compared. Enzymatic transesterification would be most appropriate when microalgae oils are used because of their high free fatty acids content. The optimization of the enzymatic process depends on several parameters such as the catalyst, temperature, reaction time and the alcohol: oil molar ratio.

  16. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  17. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de, E-mail: mmoura@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP/IQ/CEMPEQC), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Centro de Monitoramento e Pesquisa da Qualidade de Combustiveis, Biocombustiveis, Petroleo e Derivados

    2013-04-15

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO{sub 3} + SrO + Sr (OH){sub 2}) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  18. Heterogeneous catalysis afford biodiesel of babassu, castor oil and blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Lee M.G. de; Abreu, Wiury C. de; Silva, Maria das Gracas de O. e; Matos, Jose Milton E. de; Moura, Carla V.R. de; Moura, Edmilson M. de; Lima, Jose Renato de O.; Oliveira, Jose Eduardo de

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of babassu, castor oil biodiesel and mixtures in various proportions of these oils, using alkaline compounds of strontium (SrCO 3 + SrO + Sr (OH) 2 ) as heterogeneous catalysts. The mixture of oils of these oleaginous sources was used in the production of biodiesel with quality parameters that meet current legislation. The catalyst was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XDR), physisorption of gas (BET method), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The viscometric technique was used to monitor the optimization.The transesterification reactions performed using strontium compounds reached conversion rates of 97.2% babassu biodiesel (BB), 96.4% castor oil biodiesel (COB) and 95.3% Babassu/Castor Oil Biodiesel 4:1 (BBCO41). (author)

  19. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  20. Effects of tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil on apparent total tract digestibility of minerals in diets fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, L A; Walk, C L; Parsons, C M; Stein, H H

    2016-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of supplementing diets fed to growing pigs with fat sources differing in their composition of fatty acids on the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of minerals. A diet based on corn, potato protein isolate, and 7% sucrose was formulated. Five additional diets that were similar to the previous diet with the exception that sucrose was replaced by 7% tallow, choice white grease, palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil were also formulated. Diets were formulated to contain 0.70% Ca and 0.33% standardized total tract digestible P. Growing barrows ( = 60; 15.99 ± 1.48 kg initial BW) were allotted to a randomized complete block design with 2 blocks of 30 pigs, 6 dietary treatments, and 10 replicate pigs per treatment. Experimental diets were provided for 12 d with the initial 5 d being the adaptation period. Total feces were collected for a 5-d collection period using the marker-to-marker approach, and the ATTD of minerals, ether extract, and acid hydrolyzed ether extract was calculated for all diets. Digestibility of DM was greater ( oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease or the basal diet, with all other diets being intermediate. The ATTD of Ca, S, and P was greater ( oil, corn oil, palm oil, or tallow than for pigs fed the basal diet or the diet containing choice white grease. The ATTD of Mg, Zn, Mn, Na, and K were not different among dietary treatments. The ATTD of ether extract was greater ( palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil compared with the diet containing choice white grease, and the ATTD of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in the diet containing soybean oil was also greater ( palm oil, corn oil, or soybean oil may increase the ATTD of some macrominerals, but that appears not to be the case if choice white grease is used. There was no evidence of negative effects of the fat sources used in this experiment on the ATTD of any minerals.

  1. Antioxidant Effect on Oxidation Stability of Blend Fish Oil Biodiesel with Vegetable Oil Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hossain

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different phenolic synthetic antioxidants were used to improve the oxidation stability of fish oil biodiesel blends with vegetable oil biodiesel and petroleum diesel. Butylhydroxytoluene (BHT most effective for improvement of the oxidation stability of petro diesel, whereas  tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ showed good performance in fish oil biodiesel. Fish oil/Rapeseed oil biodiesel mixed showed some acceptable results in higher concentration ofantioxidants. TBHQ showed better oxidation stability than BHT in B100 composition. In fish oil biodiesel/diesel mixed fuel, BHT was more effective antioxidant than TBHQ to increase oxidationstability because BHT is more soluble than TBHQ. The stability behavior of biodiesel/diesel blends with the employment of the modified Rancimat method (EN 15751. The performance ofantioxidants was evaluated for treating fish oil biodiesel/Rapeseed oil biodiesel for B100, and blends with two type diesel fuel (deep sulfurization diesel and automotive ultra-low sulfur or zero sulfur diesels. The examined blends were in proportions of 5, 10, 15, and 20% by volume of fish oilbiodiesel.

  2. Production possibility frontier analysis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagawa, Shigemi; Takezono, Kanako; Suh, Sangwon; Kudoh, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant in Japan using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The empirical analysis uses monthly input data (waste cooking oil, methanol, potassium hydroxide, power consumption, and the truck diesel fuel used for the procurement of waste cooking oil) and output data (biodiesel) of a biodiesel fuel plant for August 2008–July 2010. The results of this study show that the production activity with the lowest cost on the biodiesel production possibility frontier occurred in March 2010 (production activity used 1.41 kL of waste cooking oil, 0.18 kL of MeOH, 16.33 kg of KOH, and 5.45 kW h of power), and the unit production cost in that month was 18,517 yen/kL. Comparing this efficient production cost to the mean unit production cost on the production possibility frontier at 19,712 yen/kL, revealed that the cost of producing 1 kL of biodiesel could be reduced by as much as 1195 yen. We also find that the efficiency improvement will contribute to decreasing the cost ratio (cost per sale) of the biodiesel production by approximately 1% during the study period (24 months) between August 2008 and July 2010. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzes the productive efficiency of an advanced biodiesel plant using DEA. ► We examine the optimal production activities of biodiesel from waste cooking oil. ► Considering the production frontier, the unit cost of biodiesel could be reduced by 1195 yen. ► The efficiency improvement contributes to decreasing the cost ratio of the biodiesel by 1%

  3. Biodiesel dari Minyak Buta-Buta (Hura Crepitans Linn) dengan Menggunakan Katalis Ni/Lempung

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Ekadian Lestari; Bahri, Syaiful; Saputra, Edy

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels as a substitute for fossil fuels synthesised from the transesterification reaction. The process of making biodiesel which using a homogeneous catalyst is costly for product separation process. Thus use of heterogeneous catalysts such as Ni/Clay catalyst was developed. This study aims to produce biodiesel from Hura crepitans Linn oil to determine best conditions of making biodiesel, determine the physical andchemical properties of biodiesel produced an...

  4. Western Kentucky University Research Foundation Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Wei-Ping [Principal Investigator; Cao, Yan [Co-Principal Investigator

    2013-03-15

    Petroleum-based liquid hydrocarbons is exclusively major energy source in the transportation sector. Thus, it is the major CO{sub 2} source which is the associated with greenhouse effect. In the United States alone, petroleum consumption in the transportation sector approaches 13.8 million barrels per day (Mbbl/d). It is corresponding to a release of 0.53 gigatons of carbon per year (GtC/yr), which accounts for approximate 7.6 % of the current global release of CO{sub 2} from all of the fossil fuel usage (7 GtC/yr). For the long term, the conventional petroleum production is predicted to peak in as little as the next 10 years to as high as the next 50 years. Negative environmental consequences, the frequently roaring petroleum prices, increasing petroleum utilization and concerns about competitive supplies of petroleum have driven dramatic interest in producing alternative transportation fuels, such as electricity-based, hydrogen-based and bio-based transportation alternative fuels. Use of either of electricity-based or hydrogen-based alternative energy in the transportation sector is currently laden with technical and economical challenges. The current energy density of commercial batteries is 175 Wh/kg of battery. At a storage pressure of 680 atm, the lower heating value (LHV) of H{sub 2} is 1.32 kWh/liter. In contrast, the corresponding energy density for gasoline can reach as high as 8.88 kWh/liter. Furthermore, the convenience of using a liquid hydrocarbon fuel through the existing infrastructures is a big deterrent to replacement by both batteries and hydrogen. Biomass-derived ethanol and bio-diesel (biofuels) can be two promising and predominant U.S. alternative transportation fuels. Both their energy densities and physical properties are comparable to their relatives of petroleum-based gasoline and diesel, however, biofuels are significantly environmental-benign. Ethanol can be made from the sugar-based or starch-based biomass materials, which is easily

  5. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART III: BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part III: Beef Cow/Calf Health & Health Management were collected by federal and state veterinary officers (VMO's) in 18 of the largest cow/...

  6. Production of Biodiesels from Multiple Feedstocks and Properties of Biodiesels and Biodiesel/Diesel Blends: Final Report; Report 1 in a Series of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinast, J. A.

    2003-03-01

    In a project sponsored by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the Institute of Gas Technology is conducting an investigation of biodiesels produced from vegetable and animal based feedstocks. This subcontract report presents their findings.

  7. Biodiesel II: A new concept of biodiesel production - transesterification with supercritical methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skala Dejan U.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is defined as a fuel that might be used as a pure biofuel or at high concentration in mineral oil derivatives, in accordance with specific quality standards for transport applications. The main raw material used for biodiesel production is rapeseed, which contains mono-unsaturated (about 60% and also, in a lower quantity, poly-unsaturated fatty acids (C 18:1 and C 18:3, as well as some amounts of undesired saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acids. Other raw materials have also been used in the research and industrial production of biodiesel (palm-oil, sunflower-oil, soybean-oil, waste plant oil, animal fats, etc. The historical background of the biodiesel production, installed industrial capacities, as well as Directives of the European Parliament and of the Council (May 2003 regarding the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport are discussed in the first part of this article (Chem. Ind. 58 (2004. The second part focused on some new concepts and the future development of technology for biodiesel production based on the use of non-catalytic transesterification under supercritical conditions. A literature review, as well as original results based on the transesterification of animal fats, plant oil and used plant oil were discussed. Obtained results were compared with the traditional concept of transesterification based on base or acid catalysis. Experimental investigations of transesterification with supercritical methanol were performed in a 2 dm3 autoclave at 140 bar pressure and at 300°C with molar ratio of methanol to triglycerides of about 41. The degree of esterification strongly depends on the density of supercritical methanol and on the possibility of reaction occurring in one phase.

  8. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  9. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  10. Optimization of transesterification conditions for the production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil with surfactant-coated lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Yin-yu; Liu, Yuhuan; Lin, Xiangyang [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Chen, Wen-wei [College of Life Science, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Lei, Hanwu [Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Ruan, Roger [Key Laboratory of Food Science, Ministry of Education, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)]|[Department of Bioproducts and Biosystems Engineering, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108-6005 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surfactant-coated lipase was used as a catalyst in preparing fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) from Chinese tallow kernel oil from Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb. syn. Triadica sebifera (L.) small. FAME transesterification was analyzed using response surface methodology to find out the effect of the process variables on the esterification rate and to establish prediction models. Reaction temperature and time were found to be the main factors affecting the esterification rate with the presence of surfactant-coated lipase. Developed prediction models satisfactorily described the esterification rate as a function of reaction temperature, time, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase, ratio of methanol to oil, and water content. The FAME mainly contained fatty acid esters of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3, determined by a gas chromatograph. The optimal esterification rate was 93.86%. The optimal conditions for the above esterification ratio were found to be a reaction time of 9.2 h, a reaction temperature of 49 C, dosage of surfactant-coated lipase of 18.5%, a ratio of methanol to oil of 3:1, and water content of 15.6%. Thus, by using the central composite design, it is possible to determine accurate values of the transesterification parameters where maximum production of FAME occurs using the surfactant-coated lipase as a transesterification catalyst. (author)

  11. Characterization of polyoxyethylene tallow amine surfactants in technical mixtures and glyphosate formulations using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Loftin, Keith A.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the occurrence, fate, and effects of the ancillary additives in pesticide formulations. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is a non-ionic surfactant used in many glyphosate formulations, a widely applied herbicide both in agricultural and urban environments. POEA has not been previously well characterized, but has been shown to be toxic to various aquatic organisms. Characterization of technical mixtures using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and mass spectrometry shows POEA is a complex combination of homologs of different aliphatic moieties and ranges of ethoxylate units. Tandem mass spectrometry experiments indicate that POEA homologs generate no product ions readily suitable for quantitative analysis due to poor sensitivity. A comparison of multiple high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UHPLC analytical columns indicates that the stationary phase is more important in column selection than other parameters for the separation of POEA. Analysis of several agricultural and household glyphosate formulations confirms that POEA is a common ingredient but ethoxylate distributions among formulations vary.

