WorldWideScience

Sample records for beef loin steaks

  1. The effect of branding on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of knowing the brand or USDA grade on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks. Strip loins were selected to represent 5 USDA grades and brands, USDA Select, Choice, Prime, Certified Angus Beef (CAB; upper 2/3 Choice), and Select, from carcasses of cattle classified as Angus on the basis of phenotype. After 21 d of aging, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut, consecutively cut steaks were paired for consumer evaluation. Consumer panelists ( = 112) evaluated samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking. Additionally, consumers rated each palatability trait as either acceptable or unacceptable. Samples were fed in 2 rounds on the same day: blind and informed testing. In the first round, blind testing, consumers were served 1 sample from each treatment, with no product information provided. In the second round, consumers were informed of the brand or quality grade prior to sampling. During blind testing, CAB rated similar ( > 0.05) to Choice for all palatability traits; however, CAB rated greater ( 0.05) for all traits when tested blind, but Angus Select was rated greater ( brand was declared. When comparing blind and informed ratings, Angus Select and CAB had greater ( brand disclosure. However, ratings for Choice and Select samples were unaffected ( > 0.05) when brand was disclosed. Brand knowledge increased ( 0.05) in the percentage of Choice and Select samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits. These data indicate that Prime, CAB, and Angus Select steaks receive an increase in consumer palatability perception, or "brand lift," which does not occur for Choice and Select beef.

  2. Effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef top loin steak color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, A R; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of extended aging and modified atmospheric packaging on beef LM color. Using a randomized complete block design, each beef longissimus lumborum muscle ( = 10; USDA Choice, 3 d postmortem) was equally divided into 3 sections and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods (21, 42, or 62 d at 2°C). After respective aging, each loin section was cut into four 2.5-cm-thick steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging types (PVC, HiOx-MAP [80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide], or CO-MAP [0.4% carbon monoxide, 69.6% nitrogen, and 30% carbon dioxide]). The steaks were displayed under continuous fluorescent lighting for 6 d, and surface color was determined daily using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer and a visual panel. The fourth steak was used to characterize oxygen consumption (OC), lipid oxidation, and metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) on 21, 42, and 62 d (before display). On d 6 display, MRA, OC, and lipid oxidation also were measured. An increase in aging time decreased ( packaging × display time interaction ( packaging types on d 6. At all aging periods, steaks packaged in CO-MAP had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had the least MRA ( packaged in CO-MAP and displayed for 6 d. However, steaks packaged in HiOx-MAP and displayed 6 d had greater ( packaged in HiOx-MAP had a lower ( packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP when aged for 21 d and displayed 6 d. The results indicate that extended aging is detrimental to color stability when packaged in PVC and HiOx-MAP. However, steaks in CO-MAP had stable red color during display. Decreased color stability in PVC and HiOx-MAP could be associated, in part, with decreased MRA and OC.

  3. National Beef Tenderness Survey-2010: Warner-Bratzler shear force values and sensory panel ratings for beef steaks from United States retail and food service establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

    2013-02-01

    The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P food service steaks were greater (P Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred.

  4. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P affect any consumer evaluation traits or Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P > 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the

  5. VALUE OF BEEF STEAK BRANDING: HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF RETAIL SCANNER DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, Lee L.; Schroeder, Ted C.; White, Katharine L.

    2010-01-01

    Consumers rely on experience and credence attributes when purchasing beef from retailers. It is essential for all beef industry sectors to recognize the complexity of consumer buying behavior. A hedonic model is estimated to determine if there are incentives to brand beef steaks, the types of brands that entertain price premiums, and the level of existing premiums. Most branded steaks garnered premiums along with organic claims, religious processing claims, and premium cuts. Factors influenci...

  6. Effect of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program on moisture retention of cooked ground beef patties and enhanced strip loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and exogenous growth promotants (ExGP) on water holding capacity characteristics of enhanced beef strip loins. Sixty, frozen strip loins, arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement with dietary program serving as the first factor and use of ExGP as the second factor, were thawed, injected with an enhancement solution, and stored for 7 days. Loins from ExGP cattle possessed the ability to bind more (P water before pumping and bind less (P water after pumping and storage. Loin pH across treatments was similar (P > 0.10) before injection, but increased post-injection and after storage (P 0.10). The Programmed Nutrition Beef Program and use of ExGPs minimally impacted water holding capacity of enhanced frozen/thawed beef strip loins.

  7. Headspace volume and percentage of carbon monoxide affects carboxymyoglobin layer development of modified atmosphere packaged beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C

    2010-01-01

    Carboxymyoglobin (COMb) development of beef Longissimus lumborum as related to molecular CO availability and package headspace volume was evaluated. Steaks from six pairs of USDA Select strip loins were packaged in modified atmosphere packages with 0.2%, 0.4%, or 0.8% CO and 30% CO(2) and balanced with N(2) to obtain meat-to-gas ratios of 0.4, 0.7, and 1.1, and CO molar concentrations of 0.07, 0.10, and 0.20 mMol. Steak redness (CIE a*), COMb layer thickness, percentage of CO in the headspace, visual display color, and bloom intensity scores were evaluated 4 and 7 d after packaging. Greater concentration of CO in a smaller headspace resulted in a thicker COMb layer compared with lesser concentration of CO in a larger headspace, regardless of moles CO available. The combined effects of concentration of CO and headspace volume had a greater impact on COMb development than millimoles of CO in the package headspace. Package headspace can be reduced and the concentration of CO can be increased without detriment to fresh beef color or consumer safety.

  8. Beef customer satisfaction: USDA quality grade and marination effects on consumer evaluations of top round steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-03-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of top round steaks (semimembranosus) as influenced by USDA quality grade (top Choice or high Select), city (Chicago or Philadelphia), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef; budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and marination. Consumers evaluated each steak for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales (1 = dislike extremely, not at all tender, not at all juicy, dislike extremely, and none at all to 10 = like extremely, extremely tender, extremely juicy, like extremely, and an extreme amount of flavor, respectively). Quality grade affected several consumer sensory traits, with top Choice receiving higher (P Consumers in Chicago rated steaks cooked "medium and less" higher for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount than those in Philadelphia (city x degree of doneness; P customers in Philadelphia received among the highest scores for overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount compared with any cooking method used by customers in Chicago (cooking method x city; P customers' satisfaction with top round steaks, and was the sensory trait most highly correlated to overall like, followed by tenderness, flavor amount, and juiciness. Preparation of top round steaks was crucial in consumers' likes and dislikes, and by improving flavor, higher consumer satisfaction may be achieved.

  9. Influence of PA6 nanocomposite films on the stability of vacuum-aged beef loins during storage in modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picouet, P A; Fernandez, A; Realini, C E; Lloret, E

    2014-01-01

    A masterbatch of polyamide 6 (PA6) containing dispersed nanoclays, was used to fabricate a novel multilayer film for vacuum packed meat. Performance of the nanocomposite was compared to a control PA6 multilayer and a high barrier commercial film. Addition of nanoclays improved oxygen barrier properties, UV-blocking capability and stiffness. Beef loins were vacuum-aged using the three films for 0 7, 14 and 21 days at 2°C. After each ageing time, beef steaks were packaged in commercial trays and high oxygen atmosphere and stored at 4°C for 9 days. Beef quality parameters and gas content were studied during display time in MAP (1, 3, 6 and 9 d). Beef quality parameters were not influenced by the packaging materials used during ageing and the performance of nanocomposites was comparable to high barrier films. Ageing had a positive impact on the stabilization of redness up to day 6 in MAP. Thereafter, oxymyoglobin content and oxidation levels were negatively influenced by ageing. © 2013.

  10. Scandinavian consumer preference for beef steaks packed with or without oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaslyng, M D; Tørngren, M A; Madsen, N T

    2010-07-01

    Beef steaks retail-packed with (80% O(2), 20% CO(2)) or without oxygen (either skin-packed or gas-packed (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO or 70% N(2), 30% CO(2))) were compared by consumers in Denmark (n=382), Norway (n=316) and Sweden (n=374). Two pairs of two steaks - one steak packed in a high oxygen atmosphere and one packed without oxygen - were given to the consumers. They were instructed to prepare the steaks at home on two consecutive days, and two persons had to taste each steak. In Denmark, the oxygen-free packing was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)), in Norway it was either gas packing with CO (69.6% N(2), 30% CO(2), 0.04% CO) or skin packing, and in Sweden it was either skin packing or gas packing without CO (70% N(2), 30% CO(2)). The meat represented animals that were between 17 and 80 months old (Denmark) and young bulls (Norway and Sweden). Consumers in all three countries clearly preferred steaks packed without oxygen, in terms of overall liking, willingness to pay and their preferred choice of one steak. Furthermore, they preferred the oxygen-free steaks in terms of both overall liking and liking of tenderness, juiciness and flavour. In Sweden, many consumers would pay more than usual for the skin-packed steak, and it was more often chosen as the preferred steak out of the four compared with gas-packed without oxygen. No difference was seen between the two oxygen-free packing methods in Denmark and Norway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of calcium chloride-injected top sirloin steaks when given instructions for preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrends, J M; Goodson, K J; Koohmaraie, M; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether instructions can help consumers properly prepare top sirloin steaks and to evaluate the use of calcium chloride injection to decrease the sensitivity of top sirloin steaks to degree of doneness, thereby improving customer satisfaction ratings. An in-home study evaluated top sirloin steaks (gluteus medius) as influenced by calcium chloride injection (injected vs. noninjected), consumer segment (beef loyalists = heavy consumers of beef, budget rotators = cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken, and variety rotators = higher incomes and education and split meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, cooking method, and instructions (given vs. not given). Consumers evaluated overall like, tenderness, juiciness, flavor like, and flavor amount using 10-point scales. Beef loyalists consistently rated steaks higher for overall like, juiciness, and flavor when instructions were provided (P satisfaction, and beef loyalists benefited the most from providing cooking instructions.

  12. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2009-01-01

    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the

  13. Physicochemical Characteristics of Protein-Enriched Restructured Beef Steaks with Phosphates, Transglutaminase, and Elasticised Package Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sephora Baugreet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Restructured beef steaks were formulated by adding protein-rich ingredients (pea protein isolate (PPI, rice protein (RP, and lentil flour (LF (at 4 and 8%, phosphate (0.2%, and two binding agents: 1% (TG and 0.15% (TS. The effects of their addition on the physicochemical properties of the beef steaks were investigated. Protein content of the RP8TG sample was significantly higher than that of the control in both the raw and cooked state. Raw LF4TS exhibited greater (P<0.01 a∗ values than the control; however, after the cooking process, L∗, a∗, and b∗ values were similar for all treatments. Textural assessment showed that elevating protein level increased (P<0.001 hardness, chewiness, cohesiveness, and gumminess in cooked restructured steaks. LF addition reduced all textural values assessed, indicating a strong plant protein effect on texture modification. The commercial binder produced a better bind in combination with protein ingredients. This facilitated the production of uniformed restructured beef steaks from low-value beef muscles with acceptable quality parameters using a novel process technology.

  14. Chemical Composition and Storage Stability of Beef burger Steaks as Influenced by Cooking and Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfik, S.S.; El kabbani, H.M.; Sallam, M.H.; Attia, A.I.

    2007-01-01

    Meat industry in Egypt has a great economic potential, but till now it has not received adequate attention. Beef burgers were prepared (50 g, 1 cm thick steaks) and aerobically packaged into polyethylene pages then divided into control, cooking and gamma-irradiated (3 and 4 kGy) groups. Samples stored at (5±degree c) and periodically judged after 5, 10, 15, 20,25 and 30 days. The results showed that irradiation increased the shelf life of stored cooked beef burger, as compared to control samples. In addition, the dose of 3 kGy is considered the most adequate for irradiation of this meat product because it obtained the same results reflected by 4 kGy. The microbiological, chemical and sensorial testing for stored cooking and irradiated beef burger steaks were examined according an experimental design presented conditions that were adequate for human consumption of this product during the refrigeration storage periods. For the non-irradiated beef burger samples, bacterial contamination was the main limiting factor with respect to the shelf life, whereas for the irradiated beef burger samples this factor was lipid oxidation. Conclusion: The cooking before food irradiation may be of practical efficacy in enhancing the technical effectiveness and feasibility of irradiation of a variety of meat products. Recommendation: The necessity for a proper preservation method for marketing the processing beef burger steaks in each of its numerous retail markets should be established central irradiation units for processing and packing before distribution in these retail markets

  15. Consumer assessment of beef tenderloin steaks from various USDA quality grades at 3 degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, Travis G; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F

    2015-02-01

    A consumer study was conducted to determine palatability ratings of beef tenderloin steaks from USDA Choice, USDA Select, and USDA Select with marbling scores from Slight 50 to 100 (USDA High Select) cooked to various degrees of doneness. Steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 degree of doneness categories: very-rare, medium-rare, or well-done. Consumers (N = 315) were screened for preference of degree of doneness and fed 4 samples of their preferred doneness (a warm-up and one from each USDA quality grade treatment in a random order). Consumers evaluated steaks on an 8-point verbally anchored hedonic scale for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like as well as rated steaks as acceptable or unacceptable for all palatability traits. Quality grade had no effect (P > 0.05) on consumer ratings for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like scores, with all traits averaging above a 7 ("like very much") on the 8-point scale. In addition, no differences (P > 0.05) were found in the percentage of samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits, with more than 94% of samples rated acceptable for each trait in all quality grades evaluated. Steaks cooked to well-done had lower (P Choice and Select quality grades. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Consumer and trained panel evaluation of beef strip steaks of varying marbling and enhancement levels cooked to three degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherk, L W; O'Quinn, T G; Legako, J F; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-12-01

    The palatability of USDA graded beef strip loins of seven treatments [High Enhanced (HE: 112% of raw weight) Select, Low Enhanced (LE: 107% of raw weight) Select, Prime, upper 2/3 Choice (Top Choice), lower 1/3 Choice (Low Choice), Select, and Standard] cooked to three degrees of doneness [DOD; rare (60°C), medium (71°C), or well-done (77°C)] was evaluated by consumer and trained sensory panelists. For consumers, Select HE steaks rated higher (P0.05) were observed between Select LE and Prime samples for most traits evaluated. The effect of USDA grade and enhancement on trained panel palatability scores was independent of DOD for all traits other than juiciness, with the role of marbling in juiciness increasing as DOD increased from rare to well-done. These results indicate enhancement as an effective method to improve the palatability of lower grading beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feeding period for dry cull cows on carcass quality, meat quality, and consumer reactions to loin steaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels T.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having a considera......A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having...... thoroughly. The present study comprise two trials. The results of both the first and second trail, including 62 cows in 2002, are reported here....

  18. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, T R; Lorenzen, C L; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O; Savell, J W

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top round steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top round steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing consistently produced higher consumer attribute ratings. There were clear OLIKE rating differences (P = .0001) for top round steaks among the four cities. The highest ratings were given by consumers in Houston, and the lowest ratings were given by consumers in Philadelphia (P Customer satisfaction with the top round steak is very dependent on how it is cooked and by whom it is consumed.

  19. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  1. Prediction of troponin-T degradation using color image texture features in 10d aged beef longissimus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Berg, E P; Newman, D J; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Maddock Carlin, K R

    2014-02-01

    The objective was to use digital color image texture features to predict troponin-T degradation in beef. Image texture features, including 88 gray level co-occurrence texture features, 81 two-dimension fast Fourier transformation texture features, and 48 Gabor wavelet filter texture features, were extracted from color images of beef strip steaks (longissimus dorsi, n = 102) aged for 10d obtained using a digital camera and additional lighting. Steaks were designated degraded or not-degraded based on troponin-T degradation determined on d 3 and d 10 postmortem by immunoblotting. Statistical analysis (STEPWISE regression model) and artificial neural network (support vector machine model, SVM) methods were designed to classify protein degradation. The d 3 and d 10 STEPWISE models were 94% and 86% accurate, respectively, while the d 3 and d 10 SVM models were 63% and 71%, respectively, in predicting protein degradation in aged meat. STEPWISE and SVM models based on image texture features show potential to predict troponin-T degradation in meat. © 2013.

  2. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and quality changes after irradiation of beef steaks and ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, A.H.; Sebranek, J.G.; Murano, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Beef steaks and ground beef were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were packaged in air or under vacuum and irradiated at low (0.60 to 0.80 kGy) or medium (1.5 to 2.0 kGy) doses, with each dose delivered at either a low (2.8 M/min conveyor speed) or high (6.9 M/min) dose rate. Medium-dose irradiation accompanied by 7 degrees C storage resulted in no Y. enterocolitica or E. coli O157:H7 survivors being detected. There was no effect on survival of the pathogens by dose rate or storage atmosphere. No difference (P0.05) was observed in meat pH or color, but TBA values increased after 7 days storage

  3. Consumer attitudes towards beef and acceptability of enhanced beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, K; Jensen, J; Ryan, K J; Homco-Ryan, C; McKeith, F K; Brewer, M S

    2003-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate consumer quality characteristics of enhanced steaks and roasts derived from cattle supplemented with vitamin E during finishing, and to assess the attitudes of these consumers towards beef. Twelve steers were fed either a control (E-) diet or a diet supplemented with dl-alpha tocopheryl acetate (E+). Paired strip loins and rounds were either used as controls (C) or were pumped (P) to 110% of raw weight to contain 0.4% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate in the final product. Consumers (n=103) evaluated roasts and steaks for juiciness, tenderness, saltiness, and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic scale. Enhanced steaks and roasts were more acceptable than non-enhanced controls; E+ steaks were less acceptable than E- steaks. A beef quality questionnaire revealed that color, price, visible fat and cut were the most important factors underlying beef steak purchase, while tenderness, flavor and juiciness were weighted most heavily with regard to eating satisfaction.

  4. Effects of moisture enhancement, enzyme treatment, and blade tenderization on the processing characteristics and tenderness of beef semimembranosus steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

    2011-05-01

    The individual and combined effects of moisture enhancement with a salt/phosphate solution (ME), blade tenderization (BT), and enzyme injection with proteinases derived from Aspergillus oryzae or Bacillus subtilis on cooking properties, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and sensory characteristics of beef semimembranosus were investigated. ME significantly (P < 0.01) reduced WBSF and increased (P < 0.05) sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness. BT increased (P < 0.05) initial and overall tenderness scores and made connective tissue less perceptible. BT combined with ME resulted in the highest initial and overall tenderness scores, however, combining ME with either proteinase was as effective for reducing WBSF and increasing tenderness, particularly at 20 (vs. 10) ppm enzyme inclusion. Tenderness of enzyme-injected steaks was increased without compromising other palatability attributes. All treatments increased the frequency of steaks rated slightly tender or higher, with the ME+BT combination, or ME with inclusion of 20 ppm of either proteinase, being most effective. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus groups...... and of an extended form of conjoint analysis which allows an estimation of means-end structures. Tradition and security, variation, atmosphere and social life, health, acceptance from family/children/guests, nutrition, demonstration of cooking abilities, and status are the most important purchasing motives in all...... four countries. The most important quality aspects of beef are that it tastes good, is tender, juicy, fresh, lean, healthy and nutritious. Purchasing motives as well as quality aspects are uni-dimensional in Germany, Spain, and the UK, while they are multi-dimensional in France. Place of purchase...

  6. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus groups and of an extended form of conjoint analysis which enables an estimatation of means-end structures. 2. Tradition and security, variation, atmosphere and social life, health, acceptance from fa...

  7. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    Executive summary 1. With the Total Food Quality Model as point of departure, a study is described which analyses how consumers evaluate the quality of beef in a purchase situation in four European countries: France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. The study consisted of a series of focus......-dimensional in France. This implies that French consumers have a more sophisticated purchasing behaviour than consumers in the other countries. 5. Place of purchase and quality perception are related in all four countries, ie the butcher is regarded as a sort of guarantor of high quality. This applies less in the UK...

  8. Visible and near infrared spectroscopy as an authentication tool: Preliminary investigation of the prediction of the ageing time of beef steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lara; Andres, Sonia; Allen, Paul; Moloney, Aidan P

    2018-08-01

    Visible-near infrared spectroscopy (Vis-NIRS) has been suggested to have potential for authentication of food products. The aim of the present preliminary study was to assess if this technology can be used to authenticate the ageing time (3, 7, 14 and 21 days post mortem) of beef steaks from three different muscles (M. Longissimus thoracis, M. Gluteus medius and M. Semitendinosus). Various mathematical pre-treatments were applied to the spectra to correct scattering and overlapping effects, and then partial least squares-discrimination analysis (PLS-DA) procedures applied. The best models were specific for each muscle, and the ability of prediction of ageing time was validated using full (leave-one-out) cross-validation, whereas authentication performance was evaluated using the parameters of sensitivity, specificity and overall correct classification. The results indicate that overall correct classification ranging from 94.2 to 100% was achieved, depending on the muscle. In conclusion, Vis-NIRS technology seems a valid tool for the authentication of ageing time of beef steaks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Ppurple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  10. Consumer sensory evaluation and chemical composition of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii steaks from cattle finished on forage or concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of cattle finishing diet and muscle type on meat quality. Consumer sensory response, proximate composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were assessed from the gluteus medius (GM) and triceps brachii (TB) muscles of cattle ( = 6 per diet) which were grain-finished (USUGrain) on conventional feedlot or 2 forage diets, a perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil-finished (USUBFT; ), and grass-finished (USUGrass; ). Diet had an interacting effect with muscle for all sensory attributes ( ≤ 0.002), except aroma and flavor ( ≥ 0.078). In forage-finished beef, tenderness, fattiness, overall liking, and WBSF tenderness of GM was greater ( 0.05) but the juiciness of TB was more liked than USUGrain GM ( 0.05) between GM and TB. Lower ( 0.05) to both USUGrass and USUGrain beef. However, IMF percent was not impacted by muscle type ( = 0.092). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by muscle dependent on diet ( = 0.016). The ratio of -6:-3 fatty acids was affected by the interaction of muscle × diet ( = 0.016). Between forage diets (USUGrass and USUBFT), -6:-3 ratios were similar ( > 0.05) between GM and TB, whereas within USUGrain, the GM was greater ( 0.05). Strecker aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, and methional were affected ( ≤ 0.036) by muscle and found to have a greater concentration in GM compared with TB. Overall, consumers determined that USUGrain GM and TB had similar ( > 0.05) quality ratings. However, within forage-finished beef, the GM was perceived more frequently ( consumer group grilled GM and TB steaks, grain-finished beef provided more uniform quality and eating experience compared with forage-finished beef.

