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Sample records for beef steak tenderness

  1. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semimembranosus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2011-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of moisture enhancement with a salt/phosphate solution (ME), blade tenderization (BT), and enzyme injection with proteinases derived from Aspergillus oryzae or Bacillus subtilis on cooking properties, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory characteristics of beef semimembranosus were investigated. ME significantly (P < 0.01) reduced WBSF and increased (P < 0.05) sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness. BT increased (P < 0.05) initial and overall tenderness scores and made connective tissue less perceptible. BT combined with ME resulted in the highest initial and overall tenderness scores, however, combining ME with either proteinase was as effective for reducing WBSF and increasing tenderness, particularly at 20 (vs. 10) ppm enzyme inclusion. Tenderness of enzyme-injected steaks was increased without compromising other palatability attributes. All treatments increased the frequency of steaks rated slightly tender or higher, with the ME+BT combination, or ME with inclusion of 20 ppm of either proteinase, being most effective. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P food service steaks were greater (P Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  3. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the

  5. Beef customer satisfaction: USDA quality grade and marination effects on consumer evaluations of top round steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-03-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and marination. Consumers evaluated each steak for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales (1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and none at all to 10 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor, respectively). Quality grade affected several consumer sensory traits, with top Choice receiving higher (P Consumers in Chicago rated steaks cooked "medium and less" higher for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount than those in Philadelphia (city x degree of doneness; P customers in Philadelphia received among the highest scores for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount compared with any cooking method used by customers in Chicago (cooking method x city; P customers' satisfaction with top round steaks, and was the sensory trait most highly correlated to overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Preparation of top round steaks was crucial in consumers' likes and dislikes, and by improving flavor, higher consumer satisfaction may be achieved.

  6. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  7. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of calcium chloride-injected top sirloin steaks when given instructions for preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether instructions can help consumers properly prepare top sirloin steaks and to evaluate the use of calcium chloride injection to decrease the sensitivity of top sirloin steaks to degree of doneness, thereby improving customer satisfaction ratings. An in-home study evaluated top sirloin steaks (gluteus medius) as influenced by calcium chloride injection (injected vs. noninjected), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef, budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken, and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and instructions (given vs. not given). Consumers evaluated overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales. Beef loyalists consistently rated steaks higher for overall like, juiciness, and flavor when instructions were provided (P satisfaction, and beef loyalists benefited the most from providing cooking instructions.

  8. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The beef tenderness model

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... The concept of meat tenderness is very complex and is biologically .... of feed additives (β-agonists) so that the animals can be harvested at a younger ...... in the rearing and processing of experimental animals and carcasses.

  10. Scandinavian consumer preference for beef steaks packed with or without oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, M D; Tørngren, M A; Madsen, N T

    2010-07-01

    Beef steaks retail-packed with (80% O(2), 20% CO(2)) or without oxygen (either skin-packed or gas-packed (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO or 70% N(2), 30% CO(2))) were compared by consumers in Denmark (n=382), Norway (n=316) and Sweden (n=374). Two pairs of two steaks - one steak packed in a high oxygen atmosphere and one packed without oxygen - were given to the consumers. They were instructed to prepare the steaks at home on two consecutive days, and two persons had to taste each steak. In Denmark, the oxygen-free packing was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), in Norway it was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or skin packing, and in Sweden it was either skin packing or gas packing without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)). The meat represented animals that were between 17 and 80 months old (Denmark) and young bulls (Norway and Sweden). Consumers in all three countries clearly preferred steaks packed without oxygen, in terms of overall liking, willingness to pay and their preferred choice of one steak. Furthermore, they preferred the oxygen-free steaks in terms of both overall liking and liking of tenderness, juiciness and flavour. In Sweden, many consumers would pay more than usual for the skin-packed steak, and it was more often chosen as the preferred steak out of the four compared with gas-packed without oxygen. No difference was seen between the two oxygen-free packing methods in Denmark and Norway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Consumer assessment of beef tenderloin steaks from various USDA quality grades at 3 degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, Travis G; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F

    2015-02-01

    A consumer study was conducted to determine palatability ratings of beef tenderloin steaks from USDA Choice, USDA Select, and USDA Select with marbling scores from Slight 50 to 100 (USDA High Select) cooked to various degrees of doneness. Steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 degree of doneness categories: very-rare, medium-rare, or well-done. Consumers (N = 315) were screened for preference of degree of doneness and fed 4 samples of their preferred doneness (a warm-up and one from each USDA quality grade treatment in a random order). Consumers evaluated steaks on an 8-point verbally anchored hedonic scale for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like as well as rated steaks as acceptable or unacceptable for all palatability traits. Quality grade had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer ratings for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like scores, with all traits averaging above a 7 ("like very much") on the 8-point scale. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) were found in the percentage of samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits, with more than 94% of samples rated acceptable for each trait in all quality grades evaluated. Steaks cooked to well-done had lower (P Choice and Select quality grades. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. The effect of branding on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of knowing the brand or USDA grade on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks. Strip loins were selected to represent 5 USDA grades and brands, USDA Select, Choice, Prime, Certified Angus Beef (CAB; upper 2/3 Choice), and Select, from carcasses of cattle classified as Angus on the basis of phenotype. After 21 d of aging, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut, consecutively cut steaks were paired for consumer evaluation. Consumer panelists ( = 112) evaluated samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking. Additionally, consumers rated each palatability trait as either acceptable or unacceptable. Samples were fed in 2 rounds on the same day: blind and informed testing. In the first round, blind testing, consumers were served 1 sample from each treatment, with no product information provided. In the second round, consumers were informed of the brand or quality grade prior to sampling. During blind testing, CAB rated similar ( > 0.05) to Choice for all palatability traits; however, CAB rated greater ( 0.05) for all traits when tested blind, but Angus Select was rated greater ( brand was declared. When comparing blind and informed ratings, Angus Select and CAB had greater ( brand disclosure. However, ratings for Choice and Select samples were unaffected ( > 0.05) when brand was disclosed. Brand knowledge increased ( 0.05) in the percentage of Choice and Select samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits. These data indicate that Prime, CAB, and Angus Select steaks receive an increase in consumer palatability perception, or "brand lift," which does not occur for Choice and Select beef.

  13. VALUE OF BEEF STEAK BRANDING: HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF RETAIL SCANNER DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Lee L.; Schroeder, Ted C.; White, Katharine L.

    2010-01-01

    Consumers rely on experience and credence attributes when purchasing beef from retailers. It is essential for all beef industry sectors to recognize the complexity of consumer buying behavior. A hedonic model is estimated to determine if there are incentives to brand beef steaks, the types of brands that entertain price premiums, and the level of existing premiums. Most branded steaks garnered premiums along with organic claims, religious processing claims, and premium cuts. Factors influenci...

  14. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico / Suavidad y aceptabilidad de la carne de bovinos brangus rojo en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, doneness and general acceptance of the evaluated steaks. Mean WBSF was 5.03 kg ± 0.93 kg, theoretically indicating a tough beef. The distribution of the samples showed 21 % and 11 % of moderately tender and tender beef cuts, respectively. Cattle condition (bulls and steers was not significant for the WBSF (p > 0.5. All the traits evaluated in the hedonic evaluation had approximately 6 points of a total of 8 (8 was best. Tenderness, juiciness and flavor presented a high and significant correlation (p < 0.5. None of the subjective traits was correlated with total acceptance. Under theoretical criteria, tender Red Brangus beef cuts are infrequent; however the beef has a good acceptance. Characterization studies may be necessary and useful to create marketing niches specific for this and other cattle breeds.

  15. A bench-top hyperspectral imaging system to classify beef from Nellore cattle based on tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; Calkins, Chris R.; Naganathan, Govindarajan Konda; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of classification of Nellore beef aged for 0, 7, 14, or 21 days and classification based on tenderness and aging period using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (aging n = 376 and tenderness n = 345) of Nellore cattle. The image processing steps included selection of region of interest, extraction of spectra, and indentification and evalution of selected wavelengths for classification. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify samples based on tenderness and aging period. The model using the first derivative of partial absorbance spectra (give wavelength range spectra) was able to classify steaks based on the tenderness with an overall accuracy of 89.8%. The model using the first derivative of full absorbance spectra was able to classify steaks based on aging period with an overall accuracy of 84.8%. The results demonstrate that the HIS may be a viable technology for classifying beef based on tenderness and aging period.

  16. The beef tenderness model | Frylinck | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age feedlot animals produced the most tender LL followed by the B-age pasture and A-age feedlot which was similar to the AB-age pasture. A-age pasture animals produced the least tender LL steaks. The calpain proteolytic system played a ...

  17. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  18. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, T R; Lorenzen, C L; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O; Savell, J W

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top round steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top round steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing consistently produced higher consumer attribute ratings. There were clear OLIKE rating differences (P = .0001) for top round steaks among the four cities. The highest ratings were given by consumers in Houston, and the lowest ratings were given by consumers in Philadelphia (P Customer satisfaction with the top round steak is very dependent on how it is cooked and by whom it is consumed.

  19. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  20. Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sephora Baugreet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI, rice protein (RP, and lentil flour (LF (at 4 and 8%, phosphate (0.2%, and two binding agents: 1% (TG and 0.15% (TS. The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater (P<0.01 a∗ values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L∗, a∗, and b∗ values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased (P<0.001 hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.

  1. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; El kabbani, H.M.; Sallam, M.H.; Attia, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  2. Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, M B; Vote, D J; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine if reflectance measurements made in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were additive to reflectance measurements made in the visible region of the spectrum for predicting Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values. Eighty seven strip loins were collected following fabrication over 3d at a commercial beef processing facility from heifer carcasses with Slight or Traces marbling scores. Spectroscopic measurements were made at approximately 50h postmortem using a Hunter-Lab UltraScan. Subsequently, all strip loins were aged for 14d, cooked to an internal temperature of 70°C, and sheared to obtain WBSF values. Reflectance measurements obtained in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were correlated with WBSF values, however, these measurements were not additive to the predictive ability of reflectance measurements (R(2) values did not differ) made in the visible portion of the spectrum when the use of broad-band wavelength filters were simulated. It was therefore determined, that both the visible and near-infrared spectra measure reflectance and that both methods are acceptable methods of tenderness prediction.

  3. Effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef top loin steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, A R; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef LM color. Using a randomized complete block design, each beef longissimus lumborum muscle ( = 10; USDA Choice, 3 d postmortem) was equally divided into 3 sections and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods (21, 42, or 62 d at 2°C). After respective aging, each loin section was cut into four 2.5-cm-thick steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging types (PVC, HiOx-MAP [80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide], or CO-MAP [0.4% carbon monoxide, 69.6% nitrogen, and 30% carbon dioxide]). The steaks were displayed under continuous fluorescent lighting for 6 d, and surface color was determined daily using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer and a visual panel. The fourth steak was used to characterize oxygen consumption (OC), lipid oxidation, and metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) on 21, 42, and 62 d (before display). On d 6 display, MRA, OC, and lipid oxidation also were measured. An increase in aging time decreased ( packaging × display time interaction ( packaging types on d 6. At all aging periods, steaks packaged in CO-MAP had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had the least MRA ( packaged in CO-MAP and displayed for 6 d. However, steaks packaged in HiOx-MAP and displayed 6 d had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had a lower ( packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP when aged for 21 d and displayed 6 d. The results indicate that extended aging is detrimental to color stability when packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP. However, steaks in CO-MAP had stable red color during display. Decreased color stability in PVC and HiOx-MAP could be associated, in part, with decreased MRA and OC.

  4. Consumer sensory evaluation and chemical composition of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii steaks from cattle finished on forage or concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cattle finishing diet and muscle type on meat quality. Consumer sensory response, proximate composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were assessed from the gluteus medius (GM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of cattle ( = 6 per diet) which were grain-finished (USUGrain) on conventional feedlot or 2 forage diets, a perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil-finished (USUBFT; ), and grass-finished (USUGrass; ). Diet had an interacting effect with muscle for all sensory attributes ( ≤ 0.002), except aroma and flavor ( ≥ 0.078). In forage-finished beef, tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of GM was greater ( 0.05) but the juiciness of TB was more liked than USUGrain GM ( 0.05) between GM and TB. Lower ( 0.05) to both USUGrass and USUGrain beef. However, IMF percent was not impacted by muscle type ( = 0.092). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by muscle dependent on diet ( = 0.016). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by the interaction of muscle × diet ( = 0.016). Between forage diets (USUGrass and USUBFT), -6:-3 ratios were similar ( > 0.05) between GM and TB, whereas within USUGrain, the GM was greater ( 0.05). Strecker aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, and methional were affected ( ≤ 0.036) by muscle and found to have a greater concentration in GM compared with TB. Overall, consumers determined that USUGrain GM and TB had similar ( > 0.05) quality ratings. However, within forage-finished beef, the GM was perceived more frequently ( consumer group grilled GM and TB steaks, grain-finished beef provided more uniform quality and eating experience compared with forage-finished beef.

  5. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus groups...... and of an extended form of conjoint analysis which allows an estimation of means-end structures. Tradition and security, variation, atmosphere and social life, health, acceptance from family/children/guests, nutrition, demonstration of cooking abilities, and status are the most important purchasing motives in all...... four countries. The most important quality aspects of beef are that it tastes good, is tender, juicy, fresh, lean, healthy and nutritious. Purchasing motives as well as quality aspects are uni-dimensional in Germany, Spain, and the UK, while they are multi-dimensional in France. Place of purchase...

  6. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  8. Prediction of troponin-T degradation using color image texture features in 10d aged beef longissimus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Berg, E P; Newman, D J; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Maddock Carlin, K R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to use digital color image texture features to predict troponin-T degradation in beef. Image texture features, including 88 gray level co-occurrence texture features, 81 two-dimension fast Fourier transformation texture features, and 48 Gabor wavelet filter texture features, were extracted from color images of beef strip steaks (longissimus dorsi, n = 102) aged for 10d obtained using a digital camera and additional lighting. Steaks were designated degraded or not-degraded based on troponin-T degradation determined on d 3 and d 10 postmortem by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis (STEPWISE regression model) and artificial neural network (support vector machine model, SVM) methods were designed to classify protein degradation. The d 3 and d 10 STEPWISE models were 94% and 86% accurate, respectively, while the d 3 and d 10 SVM models were 63% and 71%, respectively, in predicting protein degradation in aged meat. STEPWISE and SVM models based on image texture features show potential to predict troponin-T degradation in meat. © 2013.

  9. Headspace volume and percentage of carbon monoxide affects carboxymyoglobin layer development of modified atmosphere packaged beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymyoglobin (COMb) development of beef Longissimus lumborum as related to molecular CO availability and package headspace volume was evaluated. Steaks from six pairs of USDA Select strip loins were packaged in modified atmosphere packages with 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8% CO and 30% CO(2) and balanced with N(2) to obtain meat-to-gas ratios of 0.4, 0.7, and 1.1, and CO molar concentrations of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.20 mMol. Steak redness (CIE a*), COMb layer thickness, percentage of CO in the headspace, visual display color, and bloom intensity scores were evaluated 4 and 7 d after packaging. Greater concentration of CO in a smaller headspace resulted in a thicker COMb layer compared with lesser concentration of CO in a larger headspace, regardless of moles CO available. The combined effects of concentration of CO and headspace volume had a greater impact on COMb development than millimoles of CO in the package headspace. Package headspace can be reduced and the concentration of CO can be increased without detriment to fresh beef color or consumer safety.

  10. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  11. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very low negative correlations were observed between colour and shear force (r = −0.242). Therefore, although it may be possible to judge meat colour by visual analysis, it does not appear possible to predict tenderness by colour judgment. There is potential for an experienced eye to predict tenderness by observing visual ...

  12. Consumer attitudes towards beef and acceptability of enhanced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, K; Jensen, J; Ryan, K J; Homco-Ryan, C; McKeith, F K; Brewer, M S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer quality characteristics of enhanced steaks and roasts derived from cattle supplemented with vitamin E during finishing, and to assess the attitudes of these consumers towards beef. Twelve steers were fed either a control (E-) diet or a diet supplemented with dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (E+). Paired strip loins and rounds were either used as controls (C) or were pumped (P) to 110% of raw weight to contain 0.4% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Consumers (n=103) evaluated roasts and steaks for juiciness, tenderness, saltiness, and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. Enhanced steaks and roasts were more acceptable than non-enhanced controls; E+ steaks were less acceptable than E- steaks. A beef quality questionnaire revealed that color, price, visible fat and cut were the most important factors underlying beef steak purchase, while tenderness, flavor and juiciness were weighted most heavily with regard to eating satisfaction.

  13. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-10-01

    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. Demand for forage-finished beef has increased worldwide due to its potential health benefits. Little is known regarding the cross-cultural effects on the consumer acceptance of forage-finished beef. We evaluated sensory acceptance and purchase intent of raw and cooked forage-finished rib-eye steaks using Hispanic, Asian, and U.S. (White and African American) populations. This study

  14. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus groups and of an extended form of conjoint analysis which enables an estimatation of means-end structures. 2. Tradition and security, variation, atmosphere and social life, health, acceptance from fa...

  15. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Executive summary 1. With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus......-dimensional in France. This implies that French consumers have a more sophisticated purchasing behaviour than consumers in the other countries. 5. Place of purchase and quality perception are related in all four countries, ie the butcher is regarded as a sort of guarantor of high quality. This applies less in the UK...

  16. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy as an authentication tool: Preliminary investigation of the prediction of the ageing time of beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lara; Andres, Sonia; Allen, Paul; Moloney, Aidan P

    2018-08-01

    Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) has been suggested to have potential for authentication of food products. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess if this technology can be used to authenticate the ageing time (3, 7, 14 and 21 days post mortem) of beef steaks from three different muscles (M. Longissimus thoracis, M. Gluteus medius and M. Semitendinosus). Various mathematical pre-treatments were applied to the spectra to correct scattering and overlapping effects, and then partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) procedures applied. The best models were specific for each muscle, and the ability of prediction of ageing time was validated using full (leave-one-out) cross-validation, whereas authentication performance was evaluated using the parameters of sensitivity, specificity and overall correct classification. The results indicate that overall correct classification ranging from 94.2 to 100% was achieved, depending on the muscle. In conclusion, Vis-NIRS technology seems a valid tool for the authentication of ageing time of beef steaks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Modified-atmosphere storage under subatmospheric pressure and beef quality: II. Color, drip, cooking loss, sarcomere length, and tenderness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, F.J.M.; Hiesberger, J.; Hofbauer, P.; Dogl, B.; Dransfield, E.

    2006-01-01

    Beef has a requirement for refrigerated storage up to 14 d to achieve adequate aging and a tender product. To achieve this aging with little spoilage and no surface drying, vacuum packaging is attractive, because it is inherently simple and offers a clear indication to the packer when the process

  18. Beef tenderness improvement by dietary vitamin D3 supplementation in the last stage of fattening of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Półtorak Andrzej

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tenderness is the most important characteristic of meat, determining consumer approval. There are numerous methods of its improvement, although of diverse effectiveness. addition of vitamin D3 to the feed for a short period before slaughter (7–10 days is one of the natural ways to enhance the tenderness. Vitamin D3 is responsible for Ca2+ mobilisation in serum and increase in activity of proteolytic enzymes belonging to calpains, which results in significant improvement of beef tenderness and reduction of ageing time. The use of vitamin D3 is an application tool determining tenderness improvement of beef with substantial reduction in processing costs. Moreover, shorter post mortem ageing process will exceed the retail display time, which will consequently reduce losses due to unsold meat being returned from shops to the manufacturers. Based on the results of studies conducted over the last 15 years, this paper presents the possibility and the effects of the use of vitamin D3 to improve beef tenderness.

  19. Relationship between commercially available DNA analysis and phenotypic observations on beef quality and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magolski, J D; Buchanan, D S; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Anderson, V L; Newman, D J; Berg, E P

    2013-11-01

    Warner-Bratzler shear force values from 560 mixed breed heifers and steers were used to determine estimates of genetic selection. Cattle were marketed from 2008 to 2011, and included five feedlot based research projects at the North Dakota State University-Carrington Research Extension Center. Samples were collected for IGENITY® analysis providing information that included selection indices and estimated breeding values for carcass traits. DNA-based test results were compared with actual carcass measurements. Marbling accounted for over 10% of the variation in WBSF while hot carcass weight was the second most influential carcass trait accounting for 4% (Pfeeding a diet that meets or exceeds recommended nutrients for growth are the most important factors influencing beef tenderness and acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative pre-rigor foreshank positioning can improve beef shoulder muscle tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, A L; Lawrence, T E

    2013-09-01

    Thirty beef carcasses were harvested and the foreshank of each side was independently positioned (cranial, natural, parallel, or caudal) 1h post-mortem to determine the effect of foreshank angle at rigor mortis on the sarcomere length and tenderness of six beef shoulder muscles. The infraspinatus (IS), pectoralis profundus (PP), serratus ventralis (SV), supraspinatus (SS), teres major (TM) and triceps brachii (TB) were excised 48 h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sarcomere length evaluations. All muscles except the SS had altered (P<0.05) sarcomere lengths between positions; the cranial position resulted in the longest sarcomeres for the SV and TB muscles whilst the natural position had longer sarcomeres for the PP and TM muscles. The SV from the cranial position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the caudal position and TB from the natural position had lower (P<0.05) shear than the parallel or caudal positions. Sarcomere length was moderately correlated (r=-0.63; P<0.01) to shear force. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of early postmortem protein oxidation on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, L J; Maddock, K R; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of early postmortem protein oxidation on the color and tenderness of beef steaks. To obtain a range of oxidation levels, the longissimus lumborum muscles (LM) from both strip loins of 20 steers fed either a finishing diet with vitamin E (1,000 IU per steer daily, minimum of 126 d [VITE]; n = 10 steers) or fed the same finishing diet without vitamin E (CON; n = 10 steers) were used. Within 24 h after slaughter, the LM muscle from each carcass was cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and individually vacuum packaged. Steaks from each steer were assigned to a nonirradiated group or an irradiated group. Steaks were irradiated within 26 h postmortem, and were aged at 4 degrees C for 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after irradiation. Steaks from each diet/irradiation/aging time treatment were used to determine color, shear force, and degree of protein oxidation (carbonyl content). Steaks from steers fed the VITE diet had higher (P irradiation, steaks that had been irradiated had lower (P Irradiated steaks, regardless of diet, had lower a* (P irradiated steaks compared to nonirradiated steaks at 0, 1, 3, and 7 d postirradiation. Immunoblot analysis showed that vitamin E supplementation decreased the number and extent of oxidized sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein carbonyl content was positively correlated with Warner-Bratzler shear force values. These results indicate that increased oxidation of muscle proteins early postmortem could have negative effects on fresh meat color and tenderness.

  2. Consumer and trained panel evaluation of beef strip steaks of varying marbling and enhancement levels cooked to three degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherk, L W; O'Quinn, T G; Legako, J F; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-12-01

    The palatability of USDA graded beef strip loins of seven treatments [High Enhanced (HE: 112% of raw weight) Select, Low Enhanced (LE: 107% of raw weight) Select, Prime, upper 2/3 Choice (Top Choice), lower 1/3 Choice (Low Choice), Select, and Standard] cooked to three degrees of doneness [DOD; rare (60°C), medium (71°C), or well-done (77°C)] was evaluated by consumer and trained sensory panelists. For consumers, Select HE steaks rated higher (P0.05) were observed between Select LE and Prime samples for most traits evaluated. The effect of USDA grade and enhancement on trained panel palatability scores was independent of DOD for all traits other than juiciness, with the role of marbling in juiciness increasing as DOD increased from rare to well-done. These results indicate enhancement as an effective method to improve the palatability of lower grading beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Web survey-based selection of controls for epidemiological analyses of a multi-prefectural outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in Japan associated with consumption of self-grilled beef hanging tender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Y; Ohshima, N; Odaira, F; Nakamura, N; Ichikawa, H; Matsuno, K; Shuri, J; Toyozawa, T; Terajima, J; Watanabe, H; Nakashima, K; Sunagawa, T; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2018-03-01

    An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.

  4. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) in blade tenderized beef prime rib following searing, cooking and holding under commercial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undercooked non-intact beef has caused a number of illnesses due to contamination with serotype O157:H7 strains of Escherichia coli (ECOH). Few studies have quantified translocation and/or thermal inactivation of ECOH directly in blade tenderized beef. There have been no such studies for prime rib,...

  6. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The influence of low temperature, type of muscle and electrical stimulation on the course of rigor mortis, ageing and tenderness of beef muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, U; Hertzman, C; Tornberg, E

    1994-01-01

    The course of rigor mortis, ageing and tenderness have been evaluated for two beef muscles, M. semimembranosus (SM) and M. longissimus dorsi (LD), when entering rigor at constant temperatures in the cold-shortening region (1, 4, 7 and 10°C). The influence of electrical stimulation (ES) was also examined. Post-mortem changes were registered by shortening and isometric tension and by following the decline of pH, ATP and creatine phosphate. The effect of ageing on tenderness was recorded by measuring shear-force (2, 8 and 15 days post mortem) and the sensory properties were assessed 15 days post mortem. It was found that shortening increased with decreasing temperature, resulting in decreased tenderness. Tenderness for LD, but not for SM, was improved by ES at 1 and 4°C, whereas ES did not give rise to any decrease in the degree of shortening during rigor mortis development. This suggests that ES influences tenderization more than it prevents cold-shortening. The samples with a pre-rigor mortis temperature of 1°C could not be tenderized, when stored up to 15 days, whereas this was the case for the muscles entering rigor mortis at the other higher temperatures. The results show that under the conditions used in this study, the course of rigor mortis is more important for the ultimate tenderness than the course of ageing. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted...... muscles up to 24 h. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy further indicated that lysosomal enzymes were released at early postmortem time. ES also induced ultrastructural disruption of sarcomeres. In addition, ES accelerated (P ..., as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P time. A possible relationship was suggested between change in phosphorylation level of energy metabolic enzymes and postmortem...

  10. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    .00%. They were the smallest size. Farmers raised them by main of grass-fed and some added with concentrate. Meat quality from this group was the lowest. The meat texture of this group is the most firm. It was suitable for Thai food cooking. Meat from this group was used to make meatball and Thai food. The second group was around 38.50%. They were fattening 3-6 month. Meat from this group was medium quality. Farmers fed them with grass, agricultural by product, and concentrate. Meat from this group was used for general Thai food and steak cooking. The third and forth group were around 20.00%. In this group, it was added with other beef cattle: Kampangsaen and Ponyangkhum beef cattle. They were fed higher concentrate, up to 90% of concentrate in the last month of fattening. They were fattening 6-12 month. Farmers fed them following feeding plan of cooperative, so they had the greatest ADG and % carcass. Quality of meat from this group was the best, most tender. Meat from this group was used for steak and shabushabu. Meat from this group had quality the same as import meat. Some of them were better than import meat. It was tenderer. The fifth group was less than 0.5%. They were on experiment to establish new breed by DLD. This group was optimized for Thai farmers, small size and low mature age. Meat from this group had the most tenderness and marbling. Meat from this group had more quality than import meat. It was used for steak and shabushabu. Farmers could earn money from beef cattle raising occupation. Beef cattle genetic improvement provided sustainable productivity, profitability, quality of products, and sustained economic growth in rural Thailand. Beef meat production would be the mainly red meat production and provided protein sources for consumer in Thailand. (author)

  11. Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in mechanically tenderized beef prime rib following searing, cooking, and holding under commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Luchansky, John B

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the effect of commercial times and temperatures for searing, cooking, and holding on the destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) within mechanically tenderized prime rib. Boneless beef ribeye was inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of ECOH and then passed once through a mechanical tenderizer with the fat side facing upward. The inoculated and tenderized prime rib was seared by broiling at 260°C for 15 min in a conventional oven and then cooked in a commercial convection oven at 121.1°C to internal temperatures of 37.8, 48.9, 60.0, and 71.1°C before being placed in a commercial holding oven maintained at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. After searing, ECOH levels decreased by ca. 1.0 log CFU/g. Following cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 to 71.1°C, pathogen levels decreased by an additional ca. 2.7 to 4.0 log CFU/g. After cooking to 37.8, 48.9, or 60.0°C and then warm holding at 60.0°C for 2 h, pathogen levels increased by ca. 0.2 to 0.7 log CFU/g. However, for prime rib cooked to 37.8°C, pathogen levels remained relatively unchanged over the next 6 h of warm holding, whereas for those cooked to 48.9 or 60.0°C pathogen levels decreased by ca. 0.3 to 0.7 log CFU/g over the next 6 h of warm holding. In contrast, after cooking prime rib to 71.1°C and holding for up to 8 h at 60.0°C, ECOH levels decreased by an additional ca. 0.5 log CFU/g. Our results demonstrated that to achieve a 5.0-log reduction of ECOH in blade tenderized prime rib, it would be necessary to sear at 260°C for 15 min, cook prime rib to internal temperatures of 48.9, 60.0, or 71.1°C, and then hold at 60.0°C for at least 8 h.