  12. Polyoxyethylene tallow amine, a glyphosate formulation adjuvant: Soil adsorption characteristics, degradation profile, and occurrence on selected soils from agricultural fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel L.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Palm Oil as Biodiesel

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday A. LAWAL; Ahmed BABAKANO

    2011-01-01

    This work involved the production of diesel from most commonly available palm fruits oil Pisifera elaeis guineensis and testing for the brake power, torque of an engine and specific fuel consumption of a conventional diesel engine utilizing the produced diesel from palm oil. The obtained results were compared with those for fossil diesel fuel. The results show that the value of brake power was 6927.21W for fossil diesel while that of biodiesel was 7135.02W. Similarly the value for brake torqu...

  14. Carbonyl emissions in diesel and biodiesel exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Corrêa, Sérgio; Arbilla, Graciela

    With the use of biodiesel in clear growth, it is important to quantify any potential emission benefits or liabilities of this fuel. Several researches are available concerning the regulated emissions of biodiesel/diesel blends, but there is a lack of information about non-regulated emissions. In a previous paper [Corrêa, S.M., Arbilla, G., 2006. Emissões de formaldeído e acetaldeído de misturas biodiesel/diesel. Periódico Tchê Química, 3, 54-68], the emissions of aromatic hydrocarbons were reported. In this work, seven carbonyl emissions (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and benzaldehyde) were evaluated by a heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with pure diesel (D) and biodiesel blends (v/v) of 2% (B2), 5% (B5), 10% (B10), and 20% (B20). The tests were conducted using a six cylinder heavy-duty engine, typical of the Brazilian fleet of urban buses, in a steady-state condition under 1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm. The exhaust gases were diluted nearly 20 times and the carbonyls were sampled with SiO 2-C18 cartridges, impregnated with acid solution of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The chemical analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detection. Using average values for the three modes of operation (1000, 1500, and 2000 rpm) benzaldehyde showed a reduction on the emission (-3.4% for B2, -5.3% for B5, -5.7% for B10, and -6.9% for B20) and all other carbonyls showed a significative increase: 2.6, 7.3, 17.6, and 35.5% for formaldehyde; 1.4, 2.5, 5.4, and 15.8% for acetaldehyde; 2.1, 5.4, 11.1, and 22.0% for acrolein+acetone; 0.8, 2.7, 4.6, and 10.0% for propionaldehyde; 3.3, 7.8, 16.0, and 26.0% for butyraldehyde.

  15. Improved Soybean Oil for Biodiesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Clemente; Jon Van Gerpen

    2007-11-30

    The goal of this program was to generate information on the utility of soybean germplasm that produces oil, high in oleic acid and low in saturated fatty acids, for its use as a biodiesel. Moreover, data was ascertained on the quality of the derived soybean meal (protein component), and the agronomic performance of this novel soybean germplasm. Gathering data on these later two areas is critical, with respect to the first, soybean meal (protein) component is a major driver for commodity soybean, which is utilized as feed supplements in cattle, swine, poultry and more recently aquaculture production. Hence, it is imperative that the resultant modulation in the fatty acid profile of the oil does not compromise the quality of the derived meal, for if it does, the net value of the novel soybean will be drastically reduced. Similarly, if the improved oil trait negative impacts the agronomics (i.e. yield) of the soybean, this in turn will reduce the value of the trait. Over the course of this program oil was extruded from approximately 350 bushels of soybean designated 335-13, which produces oil high in oleic acid (>85%) and low in saturated fatty acid (<6%). As predicted improvement in cold flow parameters were observed as compared to standard commodity soybean oil. Moreover, engine tests revealed that biodiesel derived from this novel oil mitigated NOx emissions. Seed quality of this soybean was not compromised with respect to total oil and protein, nor was the amino acid profile of the derived meal as compared to the respective control soybean cultivar with a conventional fatty acid profile. Importantly, the high oleic acid/low saturated fatty acids oil trait was not impacted by environment and yield was not compromised. Improving the genetic potential of soybean by exploiting the tools of biotechnology to improve upon the lipid quality of the seed for use in industrial applications such as biodiesel will aid in expanding the market for the crop. This in turn, may

  16. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M.; Husnawan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  17. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  18. Performance evaluation of diesel engine using rice bran biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Chhabra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fuels in the world is increasing rapidly and it affects the global economy of all the countries so this factor forced all the countries to find the alternative fuel to reduce and even replace the usage of petroleum. Thus use of biodiesel from non-edible oil sources serves as an alternative to this problem. The present study focuses on impact assessment of rice bran and crude rice bran biodiesel and its blends with diesel on diesel engine performance. The experimental investigation provides in depth detail of the biodiesel production process, evaluation of fuel properties and impact on engine performance. The study also investigates the optimization of the Compression ratio (CR of a compression ignition engine fueled with blends of biodiesel. In order to find out the optimum CR of the engine, experiments were conducted at different CRs ranging from 12 to 18. Then the experiments were conducted using B10, B20 and B40 blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel and diesel at CR of 12 and 14 and these results were compared with the results obtained when the same engine was tested on conventional diesel fuel. Similarly the experimental results of B10, B20 and B40 blends of rice bran bio-diesel at CR 14 were investigated and analyzed. Based on the experimental investigation the blends of crude rice bran bio-diesel can be used as fuel in diesel engine without making any modification to the diesel engine.

  19. Spontaneous ignition of biodiesel: A potential fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous ignition of biodiesel was for the first time suspected to be the cause of a recent fire in Japan. We herein present experimental evidence implying this potential risk of biodiesel. Thus, three independent biodiesel samples were subjected to a series of experiments, including a thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry analysis and a modified wire basket test. The results were comparatively evaluated with reference to vegetable oils, of which spontaneous ignition has been well reported as a cause of fires. The heat onset temperature of biodiesel samples was determined to be ~100 °C, which was ~45 °C lower than those of vegetable oils. Furthermore, under the isothermal condition at 100 °C, the inner temperature of biodiesel samples rose rapidly with the generation of smoke after short induction periods owing to their exothermal decomposition, whereas for vegetable oils neither change in the inside temperature nor generation of smoke was observed even after 10 hours. It was therefore concluded that biodiesel possesses the higher risk of spontaneous ignition than vegetable oils. This is very important information to minimize the fire risk in biodiesel production facilities and so on. .

  20. Prospects of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles in Malaysia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayed, M.H.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Liaquat, A.M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Husnawan, M. [Centre for Energy Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Mechanical Engineering University of Syiah Kuala, Jl. S. Abd. Rauf No. 7, Darussalam - Banda Aceh (Indonesia)

    2011-01-15

    Petro diplomacy has played its role in last few decades and that makes energy security a major concern worldwide. Rapid climate change and environmental protection is another vital issue to be addressed in recent energy policies. So an alternative carbon neutral transport fuel is a must in new sustainable energy mix. Biodiesel has immense potentiality to be a part of a sustainable energy mix. In this energy scenario, Brazil's success is a role model in utilizing its agro-industry for reducing poverty, greenhouse gas emission and petro-dependency simultaneously. Brazil commercialized bioethanol in mass scale by introducing flexible fuel vehicles in market. This dedicated engine idea moralizes a new concept of dedicated biodiesel engine vehicles for Malaysia and Indonesia. Southeast Asian countries, i.e. Malaysia and Indonesia is the largest producer as well as exporter of palm oil. Growing at highest yield rate among other biodiesel feedstock, palm based biodiesel is a top exported product for this region. This paper will quantify the prospects of a dedicated biodiesel engine vehicle for Malaysia and Indonesia that will initiate palm based biodiesel in fuel supply chain by leapfrogging the barriers of biodiesel utilization by boosting local automobile industry simultaneously. This article will also review on energy scenario of Malaysia and Indonesia and their renewable energy policies and challenges for coming decades. (author)

  1. Biodiesel production methods of rubber seed oil: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulfah, M.; Mulyazmi; Burmawi; Praputri, E.; Sundari, E.; Firdaus

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of rubber seed as raw material of biodiesel production is seen highly potential in Indonesia. The availability of rubber seeds in Indonesia is estimated about 5 million tons per annum, which can yield rubber seed oil about 2 million tons per year. Due to the demand of edible oils as a food source is tremendous and the edible oil feedstock costs are far expensive to be used as fuel, production of biodiesel from non-edible oils such as rubber seed is an effective way to overcome all the associated problems with edible oils. Various methods for producing biodiesel from rubber seed oil have been reported. This paper introduces an optimum condition of biodiesel production methods from rubber seed oil. This article was written to be a reference in the selection of methods and the further development of biodiesel production from rubber seed oil. Biodiesel production methods for rubber seed oils has been developed by means of homogeneous catalysts, heterogeneous catalysts, supercritical method, ultrasound, in-situ and enzymatic processes. Production of biodiesel from rubber seed oil using clinker loaded sodium methoxide as catalyst is very interesting to be studied and developed further.

  2. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Bateni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol, the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to marketing. The presence of impurities in the biodiesel not only significantly affects its engine performance but also complicates its handling and storage. Therefore, biodiesel purification is an essential step prior to marketing. Biodiesel purification methods can be classified based on the nature of the process into equilibrium-based, affinity-based, membrane-based, reaction-based, and solid-liquid separation processes. The main adverse properties of biodiesel – namely moisture absorption, corrosiveness, and high viscosity – primarily arise from the presence of oxygen. To address these issues, several upgrading techniques have been proposed, among which catalytic (hydrodeoxygenation using conventional hydrotreating catalysts, supported metallic materials, and most recently transition metals in various forms appear promising. Nevertheless, catalyst deactivation (via coking and/or inadequacy of product yields necessitate further research. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on the techniques and methods used for biodiesel purification and upgrading.

  3. Development of Brazilian Biodiesel Sector from the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Françoise Cardoso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the main program with respect to biodiesel is the National Program of Biodiesel Production and Use (NPBP. It is also considered the regulation mark of biodiesel production in Brazil and its directives are social inclusion and regional development. Considering these directives, this paper aims to analyse the perspective of biodiesel sector stakeholders in Brazil to understand whether NPBP directives are in consonance with the reality of the sector for its development. A questionnaire was created with 48 questions in order to understand the importance of 13 variables for the stakeholders, and the responses were treated by factor analysis (FA. The results showed the existence of a trade-off related to technological advances in biodiesel production that confronts NPBP directives, that is, the biodiesel sector tends not to evolve in terms of the use of advanced technologies. If policies change so as to develop the biodiesel sector using advanced technologies, NPBP should change its directives in order to involve family farmers in another way in the Brazilian economy.

  4. Production of Biodiesel from Vegetable Oil Using Microware Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kapilan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The petroleum oil supply crisis, the increase in demand and the price eruption have led to a search for an alternative fuel of bio-origin in India. Among the alternative fuels, biodiesel is considered as a sustainable renewable alternative fuel to fossil diesel. Non-edible jatropha oil has considerable potential for the production of biodiesel in India. The production of biodiesel from jatropha oil using a conventional heating method takes more than 1h. In this work, microwave irradiation has been used as a source of heat for the transesterification reaction. A domestic microwave oven was modified and used for microwave heating of the reactants. The time taken for biodiesel production using microwave irradiation was 1 min. The fuel property analysis shows that the properties of jatropha oil biodiesel satisfy the biodiesel standards, and are close to the fossil diesel standards. From this work, it is concluded that biodiesel can be produced from vegetable oil using microwave irradiation, with a significant reduction in production time.