  11. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  12. Influence of early postmortem protein oxidation on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, L J; Maddock, K R; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of early postmortem protein oxidation on the color and tenderness of beef steaks. To obtain a range of oxidation levels, the longissimus lumborum muscles (LM) from both strip loins of 20 steers fed either a finishing diet with vitamin E (1,000 IU per steer daily, minimum of 126 d [VITE]; n = 10 steers) or fed the same finishing diet without vitamin E (CON; n = 10 steers) were used. Within 24 h after slaughter, the LM muscle from each carcass was cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks and individually vacuum packaged. Steaks from each steer were assigned to a nonirradiated group or an irradiated group. Steaks were irradiated within 26 h postmortem, and were aged at 4 degrees C for 0, 1, 3, 7, and 14 d after irradiation. Steaks from each diet/irradiation/aging time treatment were used to determine color, shear force, and degree of protein oxidation (carbonyl content). Steaks from steers fed the VITE diet had higher (P irradiation, steaks that had been irradiated had lower (P Irradiated steaks, regardless of diet, had lower a* (P irradiated steaks compared to nonirradiated steaks at 0, 1, 3, and 7 d postirradiation. Immunoblot analysis showed that vitamin E supplementation decreased the number and extent of oxidized sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein carbonyl content was positively correlated with Warner-Bratzler shear force values. These results indicate that increased oxidation of muscle proteins early postmortem could have negative effects on fresh meat color and tenderness.

  13. The effects of atmospheric pressure cold plasma treatment on microbiological, physical-chemical and sensory characteristics of vacuum packaged beef loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Ni, Y; Bauer, S; Paulsen, P; Modic, M; Walsh, J L; Smulders, F J M

    2017-06-01

    Effects on vacuum packaged and non-packaged beef longissimus samples exposed to atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) generated at different powers were studied over a 10day period of vacuum-, and a subsequent 3day period of aerobic storage. Exposure of non-covered beef samples under high power ACP conditions resulted in increased a*, b*, Chroma and Hue values, but ACP treatment of packaged loins did not impact colour (L*, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue), lipid peroxidation, sarcoplasmic protein denaturation, nitrate/nitrite uptake, or myoglobin isoform distribution. Colour values measured after 3days of aerobic storage following unpackaging (i.e. 20days post-mortem) were similar and all compliant with consumer acceptability standards. Exposure to ACP of the polyamide-polyethylene packaging film inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and two Escherichia coli strains resulted in >2 log reduction without affecting the integrity of the packaging matrix. Results indicate that ACP can reduce microbial numbers on surfaces of beef packages without affecting characteristics of the packaged beef. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative study of mineral composition of beef steak and pork chops depending on the thermal preparation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goran, Gheorghe Valentin; Tudoreanu, Liliana; Rotaru, Elena; Crivineanu, Victor

    2016-08-01

    This study focuses on the effects of three different thermal preparation methods (roasting, boiling, and microwave cooking) on the mineral concentrations of beef and pork, as well as on the comparison of mineral levels between these two types of meat. In this study, raw and cooked beef and pork samples were selected and analyzed by ICP-OES in order to determine mineral concentrations. In general, thermal preparation clearly increased mineral concentrations in cooked samples compared to raw meat. The highest mineral concentration was identified in the roasted samples. Trace element concentrations in beef were significantly higher compared to pork. In pork, Na concentration decreased in all samples, suggesting that Na is lost with water. Zn mean content in cooked beef samples registered significant differences compared to pork cooked samples. The percentage of water loss during the microwave thermal preparation for beef samples was higher than the other two treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Postrigor citric acid enhancement can alter cooked color but not fresh color of dark-cutting beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, R J; Apple, J K; Yancey, J W S; Keys, C A; Johnson, T M; Mehall, L N

    2016-04-01

    In 2 experiments, dark-cutting (DC) beef strip loins were used to test the effects of citric acid-enhancement pH on visual and instrumental color of fresh and cooked steaks. In Exp. 1 and 2, each DC (mean pH = 6.57 and 6.65, respectively) and normal-pH, low USDA Choice (CH; mean pH = 5.48 and 5.51, respectively) strip loin was cut into 2 equal-length sections, and DC sections were injected to 111% of raw section weight with pH 3.5 to 5.0 (Exp. 1) or pH 2.0 to 3.5 (Exp. 2) solutions made by mixing citric acid in either 0.05% orthophosphate (PO) solution or tap water (HO) base solutions (Exp. 1) and 0.5% PO or 0.5% tripolyphosphate solution base solutions (Exp. 2). After enhancement, sections were cut into steaks, which were assigned to either 5 d of simulated retail display or cooked to 71°C for cooked color measurement. Postenhancement pH of DC steaks enhanced with pH 3.5 to 5.0 solutions did not ( ≥ 0.180) differ from that of nonenhanced DC steaks (Exp. 1) but linearly decreased ( citric acid enhancement over untreated DC steaks during the first 3 d of display, fresh steak color never ( citric acid enhancement solutions, regardless of base solution, were insufficient to improve the fresh color of DC beef; however, enhancement with pH 2.5 citric acid solutions effectively eliminated the persistent red cooked color typically associated with DC beef comparable with that of normal-pH beef.

  16. Effects of forage level in feedlot finishing diets on carcass characteristics and palatability of Jersey beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, E J; Fluharty, F L; Loerch, S C; Zerby, H N; Zinn, R A; Kuber, P S

    2012-03-01

    Jersey cattle are known for producing carcasses with a greater amount of marbling, but they require more days on feed to achieve acceptable market weights compared with other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary forage (12 vs. 24% sudangrass:alfalfa hay, DM basis) in steam-flaked, corn-based finishing diets on carcass characteristics, beef palatability, and retail color stability of steaks from Jersey beef compared with conventionally fed commodity beef strip loins (COM) of identified quality (Choice(-) and Select(+)). Jersey steers (n = 77) were blocked by BW and randomly assigned to 1 of the following treatments for a 383-d trial period: Jersey low 12% (JL; n = 38) or Jersey high 24% (JH; n = 39) forage (DM basis). A comparison group was selected from conventionally fed cattle on the same day of slaughter as the Jersey treatments, and strip loins from USDA Select(+) (COM; n = 20) and Choice(-) (COM; n = 20) were removed for data analysis. Seventy-two hours postmortem, strip loins were removed, vacuum-packaged, and aged at 3°C for 18 d postmortem. After the aging period, steaks from the LM were sliced, vacuum-packaged, and frozen (-20°C) until analyzed. Jersey steaks had reduced (P forage level had minimal effects on carcass characteristics and beef palatability. However, feeding a low-forage diet decreases input cost and potentially results in a greater valued carcass. Finishing long-fed (383 d) Jersey steers can meet beef industry expectations with respect to quality grade.

  17. Consumer profile and acceptability of cooked beef steaks with edible and active coating containing oregano and rosemary essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Kempinski, Emilia Maria Barbosa Carvalho; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Sary, Cesar; Ramos, Tatiane Rogelio; Campo, María Del Mar; Prado, Ivanor Nunes do

    2018-09-01

    Fresh animal products are highly perishable and characterized by a short shelf-life. Edible coatings with natural antioxidants (essential oils: EOs) could improve stability, ensure quality, and increase the shelf-life of fresh products. Due to the strong flavor of EOs, their use should consider consumer preferences and sensory acceptability. This study evaluated the effects of edible coating (with oregano and rosemary essential oil) on beef in relation to consumer preferences, besides the determination of habits of consumption and buying intentions of consumers. Acceptability scores from three clusters of consumers was described. Coating with oregano was the preferred. The higher consumer acceptance and willingness to buy this product indicate a great potential and possibility of using coatings with essential oils in fresh animal products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Loin pain hematuria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taba Taba Vakili, Sahar; Alam, Tausif; Sollinger, Hans

    2014-09-01

    Loin pain hematuria syndrome is a rare disease with a prevalence of ∼0.012%. The most prominent clinical features include periods of severe intermittent or persistent unilateral or bilateral loin pain accompanied by either microscopic or gross hematuria. Patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome initially present with hematuria, flank pain, or most often both hematuria and flank pain. Kidney biopsies from patients with loin pain hematuria typically reveal only minor pathologic abnormalities. Further, loin pain hematuria syndrome is not associated with loss of kidney function or urinary tract infections. Loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated hematuria and pain are postulated to be linked to vascular disease of the kidney, coagulopathy, renal vasospasm with microinfarction, hypersensitivity, complement activation on arterioles, venocalyceal fistula, abnormal ureteral peristalsis, and intratubular deposition of calcium or uric acid microcrystals. Many patients with loin pain hematuria syndrome also meet criteria for a somatoform disorder, and analgesic medications, including narcotics, commonly are used to treat loin pain hematuria syndrome-associated pain. Interventional treatments include renal denervation, kidney autotransplantation, and nephrectomy; however, these methods should be used only as a last resort when less invasive measures have been tried unsuccessfully. In this review article, we discuss and critique current clinical practices related to loin pain hematuria syndrome pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W

    2001-12-01

    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  20. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2015-10-01

    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. Demand for forage-finished beef has increased worldwide due to its potential health benefits. Little is known regarding the cross-cultural effects on the consumer acceptance of forage-finished beef. We evaluated sensory acceptance and purchase intent of raw and cooked forage-finished rib-eye steaks using Hispanic, Asian, and U.S. (White and African American) populations. This study

  1. Improving the lean muscle color of dark-cutting beef by aging, antioxidant-enhancement, and modified atmospheric packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, K M; Mitacek, R M; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Jaroni, D; Jadeja, R; Ramanathan, R

    2017-12-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effects of wet-aging, rosemary-enhancement, and modified atmospheric packaging on the color of dark-cutting beef during simulated retail display. No-roll dark-cutting strip loins ( = 12; pH > 6.0) were selected from a commercial packing plant within 3 d postharvest. Using a balanced incomplete block design, dark-cutting loins were sectioned in half, and assigned to 1 of 3 aging periods: 7, 14, or 21 d. After respective aging, each aged section was divided into 3 equal parts, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 enhancement treatments: nonenhanced dark-cutting, dark-cutter enhanced with 0.1% rosemary, and dark-cutter enhanced with 0.2% rosemary. Following enhancement, steaks were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 packaging treatments: high-oxygen modified atmospheric packaging (HiOx-MAP; 80% O and 20% CO), carbon monoxide modified atmospheric packaging (CO-MAP; 0.4% CO, 69.6% N, and 30% CO), and polyvinyl chloride overwrap (PVC; 20% O). Instrumental and visual color measurements were recorded during 5 d simulated retail display. Lipid oxidation was determined utilizing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) method. There was a significant packaging × enhancement × display time interaction for values and chroma ( 0.001). On d 0 of display, dark-cutting steaks enhanced with 0.1% and 0.2% rosemary and packaged in HiOx-MAP had greater ( 0.001) values and chroma than other dark-cutting packaging/enhancement treatments. A significant packaging × enhancement × display time interaction resulted for values ( 0.001). Dark-cutting steaks enhanced with 0.2% rosemary and packaged in HiOx-MAP was lighter ( 0.001; greater values) than other dark-cutting treatments on d 5 of display. There were no differences ( 0.34) in discoloration scores on d 5 among different dark-cutting treatments when steaks were packaged in HiOx- and CO-MAP. There was an aging period × enhancement × packaging interaction ( cutting steaks enhanced with 0.2% rosemary

  2. Mutagenicity of basic fractions derived from lamb and beef cooked by common household methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, P J; Baker, R S; Truswell, A S; Bonin, A M; Ryan, A J; Paulin, A P

    1990-03-01

    Mutagen production was examined in lamb and beef in relation to certain common household cooking methods. Mutagenicity was assessed, after extraction of the basic fraction of cooked meat samples, using Salmonella typhimurium strain TA1538 with added rat-liver S-9 homogenate. Little or no mutagenicity was found in barbecued lamb chops, in microwave-cooked lamb chops, sirloin steak, leg of lamb, or rolled beef loaf, in roasted leg of lamb or rolled beef loaf, in stewed blade steak or in boiled chuck steak. However, the basic fraction from well-done, edible fried or grilled meat contained mutagenic activity equivalent to approximately 30,000 TA1538 revertants/100 g cooked meat. It was found tht the mutagenic activity of grilled lamb chops, sirloin and rump steaks was directly related to the average surface temperatures attained during cooking. Use of butter as a frying medium was particularly associated with higher mutagenicity in meat samples. Fried meats (rump and fillet steaks) generally yielded higher mutagenic activity than did grilled meats (rump steak, lamb chops) at comparable temperatures of the cooking medium. Using similar cooking procedures, lamb did not differ markedly from beef in mutagenic activity.

  3. Physical and sensory characterization and consumer preference of corn and barley-fed beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wismer, W V; Okine, E K; Stein, A; Seibel, M R; Goonewardene, L A

    2008-11-01

    Steaks from corn-fed and barley-fed beef were characterized by a trained panel, which rated corn-fed beef higher (pconsumers preferred (pconsumers showed no preference (p>0.05) for either type of finished beef. Japanese consumers showed a preference (ppreference for cooked corn-fed steaks (p0.05) were observed for Warner-Bratzler shear, marbling scores, cooking losses or Hunter colorimeter values. There was a trend for higher concentrations (p0.10) in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. Quality properties of pre- and post-rigor beef muscle after interventions with high frequency ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikes, Anita L; Mawson, Raymond; Stark, Janet; Warner, Robyn

    2014-11-01

    The delivery of a consistent quality product to the consumer is vitally important for the food industry. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for using high frequency ultrasound applied to pre- and post-rigor beef muscle on the metabolism and subsequent quality. High frequency ultrasound (600kHz at 48kPa and 65kPa acoustic pressure) applied to post-rigor beef striploin steaks resulted in no significant effect on the texture (peak force value) of cooked steaks as measured by a Tenderometer. There was no added benefit of ultrasound treatment above that of the normal ageing process after ageing of the steaks for 7days at 4°C. Ultrasound treatment of post-rigor beef steaks resulted in a darkening of fresh steaks but after ageing for 7days at 4°C, the ultrasound-treated steaks were similar in colour to that of the aged, untreated steaks. High frequency ultrasound (2MHz at 48kPa acoustic pressure) applied to pre-rigor beef neck muscle had no effect on the pH, but the calculated exhaustion factor suggested that there was some effect on metabolism and actin-myosin interaction. However, the resultant texture of cooked, ultrasound-treated muscle was lower in tenderness compared to the control sample. After ageing for 3weeks at 0°C, the ultrasound-treated samples had the same peak force value as the control. High frequency ultrasound had no significant effect on the colour parameters of pre-rigor beef neck muscle. This proof-of-concept study showed no effect of ultrasound on quality but did indicate that the application of high frequency ultrasound to pre-rigor beef muscle shows potential for modifying ATP turnover and further investigation is warranted. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An explorative study on pork loin recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Hviid, Marchen Sonja; Larsen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Bag-of-words (BoW) image description has shown good performance for a large variety of image recognition scenarios. We investigate approaches to alleviating a standard BoW image description pipeline representations for the specific task of recognizing pork loins. Specifically, we extend the Bo...

  6. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HYPNOTHERAPY INTERVENTION FOR LOIN PAIN HEMATURIA: A CASE STUDY1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R.; Koep, Lauren L.; Kendrick, Cassie E.

    2012-01-01

    Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer-term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions—including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, end-point, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms. PMID:22098573

  8. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  10. Tenderness and taste qualification of red brangus beef in Mexico / Suavidad y aceptabilidad de la carne de bovinos brangus rojo en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaspar Manuel Parra-Bracamonte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF of Red Brangus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, doneness and general acceptance of the evaluated steaks. Mean WBSF was 5.03 kg ± 0.93 kg, theoretically indicating a tough beef. The distribution of the samples showed 21 % and 11 % of moderately tender and tender beef cuts, respectively. Cattle condition (bulls and steers was not significant for the WBSF (p > 0.5. All the traits evaluated in the hedonic evaluation had approximately 6 points of a total of 8 (8 was best. Tenderness, juiciness and flavor presented a high and significant correlation (p < 0.5. None of the subjective traits was correlated with total acceptance. Under theoretical criteria, tender Red Brangus beef cuts are infrequent; however the beef has a good acceptance. Characterization studies may be necessary and useful to create marketing niches specific for this and other cattle breeds.

  11. Meat quality and health implications of organic and conventional beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihiro, S; Stergiadis, S; Leifert, C; Eyre, M D; Butler, G

    2015-02-01

    Recommendation to reduce fat consumption from ruminant meat does not consider the contribution of nutritionally beneficial fatty acids in lean beef. Here we report effects of production system (organic vs conventional) and finishing season on meat and fat quality of sirloin steaks from retail outlets and simulated fatty acid intakes by consumers. There was little difference in meat quality (pH, shear force and colour), but the fat profiles varied considerably between production systems and season. Meat fat from organic and summer finished cattle contained higher concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid, its precursor vaccenic acid and individual omega-3 fatty acids and had a lower ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids compared with non-organic and winter finished cattle respectively. The fat profile from summer finished organic beef aligns better to recommended dietary guideline including those for long chain omega-3 fatty acids compared with that from winter finished, non-organic steak.

  12. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  13. Clinical characteristics of acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal vasoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeonghwan Lee

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: ARF with severe loin pain and PRV can present with loin or abdominal pain, even without a history of anaerobic exercise. Careful history taking and appropriate imaging studies are critical in the diagnosis and management of this syndrome.

  14. Mexican consumers at the point of meat purchase. Beef choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngapo, T M; Braña Varela, D; Rubio Lozano, M S

    2017-12-01

    Within-consumer preference replication achieved through systematic image manipulation was used in consumer surveys in four cities across Mexico (Mexico City, n=195; Guadalajara, n=100; Hermosillo, n=132; Veracruz, n=61) to study beef preferences. Images of beef steaks controlled for lean and fat colour, fat cover and marbling were presented to consumers to determine the characteristics used in beef choice and the levels of preference of these characteristics. The most important choice criteria were fat cover (62% preferring little fat cover) and marbling (59% preferring non-marbled). Lean colour was also important with 24% and 29% choosing light and dark red beef, respectively. Fat colour was the least important of the four attributes studied (18% and 19% choosing white and yellow, respectively), but was nevertheless important given that 43% of consumers used three or four characteristics to make their choice. Imported and domestic beef in the Mexican marketplace appear to respond to the range of consumers' beef preferences at the point of purchase. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of inactivation of foodborne pathogens during simulated home pan frying of steak, hamburger or meat strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahou, Evy; Wang, Xiang; De Boeck, Elien; Verguldt, Elien; Geeraerd, Annemie; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-03

    In order to evaluate the effect of simulated home pan frying of raw meat and meat preparations of different animal species on the thermal inactivation of pathogens, the heat resistance (D-value) of three strains of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and two strains of generic E. coli was validated in BHI and adjusted BHI (i.e. pH5.6 and 1.5% NaCl) at 60°C. The D-values were obtained of the linear phase of the survivor curves created in GInaFiT, a freeware tool to fit models to experimental data. The obtained D-values corresponded to those previously published in literature and confirmed L. monocytogenes to be the most heat resistant pathogen among them. Heat treatment in adjusted BHI significantly increased heat-resistance of E. coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli. Subsequently, the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated using a standardized procedure simulating commonly used home pan frying of various types of meat including steaks or filets, hamburgers and meat strips from various animal species such as pork, beef, chicken, lamb and some turkey, horse, kangaroo and crocodile meat. Corresponding F70-values were calculated based upon measured core time/temperature profiles. It was noted that a core temperature of 70 °C was not always achieved and, moreover, a heat treatment equivalent to 2 min at 70 °C was also not always obtained. This was in particular noted in hamburgers although the meat was visually judged well done. On several occasions, residual survivors of the initial inoculated (4 logCFU/g) food borne pathogens could be recovered either by enumeration (limit of detection 1 logCFU/g) or by the presence/absence testing per 25 g. Pan frying of hamburgers yielded the highest number of surviving pathogenic bacteria (46%), followed by well-done filets and steaks (13%) and meat strips (12%). Taking only steaks (beef, horse, kangaroo, crocodile and

  16. Compte rendu critique du livre Voir son steak comme un animal mort, de Martin Gibert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drolet, Marie-Josée

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This critical review provides, first, a step-by-step synthesis of the arguments presented in each chapter of Martin Gibert’s bookVoir son steak comme un animal mort (Seeing your steak as a dead animal. Second, a critical perspective of the book and a personal reflection are presented.

  17. A national audit of retail lamb loin quality in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, E; Channon, H A; Hopkins, D L; Hall, D G; van de Ven, R

    2002-07-01

    A retail audit of lamb loin tenderness was conducted over a 12-month period to determine the variation in tenderness of Australian lamb. Tenderness was objectively measured using Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force. Muscle pH and cooking loss were determined on all samples and colour was measured on a sub-sample of loins. A total of 909 midloins from retail butcher shops and supermarkets located in four Australian capital cities (Sydney, Canberra, Melbourne, and Perth) were evaluated at four sampling times (December 1997 and March, June, and October 1998). Overall, 20.3% of all midloins purchased had a WB shear force value above the threshold level of 5 kg. Generic samples from Melbourne butcher shops were similar for WB shear force on average to the generic samples from Canberra and Sydney, whereas those from Melbourne supermarkets had significantly (Plamb had a greater WB shear force (Plamb. No relationship was found between price per kg and shear force (r=0.02) for loins purchased in Sydney (n=220). Price per kg differed between months (Plamb sold in the domestic market. A lamb eating quality assurance system, based on set protocols, is one approach that is currently being investigated in Australia to ensure the supply of consistently high eating quality lamb to consumers.