  12. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (pcooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (pchicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak. PMID:27499656

  13. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  14. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  15. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in brine-injected, gas-grilled steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Call, Jeffrey E; Schlosser, Wayne; Shaw, William; Bauer, Nathan; Latimer, Heejeong

    2011-07-01

    We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals after brine injection and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with ca. 6.0 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant ECOH or kanamycin-resistant STEC, and then passed once through an automatic brine-injector tenderizer, with the lean side facing upward. Brine solutions (9.9% ± 0.3% over fresh weight) consisted of 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium tripolyphosphate and 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium chloride, prepared both with (Lac(+), pH = 6.76) and without (Lac(-), pH = 8.02) a 25% (vol/vol) solution of a 60% potassium lactate-sodium diacetate syrup. For all samples injected with Lac(-) or Lac(+) brine, levels of ECOH or STEC recovered from the topmost 1 cm (i.e., segment 1) of a core sample obtained from tenderized subprimals ranged from ca. 4.7 to 6.3 log CFU/g; however, it was possible to recover ECOH or STEC from all six segments of all cores tested. Next, brine-injected steaks from tenderized subprimals were cooked on a commercial open-flame gas grill to internal endpoint temperatures of either 37.8 °C (100 °F), 48.8 °C (120 °F), 60 °C (140 °F), or 71.1 °C (160 °F). Regardless of brine formulation or temperature, cooking achieved reductions (expressed as log CFU per gram) of 0.3 to 4.1 of ECOH and 0.5 to 3.6 of STEC. However, fortuitous survivors were recovered even at 71.1 °C (160 °F) for ECOH and for STEC. Thus, ECOH and STEC behaved similarly, relative to translocation and thermal destruction: Tenderization via brine injection transferred both pathogens throughout subprimals and cooking highly contaminated, brine-injected steaks on a commercial gas grill at 71.1 °C (160 °F) did not kill all cells due, primarily, to nonuniform heating (i.e., cold spots) within the meat. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  16. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  17. A study of the factors that influence consumer attitudes toward beef products using the conjoint market analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecke, B E; Townsend, A M; Hayes, D J; Lonergan, S M

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes an analysis technique commonly used in marketing, the conjoint analysis method, to examine the relative utilities of a set of beef steak characteristics considered by a national sample of 1,432 US consumers, as well as additional localized samples representing undergraduate students at a business college and in an animal science department. The analyses indicate that among all respondents, region of origin is by far the most important characteristic; this is followed by animal breed, traceability, animal feed, and beef quality. Alternatively, the cost of cut, farm ownership, the use (or nonuse) of growth promoters, and whether the product is guaranteed tender were the least important factors. Results for animal science undergraduates are similar to the aggregate results, except that these students emphasized beef quality at the expense of traceability and the nonuse of growth promoters. Business students also emphasized region of origin but then emphasized traceability and cost. The ideal steak for the national sample is from a locally produced, choice Angus fed a mixture of grain and grass that is traceable to the farm of origin. If the product was not produced locally, respondents indicated that their preferred production states are, in order from most to least preferred, Iowa, Texas, Nebraska, and Kansas.

  18. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  19. Managing meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  20. Injection of marinade with actinidin increases tenderness of porcine M. biceps femoris and affects myofibrils and connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. bi...... indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue....

  1. Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P

    1990-03-01

    Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.

  2. Physical and sensory characterization and consumer preference of corn and barley-fed beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, W V; Okine, E K; Stein, A; Seibel, M R; Goonewardene, L A

    2008-11-01

    Steaks from corn-fed and barley-fed beef were characterized by a trained panel, which rated corn-fed beef higher (pconsumers preferred (pconsumers showed no preference (p>0.05) for either type of finished beef. Japanese consumers showed a preference (ppreference for cooked corn-fed steaks (p0.05) were observed for Warner-Bratzler shear, marbling scores, cooking losses or Hunter colorimeter values. There was a trend for higher concentrations (p0.10) in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Influence of freezing and thawing on the hydration characteristics, quality, and consumer acceptance of whole muscle beef injected with solutions of salt and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Janz, J A M

    2009-03-01

    Effects of salt/phosphate injection level (112% or 125% pump), salt level (0.5% or 1.5% salt), and freezing/thawing on hydration characteristics, quality, and consumer acceptance of beef semitendinosus were investigated. All enhancement treatments decreased shear force by 25-35%, but negatively affected colour. Increased salt concentration yielded lower purge and cooking losses, and higher water holding capacity. The higher injection level reduced water binding properties, however, the loss in functionality with higher water addition was overcome with increased salt content. Freezing and subsequent thawing was generally detrimental to colour and water binding properties and tended to increase shear force. Freezing and subsequent thawing did not affect fluid release in steaks held for 1 day before analysis, but resulted in decreased water retention in samples held for 7 days. Holding vacuum packaged steaks for 7 days generally increased package purge and negatively affected colour parameters, although water binding characteristics were improved. Consumer panel results demonstrated a negative effect on juiciness and tenderness where meat subject to low salt/high injection was frozen then thawed - the low salt level was insufficient to maintain any positive effect of injection treatment. In general, salt/phosphate injection improved product acceptability and increased willingness to purchase.

  4. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All muscles were evaluated for total lipid, fatty acid, and cholesterol composition. When quality grades were combined

  5. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...... tenderness, consumers express some reserve related to the possible upgrading of lower value cuts, too much standardisation, and the fact that tenderness is to some extent subjective. They further require the system to be simple, sufficiently documented and independent-party controlled. The insights obtained...

  6. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Ppurple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  7. Combined effect of electrical stimulation and blade tenderization on some bovine muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raccach, M.; Henrickson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The electrical stimulation (ES) period was a very important factor determining the tenderness of three bovine muscles: Biceps femoris (BF), Longissimus dorsi (LD), and Semimembranosus (SM). Tenderness (shear force values) increased in most cases with increasing the ES period. An ES period of 15 min was optimal for obtaining a tenderness equal to that obtained by conventional processing of beef. The shortest ES period used (1 min) was adequate in most cases to set the muscles in rigor mortis and in preventing cold shortening. The tenderness of blade tenderized muscles was in most cases independent from the ES period. Blade tenderization was very effective to tenderize the BF muscle followed in decreasing order of efficacy by the LD and SM muscles. The cooking times and cooking losses of the three muscles were not affected by either the ES period or by blade tenderization.

  8. Defining Abnormally Low Tenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølykke, Grith Skovgaard; Nyström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The concept of an abnormally low tender is not defined in EU public procurement law. This article takes an interdisciplinary law and economics approach to examine a dataset consisting of Swedish and Danish judgments and verdicts concerning the concept of an abnormally low tender. The purpose...

  9. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    Two cooling regimes that complied with the New Zealand meat hygiene requirement that hot deboned meat be chilled to +7 °C or less within 24 hr of leaving the slaughter floor were evaluated for the production of chilled table meats. Electrically stimulated hot deboned bull beef half striploins were either vacuum or carbon dioxide packed before being cooled in accordance with either Regime 1 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C) or Regime 2 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, hold at 5 °C for 6 days, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C). Striploins were removed from -1.0 °C storage 8, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after slaughter and subjected to microbiological, tenderness, sensory and retail display performance evaluations. Both Regimes 1 and 2 produced meat of acceptable mean tenderness, 8 kgF (MIRINZ Tenderometer) in either vacuum or carbon dioxide packs within 28 and 8 days of slaughter, respectively. However, 70 days after slaughter the first signs of over-ageing became apparent. Steaks from Regimes 1 and 2 maintained acceptable visual appearance during retail display at 5 °C for 48 hr and 24 hr, respectively. After these times, the product was judged by the panel to be unacceptable because of its dull dark lean tissue and grey to green discoloration of the fat. Poor colour stability during retail display was mirrored by deterioration of sensory attributes, particularly aroma which is indicative of incipient spoilage. While carbon dioxide packaging in combination with Regime 1 offered an initial microbiological advantage over vacuum packaging, this advantage was not, however, carried over into retail display. Poor colour and sensory stability during retail display suggest that chilled table cuts derived from hot deboned bull beef are more suited to the Hotel-Restaurant-Institutional (HRI) trade than supermarket retailing. To serve the HRI, vacuum packed hot deboned bull beef primal cuts processed by Regime 1

  10. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  11. Postrigor citric acid enhancement can alter cooked color but not fresh color of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, R J; Apple, J K; Yancey, J W S; Keys, C A; Johnson, T M; Mehall, L N

    2016-04-01

    In 2 experiments, dark-cutting (DC) beef strip loins were used to test the effects of citric acid-enhancement pH on visual and instrumental color of fresh and cooked steaks. In Exp. 1 and 2, each DC (mean pH = 6.57 and 6.65, respectively) and normal-pH, low USDA Choice (CH; mean pH = 5.48 and 5.51, respectively) strip loin was cut into 2 equal-length sections, and DC sections were injected to 111% of raw section weight with pH 3.5 to 5.0 (Exp. 1) or pH 2.0 to 3.5 (Exp. 2) solutions made by mixing citric acid in either 0.05% orthophosphate (PO) solution or tap water (HO) base solutions (Exp. 1) and 0.5% PO or 0.5% tripolyphosphate solution base solutions (Exp. 2). After enhancement, sections were cut into steaks, which were assigned to either 5 d of simulated retail display or cooked to 71°C for cooked color measurement. Postenhancement pH of DC steaks enhanced with pH 3.5 to 5.0 solutions did not ( ≥ 0.180) differ from that of nonenhanced DC steaks (Exp. 1) but linearly decreased ( citric acid enhancement over untreated DC steaks during the first 3 d of display, fresh steak color never ( citric acid enhancement solutions, regardless of base solution, were insufficient to improve the fresh color of DC beef; however, enhancement with pH 2.5 citric acid solutions effectively eliminated the persistent red cooked color typically associated with DC beef comparable with that of normal-pH beef.

  12. Efeito do grupo genético sobre as características de carcaça e maciez da carne fresca e maturada de bovinos superprecoces Effect of genetic group on carcass traits and fresh and aged beef tenderness from young cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldmaryan Bianchini

    2007-12-01

    weaned at 8 months of age in system creep-feeding and later confined for 150 days until they reach the slaughter weight above 465 kg and slaughtered in commercial abattoir. The pH values and temperature during carcass cooling was similar for all of the genetic groups. In the same way, the variables cold carcass, forequarter and hindquarter, did not show any differences among the genetic groups. The beef cuts were quite homogeneous, excepting the strip loin and the tenderloin that were larger perceptually for Simmental. The Nellore and ½ Simmental breeds presented larger shear force (4.98 and 4.45 kgf than Simmental and Simbrasil (3.13 and 3.33 kgf. However, after the meat ageing for 7 days, no differences were verified among the groups for tenderness values. The losses by evaporation and leaking were higher for non aged Simmental and Simbrasil beef cuts; however, seven days of ageing those losses showed no differences. The system of production of young bulls bovines produces carcasses and cuts similar among the different breed studied. With seven days of maturation Nellore meat tenderness was similar to the other genetic groups used in this study.

  13. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  14. Sources of variation in quality of South African beef: Case studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African classification system describes beef carcasses in regard to visual fat cover, conformation and age by dentition. Animal age provides a fairly accurate description of expected eating quality in regard to tenderness in an industry where other sources of variation in tenderness are limited. Since deregulation in ...

  15. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  16. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  17. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N

    2009-09-01

    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  18. Mexican consumers at the point of meat purchase. Beef choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Braña Varela, D; Rubio Lozano, M S

    2017-12-01

    Within-consumer preference replication achieved through systematic image manipulation was used in consumer surveys in four cities across Mexico (Mexico City, n=195; Guadalajara, n=100; Hermosillo, n=132; Veracruz, n=61) to study beef preferences. Images of beef steaks controlled for lean and fat colour, fat cover and marbling were presented to consumers to determine the characteristics used in beef choice and the levels of preference of these characteristics. The most important choice criteria were fat cover (62% preferring little fat cover) and marbling (59% preferring non-marbled). Lean colour was also important with 24% and 29% choosing light and dark red beef, respectively. Fat colour was the least important of the four attributes studied (18% and 19% choosing white and yellow, respectively), but was nevertheless important given that 43% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. Imported and domestic beef in the Mexican marketplace appear to respond to the range of consumers' beef preferences at the point of purchase. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual evaluation of beef tenderness by using surface structural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kedibone KY. Modika

    2015-08-01

    Aug 1, 2015 ... The tenderisation process is estimated to begin soon after slaughter, depending .... spectrophotometer, which was used with the software package SpectraMagic NX Pro (Konica-Minolta) (CIE. 1986) at three ... probability.

  20. Effectiveness of inactivation of foodborne pathogens during simulated home pan frying of steak, hamburger or meat strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Wang, Xiang; De Boeck, Elien; Verguldt, Elien; Geeraerd, Annemie; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-03

    In order to evaluate the effect of simulated home pan frying of raw meat and meat preparations of different animal species on the thermal inactivation of pathogens, the heat resistance (D-value) of three strains of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and two strains of generic E. coli was validated in BHI and adjusted BHI (i.e. pH5.6 and 1.5% NaCl) at 60°C. The D-values were obtained of the linear phase of the survivor curves created in GInaFiT, a freeware tool to fit models to experimental data. The obtained D-values corresponded to those previously published in literature and confirmed L. monocytogenes to be the most heat resistant pathogen among them. Heat treatment in adjusted BHI significantly increased heat-resistance of E. coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli. Subsequently, the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated using a standardized procedure simulating commonly used home pan frying of various types of meat including steaks or filets, hamburgers and meat strips from various animal species such as pork, beef, chicken, lamb and some turkey, horse, kangaroo and crocodile meat. Corresponding F70-values were calculated based upon measured core time/temperature profiles. It was noted that a core temperature of 70 °C was not always achieved and, moreover, a heat treatment equivalent to 2 min at 70 °C was also not always obtained. This was in particular noted in hamburgers although the meat was visually judged well done. On several occasions, residual survivors of the initial inoculated (4 logCFU/g) food borne pathogens could be recovered either by enumeration (limit of detection 1 logCFU/g) or by the presence/absence testing per 25 g. Pan frying of hamburgers yielded the highest number of surviving pathogenic bacteria (46%), followed by well-done filets and steaks (13%) and meat strips (12%). Taking only steaks (beef, horse, kangaroo, crocodile and

  1. Compte rendu critique du livre Voir son steak comme un animal mort, de Martin Gibert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This critical review provides, first, a step-by-step synthesis of the arguments presented in each chapter of Martin Gibert’s bookVoir son steak comme un animal mort (Seeing your steak as a dead animal. Second, a critical perspective of the book and a personal reflection are presented.

  2. 78 FR 72597 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion... at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office...

  3. 78 FR 48631 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Nondiscrimination Statement The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability... TTY). To file a written complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for...

  4. 78 FR 34589 - Descriptive Designation for Needle- or Blade-Tenderized (Mechanically Tenderized) Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... that 15% of consumers changed their behavior based on reading safe handling instruction labels...-1325.) \\19\\ Bruhn (1997) shows that 17% of consumers changed their behavior based on reading safe... practices. Safe Handling Labels and Consumer Behavior in the Southern U.S. \\21\\ Cates, Sheryl C., Cignetti...

  5. Quality factors in beef, pork, and lamb cooked by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, B M; Baldwin, R E; Snider, S

    1976-12-01

    Three cooking treatments were applied to the longissimus muscle of beef and of pork and to deboned leg of lamb. Cooking treatments included: Intermittent energy application (3-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 220V and intermittent energy application (6-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 115V. Control roasts were cooked in a conventional gas oven (163+/-3 degrees C.). Cooking was adjusted so that roasts achieved an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. when cut for analyses. Cooking losses were significantly greater for microwave than for conventionally cooked beef. However, microwave cooking resulted in beef, pork, and lamb roasts with flavor of interior portions similar to those prepared conventionally. Flavor differences in samples from the edge of the slices of lamb and of pork and tenderness of lamb appeared to be related to cooking method. For these attributes, meat cooked conventionally was superior. In contrast, patterns in significant differences in tenderness and juiciness of beef and of pork were not consistent and were not related solely to method of cookery. Neither creatine nor creatinine was a good index of flavor of meat cooked by these methods. Aside from the time-saving aspect of microwave heating, there was no major advantage of one method of cooking over another. Thus, either high- or low- powered microwave equipment, operated at 2450 MHz, can be used satisfactorily for cooking tender cuts of beef, pork, and lamb.

  6. Effects of forage level in feedlot finishing diets on carcass characteristics and palatability of Jersey beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, E J; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Zerby, H N; Zinn, R A; Kuber, P S

    2012-03-01

    Jersey cattle are known for producing carcasses with a greater amount of marbling, but they require more days on feed to achieve acceptable market weights compared with other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary forage (12 vs. 24% sudangrass:alfalfa hay, DM basis) in steam-flaked, corn-based finishing diets on carcass characteristics, beef palatability, and retail color stability of steaks from Jersey beef compared with conventionally fed commodity beef strip loins (COM) of identified quality (Choice(-) and Select(+)). Jersey steers (n = 77) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the following treatments for a 383-d trial period: Jersey low 12% (JL; n = 38) or Jersey high 24% (JH; n = 39) forage (DM basis). A comparison group was selected from conventionally fed cattle on the same day of slaughter as the Jersey treatments, and strip loins from USDA Select(+) (COM; n = 20) and Choice(-) (COM; n = 20) were removed for data analysis. Seventy-two hours postmortem, strip loins were removed, vacuum-packaged, and aged at 3°C for 18 d postmortem. After the aging period, steaks from the LM were sliced, vacuum-packaged, and frozen (-20°C) until analyzed. Jersey steaks had reduced (P forage level had minimal effects on carcass characteristics and beef palatability. However, feeding a low-forage diet decreases input cost and potentially results in a greater valued carcass. Finishing long-fed (383 d) Jersey steers can meet beef industry expectations with respect to quality grade.

  7. The effects of skeletal separation and moisture enhancement for improving the eating quality of cull cow beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiter, P J; Campbell, C P; Mandell, I B

    2012-12-01

    Sixty-two cull beef cows were slaughtered to investigate effects of skeletal separation and moisture enhancement on beef eating quality. Muscles from each carcass side were randomly assigned to 1) no postmortem processing (NPP), 2) prerigor skeletal separation (SS), 3) moisture enhancement (ME) using calcium ascorbate or 4) a combination of SS and ME (SS/ME). Postmortem processing treatment (PPT) by ageing (PM) interactions (Padditive effect of combining SS and ME improved palatability traits versus SS or ME alone. Panellists found no differences (P>0.14) in softness and tenderness between SS/ME and Canadian AA or AAA beef. Postmortem processing of beef cows may produce beef as tender and juicy as beef from younger carcasses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of ultrasound on the beef structure and water distribution during curing through protein degradation and modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Da-Cheng; Gao, Xue-Qin; Ge, Qing-Feng; Zhou, Guang-Hong; Zhang, Wan-Gang

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the mechanisms of power ultrasound (PUS, 150 and 300W) and treatment time (30 and 120min) on the water-holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness of beef during curing. Beef muscle at 48h post mortem was subjected to PUS treatment at a frequency of 20kHz. Analysis of compression loss and shear force showed that PUS-assisted curing significantly increased the WHC and the tenderness of beef compared to static brining (pwater-binding ability of beef muscle. SDS-PAGE and LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis suggested that PUS induced moderate oxidation of myosin causing polymerization, which may contribute to increased water retention. On the other hand, an increased tenderness of beef is suggested by the increased MFI values and proteolysis of desmin and troponin-T. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) further supported the effects of PUS on WHC and tenderness changes due to the swelling and disruption of myofibrils. Thus, these results provide knowledge about the mechanism for improving WHC and tenderness of beef by PUS curing, which could be employed as an emerging technology for various meat curing processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genome-Wide H3K4me3 Analysis in Angus Cattle with Divergent Tenderness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    Full Text Available Tenderness is one of the most important properties of meat quality, which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. As an intensively studied epigenetic marker, histone methylation, occurring on arginine and lysine residues, has pivotal regulatory functions on gene expression. To examine whether histone methylation involves in beef tenderness variation, we analyzed the transcriptome and H3K4me3 enrichment profiles of muscle strips obtained from the longissimus dorsi (LD of Angus steers previously classify to the tender or tough group. We first plotted a global bovine H3K4me3 map on chromosomes and called peak-enriched regions and genes. We found that majorities of H3K4me3 on genes were occupying the first intron and intergenic regions and its maps displayed similar patterns in tender and tough groups, with high H3K4me3 enrichment surrounding the transcription start site (TSS. We also explored the relationship of H3K4me3 and gene expression. The results showed that H3K4me3 enrichment is highly positively correlated with gene expression across the whole genome. Cluster analysis results confirmed the relationship of H3K4me3 enrichment and gene expression. By using a pathway-based approach in genes with H3K4me3 enrichment in promoter regions from the tender cluster, we revealed that those genes involved in the development of different tissues-connective tissue, skeletal and muscular system and functional tissues-; while in tough group those genes engaged in cell death, lipid metabolism and small molecule biochemistry. The results from this study provide a deep insight into understanding of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulations in meat quality and beef tenderness.

  10. Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Harrison, Sabine M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-02-12

    The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by pelvic suspension (PS). HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef, whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef. HF steer beef had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas bull beef had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. In comparison to AS, PS increased redness and chroma after 24 h blooming; PS improved tenderness up to 7 days of ageing and accelerated the ageing process. For young dairy cattle, steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Pacific Fleet Submarine Tender Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    worker(s) waits at DG Tender travel (FCB = USS Frank Cable, ESL = USS Emory S. Land) Day 1 FCB waits at GUAM Day 1 ESL ...Day 5 FCB waits at GUAM Day 6 FCB waits at GUAM Day 6 ESL waits at SINGAPORE Day 7 FCB waits...at GUAM Day 7 ESL waits at SINGAPORE Day 8 FCB waits at GUAM Day 8 ESL waits at SINGAPORE Day 9

  12. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  13. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital

    Full Text Available The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale. Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  14. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  15. Italian water service's competitive tendering: does any tender design exist?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonioli, B.

    2006-01-01

    During the last two decades, the procurement of public services has been engaged a process of intensive change, both at the local and national level, particularly in Europe. In Italy, recent developments of legislative framework are aimed to adopt competitive tenders both for service's concession or private partner selection. Economists and operators generally agree about the effectiveness of auctions for the concession's contracting out. Otherwise, the agreement is weaker if the question is how to prepare the auction: bidding market a la Demsetz, beauty contests or hybrid forms? In other words, more attention should be devoted to the analysis of reference market and to auction's design. The aim of this paper is to verify, starting from the analysis of auction realized between 1998 and 2005, the real designing of the auctions other than the presence of an idea of industrial policy for water services. Results highlights that tenders are few, poorly designed and scarcely effective. To be more precise, results remark the lack of foresight of industrial policy and, more generally, the necessity to reflect on the real possibility of the competition for thc market in the water sector, characterized by an high degree of economical and social complexity [it

  16. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Tender Notices | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Limited tender notification for AMC for computers & peripherals. Open tender for supply of printing and photocopier paper. Tender for Transport, Housekeeping and Catering services. Tender for website redesign - Work awarded to lowest bidder Sriranga Digital Software Technologies after scrutiny of price bids; Tender for ...

  18. 49 CFR 230.107 - Tender frame and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender frame and body. 230.107 Section 230.107... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.107 Tender frame and body. (a) Maintenance. Tender... repaired: (1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 21/2 inches...

  19. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W

    2001-12-01

    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  20. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Brown, E D; Swanson, C A; Rhodes, D; Rossi, S; Felton, J S; Levander, O A

    1998-04-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures sometimes contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are known mutagens and animal carcinogens, but their carcinogenic potential in humans has not been established. To investigate the association between HCAs and cancer, sources of exposure to these compounds need to be determined. Beef is the most frequently consumed meat in the United States and for this study we determined HCA values in beef samples cooked in ways to represent US cooking practices, the results of which can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate HCA exposure from dietary questionnaires. We measured five HCAs [2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)] in different types of cooked beef using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Steak and hamburger patties were pan-fried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued to four levels of doneness (rare, medium, well done or very well done), while beef roasts were oven cooked to three levels of doneness (rare, medium or well done). The measured values of the specific HCAs varied with the cut of beef, cooking method, and doneness level. In general, MeIQx content increased with doneness under each cooking condition for steak and hamburger patties, up to 8.2 ng/g. PhIP was the predominant HCA produced in steak (1.9 to 30 ng/g), but was formed only in very well done fried or grilled hamburger. DiMeIQx was found in trace levels in pan-fried steaks only, while IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of the samples. Roast beef did not contain any of the HCAs, but the gravy made from the drippings from well done roasts had 2 ng/g of PhIP and 7 ng/g of MeIQx. Epidemiological studies need to consider the type of meat, cooking method and degree of doneness/surface browning in survey questions to adequately assess

  1. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Vidal, Veronique; Jesson, Beline; Levéziel, Hubert; Renand, Gilles; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality. We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of 30 Charolais young

  2. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  3. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (PMeat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (Pmeat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 12 CFR 335.501 - Tender offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tender offers. 335.501 Section 335.501 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY SECURITIES OF NONMEMBER INSURED BANKS § 335.501 Tender offers. The provisions of the applicable and currently...

  5. Limited tender for disposal of old printed journals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... TENDER NO IASC 03 /DISPOSAL OF OLD PRINTED JOURNALS I 2016-17. F. No. : Tender No. ... The competent authority also reserves the right to reject any or all the tenders without assigning any reason thereof. 19.

  6. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  7. EFFECT OF MARINATION WITH PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES ON QUALITY OF BEEF MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Istrati

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During storage and thermal treatment meat suffers a number of biochemical and physical-chemical changes in the substrate protein, changes that take place with varying intensity depending on the method of preservation utilized and temperature of thermal treatment applied. Application of different treatments aimed to influence the proteolytic activity as is the case of enzymatic tenderization of beef.Improving the meat tenderness with proteolytic enzymes is promising, but current legislation restricting the use of proteolytic enzymes from bacterial origin and recommended tenderizers salts containing papain, ficin and bromelain. Recent research revealed that meat marinating before grilling results in a reduction of heterocyclic amine content after thermal treatment. Also, the addition of fruit pulp, garlic or other spices contributes to decreased production of heterocyclic amines because of their antioxidant activity. In the present study was aimed influence of exogenous proteolytic enzymes on adult beef tenderness. To increase the tenderness of adult beef were used exogenous enzymes preparations (papain and bromelain and natural sources of enzymes using pineapple and papaya fruit. It was intended to establish the correlation between enzymatic activity of enzymes used in the study, the processing technology and changes in the physical-chemical and biochemical characteristics that occur during storage in refrigerated conditions (evolution of the rigidity index and water holding capacity, cooking losses and cooking yield of the samples injected/marinated with enzymes.

  8. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  9. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment on hot-boned muscles of different potential tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-07-01

    In this study, the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment and ageing on the quality of beef M. longissimus lumborum (LL) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles was evaluated, including the tenderness, water loss and post-mortem proteolysis. Muscles were obtained from 12 steers (6 steers for each muscle), removed from the carcasses 4 hour postmortem and were treated with pulsed electric field within 2h. Six different pulsed electric field intensities (voltages of 5 and 10 kV × frequencies of 20, 50 and 90 Hz) plus a control were applied to each muscle to determine the optimum treatment conditions. Beef LL was found to get tougher with increasing treatment frequency whereas beef SM muscle was found to have up to 21.6% reduction in the shear force with pulsed electric field treatment. Post-mortem proteolysis showed an increase in both troponin and desmin degradation in beef LL treated with low intensity PEF treatment (20 Hz) compared to non-treated control samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous-vide technology and its process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Singh, Chongtham Baru; Kumar, Raushan; Martin Xavier, K A; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati; Balange, Amjad K

    2016-11-01

    The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous - vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous - vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X 1 ), cooking time (X 2 ) and cooking temperature (X 3 ) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y 1 ). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous - vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R 2  = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous - vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius .

  11. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP KESETIAN MEREK (Studi Kasus Restoran The Prime Steak & Ribs Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foedjiawati Foedjiawati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research which observes the relationship between customer satisfaction and their loyalty to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant. The customer satisfaction is measured through some attributes such as, attributes related to the product, attributes related to the service, and attributes related to the purchase. Meanwhile, the loyalty of its brand is measured through habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand and commitment. The result of the research reveals that customer satisfaction levels to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant tends to be good. Some attributes still have a variety of high grade, and there is a positive causal influence that is significant between the customer satisfaction and the loyalty of the brand. Thus, the result of the research is relevant and at the same time supports the theory of brand loyalty. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian Pengaruh Kepuasan Konsumen terhadap Kesetiaan Merek pada Restoran the Prime Steak & Ribs, kepuasan konsumen diukur melalui Attributes related to the product, Attributes related to the service, Attributes related to the purchase, kesetiaan merek diukur melalui habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand, dan commitment. Hasil penelitian mengungkapakan bahwa kepuasan konsumen di The Prime Steak & Ribs mendapat penilaian yang cenderung baik, beberapa atribut masih mempunyai variasi penilaian yang tinggi, dan terdapat hubungan pengaruh positip yang signifikan antara kepuasan konsumen dengan kesetiaan merek, dengan demikian hasil penelitian mendukung konsep teori tentang kesetiaan merek. Kata kunci: kepuasan, kesetiaan merek.

  12. Liquefied natural gas tender crashworthiness research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    Research is being conducted to develop technical : information needed to formulate effective natural gas fuel : tender crashworthiness standards. This research is being : performed for the Federal Railroad Administrations (FRAs) : Office of Res...

  13. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  14. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J

    1994-01-01

    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  16. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  17. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  18. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  19. Pengaruh Harga,kualitas Produk Dan Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Restoran O-mamamia Steak and Ice Cream Cabang Jati Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Faizah, Nadia Rizqiyatul; Suryoko, Sri; Saryadi, Saryadi

    2013-01-01

    O-Mamamia restaurant Steak n Ice Cream Semarang is a steak restaurant providing ice cream at the same time, which has ten branches one branch is O-Mamamia Restaurant Steak n Ice Cream Jati Semarang. In an effort to maintain relationships with customers, service quality is the key to retaining customers and providing high value through customer value. Customers will compare the quality of services provided at a price that is charged for the steak provided. Currently there is a restaurant that ...