  5. [Progress on biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tianwei; Lu, Jike; Nie, Kaili; Zhang, Haixia; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports the progress of biodiesel production with enzymatic catalysis in Beijing University of Chemical Technology, one of the leaders in biodiesel R & D in China, which includes screening of high-yield lipase production strains, optimization and scale-up of the lipase fermentation process, lipase immobilization, bioreactor development and scale-up, biodiesel separation and purification and the by-product glycerol utilization. Firstly, lipase fermentation was carried out at industrial scale with the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor, and the enzyme activity as high as 8 000 IU/mL was achieved by the species Candida sp. 99-125. Then, the lipase was purified and immobilized on textile membranes. Furthermore, biodiesel production was performed in the 5 m3 stirred tank bioreactor with an enzyme dosage as low as 0.42%, and biodiesel that met the German biodiesel standard was produced. And in the meantime, the byproduct glycerol was used for the production of 1,3-propanediol to partly offset the production cost of biodiesel, and 76.1 g/L 1,3-propanediol was obtained in 30 L fermentor with the species Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  6. Assessment of boundary lubrication in biodiesels by nanotribological tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, Marcia M.; Almeida, Clara M.; Silva, Rui F.; Achete, Carlos A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale measurements using atomic force microscopy are performed in order to scrutinize the friction phenomena observed in microscale ball-on-disc tribological tests under (boundary lubrication) BL regime. Two reference biodiesels, one derived from a vegetable source (soybean) and the other from animal fat, are compared. A linear dependence of the friction coefficient (μ) with the Stribeck parameter (S = viscosity × velocity/load) is observed: μ = 0.11 − 26.54 × S for the animal fat and μ = 0.12 − 51.56 × S for the soybean biodiesel. The nanotribological tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction force in the BL regime that is associated to the intrinsic characteristics of the biodiesels, the respective friction coefficients being μ = 0.0206 for the animal fat and μ = 0.0233 for the soybean biodiesel. The better lubricity of the animal fat biodiesel compared to the soybean observed in microscale is attributed to the presence of sulfur and to the higher amount of mono- and di-glycerides contaminants in it. The polarity and/or chemical affinity of the respective sulfur and OH groups facilitate them to reacting with the steel surfaces during the rubbing action. At nanoscale level, the same ranking in friction is observed among the biodiesels, being that here the friction phenomena are attributed to the cohesive forces other than those related to viscosity. - Highlights: • The frictional behavior of standard reference biodiesels is studied. • Nanotribology tests help scrutinizing microscale friction in boundary lubrication. • AFM tests allowed highlighting the cohesion component of friction in the BL regime. • Animal fat biodiesel promotes lower and more stable friction than soybean biodiesel

  7. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbihi, Hassen Mohamed; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  8. Trends of non-destructive analytical methods for identification of biodiesel feedstock in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC and detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration: A brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazivila, Sarmento Júnior

    2018-04-01

    Discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend is challenging due to the great similarity in the spectral profile as well as digital image profile of each type of feedstock employed in biodiesel production. Once the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is subsidized, in which motivates adulteration in biofuel blend by cheaper supplies with high solubility to obtain profits associated with the subsidies involved in biodiesel production. Non-destructive analytical methods based on qualitative and quantitative analysis for detecting marketed diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration are reviewed. Therefore, at the end is discussed the advantage of the qualitative analysis over quantitative analysis, when the systems require immediate decisions such as to know if the marketed diesel-biodiesel blend is unadulterated or adulterated in order to aid the analyst in selecting the most appropriate green analytical procedure for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration proceeding in fast way. This critical review provides a brief review on the non-destructive analytical methods reported in scientific literature based on different first-order multivariate calibration models coupled with spectroscopy data and digital image data to identify the type of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend in order to meets the strategies adopted by European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as to monitoring diesel-biodiesel adulteration. According to that Directive, from 2020 biodiesel produced from first-generation feedstock, that is, oils employed in human food such as sunflower, soybean, rapeseed, palm oil, among other oils should not be subsidized. Therefore, those non-destructive analytical methods here reviewed are helpful for discrimination of biodiesel feedstock present in diesel-biodiesel blend according to European Commission Directive 2012/0288/EC as well as for detecting diesel-biodiesel blend adulteration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  9. Speed of sound in biodiesel produced by low power ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Silva, R. M. B.; Morais, G. C.; Alvarenga, A. V.; Costa-Felix, R. P. B.

    2018-03-01

    The quality control of the biodiesel produced is an important issue to be addressed for every manufacturer or retailer. The speed of sound is a property that has an influence on the quality of the produced fuel. This work presents the evaluation about the speed of sound in biodiesel produced with the aid of low power ultrasound in the frequencies of 1 MHz and 3 MHz. The speed of sound was measured by pulse-echo technique. The ultrasonic frequency used during reaction affects the speed of sound in biodiesel. The larger expanded uncertainty for adjusted curve was 4.9 m.s-1.

  10. Superstructure optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Lee, Jay H.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model for superstructure based optimization of biodiesel production from microalgal biomass. The proposed superstructure includes a number of major processing steps for the production of biodiesel from microalgal biomass...... for the production of biodiesel from microalgae. The proposed methodology is tested by implementing on a specific case study. The MINLP model is implemented and solved in GAMS using a database built in Excel. The results from the optimization are analyzed and their significances are discussed....

  11. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...... aspects of the enzyme with reaction/reactor engineering is performed. This strategy is applied to a case study of biodiesel production catalysed by a liquid enzyme formulation. The use of enzymes for biodiesel production is still in its infancy with non-optimized process designs. Furthermore is it unclear...

  12. Biodiesel Production from Bombacopsis glabra Oil by Methyl Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Diana da Silva Araújo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to produce methyl biodiesel from Bombacopis glabra (B. glabra oil degummed with H3PO4. The methyl biodiesel was prepared in an alkaline medium, and characterized by physico-chemical parameters, thin-layer chrmatograghy (TLC, gas chromatograph (GC, (Nuclear magnetic resonance of hydrogen (H-NMR, thermogravimetry and infrared analysis. The physico-chemical parameters of biodiesel were in accordance with the limits established by National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP Resolution 45/2014, except oxidation stability, where it was corrected with the addition of antioxidants such as TBHQ and BHT.

  13. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    Aug 16, 2014 ... Beef cattle are unique, because they not only suffer from climate change, but they also contribute to .... designed crossbreeding systems, thereby reducing the carbon footprint of beef production. The fact that there are large differences in the kgC/LSU between certain genotypes, points to genetic differences ...

  14. Formulation and evaluation of beef/soy patties | Igene | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated composite beef/soy patties to ascertain the optimal level of soy flour inclusion acceptable to consumers and producers. These patties were formulated to contain 100/0%, 85/15%, 80/20%, 75/25% and 70/30% beef/soy flour respectively. This experiment was conducted 3 times as replicates. It was a ...

  15. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted from April to June, 2016 with the objective of assessing the beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in and around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study area, by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured and ...

  16. Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... beef and pork had similar values (P > 0.05) for moisture, protein and fat while Kilishi from beef gave a higher ash value (P < 0.05) ... or two days depending on the relative humidity, intensity of the sun and air velocity. The meat .... give a cumulative mineral level minus the loss during processing. In this study ...

  17. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America

    The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and

  18. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-bred diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 65. Cundiff, L.V, Gregory, K.E., Koch, R.M. & Dickerson, G.E., 1986. Genetic diversity among cattle breeds and its use to increase beef production efficiency in a temperate environment.

  19. Price Transmission Asymmetry in Pork and Beef Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Farm, wholesale, and retail prices for beef and pork show significant evidence of asymmetric price interactions. All prices display greater sensitivity to price-increasing shocks than to price-decreasing shocks. The farm beef price, in particular, reacts faster to wholesale price increases than to whole sale price decreases.

  20. Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. MM Magoro, BI Zondagh, PJ Jooste, L Morey. Abstract. This study determined the sensory attributes and acceptability of cooked meat sausages containing beef offal. Four formulations of sausages were selected for sensory evaluation and comparison ...

  1. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production of an extra calf (I\\4eaker et al., 1980). Since small- framed breeds usually mature earlier than large-framed breeds, the Nguni, which is the smallest beef breed in South Africa, was used to investigate the possibilities of early mating in beef cattle under extensive conditions. The research was conducted on the farm ...

  2. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  4. Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health: Task 1 Report; Incorporate Biodiesel Data into Vehicle Emissions Databases for Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindhjem, C.; Pollack, A.

    2003-05-01

    This document is the Task 1 report for the NREL"Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health" study. This report provides a discussion and analysis of the available biodiesel test data, and makes recommendations for how biodiesel effects on pollutant mass emissions as well as chemical composition should be incorporated into emission inventories for use in air quality modeling.

  5. Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Human Health: Task 2 Report; The Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Ozone Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R. E.; Mansell, G. E.; Jia, Y.; Wilson, G.

    2003-05-01

    This report documents Task 2 of the NREL study"Impact of Biodiesel Fuels on Air Quality and Hyman Health". Under Task 1, engine test data using biodiesel and standard diesel fuels were analyzed to estimate the effects biodiesel fuel has on heavy duty diesel vehicle tailpipe emissions.

  6. First bio-diesel plant from oil-producing in Brazil; Premiere usine de biodiesel a partir d'oleagineux au Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    In march 2005, Brazil implemented its first bio-diesel production plant from vegetal oils. This unit, situated in the Minas Gerais state will produce 12 millions of liter of bio-diesel per year. Cars using bio-diesel fuels generate 16% less of gases and fumes than petrol fuel cars, for the same fuel consumption. (A.L.B.)

  7. Biomass for biodiesel production on family farms in Brazil: promise or failure? : integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farms, policies and producer organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, a biodiesel policy was implemented as a way of reducing poverty among family farms. The objective of this thesis is to perform an integrated assessment of biodiesel crops, farm types, biodiesel policies and producer organisations that reveals opportunities and limitations of family

  8. Calorific value for compositions with biodiesel of fat chicken and diesel oil; Valor calorifico para composicoes com biodiesel da gordura de frango e oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da [Universidade de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], email: marcelo.jose@feagri.unicamp.br; Souza, Samuel N.M. de; Souza, Abel A. de; Martins, Gislaine I. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (CCET/UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], emails: ssouza@unioeste.br, abel.sza@hotmail.com, iastiaque@yahoo.com.br

    2011-07-01

    The biodiesel fuel is a renewable source of alternative fuel used in diesel cycle engines. The production of biodiesel involves the reaction of methanol with fatty acids of animal or vegetable. The production of biodiesel from chicken fat can be very attractive for some regions from Brazil with high poultry production, as in the Parana West and Santa Catarina West. In this study , the goal was the lower calorific value of the compositions between biodiesel and diesel oil: 100% Diesel oil (B0), 20% biodiesel (B20), 40% biodiesel (B40), 60% biodiesel (B60), 80% biodiesel (B80 ), 100% biodiesel (B100). The biodiesel used was acquired in the Centre for Development and Diffusion of technologies on the Assis Gurgacz College, in Cascavel city. The nominal production capacity of the unit is 900 liters on period of 8 hours. The model of the calorimeter used, was the E2K. The lower calorific value of B100 composition was 35.388 MJ kg-1 and the diesel oil was 41.299 MJ kg-1. With the measuring of the caloric value of six samples mix of diesel oil and biodiesel, was obtained a linear function decrease of the calorific value when increased it the proportion of biodiesel from chicken fat into fuel. (author)

  9. Biodiesel production through transesterification over natural calciums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngamcharussrivichai, Chawalit [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center of Excellence for Petroleum, Petrochemicals and Advanced Materials, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Nunthasanti, Pramwit; Tanachai, Sithikorn; Bunyakiat, Kunchana [Fuels Research Center, Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Rd., Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-11-15