  18. Physicochemical and microbiological changes in irradiated fresh pork loins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbevi, M.K.; Vachon, C.; Lacroix, M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of γ-irradiation on the physicochemical and microbiological properties of fresh pork was studied. Radiation treatments were carried out under air on fresh pork loins at doses of 2, 4 and 8 kGy and the loins were evaluated for deamidation, solubility, sulphydryl content and surface hydrophobicity. Deamidation was significantly (p⩽0.05) affected by the treatment with 98% deamidation at a dose of 8 kGy. No significant changes (p>0.05) were noted in sulphydryl content under the same conditions. The increase in deamidation resulted in a decrease in hydrophobicity and an increase in protein solubility. γ-irradiation also reduced the number of microorganisms in the meat. Mesophiles were more resistant to the irradiation treatment than psychrotrophs and Pseudomonas. All irradiated pork samples (1 or 3 kGy) had a bacterial count lower that 10(7) CFU/g after 15 days of storage. A minimal dose of 1 kGy was sufficient to increase the shelf life of fresh pork loins although variations in initial pork contamination was found to be the determining factor accounting for the effectiveness of the treatment

  19. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  20. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital

    Full Text Available The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale. Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  1. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes

    2016-01-01

    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.

  2. Effect of pulsed electric field on the proteolysis of cold boned beef M. Longissimus lumborum and M. Semimembranosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwandy, Via; Carne, Alan; van de Ven, Remy; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din A; Hopkins, David L

    2015-02-01

    The effects of pulsed electric field (PEF) and ageing (3, 7, 14 and 21 days) on the shear force, protein profile, and post-mortem proteolysis of beef loins (M. Longissimus lumborum, LL) and topsides (M. Semimembranosus, SM) were investigated using a range of pulsed electric field treatments [voltages (5 and 10 kV) and frequencies (20, 50, and 90 Hz)]. PEF treatment decreased the shear force of beef LL and SM muscles by up to 19%. The reduction in the shear force in the LL was not affected by the treatment intensity whereas the reduction in the SM was dependent on PEF frequency. PEF treated beef loins showed increased proteolysis, both early post-mortem and during subsequent post-mortem storage reflected by increased degradation of troponin-T and desmin. The most prominent troponin-T degradation was found in samples treated with 5 kV-90 Hz, 10 kV-20 Hz at day 3 and day 7 post-treatment in addition to 10 kV-50 Hz in subsequent post-treatment times. The degradation of desmin in PEF treated beef loins increased with ageing time.

  3. Using reflectance spectroscopy to predict beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, M B; Vote, D J; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2009-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine if reflectance measurements made in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were additive to reflectance measurements made in the visible region of the spectrum for predicting Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values. Eighty seven strip loins were collected following fabrication over 3d at a commercial beef processing facility from heifer carcasses with Slight or Traces marbling scores. Spectroscopic measurements were made at approximately 50h postmortem using a Hunter-Lab UltraScan. Subsequently, all strip loins were aged for 14d, cooked to an internal temperature of 70°C, and sheared to obtain WBSF values. Reflectance measurements obtained in the near-infrared region of the spectrum were correlated with WBSF values, however, these measurements were not additive to the predictive ability of reflectance measurements (R(2) values did not differ) made in the visible portion of the spectrum when the use of broad-band wavelength filters were simulated. It was therefore determined, that both the visible and near-infrared spectra measure reflectance and that both methods are acceptable methods of tenderness prediction.

  4. Comparative Study on the Effects of Boiling, Steaming, Grilling, Microwaving and Superheated Steaming on Quality Characteristics of Marinated Chicken Steak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Kim, Eun-Mi; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Hyun-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The effects of five different cooking methods (boiling, steaming, grilling, microwaving, and superheated steaming) on proximate composition, pH, color, cooking loss, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of chicken steak were studied. Moisture content and lightness value (L*-value) were higher in superheated steam cooked chicken steak than that of the other cooking treatments such as boiling, steaming, grilling and microwaving cooking (pcooked chicken steak was lower than that in the other cooking treatments (pchicken steak cooked using various methods (p>0.05). Among the sensory characteristics, tenderness score, juiciness score and overall acceptability score were the highest for the superheated steam samples (p0.05). These results show that marinated chicken steak treated with superheated steam in a preheated 250℃ oven and 380℃ steam for 5 min until core temperature reached 75℃ improved the quality characteristics and sensory properties the best. Therefore, superheated steam was useful to improve cooked chicken steak. PMID:27499656

  5. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  6. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, D.U.; Nam, K.C.

    2004-01-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% α-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+α-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid

  7. Video image analysis as a potential grading system for Uruguayan beef carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vote, D J; Bowling, M B; Cunha, B C N; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D; Montossi, F; Smith, G C

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted in 2 phases to evaluate the effectiveness of 1) the VIAscan Beef Carcass System (BCSys; hot carcass system) and the CVS BeefCam (chilled carcass system), used independently or in combination, to predict Uruguayan beef carcass fabrication yields; and 2) the CVS BeefCam to segregate Uruguayan beef carcasses into groups that differ in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values of their LM steaks. The results from the meat yield phase of the present study indicated that the prediction of saleable meat yield percentages from Uruguayan beef carcasses by use of the BCSys or CVS BeefCam is similar to, or slightly better than, the use of USDA yield grade calculated to the nearest 0.1 and was much more effective than prediction based on Uruguay National Institute of Meat (INAC) grades. A further improvement in fabrication yield prediction could be obtained by use of a dual-component video image analysis (VIA) system. Whichever method of VIA prediction of fabrication yield is used, a single predicted value of fabrication yield for every carcass removes an impediment to the implementation of a value-based pricing system. Additionally, a VIA method of predicting carcass yield has the advantage over the current INAC classification system in that estimates would be produced by an instrument rather than by packing plant personnel, which would appeal to cattle producers. Results from the tenderness phase of the study indicated that the CVS BeefCam output variable for marbling was not (P > 0.05) able to segregate steer and heifer carcasses into groups that differed in WBSF values. In addition, the results of segregating steer and heifer carcasses according to muscle color output variables indicate that muscle maturity and skeletal maturity were useful for segregating carcasses according to differences in WBSF values of their steaks (P > 0.05). Use of VIA to predict beef carcass fabrication yields could improve accuracy and reduce subjectivity in comparison

  8. A comparison of consumer sensory acceptance, purchase intention, and willingness to pay for high quality United States and Spanish beef under different information scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriain, M J; Sánchez, M; Carr, T R

    2009-10-01

    Tests were performed to identify variation across consumer evaluation ratings for 2 types of beef (Spanish yearling bull beef and US Choice and Prime beef), using 3 information levels (blind scores; muscle fat content + production conditions; and all production data including geographical origin) and 3 consumer evaluation ratings (hedonic rating, willingness to pay, and purchase intention). Further testing was carried out to assess the extent to which expert evaluations converged with those of untrained consumers. Taste panel tests involving 290 consumers were conducted in Navarra, a region in northern Spain. The beef samples were 20 loins of Pyrenean breed yearling bulls that had been born and raised on private farms located in this Spanish region and 20 strip loins from high quality US beef that ranged from high Choice to average Prime US quality grades. The Spanish beef were slaughtered at 507 +/- 51 kg of BW and 366 +/- 23 d of age. The US beef proved more acceptable to consumers and received greater ratings from the trained panel, with greater scores for juiciness (3.33), tenderness (3.33), flavor (3.46), and fat content (5.83) than for Spanish beef (2.77, 2.70, 3.14, 1.17). The differences in sensory variable rating were more pronounced for the Spanish beef than for the US beef, always increasing with the level of information. The variation in the ratings across different information levels was statistically significant in the case of the Spanish beef, whereas the variation observed in the ratings of the US beef was highly significant in the willingness of consumers to pay a premium. Consumers who appreciated greater quality were also more willing to pay for the additional level of quality.

  9. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  10. Procedural Priorities of the Pork Loin Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Dhein Dill

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The pork meat production industry is facing new challenges as a consequence of consumers’ expectations regarding the quality and safety of food products. For the present study, experts and consumers in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were interviewed to identify the attributes of pork loin that need to be improved. Consumers have particular concerns about the juiciness, fibrousness, and portion size of the meat, the diversity of cuts and safety and animal welfare. The supply chain was also analyzed in order to verify the procedural priorities that need to be improved in order to meet the demands of consumers. Experts were interviewed using the quality function deployment methodology. The findings of the study indicate that, improvements must be made in the production sector in terms of animal handling and transportation. In the processing sector, improvements are required regarding slaughter control of PSE and DFD, the development of new packaging, and product fractionation. The requirements in the distribution sector relate to information campaigns for consumers to diffuse the nutritional characteristics of pork loin and in the product safety through sanitary inspection.

  11. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Brown, E D; Swanson, C A; Rhodes, D; Rossi, S; Felton, J S; Levander, O A

    1998-04-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures sometimes contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are known mutagens and animal carcinogens, but their carcinogenic potential in humans has not been established. To investigate the association between HCAs and cancer, sources of exposure to these compounds need to be determined. Beef is the most frequently consumed meat in the United States and for this study we determined HCA values in beef samples cooked in ways to represent US cooking practices, the results of which can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate HCA exposure from dietary questionnaires. We measured five HCAs [2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)] in different types of cooked beef using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Steak and hamburger patties were pan-fried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued to four levels of doneness (rare, medium, well done or very well done), while beef roasts were oven cooked to three levels of doneness (rare, medium or well done). The measured values of the specific HCAs varied with the cut of beef, cooking method, and doneness level. In general, MeIQx content increased with doneness under each cooking condition for steak and hamburger patties, up to 8.2 ng/g. PhIP was the predominant HCA produced in steak (1.9 to 30 ng/g), but was formed only in very well done fried or grilled hamburger. DiMeIQx was found in trace levels in pan-fried steaks only, while IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of the samples. Roast beef did not contain any of the HCAs, but the gravy made from the drippings from well done roasts had 2 ng/g of PhIP and 7 ng/g of MeIQx. Epidemiological studies need to consider the type of meat, cooking method and degree of doneness/surface browning in survey questions to adequately assess

  12. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (PMeat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (Pmeat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  14. Percutaneous renal sympathetic nerve ablation for loin pain haematuria syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambaro, Giovanni; Fulignati, Pierluigi; Spinelli, Alessio; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2013-09-01

    Loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS) is a severe renal pain condition of uncertain origin and often resistant to treatment. Nephrectomy and renal autotrasplantation have occasionally been performed in very severe cases. Its pathogenesis is controversial. A 40-year-old hypertensive lady was diagnosed with LPHS after repeated diagnostic imaging procedures had ruled out any renal, abdominal or spinal conditions to justify pain. Notwithstanding treatment with three drugs, she had frequent hypertensive crises during which the loin pain was dramatically exacerbated. Vascular causes of the pain and hypertension were investigated and excluded. Her renal function was normal. The patient was referred to a multidisciplinary pain clinic, but had no significant improvement in her pain symptoms despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, adjuvant antidepressants and opioid-like agents. The pain and the discomfort were so severe that her quality of life was very poor, and her social and professional activities were compromised. Nephrectomy and renal autotransplantation have occasionally been performed in these cases. Since visceral pain signals flow through afferent sympathetic fibres, we felt that percutaneous catheter-based radiofrequency ablation of the renal sympathetic nerve fibres (recently introduced for the treatment of drug-resistant hypertension) could be valuable for pain relief. We treated the patient with radiofrequency ablation (Medtronic Symplicity Catheter) applied only to the right renal artery. After a 6-month follow-up, the patient is pain free and normotensive with all drugs withdrawn. She has experienced no hypertensive crises in the meantime. This observation suggests that percutaneous sympathetic denervation could prove to be an effective mini-invasive strategy for the treatment of chronic renal pain, and LPHS in particular.

  15. Analysis of MRI by fractals for prediction of sensory attributes: A case study in loin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the use of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI of meat products, specifically loin, in order to determine sensory parameters of loin. For that, the capability of different fractal algorithms was evaluated (Classical Fractal Algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA...... was analysed. Results on this study firstly demonstrate the capability of fractal algorithms to analyse MRI from meat product. Different combinations of the analysed techniques can be applied for predicting most sensory attributes of loins adequately (R > 0.5). However, the combination of SE, OPFTA and MLR...... offered the most appropriate results. Thus, it could be proposed as an alternative to the traditional food technology methods....

  16. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  17. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous-vide technology and its process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Namita; Singh, Chongtham Baru; Kumar, Raushan; Martin Xavier, K A; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati; Balange, Amjad K

    2016-11-01

    The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous - vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous - vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X 1 ), cooking time (X 2 ) and cooking temperature (X 3 ) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y 1 ). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous - vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R 2  = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous - vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius .

  18. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP KESETIAN MEREK (Studi Kasus Restoran The Prime Steak & Ribs Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foedjiawati Foedjiawati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research which observes the relationship between customer satisfaction and their loyalty to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant. The customer satisfaction is measured through some attributes such as, attributes related to the product, attributes related to the service, and attributes related to the purchase. Meanwhile, the loyalty of its brand is measured through habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand and commitment. The result of the research reveals that customer satisfaction levels to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant tends to be good. Some attributes still have a variety of high grade, and there is a positive causal influence that is significant between the customer satisfaction and the loyalty of the brand. Thus, the result of the research is relevant and at the same time supports the theory of brand loyalty. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian Pengaruh Kepuasan Konsumen terhadap Kesetiaan Merek pada Restoran the Prime Steak & Ribs, kepuasan konsumen diukur melalui Attributes related to the product, Attributes related to the service, Attributes related to the purchase, kesetiaan merek diukur melalui habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand, dan commitment. Hasil penelitian mengungkapakan bahwa kepuasan konsumen di The Prime Steak & Ribs mendapat penilaian yang cenderung baik, beberapa atribut masih mempunyai variasi penilaian yang tinggi, dan terdapat hubungan pengaruh positip yang signifikan antara kepuasan konsumen dengan kesetiaan merek, dengan demikian hasil penelitian mendukung konsep teori tentang kesetiaan merek. Kata kunci: kepuasan, kesetiaan merek.

  19. Pork loin quality is not indicative of fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize the relationship between fresh loin quality with fresh belly or fresh and cured ham quality. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons [cold ( = 4,290) and hot ( = 3,394)] and 2 production focuses [lean ( = 3,627) and quality ( = 4,057)] were used. Carcass characteristics and other meat quality data were collected on 7,684 carcasses. All of the carcasses were evaluated for HCW, LM depth, tenth rib fat depth, leg (ham primal) weight, instrumental color on the gluteus medius and gluteus profundus of the ham face, and subjective loin quality. Instrumental loin color and ultimate pH (≥ 22 h postmortem) were collected on the ventral side of loins along with dimensions and firmness scores of fresh bellies from 50% of the carcasses. Ten percent of the boneless loins and fresh hams were evaluated for slice shear force (SSF) or cured ham characteristics. Correlation coefficients between traits were computed using the CORR procedure of SAS and considered significantly different from 0 at ≤ 0.05. Temperature decline, beginning at 31 min postmortem and concluding at 22 h postmortem, for the longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles were evaluated on 10% of the carcasses. Ultimate loin pH was correlated with dimensional belly characteristics ( ≥ |0.07|; ham instrumental color ( ≥ |0.03|; ≤ 0.05), and semimembranosus ultimate pH ( = 0.33; hams. Instrumental L*on the ventral surface of the loin was related to L* on both muscles of the ham face ( ≤ 0.0001). Even though significant relationships between the loin, belly, and ham were detected, the variability in belly and ham quality explained by variability in loin quality was poor (≤ 22.09%). Compositional differences between the loin and belly may have contributed to those poor relationships. Additionally, differences in temperature declines during chilling between the loin and ham likely contributed to the weak nature of relationships. Equilibration of longissimus dorsi

  20. A study of the factors that influence consumer attitudes toward beef products using the conjoint market analysis tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennecke, B E; Townsend, A M; Hayes, D J; Lonergan, S M

    2007-10-01

    This study utilizes an analysis technique commonly used in marketing, the conjoint analysis method, to examine the relative utilities of a set of beef steak characteristics considered by a national sample of 1,432 US consumers, as well as additional localized samples representing undergraduate students at a business college and in an animal science department. The analyses indicate that among all respondents, region of origin is by far the most important characteristic; this is followed by animal breed, traceability, animal feed, and beef quality. Alternatively, the cost of cut, farm ownership, the use (or nonuse) of growth promoters, and whether the product is guaranteed tender were the least important factors. Results for animal science undergraduates are similar to the aggregate results, except that these students emphasized beef quality at the expense of traceability and the nonuse of growth promoters. Business students also emphasized region of origin but then emphasized traceability and cost. The ideal steak for the national sample is from a locally produced, choice Angus fed a mixture of grain and grass that is traceable to the farm of origin. If the product was not produced locally, respondents indicated that their preferred production states are, in order from most to least preferred, Iowa, Texas, Nebraska, and Kansas.

  1. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J

    1994-01-01

    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A bench-top hyperspectral imaging system to classify beef from Nellore cattle based on tenderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; Calkins, Chris R.; Naganathan, Govindarajan Konda; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of classification of Nellore beef aged for 0, 7, 14, or 21 days and classification based on tenderness and aging period using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (aging n = 376 and tenderness n = 345) of Nellore cattle. The image processing steps included selection of region of interest, extraction of spectra, and indentification and evalution of selected wavelengths for classification. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify samples based on tenderness and aging period. The model using the first derivative of partial absorbance spectra (give wavelength range spectra) was able to classify steaks based on the tenderness with an overall accuracy of 89.8%. The model using the first derivative of full absorbance spectra was able to classify steaks based on aging period with an overall accuracy of 84.8%. The results demonstrate that the HIS may be a viable technology for classifying beef based on tenderness and aging period.

  3. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  4. Inactivation of Shiga toxin-producing O157:H7 and non-O157:H7 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in brine-injected, gas-grilled steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchansky, John B; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Shoyer, Bradley A; Call, Jeffrey E; Schlosser, Wayne; Shaw, William; Bauer, Nathan; Latimer, Heejeong

    2011-07-01

    We quantified translocation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (ECOH) and non-O157:H7 verocytotoxigenic E. coli (STEC) into beef subprimals after brine injection and subsequently monitored their viability after cooking steaks cut therefrom. Beef subprimals were inoculated on the lean side with ca. 6.0 log CFU/g of a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant ECOH or kanamycin-resistant STEC, and then passed once through an automatic brine-injector tenderizer, with the lean side facing upward. Brine solutions (9.9% ± 0.3% over fresh weight) consisted of 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium tripolyphosphate and 3.3% (wt/vol) of sodium chloride, prepared both with (Lac(+), pH = 6.76) and without (Lac(-), pH = 8.02) a 25% (vol/vol) solution of a 60% potassium lactate-sodium diacetate syrup. For all samples injected with Lac(-) or Lac(+) brine, levels of ECOH or STEC recovered from the topmost 1 cm (i.e., segment 1) of a core sample obtained from tenderized subprimals ranged from ca. 4.7 to 6.3 log CFU/g; however, it was possible to recover ECOH or STEC from all six segments of all cores tested. Next, brine-injected steaks from tenderized subprimals were cooked on a commercial open-flame gas grill to internal endpoint temperatures of either 37.8 °C (100 °F), 48.8 °C (120 °F), 60 °C (140 °F), or 71.1 °C (160 °F). Regardless of brine formulation or temperature, cooking achieved reductions (expressed as log CFU per gram) of 0.3 to 4.1 of ECOH and 0.5 to 3.6 of STEC. However, fortuitous survivors were recovered even at 71.1 °C (160 °F) for ECOH and for STEC. Thus, ECOH and STEC behaved similarly, relative to translocation and thermal destruction: Tenderization via brine injection transferred both pathogens throughout subprimals and cooking highly contaminated, brine-injected steaks on a commercial gas grill at 71.1 °C (160 °F) did not kill all cells due, primarily, to nonuniform heating (i.e., cold spots) within the meat. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  5. Effects of dietary magnesium and duration of refrigerated storage on the quality of vacuum-packaged, boneless pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple, J K; Davis, J R; Rakes, L K; Maxwell, C V; Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W

    2001-01-01

    Quality data were initially collected on 78 pork loins from crossbred pigs fed diets containing 0, 1.25 or 2.5% magnesium mica (MM). Loins were then vacuum-packaged, and randomly assigned to either 4 or 8 weeks of storage at 2°C. Dietary MM had no (P > 0.05) effect on moisture loss/retention or subjective and objective color measurements. Purge volume increased (Pwater-holding capacity of pork loins during storage, the data indicated inclusion of MM in swine diets may retard onset of oxidative rancidity in vacuum-packaged pork loins.

  6. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  7. Pengaruh Harga,kualitas Produk Dan Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Kepuasan Pelanggan Restoran O-mamamia Steak and Ice Cream Cabang Jati Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Faizah, Nadia Rizqiyatul; Suryoko, Sri; Saryadi, Saryadi

    2013-01-01

    O-Mamamia restaurant Steak n Ice Cream Semarang is a steak restaurant providing ice cream at the same time, which has ten branches one branch is O-Mamamia Restaurant Steak n Ice Cream Jati Semarang. In an effort to maintain relationships with customers, service quality is the key to retaining customers and providing high value through customer value. Customers will compare the quality of services provided at a price that is charged for the steak provided. Currently there is a restaurant that ...