  20. Inter-laboratory assessment by trained panelists from France and the United Kingdom of beef cooked at two different end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Picard, Brigitte; Terlouw, Claudia E M; Moloney, Aidan P; Juin, Hervé; Meteau, Karine; Scollan, Nigel; Richardson, Ian; Hocquette, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Eating quality of the same meat samples from different animal types cooked at two end-point cooking temperatures (55°C and 74°C) was evaluated by trained panels in France and the United Kingdom. Tenderness and juiciness scores were greater at 55°C than at 74°C, irrespective of the animal type and location of the panel. The UK panel, independently of animal type, gave greater scores for beef flavour (+7 to +24%, PFrench panel was higher at 74°C than at 55°C (+26%, Pcooking beef at a lower temperature increased tenderness and juiciness, irrespective of the location of the panel. In contrast, cooking beef at higher temperatures increased beef flavour and decreased abnormal flavour for the UK panelists but increased abnormal flavour for the French panel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving the lean muscle color of dark-cutting beef by aging, antioxidant-enhancement, and modified atmospheric packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, K M; Mitacek, R M; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Jaroni, D; Jadeja, R; Ramanathan, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of wet-aging, rosemary-enhancement, and modified atmospheric packaging on the color of dark-cutting beef during simulated retail display. No-roll dark-cutting strip loins ( = 12; pH > 6.0) were selected from a commercial packing plant within 3 d postharvest. Using a balanced incomplete block design, dark-cutting loins were sectioned in half, and assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods: 7, 14, or 21 d. After respective aging, each aged section was divided into 3 equal parts, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 enhancement treatments: nonenhanced dark-cutting, dark-cutter enhanced with 0.1% rosemary, and dark-cutter enhanced with 0.2% rosemary. Following enhancement, steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging treatments: high-oxygen modified atmospheric packaging (HiOx-MAP; 80% O and 20% CO), carbon monoxide modified atmospheric packaging (CO-MAP; 0.4% CO, 69.6% N, and 30% CO), and polyvinyl chloride overwrap (PVC; 20% O). Instrumental and visual color measurements were recorded during 5 d simulated retail display. Lipid oxidation was determined utilizing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. There was a significant packaging × enhancement × display time interaction for values and chroma ( 0.001). On d 0 of display, dark-cutting steaks enhanced with 0.1% and 0.2% rosemary and packaged in HiOx-MAP had greater ( 0.001) values and chroma than other dark-cutting packaging/enhancement treatments. A significant packaging × enhancement × display time interaction resulted for values ( 0.001). Dark-cutting steaks enhanced with 0.2% rosemary and packaged in HiOx-MAP was lighter ( 0.001; greater values) than other dark-cutting treatments on d 5 of display. There were no differences ( 0.34) in discoloration scores on d 5 among different dark-cutting treatments when steaks were packaged in HiOx- and CO-MAP. There was an aging period × enhancement × packaging interaction ( cutting steaks enhanced with 0.2% rosemary

  2. A camera specification for tendering purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, M.J.; Davies, M.D.; Kenyon, N.G.

    1985-01-01

    A standardized document is described which is suitable for sending to companies which are being invited to tender for the supply of a gamma camera. The document refers to various features of the camera, the performance specification of the camera, maintenance details, price quotations for various options and delivery, installation and warranty details. (U.K.)

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  4. Variation in bull beef quality due to ultimate muscle pH is correlated to endopeptidase and small heat shock protein levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, D J; Dobbie, P; Fraga Vazquez, S; Fraser-Smith, E; Frost, D A; Morris, C A

    2009-09-01

    This study set out to determine if ultimate pH (pH(u)) affected the performance of intracellular small heat shock protein and endopeptidase dynamics in muscle during beef ageing. Longissimus dorsi muscles from 39 Angus or Limousin×Angus bulls were examined to see if pH(u) achieved at 22h post mortem (rigor) affected tenderness and water holding capacity of beef. Samples were segregated into three pH(u) groups termed high (pH>6.3), intermediate (5.7pHpHpH(u) beef. More than 30% of bull beef did not achieve acceptable tenderness at 8 days post mortem with this ageing regime. No significant differences in calpain or cathepsin enzyme levels due to meat pH were observed until after 22h post mortem, but low pH(u) beef had elevated caspase 3/7 activity soon after slaughter. At 22h post mortem, greater levels of μ-calpain enzyme were found in the high and intermediate pH(u) beef and cathepsin B levels were superior in the low pH(u) beef after 2 days post mortem. Different rates of desmin and troponin T protein degradation were also observed in aged bull beef. Both proteins were degraded within 6h post mortem for high pH(u) beef, but took >3 days post mortem for intermediate pH(u) beef. High levels of alpha β-crystallin (aβC) at 22h post mortem coincided with delayed muscle protein degradation for low pH(u) beef. Our results support the hypothesis that aβC shields myofibrils and buffers against endopeptidase degradation of beef structure during ageing.

  5. Beef quality labels: A combination of sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerding, Stephan G H; Gentz, Maria; Altmann, Brianne; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa

    2018-08-01

    Consumer perspectives of beef quality are complex, leading to a market that is increasingly differentiating. Thus, ongoing monitoring and assessment of changes in consumer perspectives is essential to identify changing market conditions. Often only credence and search characteristics are evaluated in consumer studies; therefore the object of the present study is to examine consumer preferences and perceptions towards beef steaks, also including experience characteristics, using a mixed methods approach. For this reason, 55 consumers participated in an experiment in Germany, including a sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis (CBCA). Different quality characteristics were included, but a focus on the quality labels of 'dry aged beef', 'Block House beef', and 'Angus beef' was predominant throughout the experiment with the results showing that quality labels significantly increased overall liking as well as the stated willingness to pay. Quality labels were also the one of the most important characteristics in the conjoint analysis, after origin and price. The results of all applied methods are comparable for the characteristic quality label. The combination of sensory acceptance test and CBCA were additionally able to evaluate all three kinds of beef quality characteristics, which could not be evaluated together only using a single method. This suggests that a mixture of methods should be used to gain better knowledge on the true behavior of beef consumers. Experience and credence characteristics, including beef quality labels, present opportunities for future research as well as the potential for determining product and market differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...

  7. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  8. Technical note: use of belt grill cookery and slice shear force for assessment of pork longissimus tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-01-01

    The present experiments were conducted to determine whether improved beef longissimus shear force methodology could be used to assess pork longissimus tenderness. Specifically, three experiments were conducted to: 1) determine the effect of belt grill (BG) cookery on repeatability of pork longissimus Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) compare the correlation of WBSF and slice shear force (SSF) with trained sensory panel tenderness ratings, and 3) estimate the repeatability of pork longissimus SSF for chops cooked with a BG. In Exp. 1 and 2, the longissimus was removed from the left side of each carcass (Exp. 1, n = 25; Exp. 2, n = 23) at 1 d postmortem and immediately frozen to maximize variation in tenderness. In Exp. 1, chops were cooked with either open-hearth electric broilers (OH) or BG, and WBSF was measured. Percentage of cooking loss was lower (P cooked with a BG (23.2%; SD = 1.7%) vs. OH (27.6%; SD = 3.0%). Estimates of the repeatability of WBSF were similar for chops cooked with OH (0.61) and BG (0.59). Although significant (P cooking methods accounted for less than 5% of the total variation in WBSF. In Exp. 2, the correlation of SSF (r = -0.72; P cooked with BG, and SSF was determined. The repeatability of SSF was 0.90, which is comparable to repeatability estimates for beef and lamb. Use of BG cookery and SSF could facilitate the collection of accurate pork longissimus tenderness data. Time and labor savings associated with BG cookery and the SSF technique should help to decrease research costs.

  9. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  10. Sensory characteristics and tenderness of meat from Ankole bulls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Martina Muller

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... Eating-quality attributes of meat from Ankole cattle and their Friesian and Boran crossbreds finished in different feeding ... palatable than steaks from supplemented and feedlot finished bulls. ... Phosphorus (g/kg DM). 4.2 ± 0.4.

  11. Gertrude Stein’s Tender Buttons (1911)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    Gertrude Stein’s book of prose poems Tender Buttons has been characterized as a modernist literary work by most of its critics. As a distinctive feature of its modernist poetics critics in particular emphasize Stein’s denial of representation through verbal abstraction and autotelism. This paper......, however, intends to read Tender Buttons somewhat differently by suggesting that the poems may be viewed as an example of a displaced Rabbinic hermeneutics in the sense given the term by Susan Handelman. Inasmuch as Stein refuses to name the many objects properly that the titles of the poems introduce...... and instead – to employ her own term – “abuses” their names by way of wordplay, punning, syntactical ambiguity, and semantic disruption, she impersonates a secular Reb Stein, who stays faithful to the Scripture by sacred contempt of representation and obedience to (the play of) the letter. Perhaps...

  12. Effect of Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Beef Quality and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Hafizur; Hossain, Mohammad Mujaffar; Rahman, Syed Mohammad Ehsanur; Hashem, Mohammad Abul

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to know the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles of beef on the sensory, physicochemical quality and microbiological assessment. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef forelimb were investigated comparing with unfrozen fresh beef for 75 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to know the best one. As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased color and odor declined significantly before cook within the cycles and tenderness, overall acceptability also declined among the cycles after cook by thawing methods. The thawing loss increased and dripping loss decreased significantly (pcycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle 1 and 3, but decreased in cycle 2. pH decreased significantly (pcycles. Moreover, drip loss, cooking loss and WHC were affected (pcycles. 2-Thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) value increased (pcycles and among the cycles by thawing methods. Total viable bacteria, total coliform and total yeast-mould count decreased significantly (pcycles in comparison to the initial count in repeated freeze-thaw cycles. As a result, repeated freeze-thaw cycles affected the sensory, physicochemical and microbiological qua- lity of beef, causing the deterioration of beef quality, but improved the microbiological quality. Although repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect much on beef quality and safety but it may be concluded that repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of beef color for commercial value and WHC and tenderness/juiciness for eating quality. PMID:26761286

  13. PENGARUH CARING CLIMATE TERHADAP JOB SATISFACTION DAN AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT YANG BERDAMPAK PADA JOB PERFORMANCE KARYAWAN RESTORAN STEAK DI JAKARTA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aginta Chairunnisa Sinulingga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to exmaining the effects of caring climate, job satisfaction, and affective commitment on job performance in steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta. This study were developed and tested 5 hypotheses, by using Structural Equation Model. Data were collected from 145 employees working on the food, beverage, hygiene, security, service and cashier in steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta. Finding and contribution in this research shown that there is positive and significant effect of caring climate on job satisfaction and affective commitment that effect on job performance. The limitationin in this research was that this study focused only on restaurant as a hospitality industry, only at steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta, and was limited for only four variables.

  14. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Farmer, Linda; Scollan, Nigel D; Polkinghorne, Rod; Rødbotten, Rune; Allen, Paul; Pethick, David W

    2014-07-01

    Despite efforts by the industry to control the eating quality of beef, there remains a high level of variability in palatability, which is one reason for consumer dissatisfaction. In Europe, there is still no reliable on-line tool to predict beef quality and deliver consistent quality beef to consumers. Beef quality traits depend in part on the physical and chemical properties of the muscles. The determination of these properties (known as muscle profiling) will allow for more informed decisions to be made in the selection of individual muscles for the production of value-added products. Therefore, scientists and professional partners of the ProSafeBeef project have brought together all the data they have accumulated over 20 years. The resulting BIF-Beef (Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef) data warehouse contains available data of animal growth, carcass composition, muscle tissue characteristics and beef quality traits. This database is useful to determine the most important muscle characteristics associated with a high tenderness, a high flavour or generally a high quality. Another more consumer driven modelling tool was developed in Australia: the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme that predicts beef quality for each individual muscle×specific cooking method combination using various information on the corresponding animals and post-slaughter processing factors. This system has also the potential to detect variability in quality within muscles. The MSA system proved to be effective in predicting beef palatability not only in Australia but also in many other countries. The results of the work conducted in Europe within the ProSafeBeef project indicate that it would be possible to manage a grading system in Europe similar to the MSA system. The combination of the different modelling approaches (namely muscle biochemistry and a MSA-like meat grading system adapted to the European market) is a promising area of research to improve the prediction

  15. Radappertization of steak breast chicken grilled for storage at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, Marta H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Gurgel, Maria S. Amaral; Gutierrez, Erica M.R.; Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma radiation with high doses was used on steak breast chicken. The doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy were used on the fillets vacuum packaged; the storage temperature was 22-25 deg C for 180 days, and the analysis were done each 30 days. The microbiology (Clostridium perfringens); physical-chemical (humidity, protein, lipids, pH, color and TBA); and sensorial analysis, were done. The samples did not showed colony for any treatment by irradiation during storage period. The irradiated samples showed both higher humidity and brightness than those no irradiated. All treatment showed high notes on hedonic scale, by sensorial analysis. (author)

  16. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Marination with natural curing ingredients, storage time, and serving temperature effects on the sensory characteristics of forage-finished or commercially-sourced beef roasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrie, K E; Kerth, C R; Bratcher, C L; Curtis, P A; Smith, B

    2012-03-01

    Beef inside round roasts (n=144) were cut from rounds obtained from both forage-finished cattle (n=72) and commercially-sourced beef (n=72). Roasts were portioned to weigh 0.45-0.68kg each. Each roast was then randomly assigned one of the following treatments: control, injected-no cure, or injected-cured. Additionally, roasts were assigned a serving temperature (hot or cold) and storage treatments (0d or 28d post cooking). Roasts from forage-fed beef had a more red interior color and higher shear values, and also retained more brine than commercially-sourced beef (P<0.05). Curing roasts improved TBARS values in roasts served hot and significantly reduced sensory warmed-over and grassy flavors (P<0.05). Marinating forage-finished beef roasts significantly improves tenderness and flavor characteristics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of PA6 nanocomposite films on the stability of vacuum-aged beef loins during storage in modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, P A; Fernandez, A; Realini, C E; Lloret, E

    2014-01-01

    A masterbatch of polyamide 6 (PA6) containing dispersed nanoclays, was used to fabricate a novel multilayer film for vacuum packed meat. Performance of the nanocomposite was compared to a control PA6 multilayer and a high barrier commercial film. Addition of nanoclays improved oxygen barrier properties, UV-blocking capability and stiffness. Beef loins were vacuum-aged using the three films for 0 7, 14 and 21 days at 2°C. After each ageing time, beef steaks were packaged in commercial trays and high oxygen atmosphere and stored at 4°C for 9 days. Beef quality parameters and gas content were studied during display time in MAP (1, 3, 6 and 9 d). Beef quality parameters were not influenced by the packaging materials used during ageing and the performance of nanocomposites was comparable to high barrier films. Ageing had a positive impact on the stabilization of redness up to day 6 in MAP. Thereafter, oxymyoglobin content and oxidation levels were negatively influenced by ageing. © 2013.

  19. Contractor’s mistakes during tendering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamil, A. I. M.; Othman, N.; Adnan, H.; Zaki, ZA M.

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence of overrun in cost and time in a project that is usually caused by contractors, will generally make peopleput the blameonthem. This happensas a result of the lack of knowledge possessed by the contractors in determining the solution to be undertakendue totheir mistakes, especially when it comes to tendering process as what had happened in the cases that were reported in Supreme Court of Canada. This paper aims to identify the types of mistakes, factors that contribute to the mistakes and the responsiveness to the mistakes so that the contractor will be able to manage and control the mistakes, as well as the solution, along with preventing them from happening, and in making decision whether or notthey may withdraw from the bidding when the fault has been discovered or whether they should request for leniency from the client for a second chance in re-submitting the bid after the discovered inaccuracy. This research has been done based on cases that were related to the contractor’s mistakes during tendering which were collected from the Supreme Courts of Canada. The data have been analysed and interpreted by legal methodology, in which the result shows that the ability level of the contractors to respond to the mistake is unsatisfactory,and the fault is continuouslybeingmade. The findings are expected to educate and provide awareness to the contractors relating to the matters discussed.

  20. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intra-muscular fat content

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aslan, Ozlem

    2010-12-15

    Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed) as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs) and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P < 0.05). While no single SNP was associated with intramuscular fat (IMF), a clear association with increased IMF and juiciness was observed for haplotype 2. Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF\\/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  1. Regulatory polymorphisms in the bovine Ankyrin 1 gene promoter are associated with tenderness and intramuscular fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweeney Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent QTL and gene expression studies have highlighted ankyrins as positional and functional candidate genes for meat quality. Our objective was to characterise the promoter region of the bovine ankyrin 1 gene and to test polymorphisms for association with sensory and technological meat quality measures. Results Seven novel promoter SNPs were identified in a 1.11 kb region of the ankyrin 1 promoter in Angus, Charolais and Limousin bulls (n = 15 per breed as well as 141 crossbred beef animals for which meat quality data was available. Eighteen haplotypes were inferred with significant breed variation in haplotype frequencies. The five most frequent SNPs and the four most frequent haplotypes were subsequently tested for association with sensory and technological measures of meat quality in the crossbred population. SNP1, SNP3 and SNP4 (which were subsequently designated regulatory SNPs and SNP5 were associated with traits that contribute to sensorial and technological measurements of tenderness and texture; Haplotype 1 and haplotype 4 were oppositely correlated with traits contributing to tenderness (P Conclusion The conclusion from this study is that alleles defining haplotypes 2 and 4 could usefully contribute to marker SNP panels used to select individuals with improved IMF/juiciness or tenderness in a genome-assisted selection framework.

  2. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  3. Selection enhanced estimates of marker effects on means and variances of beef tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker associations from surveys of industry cattle populations have low frequencies of rare homozygous animals. Selection for calpain (CAPN1) and calpastatin (CAST) genetic markers was replicated in two cattle populations (Angus and MARC III) at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. These...

  4. Effect of ageing time on consumer-perceived quality of Italian Simmental beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to provide an objective indication on the optimal ageing time of meat from ItalianSimmental (IS young bulls, the most important commercial category of the breed. The research was carried out on 10young bulls slaughtered at the average weight of 688 kg (SE: 7.3 kg. The right side of each carcass was stored for 7days and the left one for further 7 days, at normal refrigeration temperatures. At the end of the ageing period, the sideswere sampled at the loin for meat pH, color, cooking loss and shear force measurement. A central location, affective testinvolving 74 consumers was carried out to measure the degree of liking for grilled beef aged 7 or 14 days.The pH and color parameters were not significantly affected by the duration of post-mortem storage, while cooking lossincreased (31.4 vs 32.6 %; Pincreased from 7 to 14 days. The degree of liking by the untrained respondents for the two types of cooked meat wasdifferent, considering that consumers gave the highest hedonistic scores to beef aged 14 days. Tenderness was the sensoryattribute that allowed the best discrimination between beef stored for periods of different length. In fact, while thedifference between 14-day-aged and 7-day-aged beef for flavour ratings (7.0 vs 6.9 did not reach the threshold of significance,the former meat was perceived as significantly finer than the latter regarding tenderness (6.5 vs 5.6; P= 0.01and marginally preferred in overall terms (6.9 vs 6.5; P= 0.07. The classification test, carried out at the end of the quantitativetest by asking consumers to select from a list the most appropriate attributes describing the stimuli associatedwith meat consumption, confirmed the effectiveness of texture attributes in ranking different-aged beef acceptability. Infact, the number of ticks reported for chewiness and juiciness descriptors were different for the two types of meat: the14-day-aged beef was perceived as easier to chew (57 vs 34 ticks

  5. Assessment of Computer Software Usage for Estimating and Tender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been discovered that there are limitations to the use of computer software packages in construction operations especially estimating and tender analysis. The objectives of this research is to evaluate the level of computer software usage for estimating and tender analysis while also assessing the challenges faced by ...

  6. Effects of Inulin and Sodium Carbonate in Phosphate-Free Restructured Poultry Steaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, B.; Serdaroğlu, M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently inorganic phosphates used in meat product formulations have caused negative impact on consumers due to their potential health risks. Therefore, utilization of natural ingredients as phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic to meet consumer demands for clean-label trends. In this study, we objected to investigate the effects of inulin utilization either in the powder or gelled form, alone or in combination with sodium carbonate on quality of phosphate-free restructured chicken steaks. Total moisture, protein, lipid and ash values of the trial groups were in the range of 71.54-75.46%, 22.60-24.31%, 0.94-1.70% and 1.45-2.13%, respectively. pH of the samples was between 6.18-6.39, significant increments were recorded in samples containing inulin with sodium carbonate. L*, a* and b* values were recorded as 78.92-81.05, 1.76-3.05 and 10.80-11.94, respectively, where use of gelled inulin resulted in changes of L* and a* values. Utilization of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate decreased cook loss and enhanced product yield. Sensory scores in control group with phosphate showed a similar pattern to sensory scores in groups with inulin and sodium carbonate. During storage, purge loss and lipid oxidation rate were similar in control and inulin + sodium carbonate samples. The results showed that use of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate provided equivalent physical, chemical and sensory quality to phosphates in restructured chicken steaks.

  7. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality.

  8. Review: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2018-04-02

    The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each 'cut×cooking method combination' from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.

  9. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...

  10. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for tenderness in Brahman cattle: 2. Objective meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Robinson, D L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Greenwood, P L

    2010-09-01

    Effects and interactions of calpain-system tenderness gene markers on objective meat quality traits of Brahman (Bos indicus) cattle were quantified within 2 concurrent experiments at different locations. Cattle were selected for study from commercial and research herds at weaning based on their genotype for calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene markers for beef tenderness. Gene marker status for mu-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) was also determined for inclusion in statistical analyses. Eighty-two heifer and 82 castrated male cattle with 0 or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in New South Wales (NSW), and 143 castrated male cattle with 0, 1, or 2 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 were studied in Western Australia (WA). The cattle were backgrounded for 6 to 8 mo and grain-fed for 117 d (NSW) or 80 d (WA) before slaughter. One-half the cattle in each experiment were implanted with a hormonal growth promotant during feedlotting. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis (tenderstretch). The M. longissimus lumborum from both sides and the M. semitendinosus from the AT side were collected; then samples of each were aged at 1 degrees C for 1 or 7 d. Favorable alleles for one or more markers reduced shear force, with little effect on other meat quality traits. The size of effects of individual markers varied with site, muscle, method of carcass suspension, and aging period. Individual marker effects were additive as evident in cattle with 4 favorable alleles for CAST and CAPN3 markers, which had shear force reductions of 12.2 N (P 0.05) of interactions between the gene markers, or between the hormonal growth promotant and gene markers for any meat quality traits. This study provides further evidence that selection based on the CAST or CAPN3 gene markers improves meat tenderness in Brahman cattle, with little if any detrimental effects on other meat quality traits. The CAPN1-4751 gene

  11. The study of heavy metals and microbial content in beef bowel and red meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Darsono

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia's population has increased every year so the need for food increased, especially the availability of nutritious foods such as red meat. Red meat is one of the foods that contain sufficient elements of protein, but it was likely to contain heavy metals and bacterial contamination that has met the threshold standards. On the otherhand, beef bowels are very popular among Indonesian consumers, but many heavy metlas could accumulated into the bowels. The purpose of this research are to study the content of heavy metals and bacterial contamination on beef bowel from some places of slaughtering houses and some red meats from the market in Jakarta. The beef bowels are lung, tripe, intestine and liver while the red meats were veal and tender loin. Parameter of heavy metals measured are As, Cd and Hg, while for the initial bacterial contamination are total number of aerobic bacteria, total amount of coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and Salmonella contamination. The heavy metals were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis, and for the total number of bacteria is using Total Plate Count. Result of research shows the As content in lung and tripe as well as the mercuric content in bowel has exceeded in the normal level such as 1.0 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, no heavy metals were detected in all red meats. The total microbes in beef bowel have exceeded allowable limit (1.0 x 10 6 cfu/g). No Salmonella was detected in all beef bowels and red meats observed. Nuclear technique are very helpful analysis of the heavy metas content in bowel dan red meats beef. The cleanliness slaughtering house of animals are remarkably ascertaining the quality of the beef bowel and red meats who will be sent. (author)

  12. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzhen Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  13. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado; Colli, Celia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe) concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks) were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 deg C for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe) concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L * , a * , and b * values. (author)

  14. Effect of Rapid Chilling on Beef Quality and Cytoskeletal Protein Degradation in of Chinese Yellow Crossbred Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Mao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rapid chilling (RC on beef quality and the degradation of cytoskeletal proteins. Twenty Chinese Yellow crossbred bulls were selected and randomly divided into two groups. RC and conventional chilling (CC were applied to left and right sides of the carcasses respectively after slaughtering. To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES treatment can alleviate the potential hazard of RC on meat quality, ES was applied to one group. The effects of RC and ES were determined by meat color, shear force and cytoskeletal protein degradation postmortem (PM. The results showed that RC decreased beef tenderness at 1 d and 3 d postmortem, but had no detrimental effect on meat color. Western blotting showed that RC decreased the degradation rate of desmin and troponin-T, but the effects weakened gradually as postmortem aging extended. Degradation rates of both desmin and troponin-T were accelerated by ES. The combination of RC and ES could improve beef color, accelerate degradation rate of cytoskeletal protein and improve beef tenderness.

  15. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  16. Consumer evaluation of palatability characteristics of a beef value-added cut compared to common retail cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Germolus, A J; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to educate consumers about value-added beef cuts and evaluate their palatability responses of a value cut and three traditional cuts. Three hundred and twenty-two individuals participated in the beef value cut education seminar series presented by trained beef industry educators. Seminar participants evaluated tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of four samples, bottom round, top sirloin, ribeye, and a value cut (Delmonico or Denver), on a 9-point scale. The ribeye and the value cut were found to be similar in all four attributes and differed from the top sirloin and bottom round. Correlations and regression analysis found that flavor was the largest influencing factor for overall like for the ribeye, value cut, and top sirloin. The value cut is comparable to the ribeye and can be a less expensive replacement. © 2013.

  17. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  18. Tender Notices | About IASc | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Tender for works related to expansion to main building of Indian Academy of ... for building Hostel Block at Indian Academy of Sciences Fellows Residency, ... the Three Science Academies of India on the teaching of the theory of evolution

  19. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  20. Survey of billing and coding for counterstrain tender points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Karen T; Johnson, Jane C

    2012-06-01

    The names of certain counterstrain tender points are incongruent with their physical locations because of an assumption that these points are reflective of dysfunction in neighboring body areas. Because the body area that is physically examined does not always match the body region in which somatic dysfunction is diagnosed for these tender points, it is not always clear which evaluation and management service codes should be used for billing physician services. To assess the attitudes of osteopathic physicians toward the billing and coding of incongruent counterstrain tender points. Physician members of the American Academy of Osteopathy who use counterstrain in clinical practice were surveyed regarding the body area that they would physically examine when assessing for incongruent tender points and, if tender points were present, the body regions to which they would assign somatic dysfunction for billing and coding purposes. Physician responses were categorized as indicating a structural approach (ie, reflective of anatomic location) or a functional approach (ie, reflective of dysfunction in neighboring body areas) to tender point examination and treatment. Associations between sex, specialty, and years in practice with the approach chosen were also examined. Of 175 physicians who responded to the survey, 156 met the study criteria. Respondents were primarily board-certified in neuromusculoskeletal medicine/osteopathic manipulative medicine (98 [63%]), special proficiency in osteopathic manipulative medicine (30 [19%]), or family practice/family practice and osteopathic manipulative treatment (94 [60%]). Ninety percent of physicians predominantly chose responses indicating a structural approach to the physical examination of tender points and 21% predominantly chose responses indicating a functional approach to somatic dysfunction diagnosis. There were inconsistencies among individual respondents regarding the type of approach chosen for a single tender point. For

  1. 17 CFR 240.14e-1 - Unlawful tender offer practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful tender offer... Securities Exchange Act of 1934 Regulation 14e § 240.14e-1 Unlawful tender offer practices. As a means... section 14(e) of the Act, no person who makes a tender offer shall: (a) Hold such tender offer open for...

  2. 49 CFR 230.90 - Draw gear between steam locomotive and tender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Draw gear between steam locomotive and tender. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Draw Gear and Draft Systems § 230.90 Draw gear between steam locomotive and tender. (a) Maintenance and testing. The draw gear between the steam locomotive and tender...

  3. 49 CFR 230.100 - Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defects in tender truck axles and journals. 230... Steam Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.100 Defects in tender truck axles and journals. (a... wheel seats that is more than 1/8 of an inch in depth. (b) Tender truck journal condemning defects...

  4. Waroeng Steak: Spritual Company in the Context of Post-Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihatul Qamariyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Management’ at the business capitalism covers the vehicle of some aspects including the employee, course, service, network, and any kind of stuffs related to this case. In line with the system of business management, every single company might be in uniformity according to the common standard of capitalism despite having differences in the vision and mission. In this case, Waroeng Steak (WS Restaurant in Demangan, Yogyakarta intentionally applied Islamic spiritual management. WS uses several kinds of teachings and trainings according to Islamic Sharia in the daily process. This concept concerns to the employees’ behavior upgrading and company progression through WS’ timeline program including daily, weekly, and annually activity striving for a great spiritual and economic orientation in the future. This paper argue despite the spiritual training for employees of WS might not be considered practical by capitalist standard, it is effective in bringing both spiritual and economic benefits to both company and all members of the staff. The research result that capitalism meet religion in terms of the production could lead to another standpoint at the collaborative intention in gaining positive benefit in successful business operation. Religion in regard to spiritual management in business has a significant role in bringing both individual upgrading in the class of devotion to God and the reflection to the good ethic in undergoing the working process, it is finally so-called a spiritual company that will be distinctively differ from the other existential companies.

  5. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  6. Effect of carrageenan addition on the yield and functional properties of charqui (Jerked Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Rocha Garcia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the application of carrageenan (CAR to improve the functional properties of the jerked beef (JF and to increase its processing yield. JB produced from Vastus lateralis with CAR (1.0% at 25ºC and NaCl (15.0% had approximately 15.0% higher moisture and a 32.0% higher processing yield in comparison to the control samples.JB-CAR presented shear force approximately 5.0 and 20% lower in the samples uncooked salted and desalted cooked, respectively, and sensorial acceptance above 80%. The results demonstrated the possibility of applying carrageenan to jerked beef in order to obtain an increase in the processing yield and a tender product while maintaining the sensorial quality and its intermediate-moisture meat product nature.

  7. Effects of hot boning and moisture enhancement on the eating quality of cull cow beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivotto, L M; Campbell, C P; Swanson, K; Mandell, I B

    2014-01-01

    The effects of chilling method and moisture enhancement were examined for improving eating quality of semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) from 62 cull beef cows. Chilling method included hot boning muscles after 45 to 60 min postmortem or conventional chilling for 24 h. Moisture enhancement included 1) a non-injected control (CONT) or injection processing (10% of product weight) using 2) Sodium Tripolyphosphate/salt (Na/STP), 3) Sodium Citrate (NaCIT), 4) Calcium Ascorbate (CaASC), or 5) Citrus Juices (CITRUS). Chilling method by moisture enhancement treatment interactions (Pboned vs. conventionally chilled product (SM and LL) for CaASC vs. other moisture enhancement treatments. Chilling method by moisture enhancement treatment interactions (Pboned LL using CaASC vs. Na/STP. Moisture enhancement can improve tenderness of cull cow beef depending on combinations of chilling method and moisture enhancement treatments used. © 2013.