    Transesterification of palm kernel oil (PKO) with methanol over various natural calciums, including limestone calcite, cuttlebone, dolomite, hydroxyapatite, and dicalcium phosphate, has been investigated at 60 C and 1 atm. The study showed that dolomite, mainly consisting of CaCO{sub 3} and MgCO{sub 3}, is the most active catalyst. The calcination temperature largely affected the physicochemical properties, as evidenced by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption measurement, TGA, SEM and XRD, and the transesterification performance of the resultant catalysts. It was found that the calcination of dolomite at 800 C resulted in a highly active mixed oxide. CaO was suggested to be the catalytically active site responsible for the methyl ester formation. Under the suitable reaction conditions, the amount of dolomite calcined at 800 C = 6 wt.% based on the weight of oil, the methanol/oil molar ratio = 30, and the reaction time = 3 h, the methyl ester content of 98.0% can be achieved. The calcined dolomite can be reused many times. The analyses of some important fuel properties indicated that the biodiesel produced had the properties that meet the standard of biodiesel and diesel fuel issued by the Department of Energy Business, Ministry of Energy, Thailand. (author)

  10. Biodiesel production using waste frying oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpe, Trupti W.; Rathod, Virendra K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Waste sunflower frying oil is successfully converted to biodiesel using lipase as catalyst. → Various process parameters that affects the conversion of transesterification reaction such as temperature, enzyme concentration, methanol: oil ratio and solvent are optimized. → Inhibitory effect of methanol on lipase is reduced by adding methanol in three stages. → Polar solvents like n-hexane and n-heptane increases the conversion of tranesterification reaction. - Abstract: Waste sunflower frying oil is used in biodiesel production by transesterification using an enzyme as a catalyst in a batch reactor. Various microbial lipases have been used in transesterification reaction to select an optimum lipase. The effects of various parameters such as temperature, methanol:oil ratio, enzyme concentration and solvent on the conversion of methyl ester have been studied. The Pseudomonas fluorescens enzyme yielded the highest conversion. Using the P. fluorescens enzyme, the optimum conditions included a temperature of 45 deg. C, an enzyme concentration of 5% and a methanol:oil molar ratio 3:1. To avoid an inhibitory effect, the addition of methanol was performed in three stages. The conversion obtained after 24 h of reaction increased from 55.8% to 63.84% because of the stage-wise addition of methanol. The addition of a non-polar solvent result in a higher conversion compared to polar solvents. Transesterification of waste sunflower frying oil under the optimum conditions and single-stage methanol addition was compared to the refined sunflower oil.

  11. Biodiesel production plant project from fritter oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordoví Felipe, Carlos Miguel; Gandón Hernández, José; Sarracent López, Anabel; García Díaz, Marilín

    2017-01-01

    Increments in commercialization values of fossil fuels as well as the ecological impact in the environment, motivated the study about methods to obtain clean (alternative) energies that don't produce emanations or, in the worst of cases reduce them as much as possible. In this work is shown the project of a plant of a biodiesel production plant, using as raw material fritter oils coming from foods processing facilities and/or from tourist facilities. The production technology is based on studies, carried out by the foods research group in Chemical Engineering Faculty, Technological University of Havana in biodiesel production through the mechanism of alkaline transesterificationón with homogeneous catalysts. The plant was designed in modular type in order to facilitate any production amplification that is required and has all the necessary elements for its assembly, it is easy to repair in situ according to resources possibilities and of simple operation so that it is possible for not qualified workers in technical questions. The production capacity in this project is 300 liters of raw material per batch, coming from a fritter foods facility. (author)

  12. Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifurrahman; Usman, A. Gani; Rinjani, Rakasiwi

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays, electricity become very expensive thing in some remote areas. Energy from solar panels give the solution as renewable energy that is environment friendly. West Borneo is located on the equator where the sun shines for almost 10-15 hours/day. Solar water heating system which is includes storage tank and solar collections becomes a cost-effective way to generate the energy. Solar panel heat water is delivered to water in storage tank. Hot water is used as hot fluid in biodiesel jacked reactor. The purposes of this research are to design Solar Water Heating System for Biodiesel Production and measure the rate of heat-transfer water in storage tank. This test has done for 6 days, every day from 8.30 am until 2.30 pm. Storage tank and collection are made from stainless steel and polystyrene a well-insulated. The results show that the heater can be reach at 50ºC for ±2.5 hours and the maximum temperature is 62ºC where the average of light intensity is 1280 lux.

  13. Performance characteristics of rubber seed oil biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Qin, M.; Wu, J.; Chen, B. S.

    2018-01-01

    The lubricity, ignition quality, oxidative stability, low temperature flow property and elastomeric compatibility of rubber seed oil biodiesel(RSM) were evaluated and compared with conventional petro-diesel. The results indicated that RSM and its blends with petro-diesel possessed outstanding lubricity manifested by sharp decrease in wear scar diameters in the high-frequency reciprocating rig(HFRR) testing. They also provided acceptable flammability and cold flow property,although the cetane numbers (CN) and cold filter plugging points(CFPP) of biodiesel blends slightly decreased with increasing contents of petro-diesel. However, RSM proved to be very susceptible to oxidation at elevated temperatures during prolonged oxidation durations, characterized by increased peroxide values, viscosity, acid values and isooctane insolubles. The oxidation stability of RSM could be significantly improved by antioxidants such as BD100, a phenol antioxidant produced by Ciba corporation. Furthermore, RSM provided poor compatibility with some elastomeric rubbers such as polyacrylate, nitrile-butadiene and chloroprene, but was well compatible with the hydrogenated nitrile-butadiene elastomer.

  14. Equilibrium study for ternary mixtures of biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doungsri, S.; Sookkumnerd, T.; Wongkoblap, A.; Nuchitprasittichai, A.

    2017-11-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for the ternary mixtures of methanol + fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) + palm oil and FAME + palm oil + glycerol at various temperatures from 35 to 55°C, the tie lines and binodial curves were also investigated and plotted in the equilibrium curve. The experimental results showed that the binodial curves of methanol + FAME + palm oil depended significantly with temperature while the binodial curves of FAME + palm oil + glycerol illustrated insignificant change with temperatures. The interaction parameters between liquid pair obtained for NRTL (Nonrandom Two-Liquid) and UNIQUAC (Universal Quasi-Chemical Theory) models from the experimental data were also investigated. It was found that the correlated parameters of UNIQUAC model for system of FAME + palm oil + glycerol, denoted as a13 and a31, were 580.42K and -123.69K, respectively, while those for system of methanol + FAME + palm oil, denoted as a42 and a24, were 71.48 K and 965.57K, respectively. The ternary LLE data reported here would be beneficial for engineers and scientists to use for prediction of yield and purity of biodiesel for the production. The UNIQUAC model agreed well with the experimental data of ternary mixtures of biodiesel.

  15. Vanadyl phosphate catalysts in biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Serio, M.; Cozzolino, M.; Tesser, R.; Santacesaria, E. [Universita degli studi di Napoli ' Federico II' , Dipartimento di Chimica, via Cintia 4, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Patrono, P.; Pinzari, F. [CNR-IMIP Area della Ricerca di Roma, via Salaria, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Roma (Italy); Bonelli, B. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2007-03-22

    The possibility of using vanadyl phosphate (VOP)-based catalysts in biodiesel production has been investigated. Vanadium phosphate catalysts resulted very active in the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol, despite their low specific surface area. A slow deactivation of the catalysts has been experimentally detected under the reaction conditions, but the catalyst can easily be regenerated by calcination in air. The influence of the calcination treatment on the surface structure and, consequently, on its catalytic performances was deeply investigated. Both fresh and used catalysts were characterized by using several techniques, such as BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance (DRUV) and laser-Raman (LRS). The characterization results showed that the deactivation is due to a progressive reduction of vanadium (V) species from V{sup 5+} to V{sup 4+} and V{sup 3+} by methanol. By comparing the obtained performances of VOP catalysts with the ones of other heterogeneous catalysts reported by the literature, it is possible to conclude that VOP catalysts can already be used industrially for biodiesel production but their performances can probably be greatly improved in perspective. (author)

  16. Treatment of Biodiesel Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anchalee Srirangsan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine the optimum conditions for biodiesel wastewater treatment using an electrocoagulation process. Wastewater samples were obtained from a small-scale, commercial biodiesel production plant that employs an alkali-catalyzed tranesterification process. The wastewater was characterized by the high contents of alkali and high oil content of 6,020 mg/L. Tested operational conditions included types of electrode, current density, retention time and initial pH. The tested electrode materials for electrocoagulation were aluminum (Al, iron (Fe and graphite (C. Five tested pairs of anode and cathode materials included Fe-Fe, Fe-C, Al-Al, Al-C, C-C. Results show that the optimum conditions were achieved by using the electrodes of Al-C, applying the current density of 8.32 mA/cm2 to the wastewater with an initial pH value of 6 for 25 min. The removal efficiency was found to be 97.8 % for grease & oil (G&O, 96.9 % for SS and 55.4 % for COD. Moreover, the small amount of produced sludge was readily to remove from the treated wastewater.

  17. Genomic Prospecting for Microbial Biodiesel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lykidis, Athanasios; Lykidis, Athanasios; Ivanova, Natalia

    2008-03-20

    Biodiesel is defined as fatty acid mono-alkylesters and is produced from triacylglycerols. In the current article we provide an overview of the structure, diversity and regulation of the metabolic pathways leading to intracellular fatty acid and triacylglycerol accumulation in three types of organisms (bacteria, algae and fungi) of potential biotechnological interest and discuss possible intervention points to increase the cellular lipid content. The key steps that regulate carbon allocation and distribution in lipids include the formation of malonyl-CoA, the synthesis of fatty acids and their attachment onto the glycerol backbone, and the formation of triacylglycerols. The lipid biosynthetic genes and pathways are largely known for select model organisms. Comparative genomics allows the examination of these pathways in organisms of biotechnological interest and reveals the evolution of divergent and yet uncharacterized regulatory mechanisms. Utilization of microbial systems for triacylglycerol and fatty acid production is in its infancy; however, genomic information and technologies combined with synthetic biology concepts provide the opportunity to further exploit microbes for the competitive production of biodiesel.

  18. prevalence of escherichia coli 0157:h7 in fresh and roasted beef

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    on Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) at 250C for two hours for roasted beef samples. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by using E. coli 0157:H7 latex agglutination test kit. Prevalence rate of. 53% was obtained in fresh beef and 25.3% in roasted beef. Consumption of inadequately cooked beef poses a serious risk of infection.

  19. BACTERIAL COMMUNITY DYNAMICS AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT DURING BIOREMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED BY BIODIESEL AND DIESEL/BIODIESEL BLENDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, G I; Junior, C S; Oliva, T C; Subtil, D F; Matsushita, L Y; Chaves, A L; Lutterbach, M T; Sérvulo, E F; Agathos, S N; Stenuit, B

    2015-01-01

    The gradual introduction of biodiesel in the Brazilian energy landscape has primarily occurred through its blending with conventional petroleum diesel (e.g., B20 (20% biodiesel) and B5 (5% biodiesel) formulations). Because B20 and lower-level blends generally do not require engine modifications, their use as transportation fuel is increasing in the Brazilian distribution networks. However, the environmental fate of low-level biodiesel blends and pure biodiesel (B100) is poorly understood and the ecotoxicological-safety endpoints of biodiesel-contaminated environments are unknown. Using laboratory microcosms consisting of closed reactor columns filled with clay loam soil contaminated with pure biodiesel (EXPB100) and a low-level blend (EXPB5) (10% w/v), this study presents soil ecotoxicity assessement and dynamics of culturable heterotrophic bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) procedures for enumeration of bacteria, dehydrogenase assays and soil ecotoxicological tests using Eisenia fetida have been performed at different column depths over the course of incubation. After 60 days of incubation, the ecotoxicity of EXPB100-derived samples showed a decrease from 63% of mortality to 0% while EXPB5-derived samples exhibited a reduction from 100% to 53% and 90% on the top and at the bottom of the reactor column, respectively. The dehydrogenase activity of samples from EXPB100 and EXPB5 increased significantly compared to pristine soil after 60 days of incubation. Growth of aerobic bacterial biomass was only observed on the top of the reactor column while the anaerobic bacteria exhibited significant growth at different column depths in EXPB100 and EXPB5. These preliminary results suggest the involvement of soil indigenous microbiota in the biodegradation of biodiesel and blends. However, GC-FID analyses for quantification of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons and targeted sequencing of 16S rRNA tags using illumina platforms will provide important

  20. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  1. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  2. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  3. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  4. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  5. Biodiesel Reactor Design with Glycerol Separation to Increase Biodiesel Production Yield

    OpenAIRE

    Budy Rahmat; Imas Siti Setiasih; Roni Kastaman

    2013-01-01

    The study consisted of reactor design used for transesterification process, effect of glycerol separation ontransesterification reaction, determination of biodiesel quality, and mass balance analysis. The reactor was designed byintegrating circulated pump/stirrer, static mixer, and sprayer that intensify the reaction in the outer tank reactor. The objective was to reduce the use of methanol in excess and to shorten the processing time. The results showed that thereactor that applied the glyce...