  8. Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Associated with Restaurant Beef Grinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torso, Lauren M; Voorhees, Ronald E; Forest, Stephen A; Gordon, Andrew Z; Silvestri, Sharon A; Kissler, Bonnie; Schlackman, Jessica; Sandt, Carol H; Toma, Paul; Bachert, Joel; Mertz, Kristen J; Harrison, Lee H

    2015-07-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a common cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Beef ground at establishments regulated by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service is routinely tested for E. coli O157:H7. Prior to December 2013, boxed beef product (wholesale cuts of beef, such as beef loin, packaged into bags and boxed for shipping) was not always tested for this pathogen. Downstream processors or retailers may grind the product; and, if the ground beef is not cooked to the recommended temperature, pathogens on the exterior of the beef introduced to the interior through grinding may survive. On 18 October 2013, the Allegheny County Health Department identified two E. coli O157:H7 cases, both of whom were food handlers at restaurant A, a restaurant that ground locally produced boxed beef for hamburgers on site. Case finding was conducted through public messaging, employee surveys, and disease surveillance. All potential cases were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. A confirmed case was defined as laboratory-confirmed E. coli O157:H7 with exposure to restaurant A. A probable case was defined as a patient with compatible symptoms and exposure to restaurant A but without laboratory confirmation. All human and food isolates were characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. The analysis identified 14 confirmed and 10 probable cases of E. coli; 18 nonintact ground beef samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Nine confirmed cases were restaurant A employees. All confirmed cases recalled eating a restaurant A hamburger in the 10 days before illness onset; most cases reported consuming medium to rare hamburgers. Multiple pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis patterns were identified among both the human and ground beef isolates, and the patient isolates matched those found in ground beef samples. Restaurant A

  9. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  10. Beef quality labels: A combination of sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerding, Stephan G H; Gentz, Maria; Altmann, Brianne; Meier-Dinkel, Lisa

    2018-08-01

    Consumer perspectives of beef quality are complex, leading to a market that is increasingly differentiating. Thus, ongoing monitoring and assessment of changes in consumer perspectives is essential to identify changing market conditions. Often only credence and search characteristics are evaluated in consumer studies; therefore the object of the present study is to examine consumer preferences and perceptions towards beef steaks, also including experience characteristics, using a mixed methods approach. For this reason, 55 consumers participated in an experiment in Germany, including a sensory acceptance test, stated willingness to pay, and choice-based conjoint analysis (CBCA). Different quality characteristics were included, but a focus on the quality labels of 'dry aged beef', 'Block House beef', and 'Angus beef' was predominant throughout the experiment with the results showing that quality labels significantly increased overall liking as well as the stated willingness to pay. Quality labels were also the one of the most important characteristics in the conjoint analysis, after origin and price. The results of all applied methods are comparable for the characteristic quality label. The combination of sensory acceptance test and CBCA were additionally able to evaluate all three kinds of beef quality characteristics, which could not be evaluated together only using a single method. This suggests that a mixture of methods should be used to gain better knowledge on the true behavior of beef consumers. Experience and credence characteristics, including beef quality labels, present opportunities for future research as well as the potential for determining product and market differentiation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of volatile organic compounds and sensory characteristics of pork loin samples irradiated to high doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhengchi; Sun Dakuan; Qin Zongying; Jin Jiang; Zhu Liandi; Yao Side; Sheng Kanglong

    2005-01-01

    Fresh pork loin samples, protein enzyme inactivated at (72 ± 3) degree C and vacuum packaged, were irradiated to up to 45 kGy at -20 degree C by 60 Co γ-rays. The irradiated samples were examined by various kinds of method to study high dose irradiation effects of sensory changes (meat color and off-odor), transverse shearing strength, weight loss in steam cooking, volatile organic compounds, and lipid oxidation. The results showed that the high dose irradiation produced no serious effects to the pork loin samples, and volunteer responses showed fine acceptability to the irradiated meat. (authors)

  12. Effect of low dose irradiation of pork loins on the microflora, sensory characteristics and fat stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattison, M.L.; Kraft, A.A.; Olson, D.G.; Walker, H.W.; Rust, R.E.; James, D.B.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of low dose (100 krad) irradiation on microflora, sensory characteristics, and development of oxidative rancidity of vacuum packaged pork loins was investigated after irradiation and during low temperature (4 0 C) storage up to 21 days. Irradiation reduced numbers of mesophiles, psychrotrophs, anaerobic bacteria (P<0.01), and staphylococci (P<0.05), with the effect on mesophiles and psychrotrophic spoilage organisms the greatest. Effect of irradiation on sensory characteristics of pork loin was minimal with no detectable differences between irradiated and nonirradiated pork after 14 days of storage. Irradiation of pork did not affect cooking loss or thiobarbituric acid values

  13. The study of heavy metals and microbial content in beef bowel and red meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Darsono

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia's population has increased every year so the need for food increased, especially the availability of nutritious foods such as red meat. Red meat is one of the foods that contain sufficient elements of protein, but it was likely to contain heavy metals and bacterial contamination that has met the threshold standards. On the otherhand, beef bowels are very popular among Indonesian consumers, but many heavy metlas could accumulated into the bowels. The purpose of this research are to study the content of heavy metals and bacterial contamination on beef bowel from some places of slaughtering houses and some red meats from the market in Jakarta. The beef bowels are lung, tripe, intestine and liver while the red meats were veal and tender loin. Parameter of heavy metals measured are As, Cd and Hg, while for the initial bacterial contamination are total number of aerobic bacteria, total amount of coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp and Salmonella contamination. The heavy metals were analyzed using Neutron Activation Analysis, and for the total number of bacteria is using Total Plate Count. Result of research shows the As content in lung and tripe as well as the mercuric content in bowel has exceeded in the normal level such as 1.0 and 0.03 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, no heavy metals were detected in all red meats. The total microbes in beef bowel have exceeded allowable limit (1.0 x 10 6 cfu/g). No Salmonella was detected in all beef bowels and red meats observed. Nuclear technique are very helpful analysis of the heavy metas content in bowel dan red meats beef. The cleanliness slaughtering house of animals are remarkably ascertaining the quality of the beef bowel and red meats who will be sent. (author)

  14. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  15. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górska, Ewa; Nowicka, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Danuta; Przybylski, Wiesław; Tambor, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively). The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene); alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane); aldehyde (hexanal); alcohol (2-furanmethanol); ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone); phenol (guaiacol); and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene). Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production. PMID:27456422

  16. Relationship between sensory attributes and volatile compounds of polish dry-cured loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Górska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this work was to determine the relationship between objective sensory descriptors and volatile flavour compound composition of Polish traditional dry-cured loin. Methods The volatile compounds were investigated by using solid phase microextraction (SPME and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS. For sensory assessment, the quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA method was used. Results A total of 50 volatile compounds were found and assigned to 17 chemical families. Most of the detected volatile compounds derived from smoking, lipid oxidative reactions and seasoning (46.8%, 21.7%, and 18.9%, respectively. The dominant compounds were: aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene; alkanes (hexane, heptane, and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane; aldehyde (hexanal; alcohol (2-furanmethanol; ketone (3-hydroxy-2-butanone; phenol (guaiacol; and terpenes (eucalyptol, cymene, γ-terpinen, and limonene. Correlation analysis showed that some compounds derived from smoking were positively correlated with the intensity of cured meat odour and flavour and negatively with the intensity of dried meat odour and flavour, while terpenes were strongly correlated with odour and flavour of added spices. Conclusion The analysed dry-cured loins were characterized by specific and unique sensory profile. Odour and flavour of studied loins was mainly determined by volatile compounds originating from smoking, seasoning and lipid oxidation. Obtained results suggest that smoking process is a crucial stage during Polish traditional dry-cured loins production.

  17. Expression of porcine myosin heavy chain 1 gene in Berkshire loins ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of porcine myosin heavy chain 1 gene in Berkshire loins with a high pH24 value. Jin Hun Kang, Woo Young Bang, Eun Jung Kwon, Yong Hwa Lee, Da Hye Park, Eun Seok Cho, Min Ji Kim, Jong-Soon Choi, Hwa Chun Park, Beom Young Park, Chul Wook Kim ...

  18. PENGARUH CARING CLIMATE TERHADAP JOB SATISFACTION DAN AFFECTIVE COMMITMENT YANG BERDAMPAK PADA JOB PERFORMANCE KARYAWAN RESTORAN STEAK DI JAKARTA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aginta Chairunnisa Sinulingga

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to exmaining the effects of caring climate, job satisfaction, and affective commitment on job performance in steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta. This study were developed and tested 5 hypotheses, by using Structural Equation Model. Data were collected from 145 employees working on the food, beverage, hygiene, security, service and cashier in steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta. Finding and contribution in this research shown that there is positive and significant effect of caring climate on job satisfaction and affective commitment that effect on job performance. The limitationin in this research was that this study focused only on restaurant as a hospitality industry, only at steak restaurant in Tebet, South Jakarta, and was limited for only four variables.

  19. Use of cluster analysis and preference mapping to evaluate consumer acceptability of choice and select bovine M. longissimus lumborum steaks cooked to various end-point temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W; Behrends, J M; Battula, V; Jackson, V; Sekhon, R K; Lawrence, T E

    2010-01-01

    Consumer research was conducted to evaluate the acceptability of choice and select steaks from the Longissimus lumborum that were cooked to varying degrees of doneness using demographic information, cluster analysis and descriptive analysis. On average, using data from approximately 155 panelists, no differences (P>0.05) existed in consumer acceptability among select and choice steaks, and all treatment means ranged between like slightly and like moderately (6-7) on the hedonic scale. Individual consumers were highly variable in their perception of acceptability and consumers were grouped into clusters (eight for select and seven for choice) based on their preference and liking of steaks. The largest consumer groups liked steaks from all treatments, but other groups preferred (Pconsumers could be grouped together according to preference, liking and descriptive sensory attributes, (juiciness, tenderness, bloody, metallic, and roasted) to further understand consumer perception of steaks that were cooked to different end-point temperatures.

  20. The Impact of Ripening Time on Technological Quality Traits, Chemical Change and Sensory Characteristics of Dry-cured Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pil Nam Seong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ripening time on the technological quality traits, fatty acid compositions and sensory characteristics of dry-cured loin was studied. Pork loins (n = 102 at 24 h post-mortem were used to produce dry-cured loins. The dry-cured loins were assessed at 30, 60, and 90 days of ripening for the aforementioned characteristics. Our results showed that the water activity (aw decreased (p<0.05 up to 60 days and did not change thereafter. The lipid oxidation and weight loss levels significantly (p<0.05 increased with increased ripening time. The Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE L* decreased for 90 days while CIE a* increased for 60 days and did not increase thereafter. More noticeably, the levels of most of unsaturated fatty acids and total polyunsaturated fatty acids significantly decreased as increasing ripening time up to 90 days. The 30 days-ripened loins had lower (p<0.05 color, flavor and overall acceptability scores than the loins ripened for 60 and 90 days, however, no differences in sensory traits occurred between the 60 and 90 day-ripened samples. Based on the results obtained in the present study, it is suggested that the ripening duration between 30 and 60 days could be more appropriate for producing dry-cured loin product with higher quality and economic benefits.

  1. Radappertization of steak breast chicken grilled for storage at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoto, Marta H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Gurgel, Maria S. Amaral; Gutierrez, Erica M.R.; Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E.

    2000-01-01

    Gamma radiation with high doses was used on steak breast chicken. The doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy were used on the fillets vacuum packaged; the storage temperature was 22-25 deg C for 180 days, and the analysis were done each 30 days. The microbiology (Clostridium perfringens); physical-chemical (humidity, protein, lipids, pH, color and TBA); and sensorial analysis, were done. The samples did not showed colony for any treatment by irradiation during storage period. The irradiated samples showed both higher humidity and brightness than those no irradiated. All treatment showed high notes on hedonic scale, by sensorial analysis. (author)

  2. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M

    2016-12-01

    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10 8  log 10  CFU ml -1 ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P internalization and potential survival of Salmonella spp. in marinated beef products is a major concern. These results highlight the internalization of pathogens in vacuum-tumbled meat products and emphasize the importance of considering these products as nonintact. Similarly, these data confirm the efficacy and utility of interventions prior to vacuum-tumbled marination. Further research is needed to identify additional strategies to mitigate internalization and translocation of pathogens into vacuum-marinated meat products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Effect of hot carcass weight on loin, ham, and belly quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility,.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, B N; Arkfeld, E K; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to determine the predictive abilities of HCW for loin, ham, and belly quality of 7,684 pigs with carcass weights ranging from 53.2 to 129.6 kg. Carcass composition, subjective loin quality, and ham face color were targeted on all carcasses, whereas in-plant instrumental loin color and belly quality were assessed on 52.0 and 47.5% of carcasses, respectively. Loin chop slice shear force (SSF), cured ham quality, and adipose iodine value (IV) were evaluated on at least 10% of the population. The slope of regression lines and coefficients of determination between HCW and quality traits were computed using PROC REG of SAS and considered significant at ≤ 0.05. As HCW increased, boneless loins became darker and redder, evidenced by lower L* (β = -0.0243, color score (β = 0.0024, ham face color ( ham face L* values and 0.47% of the variability in a* values. Heavier carcasses produced thicker and firmer bellies, with HCW accounting for 37.81% of the variability in belly thickness (β = 0.0272, ham quality explained by HCW was poor (≤5.60%), suggesting that HCW is a poor predictor of the primal quality of pigs within this weight range. Nonetheless, HCW was a moderate predictor of belly quality traits. The findings of this study suggest that increasing HCW did not compromise loin, ham, or belly quality attributes.

  5. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4? for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4?. Despite that SSF was conducted with the ...

  6. Microbiological quality and safety of Skipjack tuna loins (Katsuwonus Pelamis intented for canning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tuna is a food widely consumed fresh and canned as well. After catching and filleting, a pre-cooking step is normally followed by freezing and shipping to canning industry as loins. The aim of this paper was to assess the microbiological quality and safety of tuna loins (50 samples imported by an Italian canned tuna producer from two different FAO fishing areas. Total bacterial count (TBC, Coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera, pH measurement, S. aureus enterotoxin and histamine levels were evaluated. Significant differences were evidenced for TBC, Enterobacteriaceae, E. coli, Coliforms and pH between fishing areas. Staphylococcus aureus was detected in all the samples tested at 1 to 3 Log cfu/g; Staphylococcus warneri, S. saprophyticus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis, S. intermedius, S. vitulinus and S. sciuri were also identified. Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin were not detected. Histamine ranged between 0 to 5 mg/kg. The tuna loins analysed in this paper have to be considered safe; staphylococci presence represents a possible concern and has to been taken in account when risk analysis is carried out.

  7. Prediction of pork loin quality using online computer vision system and artificial intelligence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Young, Jennifer; Liu, Jeng-Hung; Newman, David

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a computer vision system (CVS) for objective measurement of pork loin under industry speed requirement. Color images of pork loin samples were acquired using a CVS. Subjective color and marbling scores were determined according to the National Pork Board standards by a trained evaluator. Instrument color measurement and crude fat percentage were used as control measurements. Image features (18 color features; 1 marbling feature; 88 texture features) were extracted from whole pork loin color images. Artificial intelligence prediction model (support vector machine) was established for pork color and marbling quality grades. The results showed that CVS with support vector machine modeling reached the highest prediction accuracy of 92.5% for measured pork color score and 75.0% for measured pork marbling score. This research shows that the proposed artificial intelligence prediction model with CVS can provide an effective tool for predicting color and marbling in the pork industry at online speeds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of ageing time on consumer-perceived quality of Italian Simmental beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to provide an objective indication on the optimal ageing time of meat from ItalianSimmental (IS young bulls, the most important commercial category of the breed. The research was carried out on 10young bulls slaughtered at the average weight of 688 kg (SE: 7.3 kg. The right side of each carcass was stored for 7days and the left one for further 7 days, at normal refrigeration temperatures. At the end of the ageing period, the sideswere sampled at the loin for meat pH, color, cooking loss and shear force measurement. A central location, affective testinvolving 74 consumers was carried out to measure the degree of liking for grilled beef aged 7 or 14 days.The pH and color parameters were not significantly affected by the duration of post-mortem storage, while cooking lossincreased (31.4 vs 32.6 %; Pincreased from 7 to 14 days. The degree of liking by the untrained respondents for the two types of cooked meat wasdifferent, considering that consumers gave the highest hedonistic scores to beef aged 14 days. Tenderness was the sensoryattribute that allowed the best discrimination between beef stored for periods of different length. In fact, while thedifference between 14-day-aged and 7-day-aged beef for flavour ratings (7.0 vs 6.9 did not reach the threshold of significance,the former meat was perceived as significantly finer than the latter regarding tenderness (6.5 vs 5.6; P= 0.01and marginally preferred in overall terms (6.9 vs 6.5; P= 0.07. The classification test, carried out at the end of the quantitativetest by asking consumers to select from a list the most appropriate attributes describing the stimuli associatedwith meat consumption, confirmed the effectiveness of texture attributes in ranking different-aged beef acceptability. Infact, the number of ticks reported for chewiness and juiciness descriptors were different for the two types of meat: the14-day-aged beef was perceived as easier to chew (57 vs 34 ticks

  9. Quantifying the aging response and nutrient composition for muscles of the beef round.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, C L; Woerner, D R; Tokach, R J; Chapman, P L; Engle, T E; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimal postmortem aging period and nutrient composition for Beef Value Cuts of the round. Forty USDA Select and 40 Premium USDA Choice beef carcasses were selected from a commercial beef packing plant in Colorado over a 12-wk period. The bottom and inside rounds were collected from both sides of each carcass for further fabrication into the following muscles: adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor. Each pair of muscles was cut into 7 steaks and randomly assigned to 1 of the following aging periods: 2, 4, 6, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d, and placed in refrigerated storage (2°C, never frozen). Upon completion of the designated aging period, steaks were removed from storage, cooked to a peak internal temperature of 72°C, and evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). A 2-way interaction was detected (P digital flexor decreased with increased time of postmortem aging. Quality grade did not affect (P > 0.05) WBSF values for the adductor, gastrocnemius, pectineus, and superficial digital flexor muscles. Exponential decay models were used to predict the change in WBSF from 2 to 28 d postmortem (aging response). The adductor, gastrocnemius, Select gracilis, Premium Choice gracilis, and pectineus required 21, 14, 23, 23, and 25 d, respectively, to complete the majority of the aging response. To determine the nutrient composition of the adductor, gastrocnemius, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor, bottom and inside rounds were collected from 10 USDA Select and 10 Premium USDA Choice carcasses and fabricated into the respective muscles, cut into 2.54-cm cubes, frozen (-20°C), and then homogenized. The adductor, gracilis, pectineus, semimembranosus, and superficial digital flexor were analyzed for DM, moisture, CP, and ash percentages. All muscles were evaluated for total lipid, fatty acid, and cholesterol composition. When quality grades were combined

  10. Effects of Inulin and Sodium Carbonate in Phosphate-Free Restructured Poultry Steaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, B.; Serdaroğlu, M.

    2017-09-01

    Recently inorganic phosphates used in meat product formulations have caused negative impact on consumers due to their potential health risks. Therefore, utilization of natural ingredients as phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic to meet consumer demands for clean-label trends. In this study, we objected to investigate the effects of inulin utilization either in the powder or gelled form, alone or in combination with sodium carbonate on quality of phosphate-free restructured chicken steaks. Total moisture, protein, lipid and ash values of the trial groups were in the range of 71.54-75.46%, 22.60-24.31%, 0.94-1.70% and 1.45-2.13%, respectively. pH of the samples was between 6.18-6.39, significant increments were recorded in samples containing inulin with sodium carbonate. L*, a* and b* values were recorded as 78.92-81.05, 1.76-3.05 and 10.80-11.94, respectively, where use of gelled inulin resulted in changes of L* and a* values. Utilization of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate decreased cook loss and enhanced product yield. Sensory scores in control group with phosphate showed a similar pattern to sensory scores in groups with inulin and sodium carbonate. During storage, purge loss and lipid oxidation rate were similar in control and inulin + sodium carbonate samples. The results showed that use of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate provided equivalent physical, chemical and sensory quality to phosphates in restructured chicken steaks.

  11. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata; Taenia solium; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T ...

  12. Effect of Mixing Ratio between Pork Loin and Chicken Breast on Textural and Sensory Properties of Emulsion Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study is conducted to evaluate the effects of the mixing ratio between pork loin and chicken breast for textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. Meat homogenates are prepared by using five mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast (100:0, 70:30, 50:50, 30:70, and 0:100), and the emulsion sausages are also formulated with five mixing ratios. The additions of chicken breast increase the salt soluble protein solubility due to high pH levels of chicken breast, thereby resulting in the reduction of cooking losses. In addition, the apparent viscosity of meat homogenates increase with increasing amounts of chicken breast. In terms of emulsion sausages formulated with pork loin and chicken breast, the addition of chicken breast above 50% may contribute to a softer and more flexible texture of emulsion sausages. For sensory evaluations, an increase in the added amount of chicken breast contributes to a rich umami taste and deeper flavor within the emulsion sausages, resulting in the high overall acceptance score for the formulation of 0-30% pork loin and 70-100% chicken breast. Therefore, the optimal mixing ratios between pork loin and chicken breast are 0-30% and 70-100% for enhancing the textural and sensory properties of emulsion sausages. PMID:26760930

  13. Variable effect of steam injection level on beef muscles: semitendinosus and biceps femoris cooked in convection-steam oven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zając, Marzena; Kącik, Sławomir; Palka, Krystyna; Widurek, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Combi ovens are used very often in restaurants to heat up food. According to the producers the equipment allows to cook meat portions which are more tender and flavoursome comparing to conventional cooking techniques. Beef steaks from muscles semitendinosus and biceps femoris were cooked in convection-steam oven at three humidity levels: 10, 60 and 100%. Chemical composition, including total and insoluble collagen content and cook losses were analysed along with the texture and colour parameters. M. biceps femoris was the hardest and the most chewy at 100% steam saturation level and hardness measured for m. semitendinosus was the lowest at 10% of vapour injection. Changing the steam conditions in the oven chamber did not affect the detectable colour differences of m. biceps femoris, but it was significant for m. semitendinosus. Applying 100% steam saturation caused higher cook losses and the increase of insoluble collagen fractions in both analysed muscles. The results are beneficial for caterers using steam-convection ovens in terms of providing evidence that the heating conditions should be applied individually depending on the muscle used. The tenderness of m. semitendinosus muscle cooked at 10% steam saturation level was comparable to the tenderness obtained for the same muscle aged for 10 days and cooked with 100% steam saturation. Steaks from m. biceps femoris muscle should be cooked with maximum 60% saturation level to obtain higher tenderness.