  8. Irradiated ground beef: sensory and quality changes during storage under various packaging conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, P.S.; Murano, E.A.; Olson, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    Ground beef patties (irradiated with 2 kGy and nonirradiated) were packaged using oxygen permeable (polyolefin) or oxygen impermeable material (polyethylene). Samples were irradiated in air and stored in air; irradiated under vacuum and stored under vacuum; or irradiated under vacuum and stored in air. Changes in flavor, texture, juiciness or aftertaste were evaluated after either 1 or 7 days storage at -25 degrees C prior to cooking. Irradiated 'Vac/Air' samples were more tender, irradiated 'Vac' samples were more moist, and irradiated 'Air' samples had the least aftertaste. A 3 log10 reduction in total aerobic counts was detected immediately after irradiation. No difference in lipid oxidation was found within the first week of storage, regardless of packaging atmosphere. Shelf life of ground beef patties was extended 55 days at 4 degrees C

  9. Reindeer meat – is it always tender, tasty and healthy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Wiklund

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Meat with high pH values, so called DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry meat, is a persistent quality defect foundmin all meat species. DFD shortens shelf life, especially for vacuum-packed meat and affects meat colour, tenderness and water-holding properties. High pH values in reindeer meat have been related to pre-slaughter handling stress and poor nutritional status of the animals. There are numerous reports that variation in muscle pH and glycogen content give rise to considerable variations in meat tenderness in species such as beef and lamb. In contrast, reindeer meat has been found to be extremely tender regardless of ultimate pH. This phenomenon has been related to the speed of post mortem protein degradation and the small muscle fibre size in reindeer. Previous research has demonstrated that the fatty acid composition of meat changes in response to diets. Generally, a higher proportion of long, unsaturated fatty acids were found in meat from grazing animals compared with animals fed a grain-based diet. Reindeer meat has been found to contain moderate amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, especially so-called n-3 (or omega-3 PUFAs. The PUFAs are known to be susceptible to oxidation and may therefore be easily oxidized during processing by techniques like smoking and drying. A trained sensory panel concluded that meat from reindeer fed commercial feed scored higher for liverish and sweet flavours and lower for off-flavou (i.e. ‘grass’, ‘wild’ and ‘game’ compared with meat from grazing animals. Consumer preference tests on reindeer meat showed that 50 per cent of the consumers preferred meat from grazing reindeer and 50 per cent meat from pellet-fed animals. Recent reindeer meat research has included new feed mixtures using ingredients like linseed and fishmeal. Crushed linseed in the feed gave meat with a fat composition similar to that of natural pasture, which meant more PUFA than in meat from reindeer fed the normal grain

  10. Proteomics approach as a new way to predict tenderness as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-Irene

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Therefore it puts quality assurance systems under pressure .... using PDQuest Advanced 2D analysis software. Each sample had .... Beef Quality Audit final report, Red Meat Research and Development SA Project. Committee ...

  11. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F

    2014-01-01

    The use of anabolic implants has a long-standing place in the cattle feeding industry, due to their positive impact on growth performance and subsequent profitability. However, implants can have adverse effects on carcass quality, shear force, and eating quality depending on the dose and frequency, or what some refer to as the aggressiveness of the implant regimen administered. Within the past decade, a new class of growth promotants, known as β-adrenergic agonists (βAA), has emerged in the beef feeding industry in the United States. Currently, 2 have gained U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use in beef finishing diets to improve performance and carcass yields. Much like anabolic implants, these repartitioning agents can have negative effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), but the differences do not necessarily translate directly to consumer responses for palatability and acceptance in some instances, especially when tenderness is managed through proper postmortem aging. As researchers continued to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the impact of βAA, inevitably this led to consideration of the interaction between βAA and anabolic implants. Early work combining zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with anabolic implants improved performance, carcass yield, and meat yield with additive negative effects on WBSF. Similar results were produced when pairing ZH with anabolic steroids equipped with various release patterns. As with any tool, the key to success is proper management. Certain cattle populations may be better suited to receive growth promotants such as implants and βAA, and postmortem management of subprimal cuts becomes vital when producers take more aggressive approaches to improve performance and yield. The objective of this review is to overview research findings related to the impact of growth promotant technologies on beef palatability, focusing specifically on the role of implants and βAA on carcass quality, beef tenderness

  12. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  14. Calls for Tender and Market Surveys Roles and Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Annila, L

    2000-01-01

    ST division has implemented certain procedures to handle the calls for tender and market surveys. In January 1998, the division leader set up the 'call-for-tender co-ordination office' to check and approve each technical document leaving the division. The mandate of the call-for-tender co-ordination office is to check the quality of the documents, in order for these documents to be as clear as possible in terms of both content and structure. The role of this office is to contribute positively and give service to the people writing the documents, and not to give negative criticism. The aim of this paper is to present the mandate of the office, how papers are processed, and to draw up a first result summary.

  15. Semisubmersible rigs attractive for tender-assisted drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranter, P. (Sedco Forex, Aberdeen (United Kingdom))

    1994-09-19

    Tender-assisted drilling (TAD) involves the use of tender support vessel (TSV) during the drilling phase of platform development to provide drilling utilities to the platform-mounted drilling package. The TSV provides facilities such as mud mixing, storage, pumping, bulk storage, hotel accommodations, and power. Thus, the platform topsides and jacket weight and size can be smaller and less expensive. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of TAD, then describes the TAD vessel, semisubmersible, platform cost savings, accommodations, drilling and workovers, and field experience.

  16. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  17. 48 CFR 47.104-1 - Government rate tender procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and 13712 rates are published in Government rate tenders and apply to shipments moving for the account of the Government on— (1) Commercial bills of lading endorsed to show that total transportation charges are assignable to, and will be reimbursed by, the Government (see the clause at 52.247-1...

  18. More cost effectiveness from public tendering of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, E.

    2006-01-01

    From the results of an energy market analysis it appears that parties which are obliged to tender for energy contracts do not make the most of it. Timing is crucial in a liberalized market. Contracting in spring seems to deliver the best prices for energy in combination with tailor-made contracts [nl

  19. Role expectations and agency in the audit tendering process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, Y.T.A.; Heusinkveld, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Tenders are generally considered an important in auditing research and practice, and are associated with significant difficulties for the auditing profession, as well as for individual auditors in the context of client relationships. The paper aims to explore the way auditors respond to

  20. Risk Pricing in Construction Tenders - How, Who, What

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Tower

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction projects are most commonlyprocured in Australia by means of a traditionaldesign–tender–build model, whereby design islargely completed then contractors submittenders in a competitive environment.Construction contractors must consider riskswithin their tenders. This paper reports theresearch findings into pricing for risk incompetitive tenders by constructioncontractors. The research is based onstructured interviews with 10 contractingpersonnel; supplemented by 23 responses ofconstruction personnel from an online survey.Two common methods to price for risk are atrade-by-trade basis or an overall percentageor lump sum addition to the base estimate.Experience and intuition plays a significant rolein pricing for risk in tenders and the numberand type of people involved varies with projectsize, with greater involvement as project sizeincreases. The most significant risks priced intenders were: availability of resources; designor documentation errors; incomplete design;buildability issues; and inclement weather. Themost significant project factors considered bycontractors when pricing for risk in tenders are:value of liquidated damages; type ofcontract/procurement; completeness ofdocumentation; project complexity; and currentworkload. These risks and project factors areprimarily those over which the contractor haslimited or no control.

  1. Grounds for dispensing with public tender procedures in Government Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bolton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa1 provides that organs of state must comply with five principles when procuring goods or services: procurement procedures must be fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective. In short, this means that organs of state should make use of competition when procuring goods or services. They should shop around and attract the maximum number of contractors who will participate in such competition. The aim should be the attainment of value for money, meaning, public money should be spent in an effective and efficient manner. Those who participate in competitions should also be treated fairly and without bias. In principle, no preferences should be afforded to different contractors; all contracting parties should have equal access to competition; some contractors should not be afforded more time for the preparation and submission of quotes or tenders than others; and the same information should be made available to all contracting parties. Government procurement procedures should further be transparent, meaning public or open. Thus, organs of state should not contract behind closed doors – government contracts should, as a rule, be advertised. Depending on the nature and value of a particular contract, the use of a public call for tenders is generally the best way to ensure compliance with the principles in the Constitution. By nature, a pubic call for tenders is open, it assists in the prevention of fraud and favouritism, and it ensures that the maximum number of contractors is approached to compete for a contract.Organs of state can also compare prices and quality and can contract with whoever offers the best deal. Most legislation therefore proceeds on the basis that procurement takes place by way of tendering. Generally, contracts above R200 000 are subject to public tender procedures. In certain instances, however, a public call for tenders may be inappropriate regardless of the high

  2. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  3. Tenderness of pre- and post rigor lamb longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesink, Geert; Sujang, Sadi; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2011-08-01

    Lamb longissimus muscle (n=6) sections were cooked at different times post mortem (prerigor, at rigor, 1dayp.m., and 7 days p.m.) using two cooking methods. Using a boiling waterbath, samples were either cooked to a core temperature of 70 °C or boiled for 3h. The latter method was meant to reflect the traditional cooking method employed in countries where preparation of prerigor meat is practiced. The time postmortem at which the meat was prepared had a large effect on the tenderness (shear force) of the meat (PCooking prerigor and at rigor meat to 70 °C resulted in higher shear force values than their post rigor counterparts at 1 and 7 days p.m. (9.4 and 9.6 vs. 7.2 and 3.7 kg, respectively). The differences in tenderness between the treatment groups could be largely explained by a difference in contraction status of the meat after cooking and the effect of ageing on tenderness. Cooking pre and at rigor meat resulted in severe muscle contraction as evidenced by the differences in sarcomere length of the cooked samples. Mean sarcomere lengths in the pre and at rigor samples ranged from 1.05 to 1.20 μm. The mean sarcomere length in the post rigor samples was 1.44 μm. Cooking for 3 h at 100 °C did improve the tenderness of pre and at rigor prepared meat as compared to cooking to 70 °C, but not to the extent that ageing did. It is concluded that additional intervention methods are needed to improve the tenderness of prerigor cooked meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soee, ABL; Skov, L; Kreiner, S

    2013-01-01

    To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT).......To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7-17 years) with tension-type headache (TTH) and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT)....

  5. A basis for modelling the costs of supplier selection: the economic tender quantity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; van Dijkhuizen, G.C.; Telgen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the decision a purchaser must make regarding the number of suppliers that should be invited to submit a tender for a certain purchase. On the one hand, the costs of sending invitations to tender, the costs of evaluating the tenders received, and the costs of communicating

  6. 31 CFR 309.9 - Tenders; acceptance by the Secretary of the Treasury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; acceptance by the Secretary... TREASURY BILLS § 309.9 Tenders; acceptance by the Secretary of the Treasury. At the time fixed for closing... acceptable prices offered and will make public announcement thereof those submitting tenders will be advised...

  7. 17 CFR 240.14e-5 - Prohibiting purchases outside of a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(s); (iv) The intention of the offeror to make purchases pursuant to the foreign tender offer(s) is... consideration paid outside of the tender offer that is greater than the tender offer price; and (G) Purchases or... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibiting purchases outside...

  8. 31 CFR 309.10 - Tenders; reservation of right to reject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tenders; reservation of right to... BILLS § 309.10 Tenders; reservation of right to reject. In considering the acceptance of tenders, the highest prices offered will be accepted in full down to the amount required, and if the same price appears...

  9. Comparison of shear force tenderness, drip and cooking loss, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kahl, CEI, Mej

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... the 9th–10th thoracic vertebrae, were included in this study. .... loss expressed as a percentage of the original sample weight as .... a,b,c Column means for breed crosses within different days of ..... Genetic effects on beef.

  10. Characterization of Genes for Beef Marbling Based on Applying Gene Coexpression Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajeong Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait in characterization beef quality and a major factor for determining the price of beef in the Korean beef market. In particular, marbling is a complex trait and needs a system-level approach for identifying candidate genes related to the trait. To find the candidate gene associated with marbling, we used a weighted gene coexpression network analysis from the expression value of bovine genes. Hub genes were identified; they were topologically centered with large degree and BC values in the global network. We performed gene expression analysis to detect candidate genes in M. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling scores 2 to 7 using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrate that transmembrane protein 60 (TMEM60 and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD are associated with increasing marbling fat. We suggest that the network-based approach in livestock may be an important method for analyzing the complex effects of candidate genes associated with complex traits like marbling or tenderness.

  11. RESEARCH ON REDUCING THE LENGTH OF MATURATION IN USING ELECTROSTIMULATION OF BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA DIMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available From technological point of view in the food industry has been obtained meat maturation using different methods: storage under controlled conditions, the use of enzymes or mechanical equipment tenderization musculature. Was also reported that electrical stimulation of carcasses immediately after slaughter procedure can increase the degree of maturation of the meat. Meat and meat products are subjected to reduce during chilling and freezing temperatures principal for reasons of conservation or meat packing. Particular attention must be paid to temperature control, especially before rigor mortis, knowing that too rapid cooling could lead to a cold shortening or thaw rigor during the thaw. During application of the electrostimulation process, occur physical and biochemical changes, meaning that this one has some effect on the technological properties of meat. It has obtained a reduction of maturation of beef with the electrostimulation of half-carcasses of cattle, verified by the increase of non-protein nitrogen in meat. The same time it has been considerably improved the texture and firmness of the muscles, which allows the use of beef in fast food products (ready to cook. Researches have revealed the conclusion that the use of the portable device for electrostimulation, in the described conditions, has induced positive transformations improving meat quality of adult beef.

  12. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-15

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  13. Tender frequency and market concentration in balancing power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaut, Andreas; Obermueller, Frank; Weiser, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Balancing power markets ensure the short-term balance of supply and demand in electricity markets and their importance may increase with a higher share of fluctuating renewable electricity production. While it is clear that shorter tender frequencies, e.g. daily or hourly, are able to increase the efficiency compared to a weekly procurement, it remains unclear in which respect market concentration will be affected. Against this background, we develop a numerical electricity market model to quantify the possible effects of shorter tender frequencies on costs and market concentration. We find that shorter time spans of procurement are able to lower the costs by up to 15%. While market concentration decreases in many markets, we - surprisingly - identify cases in which shorter time spans lead to higher concentration.

  14. Audit market competition: auditor changes and the impact of tendering

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, V.; Fearnley, S.

    1998-01-01

    Increased competition within the external audit market and the recent phenomenon of audit tendering has renewed interest in the factors influencing auditor changes. In this paper, a questionnaire instrument is used to elicit perceptions of the factors which influence auditor-client realignments in this new environment and to indicate the relative influence of economic and behavioural factors. Positive, statistically significant associations were found between unsolicited approaches and the co...

  15. The Role of Quality in the Adjudication of Public Tenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geo Quinot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the goods or services that government procures is obviously a very important consideration in deciding which supplier should be awarded a particular public tender. It follows that in the regulation of public procurement, particular attention should be given to the role of quality (also called functionality in the adjudication of public tenders and the final award decision. In South African public procurement law, the role of functionality in public tender adjudication has been a fairly controversial issue that has resulted in a continuing interaction between courts and law-makers on how and when quality should be assessed and should impact on the final award decision within the framework for public procurement found in section 217 of the Constitution. This contribution tracks the development of the role of functionality in public tender adjudication as prescribed by public procurement regulation since the enactment of the Preferential Procurement Policy Framework Act 5 of 2000, which spearheaded the development of contemporary public procurement regulation in South Africa. The analysis shows how the role of functionality has constantly changed since the enactment of the PPPFA and remains uncertain. This uncertainty relates to different interpretations of the constitutional requirements for public procurement primarily contained in section 217(1 of the Constitution. Whether functionality is used as a qualification criterion, an award criterion or both holds particular practical implications for both suppliers and contracting authorities. It is accordingly important to have certainty on this question. However, it cannot be said that the Constitution and section 217 in particular dictates one approach rather than another. The issue should thus be resolved with reference to the statutory scheme adopted under the PPPFA.

  16. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  17. A critical analysis of the tender points in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, R Norman; Revivo, Gadi; Song, Sharon; Nampiaparampil, Devi; Golden, Gary; Kirincic, Marie; Houle, Timothy T

    2007-03-01

    To pilot methodologies designed to critically assess the American College of Rheumatology's (ACR) diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Prospective, psychophysical testing. An urban teaching hospital. Twenty-five patients with fibromyalgia and 31 healthy controls (convenience sample). Pressure pain threshold was determined at the 18 ACR tender points and five sham points using an algometer (dolorimeter). The patients "algometric total scores" (sums of the patients' average pain thresholds at the 18 tender points) were derived, as well as pain thresholds across sham points. The "algometric total score" could differentiate patients with fibromyalgia from normals with an accuracy of 85.7% (P pain across sham points than across ACR tender points, sham points also could be used for diagnosis (85.7%; Ps tested vs other painful conditions. The points specified by the ACR were only modestly superior to sham points in making the diagnosis. Most importantly, this pilot suggests single points, smaller groups of points, or sham points may be as effective in diagnosing fibromyalgia as the use of all 18 points, and suggests methodologies to definitively test that hypothesis.

  18. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  19. Microbiological Safety of Commercial Prime Rib Preparation Methods: Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella in Mechanically Tenderized Rib Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Alexandra; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Luchansky, John B; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan

    2015-12-01

    Boneless beef rib eye roasts were surface inoculated on the fat side with ca. 5.7 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of Salmonella for subsequent searing, cooking, and warm holding using preparation methods practiced by restaurants surveyed in a medium-size Midwestern city. A portion of the inoculated roasts was then passed once through a mechanical blade tenderizer. For both intact and nonintact roasts, searing for 15 min at 260°C resulted in reductions in Salmonella populations of ca. 0.3 to 1.3 log CFU/g. For intact (nontenderized) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.4 log CFU/g. For tenderized (nonintact) rib eye roasts, cooking to internal temperatures of 37.8 or 48.9°C resulted in additional reductions of ca. 3.1 or 3.4 log CFU/g, respectively. Pathogen populations remained relatively unchanged for intact roasts cooked to 37.8 or 48.9°C and for nonintact roasts cooked to 48.9°C when held at 60.0°C for up to 8 h. In contrast, pathogen populations increased ca. 2.0 log CFU/g in nonintact rib eye cooked to 37.8°C when held at 60.0°C for 8 h. Thus, cooking at low temperatures and extended holding at relatively low temperatures as evaluated herein may pose a food safety risk to consumers in terms of inadequate lethality and/or subsequent outgrowth of Salmonella, especially if nonintact rib eye is used in the preparation of prime rib, if on occasion appreciable populations of Salmonella are present in or on the meat, and/or if the meat is not cooked adequately throughout.

  20. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    aged. Based on January 1996 prices, the economic analysis showed that the Canadian beef industry lost $70.52 per head or $189.6 million annually from quality nonconformities. Methods identified to reduce these nonconformities included improvements in management, animal identification, handling, genetic selection, marketing, grading, and information transfer. PMID:9105719

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.55 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and disadvantages of using a rate tender? 102-117.55 Section 102-117.55 Public Contracts and Property... the advantages and disadvantages of using a rate tender? (a) Using a rate tender is an advantage when... volume to obtain favorable rates. (b) Using a rate tender may be a disadvantage when: (1) You have...

  2. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  3. Effects of enrichment with polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and conjugated linoleic acid) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d evaluated at different locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Juan, María; Realini, Carolina E; Barahona, Marta; Sarriés, Maria Victoria; del Mar Campo, Maria; Beriain, María José; Vitale, Mauro; Gil, Marta; Albertí, Pere

    2014-11-01

    The effect of different animal diets supplemented with linseed (source of omega-3 fatty acids: n-3) and/or conjugated linoleic acid (CON: control, LIN: 10% linseed, CLA: 2% conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: 10% linseed plus 2% CLA) on consumer liking of beef aged for 7 or 21 d was assessed in 3 Spanish cities. Overall, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor liking of beef were evaluated by consumers (n = 720) using 9-point scales. Hedonic scores assigned by consumers did not differ (P > 0.05) for beef from animals fed the different diets and aged for 7 or 21 d. Consumer scores showed an increasing trend in beef liking with aging time. Consumers from Pamplona assigned lower (P consumers from Barcelona and Zaragoza. Linseed and/or CLA can be fed to improve the fatty acid profile in beef with minimal impact on consumer liking. Consumer ratings seem to depend on regional tastes and preferences. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract on the shelf-life of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.Ju-Woon; Park, K.S.Kyung-Sook; Kim, J.G.Jong-Goon; Oh, S.H.Sang-Hee; Lee, Y.S.You-Seok; Kim, J.H.Jang-Ho; Byun, M.W.Myung-Woo. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.krmwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract powder (rosemary) for improving the quality of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak by changing the storage condition from frozen (-20 deg. C) to a chilled temperature (4 deg. C), an accelerated storage test was carried out. The hamburger steak was prepared with 200 or 500 ppm of rosemary, or 200 ppm of butylated hydroxyanisole by a commercially used recipe, gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy, and stored at 30 deg. C. From the microbiological aspect, irradiation at 20 kGy or a higher dose was needed to inactivate the normal microflora. Little effect of the antioxidant was, if any, observed. Thiobarbituric acid values were not very different during storage regardless of the irradiation dose and the addition of the antioxidant. Textural and sensory results were also not significantly different in all the samples.

  5. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract on the shelf-life of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.Ju-Woon; Park, K.S.Kyung-Sook; Kim, J.G.Jong-Goon; Oh, S.H.Sang-Hee; Lee, Y.S.You-Seok; Kim, J.H.Jang-Ho; Byun, M.W.Myung-Woo.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract powder (rosemary) for improving the quality of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak by changing the storage condition from frozen (-20 deg. C) to a chilled temperature (4 deg. C), an accelerated storage test was carried out. The hamburger steak was prepared with 200 or 500 ppm of rosemary, or 200 ppm of butylated hydroxyanisole by a commercially used recipe, gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy, and stored at 30 deg. C. From the microbiological aspect, irradiation at 20 kGy or a higher dose was needed to inactivate the normal microflora. Little effect of the antioxidant was, if any, observed. Thiobarbituric acid values were not very different during storage regardless of the irradiation dose and the addition of the antioxidant. Textural and sensory results were also not significantly different in all the samples

  6. Influence of Skin Packaging on Raw Beef Quality: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stella

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed revision of several aspects related to the application of skin packaging to raw beef was considered. Skin packaging, a relatively new technique derived from vacuum packaging, was developed with the aim of retailing small portions of fresh meat, minced meat, or meat preparations. Above all, the influence of this typology of packaging on the microbial population of raw meat was studied, with particular attention to total viable count, aerobic spoilage bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, Brochothrix thermosphacta, and lactic acid bacteria. Moreover, the effect on acidification by LAB was also deepened. As colour is the main characteristic influencing purchase decisions at the point of sale, the effect of skin packaging on this parameter was evaluated for raw meat but also for cooked meat. Tenderness, juiciness, and the ability to hold liquid of raw meat when packed in skin conditions were also considered. Furthermore, odour and flavour were considered as sensorial parameters possibly affected by skin packaging. Finally, acceptability by consumer was also investigated. In the studies considered, results showed that skin packaging is advantageous in terms of maintenance of meat quality and for prolonging shelf-life, improving the stability of the products.

  7. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  8. Usefulness of tenderness to characterise fibromyalgia severity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, V A; Carbonell-Baeza, A; Ortega, F B; Estevez, F; Ruiz, J R; Delgado-Fernández, M

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of tenderness (tender points count (TPC) and algometer score) to characterise fibromyalgia (FM) severity and symptomatology in women. The study sample comprised 174 women aged 51±7 years. We ossesse tenderness using pressure algometry; quality of life by means of the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used the FM impact questionnaire (FIQ) to assess FM severity and symptomatology. Patients were categorised according to three FIQ-derived categories: FIQFIQFIQ≥59 (16.9±2 vs. 15.6±4, p=0.02), whereas no differences between groups were observed according to FIQ≥70 (17.0±2 vs. 16.2±3, p=0.12) or FM type (16.8±3 for type II vs. 15.9±4 for type I, p=0.13). We observed a significant association between TPC and FIQ-job difficulty, pain, morning tiredness and stiffness dimensions (all pFIQ, FIQ-anxiety, fatigue and depression dimensions (all p>0.05). Algometer score was lower in the FIQ≥70 (45.7±12 vs. 51.1±14, p=0.05) and FIQ≥59 (46.7±13 vs. 52.7±14, p=0.05) groups, and there were no difference between FM types (48.7±13 vs. 49.5±14 for type II and I respectively, p=0.81). Algometer score was not associated with total score of FIQ or FIQ dimensions (all p≥0.1). Widespread pain and pain hypersensitivity, as measured by TPC and algometer score, do not seem to be useful to characterise FM severity and symptomatology (measured by FIQ) in women.

  9. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  11. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  12. Danish Public Construction Counselling Selection and Assignment Criteria in European Tendering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    One of the largest customers in the Danish construction industry is public agencies that own and develop projects. For some of the counselling services, they recur to be put out in European tendering. The aim is to find which selection and assignment criteria are used most in public tendering. How...... projects use selection and assignment criteria for counselling services and finally if there is significant use of selection and assignment methods in public counselling. The method is based on 74 public counselling tenders from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database from January 2010 to March 2013...

  13. Supply Chain Planning for a Timber Harvesting Plus Sale Tender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Holoubek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2010, the Czech State Forest Enterprise has been inviting timber-harvesting tenders while insisting on the forestry company purchasing the timber from the felled trees as well. To win, a tender must offer the greatest difference between the price of the timber purchased and the cost of the operations. Thus, the forest companies are now facing new problem: apart from minimizing the logging costs they are searching for a cross-cutting and mill-distribution strategy that maximizes the selling price of the harvested timber. The optimization model devised by the present paper provides support for finding an optimal timber selling strategy and, as an important contribution, include a detailed plan for cross-cutting the logs and assign them to the particular customers. We keep the support accessible via common office software and the cross-cutting and customer-assigning problem is formulated as a linear programming model for EXCEL, a particular real-world problem is solved and, using expert comparison, the model appears to provide very good results.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  15. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  16. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  17. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share......'s share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  18. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  19. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  20. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  1. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  2. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the amount of such cheek meat shall be limited to 25 percent; and if in excess of natural proportions..., binders, or extenders. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the preparation of hamburger... levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a binder. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the...

  3. Criteria procedure development for tender in construction design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malykha Galina Gennad’evna

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of criteria optimization in order to objectively evaluate the experience of an applicant (a project organization and the quality of a design product (project documentation. The methodology to be developed is based on introduction of new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria that in conjunction with the applicable criteria specified by the Law on the Contract System will allow developing the optimal procedure to evaluate competitive bids of the participants in tenders and determining the most appropriate candidate, with whom the contract will be further concluded. The article analyzes the existing criteria and their interaction with each other and describes the specifics of tenders for design in the form of open competition. The list decreases to three criteria, such as "contract price", "quality, functional and environmental characteristics of a procurement facility", "qualification of procurement participants, including availability of financial resources, equipment and other material resources necessary for the execution of the contract material resources, the presence of goodwill, professionals and other employees of a certain experience level". However, in order to upgrade the quality of assurance procedures for the design works to be performed, it was decided to apply new evaluation criteria (sub-criteria components, such as "availability of positive findings of the state out-of-departmental examination that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the certificate on approval of architectural and urban planning decisions that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the permit for the commissioning of facilities that are similar to the subject of competition, on a participant in placement of order", "availability of the contract for designer's supervision with a participant in placement of

  4. Comparative proteomics reveals the physiological differences between winter tender shoots and spring tender shoots of a novel tea (Camellia sinensis L.) cultivar evergrowing in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengjie; Gao, Jiadong; Chen, Zhongjian; Qiao, Xiaoyan; Huang, Hualin; Cui, Baiyuan; Zhu, Qingfeng; Dai, Zhangyan; Wu, Hualing; Pan, Yayan; Yang, Chengwei; Liu, Jun

    2017-11-20

    A recently discovered tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] cultivar can generate tender shoots in winter. We performed comparative proteomics to analyze the differentially accumulated proteins between winter and spring tender shoots of this clonal cultivar to reveal the physiological basis of its evergrowing character during winter. We extracted proteins from the winter and spring tender shoots (newly formed two leaves and a bud) of the evergrowing tea cultivar "Dongcha11" respectively. Thirty-three differentially accumulated high-confidence proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF / TOF MS). Among these, 24 proteins had increased abundance while nine showed were decreased abundance in winter tender shoots as compared with the spring tender shoots. We categorized the differentially accumulated proteins into eight critical biological processes based on protein function annotation including photosynthesis, cell structure, protein synthesis & destination, transporters, metabolism of sugars and polysaccharides, secondary metabolism, disease/defense and proteins with unknown functions. Proteins with increased abundance in winter tender shoots were mainly related to the processes of photosynthesis, cytoskeleton and protein synthesis, whereas those with decreased abundance were correlated to metabolism and the secondary metabolism of polyphenolic flavonoids. Biochemical analysis showed that the total contents of soluble sugar and amino acid were higher in winter tender shoots while tea polyphenols were lower as compared with spring tender shoots. Our study suggested that the simultaneous increase in the abundance of photosynthesis-related proteins rubisco, plastocyanin, and ATP synthase delta chain, metabolism-related proteins eIF4 and protease subunits, and the cytoskeleton-structure associated proteins phosphatidylinositol transfer protein and profilin may be because of the adaptation of the

  5. Effect of feeding period for dry cull cows on carcass quality, meat quality, and consumer reactions to loin steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels T.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having a considera......A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having...... thoroughly. The present study comprise two trials. The results of both the first and second trail, including 62 cows in 2002, are reported here....

  6. 48 CFR 47.104-5 - Citation of Government rate tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citation of Government rate tenders. 47.104-5 Section 47.104-5 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.104-5 Citation of Government rate tenders. When 49 U...