  6. Les biocarburants en Argentine : facteurs et enjeux de la production de biodiesel de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guibert Martine

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, Argentina has sanctioned a national law to regulate biofuel production and consumption. Since 2007, soybean actors started producing biodiesel for international market -especially to Europe- and the country quickly became the major biodiesel exporter. In 2010, around twenty processing units started supplying the domestic market. Diesel sold in Argentina contained 5% of biodiesel. The obligation to add 5% of biodiesel to diesel has passed to 7% and the goal is to increase this percentage. The State support and soybean biodiesel competitiveness have been important for biodiesel chain development but some doubts could appear about the kind of actors that could have the benefits.

  7. Rheological behavior of oil and biodiesel from Moringa oleifera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz Domínguez, Yosvany; Tabio García, Danger; Rondón Macías, Maylin; Fernández Santana, Elina; Rodríguez Muñoz, Susana; Piloto‐Rodríguez, Ramón

    2017-01-01

    The seeds of Moringa oleifera contain between 30 and 45% of oil, which has motivated the development of investigations with a view to their possible use. The present work aims to determine the rheological behavior of Moringa oleifera oil and biodiesel. The synthesis of biodiesel from crude Moringa oleifera oil was made using methanol with presence of sodium hydroxide. The average yield of this stage was 93%. The results of the rheological study shown that the viscosity at 40°C of Moringa oleifera oil is independent of the shear rate, which corresponds to the behavior of a Newtonian fluid. However, for biodiesel it was demonstrated that there is a dependence of the viscosity with the shear rate (non-Newtonian fluid). This result is corroborated by the fluidity curve, assuring that Moringa oleifera biodiesel behaves as a dilating fluid. (author)

  8. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  9. Biodiesel From Alternative Oilseed Feedstocks: Production and Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels from several alternative oilseed feedstocks, which included camelina (Camelina sativa L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), field mustard (Brassica juncea L.), field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), and meadowfoam (L...

  10. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario

    2010-01-01

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  11. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  12. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  13. Microreactors - a marvel of modern manufacturing technology: biodiesel case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Buddoo, SR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Microreactors are miniature reactors for carrying out chemical reactions. CSIR Biosciences has been investigating the production of biodiesel using various sources of vegetable oils, for example, soya, sunflower, canada, Jatropha, palm and peanuts...

  14. rights reserved Assessment of Indigenous Bacteria from Biodiesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v22i2.12 ... Keywords: Biodiesel, bioremediation, bacteria, effluent, hydrocarbon. Indigenous soil Microorganisms are tiny colonies of .... refinery waste-contaminated site and an aviation gasoline contaminated site.

  15. Biodiesel in Belgium. From rapeseed oil to used vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelkmans, L.

    1997-01-01

    There are two motives for the search for alternative motor fuels: reducing the growing pressure of traffic on environment, and looking for a replacement for petrol and diesel oil that are bound to be worn-out in a few decades. A promising alternative motor fuel is biodiesel. The author's institute is involved in its second biodiesel demonstration project. In the first project RME (rapeseed methyl ester) was used undiluted in five passenger cars for two years. There were no technical problems and a clear environmental advantage was noticed. However, the price remains a problem. The use of waste vegetable oils for the production of biodiesel could help to overcome this problem. Therefore, a second biodiesel demonstration project was started in which UVOME (used vegetable oil methyl ester) is used. The preliminary results show a great similarity with the RME results and no technical problems in real life use. 1 fig., 1 tab., 5 refs

  16. Production of biodiesel using lipase encapsulated in κ-carrageenan

    CERN Document Server

    Ravindra, Pogaku

    2015-01-01

    This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For...

  17. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafrallah, Touria; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation...... of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having...... on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal....

  18. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, R. B. Nasir; Verma, Sanny; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  19. Room temperature synthesis of biodiesel using sulfonated graphitic carbon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulfonation of graphitic carbon nitride (g-CN) affords a polar and strongly acidic catalyst, Sg-CN, which displays unprecedented reactivity and selectivity in biodiesel synthesis and esterification reactions at room temperature.

  20. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  1. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Upstream and downstream strategies to economize biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasheminejad, Meisam; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mansourpanah, Yaghoub; Khatami far, Mahdi; Javani, Azita

    2011-01-01

    In recent years biodiesel has drawn considerable amount of attention as a clean and renewable fuel. Biodiesel is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oils and animal fat mainly through catalytic or non-catalytic transesterification method as well as supercritical method. However, as a consequence of disadvantages of these methods, the production cost increases dramatically. This article summarizes different biodiesel production methods with a focus on their advantages and disadvantages. The downstream and upstream strategies such as using waste cooking oils, application of non-edible plant oils, plant genetic engineering, using membrane separation technology for biodiesel production, separation and purification, application of crude glycerin as an energy supplement for ruminants, glycerin ultra-purification and their consequent roles in economizing the production process are fully discussed in this article. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymeric efficiency in remove impurities during cottonseed biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, H. L.; Liang, Y. H.; Yan, J.; Lin, H. D.; Espinosa, A. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a new process for developing biodiesel by polymer from crude cottonseed oil. The study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of the alkali transesterification-flocculation-sedimentation process on fast glycerol and other impurities in the separation from biodiesel by using quaternary polyamine-based cationic polymers SL2700 and polyacylamide cationic polymer SAL1100. The settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities in biodiesel was investigated through settling test experiments; the quality of the biodiesel was investigated by evaluating the viscosity and density. The results revealed that SL2700, SAL1100 and their combination dramatically improved the settling velocity of glycerol and other impurities materials than traditional method. SL 2700 with molecular weight of 0.2 million Da and charge density of 50% then plus SAL1100 with molecular weight of 11 million Da and charge density of 10% induced observable particle aggregation with the best settling performance.

  4. Investigation of Oxidation stability of Pongamia Biodiesel and its blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Dwivedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from Pongamia oil is one of the promising non edible sources in India. But the main problem of using Pongamia biodiesel as fuel is its poor stability characteristics. Poor stability leads to gum formation which further leads to a storage problem of these fuels for a longer period of time. This paper investigates the methodology of improving the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel by blending with diesel and use of the antioxidant Pyrogallol. The experimental investigation shows that blending with diesel and using of antioxidant Pyrogallol improves the stability characteristics of Pongamia biodiesel significantly. Results of the study show that the optimum amount of antioxidant (PY for pure PB20 is 300 ppm to maintain the oxidation stability specification and blending of diesel with Pongamia shows that PB10 requires no additive to maintain its stability characteristics.

  5. Brown Grease to Biodiesel Demonstration Project Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Francisco Public Utilities Commission; URS Corporation; Biofuels, Blackgold; Carollo Engineers

    2013-01-30

    Municipal wastewater treatment facilities have typically been limited to the role of accepting wastewater, treating it to required levels, and disposing of its treatment residuals. However, a new view is emerging which includes wastewater treatment facilities as regional resource recovery centers. This view is a direct result of increasingly stringent regulations, concerns over energy use, carbon footprint, and worldwide depletion of fossil fuel resources. Resources in wastewater include chemical and thermal energy, as well as nutrients, and water. A waste stream such as residual grease, which concentrates in the drainage from restaurants (referred to as Trap Waste), is a good example of a resource with an energy content that can be recovered for beneficial reuse. If left in wastewater, grease accumulates inside of the wastewater collection system and can lead to increased corrosion and pipe blockages that can cause wastewater overflows. Also, grease in wastewater that arrives at the treatment facility can impair the operation of preliminary treatment equipment and is only partly removed in the primary treatment process. In addition, residual grease increases the demand in treatment materials such as oxygen in the secondary treatment process. When disposed of in landfills, grease is likely to undergo anaerobic decay prior to landfill capping, resulting in the atmospheric release of methane, a greenhouse gas (GHG). This research project was therefore conceptualized and implemented by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) to test the feasibility of energy recovery from Trap Waste in the form of Biodiesel or Methane gas. The research goals are given below: To validate technology performance; To determine the costs and benefits [including economic, socioeconomic, and GHG emissions reduction] associated with co-locating this type of operation at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); To develop a business case or model for replication of the

  6. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  7. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  8. Experimental investigation review of biodiesel usage in bus diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Kegl, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This paper assembles and analyses extensive experimental research work conducted for several years in relation to biodiesel usage in a MAN bus Diesel engine with M injection system. At first the most important properties of the actually used neat rapeseed biodiesel fuel and its blends with mineral diesel are discussed and compared to that of mineral diesel. Then the injection, fuel spray, and engine characteristics for various considered fuel blends are compared at various ambient conditions,...

  9. Biodiesel production by chemical or enzymatic esterification of sunflower oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passarinho, Paula C.; Rosa, M. Fernanda; Oliveira, A.C.; Pingarilho, M.S.; Beirao, S.G.; Vieira, Ana Maria Soares

    1998-07-01

    In this work, two processes of sunflower oil transesterification, with methanol or ethanol, were studied for biodiesel production: chemical (catalyst- NaOH) and enzymatic (catalyst - rhizomucor miehei lipase). The chemical catalysis proved to be more efficient, having been obtained higher conversion yields and a better quality biodiesel, mainly in the case where methanol was used. The transesterification product had, in all cases, to be purified in order to be used as a diesel substitute.

  10. Technical aspects of biodiesel production from vegetable oils

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar Janahiraman; Venkatachalapathy Karuppannan V.S.; Elancheliyan Sellappan

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel, a promising substitute as an alternative fuel has gained significant attention due to the finite nature of fossil energy sources and does not produce sulfur oxides and minimize the soot particulate in comparison with the existing one from petroleum diesel. The utilization of liquid fuels such as biodiesel produced from vegetable oil by transesterification process represents one of the most promising options for the use of conventional fossil fuels. In the first step of this experim...

  11. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Keneni, Yadessa Gonfa; Marchetti, Jorge Mario

    2017-01-01

    Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fo...

  12. TREATMENT OF BIODIESEL WASTEWATER USING YELLOW MUSTARD SEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    SAVCI, Serpil

    2017-01-01

    In thisstudy, removal of original biodiesel wastewater (BOD, COD, oil&greas) by yellow mustard seeds was examined bya batch system. The effect of the adsorption time 300 minutes, adsorbent dose(1.0 g/L) and mixing rate (120 rpm) on the adsorption capacity of pollutants.The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were examined.According to the data obtained from experiments, biodiesel wastewater can betreated by adsorption using yellow mustard seeds.

  13. Anaerobic Metabolism of Biodiesel and Its Impact on Metal Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    Metabolism of Biodiesel and Its Impact on Metal Corrosion Deniz F. Aktas,† Jason S. Lee,‡ Brenda J. Little,‡ Richard I. Ray,‡ Irene A. Davidova...AND SUBTITLE Anaerobic Metabolism of Biodiesel and Its Impact on Metal Corrosion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...The intensity of the blackening and distribution of deposits varied with the location within the exposure tank. All coupons exposed to seawater were

  14. Spent coffee grounds for biodiesel production and other applications

    OpenAIRE

    Caetano, Nídia Sá; Silva, Vânia; Melo, Ana C.; Martins, António A.; Mata, Teresa M.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using spent coffee grounds (SCG) for biodiesel production and other applications. An experimental study was conducted with different solvents showing that lipid content up to 6 wt% can be obtained from SCG. Results also show that besides biodiesel production, SCG can be used as fertilizer as it is rich in nitrogen, and as solid fuel with higher heating value (HHV) equivalent to some agriculture and wood residues. The extracted lipids were characterized f...