  14. Effects of self-carbon dioxide-generation material for active packaging on pH, water-holding capacity, meat color, lipid oxidation and microbial growth in beef during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jae; Lee, Seung Yun; Kim, Gap-Don; Kim, Geun-Bae; Jin, Sang Keun; Hur, Sun Jin

    2017-08-01

    Active packaging refers to the mixing of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. The aim of this study was to develop an easy and cheap active packaging for beef. Beef loin samples were divided into three packaging groups (C, ziplock bag packaging; T1, vacuum packaging; T2, active packaging) and stored at 4 °C for 21 days. The water-holding capacity was significantly (P packaging using self-CO 2 -generation materials can extend the shelf life similarly to that observed with vacuum packaging, and that the active packaging method can improve the quality characteristics of beef during cold storage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzhen Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  16. Changes in microflora and other characteristics of vacuum-packaged pork loins irradiated at 3.0 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebepe, S.; Molins, R.A.; Charoen, S.P.; Farrar, H. IV; Skowronski, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Effects of 3.0-kGy irradiation on microflora and other attributes of fresh, vacuum-packaged pork loins were examined during storage (2-4 degrees C, 98 days) and mishandling (24-25 degrees C, 24 and 48 hr). Shelf life of pork chops from irradiated loins was determined at 5 degrees C. Irradiated loins kept at 2-4 degrees C tested negative for Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens and Staphylococcus aureus. Yersinia spp., was detected in pork chops held at 5 degrees C; this organism, C. perfringens and Aeromonas spp. were present in abused samples. In two irradiated samples Listeria monocytogenes was found. Irradiation reduced aerobic, anaerobic and Aeromonas spp. counts; lactobacilli were least affected. Chemical spoilage began after 91 days at 2-4 degrees C. With irradiation, TBA values were unaffected but Hunter a color values increased

  17. The effect of sex, carcass mass, back fat thickness and lean meat content on pork ham and loin characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Knecht

    2016-01-01

    P  ≤ 0.01. Half-carcass mass showed a strong negative correlation with bone content in ham and loin (r = −0.35 and r = −0.21, respectively. Back fat thickness and meat content strongly and inversely correlated with the content of ham and loin in half-carcasses (r = −0.41 and r = 0.59 for back fat thickness; r = 0.66 and r = −0.57 for lean meat content. Close and inverse correlations of back fat thickness and lean meat content were observed with regard to their content in ham and loin (P  ≤ 0.01.

  18. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado; Colli, Celia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe) concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks) were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 deg C for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe) concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L * , a * , and b * values. (author)

  19. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. 319.313 Section 319.313 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy...

  20. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  1. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Márquez, I.; Ordóñez, J. A.; Cambero, M. I.; Cabeza, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse) has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C), the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing. PMID:23227053

  3. Use of E-Beam for Shelf-Life Extension and Sanitizing of Marinated Pork Loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. García-Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of E-beam radiation to extend the shelf-life of marinated pork loin slices stored at 4 and 8°C (temperature abuse has been studied. The shelf-life was extended from 7 to 16 and >20 days after the application of 1 and 2 kGy, respectively. In the event of a temperature abuse occuring during the product distribution (e.g., increase to 8°C, the shelf-life would be extended from 5 to 10 and 16 days, respectively, when applying the doses mentioned previously. From a public health point of view, the irradiation of marinated pork loin may be marketable for a longer period of time of up to two weeks, and guarantees a practically Salmonella and Listeria-free product. Minor changes are produced by the E-beam treatment in the main sensory and rheological characteristics. The odor was the most affected feature, but the off-odors diminished with increased storage. In any case, testers judged the samples to be adequate for marketing.

  4. Waroeng Steak: Spritual Company in the Context of Post-Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihatul Qamariyah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Management’ at the business capitalism covers the vehicle of some aspects including the employee, course, service, network, and any kind of stuffs related to this case. In line with the system of business management, every single company might be in uniformity according to the common standard of capitalism despite having differences in the vision and mission. In this case, Waroeng Steak (WS Restaurant in Demangan, Yogyakarta intentionally applied Islamic spiritual management. WS uses several kinds of teachings and trainings according to Islamic Sharia in the daily process. This concept concerns to the employees’ behavior upgrading and company progression through WS’ timeline program including daily, weekly, and annually activity striving for a great spiritual and economic orientation in the future. This paper argue despite the spiritual training for employees of WS might not be considered practical by capitalist standard, it is effective in bringing both spiritual and economic benefits to both company and all members of the staff. The research result that capitalism meet religion in terms of the production could lead to another standpoint at the collaborative intention in gaining positive benefit in successful business operation. Religion in regard to spiritual management in business has a significant role in bringing both individual upgrading in the class of devotion to God and the reflection to the good ethic in undergoing the working process, it is finally so-called a spiritual company that will be distinctively differ from the other existential companies.

  5. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display shelf life of longissimus muscle from two different beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Engle, T E; Delmore, R J; Hess, A M; Belk, K E

    2016-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging and production system (PS) on retail display life color (L*, a*, and b*), fatty acid profile (% of total fatty acids), lipid oxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; mg malondialdehyde/kg of muscle), vitamin E content (µg/g of muscle), and odor (trained panelists) during storage of LM. Four (or 3) different packaging treatments were applied to LM from steers fattened on grazing systems (Uruguayan) or on high-concentrate diets (U.S.). From fabrication to application of treatments, Uruguayan LM were vacuum packaged for air shipment and U.S. LM were also vacuum packaged and kept in a cooler until Uruguayan samples arrived. Treatments were applied 7 d after slaughter. In Exp. 1, treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen (O) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with nitrogen (N2) and carbon dioxide (MAP/CO), low-O MAP with N2 plus CO and carbon monoxide (MAP/CO), and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2 block 1, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl-arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2 block 2, treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. After 35 d storage, steaks were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, Uruguayan steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( packaging treatments on d 6 of display in Exp. 1. Packaging × PS × time interaction was significant ( 0.05) were detected among both VP and MAP/CO in U.S. steaks at this time. No significant ( > 0.05) packaging × PS × time interaction was observed in Exp. 2. Only PS (both experiments) and time (Exp. 1) affected ( Packaging × PS, PS × time, and packaging × PS × time interactions were not significant ( > 0.05) for any of the fatty acids. Beef from Uruguayan had lower ( < 0.05) SFA and MUFA and greater ( < 0.05) PUFA and n-6 and n-3 fatty acid percentages than U.S. beef. Complexity of fresh meat postmortem chemistry

  6. Effect of the type of frying culinary fat on volatile compounds isolated in fried pork loin chops by using SPME-GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, María Rosario; Estévez, Mario; Morcuende, David; Cava, Ramón

    2004-12-15

    The effect of the type of frying culinary fat (olive oil, sunflower oil, butter, and pig lard) on volatile compounds isolated from fried pork loin chops (m. Longissimus dorsi) was measured by SPME-GC-MS. Frying modified the fatty acid composition of lipids from pork loin chops, which tended to be similar to that of the culinary fat used to fry. Volatile compounds formed from the oxidation of fatty acids increased, such as aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, and hydrocarbons. Besides, each culinary fat used modified the volatile profiles in fried meat differently. Sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops presented the highest aldehyde aliphatic content, probably due to their highest content of polyunsaturated acids. Hexanal, the most abundant aldehyde in fried samples, presented the most elevated content in sunflower oil-fried pork loin chops. In addition, these samples presented more heterocyclic compounds from the Maillard reaction than other fried samples. Volatiles detected in olive oil-fried pork loin chops were mainly lipid-derived compounds such as pentan-1-ol, hexanal, hept-2-enal, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, and nonan-2-one. Butter-fried pork loins were abundant in ketones with a high number of carbons (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, undecan-2-one, tridecanone, and heptadecan-2-one). Pig lard-fried pork loin chops presented some Strecker aldehydes isolated in only these samples, such as 2-methylbutanal and 3-(methylthio)propanal, and a sulfur compound (dimethyl disulfide) related to Strecker aldehydes.

  7. Prediction of intramuscular fat levels in Texel lamb loins using X-ray computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Conington, J; Maltin, C; Knott, S; Lambe, N R

    2014-10-01

    For the consumer, tenderness, juiciness and flavour are often described as the most important factors for meat eating quality, all of which have a close association with intramuscular fat (IMF). X-ray computed tomography (CT) can measure fat, muscle and bone volumes and weights, in vivo in sheep and CT predictions of carcass composition have been used in UK sheep breeding programmes over the last few decades. This study aimed to determine the most accurate combination of CT variables to predict IMF percentage of M. longissimus lumborum in Texel lambs. As expected, predicted carcass fat alone accounted for a moderate amount of the variation (R(2)=0.51) in IMF. Prediction accuracies were significantly improved (Adj R(2)>0.65) using information on fat and muscle densities measured from three CT reference scans, showing that CT can provide an accurate prediction of IMF in the loin of purebred Texel sheep. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  9. Influence of freezing and thawing on the hydration characteristics, quality, and consumer acceptance of whole muscle beef injected with solutions of salt and phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Janz, J A M

    2009-03-01

    Effects of salt/phosphate injection level (112% or 125% pump), salt level (0.5% or 1.5% salt), and freezing/thawing on hydration characteristics, quality, and consumer acceptance of beef semitendinosus were investigated. All enhancement treatments decreased shear force by 25-35%, but negatively affected colour. Increased salt concentration yielded lower purge and cooking losses, and higher water holding capacity. The higher injection level reduced water binding properties, however, the loss in functionality with higher water addition was overcome with increased salt content. Freezing and subsequent thawing was generally detrimental to colour and water binding properties and tended to increase shear force. Freezing and subsequent thawing did not affect fluid release in steaks held for 1 day before analysis, but resulted in decreased water retention in samples held for 7 days. Holding vacuum packaged steaks for 7 days generally increased package purge and negatively affected colour parameters, although water binding characteristics were improved. Consumer panel results demonstrated a negative effect on juiciness and tenderness where meat subject to low salt/high injection was frozen then thawed - the low salt level was insufficient to maintain any positive effect of injection treatment. In general, salt/phosphate injection improved product acceptability and increased willingness to purchase.

  10. Corned Beef: an Enigmatic Irish Dish

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    Corned beef and cabbage, which is consumed in America in large quantities each Saint Patrick’s Day (17th March), is considered by most Americans to be the ultimate Irish dish. However, corned beef and cabbage is seldom eaten in modern day Ireland. It is widely reported that Irish immigrants replaced their beloved bacon and cabbage with corned beef and cabbage when they arrived in America, drawing on the corned beef supplied by their neighbouring Jewish butchers, but not all commentators beli...

  11. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on lipid and protein oxidation of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Armenteros, Monica; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-04-15

    Forty-five lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70 and 80 °C) and time (6, 12 and 24 h) to assess the effect on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins. Heating induced both lipid and protein oxidation in lamb loins. Higher cooking temperature-time combinations increased conjugated dienes and decreased thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS) values and hexanal. Total protein carbonyls increased throughout time at all cooking temperatures considered, while α-aminoadipic (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehydes (GGS) increased when cooking at 60 °C but not at 80 °C. Links between the decrease in secondary compounds from lipid oxidation due to cooking at higher temperatures and for longer times with the increased levels of 3-methylbutanal and greater differences between total protein carbonyls and AAS plus GGS were hypothesised. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sensory and consumer evaluation of pork loins from crossbreeds between Danish Landrace, Yorkshire, Duroc, Iberian and Mangalitza

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida Krestine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Iberian (I) and Mangalitza (M) boars were crossed with Duroc (D) and Landrace/Yorkshire (LY) sows and compared with the traditional crossbreed DLY. The sensory attributes were analysed, and consumers evaluated the fried loins. Gas chromatography (GC) aroma analysis was performed on the fried meat......, and fatty acid composition was determined on the loin and the subcutaneous fat, respectively. No marked differences were found in odour, appearance or flavour/taste between the alternative crossbreeds and DLY; however, the alternative crossbreeds had improved textural properties. Consumer evaluation...... revealed that the alternative crossbreeds obtained positive associations compared with DLY, and MD was ranked best or second best by almost 60% of the consumers. No pronounced differences were found in the aroma compounds between the different crossbreeds. Correlations were found between the fatty acid...

  13. Updated estimates of HAL n and RN- effects on pork quality: fresh and processed loin and ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherel, P; Glénisson, J; Figwer, P; Pires, J; Damon, M; Franck, M; Le Roy, P

    2010-12-01

    A 1000-pig F2 intercross QTL detection experimental population was generated using two commercial sire lines. Independent carriers of HAL n and RN- mutations (10% and 14%, respectively) were included in this population as control genotypes. The effects of HAL n and RN- heterozygous genotypes on fresh and transformed loins and hams were estimated using a mixed model methodology. The results document the unfavorable effects of both mutations on meat quality. Smaller effects of HAL Nn genotype compared to HAL nn or RN-rn+ genotypes were estimated. Interestingly, effects of HAL Nn genotype on meat pH and loin color could be insignificant at 24-h postmortem, but translate into higher water losses on storage and cooking, and result in tougher cooked loin. Using the same methodology, significant effects of the PRKAG3 (RN) I199 allele on ultimate pH values but not on glycolytic potential were observed. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat. PMID:27857541

  15. Stability of lamb loin stored under refrigeration and packed in different modified atmosphere packaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rafaella de Paula Paseto; Freire, Maria Teresa de Alvarenga; de Paula, Elisa Silva Maluf; Kanashiro, Ana Livea Sayuri; Catunda, Fernanda Antunes Pinto; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar de Carvalho; Trindade, Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) systems (vacuum, 75% O2+25% CO2 and 100% CO2) on the stability of lamb loins stored at 1±1°C for 28 days. Microbiological (counts of aerobic and anaerobic psychrotrophic microorganisms, coliform at 45°C, coagulase-positive staphylococci and lactic acid bacteria and presence of Salmonella), physical and chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARS], objective color, pH, water loss from cooking [WLC] and shear force), sensory (acceptance testing using a 9-point hedonic scale) and gas composition analyses were performed. Lamb meat remained stable with respect to the majority of the evaluated physical and chemical indexes and within the standards established by Brazilian legislation for pathogenic microorganisms throughout the storage period in all three packaging systems. However, with respect to psychrotrophic microorganisms, 100% CO2 packaging system provided increased stability despite presenting lower appearance preference. © 2013.

  16. Effects of Artificial Supercooling Followed by Slow Freezing on the Microstructure and Qualities of Pork Loin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yiseul; Hong, Geun-Pyo

    2016-10-31

    This study investigated the effects of artificial supercooling followed by still air freezing (SSF) on the qualities of pork loin. The qualities of pork frozen by SSF were compared with the fresh control (CT, stored at 4℃ for 24 h), slow freezing (SAF, still air freezing) and rapid freezing (EIF, ethanol immersion freezing) treatments. Compared with no supercooling phenomena of SAF and EIF, the extent of supercooling obtained by SSF treatment was 1.4℃. Despite that SSF was conducted with the same method with SAF, application of artificial supercooling accelerated the phase transition (traverse from -0.6℃ to -5℃) from 3.07 h (SAF) to 2.23 h (SSF). The observation of a microstructure indicated that the SSF prevented tissue damage caused by ice crystallization and maintained the structural integrity. The estimated quality parameters reflected that SSF exhibited superior meat quality compared with slow freezing (SAF). SSF showed better water-holding capacity (lower thawing loss, cooking loss and expressible moisture) and tenderness than SAF, and these quality parameters of SSF were not significantly different with ultra-fast freezing treatment (EIF). Consequently, the results demonstrated that the generation of supercooling followed by conventional freezing potentially had the advantage of minimizing the quality deterioration caused by the slow freezing of meat.

  17. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  18. Non-destructive analysis of sensory traits of dry-cured loins by MRI-computer vision techniques and data mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero, Daniel; Antequera, Teresa; Caro, Andrés; Ávila, María Del Mar; G Rodríguez, Pablo; Perez-Palacios, Trinidad

    2017-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) combined with computer vision techniques have been proposed as an alternative or complementary technique to determine the quality parameters of food in a non-destructive way. The aim of this work was to analyze the sensory attributes of dry-cured loins using this technique. For that, different MRI acquisition sequences (spin echo, gradient echo and turbo 3D), algorithms for MRI analysis (GLCM, NGLDM, GLRLM and GLCM-NGLDM-GLRLM) and predictive data mining techniques (multiple linear regression and isotonic regression) were tested. The correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute error (MAE) were used to validate the prediction results. The combination of spin echo, GLCM and isotonic regression produced the most accurate results. In addition, the MRI data from dry-cured loins seems to be more suitable than the data from fresh loins. The application of predictive data mining techniques on computational texture features from the MRI data of loins enables the determination of the sensory traits of dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Consumer perception of Brazilian traced beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine consumers understanding of beef traceability, identifying how consumers value this meat and traceability elements to be presented on retail shelves. The method used in this study was a survey through the internet applying the Sphinx software. The sample consisted of 417 consumers, mostly living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Consumers are aware of certified beef, consider it important, but this is not a demand. As to traced beef, most consumers (62.4% are in favor of mandatory traceability of beef cattle in Brazil, but 86.6% disagree with the destination of traced beef only to the foreign market. The majority of people are willing to pay more for traced beef and consider traceability a market opportunity, used as a differentiating tool.

  20. La subjugation des femmes musulmanes et la sororité dans Loin de Médine par Assia Djebar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel van Deventer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les premières femmes musulmanes telles qu’elles sont représentées dans l’oeuvre d’Assia Djebar, Loin de Médine, récit situé au tout début de l’histoire de l’Islam. A travers les parcours narratifs de plusieurs femmes marquantes de l’histoire de l’Islam, l’auteur identifie la sororité comme arme unique contre toute oppression. Une lecture critique invite non seulement les lectrices mais aussi les lecteurs contemporains à examiner le statut actuel des femmes musulmanes.

  1. Comparison of different image analysis algorithms on MRI to predict physico-chemical and sensory attributes of loin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, Daniel; Caro, Andrés; Dahl, Anders Bjorholm

    2018-01-01

    -chemical and sensory analysis. CFA reached low relationship for the quality parameters of loins, the remaining algorithms achieved correlation coefficients higher than 0.5 noting OPFTA that reached the highest correlation coefficients in all cases except for the L* coordinate color that GLCM obtained the highest...... correlation coefficient. These high correlation coefficients confirm the new algorithm as an alternative to the other computer vision approaches in order to compute the physico chemical and sensory parameters of meat products in a non-destructive and efficient way....

  2. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract on the shelf-life of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.W.Ju-Woon; Park, K.S.Kyung-Sook; Kim, J.G.Jong-Goon; Oh, S.H.Sang-Hee; Lee, Y.S.You-Seok; Kim, J.H.Jang-Ho; Byun, M.W.Myung-Woo. E-mail: mwbyun@nanum.kaeri.re.krmwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract powder (rosemary) for improving the quality of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak by changing the storage condition from frozen (-20 deg. C) to a chilled temperature (4 deg. C), an accelerated storage test was carried out. The hamburger steak was prepared with 200 or 500 ppm of rosemary, or 200 ppm of butylated hydroxyanisole by a commercially used recipe, gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy, and stored at 30 deg. C. From the microbiological aspect, irradiation at 20 kGy or a higher dose was needed to inactivate the normal microflora. Little effect of the antioxidant was, if any, observed. Thiobarbituric acid values were not very different during storage regardless of the irradiation dose and the addition of the antioxidant. Textural and sensory results were also not significantly different in all the samples.

  3. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract on the shelf-life of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.W.Ju-Woon; Park, K.S.Kyung-Sook; Kim, J.G.Jong-Goon; Oh, S.H.Sang-Hee; Lee, Y.S.You-Seok; Kim, J.H.Jang-Ho; Byun, M.W.Myung-Woo.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combined treatment of gamma irradiation and rosemary extract powder (rosemary) for improving the quality of a ready-to-eat hamburger steak by changing the storage condition from frozen (-20 deg. C) to a chilled temperature (4 deg. C), an accelerated storage test was carried out. The hamburger steak was prepared with 200 or 500 ppm of rosemary, or 200 ppm of butylated hydroxyanisole by a commercially used recipe, gamma irradiated at absorbed doses of 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy, and stored at 30 deg. C. From the microbiological aspect, irradiation at 20 kGy or a higher dose was needed to inactivate the normal microflora. Little effect of the antioxidant was, if any, observed. Thiobarbituric acid values were not very different during storage regardless of the irradiation dose and the addition of the antioxidant. Textural and sensory results were also not significantly different in all the samples

  4. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  5. Genetic variation of loin and ham quality in Finnish Landrace and Large White pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. SEVÓN-AIMONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection potential for meat quality of economically important loin (longissimus and ham muscles (adductor, semimembranosus, biceps femoris has been assessed. Ultimate pH (pHu, meat colour (lightness, redness and yellowness, drip loss and two visually scored colour traits were recorded from 483 Finnish Landrace and 494 Finnish Large White station test pigs in a half-sib design. A univariate restricted maximum likelihood procedure was used to estimate variance components. The statistical model contained age at beginning of test, sex and time lapse from slaughter to dissection as fixed effects and slaughter batch, common environment of littermates and additive genetic effect of the animal as random effects. The average pHu values in adductor and semispinalis were between 5.6 and 6.1. The pHu were on average 5.4 and 5.5 in longissimus and semimembranosus respectively, with the latter two being lower than optimum values of 5.6 to 5.9. Lightness for semimembranosus turned to be clearly lighter (62 than for other muscles. Lightness for longissimus (56 was slightly lighter than optimum (from 48 to 54. The heritability varied from zero to 0.45 for pHu, from 0.02 to 0.34 for lightness, from 0.17 to 0.56 for redness, from zero to 0.28 for yellowness and from 0.05 to 0.16 for drip loss. Heritability for redness values was considerably higher than heritability for other meat quality traits. The heritability of quality traits spoke for possibilities for genetic improvement of meat quality. Genetic correlations between quality traits (pHu and lightness and average daily gain varied strongly among breeds and muscles. Genetic correlations between meat-% and pHu were in most cases high and unfavourable (rg from –0.36 to –0.68 except in longissimus, where it was 0.11. Genetic correlations between meat-% and lightness were unfavourable in Finnish Large White (from 0.47 to 0.92 but in Finnish Landrace estimates varied among muscles (from –0.40 to 0.47. Due to

  6. The effect of a high monounsaturated fat diet on body weight, back fat and loin muscle growth in high and medium-lean pig genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, G.; Soler, J.; Llavall, M.; Tibau, J.; Roca, R.; Coll, D.; Fabrega, E.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the use of a diet rich in oleic acid could have an effect on daily weight gain, backfat and loin muscle (Longissimus thoracis) depth. One hundred and ninety-two barrows and gilts, from two genotypes were fed a grain and soy diet (CONTROL with 28% C18:1) or a similar diet enriched with oleic acid (HO with 43% C18:1, Greedy-Grass OLIVA). The pigs were housed in 16 pens in groups of 12 according to their sex, diet and genotype. From 75 days of age every three weeks, the pigs were weighed and the backfat and loin muscle depth were ultrasonically recorded (PIGLOG). The inclusion of the dietary fat had no significant effect on the growth variables nor on the backfat and loin muscle depth measurements taken. However, the barrows resulted in higher live weight and backfat compared to the gilts at the end of the trial. Conversely, the gilts showed higher loin depth. Moreover, York-sired pigs were heavier than Pietrain-sired pigs during the whole trial and showed higher backfat at the last two measurements. Pietrain-sired pigs had higher loin muscle depth at the last measurements. The results of the present study suggest that the addition of a dietary fat into diets aiming at modifying the meat fatty acid profile has no detrimental effects on performance variables, or on backfat and loin muscle growth and thus, no negative economic impact for producers. (Author) 37 refs.