  7. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of danish tenders in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Kranker; Ussing, Lene Faber; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev

    2013-01-01

    , and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period...

  8. Tender in power-plants back to starting point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TREND

    2003-01-01

    Even though there was no progress in privatisation of a 40-percent stake in Slovenske elektrarne (SE), a.s., Bratislava a government decree on re-opening of the tender issued in July will allow more prospects to participate. New prospects that are expected to submit their offers are Czech CEZ and American AES. At the same time the original eight prospects that submitted their offers earlier will have the opportunity to withdraw from the tender or review their offers. The new prospects can show their interest in requesting a information memorandum that will be published shortly and then PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) will state a date when the offers have to be submitted. After the original offers are updated and the new ones submitted, the offers will be evaluated. Representative of PwC, Peter Mitka refused to discuss the evaluation deadlines and the consecutive due diligence in SE to be conducted by selected investors. The company to have restarted the whole process was the Czech CEZ that had announces its intention to privatise not only the conventional part of SE but the nuclear part as well. The remaining prospects only show interest in hydraulic power plants or conventional power plants but none of them is interested in nuclear power plants. Even though the process is still open and theoretically other prospects could show their interest in the future, Minister of Economy, Robert Nemcsics does not expect that this step would be repeated. And so the number of prospects is ten. In the past the Minister expressed his view that the most suitable solution would be so sell the SE as a whole and during the first press conference given together with privatisation advisor the Minister explained that there was no time-pressure in regards to the privatisation process as an internal restructuring of the company had to be completed first

  9. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...... of disease and a good quality of life. Healthy beef was associated with a certain bias towards a "romantic view", a concept of the traditional encompassing grass-fed beef, raised outdoors with natural food. A healthy cut of meat was expected to be natural and without additives and hormones that could affect...

  10. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  11. Variables affecting the acceptability of radappertized ground beef products. Effects of food grade phosphates, NaCl, fat level, and grinding methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.S.; Shults, G.W.; Mason, V.C.; Wierbicki, E.

    1977-01-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effect of different variables on the quality of an irradiated ground beef product. Factors studied included: different food-grade phosphates; NaCl content; fat content; and size of grind. The influence of these variables on the cooking loss (moisture retention), shear press values and sensory scores was studied. The addition of phosphates and NaCl was desirable in controlling cooking losses. The most effective phosphate was tetrasodium pyrophosphate. The addition of NaCl decreased the shear press force required to penetrate the beef patty, i.e., it tenderized the product. Phosphate addition did not affect the shear press force. Increased fat content increased the cooking losses, but did not affect the shear press force. Irradiation with sterilizing doses had a marked effect on decreasing the shear press force

  12. Effect of the callipyge phenotype and cooking method on tenderness of several major lamb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    1997-08-01

    We conducted three experiments to determine the effects of the callipyge phenotype on the tenderness of several major lamb muscles and to determine the effect of method of cookery on the tenderness of callipyge lamb at 7 d postmortem. In Exp. 1, chops from normal (n = 23) and callipyge (n = 16) carcasses were open-hearth-broiled. Warner-Bratzler shear force values of longissimus, gluteus medius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, adductor, and quadriceps femoris were 123, 44, 28, 26, 19, 16, and 13% greater, respectively, for callipyge (P lamb carcasses (n = 60). Callipyge chops were less tender than normal chops (P cooking method, callipyge samples were less juicy than normal samples (P < .05). These data demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype will likely reduce consumer satisfaction due to reduced tenderness and juiciness; however, reduced tenderness in callipyge leg muscles could be prevented by ovenroasting.

  13. Beef, Real Food for Real People: An Industrial Analysis of the Beef Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    poultry . In 1989 Amrericans spent an average of $3.89 per person per week on beef products. Consumer bought $21 billion in beef products in 1989; they...or decreases in price. If the price of beef gets to high, consumers will switch their purchase to another red meat, poultry or seafood. TECHNOLOGY...The beginning of organized labor in meatpacking occurred with the -- •formation of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workman of North America

  14. Effect of two Spanish breeds and diet on beef quality including consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoll, Guillermo; Blanco, Mireia; Albertí, Pere; Panea, Begoña; Joy, Margalida; Casasús, Isabel

    2014-03-30

    Farmers in dry mountain areas are changing their management strategies to improve livestock farming efficiency, by using different forages or different breeds. The effect of breed (Parda de Montaña vs. Pirenaica) and finishing diet (grazing on meadows vs. a total mixed ration (50% alfalfa, 40% maize grain, 10% straw)) on carcass characteristics and meat quality of steers was studied. Parda de Montaña had a greater (P < 0.01) amount of intramuscular fat than Pirenaica. The finishing diet did not influence carcass fat color, but fatty acid composition was slightly affected. Finishing steers on a total mixed ration increased the percentage of fat of the 10th rib (P < 0.001). Supplementation with concentrates increased the diet energy concentration and also increased the dressing percentage. Both breeds had similar carcass characteristics. Consumers preferred beef from the Pirenaica breed because of its greater tenderness. Consumers did not differentiate between beef from animals fed different finishing diets. However, consumers who like meat very much preferred meat aged in a cooler at 4 °C for 15 days rather than 8 days. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of Plant-Derived Extracts, Other Antimicrobials, and Their Combinations against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Beef Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Kee-Tae; Sofos, John N

    2015-06-01

    The antimicrobial effects of thyme oil (TO), grapefruit seed extract (GSE), and basil essential oil, alone or in combination with cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium diacetate, or lactic acid, were evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a moisture-enhanced beef model system. The model system was composed of a nonsterile beef homogenate to which NaCl (0.5%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (0.25%) were added, together with the tested antimicrobial ingredients. Beef homogenate treatments were inoculated (ca. 3 log CFU/ml) with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 (eight-strain mixture) and incubated at 15 °C (48 h). The most effective individual treatments were TO (0.25 or 0.5%) and GSE (0.5 or 1.0%), which immediately reduced (P extracts with CPC (0.02 or 0.04%) and sodium diacetate (0.25%) had an additive effect with respect to antibacterial activity. In a second study, antimicrobial interventions were evaluated for their efficacy in reducing surface contamination of E. coli O157:H7 on beef cuts and to determine the effect of these surface treatments on subsequent internalization of the pathogen during blade tenderization. Beef cuts (10 by 8 by 3.5 cm) were inoculated (ca. 4 log CFU/g) on one side with the rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strain mixture and were then spray treated (20 lb/in(2), 10 s) with water, GSE (5 and 10%), lactic acid (5%), or CPC (5%). Untreated (control) and spray-treated surfaces were then subjected to double-pass blade tenderization. Surface contamination (4.4 log CFU/g) of E. coli O157:H7 was reduced (P < 0.05) to 3.4 (5% CPC) to 4.1 (water or 5% GSE) log CFU/g following spray treatment. The highest and lowest transfer rates of pathogen cells from the surface to deeper tissues of blade-tenderized sections were obtained in the untreated control and CPC-treated samples, respectively.

  16. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  18. 17 CFR 240.14e-2 - Position of subject company with respect to a tender offer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disclosing that the subject company: (1) Recommends acceptance or rejection of the bidder's tender offer; (2... accordance with such laws, regulations and policies. (d) Exemption for cross-border tender offers. The... with respect to a tender offer. 240.14e-2 Section 240.14e-2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.35 - What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? 102-117.35 Section 102-117.35 Public Contracts and...-117.35 What are the advantages and disadvantages of using GSA's tender of service? (a) It is an... damage claims. (b) It is a disadvantage to use GSA's tender of service when: (1) You want an agreement...

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.260 - Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to GSA? 102-118.260 Section 102-118.260 Public Contracts and... REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Use of Government Billing Documents Quotations, Tenders Or Contracts § 102-118.260 Must my agency send all quotations, tenders, or contracts with a TSP to...

  1. Radappertization of steak breast chicken grilled for storage at ambient temperature; Radapertizacao de files de frango grelhados para armazenamento a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Gurgel, Maria S. Amaral; Gutierrez, Erica M.R.; Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mhfspoto@cena.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    Gamma radiation with high doses was used on steak breast chicken. The doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy were used on the fillets vacuum packaged; the storage temperature was 22-25 deg C for 180 days, and the analysis were done each 30 days. The microbiology (Clostridium perfringens); physical-chemical (humidity, protein, lipids, pH, color and TBA); and sensorial analysis, were done. The samples did not showed colony for any treatment by irradiation during storage period. The irradiated samples showed both higher humidity and brightness than those no irradiated. All treatment showed high notes on hedonic scale, by sensorial analysis. (author)

  2. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  3. Antioxidative activity of carnosine in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of carnosine as a natural antioxidant in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties was studied. Samples of ground beef, in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, as well as raw and cooked beef patties prepared with 1.5% salt (NaCl), in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, were gamma irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 KGy. Then, the extent of oxidation in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of ground beef and raw beef patties was determined during refrigerated (4± 1 degree C) and frozen (-18 degree C) storage, while was determined for cooked beef patties during refrigerated storage only. Moreover, the determination of metmyoglobin (MetMb) accumulation and sensory evaluation for the visual colour were carried out for samples of ground beef and raw patties. The results indicated that salt or salt and cooking can accelerate the oxidative processes and significantly increased the peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the prepared non-irradiated samples. However, salt slowed down the accumulation of MetMb in raw patties. Irradiation treatments and storage in absence of carnosine significantly increased with higher rates the PV and TBARS in salted or salted and cooked beef samples. Moreover, irradiation and storage significantly increased the formation of MetMb in ground beef and raw patties in absence of carnosine. Addition of carnosine significantly reduced the oxidative processes and MetMb formation (proportionally to the used concentration) in samples post irradiation and during storage. Furthermore, carnosine exerted significant efficacy in maintaining an acceptable visual red colour post irradiation and during storage of ground beef and raw patties. These results demonstrate that carnosine can be successfully used as a natural antioxidant to increase the oxidative stability in gamma irradiated raw and cooked meat products

  4. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  5. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  6. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  7. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  8. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  9. Adapting Rational Unified Process (RUP) approach in designing a secure e-Tendering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Haslina; Robie, Muhammad Afdhal Muhammad; Baharom, Fauziah; Darus, Norida Muhd; Saip, Mohamed Ali; Yasin, Azman

    2016-08-01

    e-Tendering is an electronic processing of the tender document via internet and allow tenderer to publish, communicate, access, receive and submit all tender related information and documentation via internet. This study aims to design the e-Tendering system using Rational Unified Process approach. RUP provides a disciplined approach on how to assign tasks and responsibilities within the software development process. RUP has four phases that can assist researchers to adjust the requirements of various projects with different scope, problem and the size of projects. RUP is characterized as a use case driven, architecture centered, iterative and incremental process model. However the scope of this study only focusing on Inception and Elaboration phases as step to develop the model and perform only three of nine workflows (business modeling, requirements, analysis and design). RUP has a strong focus on documents and the activities in the inception and elaboration phases mainly concern the creation of diagrams and writing of textual descriptions. The UML notation and the software program, Star UML are used to support the design of e-Tendering. The e-Tendering design based on the RUP approach can contribute to e-Tendering developers and researchers in e-Tendering domain. In addition, this study also shows that the RUP is one of the best system development methodology that can be used as one of the research methodology in Software Engineering domain related to secured design of any observed application. This methodology has been tested in various studies in certain domains, such as in Simulation-based Decision Support, Security Requirement Engineering, Business Modeling and Secure System Requirement, and so forth. As a conclusion, these studies showed that the RUP one of a good research methodology that can be adapted in any Software Engineering (SE) research domain that required a few artifacts to be generated such as use case modeling, misuse case modeling, activity

  10. Tendering and relationships in strategic logistics service provider selection for global supply chain organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    of private enterprise purchase additionally relate to the acceptance of some level of dialogue before, during and after the tender due date. Tendering is viewed as an extreme case of relationship management, where newcomers and existing suppliers are put on an equal footing, decades of incorporated...... have an impact. During the tendering process, innovation, knowledge management and operational procedures in interaction with the business relationships are often overlooked and need active management and proper contingency planning. This paper contributes to a deeper understanding of both sides...

  11. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  12. Fermentation of tender coconut water by probiotic bacteria Bacillus coagulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishwarya Singh Gangwar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coconut water is currently being considered as an elixir for patients suffering from diseases like dengue and malaria as well as chikungunia to provide hydration properties to the body. It has become a popular beverage for many people owing to its palatability and high mineral content. In this study, the growth, survival and fermentation performance of the probiotic bacterium Bacillus coagulans in coconut water was assessed in order to produce a novel non-dairy, probiotic beverage. The species was characterized on the basis of morphology, physiology and biochemical parameters and its probiotic attributes were assessed. Batch fermentations were carried out for 2 days at a constant 37°C, thereafter the samples were subjected to microbiological and chemical analysis. The results suggested that the specie produced lactic acid and was acid and bile tolerant. The pH and titratable acidity of probiotic fermented coconut water were found to be 4.4 and 0.53 % lactic acid, respectively. The viscosity of fermented coconut water increased significantly from an initial 5.13 mPa.s to 5.35 mPa.s because of the increase in soluble solids content due to exopolysaccharide production by B. coagulans during fermentation. Also, the overall acceptability score of probiotic coconut water was higher than tender coconut water, suggesting its feasibility for use as a probiotic beverage.

  13. Decision making in goverment tenders: A formalized qualitative model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Veselý

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a simple formalized qualitative model of government tenders (GTs. Qualitative models use just three values: Positive/Increasing, Zero/Constant and Negative/Decreasing. Such quantifiers of trends are the least information intensive. Qualitative models can be useful, since GT evaluation often includes such goals as e.g. efficiency of public purchasing, and variables as e.g. availability of relevant information or subjectivity of judgment, that are difficult to quantify. Hence, a significant fraction of available information about GTs is not of numerical nature, e.g. if availability of relevant information is decreasing then efficiency of public purchasing is decreasing as well. Such equationless relations are studied in this paper. A qualitative model of the function F(Goals, Variables is developed. The model has four goal functions, eight variables, and 39 equationless relations. The model is solved and seven solutions, i.e. scenarios are obtained. All qualitative states, including first and second qualitative derivatives with respect to time, of all variables are specified for each scenario. Any unsteady state behavior of the GT model is described by its transitional oriented graph. There are eight possible transitions among seven scenarios. No a priori knowledge of qualitative modeling is required on the reader’s part.

  14. The Role of Quality in the Adjudication of Public Tenders | Quinot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The quality of the goods or services that government procures is obviously a ... tender adjudication as prescribed by public procurement regulation since the ...

  15. Effects of natural plant tenderizers on proteolysis and texture of dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that those enzymes as a raw plant juices could be used as tenderizers in dry sausage production. Keywords: Dry sausages, wild boar meat, plant enzymes, proteolysis, texture, sensory ...

  16. Effect of pulsed electric field treatments at various stages during conditioning on quality attributes of beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Cristina; Lascorz, Diana; O'Dowd, Louise; Noci, Francesco; Arimi, Joshua; Lyng, James G

    2015-01-01

    Beef longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle was used to evaluate the effect of PEF treatments (1.4 kV/cm, 10 Hz, 20 μs, 300 and 600 pulses) on meat quality attributes (weight loss, colour, cook loss and texture) and its evolution at various stages during ageing (2, 10, 18 and 26 days post-mortem). The length of meat ageing before and after PEF application exerted no influence on weight loss, colour and cook loss. Results also demonstrated that PEF treatments applied at different times post-mortem (2, 10, 18 and 26 days) showed a tendency towards reducing toughness of beef samples but that the application of PEF did not affect the tenderization process provided by ageing itself. 60% of the sensory panellists scored PEF treated samples as tender (≥6.0 points out of 9.0) whereas only 27.5% did so for untreated samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of Ownership Concentration and Tender Offer Law in the Chilean Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Marco

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes econometrically the determinants of ownership concentration in the Chilean stock market, with particular attention to the e¤ects of the Tender Offer Law (OPA law). Even though the central pourpose of OPAs Law is achieved, the tender offer mechanism increases the ownership concentration. The main reason for this effect has to do with the "residual OPA" obligation considered by the law.

  18. Improving Tenderness of Spent Layer Hens Meat Using Papaya Leaves (Carica papaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Abdalla, N. N. A. Ali, F. S. Siddig and S. A. M. Ali*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to study the use of papaya leaves as a meat tenderizer. The first experiment was to evaluate the effect of papaya dry leaves added to hen’s diet before slaughter. Spent hens (n=48 were used, half of them were fed a concentrate ration containing10% dried papaya leaves powder (DPLP while others received layer ration (Control, for 10 days. The second experiment involved a comparison between papaya leaves juice (PLJ, fresh papaya leaves (FPL and vinegar solution (VS as marinades applied to meat for one or two hours before cooking. Spent layer hens (n=42 were used for tenderness evaluation method. After slaughtering and preparing the chickens two methods of cooking were used (oven and moist cooking. The cooked parts (breast, thigh and drumstick were subjected to a panel test evaluation according to a designed questionnaire. Addition of dried papaya leaves powder to spent layer hens ration significantly (P≤0.05 increased the level of meat tenderness. Moist cooking had significantly (P≤0.05 improved meat tenderization compared to oven cooking. Meat treated with fresh papaya leaves had significantly (P≤0.05 improved tenderness. It was concluded that wrapping the tough meat of spent layer hens with fresh papaya leaves for one hour and moist cooking improve tenderness of meat.

  19. An analysis of project selection and assignment criteria of Danish tenders in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Kranker Larsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Public construction agencies are one of the largest developers within the Danish construction industry, where such agencies own and develop new public construction projects. Most of these projects are put out in European tender. This study analyses the selection and assignment criteria employed by these agencies in different types of public sector projects. Some of the objectives pursued by the study include the determination of 1/ the selection and assignment criteria mostly used in Danish public tenders 2/ how different types of projects use selection and assignment criteria in the bidding process, and 3/ any significant difference between the use of selection and assignment criteria in Danish public construction projects. The study uses a quantitative research approach where 157 Danish public tender cases were selected from the European Tenders Electronic Daily database between the period: January 2010 to March 2013. Fisher's Exact Test was conducted to determine if there was any significant use of some selection and assignment criteria. The findings of the study showed that invited tenders with pre-qualification and lowest price in 69.8% of the tenders are the most used selection and assignment criteria, with little regard to project type.

  20. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  1. Cement: Administrative tender specifications and standards in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soria Santamaría, Francisco

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, in chronological order, the different competent Authorities in Spain and the documents issued by them regarding Cement Regulations and Standards. The origin of the early cement quality Rules is referred to, the issuing of Regulations by the Public Bodies and finally the adoption of National Standards on the one hand, as well as the first initiatives to establish International Standards, especially motivated by the export boom after the Second World War, on the other. The second part of the paper offers a brief synthesis of the terms and conditions for cement in Administrative Tender Specifications from 1919 to date regarding definitions, classifications and specifications. Finally the present state of the art is outlined in a series of Tables describing the cement standards in force in Spain.

    Se empieza exponiendo, en orden cronológico, los organismos españoles y documentos elaborados por los mismos relativos a Reglamentos y Normas sobre cementos. Se justifica el origen de las primeras reglas para establecer la calidad de los cementos, la aparición de reglamentos por parte de las Administraciones públicas y la elaboración de normas a nivel nacional, en primer término, y los inicios de normas internacionales con motivo del auge de las exportaciones acabada la 2ª Guerra Mundial, en segundo lugar. A continuación se hace un breve resumen de la evolución de los Pliegos de Cemento en España desde 1919 hasta nuestros días, en lo que se refiere a Definiciones, Clasificación, Nomenclatura y Especificaciones. Finalmente, se incluye en forma tabulada la situación actual de las normas sobre cementos en España.

  2. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  4. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  5. Relationship between nongenital tender point tenderness and intravaginal muscle pain intensity: ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Nancy; Brown, Candace; Bachmann, Gloria; Wan, Jim; Wood, Ronald; Ulrich, Dagny; Bachour, Candi; Foster, David

    2016-12-01

    Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder, both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intravaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these 2 conditions. We sought to: (1) correlate pain intensity during the nongenital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, and (2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. In all, 92 subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (numeric rating scale >1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point nongenital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intravaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm 2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of nongenital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance level was at P pain

  6. Relationship between non-genital tender point tenderness and intra-vaginal muscle pain intensity: Ratings in women with provoked vestibulodynia and implications for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILLIPS, Nancy; BROWN, Candace; BACHMANN, Gloria; WAN, Jim; WOOD, Ronald; ULRICH, Dagny; BACHOUR, Candi; FOSTER, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Vulvodynia is a chronic vulvar pain disorder and fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain disorder; both of unknown etiology. Association of these conditions is well documented. Intra-vaginal algometer measurement of tenderness to pressure applied to the pelvic floor muscles helps to define vulvodynia associated with musculoskeletal factors. Women with both vulvodynia and fibromyalgia might have increased pelvic muscle pain compared to women with vulvodynia alone, defining the possible link of these two conditions. Objective 1) correlate pain intensity during the non-genital tender point tenderness examination to pain intensity with the vaginal algometer in women with provoked vestibulodynia, 2) determine whether subjects with provoked vestibulodynia and fibromyalgia had higher pain intensity scores with the vaginal algometer than those without fibromyalgia. Study Design Ninety-two subjects referred for vulvar pain were confirmed to have provoked vestibulodynia using the cotton swab test. A diagnosis of fibromyalgia was made if pain was present (Numerical rating scale> 1) in at least 11 sites of the 18-point non-genital tender point tenderness exam. Vaginal pain sensitivity was measured using an intra-vaginal pressure algometer, where 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 kg/cm2 forces were applied digitally in random assignment by force and location to the right and left iliococcygeus muscle regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Both tender point tenderness and algometer pain intensity were reported on a 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse pain) numeric rating scale. Correlations were computed between the composite pain intensity (total of rating scale from each pressure threshold at specified site) of non-genital and those of iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal wall. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences in iliococcygeus regions and the posterior vaginal algometer pain ratings and presence or absence of fibromyalgia. The significance

  7. Incorporating reproductive management of beef heifers into a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Scott E; Payne, Craig A

    2013-11-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in reproductive management of dairy herds across the United States; however, in many cases, their involvement in reproductive management of beef herds has been limited. The reasons for this vary; however, there are ways for veterinarians to become more actively involved in reproductive management of US beef herds. Veterinarians can have an impact on producers' profits by implementing their skills and knowledge to beef heifer development programs. This article provides an overview of the services veterinarians can provide to beef cattle producers that pertain to reproductive management of replacement beef heifers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  9. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON THE U.S. BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eenoo, Edward, Jr.; Peterson, Everett B.; Purcell, Wayne D.

    2000-01-01

    Policy and programmatic decisions dealing with beef exports require good information as to the impact of exports on the domestic beef industry. This paper utilizes a partial equilibrium model of the world beef market to assess the impacts on the U.S. beef sector of increases in real income in major beef importing countries, the impacts of changes in the prices of pork and poultry products, and the impacts of changes in the price of feedgrains. A one percent increase in real GDP in Canada, Jap...

  10. Nonarticular tenderness and functional status in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Reuven; Novofastovski, Irina; Rosner, Ehud; Adawi, Muhammad; Herer, Paula; Buskila, Dan

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the degree of nonarticular tenderness and functional status in patients with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We assessed these variables' correlation with their clinical, radiographic, and constitutional measurements and with metabolic syndrome (MS). Eighty-seven patients with DISH were compared with 65 controls without DISH. Examination of nonarticular tenderness was performed by thumb palpation. Tenderness was scored for the 18 fibromyalgia tender points (TP), and 4 control points. Nonarticular tenderness was expressed by the number of TP and by the total tenderness score (TTS). The Short Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ II) was administered to all participants. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from all patients. Patients were classified as having MS by both the National Cholesterol Education Program and World Health Organization definitions. There was a statistically significant difference in TTS between controls and patients with DISH. The mean tenderness of many individual TP was significantly higher in the DISH group compared with the control group. TP counts, TTS, and body mass index (BMI) positively correlated with the HAQ II. There was a linear trend in intensity of T-spine bony bridges (BB) and the total number of TP as well as many individual TP. Patients with DISH were more likely to be affected by MS. No correlation was found between TP count, TTS, and MS. Patients with DISH have a lower pain threshold than patients who do not have DISH. TP count and TTS correlate with the functional status, BMI, waist circumference, and high-grade BB. No correlation was observed between pain threshold and MS.

  11. Tender point count, pain, and mobility in the older population: the mobilize Boston study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Laura H P; Shmerling, Robert H; Leveille, Suzanne G

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of tender points (TP), and widespread pain and fibromyalgia, as well as the relationship between TP and widespread pain and mobility, was examined in 585 community-dwelling older adults (mean age 78.2 years, 63.4% female). Pain was based on location (none, single site, multisite, widespread). Mobility was measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), gait speed, and self-reported (S-R) mobility difficulty. Tender-point count and health characteristics (ie, BMI, chronic conditions, analgesic use, number of medications, depression, and blocks walked per week) were assessed. Several participants had 3 or more TP (22.1%) although prevalence of criteria-based fibromyalgia was low (.3%). Mobility was more limited in persons with higher tender-point counts. After adjustment for pain and other risk factors, higher tender-point count was associated with poorer SPPB performance (score < 10, aOR = 1.09 per TP, 95%CI, 1.01-1.17), and slow gait speed (< .784m/sec, aOR = 1.14 per TP, 95%CI, 1.05-1.24), but not with S-R mobility difficulty. S-R mobility difficulty was associated with more disseminated pain (multisite pain, aOR = 2.01, 95%CI, 1.21-3.34; widespread pain, aOR = 2.47, 95%CI, 1.09-5.62). These findings portray a significant mobility burden related to tender-point count and multisite and widespread pain in the older population. Future studies using longitudinal methods are warranted. Higher tender-point count, multisite pain, and widespread pain are common in community-dwelling older adults and associated with mobility problems. Both the manual tender-point exam and the McGill Pain Map may provide important yet different information about risks for mobility disability in older individuals. Copyright 2010 American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The Role Of Transparency In Tenders In Order To Maintain The Public Interest And The Rights Of Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tajarlou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The public tenders are very important instrument which the public sector uses to the allocation of great part of public expenditure for Welfare of citizens. Due to the the lack of resources and the optimal use of it in line with the public interest and the rights of tenderers tenders play a key role in the public sector operations they can be defined as an instrument to increase the effectiveness of the public sector as a whole. But with the conflict of interests of the public and private sector there needs to be transparency so that the rights of the parties to maintain and public confidence in the state increase. Transparency in Tenders cause the Suppliers that win the bids are those with the best product at the best price targeted at achieving the best outcome. This paper examines the concept and types of tenders for the effects of transparency in government tenders.

  13. How to improve the promotion of Korean beef barbecue, bulgogi, for international customers. An application of quality function deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, So-Hyun; Ham, Sunny; Lee, Min-A

    2012-10-01

    Quality function deployment (QFD) is a product development technique that translates customer requirements into activities for the development of products and services. This study utilizes QFD to identify American customer's requirements for bulgogi, a popular Korean dish among international customers, and how to fulfill those requirements. A customer survey and an expert opinion survey were conducted for US customers. The top five customer requirements for bulgogi were identified as taste, freshness, flavor, tenderness, and juiciness; ease of purchase was included in the place of tenderness after calculating the weight requirements. Eighteen engineering characteristics were developed, and a 'localization of bulgogi menu' is strongly related to the other characteristics as well. The results from the calculation of relative importance of engineering characteristics identified that the 'control of marinating time', 'localization of bulgogi menu', 'improvement of cooking and serving process', 'development of recipe by parts of beef', and 'use of various seasonings' were the highest contributors to the overall improvement of bulgogi. The relative importance of engineering characteristics, correlation, and technical difficulties are ranked and integrated to develop the most effective strategy. The findings are discussed relative to industry implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  15. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  16. TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRIC NERVE STIMULATION IN MODULATION OF PAIN OF TENDER POINTS IN SYNDROME FIBROMYALGIA: CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Mara Magalhães Rori

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of pain and chronic diffuse, characterized by the presence of at least 11 of 18 points called anatomically specific tender points, painful on palpation. As the pain diffuse the main symptom of fibromyalgia. The current treatment is focused mainly to the reduction of symptoms. Physiotherapy has animportant role in improving the control of pain. This study aimed to verify the effectiveness of the main TENS of low frequency and high intensity in modulating pain of tender points of patients with fibromyalgia. For this was a case study of patient R. S. S., 38-yearold female carrier of the syndrome of fibromyalgia attended school in the clinic of the Faculty of Integrated Ceará (FISIOFIC. The patient was treated with the TENS-pain Acupuncture points in a total of twelve care and pain assessed before starting treatment and after three attendants. There was a significant reduction in pain intensity at 77.7% of the tender points in the second evaluation and 88.8% of the points in the other assessments. It was concluded that there was a reduction in the pain of tender points of the patient showing the analgesia promoted by TENS, so it should be used as a complementary treatment programs associated with other treatments and also served as a good technique to locate the tender points.

  17. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Tri Utama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP for dark-firm-dry (DFD beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Methods The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33±0.5 months old with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15°C±2°C; the samples were then stored for 9 days at 4°C±1°C and compared with control (0.1 MPa. Results HPP increased meat pH by 0.1 to 0.2 units and the tenderness of cooked DFD beef significantly with no significant effects on meat texture profile. The stability of meat pH was well maintained during refrigerated storage under vacuum. No clear effects were found on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced by high pressure. HPP and storage time resulted in aroma changes and the increasing amount of malondialdehyde and metmyoglobin relative composition. Conclusion Although the increasing amount of malondialdehyde content, metmyoglobin formation and aroma changes in HPP-treated samples could not be avoided, HPP at 200 MPa increased L* and a* values with less discoloration and oxidative deterioration during storage.

  18. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Chung, Woon Si; Chung, In Ae; Jeon, Jung Tae; Lee, Sung Ki

    2017-03-01

    Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP) for dark-firm-dry (DFD) beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33±0.5 months old) with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15°C±2°C; the samples were then stored for 9 days at 4°C±1°C and compared with control (0.1 MPa). HPP increased meat pH by 0.1 to 0.2 units and the tenderness of cooked DFD beef significantly with no significant effects on meat texture profile. The stability of meat pH was well maintained during refrigerated storage under vacuum. No clear effects were found on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced by high pressure. HPP and storage time resulted in aroma changes and the increasing amount of malondialdehyde and metmyoglobin relative composition. Although the increasing amount of malondialdehyde content, metmyoglobin formation and aroma changes in HPP-treated samples could not be avoided, HPP at 200 MPa increased L* and a* values with less discoloration and oxidative deterioration during storage.