  15. A skeletal mechanism for biodiesel blend surrogates combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, H.; Yang, W.M.; Maghbouli, A.; Li, J.; Chua, K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A skeletal biodiesel reaction mechanism with 112 species was constructed. • The developed mechanism contains the CO, NO x and soot formation kinetics. • It was well validated against detailed reaction mechanism and experimental results. • The mechanism is suitable to simulate biodiesel, diesel and their blend fuels. - Abstract: A tri-component skeletal reaction mechanism consisting of methyl decanoate, methyl-9-decenoate, and n-heptane was developed for biodiesel combustion in diesel engine. It comprises 112 species participating in 498 reactions with the CO, NO x and soot formation mechanisms embedded. In this study, a detailed tri-component biodiesel mechanism was used as the start of mechanism reduction and the reduced mechanism was combined with a previously developed skeletal reaction mechanism for n-heptane to integrate the soot formation kinetics. A combined mechanism reduction strategy including the directed relation graph with error propagation and sensitivity analysis (DRGEPSA), peak concentration analysis, isomer lumping, unimportant reactions elimination and reaction rate adjustment methods was employed. The reduction process for biodiesel was performed over a range of initial conditions covering the pressures from 1 to 100 atm, equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2.0 and temperatures from 700 to 1800 K, whereas for n-heptane, ignition delay predictions were compared against 17 shock tube experimental conditions. Extensive validations were performed for the developed skeletal reaction mechanism with 0-D ignition delay testing and 3-D engine simulations. The results indicated that the developed mechanism was able to accurately predict the ignition delay timings of n-heptane and biodiesel, and it could be integrated into 3-D engine simulations to predict the combustion characteristics of biodiesel. As such, the developed 112-species skeletal mechanism can accurately mimic the significant reaction pathways of the detailed reaction

  16. Biodiesel de microalgas: avanços e desafios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Custódio Franco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the procedures used to obtain biomass.

  17. Current Status and Prospects of Biodiesel Production from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Liu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Microalgae represent a sustainable energy source because of their high biomass productivity and ability to remove air and water born pollutants. This paper reviews the current status of production and conversion of microalgae, including the advantages of microalgae biodiesel, high density cultivation of microalgae, high-lipid content microalgae selection and metabolic control, and innovative harvesting and processing technologies. The key barriers to commercial production of microalgae biodiesel and future perspective of the technologies are also discussed.

  18. Small-scale biodiesel production based on a heterogenous technology

    OpenAIRE

    Omberg, Kristian Sørby

    2015-01-01

    In a world where the growing concern for global warming and the problems concerning planet earth is confirmed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) . Thesearch for alternatives to replace the use of finite fossil fuels and cut green house gas (GHG)emission has commenced. Biodiesel, a biofuel derived from fat and vegetable oil based feedstock is one such alternative. However, a large enough biodiesel production to supply the demand for fuel is beinglimited by cost in...

  19. Aspen Simulation of Diesel-Biodiesel Blends Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Sánchez Armando; Montero-Alpírez Gisela; Ayala-Bautista Ramón; Coronado-Ortega Marcos Alberto; García-González Conrado; Campbell- Ramírez Héctor Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel produced by transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats, which currently is gaining attention as a diesel substitute. It represents an opportunity to reduce CO2, SO2, CO, HC, PAH and PM emissions and contributes to the diversification of fuels in Mexico's energetic matrix. The results of the simulation of the combustion process are presented in this paper with reference to an engine specification KUBOTA D600-B, operated with diesel-biodiesel blends. The physicoche...

  20. Numerical analysis of injection characteristics using biodiesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with numerical analysis of injection process using biodieselžmineral diesel fuel blends with the aim to search for the potentialsto reduce engine harmful emissions. The considered fuels are neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil and its blends with mineral diesel D2. For the numerical analysis a one-dimensional mathematical model is employed. In order to model accurately the investigated fuels, the employed empirical expressionsfor their properties are determined by experiments. To...

  1. A comprehensive review on biodiesel purification and upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed Bateni; Alireza Saraeian; Chad Able

    2017-01-01

    Serious environmental concerns regarding the use of fossil-based fuels have raised awareness regarding the necessity of alternative clean fuels and energy carriers. Biodiesel is considered a clean, biodegradable, and non-toxic diesel substitute produced via the transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol in the presence of a proper catalyst. After initial separation of the by-product (glycerol), the crude biodiesel needs to be purified to meet the standard specifications prior to mar...

  2. Physico-chemical characterization of biodiesel from pests attacked corn oil; Caracterizacao fisico-quimica do biodiesel de oleo de milho danificado por pragas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fabia M.; Correa, Paulo C.; Martins, Marcio A.; Santos, Silmara B.; Damian, Amanda D. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil)], Emails: copace@ufv.br, aredes@ufv.br, syllmara@vicosa.ufv.br

    2009-07-01

    The biodiesel is a renewable energy source alternative to fossil fuels. The biodiesel synthesis can be made by many types of triglycerides transesterification, it is possible to use this biofuel in vehicles if it has the quality required from Agencia Nacional de Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP). Searching an application for pests attacked corn, there is feasibility technical for the biodiesel production from this corn oil. The biodiesel synthesis was made through ethyl transesterification process with alkaline catalyst using ethanol. The biodiesel physical-chemical characterization was performed using ANP methods. (author)

  3. Oxidative stability of biodiesel blends derived from waste frying oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Feroldi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The high cost of biodiesel production is mainly linked to the price of raw material.This factor has favored the use of alternative fats and oils such as those used in frying. Since biodiesel can be obtained from several vegetable and animal raw materials, the physicochemical characteristics of the fuel may vary considerably. One of these characteristics is the fatty acid composition. It directly affects the oxidative stability of biodiesel, which can be impaired when the fuel undergoes exposure to sunlight, metals, oxygen and high temperatures. In order to improve the oxidative stability of biodiesels produced from waste frying oil some studies involving blends of different raw materials have been carried out. In this sense, this work aimed to assess the characteristics resulting from the blending of soybean waste frying oil with other waste biodiesels in what concerns to oxidation. The blends of fatty materials were obtained by means of a 2² factorial design. The induction periods of biodiesel blends were enough to meet the ASTM D6751 standard. Swine fat was responsible for the increase in the induction period values.

  4. Characteristics of paddy operations with biodiesel fuelled tractor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y.; Park, S.H.; Kim, C.K.; Im, D.H.; Kim, H.J.; Chung, S.C. [National Academy of Agricultural Science, Seodundong, Suwon (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of); Kim, S.S. [Daedong Industrial Co., Chang Nyong-Kun, Kyungnam (Korea, Democratic People' s Republic of)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which biofuels were tested for their power and competitiveness in various paddy operations, such as plowing and rotary tilling of paddy fields. The study considered the use of diesel fuel as well as 20 per cent biodiesel (BD20) and 100 per cent biodiesel (BD100) as an alternative fuel for tractors. Ignition problems or abrupt stopping were not monitored during operations of plowing, rotary tilling and travelling on the road. According to tractor power take-off (PTO) test codes, there was no considerable power difference between the 3 fuels. However, fuel consumption rates were quite different between the biodiesels and diesel fuel in the paddy works. Fuel consumption increased when biodiesel content increased. Approximately 35 to 40 per cent more fuel was needed for rotary tilling operations than plowing operations. Within the operations, the maximum difference occurred during the rotary tilling of wet paddy fields. This difference was as high as 20 per cent , between BD100 and diesel fuel. In terms of exhaust gases, more carbon dioxide was discharged from diesel fuel than biodiesels, but more nitrous oxide was discharged with biodiesels. It was difficult to differentiate quantities of carbon monoxide between the 3 different fuels.

  5. Different purification methods and quality of sunflower biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, A.L.M.T.; Park, K.J. [Campinas State Univ., Sao Paulo (Brazil). School of Agricultural Engineering; Ferrari, R.A.; Miguel, A.M.R.O. [Food Technology Inst., Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Biodiesel is derived from triacylglycerides and is produced primarily through transesterification, a chemical reaction of vegetable oils with alcohol, methanol or ethanol. The cost of raw material should be considered since 85 per cent of production cost is related to vegetable oil. The purpose of this study was to evaluate oil expression of sunflower seed. It also examined the sunflower crude oil as a raw material for biodiesel by transesterification in both laboratory and pilot scale studies. Three different biodiesel purification methods were examined. The best result for oil expelling (68.4 per cent) at the experimental stage was obtained for seeds with a moisture content of 6.9 per cent at 25 degrees C and at a screw speed of 114 rpm. For biodiesel production at the laboratory scale, the best result for oil expelling was 87.5 per cent. It was obtained with an ethanol:oil molar ratio of 4.7:1 and with a 4.42 per cent catalyst concentration related to the quantity of oil that had to be transesterified. The experimental condition was applied at a bigger scale with a batch stirred tank reactor. For purification with washing, the biodiesel yield was 84.2 per cent. Purification with silica resulted in a yield of 84.6 per cent. A better quality biofuel was obtained through distillation of biodiesel.

  6. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  7. Breathing easier? The known impacts of biodiesel on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traviss, Nora

    2012-05-01

    Substantial scientific evidence exists on the negative health effects of exposure to petroleum diesel exhaust. Many view biodiesel as a 'green', more environmentally friendly alternative fuel, especially with respect to measured reductions of particulate matter in tailpipe emissions. Tailpipe emissions data sets from heavy-duty diesel engines comparing diesel and biodiesel fuels provide important information regarding the composition and potential aggregate contribution of particulate matter and other pollutants to regional airsheds. However, exposure - defined in this instance as human contact with tailpipe emissions - is another key link in the chain between emissions and human health effects. Although numerous biodiesel emissions studies exist, biodiesel exposure studies are nearly absent from the literature. This article summarizes the known impacts of biodiesel on air quality and health effects, comparing emissions and exposure research. In light of rapidly changing engine, fuel and exhaust technologies, both emissions and exposure studies are necessary for developing a fuller understanding of the impact of biodiesel on air quality and human health.

  8. Sustaining Biodiesel Production via Value-Added Applications of Glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotola Babajide

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biofuels worldwide has been significant lately due to the shift from obtaining energy from nonrenewable energy (fossil fuels to renewable sources (biofuels. This energy shift arose as a result of the disturbing crude petroleum price fluctuations, uncertainties about fossil fuel reserves, and greenhouse gas (GHG concerns. With the production of biofuels increasing considerably and the current global biodiesel production from different feedstock, reaching about 6 billion liters per year, biodiesel production costs have been highly dependent on feedstock prices, ranging from 70 to 25; of total production costs, and in comparison with the conventional diesel fuel, the biodiesel is currently noncompetitive. An efficient production process is, therefore, crucial to lowering biodiesel production costs. The question of sustainability, however, arises, taking into account the African diverse conditions and how vital concerns need to be addressed. The major concern about biodiesel production costs can be reduced by finding value-added applications for its glycerol byproduct. This paper, thus, provides an overview of current research trends that could overcome the major hurdles towards profitable commercialization of biodiesel and also proposes areas of opportunity probable to capitalize the surplus glycerol obtained, for numerous applications.

  9. Evaluation of Biodiesel Production, Engine Performance, and Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürü, Metin; Keskïn, Ali

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, to decrease environmental pollution and dependence on fossil-based fuels, research on alternative renewable energy sources has been increasing. One such renewable energy source is biodiesel, which is used as an alternative fuel for diesel engines. Biodiesel is renewable, nontoxic, biodegradable, and environmentally friendly. Biodiesel is domestically produced from vegetable oil (edible or nonedible), animal fat, and used cooking oils. In the biodiesel production process, oil or fat undergoes transesterification reaction through use of simple alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol, etc. Use of methanol is most feasible because of its low cost, and physical and chemical advantages. Acid catalysis, alkali catalysis, and enzyme catalysis are usually used to improve the reaction rate and yield. Glycerol is a byproduct of the reaction and can be used as an industrial raw material. In this study, biodiesel production methods (direct use, pyrolysis, microemulsion, transesterification, supercritical processes, ultrasound- assisted, and microwave-assisted) and types of catalyst (homogeneous, heterogeneous, and enzyme) have been evaluated and compared. In addition, the effects of biodiesel and its blends on diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions are described and reviewed.