  7. Variables affecting the propensity to buy branded beef among groups of Australian beef buyers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L Emilio; Griffith, Garry; Wright, Victor; Fleming, Euan; Umberger, Wendy; Hoang, Nam

    2013-06-01

    Australian beef consumers have different preferences given their characteristics and the effect on expected quality of cues related to health, production process and eating experience. Beef brands using Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grades can help to signal quality and reduce consumers' uncertainty when shopping. The objective of this study is to identify the characteristics of beef buyers and their perceptions about product attributes that affect the propensity to buy branded beef. Binary logistic models were applied identifying differences between all respondents and the potential target market, including buyers in medium to high income segments, and between buyers in the target market who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Variables increasing the propensity to buy branded beef include previous experience, appreciation for branded cuts and concern about quality more than size. Finally, variations in preferences for marbling and cut were found between buyers who would buy branded beef for taste and health reasons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 9 CFR 319.81 - Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Roast beef parboiled and steam roasted... beef parboiled and steam roasted. “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted” shall be prepared so that... “Roast Beef Parboiled and Steam Roasted.” When beef cheek meat, beef head meat, or beef heart meat is...

  9. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  10. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodnar Dan C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  11. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  12. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  13. Polymorphisms in the GHRL gene and their associations with traits of economic interest in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, C U; Camargo, G M F; Cardoso, D F; Gil, F M M; Fonseca, P D S; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z; Oliveira, H N; Tonhati, H

    2015-12-28

    The hormone ghrelin is produced in the stomach wall, has an orexigenic function, stimulates growth hormone secretion, and affects the energy balance of the animal. Therefore, the ghrelin gene (GHRL) is considered to be a good candidate marker for the identification of traits of great economic importance in cattle, such as those associated with feed intake, growth, and carcass quality. The use of molecular genetic markers associated with such traits permits the earlier and more accurate identification of superior animals, thus reducing the interval between generations, and increasing the genetic gain. Six SNPs were found in the GHRL gene, located in intron 3, intron 4, and exon 5. The positions of the SNPs on the gene and the substitutions were: g.2184A>G, g.2347T>C, g.4469T>C, g.4548A>G, g.4663T>C, and g.4729T>C (GenBank accession No. JX565585). After analysis of linkage disequilibrium, association tests were performed between four SNPs with the traits year weight for males, yearling weight for females, dry matter intake, loin eye area, and rump fat thickness (P ≤ 0.05). Therefore, GHRL is an important candidate gene that may be used to identify genetic variations that influence traits of economic importance in beef cattle.

  14. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  15. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share......'s share of total meat consumption 3. As a consequence of the consumers' demand for convenient shopping, butcher's share of total beef sales is rapidly decreasing in Europe. 4. Changes in meat consumption have traditionally been explained by relative price and per capita income, but these economic demand...... analyses can explain a rapidly decreasing share of the variation in beef consumption. 5. Studies show that beef consumption tends to increase with age; the heavy users are found among middle-aged men. Beef consumption also increases with income and social class. 6. The most important user-oriented quality...

  16. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  17. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  18. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  19. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  20. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., the amount of such cheek meat shall be limited to 25 percent; and if in excess of natural proportions..., binders, or extenders. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the preparation of hamburger... levels of up to 65 ppm may be used as a binder. Beef cheek meat (trimmed beef cheeks) may be used in the...

  1. The chilled storage life and retail display performance of vacuum and carbon dioxide packed hot deboned beef striploins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R G; Penney, N; Gilbert, K V; Moorhead, S M; Scott, S M

    1996-04-01

    Two cooling regimes that complied with the New Zealand meat hygiene requirement that hot deboned meat be chilled to +7 °C or less within 24 hr of leaving the slaughter floor were evaluated for the production of chilled table meats. Electrically stimulated hot deboned bull beef half striploins were either vacuum or carbon dioxide packed before being cooled in accordance with either Regime 1 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C) or Regime 2 (cool at +5 °C for 24 hr, hold at 5 °C for 6 days, transfer to chiller operating at -1.0 ± 0.5 °C). Striploins were removed from -1.0 °C storage 8, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after slaughter and subjected to microbiological, tenderness, sensory and retail display performance evaluations. Both Regimes 1 and 2 produced meat of acceptable mean tenderness, 8 kgF (MIRINZ Tenderometer) in either vacuum or carbon dioxide packs within 28 and 8 days of slaughter, respectively. However, 70 days after slaughter the first signs of over-ageing became apparent. Steaks from Regimes 1 and 2 maintained acceptable visual appearance during retail display at 5 °C for 48 hr and 24 hr, respectively. After these times, the product was judged by the panel to be unacceptable because of its dull dark lean tissue and grey to green discoloration of the fat. Poor colour stability during retail display was mirrored by deterioration of sensory attributes, particularly aroma which is indicative of incipient spoilage. While carbon dioxide packaging in combination with Regime 1 offered an initial microbiological advantage over vacuum packaging, this advantage was not, however, carried over into retail display. Poor colour and sensory stability during retail display suggest that chilled table cuts derived from hot deboned bull beef are more suited to the Hotel-Restaurant-Institutional (HRI) trade than supermarket retailing. To serve the HRI, vacuum packed hot deboned bull beef primal cuts processed by Regime 1

  2. Does this case hold the answer to one of the worse types of pain in medicine--that of loin pain haematuria syndrome (LPHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alan; Chatterjee, Suman; Seed, Michael

    2015-04-26

    A patient with loin pain haematuria syndrome suffering chronic throbbing pulsing pain overlaid with prolonged periods of incapacitating colic and overnight vomiting was presented 10 months following diagnosis. Ultrasound was normal. No renal or ureteral stones, or filling defects were seen on CT. At cytoscopy, bladder and urethra were normal, and bloody urine effluxed from the left ureteric orifice. The ureters were normal at diagnosis, and developed new abutting non-penetrating calcifications by 8 months. Pain episodes of complete incapacitating intensity of 2-4 h duration were reduced to 10 min with 5 mg crushed tadalafil administered at onset. If tadalafil was delayed to after onset, the original course of agony resulted. Daily tadalafil reduced loin pain intensity, but not the exacerbations. Tadalafil efficacy may indicate that the pain exacerbations are due to spasm of ureter smooth muscle. 5 mg tadalafil taken at onset alleviated severe loin pain exacerbations in this case of loin pain haematuria syndrome. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...... of disease and a good quality of life. Healthy beef was associated with a certain bias towards a "romantic view", a concept of the traditional encompassing grass-fed beef, raised outdoors with natural food. A healthy cut of meat was expected to be natural and without additives and hormones that could affect...

  4. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  5. Beef, Real Food for Real People: An Industrial Analysis of the Beef Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    poultry . In 1989 Amrericans spent an average of $3.89 per person per week on beef products. Consumer bought $21 billion in beef products in 1989; they...or decreases in price. If the price of beef gets to high, consumers will switch their purchase to another red meat, poultry or seafood. TECHNOLOGY...The beginning of organized labor in meatpacking occurred with the -- •formation of the Amalgamated Meat Cutters and Butcher Workman of North America

  6. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...... tenderness, consumers express some reserve related to the possible upgrading of lower value cuts, too much standardisation, and the fact that tenderness is to some extent subjective. They further require the system to be simple, sufficiently documented and independent-party controlled. The insights obtained...

  7. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller

    2016-01-01

    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Piras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  9. Radappertization of steak breast chicken grilled for storage at ambient temperature; Radapertizacao de files de frango grelhados para armazenamento a temperatura ambiente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoto, Marta H.F.; Walder, Julio M.M.; Gurgel, Maria S. Amaral; Gutierrez, Erica M.R.; Blumer, Lucimara; Domarco, Rachel E. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mhfspoto@cena.usp.br

    2000-07-01

    Gamma radiation with high doses was used on steak breast chicken. The doses of 25 kGy and 50 kGy were used on the fillets vacuum packaged; the storage temperature was 22-25 deg C for 180 days, and the analysis were done each 30 days. The microbiology (Clostridium perfringens); physical-chemical (humidity, protein, lipids, pH, color and TBA); and sensorial analysis, were done. The samples did not showed colony for any treatment by irradiation during storage period. The irradiated samples showed both higher humidity and brightness than those no irradiated. All treatment showed high notes on hedonic scale, by sensorial analysis. (author)

  10. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  11. Antioxidative activity of carnosine in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The activity of carnosine as a natural antioxidant in gamma irradiated ground beef and beef patties was studied. Samples of ground beef, in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, as well as raw and cooked beef patties prepared with 1.5% salt (NaCl), in absence and presence of 0.5% or 1.0% carnosine, were gamma irradiated at doses of 2 and 4 KGy. Then, the extent of oxidation in irradiated and non-irradiated samples of ground beef and raw beef patties was determined during refrigerated (4± 1 degree C) and frozen (-18 degree C) storage, while was determined for cooked beef patties during refrigerated storage only. Moreover, the determination of metmyoglobin (MetMb) accumulation and sensory evaluation for the visual colour were carried out for samples of ground beef and raw patties. The results indicated that salt or salt and cooking can accelerate the oxidative processes and significantly increased the peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in the prepared non-irradiated samples. However, salt slowed down the accumulation of MetMb in raw patties. Irradiation treatments and storage in absence of carnosine significantly increased with higher rates the PV and TBARS in salted or salted and cooked beef samples. Moreover, irradiation and storage significantly increased the formation of MetMb in ground beef and raw patties in absence of carnosine. Addition of carnosine significantly reduced the oxidative processes and MetMb formation (proportionally to the used concentration) in samples post irradiation and during storage. Furthermore, carnosine exerted significant efficacy in maintaining an acceptable visual red colour post irradiation and during storage of ground beef and raw patties. These results demonstrate that carnosine can be successfully used as a natural antioxidant to increase the oxidative stability in gamma irradiated raw and cooked meat products

  12. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  13. Hedonic Retail Beef and Pork Product Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2007-01-01

    Consumer-level hedonic models are estimated to determine factors affecting retail pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premium and discount varies across private, national, and store brands and that brand premium varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Product size discounts are linear for beef and nonlinear for pork, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically will not garner higher prices than supermarket/grocer...

  14. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  15. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  16. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  17. The beef tenderness model | Frylinck | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age feedlot animals produced the most tender LL followed by the B-age pasture and A-age feedlot which was similar to the AB-age pasture. A-age pasture animals produced the least tender LL steaks. The calpain proteolytic system played a ...

  18. Effect of packaging type during postmortem aging and degree of doneness on pork chop sensory traits of loins selected to vary in color and marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehm, B J; King, D A; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2018-05-04

    The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins was evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28-mm-thick chops. Chop within each loin was randomly assigned to either individual vacuum packages or to individual Styrofoam trays and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) oxygen permeable film. Overwrapped PVC packages were then placed in bulk packages and flushed with a gas mixture that contained approximately 0.4% carbon monoxide, 30% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. Vacuum-packaged chops were aged until 14 d postmortem. Chops packaged in PVC overwrap were aged until 9 d postmortem in the bulk packages, then placed on simulated retail display until 14 d postmortem. Chops from each packaging type were cooked to an internal temperature of either 63 °C or 71 °C for the evaluation of slice shear force (SSF) or for evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by a trained panel. Data were analyzed as split-split plot design with production focus of the pigs, proposed USDA quality grade, packaging type, and degree of doneness as fixed effects. While there were main effect differences between production focuses, there were no interactions with production focus. There were also no 3-way (P ≥ 0.19) interactions and only one 2-way interaction among quality grade, packaging type, or degree of doneness. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0.30), juiciness (P = 0.49), flavor (P = 0.89), SSF (P = 0.13), or cook loss (P = 0.06) among USDA quality grades. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0

  19. The effect of technical replicate (repeats) on Nix Pro Color Sensor™ measurement precision for meat: A case-study on aged beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Collins, Damian; Kilgannon, Ashleigh K; Hopkins, David L

    2018-01-01

    The Nix Pro Colour Sensor™ (NIX) can be potentially used to measure meat colour, but procedural guidelines that assure measurement reproducibility and repeatability (precision) must first be established. Technical replicate number (r) will minimise response variation, measureable as standard error of predicted mean (SEM), and contribute to improved precision. Consequently, we aimed to explore the effects of r on NIX precision when measuring aged beef colour (colorimetrics; L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma values). Each colorimetric SEM declined with increasing r to indicate improved precision and followed a diminishing rate of improvement that allowed us to recommend r=7 for meat colour studies using the NIX. This definition was based on practical limitations and a* variability, as additional r would be required if other colorimetrics or advanced levels of precision are necessary. Beef ageing and display period, holding temperature, loin and sampled portion were also found to contribute to colorimetric variation, but were incorporated within our definition of r. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  1. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  2. Changes in the phospholipid fraction of intramuscular fat from pork loin (fresh and marinated) with different irradiation and packaging during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Marquez, I.; Narvaez-Rivas, M.; Gallardo, E.; Cabeza, C. M.; Leon-Camacho, M.

    2013-05-01

    A study on the effect of E-beam (1 and 2 kGy) on the phospholipid classes of fresh and marinated pork loin stored at 4 degree centigrade and 8 degree centigrade under different atmospheres (air, vacuum and carbon dioxide enriched atmospheres) has been conducted. This is the first time that a study of this kind has been carried out on these types of samples. The combined statistical treatment of the distinct variables shows that minor changes (cardiol pin and sphingomyelin between both types of loin, cardiolipin vs storage temperatures and phosphatidylethanolamine vs the modified atmospheres) are produced in the individual phospholipids subjected to the different selected conditions. The more relevant result was that no effect of the irradiation doses on the phospholipids classes was found, so the E-beam can be considered a useful tool to extend the shelf-life of fresh meat without changes in the phospholipid fraction. (Author) 24 refs.

  3. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  4. Severe loin pain following renal biopsy in a high-risk patient: A case report of a rare combination of pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Madhav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 50-year-old male patient with diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented with low-grade fever, anuria and renal failure. He had no prior history of nephropathy and retinopathy. Since anuria persisted, a renal biopsy was performed using automated gun, under ultrasound guidance. Two hours after the renal biopsy was performed, the patient developed severe left loin pain that required analgesics and sedatives. Ultrasound of the abdomen performed immediately, two hours and four hours after the biopsy, did not reveal any hematoma. The hemoglobin was stable when the patient developed loin pain, but after eight hours decreased to 9.1 g/dL, and computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed a big peri-nephric hematoma around the left kidney. He was managed with blood transfusions and a selective angiogram was done. It revealed a pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula from the segmental artery of lower pole of the left kidney; both were closed by using microcoils and liquid embolic agent N-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA. The only risk factor the patient had at the time of renal biopsy was severe renal failure. Our case suggests that severe loin pain immediately after renal biopsy in a patient with renal failure warrants careful follow-up of hemoglobin and imaging, even if initial imaging is normal. Further fall of hemoglobin necessitates early evaluation with angiogram, which helps in diagnosing the treatable, although rare, complications like pseudoaneurysm and arterio-venous fistula.

  5. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  6. Where's the beef? Retail channel choice and beef preferences in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Florencia; Ortega, David L

    2017-11-01

    Argentinean beef is recognized and demanded internationally. Locally, consumers are often unable to afford certified beef products, and may rely on external cues to determine beef quality. Uncovering demand for beef attributes and marketing them accordingly, may require an understanding of consumers' product purchasing strategies, which involves retailer choice. We develop a framework utilizing latent class analysis to identify consumer groups with different retailer preferences, and separately estimate their demand for beef product attributes. This framework accounts for the interrelationship between consumers' choice of retail outlets and beef product preferences. Our analysis of data from the city of Buenos Aires identifies two groups of consumers, a convenience- (67%) and a service- (33%) oriented group. We find significant differences in demand for beef attributes across these groups, and find that the service oriented group, while not willing to pay for credence attributes, relies on a service-providing retailer-namely a butcher-as a source of product quality assurance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  8. Beef cow-calf production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  9. Effect of added phosphate and type of cooking method on physico-chemical and sensory features of cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of brining with phosphates on the physico-chemical and sensory features of sous-vide and roasted cooked lamb. Lamb loins (n=48) were injected with either 10% w/w of distilled water or a solution containing 0.2% or 0.4% (w/v) of a mixture of phosphate salts. After injection, samples were either sous-vide cooked (12h-60°C) or oven roasted (180°C until 73°C of core temp.). Expressible moisture, cooking loss, instrumental color, pH, water holding capacity, instrumental texture and sensory properties were evaluated. Brining with phosphates led to lower cooking loss in both sous-vide and oven roasted samples, but only the former showed significantly higher moisture content. Phosphates increased instrumental hardness and shear force values in sous-vide samples, while this effect was not as evident in roasted ones. Toughness was reduced and juiciness was improved as a consequence of phosphate addition. Overall, injection of a phosphate solution appears as a potential procedure for improving sensory textural features of cooked lamb whole cuts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability of Antiradical Activity of Protein Extracts and Hydrolysates from Dry-Cured Pork Loins with Probiotic Strains of LAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kęska

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of starter cultures to improve quality and safety has become a very common practice in the meat industry. Probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB can also bring health benefits by releasing bioactive peptides. The aim of this work was to evaluate the stability of antiradical activity of protein extracts from LAB-inoculated dry-cured pork loins during long-term aging and evaluate their hydrolysates after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Analyses of hydrolysates by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were strengthened with in silico analysis. The highest antiradical activity of the protein extracts was observed after 180 days of aging. The influence of the strain used (LOCK, BAUER, or BB12 on the inactivation ability of ABTS radicals varied during long-term aging. The IC50 values indicated the higher antiradical properties of salt-soluble (SSF compared to water-soluble fraction (WSF of proteins. The peptides generated by in vitro digestion have MW between 700 and 4232 Da and their length ranged from 5 to 47 amino acids in a sequence where Leu, Pro, Lys, Glu, and His had the largest share. This study demonstrates that the degradation of pork muscle proteins during gastrointestinal digestion may give rise to a wide variety of peptides with antiradical properties.

  11. Incorporating reproductive management of beef heifers into a veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poock, Scott E; Payne, Craig A

    2013-11-01

    Veterinarians play an important role in reproductive management of dairy herds across the United States; however, in many cases, their involvement in reproductive management of beef herds has been limited. The reasons for this vary; however, there are ways for veterinarians to become more actively involved in reproductive management of US beef herds. Veterinarians can have an impact on producers' profits by implementing their skills and knowledge to beef heifer development programs. This article provides an overview of the services veterinarians can provide to beef cattle producers that pertain to reproductive management of replacement beef heifers. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  13. IMPACT OF EXPORTS ON THE U.S. BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Van Eenoo, Edward, Jr.; Peterson, Everett B.; Purcell, Wayne D.

    2000-01-01

    Policy and programmatic decisions dealing with beef exports require good information as to the impact of exports on the domestic beef industry. This paper utilizes a partial equilibrium model of the world beef market to assess the impacts on the U.S. beef sector of increases in real income in major beef importing countries, the impacts of changes in the prices of pork and poultry products, and the impacts of changes in the price of feedgrains. A one percent increase in real GDP in Canada, Jap...

  14. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  15. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah N Phillips

    Full Text Available Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN. During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10, crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10, and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10. Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  16. Impact of grazing dairy steers on winter rye (Secale cereale) versus winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) and effects on meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability of organic beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Hannah N; Heins, Bradley J; Delate, Kathleen; Turnbull, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Meat from Holstein and crossbred organic dairy steers finished on winter rye and winter wheat pastures was evaluated and compared for meat quality, fatty acid and amino acid profiles, and consumer acceptability. Two adjacent 4-ha plots were established with winter rye or winter wheat cover crops in September 2015 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center (Morris, MN). During spring of 2015, 30 steers were assigned to one of three replicate breed groups at birth. Breed groups were comprised of: Holstein (HOL; n = 10), crossbreds comprised of Montbéliarde, Viking Red, and HOL (MVH; n = 10), and crossbreds comprised of Normande, Jersey, and Viking Red (NJV; n = 10). Dairy steers were maintained in their respective replicate breed group from three days of age until harvest. After weaning, steers were fed an organic total mixed ration of organic corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn, soybean meal, and minerals until spring 2016. Breed groups were randomly assigned to winter rye or winter wheat and rotationally grazed from spring until early summer of 2016. For statistical analysis, independent variables were fixed effects of breed, forage, and the interaction of breed and forage, with replicated group as a random effect. Specific contrast statements were used to compare HOL versus crossbred steers. Fat from crossbreds had 13% greater omega-3 fatty acids than HOL steers. Furthermore, the omega-6/3 ratio was 14% lower in fat from crossbreds than HOL steers. For consumer acceptability, steaks from steers grazed on winter wheat had greater overall liking than steers grazed on winter rye. Steak from crossbreeds had greater overall liking than HOL steers. The results suggest improvement in fatty acids and sensory attributes of beef from crossbred dairy steers compared to HOL steers, as well as those finished on winter wheat compared to winter rye.