  19. Identification of Biomarkers Associated with the Rearing Practices, Carcass Characteristics, and Beef Quality: An Integrative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Monteils, Valérie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-09-20

    Data from birth to slaughter of cull cows allowed using a PCA-based approach coupled with the iterative K-means algorithm the identification of three rearing practices classes. The classes were different in their carcass characteristics. Old cows raised mainly on pasture have better carcass characteristics, while having an equivalent tenderness, juiciness, flavor, intramuscular fat content, and pHu to those fattened with hay or haylage. The Longissimus thoracis muscle of the cows raised on pasture (with high physical activity) showed greater proportions of IIA fibers at the expense of the fast IIX ones. Accordingly, the meat of these animals have better color characteristics. Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and αB-crystallin quantified by Dot-Blot were the only other biomarkers to be more abundant in "Grass" class compared to "Hay" and "Haylage" classes. The relationships between the biomarkers and the 6 carcass and 11 meat quality traits were investigated using multiple regression analyses per rearing practices. The associations were rearing practice class and phenotype trait-dependent. ICDH and TP53 were common for the three classes, but the direction of their entrance was different. In addition, rearing practices and carcass traits were not related with Hsp70-Grp75 and μ-calpain abundances. The other relationships were specific for two or one rearing practices class. The rearing practices dependency of the relationships was also found with meat quality traits. Certain proteins were for the first time related with some beef quality traits. MyHC-IIx, PGM1, Hsp40, ICDH, and Hsp70-Grp75 were common for the three rearing practices classes and retained to explain at list one beef quality trait. A positive relationship was found between PGM1 and hue angle irrespective of rearing practices class. This study confirms once again that production-related traits in livestock are the result of sophisticated biological processes finely orchestrated during the life of the animal

  20. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  1. Muscle fatigue in relation to forearm pain and tenderness among professional computer users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, GF; Johnson, PW; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To examine the hypothesis that forearm pain with palpation tenderness in computer users is associated with increased extensor muscle fatigue. METHODS: Eighteen persons with pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness in the extensor muscle group of the right forearm...... response was not explained by differences in the MVC or body mass index. CONCLUSION: Computer users with forearm pain and moderate to severe palpation tenderness had diminished forearm extensor muscle fatigue response. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether this result reflects an adaptive...... and twenty gender and age matched referents without such complaints were enrolled from the Danish NUDATA study of neck and upper extremity disorders among technical assistants and machine technicians. Fatigue of the right forearm extensor muscles was assessed by muscle twitch forces in response to low...

  2. Proposal to negotiate, without competitive tendering, a blanket contract for an instant-reading dosimeter system

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system. Following a market survey (MS-3118/TIS) carried out among 28 firms in eleven Member States, a request for a quotation was sent to one firm on 3 October 2003. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket contract, without competitive tendering, with RADOS TECHNOLOGY (FI) for the supply, installation and maintenance of an instant-reading dosimeter system for a total amount not exceeding 2 100 000 euros (3 252 284 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FI - 58%; CH - 38%; GB - 4%.

  3. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  4. Price Determinants of the Tendering Process for Pharmaceuticals in the Cyprus Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Panagiotis; Talias, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Tendering has been a promising approach for procuring pharmaceuticals. Significant price reductions have been well documented by several authors. To our knowledge, there are limited data detailing the impact of variables in the tendering process. In this article, our objective was to evaluate the impact of potentially exploratory variables, which included innovation status, total value and volume of sales of each product, health care setting administration (hospital/outpatient), patent status (branded/generic), tendering type, and wholesale price, on price reduction in the tendering process. Financial data of public sector sales during 2011 were analyzed. On the basis of these data, we selected 178 medicines with corresponding sales of €49 million, out of a total market value of €104 million. Medicines were selected according to volume, value, and therapeutic value across all therapeutic areas. We performed a beta regression for the assessment of impact of variables and applied the same methodology to different subgroups. The generic status of medicines is statistically significantly associated with a higher price reduction. Tendering type by alternative, high wholesale prices, and high volume are robust estimators for price reduction. Innovation status does not have any effect on price reduction. Outpatient medicines reach lower prices as compared with hospital medicines. A rather unexpected finding is the negative correlation of high sales value with price reduction. These findings will lead to better understanding of the tendering framework, enabling us to further evolve its operational capacity, aiming to generate more savings. Moreover, our study indicates areas in which a more optimized approach is needed. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Possibilities concerning the procurement of a tender for a new nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Thomas; Streit, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the legal frame for the licensing of a new nuclear power plant in Switzerland. The possibilities for a company to perform the procurement of a tender are discussed with respect to the decision to assign the project to a single contractor or to a consortium. The requirements to the contractor may be grouped in the categories cost, time schedule, function, volume and quality. Another topic in the discussion covers risks with respect to the tender and the contract and the appropriate solution strategies.

  6. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  7. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  8. Prediction of beef carcass and meat traits from rearing factors in young bulls and cull cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulat, J; Picard, B; Léger, S; Monteils, V

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to predict the beef carcass and LM (thoracis part) characteristics and the sensory properties of the LM from rearing factors applied during the fattening period. Individual data from 995 animals (688 young bulls and 307 cull cows) in 15 experiments were used to establish prediction models. The data concerned rearing factors (13 variables), carcass characteristics (5 variables), LM characteristics (2 variables), and LM sensory properties (3 variables). In this study, 8 prediction models were established: dressing percentage and the proportions of fat tissue and muscle in the carcass to characterize the beef carcass; cross-sectional area of fibers (mean fiber area) and isocitrate dehydrogenase activity to characterize the LM; and, finally, overall tenderness, juiciness, and flavor intensity scores to characterize the LM sensory properties. A random effect was considered in each model: the breed for the prediction models for the carcass and LM characteristics and the trained taste panel for the prediction of the meat sensory properties. To evaluate the quality of prediction models, 3 criteria were measured: robustness, accuracy, and precision. The model was robust when the root mean square errors of prediction of calibration and validation sub-data sets were near to one another. Except for the mean fiber area model, the obtained predicted models were robust. The prediction models were considered to have a high accuracy when the mean prediction error (MPE) was ≤0.10 and to have a high precision when the was the closest to 1. The prediction of the characteristics of the carcass from the rearing factors had a high precision ( > 0.70) and a high prediction accuracy (MPE 0.10). Only the flavor intensity of the beef score could be satisfactorily predicted from the rearing factors with high precision ( = 0.72) and accuracy (MPE = 0.10). All the prediction models displayed different effects of the rearing factors according to animal categories

  9. Protein degradation and post-deboning tenderization in broiler breast meat with different degrees of muscle shortening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboning broiler breast fillets prior to rigor mortis negatively influences tenderness due to sarcomere shortening. The effects of sarcomere shortening on muscle protein degradation and breast meat tenderization during post-deboning aging are not well understood. The objective of this study was to m...

  10. Evaluation of tendered prices of natural mineral water, juice and non-alcoholic beer (public procurement research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Pomazalová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate tender prices of chosen beverages according to public procurement based on secondary data analysis. The empirical results of analysis (t-test and F-test show that average annual prices of these beverages are different and collected data are not included in the same sample. Tender prices are different in each year of observed years, although are based on public tender. Important evidence is that for the public tenders in the abroad is obligatory use of the Czech public procurement law. According to this act the base evaluation criterion is the lowest offered price. Data were collected during the years 2005–2009. This study deals with empirical approach, variability of prices of chosen beverages based on public tenders between the Czech Republic (Ministry of Defence and local suppliers in Kosovo. Results show low variability of prices, which are based on public tender and legal approach, regulated public procurement. The research conclusion is the fact, that tender prices for piece of non-alcoholic beverage are less than 10 % from annual mean (pcs./CZK of tendered prices.

  11. INVIVO 31P MAGNETIC-RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS) OF TENDER POINTS IN PATIENTS WITH PRIMARY FIBROMYALGIA SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, AC; WOLF, RF; VANRIJSWIJK, MH; KAMMAN, RL; KNIPPING, AA; MOOYAART, EL

    1991-01-01

    31P Magnetic Resonance-Spectroscopy was performed at the site of tender points in the trapezius muscle of patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Earlier, in vitro studies have reported changes in the high energy phosphate-metabolism in biopsies taken from tender points of fibromyalgia

  12. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans Peter; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength.......To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength....

  13. 77 FR 16023 - New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13287-004] New York City Department of Environmental Protection; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the Commission and is available...

  14. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Although the relatively low occurrence of favorable alleles in assessed loci may limit their use in selection programs, genotyping availability might be a practical and comprehensive tool for introgression programs by marker assisted selection and management as to improve meat tenderness of Zebu breeds.

  15. 78 FR 41390 - Pershing County Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... Water Conservation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing with the Commission and... License. b. Project No.: 14327-000. c. Date filed: June 26, 2013. d. Applicant: Pershing County Water Conservation District. e. Name of Project: Humboldt River Hydro Power Project. f. Location: At the existing U.S...

  16. Invitations to tenders from Hydro-Quebec: many projects, little MW?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turmel, A.

    2004-01-01

    Topics discussed include the regulatory and jurisdictional framework governing the tendering process, and the difficulties involved in filing applications. The roles of Hydro-Quebec, the Quebec government, and the Quebec government's economic regulation agency, Regie de l'energie were covered

  17. Tendering by municipalities of wind turbines; Aanbesteding door gemeenten van windmolens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    This manual provides municipalities answers to the questions of how the municipality must do the tendering for wind turbines and what choices they have [Dutch] Deze handleiding biedt gemeenten antwoorden op de vragen hoe de gemeente moet aanbesteden en welke keuzes zij daarin heeft.

  18. ANALISIS NILAI WAJAR SAHAM PUBLIK DALAM TENDER OFFER (Studi Kasus PT Bentoel Internasional Investama Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herlitah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyze Fair Value of the stock price of PT Bentoel Internasional Investama Tbk. for tender offer after the acquisition from British American Tobacco. The Discounted Cash Flow/DCF Method of the Income Approach used for calculation within the Free Cash Flow to The Equity/FCFE Model.

  19. McMurray's Test and Joint Line Tenderness for Medial Meniscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The wide variations reported have an impact on clinical decision concerning whether to go for other diagnostic tests before going for diagnostic arthroscopy, which is considered as the gold standard.The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of Joint line tenderness and McMurray's test, as clinical signs ...

  20. The Importance of Submarine Tenders to a Modern Naval War: Naval Combat Logistics and Seabasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 15. SUBJECT TERMS TENDER, SEABASING, SUBMARINE MAINTENANCE, NAVAL COMBAT LOGISTICS...anywhere in the world’s oceans, with minimal concern of political risk or consequences of sovereignty . 1 INTRODUCTION...logistics beyond the basic peacetime considerations of food and fuel. If a maritime conflict occurs in a distant theatre, the Navy will find that it

  1. Approval Procedure for Technical Specifications for Procurement by Quotation and Tender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum Ramli; Izhar Abu Hussin; Ying, K.K.

    2015-01-01

    Technical specifications for procurement requires the approval of the Jawatankuasa Penyemak Spesifikasi Teknikal Tender/ Sebutharga Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. This paper provides guidance for those who have to prepare a technical specification. In addition, the technical specification online library is introduced to facilitate them to re-use old technical specifications for new procurements or to make those the bases for drafting new specifications. (author)

  2. Characteristics of beef from intensively fed western Baggara bulls and heifers: quality attributes and chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M.A. Sharaf Eldin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fourteen samples of L. dorsi muscles were taken from western Baggara cattle, one sample from each of seven bulls and seven heifers randomly selected for slaughter at the end of an experimental feedlot feeding which lasted for 16 weeks at Kuku Research Station, Khartoum North, Sudan, to study sex effects on meat chemical composition and quality attributes. Moisture content of beef was higher in bulls meat than in heifers meat. Protein and ash content were significantly (P<0.001 higher in bulls meat, whereas fat content was significantly (P<0.001 higher in heifers meat than in bulls meat. Cooking loss of bulls meat was significantly (P<0.001 lower and water-holding capacity was also significantly (P<0.01 lower in the bulls meat than in heifers meat. Bull’s meat colour had low lightness (L and high redness (a and yellowness (b, as determined by Hunter Lab. Tristimulus colorimeter, as compared with heifers meat. Sensory panelist scores were higher for colour darkness and flavour intensity and lower for tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability of bulls meat as compared with heifers meat.

  3. Drug tendering: drug supply and shortage implications for the uptake of biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dranitsaris G

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available George Dranitsaris,1 Ira Jacobs,2 Carol Kirchhoff,3 Robert Popovian,4 Lesley G Shane5 1Augmentium Pharma Consulting Inc., Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Global Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, 3Global Technology Services, Biotechnology and Aseptic Sciences Group, Pfizer Inc, Chesterfield, MO, 4US Government Relations, Pfizer Inc, Washington, DC, 5Outcomes and Evidence, Global Health and Value, Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Due to the continued increase in global spending on health care, payers have introduced a number of programs, policies, and agreements on pharmaceutical pricing in order to control costs. While incentives to increase generic drug use have achieved significant savings, other cost-containment measures are required. Tendering is a formal procedure to purchase medications using competitive bidding for a particular contract. Although useful for cost containment, tendering can lead to decreased competition in a given market. Consequently, drug shortages can occur, resulting in changes to treatment plans to products that may have lower efficacy and/or an increased risk of adverse effects. Therefore, care must be taken to ensure that tendering does not negatively impact patient care or the health care system. A large and expanding portion of total pharmaceutical expenditure is for biologic therapies. These agents have revolutionized the treatment of many diseases, including cancer and inflammatory conditions; however, patient access to biologic drugs can be limited due to availability, insurance coverage, and cost. As branded biologic therapies reach the end of patent- and data-protection periods, biosimilars are being approved as lower-cost alternatives. Biosimilars are products that are highly similar to the originator product with no clinically meaningful differences in terms of safety, purity, or potency. As more biosimilars receive regulatory approval and adoption increases, these therapies are expected to have an

  4. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  5. Irish Corned Beef: A Culinary History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries, but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became and economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle...

  6. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  7. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, ... fed the same diets at 4 to 5 kg/day (48.78% corn, 20.43% bran, 26% corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement and 0.5% salt) for a fattening ...

  8. Pressure resistance of cold-shocked Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef gravy and peptone water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus-Taylor, G S H; Falloon, O C; Henry, N

    2015-06-01

    (i) To study the effects of cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells. (ii) To determine if cold-shocked E. coli O157:H7 cells at stationary and exponential phases are more pressure-resistant than their non-cold-shocked counterparts. (iii) To investigate the baro-protective role of growth media (0·1% peptone water, beef gravy and ground beef). Quantitative estimates of lethality and sublethal injury were made using the differential plating method. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in the number of cells killed; cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked. Cells grown in ground beef (stationary and exponential phases) experienced lowest death compared with peptone water and beef gravy. Cold-shock treatment increased the sublethal injury to cells cultured in peptone water (stationary and exponential phases) and ground beef (exponential phase), but decreased the sublethal injury to cells in beef gravy (stationary phase). Cold shock did not confer greater resistance to stationary or exponential phase cells pressurized in peptone water, beef gravy or ground beef. Ground beef had the greatest baro-protective effect. Real food systems should be used in establishing food safety parameters for high-pressure treatments; micro-organisms are less resistant in model food systems, the use of which may underestimate the organisms' resistance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  10. Quantitation of 13 heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked beef, pork, and chicken by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weijuan; McNaughton, Lynn; LeMaster, David M; Sinha, Rashmi; Turesky, Robert J

    2008-01-09

    The concentrations of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) were determined, by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), in 26 samples of beef, pork, and chicken cooked to various levels of doneness. The HAAs identified were 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoline, 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5- b]quinoline, 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline (I gQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline (7-MeI gQx), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,6-dimethyl-furo[3,2- e]imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine, 2-amino-1,6,7-trimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9 H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole, and 2-amino-3-methyl-9 H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole. The concentrations of these compounds ranged from chicken (up to 305 microg/kg), broiled bacon (16 microg/kg), and pan-fried bacon (4.9 microg/kg). 7-MeI gQx was the most abundant HAA formed in very well done pan-fried beef and steak, and in beef gravy, at concentrations up to 30 microg/kg. Several other linear tricyclic ring HAAs containing the I gQx skeleton are formed at concentrations in cooked meats that are relatively high in comparison to the concentrations of their angular tricyclic ring isomers, the latter of which are known experimental animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The toxicological properties of these recently discovered I gQx derivatives warrant further investigation and assessment.

  11. Current situation and future prospects for the Australian beef industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Paul Leo; Ferguson, Drewe M

    2018-04-12

    Beef production extends over almost half of Australia, with about 47,000 cattle producers that contribute about 20% ($A12.7 billion GVP) of the total value of farm production in Australia. Australia is one of the world's most efficient producers of cattle and was the world's third largest beef exporter in 2016. The Australian beef industry had 25 million head of cattle in 2016-17, with a national beef breeding herd of 11.5 million head. Australian beef production includes pasture based cow-calf systems, a backgrounding or grow-out period on pasture, and feedlot or pasture finishing. Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets. Maintenance of Australia's preferred status as a quality assured supplier of high value beef produced under environmentally sustainable systems from 'disease-free' cattle is of highest importance. Stringent livestock and meat quality regulations and quality assurance systems, and productivity growth and efficiency across the supply chain to ensure price competiveness, are crucial for continued export market growth in the face of increasing competition. Major industry issues, that also represent research, development and adoption priorities and opportunities for the Australian beef industry have been captured within exhaustive strategic planning processes by the red meat and beef industries. At the broadest level, these issues include consumer and industry support, market growth and diversification, supply chain efficiency, productivity and profitability, environmental sustainability, and animal health and welfare. This review provides an overview of the Australian beef industry including current market trends and future prospects, and major issues and opportunities for the continued growth, development and profitability of the industry.

  12. Nitrite spray treatment to promote red color stability of vacuum packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Cornforth, Daren; Whittier, Dick; Luo, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Sodium nitrite solutions were sprayed on select grade boneless rib (M. longissimus thoracis) and bottom round (mainly M. biceps femoris) steaks individually, to form bright red nitric oxide myoglobin (NO-Mb) in vacuum packages. Our objective was to determine the optimum level of nitrite in spray for stable raw steak redness, low or no residual nitrite, and low surface pinking (ham-like cured color) after cooking. Results showed that steaks sprayed with 100-350 ppm nitrite solutions had 3.0-3.6g weight gain and a calculated level of 1.3-5.3mg nitrite added/kg steak, but very low (color during 21 days of storage at 1°C (a*>10; chroma C*>16). Raw steak redness was less stable in round than rib. Visual scores for pinkness after cooking were low, indicating that cooked color at even the highest nitrite treatment (350 ppm) was acceptable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  14. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mgrobler

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... The estimated calving percentage of beef cattle is 62% in the commercial sector of South ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next ..... reproductive tract scoring in beef heifers in South Africa.

  15. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  16. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  17. Comparative analysis of the demand for beef and mutton among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef and mutton are meat types derived from cattle and sheep respectively. They are popular meat sources for households in Enugu metropolis Nigeria, although in ... that was significant in explaining the household expenditure on mutton. The expenditure elasticity for beef was 0.885, while that of mutton was 0.00073.

  18. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  19. Consumer preference and effect of correct or misleading information after ageing beef longissimus muscle using vacuum, dry ageing, or a dry ageing bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenström, Helena; Li, Xin; Hunt, Melvin C; Lundström, Kerstin

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine which ageing treatment of beef was sensorially preferred by consumers and how their preference changed when given information about the ageing treatment used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum from four young bulls were randomly assigned three ageing treatments: dry ageing, vacuum ageing and ageing in a highly moisture permeable bag (bag dry-ageing); each was aged at 1.6 °C for another 13 days. A preference test (171 consumers) with questions about overall liking, tenderness, and juiciness was performed. Thereafter, a deceptive test (61 consumers) was performed with two taste samples, the first taste sample with correct information about ageing treatment and the second with false information. In the preference test, consumers preferred dry ageing and bag dry-ageing to vacuum ageing. In the deceptive test, dry ageing was preferred, but the information given influenced preference. © 2013.

  20. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  1. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  2. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  3. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  4. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I; Salem, F.A.; El-Sahy, K.M.; Rady, A.; Badr, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  5. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... possessing the requisite experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef..., skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under the Act... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086...

  6. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  7. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  8. PS-109 Barriers and facilitators to implementing drug changes caused by drug tenders and shortages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Rikke Mie; Christrup, Lona Louring; Clemmensen, Marianne H

    2015-01-01

    . Purpose To identify barriers and facilitators for implementing drug changes due to drug tenders and shortages in Danish public hospitals. Material and methods Six focus group interviews were conducted at three hospitals in different regions of the country. At each hospital two focus group interviews were...... thematically through content analysis. Results Barriers Identified included: frequent changes of labelling, packages and drug names. Furthermore, implementing drug changes requires extra resources and finance. Technologies such as computerised physician order entry and barcode scanning systems were perceived...... as potential facilitators, but also as barriers in cases where the quality and implementation of the systems were not adequate. Facilitators included: hospital pharmacy services and lower drug prices. Furthermore recommendations on generic prescription, optimisation of the tendering process and support...

  9. LEGAL AND TAX TREATMENT OF THE ASSOCIATIONS FOR THE PARTICIPATION IN TENDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bilan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The participation of groups of economic operators with joint tender to public procurement procedures requires the conclusion of association agreements published together with the procurement documents by the contracting authorities. The contracting authorities often require these temporary associations specific legal forms, similar to joint ventures, or certain conditions concerning their organisation and functioning. This present study analyses the associations for participation to public tenders in light of public procurement and fiscal legislation, trying to asses if these contracts are joint venture agreements, to what extent the clauses comprised in the drafts imposed in the procuremnt documents are compatible with the public procurement and fiscal laws and if they may be challenged by the economic operators.

  10. Exploring Factors of Successful Tendering Practices using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA): The Study of Organizational Repetitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekdik, Baris; Thuesen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    combinations of factors leading to particular results of tendering practices. Empirical material collected through data mining in previously completed project records (quantitative data) is supported by data obtained from project managers of a general contractor company (qualitative data) in order...... to holistically describe the combination of conditions resulting in particular tender results. As a result of the analysis, a solution set is found explaining the path leading to project contract winning; previous work experience between client and general contractor together with either previous work experience...... between architect and general contractor for design-bid-build projects or senior project responsible involvement from the contractors side in design-build projects. The analysis illustrates how QCA is a powerful strategy for exploring the complexity of project practices being able to bridge the divide...

  11. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  13. Italian mission. Found a consortium with Italgas and win a Greek tender

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matejovic, R.; Kinces, P.

    1999-01-01

    In this interview two projects of the company Slovak Gas Industry (SPP) are discussed. The first project is SPP's joint participation in the international tender on introduction of gas in Greece. The second project regards the construction of a steam-gas power plant nearby the town of Lucenec. This project has already entered a certain stage of solution and a third partner that has been approached - Russian gas company Gazprom - is to become involved in it. (authors)

  14. Public-Private partnership procurement: Game-theoretic studies of the tender process.

    OpenAIRE

    De Clerck, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    A Public-private partnership (PPP) is a settlement between a public party and a contractor or private sector consortium to engage in a long-term contractual agreement for designing, building, operating and/or maintaining capital intensive projects, while trying to attain value for money. PPPs are globally gaining importance in the construction industry. The risk transfer from the contracting government towards the private entity has important repercussions on the tender. Contractors need to c...

  15. The transformation of the tender evaluation process in public procurement in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plebankiewicz, E.; Kozik, R.

    2017-10-01

    Procedures regarding the evaluation of tenders have been changed since the public procurement law was enacted (it came into force in January 1, 1995). The contracting authority could apply both the criteria related to the qualities of the contractor and those related to the to the subject - matter of public contract. Two extensive amendments in 2001 and a government project introduced vital regulations and excluded the possibility of applying criteria related to the qualities of the contractor. Act of 29 January 2004 Public Procurement Law allowed to use price as the sole contract award criterion. The changes in the Law in 2014 restricted that possibility to the situation in which the subject matter of a contract is commonly available and has established quality standards. The Act of 22 June 2016 amending the Public Procurement Law Act and some other laws introduced the new criteria list and limited the importance of the price criterion in the certain situations. Instead of price, the cost can also be a criterion for tender evaluation. The cost criterion can be determined using life cycle costing. In the paper, based on contract notices of open tendering published in the Public Procurement Bulletin, the criteria of construction contract selection will be analysed. In particular the effectiveness of changes in the Procurement Law will be researched.

  16. Association between Neck/Shoulder Pain and Trapezius Muscle Tenderness in Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    workers. Methods. 653 employees from two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark, replied to a questionnaire on health and working conditions (mean: age 43 years, body mass index 24 kg⋅m−2, computer use 90% of work time, 73% women). Respondents rated intensity of neck/shoulder pain during...... for age, gender, and chronic disease. Results.The prevalence of “no,” “some,” and “severe” tenderness of the trapeziusmuscle was 18%, 59%, and 23% in women and 51%, 42%, and 7%inmen, respectively (chi-square, P Participants with “no,” “some,” and “severe” tenderness of the trapezius muscle......, respectively, rated their neck/shoulder pain intensity to 1.5 (SD 1.6), 3.8 (SD 2.0), and 5.7 (SD 1.9) for women and 1.4 (SD 1.4), 3.1 (SD 2.2), and 5.1 (SD 1.7) for men. For every unit increase in neck/shoulder pain intensity, the OR for one unit increase in trapezius tenderness was 1.86 (95% confidence...

  17. Forecasting Construction Tender Price Index in Ghana using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Variables Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kissi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prices of construction resources keep on fluctuating due to unstable economic situations that have been experienced over the years. Clients knowledge of their financial commitments toward their intended project remains the basis for their final decision. The use of construction tender price index provides a realistic estimate at the early stage of the project. Tender price index (TPI is influenced by various economic factors, hence there are several statistical techniques that have been employed in forecasting. Some of these include regression, time series, vector error correction among others. However, in recent times the integrated modelling approach is gaining popularity due to its ability to give powerful predictive accuracy. Thus, in line with this assumption, the aim of this study is to apply autoregressive integrated moving average with exogenous variables (ARIMAX in modelling TPI. The results showed that ARIMAX model has a better predictive ability than the use of the single approach. The study further confirms the earlier position of previous research of the need to use the integrated model technique in forecasting TPI. This model will assist practitioners to forecast the future values of tender price index. Although the study focuses on the Ghanaian economy, the findings can be broadly applicable to other developing countries which share similar economic characteristics.

  18. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  19. Relationships between the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire, tender point count, and muscle strength in female patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Lund, Hans; Christensen, Robin

    2009-01-01

    of the patients completed version 1 of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and were assessed for tender points and knee muscle strength. All subjects underwent bilateral isokinetic knee muscle strength testing in flexion and extension. Normative knee muscle strength values were calculated from the healthy......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that fibromyalgia (FM) patients with reduced lower extremity strength are more symptomatic and tender than FM patients with normal muscle strength. METHODS: A total of 840 FM patients and 122 healthy subjects were evaluated between 1998 and 2005. All....... There were no clinically significant differences between patients with low versus normal muscle strength. There were no clinically significant correlations between total FIQ score, tender point count, and muscle strength. Only 4.6% of the FIQ scores and 5.1% of the tender point counts were explained...

  20. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  1. Effect of including whole linseed and vitamin E in the diet of young bulls slaughtered at two fat covers on the sensory quality of beef packaged in two different packaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertí, Pere; Campo, María M; Beriain, María J; Ripoll, Guillermo; Sañudo, Carlos

    2017-02-01

    Forty-six Pirenaica young bulls, slaughtered at two levels of fatness (3 and 4 mm), were used to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of 50 g kg -1 linseed alone or with 200 IU vitamin E kg -1 in the concentrate and of the meat packaging system (vacuum or modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)) on the beef sensory quality. The inclusion of linseed or supplementation with vitamin E in the concentrate induced no significant differences in the main meat sensory scores and overall appraisal except under MAP, where small differences due to concentrate ingredients were found in juiciness and metallic flavor intensity. Extending the display time up to 4 or 8 days in high-oxygen MAP had detrimental effects on sensory attributes. Meat from animals with 4 mm fat cover depth were rated more tender and juicy, less fibrous and with a higher intensity of beef flavor and rancid odor than meat from 3 mm fat cover bulls when both samples were vacuum packaged. The inclusion of 50 g kg -1 linseed in the concentrate fed to bulls had no detrimental effect on the beef sensory quality. The vacuum-packaged meat of bulls slaughtered at 4 mm fat cover was rated higher on sensory analysis than that at 3 mm fat cover. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Ellies-Oury, Marie-Pierre; Lherm, Michel; Pineau, Christele; Deblitz, Claus; Farmer, Linda

    2018-05-24

    The European Union (EU) is the world's third largest producer of beef. This contributes to the economy, rural development, social life, culture and gastronomy of Europe. The diversity of breeds, animal types (cows, bulls, steers, heifers) and farming systems (intensive, extensive on permanent or temporary pastures, mixed, breeders, feeders, etc) is a strength, and a weakness as the industry is often fragmented and poorly connected. There are also societal concerns regarding animal welfare and environmental issues, despite some positive environmental impacts of farming systems. The EU is amongst the most efficient for beef production as demonstrated by a relative low production of greenhouse gases. Due to regional differences in terms of climate, pasture availability, livestock practices and farms characteristics, productivity and incomes of beef producers vary widely across regions, being among the lowest of the agricultural systems. The beef industry is facing unprecedented challenges related to animal welfare, environmental impact, origin, authenticity, nutritional benefits and eating quality of beef. These may affect the whole industry, especially its farmers. It is therefore essential to bring the beef industry together to spread best practice and better exploit research in order to maintain and develop an economically viable and sustainable beef industry. Meeting consumers' expectations may be achieved by a better prediction of beef palatability using a modelling approach, such as in Australia. There is a need for accurate information and dissemination on the benefits and issues of beef for human health and for environmental impact. A better objective description of goods and services derived from livestock farming is also required. Putting into practice "agroecology" and organic farming principles are other potential avenues for the future. Different future scenarios can be written depending on the major driving forces, notably meat consumption, climate

  3. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  4. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  5. Heat shock and thermotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a model beef gravy system and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, V K; Klein, P G; Marmer, B S

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate beef gravy or ground beef samples inoculated with a suspension of a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to sublethal heating at 46 degrees C for 15-30 min, and then heated to a final internal temperature of 60 degrees C. Survivor curves were fitted using a linear model that incorporated a lag period (TL), and D-values and 'time to a 4D inactivation' (T4D) were calculated. Heat-shocking allowed the organism to survive longer than non-heat-shocked cells; the T4D values at 60 degrees C increased 1.56- and 1.50-fold in beef gravy and ground beef, respectively. In ground beef stored at 4 degrees C, thermotolerance was lost after storage for 14 h. However, heat-shocked cells appeared to maintain their thermotolerance for at least 24 h in ground beef held to 15 or 28 degrees C. A 25 min heat shock at 46 degrees C in beef gravy resulted in an increase in the levels of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 69 kDa. These two proteins were shown to be immunologically related to GroEL and DnaK, respectively. Increased heat resistance due to heat shock must be considered while designing thermal processes to assure the microbiological safety of thermally processed foods.