  10. An updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis of algae biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Sanjay; Chou, Siaw Kiang; Cao, Shenyan; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Algae biodiesel is a promising but expensive alternative fuel to petro-diesel. To overcome cost barriers, detailed cost analyses are needed. A decade-old cost analysis by the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory indicated that the costs of algae biodiesel were in the range of $0.53-0.85/L (2012 USD values). However, the cost of land and transesterification were just roughly estimated. In this study, an updated comprehensive techno-economic analysis was conducted with optimized processes and improved cost estimations. Latest process improvement, quotes from vendors, government databases, and other relevant data sources were used to calculate the updated algal biodiesel costs, and the final costs of biodiesel are in the range of $0.42-0.97/L. Additional improvements on cost-effective biodiesel production around the globe to cultivate algae was also recommended. Overall, the calculated costs seem promising, suggesting that a single step biodiesel production process is close to commercial reality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil Manufacturing using Ultrasonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyadi, Slamet; Purwanto; Anggoro, Didi Dwi; Hermawan

    2018-02-01

    Kemiri Sunan (Reutalis trisperma (Blanco) Airy Shaw) is a potential plant to be developed as biodiesel feedstock. The advantage of Kemiri Sunan seeds when compared to other biodiesel raw materials is their high oil content. This plant is also very good for land conservation. Due the increasingly demand for biodiesel, research and new methods to increase its biodiesel production continue to be undertaken. The weakness of conventional biodiesel manufacturing process is in the mixing process in which mechanical stirring and heating in the trans-esterification process require more energy and a longer time. A higher and stronger mixing process is required to increase the contact area between the two phases of the mixed substance to produce the emulsion. Ultrasonic is a tool that can be useful for a liquid mixing process that tends to be separated. Ultrasonic waves can cause mixing intensity at the micro level and increase mass transfer, so the reaction can be performed at a much faster rate. This study is to figure out the effect of ultrasonic irradiation on the transesterification process of biodiesel from Kemiri Sunan Oil.

  12. Castor oil biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, Alirio; Benjumea, Pedro; Pashova, Veselina

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a study related to the production and use of castor oil biodiesel is presented. The maximum methyl esters yield of the castor oil transesterification reaction is obtained under the following conditions: ambient temperature, a molar ratio of methanol to vegetable oil equal to 9 and a catalyst percentage equal to 0.8%. The castor oil biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel as far as 15% in such way that the resulting blend complies with national and international technical standards for diesel fuels. Its high viscosity becomes the main difficulty for using castor oil biodiesel in engines. However this biofuel exhibits excellent cold flow properties (low values of cloud and pour points). The motor tests using castor oil biodiesel petroleum diesel blends, for the biodiesel proportion tested; show that a biodiesel percentage increase leads to an increase in the specific fuel consumption, a decrease in the fuel air ratio, a slight decrease in smoke opacity, while the fuel conversion efficiency and the CO and CO 2 emissions practically remain constants

  13. Cost analysis of simulated base-catalyzed biodiesel production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasić, Marija B.; Stamenković, Olivera S.; Veljković, Vlada B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two semi-continuous biodiesel production processes from sunflower oil are simulated. • Simulations were based on the kinetics of base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. • The total energy consumption was influenced by the kinetic model. • Heterogeneous base-catalyzed process is a preferable industrial technology. - Abstract: The simulation and economic feasibility evaluation of semi-continuous biodiesel production from sunflower oil were based on the kinetics of homogeneously (Process I) and heterogeneously (Process II) base-catalyzed methanolysis reactions. The annual plant’s capacity was determined to be 8356 tonnes of biodiesel. The total energy consumption was influenced by the unit model describing the methanolysis reaction kinetics. The energy consumption of the Process II was more than 2.5 times lower than that of the Process I. Also, the simulation showed the Process I had more and larger process equipment units, compared with the Process II. Based on lower total capital investment costs and biodiesel selling price, the Process II was economically more feasible than the Process I. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using variable sunflower oil and biodiesel prices. Using a biodiesel selling price of 0.990 $/kg, Processes I and II were shown to be economically profitable if the sunflower oil price was 0.525 $/kg and 0.696 $/kg, respectively

  14. Design and optimisation of purification procedure for biodiesel washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. Glišić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Almost complete methanolysis of triglycerides is usually not enough to fulfil the strict standards of biodiesel quality. A key step in this process is neutralization of alkali (catalyst followed by the washing procedure necessary for removing different impurities such as traces of catalyst and methanol and removal of soaps and glycerol from esters phase. The washing with hot water is still widely used in many industrial units for the biodiesel production. In this study, different procedures of biodiesel washing using hot water were investigated. The orto-phosphoric acid was suggested as the best compound for alkali catalyst (sodium hydroxide neutralization. The main goal of the performed analysis was to minimize the water usage in the washing-neutralization step during the biodiesel production. Such solution would make the process of biodiesel synthesis more economical taking into account the decrease of energy consumed for evaporation of water during the final product purification, as well as more acceptable procedure related to the impact on environment (minimal waste water release. Results of the performed simulation of the washing process supported by original experimental data suggested that neutralization after the optimized washing process of the methyl ester layer could be the best solution. The proposed washing procedure significantly decreases the amount of waste water giving at the same time the desired purity of final products (biodiesel and glycerol. The simulation of the process was performed using ASPEN plus software supported by ELCANTREL and UNIQUAC procedure of required properties calculation

  15. Optimization of emergy sustainability index for biodiesel supply network design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Yang, Le; Goodsite, Michael Evan; Pang, Chengfang; Dong, Lichun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A MINLP model for designing sustainable biodiesel supply network is developed. • Emergy sustainability index is used as the objective to be maximized. • Multiple alternatives in each stage of biodiesel supply network are considered. • Life cycle perspective is incorporated in the design of biodiesel supply network. - Abstract: Sustainability is an important and difficult consideration for the stakeholders/decision-makers when planning a biofuel supply network. In this paper, a Mixed-Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP) model was developed with the aim to help the stakeholders/decision-maker to select the most sustainable design. In the proposed model, the emergy sustainability index of the whole biodiesel supply networks in a life cycle perspective is employed as the measure of the sustainability, and multiple feedstocks, multiple transport modes, multiple regions for biodiesel production and multiple distribution centers can be considered. After describing the process and mathematic framework of the model, an illustrative case was studied and demonstrated that the proposed methodology is feasible for finding the most sustainable design and planning of biodiesel supply chains

  16. Production of Biodiesel from Waste Vegetable Oil via KM Micromixer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Elkady

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils through its pretreatment followed by transesterification process in presence of methanol was investigated using a KM micromixer reactor. The parameters affecting biodiesel production process such as alcohol to oil molar ratio, catalyst concentration, the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF as a cosolvent, and the volumetric flow rates of inlet fluids were optimized. The properties of the produced biodiesel were compared with its parent waste oil through different characterization techniques. The presence of methyl ester groups at the produced biodiesel was confirmed using both the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. Moreover, the thermal analysis of the produced biodiesel and the comparable waste oil indicated that the product after the transesterification process began to vaporize at 120°C which makes it lighter than its parent oil which started to vaporize at around 300°C. The maximum biodiesel production yield of 97% was recorded using 12 : 1 methanol to oil molar ratio in presence of both 1% NaOH and THF/methanol volume ratio 0.3 at 60 mL/h flow rate.

  17. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Thao

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of using petroleum fuels has led to a quest to find a suitable alternative fuel source. In this study, microalgae were explored as a highly potential feedstock to produce biodiesel fuel. Firstly, algal oil is extracted from algal biomass by using organic solvents (n–hexan.  Lipid is contained in microalgae up to 60% of their weight. Then, Biodiesel is created through a chemical reaction known as transesterification between algal oil and alcohol (methanol with strong acid (such as H2SO4 as the catalyst. The extraction – transesterification method resulted in a high biodiesel yield (10 % of algal biomass and high FAMEs content (5.2 % of algal biomass. Biodiesel production from microalgae was studied through experimental investigation of transesterification conditions such as reaction time, methanol to oil ration and catalyst dosage which are deemed to have main impact on reaction conversion efficiency. All the parameters which were characterized for purified biodiesel such as free glycerin, total glycerin, flash point, sulfur content were analyzed according to ASTM standardDoi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9Citation:  Thao, N.T.P., Tin, N.T., and Thanh, B.X. 2013. Biodiesel Production from Microalgae by Extraction – Transesterification Method. Waste Technology 1(1:6-9. Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.12777/wastech.1.1.6-9

  18. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  19. Conspecific plasticity and invasion: invasive populations of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera have performance advantage over native populations only in low soil salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leiyi Chen

    Full Text Available Global climate change may increase biological invasions in part because invasive species may have greater phenotypic plasticity than native species. This may be especially important for abiotic stresses such as salt inundation related to increased hurricane activity or sea level rise. If invasive species indeed have greater plasticity, this may reflect genetic differences between populations in the native and introduced ranges. Here, we examined plasticity of functional and fitness-related traits of Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera populations from the introduced and native ranges that were grown along a gradient of soil salinity (control: 0 ppt; Low: 5 ppt; Medium: 10 ppt; High: 15 ppt in a greenhouse. We used both norm reaction and plasticity index (PIv to estimate the conspecific phenotypic plasticity variation between invasive and native populations. Overall, invasive populations had higher phenotypic plasticity of height growth rate (HGR, aboveground biomass, stem biomass and specific leaf area (SLA. The plasticity Index (PIv of height growth rate (HGR and SLA each were higher for plants from invasive populations. Absolute performance was always comparable or greater for plants from invasive populations versus native populations with the greatest differences at low stress levels. Our results were consistent with the "Master-of-some" pattern for invasive plants in which the fitness of introduced populations was greater in more benign conditions. This suggests that the greater conspecific phenotypic plasticity of invasive populations compared to native populations may increase invasion success in benign conditions but would not provide a potential interspecific competitive advantage in higher salinity soils that may occur with global climate change in coastal areas.