  17. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARC-IRENE

    expected eating experience of the loin muscles but not of higher connective .... which there are firstly gender and type limitations (e.g. bulls are not quality .... was found that A-age animals had significantly higher muscle collagen solubility, that.

  18. Characterization and functional inferences of a genome-wide DNA methylation profile in the loin ( muscle of swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woonsu Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective DNA methylation plays a major role in regulating the expression of genes related to traits of economic interest (e.g., weight gain in livestock animals. This study characterized and investigated the functional inferences of genome-wide DNA methylome in the loin (longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM of swine. Methods A total of 8.99 Gb methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequence data were obtained from LDM samples of eight Duroc pigs (four pairs of littermates. The reference pig genome was annotated with 78.5% of the raw reads. A total of 33,506 putative methylated regions (PMR were identified from methylated regions that overlapped at least two samples. Results Of these, only 3.1% were commonly observed in all eight samples. DNA methylation patterns between two littermates were as diverse as between unrelated individuals (p = 0.47, indicating that maternal genetic effects have little influence on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM. The highest density of PMR was observed on chromosome 10. A major proportion (47.7% of PMR was present in the repeat regions, followed by introns (21.5%. The highest conservation of PMR was found in CpG islands (12.1%. These results show an important role for DNA methylation in species- and tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. PMR were also significantly related to muscular cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism. Conclusion This study indicated the biased distribution and functional role of DNA methylation in gene expression of porcine LDM. DNA methylation was related to cell development, cell-cell communication, cellular integrity and transport, and nutrient metabolism (e.g., insulin signaling pathways. Nutritional and environmental management may have a significant impact on the variation in DNA methylation of porcine LDM.

  19. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  20. Do beef risk perceptions or risk attitudes have a greater effect on the beef purchase decisions of Canadian consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Goddard, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis is applied in this study to group Canadian households by two characteristics, their risk perceptions and risk attitudes toward beef. There are some similarities in demographic profiles, meat purchases, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) media recall between the cluster that perceives beef to be the most risky and the cluster that has little willingness to accept the risks of eating beef. There are similarities between the medium risk perception cluster and the medium risk attitude cluster, as well as between the cluster that perceives beef to have little risk and the cluster that is most willing to accept the risks of eating beef. Regression analysis shows that risk attitudes have a larger impact on household-level beef purchasing decisions than do risk perceptions for all consumer clusters. This implies that it may be more effective to undertake policies that reduce the risks associated with eating beef, instead of enhancing risk communication to improve risk perceptions. Only for certain clusters with higher willingness to accept the risks of eating beef might enhancing risk communication increase beef consumption significantly. The different role of risk perceptions and risk attitudes in beef consumption needs to be recognized during the design of risk management policies.

  1. KILT (Kidney and IVC Abnormalities with Leg Thrombosis) Syndrome in a 41-Years-Old Man with Loin Pain and Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, James Kiujing; Yeung, Victor Hip Wo; Chu, Sau Kwan; Man, Chi Wan

    2017-05-01

    KILT syndrome is a rare condition composing the triad of kidney and inferior vena cava anomaly and extensive venous thrombosis. We present a case of newly diagnosed KILT syndrome in a 41-years-old gentleman presenting with loin pain and fever. Reviewing previous case reports, KILT syndrome is usually an incidental finding on imaging studies and there is a wide scope of initial clinical presentations. However, recent evidence suggests IVC anomaly may have caused subsequent renal hypoplasia. Identification of the underlying etiology may be helpful in planning early vascular intervention to treat the condition.

  2. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied....... FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more...

  3. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  4. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  5. Irish Corned Beef: A Culinary History

    OpenAIRE

    Mac Con Iomaire, Máirtín; Gallagher, Pádraic Óg

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes that a better knowledge of culinary history enriches all culinary stakeholders. The article will discuss the origins and history of corned beef in Irish cuisine and culture. It outlines how cattle have been central to the ancient Irish way of life for centuries, but were cherished more for their milk than their meat. In the early modern period, with the decline in the power of the Gaelic lords, cattle became and economic commodity that was exported to England. The Cattle...

  6. Determinants of Beef and Pork Brand Equity

    OpenAIRE

    Parcell, Joseph L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    2003-01-01

    A set of consumer-level characteristic demand models were estimated to determine the level of brand equity for pork and beef meat cuts. Results indicate that brand premiums and discounts vary by private, national, and store brands; and brand equity varies across meat cuts carrying the same brand name. Other results are that product size discounts are linear, meat items on sale are significantly discounted to non-sale items, specialty stores typically do not garner higher prices than supermark...

  7. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, ... fed the same diets at 4 to 5 kg/day (48.78% corn, 20.43% bran, 26% corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement and 0.5% salt) for a fattening ...

  8. Biochemical, Oxidative, and Lipolytic Changes during Vacuum-Packed Storage of Dry-Cured Loin: Effect of Chestnuts Intake by Celta Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the inclusion of chestnuts in the finishing diet of Celta pig breed on the characteristics of dry-cured loin, a traditional Spanish dry-cured meat product, after the manufacturing process and the vacuum-packed storage was studied. In general, no significant differences between the diets (chestnut, mixed, and concentrate diet were obtained for physicochemical (moisture, intramuscular fat, and titratable acidity and lipolytic parameters. Lower pH and higher values for oxidation parameters (peroxide and TBA values were obtained in loins from pigs fed with chestnuts. However, no differences were found for fatty acids from the different lipid fractions when diets were compared, with the exception of some minor fatty acids. Free fatty acids represented over 2.7% of the fat in the final product. The distinction between diets was procured when a discriminant canonical analysis was performed for fatty acid contents. After vacuum-packed storage, only a slight evolution of the studied parameters was obtained.

  9. Physicochemical and microbiological changes during the refrigerated storage of lamb loins sous-vide cooked at different combinations of time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Hernández, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jorge

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of cooking temperature (either 60 ℃ or 80 ℃) and time (6 h or 24 h) on the physicochemical (weight loss, moisture content, instrumental color, instrumental texture, lipid and protein oxidation) and microbiological changes underwent by sous-vide cooked lamb loins during refrigerated storage for 30 days. There was a slight trend to decreasing weight losses in some of the cooking treatments, but only in samples cooked at 60 ℃ for 6 h it was paralleled with an increase in moisture content. The only noteworthy oxidative change was a marked decrease in conjugated dienes after two weeks of storage in samples cooked at 80 ℃ for 24 h. Neither instrumental texture nor color showed noticeable variations during the storage. Microbial population remained quite low during the whole refrigerated storage. Overall, most of the studied parameters showed only scarce changes throughout 30 days of refrigerated storage that most likely would not influence the quality of sous-vide cooked loin lambs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Prediction of intramuscular fat content and shear force in Texel lamb loins using combinations of different X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clelland, N; Bunger, L; McLean, K A; Knott, S; Matthews, K R; Lambe, N R

    2018-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) parameters, including spiral computed tomography scanning (SCTS) parameters, intramuscular fat (IMF) and mechanically measured shear force were derived from two previously published studies. Purebred Texel (n = 377) of both sexes, females (n = 206) and intact males (n = 171) were used to investigate the prediction of IMF and shear force in the loin. Two and three dimensional CT density information was available. Accuracies in the prediction of shear force and IMF ranged from R 2 0.02 to R 2 0.13 and R 2 0.51 to R 2 0.71 respectively, using combinations of SCTS and CT scan information. The prediction of mechanical shear force could not be achieved at an acceptable level of accuracy employing SCTS information. However, the prediction of IMF in the loin employing information from SCTS and additional information from standard CT scans was successful, providing evidence that the prediction of IMF and related meat eating quality (MEQ) traits for Texel lambs in vivo can be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of different temperature-time combinations on physicochemical, microbiological, textural and structural features of sous-vide cooked lamb loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Antequera, Teresa; Martín, Alberto; Mayoral, Ana Isabel; Ruiz, Jorge

    2013-03-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60, 70, and 80 °C) and time (6, 12, and 24 h). Different physicochemical, histological and structural parameters were studied. Increasing cooking temperatures led to higher weight losses and lower moisture contents, whereas the effect of cooking time on these variables was limited. Samples cooked at 60 °C showed the highest lightness and redness, while increasing cooking temperature and cooking time produced higher yellowness values. Most textural variables in a texture profile analysis showed a marked interaction between cooking temperature and time. Samples cooked for 24h showed significantly lower values for most of the studied textural parameters for all the temperatures considered. Connective tissue granulation at 60 °C and gelation at 70 °C were observed in the SEM micrographs. The sous-vide cooking of lamb loins dramatically reduced microbial population even with the less intense heat treatment studied (60 °C-6 h). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pressure resistance of cold-shocked Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef, beef gravy and peptone water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccus-Taylor, G S H; Falloon, O C; Henry, N

    2015-06-01

    (i) To study the effects of cold shock on Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells. (ii) To determine if cold-shocked E. coli O157:H7 cells at stationary and exponential phases are more pressure-resistant than their non-cold-shocked counterparts. (iii) To investigate the baro-protective role of growth media (0·1% peptone water, beef gravy and ground beef). Quantitative estimates of lethality and sublethal injury were made using the differential plating method. There were no significant differences (P > 0·05) in the number of cells killed; cold-shocked or non-cold-shocked. Cells grown in ground beef (stationary and exponential phases) experienced lowest death compared with peptone water and beef gravy. Cold-shock treatment increased the sublethal injury to cells cultured in peptone water (stationary and exponential phases) and ground beef (exponential phase), but decreased the sublethal injury to cells in beef gravy (stationary phase). Cold shock did not confer greater resistance to stationary or exponential phase cells pressurized in peptone water, beef gravy or ground beef. Ground beef had the greatest baro-protective effect. Real food systems should be used in establishing food safety parameters for high-pressure treatments; micro-organisms are less resistant in model food systems, the use of which may underestimate the organisms' resistance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  14. Quantitation of 13 heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked beef, pork, and chicken by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Weijuan; McNaughton, Lynn; LeMaster, David M; Sinha, Rashmi; Turesky, Robert J

    2008-01-09

    The concentrations of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) were determined, by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS), in 26 samples of beef, pork, and chicken cooked to various levels of doneness. The HAAs identified were 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoline, 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5- b]quinoline, 2-amino-1-methylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline (I gQx), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,7-dimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline (7-MeI gQx), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,6-dimethyl-furo[3,2- e]imidazo[4,5- b]pyridine, 2-amino-1,6,7-trimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5- f]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1,7,9-trimethylimidazo[4,5- g]quinoxaline, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5- b]pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-9 H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole, and 2-amino-3-methyl-9 H-pyrido[2,3- b]indole. The concentrations of these compounds ranged from chicken (up to 305 microg/kg), broiled bacon (16 microg/kg), and pan-fried bacon (4.9 microg/kg). 7-MeI gQx was the most abundant HAA formed in very well done pan-fried beef and steak, and in beef gravy, at concentrations up to 30 microg/kg. Several other linear tricyclic ring HAAs containing the I gQx skeleton are formed at concentrations in cooked meats that are relatively high in comparison to the concentrations of their angular tricyclic ring isomers, the latter of which are known experimental animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The toxicological properties of these recently discovered I gQx derivatives warrant further investigation and assessment.

  15. Toujours plus loin

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    La Suisse Assurances has the pleasure to have CERN rank amongst its clients. The largest particle physics laboratory in the world celebrates its 50th anniversary this year. For this occasion, La Suisse had the opportunity to learn more about the accelerator and detectors (2 pages)

  16. Current situation and future prospects for the Australian beef industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Paul Leo; Ferguson, Drewe M

    2018-04-12

    Beef production extends over almost half of Australia, with about 47,000 cattle producers that contribute about 20% ($A12.7 billion GVP) of the total value of farm production in Australia. Australia is one of the world's most efficient producers of cattle and was the world's third largest beef exporter in 2016. The Australian beef industry had 25 million head of cattle in 2016-17, with a national beef breeding herd of 11.5 million head. Australian beef production includes pasture based cow-calf systems, a backgrounding or grow-out period on pasture, and feedlot or pasture finishing. Feedlot finishing has assumed more importance in recent years to assure the eating quality of beef entering the relatively small Australian domestic market, and to enhance the supply of higher value beef for export markets. Maintenance of Australia's preferred status as a quality assured supplier of high value beef produced under environmentally sustainable systems from 'disease-free' cattle is of highest importance. Stringent livestock and meat quality regulations and quality assurance systems, and productivity growth and efficiency across the supply chain to ensure price competiveness, are crucial for continued export market growth in the face of increasing competition. Major industry issues, that also represent research, development and adoption priorities and opportunities for the Australian beef industry have been captured within exhaustive strategic planning processes by the red meat and beef industries. At the broadest level, these issues include consumer and industry support, market growth and diversification, supply chain efficiency, productivity and profitability, environmental sustainability, and animal health and welfare. This review provides an overview of the Australian beef industry including current market trends and future prospects, and major issues and opportunities for the continued growth, development and profitability of the industry.

  17. Nitrite spray treatment to promote red color stability of vacuum packaged beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Cornforth, Daren; Whittier, Dick; Luo, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Sodium nitrite solutions were sprayed on select grade boneless rib (M. longissimus thoracis) and bottom round (mainly M. biceps femoris) steaks individually, to form bright red nitric oxide myoglobin (NO-Mb) in vacuum packages. Our objective was to determine the optimum level of nitrite in spray for stable raw steak redness, low or no residual nitrite, and low surface pinking (ham-like cured color) after cooking. Results showed that steaks sprayed with 100-350 ppm nitrite solutions had 3.0-3.6g weight gain and a calculated level of 1.3-5.3mg nitrite added/kg steak, but very low (color during 21 days of storage at 1°C (a*>10; chroma C*>16). Raw steak redness was less stable in round than rib. Visual scores for pinkness after cooking were low, indicating that cooked color at even the highest nitrite treatment (350 ppm) was acceptable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fabrication and variation of the cut-out yield of beef carcasses in Venezuela: anatomical description of the process and equivalency of cut nomenclature to North American counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Montero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The typical processes of beef carcass fabrication in Venezuela are anatomically described and the equivalence in cut nomenclature with that of México and United States is provided. Additionally, 910 carcasses were fabricated to assess yield (kg and percentages of carcass weight in products (subprimals, subprimal groups of distinct commercial value (High, Medium, Low and by-products (bone, fat trimmings using mean values ± standard deviation (DE, coefficient of variation (CV and range of values. Once the carcass is ribbed at the 5th intercostal space, subprimals are obtained by deboning and dissecting the muscle masses (saw cutting is seldom used. In terms of yield, the top three (out of 18 individual subprimals were: Solomo Abierto (boneless Chuck Roll, 39.1± 10.88kg; 14.3± 2.84%, Costilla (bone-in Plate, 22kg± 4.15; 8.12± 0.88% and Solomo de Cuerito (boneless Rib and Loin, 21.6± 3.10kg; 8.0± 0.59%. Cutability values for High-Valued and Medium-Valued subprimal groups were 81.5± 10.3kg (30.2± 1.43% and 67.3± 14.57kg (24.8± 3.22%, respectively; the latter showing the highest CV (13.0%. Fat trimmings were the most variable by-product (10.1± 2.84%, CV = 28.0%. This report serves as a reference for future studies and could facilitate the commercial language for trading beef cuts between the countries involved

  19. Occurrence of heterocyclic amines in several home-cooked meat dishes of the Spanish diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, R; Bordas, M; Toribio, F; Puignou, L; Galceran, M T

    2004-03-25

    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) were determined in several of the most frequently eaten meat dishes in Spain such as fried beef hamburger, fried pork loin, fried chicken breast, fried pork sausages, griddled chicken breast, griddled lamb steak and griddled beef steak. All of the products tested were household cooked. The HAs were analysed in the selected meat dishes using an analytical method based on solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, Norharman, Harman, PhIP, Trp-P-1, AalphaC and MeAalphaC were the amines most frequently found at concentrations of up to 47 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. Glu-P-2, IQ, MeIQ, Glu-P-1, 7,8-DiMeIQx and Trp-P-2 were only found in a few of the meat dishes and their concentrations were lower than 1 ng g(-1) of cooked meat. The highest amounts of HAs, especially PhIP and DMIP, were formed in fried chicken breast and the lowest were formed in fried beef hamburger and in fried pork sausages. Daily intake of HAs in Spain was estimated at 606 ng of mutagenic HAs per capita and day, DMIP and PhIP being the main contributors.

  20. Nanopurification of semen improves AI pregnancy rates in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive efficiency is several times more important than any other factor affecting economic efficiency in beef production. Multiple studies have been conducted to improve fertility of beef cows, but few studies have been conducted to improve fertility in sires. Also, with current improvements...

  1. Reproduction performance of beef cattle mated naturally following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mgrobler

    2014-08-24

    Aug 24, 2014 ... The estimated calving percentage of beef cattle is 62% in the commercial sector of South ... Cows that calve early also have a better chance of conceiving in the next ..... reproductive tract scoring in beef heifers in South Africa.

  2. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  4. Comparative analysis of the demand for beef and mutton among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef and mutton are meat types derived from cattle and sheep respectively. They are popular meat sources for households in Enugu metropolis Nigeria, although in ... that was significant in explaining the household expenditure on mutton. The expenditure elasticity for beef was 0.885, while that of mutton was 0.00073.

  5. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  6. Impact of DDGS-supplemented diet with or without vitamin E and selenium supplementation on the fatty acid profile of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holló I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of supplementation of vitamin E or organic selenium in DDGS (dried distillers grains with solubles diet on fatty acid composition in two meat cuts of finishing Holstein bulls was investigated. Twenty-four Holstein bulls were allotted to treatments in three groups of eight bulls per group for a 100-day trial. The treatments were adequate Se and vitamin E supplementation in control group (C, supranutritional vitamin E supplementation in vitamin Group E (E, supranutritional Se supplementation in selenium group (Se. At similar age, slaughtering Group C had higher slaughter/carcass weight and EUROP fat score than Se counterparts. The killing out percentage and proximate composition of muscles differed among treatments. Inclusion of the vitamin E or Se supplement led to expected increases (P < 0.05 in vitamin E and Se contents of the brisket and loin. Higher vitamin E concentration caused significant lower SFA and greater PUFA. Higher Se level influenced significant SFA in brisket and PUFA in both muscles. Vitamin E or Se dietary treatments in DDGS-supplemented diet resulted in beef meat cuts considerably beneficial PUFA/SFA but markedly higher n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio and even higher health index in both meat samples opposite to Group C.

  7. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  8. Cow biological type affects ground beef colour stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, Christopher R; Hunt, Melvin C; Unruh, John A

    2009-12-01

    To determine the effects of cow biological type on colour stability of ground beef, M. semimembranosus from beef-type (BSM) and dairy-type (DSM) cows was obtained 5d postmortem. Three blends (100% BSM, 50% BSM+50% DSM, 100% DSM) were adjusted to 90% and 80% lean points using either young beef trim (YBT) or beef cow trim (BCT), then packaged in high oxygen (High-O(2); 80% O(2)) modified atmosphere (MAP). The BSM+YBT patties had the brightest colour initially, but discoloured rapidly. Although DSM+BCT patties had the darkest colour initially, they discoloured least during display. Metmyoglobin reducing ability of ground DSM was up to fivefold greater than ground BSM, and TBARS values of BSM was twofold greater than DSM by the end of display (4d). Though initially darker than beef cow lean, dairy cow lean has a longer display colour life and may be advantageous to retailers using High-O(2) MAP.

  9. PREFERENCES AND BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF BEEF CONSUMERS IN TUSCANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija RADMAN

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tuscany, probably the most famous Italian region, is known because of many typical food specialities. One of them is the “fi orentina” - a thick, fi rst quality beef, called after the name of the city of Florence. However, recent trends in consumers’ behaviour and the BSE crisis have affected the attitude of consumers toward such products. In this study are presented the results of a mail survey about beef consumption and preferences that was conducted in Tuscany in May 2002. The survey showed that, despite recent food scares and new consumption behaviour, Tuscany consumers still like and prefer beef that has guarantees of quality. Therefore, there are good market opportunities for the Italian and foreign beef producers in Tuscany if they will provide consumers with not only good quality beef, but also more information about the meat.

  10. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  11. Use of high irradiation doses for preservation of canned beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I; Salem, F.A.; El-Sahy, K.M.; Rady, A.; Badr, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of high irradiation doses (11.25,22.5 and 45 KGy) on the bacteriology, organoleptic quality and shelf - life extension of beef meat that are hermetically sealed in metal cans was investigated in comparison with commercial heat sterilization. The unirradiated cans of pre cooked (enzyme inactivated) unirradiated beef were swollen after only one month of storage at ambient temperature (20-30 degree). Application of 11.25 and 22.5 kGy to vacuum packed and enzyme inactivated beef was not enough for sterilization and only delayed swelling of beef cans. Application of 45 KGy irradiation dose prevented swelling of beef vans up to 12 months at ambient temperature and provided meat product, similar to the commercial heat sterilized one, organoleptically acceptable and microbiologically safe. Running title: Radiation sterilization of meat

  12. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... possessing the requisite experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef..., skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under the Act... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086...

  13. Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

  14. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  15. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  17. Effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra F. Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effects of modified atmosphere, associated with masterpack transport packaging, and refrigerated storage time on the quality characteristics of pork loin cuts. Cuts of pork loin were packaged in trays, covered with poly(vinyl chloride film. The trays were placed in a masterpack (MP, containing three gas compositions:  A 75% O2 : 25% CO2, B 50% O2 : 50% CO2 or C 100% CO2, and stored at 2 °C. Samples were taken after 1, 8, 15, and 22 days of storage, and evaluated for numerous shelf life traits. The development of Psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. was found from the 15th day of storage. There was a significant treatment effect for some of the considered parameters, such as pH (P < 0.05 and color [L* (P < 0.07, a* (P < 0.07 and b* (P < 0.01]. There was a significant interaction (P < 0.01 for the TBARS values. It can be concluded, from the microbiological point of view, that the use of modified atmospheres containing 25% to 100% CO2 promotes the conservation of meat for up to 15 days of storage under refrigeration. From the point of view of color, atmospheres containing 75% O2 : 25% CO2 and 50% O2 : 50% CO2 ensure the color of packaged pork meat when stored at 2 °C for up to 15 days. From the point of view of lipid oxidation, packages with 100% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of more than 15 days, whereas those with 75% O2 : 25% CO2 are recommended for storage periods of up to 8 days.