  6. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  7. Current practices on sheep and beef farms in New Zealand for depriving sheep of feed prior to transport for slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M W; Gregory, N G; Muir, P D

    2012-05-01

    To assess current practices on sheep and beef farms that deprive sheep of feed prior to transport to facilitate effluent management and processing at slaughter. A national telephone survey of 122 sheep and 346 sheep and beef farmers was conducted in March and April 2010. They were asked how long sheep were held off green feed prior to transport and why, what environment the sheep were held in, and if that period ever varied. Of the 468 respondents, 303 (65%) removed their sheep from green feed 3-12 h before transport for slaughter, with longer periods reported in the South than North Island. The main reasons given were to reduce the volume of effluent for transport operators (n=174), to prevent wool staining during transport (n=173), and that sheep were better suited to load and travel empty (n=171). Water was provided during feed deprivation by 313 farmers. The period of food deprivation could be altered in response to requirements of transporters and processors, the weather, and by the class of stock involved, although 115/468 (25%) farmers stated that they never changed their normal protocol. Amongst survey respondents, common practices compared favourably with recommendations to reduce effluent during transportation. Previous studies have investigated the effects of fasting lambs whilst in lairage prior to slaughter and focussed on carcass quality such as carcass weight and tenderness. Changes in liveweight and gastrointestinal tract contents suggest feed deprivation reduces the risk of defaecation and urination contributing to the accumulation of effluent during transport and of carcass contamination during processing. However, the point at which that risk is acceptable to transport and processing is unclear. Fasting results in physiological changes indicative of altered metabolism but it is not clear when those changes are indicative of adaptation to food deprivation or metabolic depletion and compromised welfare. There may be opportunities to improve the

  8. Low-temperature cooking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Louise Mørch

    . The third group showed a different behaviour; in this group time and temperature worked in different directions. Thus, the results showed three dominant behaviours in sensory properties. Two sensory properties, tenderness and juiciness, are very important in cooked meat according to both consumers and chefs......Molecular gastronomy is a new scientific field concerned with domestic and restaurant cooking, perception of food, and other factors relevant for cooking and meals. Most available gastronomic knowledge is based on experience and handed-down procedures from cookbooks and recipes. This inductive way......-time sous-vide-cooking of meat. This method is increasingly used, especially in high-end restaurants, where it receives much praise from leading chefs worldwide. Sous-vide-cooking uses vacuum-packaging of the meat and preparation in thermostated water-baths at temperatures between 54°C and 65°C for periods...

  9. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-01-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis. PMID:24688507

  10. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  11. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hao Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9 from three wet markets (A, B, and C in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  12. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  13. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  14. Renewable Energy Tenders and Community [Em]power[ment]: Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Hugo; Munoz Cabre, Miquel; Gomez, Juan Carlos; Leidreiter, Anna; Ranalder, Lea; Williamson, Laura E.; Adib, Rana; Lins, Christine; Ranalder, Lea; Mastny, Lisa; Acuna, Francisco; Arroyo, Tabare; Bayao, Joao; Bonotto, Adriano; Konzen, Gabriel; Vasconcellos Barral Ferreira, Thiago; Bayer, Benjamin; Bravo, Gonzalo; Furlano, Lukas; Camacho, Luis; Carrasco Gonzalez, Fidel; Coronado, Juan; Escobar, Rafael; Gamarra, Alba; Garcia, Henry; Goni, Sebastian; Raquet, Francis; Gsaenger, Stefan; Schenk, Fabian; Mitma, Riquel; Munozcano Alvarez, Luis Alfonso; Ramirez, Michelle; Rodriguez Aguilar, Jessica Susana; Ruiz Carmona, Oscar; Villarreal Singer, Diego; Oceransky, Sergio; Perez, Juan Esteban; Puig, Pep; Trujillo, Ramiro; Chavez, Sandra; Gonzalez, Alaide; Luna, Nestor; Moreno, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    . The main renewable energy markets in Latin America and the Caribbean are dominated by tendering processes, a trend that is likely to continue in the coming years. But whereas tenders are predicated on competition, community-driven projects are based on collaboration. Participating in tendering processes - and winning - requires, among others, significant expertise and access to large reserves of capital, which smaller actors do not have to the same degree as large, specialist renewable energy developers. Under the tendering process, even if their projects are financially viable, actors that take a one-project approach - including community-driven renewable energy projects - are penalised against large developers, which can distribute the costs and risks of tendering to several projects. Tenders can be modified to favour a diversity of actors and community-driven renewable energy projects through the use of various tendering design options. Applying these design options often results in a trade-off between the primary objective - contracting the cheapest electricity from renewables - and the secondary objective of promoting a diversity of actors. As one solution, in the accession process following the tender, community-driven projects can be offered a power purchase agreement at a tariff based on the result of the tender. The accession process captures both the efficiency of tenders and the effectiveness of feed-in tariffs for community projects. Setting limits, in time and quantity, for the implementation of the accession process is necessary to ensure its dynamic efficiency. The accession process would be greatly strengthened and accelerated by the establishment of ambitious, but realistic, mid- and long-term targets for community-driven renewable energy projects. Complementing the accession process, it is proposed that a community power authority be established, with the roles of providing technical, legal and business support; assigning official &apos

  15. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  16. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  17. Preservation by ionization of refrigerated vacuum-packed ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soualhia, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The application of doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 KGy is interesting to lower significantly the contamination microbial flora in ground beef without changing significantly for all that original qualities. Treatment combining ionization (5 KGy) and / or salting (2 %) increases of almost 2 months the duration of refrigerated conservation of Vacuum-packed ground beef with no major change in initial quality. In ionized beef (5 KGy) and / or salted (2 %), the rate of psychotropic germs stays inferior to the threshold superficial putrefaction at all conservation stages. Moreover, faecal contamination pilots, mouldiness, yeast and pathogenic micro-organisms are totally absent in treated samples. Reduction effect of salt is observed at all stages of refrigerated storage. Finally, after cooking, ionizing dose does not change significantly loss of weight and pH of ground beef heated at 100 degrees C in bain-marie or 150 degrees C in drying over during one hour (author)

  18. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: beef cattle, breeding, genetics, heritability, reproduction .... nature of the female reproductive traits or to the large influence of unidentified environmental effects on ..... Factors affecting some performance traits in Friesian cattle.

  19. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... suya (105 and 105/g and beef suya (102/g) before and after heating the following ... treatments in a completely randomized design of collected samples ... bacillus to differentiate between lactose and non-lactose fermenting.

  20. Changes in the beef cattle industry through application of scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insemination, oestrus synchronization, and management systems for ... Most of these changes have had and will have an economic impact on the ..... of ET to produce bulls for use in AI in beef cattle is still in ..... and future implications - 1983.

  1. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used and discussed included nett farm income per R100 capital investment and .... Although depreciation of fixed improvements and on equip- ment was calculated ..... Furthermore, another practice commonly found· amongst beef producers.

  2. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.

  3. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region ..... between cattle breeds (genetic), pre-slaughter stress and growth- ..... Nguni cattle for example, owing to their adaptability (i.e. drought and heat tolerant,.

  4. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle industry is accepting, in fact, demanding estimates of genetic values on yearling bulls. Single and multiple analy ... ordinary event occurred with the formation of the Beef ... assumed genetic trend was non-existent or relatively unimportant ...

  5. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  6. Beef alliances: motivations, extent, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ted C; Kovanda, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    With their growth, it is important to consider how alliances will impact the beef industry in the future. Alliances have the potential to make sweeping changes to cattle production, live and feeder cattle marketing, food safety protocols, use of government grades and standards, ownership structure, supply chain management, wholesale and retail product marketing, risk management, and many other industry activities. In an effort to address these issues, this article addresses the following questions: What is an alliance? What has motivated their proliferation? What have we learned from alliances? What aspects of alliances affect their likelihood of success or failure? What is the future of alliances? Are they a fad or a long-term evolving industry structural change?

  7. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  8. Shelf life of ground beef patties treated by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W T; Weese, J O

    1998-10-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically determined. Fresh ground beef (initial APC of 10(2) CFU/g) treated with 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy was acceptable ( 10(7) CFU/g) by day 14 and 21, respectively, whereas patties treated at 5.0 kGy did not spoil until 42 days. The nonirradiated control samples for both batches of ground beef spoiled within 7 days. Microbial counts in ground beef patties stored at -18 degrees C did not change over the 42-day period. Shelf life of ground beef patties stored at 4 degrees C may be extended with gamma radiation, especially at 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial microbial load in ground beef samples was an important shelf life factor.

  9. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  10. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P water before pumping and bind less (P water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  11. Fine-mapping of a QTL influencing pork tenderness on porcine chromosome 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beever Jonathan E

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL exhibiting large effects on both Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness was detected within the Illinois Meat Quality Pedigree (IMQP. This QTL mapped to the q arm of porcine chromosome 2 (SSC2q. Comparative analysis of SSC2q indicates that it is orthologous to a segment of human chromosome 5 (HSA5 containing a strong positional candidate gene, calpastatin (CAST. CAST polymorphisms have recently been shown to be associated with meat quality characteristics; however, the possible involvement of other genes and/or molecular variation in this region cannot be excluded, thus requiring fine-mapping of the QTL. Results Recent advances in porcine genome resources, including high-resolution radiation hybrid and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC physical maps, were utilized for development of novel informative markers. Marker density in the ~30-Mb region surrounding the most likely QTL position was increased by addition of eighteen new microsatellite markers, including nine publicly-available and nine novel markers. Two newly-developed markers were derived from a porcine BAC clone containing the CAST gene. Refinement of the QTL position was achieved through linkage and haplotype analyses. Within-family linkage analyses revealed at least two families segregating for a highly-significant QTL in strong positional agreement with CAST markers. A combined analysis of these two families yielded QTL intervals of 36 cM and 7 cM for Instron shear force and taste panel tenderness, respectively, while haplotype analyses suggested further refinement to a 1.8 cM interval containing CAST markers. The presence of additional tenderness QTL on SSC2q was also suggested. Conclusion These results reinforce CAST as a strong positional candidate. Further analysis of CAST molecular variation within the IMQP F1 boars should enhance understanding of the molecular basis of pork tenderness, and thus

  12. Studies on tender wheatgrass: estimation of elemental content, bioaccessibility of essential elements and antioxidant activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.; Acharya, R.; Nair, A.G.C.; Kulkarni, S.D.; Rajurkar, N.S.

    2008-08-01

    Tender wheatgrass is being consumed by human beings in juice form or as it is due to its antioxidant potential and medicinal value. Systematic studies were carried out to (i) estimate elemental profiles as a function of growth period and conditions, bioaccessibility of different elements and the antioxidant potential of the tender wheatgrass, (ii) determine the optimum growth period for obtaining maximum benefit and (iii) examine the possible correlation between antioxidant potential and mineral content. Wheatgrass was grown in four different conditions namely (i) tap water, (ii) tap water with nutrients, (iii) soil and tap water and (iv) soil with nutrient solution. The studies were carried out on the wheatgrass of 5-20 days old. For comparison with laboratory grown wheatgrass, a set of commercially available wheatgrass tablets and wheat seeds were also studied. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used for concentration determination of elements in the wheatgrass, wheat seeds and wheatgrass tablets. A total of 15 elements like Na, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Br, Fe and Zn were determined in the samples of shoots and roots of tender wheatgrass. A comparison with the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of different essential elements with that in tender wheatgrass revealed that wheatgrass is a good source of minerals for health benefits rather than a food supplement. Bioaccessible fractions of various elements were estimated by a chemical NAA method by subjecting the samples to in vitro gastric and gastro-intestinal digestion followed by NAA. The bioaccessibility concentrations by both the measurements were in the range of 9-60%. It was found that bioaccessibility of the elements studied was the highest from fresh wheatgrass and the lowest from wheat seeds. Accuracy of the NAA method was evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials, SRM 1573a (Tomato leaves) from NIST, USA and ICHTJ CTA-vtl-2 (Tobacco leaves) from INCT, Poland. The antioxidant

  13. Pain sensitivity and pericranial tenderness in children with tension-type headache: a controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soee ABL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ann-Britt L Soee,1 Liselotte Skov,1 Svend Kreiner,4 Birte Tornoe,1,2 Lise L Thomsen3 1Department of Paediatrics, Children's Headache Clinic, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Physiotherapy, Medical Department O, Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Neuropediatrics, Juliane Marie Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen Denmark; 4Department of Biostatistics, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: To compare tenderness and pain sensitivity in children (aged 7–17 years with tension-type headache (TTH and healthy controls using total tenderness score (TTS, pressure pain threshold (PPT, and pain perceived at suprapressure pain threshold (supraPPT. Patients and methods: Twenty-three children with frequent episodic TTH, 36 with chronic TTH, and 57 healthy controls were included. TTS was measured bilaterally at seven pericranial myofascial structures. PPT and supraPPT were assessed in the finger, m. temporalis, and m. trapezius by a Somedic® algometer. SupraPPT was defined as the pain perceived at a stimulus calculated as the individual site-specific PPT + 50%. Statistics: The effect of group, sex, age, headache frequency, intensity, and years on TTS, PPT, and supraPPT was analyzed by general linear models. Confirmatory factor analysis was analyzed for mutual relations between measurements. Results and conclusion: Tenderness increased uniformly in both frequent episodic TTH (median 14; interquartile range [IQR] 10–18; P < 0.001 and chronic TTH (median 13; IQR 9–20; P < 0.001 compared to controls (median 5, IQR 3–11. However, the children with frequent episodic TTH and chronic TTH did not show significantly increased sensitivity when measured by PPT or supraPPT. Factor analysis confirmed that the site-specific measurements depended on general latent variables. Consequently, the PPT and supraPPT tests can be assumed to measure

  14. Call for tender - Areva-Alstom: watershed in wind energy - Technological duel on the open sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupin, L.

    2012-01-01

    The author comments the answers to a call for tender made by the French government and concerning five offshore wind farm sites (Le Treport, Fecamp, Courseulles sur Mer, Saint-Brieuc and Saint-Nazaire). As they are present within the three consortiums, Areva and Alstom should provide the wind turbines. This would result in the construction by Alstom of two blade and mast factories and two turbine and pad factories. For both companies, this market of 500 to 600 turbines is an opportunity. Many jobs are at stake. They push themselves forward for their experience or their innovation capacity. But their wind turbines will be based on foreign (Spanish or German) technology

  15. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  16. Jaw dysfunction is associated with neck disability and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A; Gadotti, I C; Armijo-Olivo, S; Biasotto-Gonzalez, D A; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r = 0.915, P cervical muscles with jaw dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r = 0.32-0.65). High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  17. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  18. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cooking loss, tenderness, and sensory evaluation of chicken meat roasted after wrapping with edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçüközet, Ahmet Oktay; Uslu, Mustafa Kemal

    2018-01-01

    In this study, edible films were produced from sodium caseinate and a sodium caseinate-starch mixture and with or without oleoresins (cumin and oregano oleoresin mixture). Chicken meat was wrapped in the respective films, stored at 4 ℃ for four days, and roasted at 200 ℃ for 30 min. The cooking loss, color changes, instrumental tenderness (shear force and energy) were measured. In addition, sensory evaluation was performed. All films effectively reduced cooking loss from chicken meat. The sodium caseinate-starch-based films were the most successful in preventing cooking loss. The average shear force and shear energy values of the wrapped samples were about 40% and 30% less than those of control samples, respectively. In sensory evaluation, chicken meat roasted after wrapping with the films was considered more tender and delicious than the control. Particularly, chicken meat wrapped with the films containing oleoresin mixture was assessed as the most delicious among the samples. It was shown that the cooking quality of the chicken meat could be significantly improved by pre-wrapping the meat with edible films.

  20. Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types on their growth ... and carcass studies have been conducted in the sourveld regions of the country. ... different beef maturity types which differ in body frame size were used, viz.

  1. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  2. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  3. 77 FR 52597 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086] Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  4. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  5. prevalence of escherichia coli 0157:h7 in fresh and roasted beef

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in 300 fresh beef and 150 roasted beef samples from ... likely cause of E. coli O157:H7 infection is undercooked ground beef. ..... coli O157:H7 in a sheep model. Appl. Environ.

  6. Proposal for the award of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, for the supply of Burndy connectors

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, for the supply of Burndy connectors. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a blanket purchase agreement, without competitive tendering, with SOURIAU (CH), for the supply of Burndy connectors over a period of three years, for a total amount not exceeding 600 000 euros (932 000 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1st January 2006. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  7. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  8. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis......, the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  9. Health resource utilisation costs in acute patients with persistent midline cervical tenderness following road trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackland, Helen M; Wolfe, Rory; Cameron, Peter A; Cooper, D James; Malham, Gregory M; Varma, Dinesh K; Fitt, Gregory J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Liew, Susan M

    2012-11-01

    The costs associated with patients discharged with isolated clinician-elicited persistent midline tenderness and negative computed tomography (CT) findings have not been reported. Our aim was to determine the association of acute and post-acute patient and injury characteristics with health resource costs in such patients following road trauma. In a prospective cohort study, road trauma patients presenting with isolated persistent midline cervical tenderness and negative CT, who underwent additional acute imaging with MRI, were recruited. Patients were reviewed in the outpatient spine clinic following discharge, and were followed up at 6 and 12 months post-trauma. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the association of injury mechanism, clinical assessment, socioeconomic factors and outcome findings with health resource costs generated in the acute hospital and post-acute periods. There were 64 patients recruited, of whom 24 (38%) had cervical spine injury detected on MRI. Of these, 2 patients were managed operatively, 6 were treated in cervical collars and 16 had the cervical spine cleared and were discharged. At 12 months, there were 25 patients (44%) with residual neck pain, and 22 (39%) with neck-related disability. The mean total cost was AUD $10,153 (SD=10,791) and the median was $4015 (IQR: 3044-6709). Transient neurologic deficit, which fully resolved early in the emergency department, was independently associated with higher marginal mean acute costs (represented in the analysis by the β coefficient) by $3521 (95% CI: 50-6880). Low education standard (β coefficient: $5988, 95% CI: 822-13,317), neck pain at 6 months (β coefficient: $4017, 95% CI: 426-9254) and history of transient neurologic deficit (β coefficient: $8471, 95% CI: 1766-18,334) were associated with increased post-acute costs. In a homogeneous group of road trauma patients with non fracture-related persistent midline cervical tenderness, health resource costs varied

  10. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  11. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  12. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  13. Deciding about Design Quality : Value judgements and decision making in the selection of architects by public clients under European tendering regulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, L.

    2010-01-01

    In the past few years the image of tender procedures in which Dutch public clients selected an architect has been dominated by distressing newspaper headlines. Architects fear that the current tender culture will harm the quality of our built environment due to a potential lack of diversity,

  14. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  15. Development of a modified dry curing process for beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Ward, P; Kerry, J P

    2007-11-01

    The development of a dry curing process using physical treatments to promote the diffusion of the cure ingredients was studied. Vacuum pulsing with and without tumbling, continuous vacuum, and tumbling only treatments were compared with a conventional static dry cure control method on beef M. supraspinatus. Vacuum tumble and tumble only treatments gave highest core salt content after 7 days conditioning (3.3% and 3.1%, respectively). All test treatments resulted in higher colour uniformity and lower % cook loss in comparison to control (PCured beef slices were stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) (80%N(2):20%CO(2)) for up to 28 day at 4°C. Redness (a(∗), Pcured beef products with enhanced organoleptic quality and increased yields.

  16. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... in society, global warming crisis, disease outbreaks and degradation of the environment are shaping consumers' opinion in regard to food production. There was a severe criticism about too much intervention in food and a strong desire to keep food and beef processing as simple and natural as possible....

  17. Tender rules and trust influence on cooperation in the building industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussing, Lene Faber; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    The building industry has for many years been criticized for not having as efficient and effective co-operation as other industries. Some parties in the building sector try to use a new form of collaboration as i.a. partnering. In a big part of those partnering projects a good working relationship...... exists, the building owner is satisfied, the involved companies earn money and the project finish in time. A lot of projects do not use partnering or other new forms of collaboration. In these projects the general impression is that the parties in the building sector are fighting instead of co......-operating. A questionnaire survey including building owners, contractors, suppliers, architects, engineers and client design advisor has been accomplished. The survey shows that the problem with co-operation among others is the way the tendering rules normally are used, where the normal assignment criterion is the lowest...

  18. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus bavaricus MN in beef systems at refrigeration temperatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkowski, K; Crandall, A D; Montville, T J

    1993-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus bavaricus, a meat isolate, to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was examined in three beef systems: beef cubes, beef cubes in gravy, and beef cubes in gravy containing glucose. The beef was minimally heat treated, inoculated with L. bavaricus at 10(5) or 10(3) CFU/g and L. monocytogenes at 10(2) CFU/g, vacuum sealed, and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C. The meat samples were monitored for microbial growth, pH, and bacteriocin production. The p...

  19. Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in needle-tenderized dry cured Westphalian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graumann, Gary H; Holley, Richard A

    2007-09-15

    Westphalian ham is a dry cured, ready-to-eat product that is manufactured without a lethal heat treatment. Hams are preserved by a process that involves curing, fermenting, smoking and drying, which may take 3 months or more to complete. The process can be accelerated by tenderizing the meat with solid needles, to increase the rate of cure-salt diffusion throughout muscle tissues. In this study, intact hams were immersed in a solution containing a five strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at 8 log cfu/mL, to determine whether needle treatment before cure application would internalize organisms from the surface. In two trials, the survival of E. coli O157:H7 on external surfaces and within deep tissues after needle treatment was followed during the ripening of hams. The injured E. coli O157:H7 cells were recovered by plating samples on pre-poured Tryptic Soy Agar plates which were incubated for 3 to 4 h at 35 degrees C, overlaid with Sorbitol MacConkey Agar containing cefixime and tellurite and re-incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 to 72 h. Inoculated-injected hams initially carried E. coli O157:H7 at numbers of 7.3 and 4.6 log cfu/g E. coli O157:H7 on the surface and inside, respectively. After 112 d of ripening, which included 79 d of drying, no E. coli O157:H7 were detected at the surface of hams following enrichment, whereas in deep tissue the organism was recovered at numbers of 3.1 log cfu/g. The Westphalian ham ripening procedure evidently was not adequate to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 internalized by needle tenderization.

  20. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  1. Do sarcomere length, collagen content, pH, intramuscular fat and desmin degradation explain variation in the tenderness of three ovine muscles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Colin P; Geesink, Geert H; Collins, Damian; Hutton Oddy, V; Hopkins, David L

    2016-03-01

    The longissimus (n=118) (LL), semimembranosus (n=104) (SM) and biceps femoris (n=134) (BF) muscles were collected from lamb and sheep carcases and aged for 5days (LL and SM) and 14days (BF) to study the impact of muscle characteristics on tenderness as assessed by shear force (SF) and sensory evaluation. The impact of gender, animal age, collagen content, sarcomere length (SL), desmin degradation, ultimate pH and intramuscular fat (IMF) on tenderness was examined. The main factors which influenced SF of the LL were IMF, SL and desmin degradation, but for sensory tenderness, IMF, ultimate pH and gender were the main factors. The SF and sensory tenderness of the SM was best predicted by the degree of desmin degradation. For the BF soluble collagen and animal age both influenced SF. Different factors affect tenderness across muscles and not one prediction model applied across all muscles equally well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoying; Deng, Shaoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-30

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment. The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. 76 FR 14651 - BOST4 Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the... No.: P-12757-003. c. Date filed: February 24, 2011. d. Applicant: BOST4 Hydroelectric Company, LLC...

  4. 76 FR 21885 - BOST5 Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Hydroelectric Company, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional Study Requests Take notice that the following hydroelectric application has been filed with the... No.: P-12758-003. c. Date filed: March 28, 2011. d. Applicant: BOST5 Hydroelectric Company, LLC...

  5. Analysis of Disposal of Public Property without Tender Procedure on the Example of the Municipality of Krakow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trembecka Anna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to analyze the procedure for the disposal of public property without tender on the example of the Municipality of Krakow, with respect to the scope, purpose, conditions of disposal and generated income, in the period of 2012–2014.

  6. 77 FR 99 - Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13022-003] Barren River Lake Hydro LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission, Soliciting Additional Study Requests, and Establishing Procedural Schedule for Licensing and a Deadline for Submission of Final Amendments Take notice that the following...

  7. Renewable energies: the choice of invitation to tender candidates for the electric power plants supplied by biomass or biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    To contribute to the french objectives of renewable energies development, the Ministry of Industry proposed an invitation to tender for the realization at the first of january 2007 of electric power plants (more than 12 MW) from biomass and biogas. This document presents the selected projects. (A.L.B.)

  8. Pulsed electric field processing of functional drink based on tender coconut water (Cococus nucifera L. - nannari (Hemidesmus indicus blended beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tender coconut water (Cocos nucifera L. Nannari extract (Hemidesmus indicus L. ready-to serve (RTS blended beverage were optimised. Response Surface Methodology (RSM was employed to optimize the levels of independent variables (levels of tender coconut water, nannari extract and sugar. The responses of pH, ºBrix, CIE colour (L*, a* and b* value and OAA were studied. The data obtained were analysed by multiple regression technique to generate suitable mathematical models. The developed blended beverage was processed using pulsed electric field (PEF with electric field 31.2 kV/cm, 20 pulse widths at 100 Hz frequency to minimise nutritional and sensory attributes losses and compared with conventional thermal pasteurization (96 ºC for 360 s with p-value of 8.03. Thermal pasteurization showed a significant (p<0.05 decrease in colour value, radical scavenging activity and overall acceptability after treatment and also during storage, when compared to PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage. PEF treatment also achieved a 3.01 ± 0.69 log inactivation, similar to thermal pasteurization of native micro flora. PEF treated tender coconut water-nannari blended beverage was stable up to 120 days under ambient storage condition (27-30 °C.

  9. Case study on the quality of tenders submitted by Occupational Health and Safety Professionals in the South African built environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mphahlele, C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this paper: The purpose of the paper is to provide an overview of the current state of tenders submitted by Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) professionals in terms of functionality criteria. Design/methodology/approach: The research...

  10. 76 FR 13173 - Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2309-019] Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the.... Date Filed: February 18, 2011. d. Applicant: Jersey Central Power & Light Company and PSEG Fossil, LLC...

  11. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  12. 75 FR 45106 - Great River Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-02

    ... Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Soliciting Additional... License. b. Project No.: P-13637-001. c. Date filed: July 12, 2010. d. Applicant: Great River Hydropower.... 21, and would consist of the following facilities: (1) A new hydropower structure, located about 100...

  13. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  14. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...

  15. Joint involvement in patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus: application of the swollen to tender joint count ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cipriano

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Joint involvement is a common manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. According to the SLE disease activity index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K, joint involvement is present in case of ≥2 joints with pain and signs of inflammation. However this definition could fail to catch all the various features of joint involvement. Alternatively the Swollen to Tender joint Ratio (STR could be used. This new index, which was originally proposed for rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients, is based on the count of 28 swollen and tender joints. Our study is, therefore, aimed to assess joint involvement in a SLE cohort using the STR. SLE patients with joint symptoms (≥1 tender joint were enrolled over a period of one month. Disease activity was assessed by SLEDAI-2K. We performed the swollen and tender joint count (0-28 and calculated the STR. Depending on the STR, SLE patients were grouped into three categories of disease activity: low (STR1.0. We also calculated the disease activity score based on a 28-joint count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR. We enrolled 100 SLE patients [F/M 95/5, mean±standard deviation (SD age 46.3±10.6 years, mean±SD disease duration 147.1±103.8 months]. The median of tender and swollen joints was 4 (IQR 7 and 1 (IQR 2.5, respectively. The median STR value was 0.03 (IQR 0.6. According to the STR, disease activity was low in 70 patients, moderate in 23 and high in 7. A significant correlation was identified between STR values and DAS28 (r=0.33, p=0.001. The present study suggests a correlation between STR and DAS28, allowing an easier and faster assessment of joint involvement with the former index.

  16. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  17. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  18. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  19. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  20. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  1. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  2. Modeling growth from weaning to maturity in beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models – Brody, spline, and quadratic – were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories – British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight...

  3. Increase in. gamma. -radiation from powdered milk and beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievert, R M; Gustafsson, S; Sylander, C G

    1956-01-01

    Samples of powdered milk and beef preserved during the years 1953 to 1956 were examined for the presence of ..gamma..-radiation. The higher ..gamma..-radiation found in the last year was attributed to an increase in fission products. Data are compared with measurements on a series of children.

  4. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic effect of this action on small entities and..., methods of production and distribution, marketing strategies, and other distinguishing factors that will... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [No. AMS-LS-10-0086] Beef...