  20. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  1. Biodiesel exhaust: the need for a systematic approach to health effects research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Alexander N; Kicic, Anthony; Mullins, Benjamin J; Knothe, Gerhard

    2015-10-01

    Biodiesel is a generic term for fuel that can be made from virtually any plant or animal oil via transesterification of triglycerides with an alcohol (and usually a catalyst). Biodiesel has received considerable scientific attention in recent years, as it is a renewable resource that is directly able to replace mineral diesel in many engines. Additionally, some countries have mandated a minimum biodiesel content in all diesel fuel sold on environmental grounds. When combusted, biodiesel produces exhaust emissions containing particulate matter, adsorbed chemicals and a range of gases. In many cases, absolute amounts of these pollutants are lower in biodiesel exhaust compared with mineral diesel exhaust, leading to speculation that biodiesel exhaust may be less harmful to health. Additionally, engine performance studies show that the concentrations of these pollutants vary significantly depending on the renewable oil used to make the biodiesel and the ratio of biodiesel to mineral diesel in the fuel mix. Given the strategic and legislative push towards the use of biodiesel in many countries, a concerning possibility is that certain biodiesels may produce exhaust emissions that are more harmful to health than others. This variation suggests that a comprehensive, systematic and comparative approach to assessing the potential for a range of different biodiesel exhausts to affect health is urgently required. Such an assessment could inform biodiesel production priorities, drive research and development into new exhaust treatment technologies, and ultimately minimize the health impacts of biodiesel exhaust exposure. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Effects of soy-lecithin, soy-oil and tallow on performance and expression of SREBP-1 gene in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partov Mahmoodi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Using vegetable oils and animal fats in poultry diets have beneficial effects for poultry production. They often have higher biological value than expected, increasing dietary metabolizable energy, which usually results in higher growth rates and better feed efficiency. Sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs play a key role in transcriptional regulation of cholesterol metabolism in response to cholesterol levels in the cell. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of soy-lecithin, soy-oil and tallow on performance and expression of SREBP-1 gene in the liver of broiler chickens. Materials and methods A total of 768 male broiler chickens (Ross 308 strain were used in a completely randomized design as a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with 4 replicates and 16 chicks per each. Broiler chickens were fed with three types of fat (soy-lecithin, soy-oil and or tallow and four levels of fat (0, 1, 2, and 3 from day 1 to day 42. Experimental diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. At 42 d, liver samples of birds washed with normal saline, put into the liquid nitrogen tank and transferred to -80°C freezer. Relative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed to assess HSP70 gene expression in the heart and liver of broiler chickens. Total RNAs were extracted from the homogenised tissues using high pure RNA isolation kit (Roche, Basel, Switzerland. RNA concentration was assayed by spectrophotometer nano-drop (MD-1000 in wavelength of 260/280 nm. Synthesis of cDNA was done by gene PAK RT universal kit (Fermentas, Hanover, MD, USA, with reverse specific primer and hexanucleotide random primer. Genotype and sequence of the primers of B-actin and SREBP-1 was collected from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (Bethesda, MD, USA. Then, specific primers were designed by primer-5 software and examined by BLAST for checking the specificity of primers. Synthesis of the primers was done by

  3. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  4. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Crockett, K L; Hoover, L C

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed them to be tender. The retail steak value differences found in this study would result in the opportunity for a premium to be paid for a guaranteed tender ( 5.7 kg) classification. A premium of $66.96 could be paid to the tender classification carcasses vs the tough (> 4.9 kg) classification carcasses, and a premium of $36.58 could be paid for the tender classification carcasses vs the intermediate (> 3.0 to < 4.6 kg) classification carcasses. Results from the present study show that consumers can segregate differences in beef tenderness and that consumers are willing to pay more for more-tender beef.

  5. Soy Biodiesel Emissions Have Reduced Inflammatory Effects ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicity of exhaust from combustion of petroleum diesel (BO), soy-based biodiesel (B100), or a 20% biodiesel/80% petrodiesel mix (B20) was compared in healthy and house dust mite (HDM)-allergic mice. Fuel emissions were diluted to target fine particulate matter (PM2.5) conrentrations of 50, 150, or 500 µg/m(3). Studies in healthy mice showed greater levels of neutrophils and MIP-2 in bronchoaeolar lavage (BAL) fluid 2 h after a single 4-h exposure to BO compared with mice exposed to B20 or B100. No consistent differences in BAL cells and biochemistry, or hematological parameters, were observed after 5 d or 4 weeks of exposure to any of the emissions. Air-exposed HDM-allergc mice had significantly increased responsiveness to methacholine aerosol challenge compared with non-allergic mice. Exposure to any of the emissions for 4 weeks did not further increase responsiveness in either non-allergic or HDM­ allergic mice, and few parameters of allergic inflammation in BAL fluid were altered. Lung and nasal pathology were not significantly different among BO-, B20-, or B100-exposed groups. In HDM-allergic mice, exposure to BO, but not B20 or B100, significantly increased resting peribronchiolar lymph node cell proliferation and production of TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) and IL-17 in comparison with air-exposed allergic mice. These results suggest that diesel exhaust at a relatively high concentration (500 µg/m(3)) can induce inflammation acutely in healthy m

  6. Production of biodiesel from vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luque, Susana

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced by transesterification of triglycerides present in animal fat or vegetable oils, by displacing glycerine with a low molar mass alcohol. This resulting ester mixture has physico-chemical properties similar to those of petroleum diesel. This paper reviews the synthetic paths that lead to biodiesel by means of the catalytic transesterification of vegetable oils. Although methyl esters are at present the only ones produced at industrial scale, the use of ethanol, which can also be obtained from renewable resources, has been considered, since it would generate a cleaner and more biocompatible fuel.El biodiésel se produce mediante la transesterificación de triglicéridos, presentes en grasas animales o aceites vegetales, en un proceso en el que un alcohol de bajo peso molecular desplaza a la glicerina. La mezcla de esteres así resultante posee unas propiedades físico-químicas similares a las del diésel procedente de petróleo. En este artículo se revisan las vías de síntesis de biodiésel mediante la transesterificación catalítica de aceites vegetales. Aunque actualmente a escala industrial solo se producen ésteres metílicos, también se ha considerado el uso de etanol, ya que éste se obtiene también de fuentes renovables, generando así un combustible más limpio y biocompatible.

  7. Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezel, G.

    2012-09-15

    In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)

  8. [Microbiological quality of mechanically deboned beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasovská, M; Pleva, J; Gorzová, A

    1991-01-01

    Microbial quality of mechanically deboned beef (MDB), which was obtained by the discontinuous hydraulic horizontal separator, type Inject-Star (firm LASKA, Austria), was analyzed for the presence of indicatory microorganisms (coliforms and enterococci), pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. The basic microbial parameters have been determined separately for MDB of 1st, 2nd degrees as well as for average daily samples from one collecting vessel. Apart from it, also a raw material (beef from flesh bones intended for separation) and salt MDB after 24 hrs storing in chiller before working it into meat products were examined by the same way. From our results it follows that the number of all microorganisms observed in MDB of 1st degree was lower than that of 2nd degree. During the separation process the increase of microbial parameters compared with those in initial raw material occurred by 1-2 radices and following subsequent salting and storing in chiller there was a repeated decrease by 1 radix (with exception of the number of Staphylococci remaining unchanged). The change in the amount of microflora present was also influenced by season--in summer there was an increase by about 1 radix. From the view point of food hygiene the finding of salmonellas and the presence of large number of Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus on average 10(5).g-1 as well as the presence of wide extent of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, especially from genera Proteus, Providencia, Morganella and Citrobacter are of great importance.

  9. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...... to improve the oxidative stability, nutritive value and sensory quality of beef.......Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...

  10. NOx Solutions for Biodiesel: Final Report; Report 6 in a Series of 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormick, R. L.; Alvarez, J. R.; Graboski, M. S.

    2003-02-01

    A number of studies have shown substantial particulate matter (PM) reductions for biodiesel, but also a significant increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. This study examines a number of approaches for NOx reduction from biodiesel.

  11. Concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil and in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mäder, A; Eskiner, M; Burger, C; Rossner, M; Krahl, J; Ruck, W

    2012-01-01

    This work comprised a method for concentration measurements of biodiesel in engine oil as well as biodiesel in diesel fuel by a measurement of the permittivity of the mixture at a frequency range from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. For this purpose a special designed measurement cell with high sensitivity was designed. The results for the concentration measurements of biodiesel in the engine oil and diesel fuel shows linearity to the measurement cell signal for the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil between 0.5% Vol. to 10% Vol. and for biodiesel in the diesel fuel between 0% Vol. to 100% Vol. The method to measure the concentration of biodiesel in the engine oil or the concentration of biodiesel in the diesel fuel is very accurate and low concentration of about 0.5% Vol. biodiesel in engine oil or in diesel fuel can be measured with high accuracy.

  12. The effect of synthetic antioxidants on the oxidative stability of biodiesel

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Focke, WW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesels were prepared using base catalyzed methanolysis of sunflower, soybean and canola oils. Rancimat oxidative stability measurements showed that the induction period (IP) for neat canola biodiesel conformed to EN 14214, the European...

  13. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  14. Qualidade de biodiesel de soja, mamona e blendas durante armazenamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio R. Melo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se monitorar o armazenamento dos biodieseis provenientes da transesterificação homogênea alcalina do óleo de soja e mamona via rota metílica, avaliando a indução oxidativa pela norma EN14112 e pelo método PetroOxy durante o período de 120 dias, também observou-se o comportamento dos biodieseis inseridos em blendas nas proporções de 20, 30, 40 e 50% v/v de biodiesel de mamona ao biodiesel de soja denominadas de M20, M30, M40 e M50 (em recipientes de aço-carbono fechado. Conforme análises físico-químicas, as especificações para ambos biodiesel e blendas satisfizeram as exigências dos limites permitidos pelo Regulamento Técnico nº 14/2012 da Agência Nacional do Petróleo, Gás Natural e Biocombustíveis. Exceção das análises de estabilidade oxidativa (M0, M20, M30 e M40, do índice de acidez após 60 dias (M50, após 90 dias (M40 e M50, após 120 dias (M100 e da viscosidade cinemática (M40, M50 e M100 que apresentaram valores fora dos limites estabelecidos pela norma. As propriedades fluidodinâmicas apresentaram comportamentos semelhantes para os biodieseis metílicos e blendas, assim, nestas concentrações o biodiesel metílico de mamona atua como um aditivo natural ao biodiesel metílico de soja. Através do método EN 14112 verificou-se que a blenda M50 é mais resistente ao processo de oxidação durante armazenamento de 120 dias.Quality of biodiesel soy, castor beans and blends during storageAbstract: The objective of the study was to monitor the storage of biodiesels from alkaline homogeneous transesterification of soybean and castor oil via methyl route, and to evaluate the oxidative induction by the EN14112 standard and the PetroOxy method over the period of 120 days. We observed the behavior of the inserted biodiesels in blends in the ratios of 20, 30, 40 and 50% v / v biodiesel from castor beans of soybean biodiesel named M20, M30, M40 and M50 (closed carbon steel containers . As physical and chemical

  15. Chitosan and Its Derivatives Applied in Harvesting Microalgae for Biodiesel Production: An Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Guanyi Chen; Liu Zhao; Yun Qi; Yuan-Lu Cui

    2014-01-01

    Although oil-accumulating microalgae are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production, large-scale biodiesel production is not yet economically feasible. As harvesting accounts for an important part of total production cost, mass production of microalgae biodiesel requires an efficient low-energy harvesting strategy so as to make biodiesel production economically attractive. Chitosan has emerged as a favorable flocculating agent in harvesting of microalgae. The aim of this paper is to revie...

  16. Degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber and fluoroelastomers in rapeseed biodiesel and hydrogenated vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Akhlaghi, Shahin

    2017-01-01

    Biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) are currently viewed by the transportation sector as the most viable alternative fuels to replace petroleum-based fuels. The use of biodiesel has, however, been limited by the deteriorative effect of biodiesel on rubber parts in automobile fuel systems. This work therefore aimed at investigating the degradation of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) and fluoroelastomers (FKM) on exposure to biodiesel and HVO at different temperatures and oxygen ...

  17. Production of FAME biodiesel in E. coli by direct methylation with an insect enzyme

    OpenAIRE

    Sherkhanov, Saken; Korman, Tyler P.; Clarke, Steven G; Bowie, James U.

    2016-01-01

    Most biodiesel currently in use consists of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) produced by transesterification of plant oils with methanol. To reduce competition with food supplies, it would be desirable to directly produce biodiesel in microorganisms. To date, the most effective pathway for the production of biodiesel in bacteria yields fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) at up to ~1.5?g/L. A much simpler route to biodiesel produces FAMEs by direct S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) dependent methylati...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Biodegradability of Biodiesel obtained by Conventional and Non-Conventional Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nagaraja Y. P; Chandrashekhar Biradar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to conventional diesel fuel made from renewable resources. No engine modifications are required to use biodiesel in place of crude oil-based diesel. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter. Biodiesel also increased catalytic converter efficiency in reducing particulate emissions. Chemical characterization also revealed lower levels of some toxic and reactive hydrocarbo...

  19. Dynamics of Peroxy and Alkenyl Radicals Undergoing Competing Rearrangements in Biodiesel Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dibble, Theodore S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Biodiesel fuel is increasingly being used worldwide. Although we have a fair understanding of the molecular details of the chemistry of peroxy radicals derived from alkanes, biodiesel fuels contain ester and olefin groups which significantly impact the thermodynamics and kinetics of biodiesel ignition. The broader goal of this research is to carry out systematic computational studies of the elementary kinetics of the chemistry of ROO•, QOOH and •OOQOOH compounds that are models for biodiesel ignition.

  20. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.