  5. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non-additive effects on weight traits ... total weight of weaned calves. ... Weight traits are not all equally important to efficiency ... values to model total herd productivity. ..... The maintenance requirement of a cow is affected by her weight: the larger the.

  6. Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...

  7. Characterization of radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria in beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, A.B.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground beef contains numerous microorganisms of various types. The commonly recognized bacteria are associated with current problems of spoilage. Irradiation, however, contributes a new factor through selective destruction of the microflora. The residual microorganisms surviving a nonsterilizing dose are predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli. Various classifications have been given, e.g., Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, etc. For a more detailed study of these radiation-resistant bacteria occurring in ground beef, an enrichment procedure was used for isolation. By means of morphological and biochemical tests, most of the isolates were found to be Moraxella, based on current classifications. The range of growth temperatures was from 2 to 50 C. These bacteria were relatively heat sensitive, e.g., D 10 of 5.4 min at 70 0 C or less. The radiation resistance ranged from D 10 values of 273 to 2,039 krad. Thus, some were more resistant than any presently recognized spores. A reference culture of Moraxella osloensis was irradiated under conditions comparable to the enrichment procedure used with the ground beef. The only apparent changes were in morphology and penicillin sensitivity. However, after a few subcultures these bacteria reverted to the characteristics of the parent strain. Thus, it is apparent that these isolates are a part of the normal flora of ground beef and not aberrant forms arising from the irradiation procedure. The significance, if any, of these bacteria is not presently recognized. (auth)

  8. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  9. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  10. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  11. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  12. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  13. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  14. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the principles related to different grading and classification systems of the world with specific focus on beef quality related outcomes. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful as guidelines to those involved in the ...

  15. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study isolated and discussed the factors driving beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data generated from 120 households randomly selected from five villages in Ekwusigo L.G.A was used. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was ...

  16. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  17. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  18. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO 4 . Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  19. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: Additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic components of fitness traits measured in Afrikaner (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), Hereford (H) and Simmentaler (S). For this study, the fitness traits recorded were percentage of cows ...

  20. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  2. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ... cation rate at spreading time instead of waiting two or three weeks to receive the results ... Operation mechanism of metal-oxide gas sensors. The sensors used in this study were ...

  3. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  4. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  5. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that have occurred since the most recent Board... Farms, and Livestock Operations,'' USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) estimates that in 2009 the number of operations in the United States with cattle totaled approximately 950,000. The...

  6. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  7. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Evaluation of sampling, cookery, and shear force protocols for objective evaluation of lamb longissimus tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2004-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the effects of two cookery methods, two shear force procedures, and sampling location within non-callipyge and callipyge lamb LM on the magnitude, variance, and repeatability of LM shear force data. In Exp. 1, 15 non-callipyge and 15 callipyge carcasses were sampled, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined for both sides of each carcass at three locations along the length (anterior to posterior) of the LM, whereas slice shear force (SSF) was determined for both sides of each carcass at only one location. For approximately half the carcasses within each genotype, LM chops were cooked for a constant amount of time using a belt grill, and chops of the remaining carcasses were cooked to a constant endpoint temperature using open-hearth electric broilers. Regardless of cooking method and sampling location, repeatability estimates were at least 0.8 for LM WBSF and SSF. For WBSF, repeatability estimates were slightly higher at the anterior location (0.93 to 0.98) than the posterior location (0.88 to 0.90). The difference in repeatability between locations was probably a function of a greater level of variation in shear force at the anterior location. For callipyge LM, WBSF was higher (P lamb LM chops cooked with the belt grill using a larger number of animals (n = 87). In Exp. 2, LM chops were obtained from matching locations of both sides of 44 non-callipyge and 43 callipyge carcasses. Chops were cooked with a belt grill and SSF was measured, and repeatability was estimated to be 0.95. Repeatable estimates of lamb LM tenderness can be achieved either by cooking to a constant endpoint temperature with electric broilers or cooking for a constant amount of time with a belt grill. Likewise, repeatable estimates of lamb LM tenderness can be achieved with WBSF or SSF. However, use of belt grill cookery and the SSF technique could decrease time requirements which would decrease research costs.

  9. The Food Safety of Livestock Products (Meatball, Corned Beef, Beef Burger and Sausage Studied from Heavy Metal Residues Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Harlia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of animal husbandry improvements are to increase both the quality and the quantity of livestock production and to ensure the safety of the product. It is necessarry for consumers to pay attention to the food safety of livestock product because it is related to human's health. The research was conducted to determine the food safety of livestock product condition by detecting heavy metal residues on several food products from livestock like meatball, corned beef, burger’s beef, and sausages. This research was explored by using survey's method and purposive technique sampling, then the resulted data were descriptively analyzed. The observed variables were heavy metal contents such as Plumbum (Pb and Cadmium (Cd in which being measured by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometri . The result showed that in general, heavy metal residue of Pb from several livestock products (meatball, corned beef, beef burger, and sausages were smaller than Maximum Residue Limit (MRL, while the Cd’s residue was partly over the MRL concentration, therefore further action has to be taken as it affects the human's health. (Animal Production 12(1: 50-54 (2010 Key words : food safety, MRL, heavy metal Pb, Cd.

  10. Thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 (ECOH) and non-0157 Shiga-toxin producing E.coli (STEC) in mechanically tenderized veal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Among the veal samples tested by FSIS from June to September 2012, 3 of 11 (27.3%) were confirmed positive for STEC, compared to 5 of 729 (0.69%) beef trim samples. This difference in detection of confirmed positives from veal samples compared to that from beef is striking and raises the question of...

  11. Tenderness, pH and Water Activity (Aw of Spices Dried Meat on Various Concentrate of Ginger Extract (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe and Different Soaking Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhadiyah Afrila

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of current research were to find out the concentrate of Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe and different soaking time of to tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw, microbial count and sensory evaluation of spices dried meat. The result showed that higher the ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe concentrate and longer the soaking time, it would give more tenderness, pH, and water activity (Aw to spices dried meat with 15% ginger extract (Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract and 20 minutes length of soaking time. Key Words : Dendeng, ginger, soaking time, tenderness, pH and Aw

  12. Possibility of introducing Smallholder Beef Cattle Farmer’s Association as a starting point to develop the beef cattle chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candia, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the research is “Possibility of introducing smallholder Beef Cattle Farmers Association as a starting point to develop the beef chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda”. The study was carried out in two Sub Counties of Arua district, Uganda. The objective was to

  13. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Ginger Extract and Citric Acid on the Tenderness of Duck Breast Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of ginger extract (GE) combined with citric acid on the tenderness of duck breast muscles. Total six marinades were prepared with the combination of citric acid (0 and 0.3 M citric acid) and GE (0, 15, and 30%). Each marinade was sprayed on the surface of duck breasts (15 mL/100 g), and the samples were marinated for 72 h at 4℃. The pH and proteolytic activity of marinades were determined. After 72 h of marination, Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), pH, cooking loss, moisture content, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and protein solubility were evaluated. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in moisture content or cooking loss among all samples. However, GE marination resulted in a significant (pcitric acid) and WC (with citric acid) conditions were significantly (pcitric acid may be attributed to various mechanisms such as increased MFI and myofibrillar protein solubility. PMID:26877631

  15. Effect of alternative salt use on broiler breast meat yields, tenderness, flavor, and sodium concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, P R; Behrends, J M; Schilling, M W

    2011-12-01

    Fresh chicken breast fillets were marinated with gourmet-style salts: Himalayan pink salt, Sonoma gourmet salt, sel gus de Guerande, and Bolivian rose salt to evaluate their effects on marination and cook loss yields, tenderness, sensory attributes, and sodium concentration. Fresh chicken breast fillets (48-h postmortem) were vacuum tumbled (137 kPa at 20 rpm for 17 min) in a solution of water, salt, and sodium tripolyphosphate at a level of 20% of the meat weights. Instrumental analyses showed no significant difference (P > 0.05) in meat quality with respect to marination yield, cook yield, or shear-force value. There were also no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sensory descriptors between salt treatments. However, Sonoma gourmet salt showed a tendency (P = 0.0693) to score increased savory note values from panelists, whereas Bolivian rose salt received the lowest score. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in sodium concentrations between salt treatments, but numerically, sel gus de Guerande had the lowest sodium concentration, which could be important in producing reduced sodium products. Understanding different salts and sodium concentrations allows the poultry industry to use gourmet salts in products and maintain overall meat quality and flavor.

  16. Report on Evaluation of Tender for the Valentine Iron Ore Project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report prepared by Dastur Engineering International GmbH (DEI)Consulting Engineers, Dusseldorf at the instance of United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) seeks to present an evaluation of the feasibility study presented by Republica Oriental del Uruguay, Ministerio de Industria y- Energia (Project Authority) by the Brazilian Consortium (comprising Tenenga, Coferraz, Cimetal and Interbras) along with a project BID including financing possibilities. In accordance with the contract requirements, this Draft Final Report is being submitted. Based on the comments to be received on the findings incorporated in this Draft Final Report from UNIDO and Project Authorities in Uruguay, the Final Report will be prepared and submitted to UNIDO in accordance with the time schedule stipulated in the contract between UNIDO and DEI. The aims of the Project are:a) The development objective is the utilisation of the country's natural resources by exploiting the iron ore deposits of Valentines, for iron and steel production. b)The immediate objective is to evaluate the tenders for the execution of a project to undertake the industrial exploitation of the iron or deposits in close co-operation and co-ordination with the Uruguayan authorities.

  17. To tender, re-negotiate or partner: Strategies for contracting service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouldie, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    The contracting of oilfield service companies by petroleum exploration and production operating companies is different than the contracting of civil engineering, construction or other project-oriented contractors. The relationship between operating companies and oilfield service companies has had a long and unique history which has evolved since the first oil wells were drilled over a century ago. The process of contracting service companies by operating companies for petroleum exploration and production work can be split into three distinct stages: (1) decide what it is that should be contracted out and what should be kept in house; (2) determine the method to use to select the contractor(s) to perform the work; and (3) agree to the contractual structure to best reflect the relationship the operating company and the service company with to initiate and maintain. As there are ongoing changes to the business structures and corporate thinking of both operating and service companies, there are also evolving changes to what are considered core businesses and the methods of selecting and contracting service companies by operating companies. Operating companies are recognizing the high costs of tendering for contractor services in terms of personnel time and administrative effort, and are relying more on negotiating and rolling-over existing contracts with their suitable, capable contractors. Partnering, in its many forms and levels, is increasingly being recognized as a useful method to get better work done at cheaper overall costs

  18. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of electricity

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply of electricity for the period from January 2001 until 30 June 2003. On 13 January 2000 a market survey was sent to 43 firms in sixteen Member States. Following this market survey, CERN received an unsolicited offer from EDF/EOS. With a view to verifying the competitiveness of the offer, three firms and one consortium in four Member States, qualified from the market survey, were requested to submit quotations. CERN received three quotations from two firms and the consortium which indeed confirmed that the offer from EDF/EOS was very competitive. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with the consortium EDF (FR)/EOS (CH), which submitted the unsolicited offer, for the supply of electricity until June 2003 for a total estimated amount, based on the present schedules of the accelerators for the associated period, of 290 000 000 French francs, not subject to revision. At the present ra...

  19. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, S.; Fang, Sun; Di, Liu; Petrović, M.M.; Pantelić, V.; Stanišić, N.; Ostojić-Andrić, D.; Petričević, M.; Nikšić, D.; Delić, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  20. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of uninterruptable power supply systems with MGE (FR) for a total amount of 575 000 euros (911 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  1. Proposal for the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract, without competitive tendering, for the maintenance of low-voltage switchgear with HAZEMEYER (FR) for a total amount of 385 000 euros (610 000 Swiss francs), covering an initial period of five years, subject to revision for inflation after 1 January 2007. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial five-year period. The amount in Swiss francs has been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: FR - 100%.

  2. Evaluating the Impact of Risk on Contractor’s Tender Figure in Public Buildings Projects in Northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O. Oyewobi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost impossible to have projects completed within the initial cost and time in Nigeria; this is as a result of many factors the construction industry is being plagued with ranging from estimating risk to time and cost overruns. The construction industry is widely associated with a high degree of risk and uncertainty due to the nature of its operating heterogeneous environment. The paper aimed at evaluating the impact of estimating risk on contractor’s tender sum with a view of ensuring efficient delivery of projects in the Northern part of Nigeria. A survey was conducted using questionnaire and a total of four headings of risk factors were identified. Research findings showed defects in design, inflation, contractor’s competence and political uncertainty as well as changes in government had greatest impact on contractor’s tender figure whereas likely trend in wages rates over the period, excessive approval procedure in administration government department, unavailability of sufficient amount of unskilled labor and technical manpower and resources of the company were the most significant factors to be considered by contractors when estimating the pricing risk. The paper recommends that construction professionals should identify and adequately quantify project estimating risk factors. Adding a risk premium to quotation and time estimation has to be supported by governmental owner organizations and other agencies in the local construction sector. Competent contractors should be allowed to tender so as to see the incidence of these estimating risks as an important aspect that requires attention while evaluating contractor’s tender sum.

  3. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  4. Proposal to negotiate a contract, without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of pipework for the new hostel

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate a contract for the supply and installation of new piping as preparatory work for the construction of a third on-site hostel. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve a contract with the SERVICES INDUSTRIELS DE GENEVE (SIG) (CH), without competitive tendering, for the supply and installation of new piping for an amount not exceeding 700 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision.

  5. The 6-minute walk test in female fibromyalgia patients: relationship with tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A; Ortega, Francisco B; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies in women with fibromyalgia. One hundred eighteen women with fibromyalgia aged 51.9 ± 7.3 years participated in the study. The examination included the 6-MWT, tender points, and the following questionnaires: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), and Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory. Fair correlations between the 6-MWT and the subscales of physical impairment (FIQ) and physical function (SF-36) were observed (ρ -0.365 and 0.347, respectively, both p fibromyalgia shows significant relationships, ranging from weak to fair, between the 6-MWT and tenderness, symptomatology, quality of life, and coping strategies. These findings indicate that functional capacity, as assessed by the distance walked in 6 minutes, might be important when planning the assessment, treatment, and monitoring of patients with fibromyalgia. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep muscle pain, tender points and recovery in acute whiplash patients: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Helge; Qerama, Erisela; Kongsted, Alice; Bach, Flemming W; Bendix, Tom; Jensen, Troels S

    2008-11-15

    Local sensitization to noxious stimuli has been previously described in acute whiplash injury and has been suggested to be a risk factor for chronic sequelae following acute whiplash injury. In this study, we prospectively examined the development of tender points and mechano-sensitivity in 157 acute whiplash injured patients, who fulfilled criteria for WAD grade 2 (n=153) or grade 3 (n=4) seen about 5 days after injury (4.8+/-2.3) and who subsequently had or had not recovered 1 year after a cervical sprain. Tender point scores and stimulus-response function for mechanical pressure were determined in injured and non-injured body regions at specific time-points after injury. Thirty-six of 157 WAD grade 2 patients (22.9%) had not recovered, defined as reduced work capacity after 1 year. Non-recovered patients had higher total tender point scores after 12 (pwhiplash injury and the development of further sensitization in patients with long-term disability.

  7. Short communication. Sensory evaluation of commercial beef produced in Uruguay and three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    San-Julián, R.; Campo, M. M.; Nute, G.; Montossi, F.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Guerrero, L.; Oliver, M. A.; Sañudo, C.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to characterize and compare the organoleptic quality of beef from Uruguay and from three European countries. In Uruguay, 40 Hereford steers were raised exclusively under grazing conditions up to either two or three years old. Meat samples were aged for 20 days, matching commercial conditions. In Europe, one commercial local beef type, with two ageing times (7 and 20 days), from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom were compared with Uruguayan beef samples, usi...

  8. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  9. Application of FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Halal Authentication of Beef Meatball Adulterated with Dog Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Wiranti Sri; Rohman, Abdul; Martono, Sudibyo; Sudjadi, Sudjadi

    2018-01-01

    Beef meatball is one of the favorite meat-based food products among Indonesian community. Currently, beef is very expensive in Indonesian market compared to other common meat types such as chicken and lamb. This situation has intrigued some unethical meatball producers to replace or adulterate beef with lower priced-meat like dog meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for identification and quantification of dog meat (D...

  10. [Study of biological value of beef produced by interspecies hybrids of domestic cattle and wild yaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagirov, V A; Chernukha, I M; Lisitsin, A V; Zinovieva, N A

    2014-01-01

    The comparative study of the chemical composition and biological values of beef produced by hybrids of Angus cattle with wild yaks (hybrid beef) and pure-bred Angus cattle (traditional beef) has been carried out. Longissimus muscle samples were used for analysis. It was observed, that the hybrid beef samples had the practically equal protein content comparing to traditional beef (21.1 vs. 21.6 per cent) but were characterized by the lower fat content (1.2 vs. 2.5 per cent). The higher biological value of hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef has been shown. The value of protein-quality index, calculated as the ratio of tryptophan amino acid to oxyprolin and characterizing the ratio of high biological value proteins to low biological value proteins was 8.1 vs. 5.7. The values of amino acid indexes [ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to non-essential amino acids (NAA) and ratio of EAA to the total amount of amino acids (TAA)] were EAA/NAA = 0.77 vs. 0.65 and EAA/TAA = 0.43 vs. 0.39. The protein of hybrid beef was characterized by the higher content of a number of the essential amino acids: by a factor of 1, 77 for threonin, 1.23--for valin, 1.09--for lysin, 1.17--for leucine and 1.19--for tryptophan. The amount of the essential amino acids in 1 gram of protein of the hybrid beef was 434.7 mg against 393.1 mg for traditional beef It has been shown, that the protein of the hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef is characterized by the higher values of the amino acid scores calculated for EAA.

  11. Meat Standards Australia as an Innovation in the Australian Beef Production and Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...

  12. Proposal for the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract without competitive tendering for the supply of two types of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system. Following a market survey carried out among 14 firms in four Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2969/SL/LHC) was sent on 10 July 2001 to one firm. By the closing date, CERN had received one tender. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with DRAKA MULTIMEDIA CABLE (DE), the only bidder, for the supply of 14 km of coaxial high-voltage cable for the LHC beam dumping system for a total amount of 530 488 euros (779 900 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. The rate of exchange which has been used is that stipulated in the tender. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 100%.

  13. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  14. Relationships between widespread pain and thresholds pain tolerance on tender points in Portuguese women with fibromyalgia: impact on daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Tomas-Carus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to establish a relationship between widespread pain subjectively perceived and threshold pain tolerance on tender points, and to determine whether there are differences in threshold pain tolerance on tender points between the upper and lower body, as well as between the dominant and non-dominant side, and whether these differences have an impact on the daily life of Portuguese women with fibromyalgia (FM. Material e Methods: thirty-one women with FM aged between 34 and 67 years volunteered for the study. Threshold pain tolerance was assessed at critical points using a digital algometer pressure; the widespread pain index (WPI was constructed by the addition of 19 painful body regions; and the impact on the daily life assessed by the Portuguese version of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, with individual interviews. Results: significant differences between the percentage of threshold pain tolerance of the whole body and the scales of widespread pain subjectively perceived were observed, showing that the widespread pain subjectively perceived by patients was between +25.9% and +27.5%. Also, significant differences between threshold pain tolerance of tender points located on the upper and lower body (1.9 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 vs. 2.6 ± 0.7 kg/cm2; respectively were observed. However, no significant differences were found between threshold pain tolerance of tender points located on dominant and non-dominant sides (2.1 ± 0.5 kg/cm2 e 2.1 ± 0.6 kg/cm2; respectively. Additionally, the analysis showed significant correlations between pain and patient`s daily life in: FIQ total score, physical function, feel good, job ability and fatigue. Conclusions: the women with FM show higher widespread pain subjectively perceived than threshold pain tolerance on tender points. Furthermore, the pain suffered by the patients with FM, especially that located on the upper body, either on the dominant or on the non-dominant side, has a negative

  15. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  16. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  17. Irradiation of ground beef with the purpose of refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.

    1977-01-01

    Ground beef packaged in polyethylene film was irradiated at different dose levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 Mrad and stored at 3+-1 0 C. Bacteriological and organoleptic evaluations were carried out immediately after irradiation and at weekly intervals thereafter. The red color of the meat was darker after irradiation and this darkening increased with radiation dose. This color change was limited to the surface of the samples. The results of the bacteriological and organoleptic examination indicate that irradiation at 0.25 Mrad permits refrigerated storage of ground beef for 3 weeks, 0,5 Mrad for 6 weeks. Coliforms were found only in non-irradiated samples [fr

  18. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  19. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  20. Effects of pineapple byproduct and canola oil as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory qualities of low-fat beef burger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregório B; Saldaña, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G

    2016-02-01

    Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of tender coconut water on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in prehypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2014-02-01

    . Dietary intakes of high potassium will decrease blood pressure (BP. Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drink high in potassium. This study aimed to investigate the effect of TCW on BP in female teachers and employees prehypertension. Methods: The research was a parallel single blind randomized clinical trial. A total of 32 female prehypertension subjects aged 25-44 years. The subjects were selected using certain criteria and randomly allocated to one of two groups using block randomized, 16 subjects each. The treatment group received TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling, and the control group received water 300 ml twice daily for 14 days and nutritional counseling. Assessment of BP was done on day 0, day 8, and day 15. Statistical analysis were done using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. Results: Mean dietary intakes of potassium were 1420.28±405.54 mg/day or 30.22±8.63% compared to Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA. During treatment period, potassium intake increased significantly in the treatment group. There were decreased BP in both groups, which were greater in the treatment group, but not statistically significant different (P > 0.05. The mean decrease of systolic BP was significant in treatment group (P = 0.031, meanwhile the mean decrease of diastolic BP was not significant (P=0.134. Conclusion: Tender coconut water 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has tendency to decrease systolic BP, but not diastolic blood pressure. (Health Science Indones 2013;2: 64-8Key words: coconut water, systolic and diastolic blood pressure

  2. Tender coconut water as alternative food to increase potassium intake among prehypertension adult female?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farapti Farapti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hampir seluruh populasi di dunia mengonsumsi kalium lebih rendah dari rekomendasi yangdianjurkan. Air kelapa muda merupakan minuman khas yang tinggi kalium. Tujuan penelitian ini adalahuntuk menganalisis asupan kalium pada perempuan prahipertensi dan menentukan peningkatan asupankalium dengan pemberian air kelapa muda untuk menurunkan tekanan darah di antara subyek prahipertensi.Metode: Pada uji klinis paralel single blind dengan subyek sebanyak 32 guru perempuan dan karyawatiprahipertensi berusia 25-44 tahun di Surabaya bulan April – Juni 2013. Pemilihan subyek penelitian denganrandomisasi blok, 16 subyek tiap kelompok. Kelompok perlakuan (P mendapat air kelapa muda disertaipenyuluhan gizi, sedangkan kelompok kontrol (K mendapat air putih disertai penyuluhan gizi. Penilaianasupan kalium dengan food record 2x24 jam selama fase run in, minggu pertama, dan minggu kedua periodepenelitian. Food record dianalisis menggunakan nutrisurvey, dan kandungan kalium dalam air kelapa mudasegar dan air putih dianalisis dengan metode atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS.Hasil: Pada awal penelitian, rerata asupan kalium subyek 1420,28±405,54 mg/hari atau sekitar 30,22%± 8,63% dari angka kecukupan gizi (AKG. Selama perlakuan, didapatkan peningkatan asupan kaliumsebesar 2 kali lipat dan meningkat signifikan pada kelompok perlakuan, tetapi masih lebih rendah darirekomendasi AKG dan WHO.Kesimpulan: Pada perempuan prahipertensi, asupan kalium dikategorikan rendah, dan air kelapa mudasegar 300 ml dua kali sehari selama 14 hari berturut-turut dapat meningkatkan asupan kalium. (HealthScience Journal of Indonesia 2015;6:12-16Kata kunci: asupan kalium, air kelapa muda segar AbstractBackground: Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended intake of potassium.Tender coconut water (TCW is a typical drinks high in potassium. The study aimed to analyze potassiumintake in prehypertension subjects and to identify the

  3. Effect of supplementation of tender coconut water on blood pressure of primary hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullapalli HS, Avinash P Tekade, Namrata H Gullapalli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is a major health problem worldwide. Increased vascular resistance, sodium retention & sympathetic over activity contributes to the blood pressure elevation. Plant foods may be beneficial in decreasing blood pressure (BP. Recently much attention has been focused on plant foods that may be beneficial in preventing Hypertension, metabolic syndrome and possibly reduce the risk of various diseases. This clinical study was conducted to test the effectiveness of a structured intervention on BP of primary hypertensive subjects. Aim: To study the effect of Tender Coconut Water (TCW on BP of Primary hypertensive subjects. Methods and Material: 70 subjects were selected randomly sample for 6 weeks of the intervention program. Among them 40 subjects were selected as the experimental group and 30 300ml/day for 6 weeks whereas the control group was instructed to follow the same routine without modifications. One initial, two mid intervention (after every 15 days and one final (post intervention BP recorded for both the groups. The obtained data was statistically analyzed. Results: The mean systolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 145.8 mm Hg and 141mm of Hg to 135.3 mm of Hg and 140 mm of Hg respectively. The mean diastolic BP of experimental group and control group were decreased from 93.7 mm H g and 90.9 mmHg to 86.9 mm of Hg and 89.7 mm of Hg respectively. Conclusion: Irrespective of cause of hypertension TCW has beneficial effect on BP. TCW contains high amount of potassium which causes vasodilatation and also improve the endothelial function.

  4. High and low rigor temperature effects on sheep meat tenderness and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick E; Payne, Steven R; Peachey, Bridget M; Lowe, Timothy E; Ingram, John R; Cook, Christian J

    2002-02-01

    Immediately after electrical stimulation, the paired m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LT) of 40 sheep were boned out and wrapped tightly with a polyethylene cling film. One of the paired LT's was chilled in 15°C air to reach a rigor mortis (rigor) temperature of 18°C and the other side was placed in a water bath at 35°C and achieved rigor at this temperature. Wrapping reduced rigor shortening and mimicked meat left on the carcass. After rigor, the meat was aged at 15°C for 0, 8, 26 and 72 h and then frozen. The frozen meat was cooked to 75°C in an 85°C water bath and shear force values obtained from a 1×1 cm cross-section. The shear force values of meat for 18 and 35°C rigor were similar at zero ageing, but as ageing progressed, the 18 rigor meat aged faster and became more tender than meat that went into rigor at 35°C (Prigor at each ageing time were significantly different (Prigor were still significantly greater. Thus the toughness of 35°C meat was not a consequence of muscle shortening and appears to be due to both a faster rate of tenderisation and the meat tenderising to a greater extent at the lower temperature. The cook loss at 35°C rigor (30.5%) was greater than that at 18°C rigor (28.4%) (P<0.01) and the colour Hunter L values were higher at 35°C (P<0.01) compared with 18°C, but there were no significant differences in a or b values.

  5. Is bone tenderness, as measured by manual algometry, associated with vitamin D deficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresser, Jocelyn; MacIntyre, Mike; Chisholm, Brittney; Lawson, G E

    2014-09-01

    To explore the relationship between serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25[OH]D3) and pressure-pain thresholds, as measured by algometer, in advance of a main study to determine whether PPT is a potentially cost-effective proxy measure of 25[OH]D3 status in the general population. The cross-sectional pilot study involved a convenience sample of twenty-two subjects (10 males, 12 females), aged 18 to 67 years. All subjects consented to three trials of pressure-pain threshold readings on both tibiae and the manubrium. Serum 25[OH]D3 levels were determined from blood samples drawn post-algometry. The average pressure pain thresholds were 14.92 (±6.03), 15.07(±6.07), 11.10 (±6.68) for the left and right tibia and sternum, respectively. The stability between the measurements was very high with the interclass correlation coefficient (95% CI) calculated as 0.94 (0.62-1.00), 0.9 (0.81-1.00), 0.96(0.93-1.00). The Pearson correlation coefficients were 0.03 for the left tibia, 0.17 for the right tibia and 0.20 for the sternum, J Dresser, M MacIntyre, B Chisholm, GE Lawson showing a negligible correlation for the left and right tibia, but a low positive correlation for the sternum. We did not find preliminary evidence of a strong or otherwise clinically meaningful correlation between bone tenderness and manual algometry in this pilot study. Only a weak linear relationship between PPT in the sternum and serum 25[OH]D3 concentrations was found. Replication of this study is warranted in larger and more representative study populations of interest. Discussion on a number of feasibility issues is provided to inform those future studies.

  6. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  7. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  8. Evaluation of Fresh Food Internet Shopping in Korean Beef

    OpenAIRE

    金, 鍾和; 森高, 正博; 福田, 晋; Kim, Jong-hwa; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer reactions to the fresh food internet shopping on Korea beef. In the paper, we have analyzed an effective relation in consumer's perceived qualities, the evaluation of commodities and the evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. As a result, two effective relations were found. Firstly, consumer's perceived qualities affect the evaluation of commodities. Secondly, the evaluation of commodities affects t-he evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. This result...

  9. Electrophoretic comparison of nuclear and nucleolar proteins : I. Beef Pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, C.

    1961-01-01

    Nuclei and nucleoli, isolated from beef pancreas, are extracted with 0.14 M NaCl, 1 M NaCl and 0.1 N NaOH in the order given. The 0.14 M NaCl and 0.1 N NaOH extracts lend themselves to paper and agar electrophoresis and the electropherograms obtained from these extracts of nuclei and nucleoli are

  10. Assessing impacts of organic production on pork and beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Organic livestock farming is based on a low input production method, aiming to provide products of a high product and process quality rather than maximizing production. The production of a high meat quality corresponds to the expectations of consumers who are both seeking a premium product and who are willing to pay premium prices. This review focuses on the question of whether organic pork and beef production currently meet consumer demands, and it elaborates the potentials and limitations f...

  11. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p score interaction (p scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

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    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  13. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental verification of the possibility to estimate senzoric and quality parameters of beef with use of bioimpedance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, J.; Kadlec, R.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Bezdíček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 38-49 ISSN 0139-7265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : beef quality * biompedance * basic chemical composition of beef Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  15. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  16. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

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    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  17. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

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    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  18. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  20. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as