  18. Effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean) to physical and immunological castrates (Improvest) in a commercial setting on carcass cutting yields and loin quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, B K; Gerlemann, G D; Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Schroeder, A L; Petry, D B; McKeith, F K; Allee, G L; Dilger, A C

    2014-08-01

    Effects of feeding ractopamine (RAC; 5 mg/kg) to physically castrated (PC) and immunologically castrated (IC) pigs on carcass characteristics, cutting yields, and loin quality were evaluated using 285 carcasses. Male pigs were randomly assigned to sex treatments (PC and IC) at birth and fed the same nursery diets before allotment into 32 pens with 22 pigs per pen in a grow-finish barn. Pigs in the PC group were physically castrated at approximately 5 d of age, and pigs in the IC group were administered Improvest at 11 and 18 wk of age. Diet treatments (control or RAC) were initiated on study d 87. Pigs were marketed at 12 d (4.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), 19 d (5.5 wk post-second Improvest dose), and 33 d (7.5 wk post-second Improvest dose) following the start of final diet treatments. Three carcasses per pen were selected for evaluation of cutting yields and loin quality. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS with fixed effects of sex, diet, market group, and their interaction; carcass (N = 285) was the experimental unit. Carcasses from RAC-fed pigs were heavier (P cutting yields, RAC-fed carcasses had greater (P ≤ 0.03) bone-in lean and total carcass cutting yields than control-fed carcasses while there were no differences (P > 0.05) between RAC-fed and control-fed carcasses when evaluating LM color, marbling, firmness, pH, drip loss, and tenderness. Carcasses from IC pigs had greater (P cutting yields than PC carcasses. There were minimal differences (P cutting yields, LM color, marbling and firmness scores, pH, purge loss, composition, and tenderness. The results from this study indicated RAC and immunological castration were additive in terms of improving carcass cutting yields while having minimal effects on pork quality.

  19. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  20. Beef flavor: a review from chemistry to consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerth, Chris R; Miller, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews research that describes the sensation, generation and consumer acceptance of beef flavor. Humans sense the five basic tastes in their taste buds, and receptors in the nasal and sinus cavities sense aromas. Additionally, trigeminal senses such as metallic and astringent are sensed in the oral and nasal cavities and can have an effect on the flavor of beef. Flavors are generated from a complex interaction of tastes, tactile senses and aromas taken collectively throughout the tongue, nasal, sinus and oral cavities. Cooking beef generates compounds that contribute to these senses and result in beef flavor, and the factors that are involved in the cookery process determine the amount and type of these compounds and therefore the flavor generated. A low-heat, slow cooking method generates primarily lipid degradation products, while high-heat, fast cookery generates more Maillard reaction products. The science of consumer acceptance, cluster analyses and drawing relationships among all flavor determinants is a relatively new discipline in beef flavor. Consumers rate beef that has lipid degradation products generated from a low degree of doneness and Maillard flavor products from fast, hot cookery the highest in overall liking, and current research has shown that strong relationships exist between beef flavor and consumer acceptability, even more so than juiciness or tenderness. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  2. Web survey-based selection of controls for epidemiological analyses of a multi-prefectural outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in Japan associated with consumption of self-grilled beef hanging tender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Y; Ohshima, N; Odaira, F; Nakamura, N; Ichikawa, H; Matsuno, K; Shuri, J; Toyozawa, T; Terajima, J; Watanabe, H; Nakashima, K; Sunagawa, T; Taniguchi, K; Okabe, N

    2018-03-01

    An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case-control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12-48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case-control study by local public health centres, but our matched case-control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00-124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.

  3. Current situation and future prospects for beef production in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Ellies-Oury, Marie-Pierre; Lherm, Michel; Pineau, Christele; Deblitz, Claus; Farmer, Linda

    2018-05-24

    The European Union (EU) is the world's third largest producer of beef. This contributes to the economy, rural development, social life, culture and gastronomy of Europe. The diversity of breeds, animal types (cows, bulls, steers, heifers) and farming systems (intensive, extensive on permanent or temporary pastures, mixed, breeders, feeders, etc) is a strength, and a weakness as the industry is often fragmented and poorly connected. There are also societal concerns regarding animal welfare and environmental issues, despite some positive environmental impacts of farming systems. The EU is amongst the most efficient for beef production as demonstrated by a relative low production of greenhouse gases. Due to regional differences in terms of climate, pasture availability, livestock practices and farms characteristics, productivity and incomes of beef producers vary widely across regions, being among the lowest of the agricultural systems. The beef industry is facing unprecedented challenges related to animal welfare, environmental impact, origin, authenticity, nutritional benefits and eating quality of beef. These may affect the whole industry, especially its farmers. It is therefore essential to bring the beef industry together to spread best practice and better exploit research in order to maintain and develop an economically viable and sustainable beef industry. Meeting consumers' expectations may be achieved by a better prediction of beef palatability using a modelling approach, such as in Australia. There is a need for accurate information and dissemination on the benefits and issues of beef for human health and for environmental impact. A better objective description of goods and services derived from livestock farming is also required. Putting into practice "agroecology" and organic farming principles are other potential avenues for the future. Different future scenarios can be written depending on the major driving forces, notably meat consumption, climate

  4. Heat shock and thermotolerance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a model beef gravy system and ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, V K; Klein, P G; Marmer, B S

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate beef gravy or ground beef samples inoculated with a suspension of a four-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were subjected to sublethal heating at 46 degrees C for 15-30 min, and then heated to a final internal temperature of 60 degrees C. Survivor curves were fitted using a linear model that incorporated a lag period (TL), and D-values and 'time to a 4D inactivation' (T4D) were calculated. Heat-shocking allowed the organism to survive longer than non-heat-shocked cells; the T4D values at 60 degrees C increased 1.56- and 1.50-fold in beef gravy and ground beef, respectively. In ground beef stored at 4 degrees C, thermotolerance was lost after storage for 14 h. However, heat-shocked cells appeared to maintain their thermotolerance for at least 24 h in ground beef held to 15 or 28 degrees C. A 25 min heat shock at 46 degrees C in beef gravy resulted in an increase in the levels of two proteins with apparent molecular masses of 60 and 69 kDa. These two proteins were shown to be immunologically related to GroEL and DnaK, respectively. Increased heat resistance due to heat shock must be considered while designing thermal processes to assure the microbiological safety of thermally processed foods.

  5. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-01-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis. PMID:24688507

  6. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  7. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hao Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9 from three wet markets (A, B, and C in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  8. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia.

  9. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  10. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  11. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  12. Preservation by ionization of refrigerated vacuum-packed ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soualhia, Z.

    1998-01-01

    The application of doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 KGy is interesting to lower significantly the contamination microbial flora in ground beef without changing significantly for all that original qualities. Treatment combining ionization (5 KGy) and / or salting (2 %) increases of almost 2 months the duration of refrigerated conservation of Vacuum-packed ground beef with no major change in initial quality. In ionized beef (5 KGy) and / or salted (2 %), the rate of psychotropic germs stays inferior to the threshold superficial putrefaction at all conservation stages. Moreover, faecal contamination pilots, mouldiness, yeast and pathogenic micro-organisms are totally absent in treated samples. Reduction effect of salt is observed at all stages of refrigerated storage. Finally, after cooking, ionizing dose does not change significantly loss of weight and pH of ground beef heated at 100 degrees C in bain-marie or 150 degrees C in drying over during one hour (author)

  13. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in a beef cattle herd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Keywords: beef cattle, breeding, genetics, heritability, reproduction .... nature of the female reproductive traits or to the large influence of unidentified environmental effects on ..... Factors affecting some performance traits in Friesian cattle.

  14. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-28

    Jun 28, 2010 ... suya (105 and 105/g and beef suya (102/g) before and after heating the following ... treatments in a completely randomized design of collected samples ... bacillus to differentiate between lactose and non-lactose fermenting.

  15. Changes in the beef cattle industry through application of scientific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insemination, oestrus synchronization, and management systems for ... Most of these changes have had and will have an economic impact on the ..... of ET to produce bulls for use in AI in beef cattle is still in ..... and future implications - 1983.

  16. The profitability of beef production under semi-extensive conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    used and discussed included nett farm income per R100 capital investment and .... Although depreciation of fixed improvements and on equip- ment was calculated ..... Furthermore, another practice commonly found· amongst beef producers.

  17. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the ... preference are appreciated by the food ... composition and household income .... habit and flavor, made them to prefer fresh.

  18. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2017-05-15

    May 15, 2017 ... beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region ..... between cattle breeds (genetic), pre-slaughter stress and growth- ..... Nguni cattle for example, owing to their adaptability (i.e. drought and heat tolerant,.

  19. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cattle industry is accepting, in fact, demanding estimates of genetic values on yearling bulls. Single and multiple analy ... ordinary event occurred with the formation of the Beef ... assumed genetic trend was non-existent or relatively unimportant ...

  20. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  1. Beef alliances: motivations, extent, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ted C; Kovanda, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    With their growth, it is important to consider how alliances will impact the beef industry in the future. Alliances have the potential to make sweeping changes to cattle production, live and feeder cattle marketing, food safety protocols, use of government grades and standards, ownership structure, supply chain management, wholesale and retail product marketing, risk management, and many other industry activities. In an effort to address these issues, this article addresses the following questions: What is an alliance? What has motivated their proliferation? What have we learned from alliances? What aspects of alliances affect their likelihood of success or failure? What is the future of alliances? Are they a fad or a long-term evolving industry structural change?

  2. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  3. Shelf life of ground beef patties treated by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W T; Weese, J O

    1998-10-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically determined. Fresh ground beef (initial APC of 10(2) CFU/g) treated with 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy was acceptable ( 10(7) CFU/g) by day 14 and 21, respectively, whereas patties treated at 5.0 kGy did not spoil until 42 days. The nonirradiated control samples for both batches of ground beef spoiled within 7 days. Microbial counts in ground beef patties stored at -18 degrees C did not change over the 42-day period. Shelf life of ground beef patties stored at 4 degrees C may be extended with gamma radiation, especially at 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial microbial load in ground beef samples was an important shelf life factor.

  4. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  5. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  6. Effects of Housing Systems and the Diet Supplements on the Slaughter Value and Concentration of Mineral Elements in the Loin Muscle of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gabryszuk

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of maintenance system as well as the effect of Se, Zn, and vitamin E supplementation of ram-lambs on the slaughter value and concentration of mineral elements in the loin muscle of lambs. The experiment was conducted on 72 Polish Merino ram-lambs divided into three groups: group C, indoor with no supplement, 19 lambs; S, indoor with supplement, 23 lambs; G, outdoor with no supplement, 30 lambs. From birth all the lambs were maintained indoor with their dams and then weaned at the age of 8 weeks. The rams from group C and S were placed in individual straw-bedded pens and fattened individually with concentrate mixture offered ad libitum until the age of 16 weeks. The lambs from group G were grazed every day from May to July (2 months. During the fattening period each lamb from the supplemented group S was administered per os 1 mL 0.1% Na2SeO4 (Se, 0.42 mg, 3 mL 10% ZnSO4 (Zn, 68 mg, and 1 mL premix protect vitamin E (0.1 g α-tocopherol, 5 mg lysine, 5 mg methionine daily. A comparison of half carcasses across the groups has shown no difference between the control group and the one with supplements, while the weight of half carcasses in the grazing group was smaller in comparison with groups C and S (p<0.001. The meat content in the pelvic limb showed no differences across all groups under study. The pelvic limb of grazing lambs contained less fat compared to the control and supplemented groups (p<0.001. The concentrations of Se and Zn in the blood plasma of ram-lambs from the supplemented group were significantly higher than for the control and grazing lambs. Inorganic Se and Zn supplementation with vitamin E to the diet of lambs increased Se and Zn levels in loin muscle (p<0.001 to 0.46 μg/g and 32.9 μg/g in fresh tissue, respectively.

  7. Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of chronological age of beef steers of different maturity types on their growth ... and carcass studies have been conducted in the sourveld regions of the country. ... different beef maturity types which differ in body frame size were used, viz.

  8. Advanced glycation end products, physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of cooked lamb loins affected by cooking method and addition of flavour precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldan, Mar; Loebner, Jürgen; Degen, Julia; Henle, Thomas; Antequera, Teresa; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge

    2015-02-01

    The influence of the addition of a flavour enhancer solution (FES) (d-glucose, d-ribose, l-cysteine and thiamin) and of sous-vide cooking or roasting on moisture, cooking loss, instrumental colour, sensory characteristics and formation of Maillard reaction (MR) compounds in lamb loins was studied. FES reduced cooking loss and increased water content in sous-vide samples. FES and cooking method showed a marked effect on browning development, both on the meat surface and within. FES led to tougher and chewier texture in sous-vide cooked lamb, and enhanced flavour scores of sous-vide samples more markedly than in roasted ones. FES added meat showed higher contents of furosine; 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural did not reach detectable levels. N-ε-carboxymethyllysine amounts were rather low and not influenced by the studied factors. Cooked meat seems to be a minor dietary source of MR products, regardless the presence of reducing sugars and the cooking method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  10. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  11. 77 FR 52597 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products, as is intended under... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [Doc. No. AMS-LS-11-0086] Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA...

  12. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  13. prevalence of escherichia coli 0157:h7 in fresh and roasted beef

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    The prevalence of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in 300 fresh beef and 150 roasted beef samples from ... likely cause of E. coli O157:H7 infection is undercooked ground beef. ..... coli O157:H7 in a sheep model. Appl. Environ.

  14. Legume finishing provides beef with positive human dietary fatty acid ratios and consumer preference comparable with grain-finished beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chail, A; Legako, J F; Pitcher, L R; Griggs, T C; Ward, R E; Martini, S; MacAdam, J W

    2016-05-01

    Consumer liking, proximate composition, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, and volatile compounds were determined from the LM (longissimus thoracis) of cattle ( = 6 per diet) finished on conventional feedlot (USUGrain), legume, and grass forage diets. Forage diets included a condensed tannin-containing perennial legume, birdsfoot trefoil (; USUBFT), and a grass, meadow brome ( Rehmann; USUGrass). Moreover, representative retail forage (USDA Certified Organic Grass-fed [OrgGrass]) and conventional beef (USDA Choice, Grain-fed; ChGrain) were investigated ( = 6 per retail type). The ChGrain had the greatest ( 0.05) to that of both USUGrain and USUGrass. Both grain-finished beef treatments were rated greater ( Consumer liking of USUBFT beef tenderness, fattiness, and overall liking were comparable ( > 0.05) with that of USUGrain and ChGrain. Flavor liking was rated greatest ( 0.05) to those of ChGrain, USUGrass, and OrgGrass. Cumulative SFA and MUFA concentrations were greatest ( 0.05) to those of USUGrain and USUGrass. Each forage-finished beef treatment, USUGrass, OrgGrass, and USUBFT, had lower ( < 0.001) ratios of -6:-3 fatty acids. Hexanal was the most numerically abundant volatile compound. The concentration of hexanal increased with increasing concentrations of total PUFA. Among all the lipid degradation products (aldehydes, alcohols, furans, carboxylic acids, and ketones) measured in this study, there was an overall trend toward greater quantities in grain-finished products, lower quantities in USUGrass and OrgGrass, and intermediate quantities in USUBFT. This trend was in agreement with IMF content, fatty acid concentrations, and sensory attributes. These results suggest an opportunity for a birdsfoot trefoil finishing program, which results in beef comparable in sensory quality with grain-finished beef but with reduced -6 and SFA, similar to grass-finished beef.

  15. Quality factors in beef, pork, and lamb cooked by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, B M; Baldwin, R E; Snider, S

    1976-12-01

    Three cooking treatments were applied to the longissimus muscle of beef and of pork and to deboned leg of lamb. Cooking treatments included: Intermittent energy application (3-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 220V and intermittent energy application (6-min. cycle) with a microwave range operated at 115V. Control roasts were cooked in a conventional gas oven (163+/-3 degrees C.). Cooking was adjusted so that roasts achieved an internal temperature of 70 degrees C. when cut for analyses. Cooking losses were significantly greater for microwave than for conventionally cooked beef. However, microwave cooking resulted in beef, pork, and lamb roasts with flavor of interior portions similar to those prepared conventionally. Flavor differences in samples from the edge of the slices of lamb and of pork and tenderness of lamb appeared to be related to cooking method. For these attributes, meat cooked conventionally was superior. In contrast, patterns in significant differences in tenderness and juiciness of beef and of pork were not consistent and were not related solely to method of cookery. Neither creatine nor creatinine was a good index of flavor of meat cooked by these methods. Aside from the time-saving aspect of microwave heating, there was no major advantage of one method of cooking over another. Thus, either high- or low- powered microwave equipment, operated at 2450 MHz, can be used satisfactorily for cooking tender cuts of beef, pork, and lamb.

  16. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  17. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis......, the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16.......5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis...

  18. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  19. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g, 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001, with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001. Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05, and ferritin responders (n = 17 vs. non-responders (n = 26 showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05. Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

  20. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  1. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  2. Development of a modified dry curing process for beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Ward, P; Kerry, J P

    2007-11-01

    The development of a dry curing process using physical treatments to promote the diffusion of the cure ingredients was studied. Vacuum pulsing with and without tumbling, continuous vacuum, and tumbling only treatments were compared with a conventional static dry cure control method on beef M. supraspinatus. Vacuum tumble and tumble only treatments gave highest core salt content after 7 days conditioning (3.3% and 3.1%, respectively). All test treatments resulted in higher colour uniformity and lower % cook loss in comparison to control (PCured beef slices were stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) (80%N(2):20%CO(2)) for up to 28 day at 4°C. Redness (a(∗), Pcured beef products with enhanced organoleptic quality and increased yields.

  3. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... capital cities: Madrid, Paris, Berlin and London. A common and translated topic guide was developed prior to the field work. A ranking exercise was applied, where the participants classified the technologies into accepted, neutral or rejected concepts, after discussing the perceived benefits and risks...... in society, global warming crisis, disease outbreaks and degradation of the environment are shaping consumers' opinion in regard to food production. There was a severe criticism about too much intervention in food and a strong desire to keep food and beef processing as simple and natural as possible....

  4. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by Lactobacillus bavaricus MN in beef systems at refrigeration temperatures.

    OpenAIRE

    Winkowski, K; Crandall, A D; Montville, T J

    1993-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus bavaricus, a meat isolate, to inhibit the growth of three Listeria monocytogenes strains was examined in three beef systems: beef cubes, beef cubes in gravy, and beef cubes in gravy containing glucose. The beef was minimally heat treated, inoculated with L. bavaricus at 10(5) or 10(3) CFU/g and L. monocytogenes at 10(2) CFU/g, vacuum sealed, and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C. The meat samples were monitored for microbial growth, pH, and bacteriocin production. The p...

  5. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  6. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  7. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...

  8. Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS Identify QTL on SSC2 and SSC17 Affecting Loin Peak Shear Force in Crossbred Commercial Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS for peak shear force (PSF of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb, were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2_5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2_109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2_109 and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2_109 and SSC17_20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness.

  9. Identification and quantification of flavor attributes present in chicken, lamb, pork, beef, and turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Curtis; Martini, Silvana

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to use a meat flavor lexicon to identify and quantify flavor differences among different types of meats such as beef, chicken, lamb, pork, and turkey, and to identify and quantify specific flavor attributes associated with "beef flavor" notes. A trained descriptive panel with 11 participants used a previously developed meat lexicon composed of 18 terms to evaluate the flavor of beef, chicken, pork, turkey, and lamb samples. Results show that beef and lamb samples can be described by flavor attributes such as barny, bitter, gamey, grassy, livery, metallic, and roast beef. Inversely related to these samples were pork and turkey and those attributes that were closely related to them, namely brothy, fatty, salty, sweet, and umami. Chicken was not strongly related to the other types of meats or the attributes used. The descriptive panel also evaluated samples of ground beef mixed with chicken to identify and quantify flavor attributes associated with a "beef flavor." Meat patties for this portion consisted of ground beef mixed with ground chicken in varying amounts: 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% beef, with the remainder made up of chicken. Beef and beef-rich patties (75% beef) were more closely related to flavor attributes such as astringent, bloody, fatty, gamey, metallic, livery, oxidized, grassy, and roast beef, while chicken was more closely associated with brothy, juicy, sour, sweet, and umami. This research provides information regarding the specific flavor attributes that differentiate chicken and beef products and provides the first set of descriptors that can be associated with "beefy" notes. POTENTIAL APPLICATION: The use of a standardized flavor lexicon will allow meat producers to identify specific flavors present in their products. The impact is to identify and quantify negative and positive flavors in the product with the ultimate goal of optimizing processing or cooking conditions and improve the quality of meat products.

  10. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  11. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  12. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  13. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  14. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  15. Modeling growth from weaning to maturity in beef cattle breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand growth trajectory and maturity differences between beef breeds, three models – Brody, spline, and quadratic – were fit to cow growth data, and resulting parameter estimates were evaluated for 3 breed categories – British, continental, and Brahman-influenced. The data were weight...

  16. Increase in. gamma. -radiation from powdered milk and beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievert, R M; Gustafsson, S; Sylander, C G

    1956-01-01

    Samples of powdered milk and beef preserved during the years 1953 to 1956 were examined for the presence of ..gamma..-radiation. The higher ..gamma..-radiation found in the last year was attributed to an increase in fission products. Data are compared with measurements on a series of children.

  17. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) has considered the economic effect of this action on small entities and..., methods of production and distribution, marketing strategies, and other distinguishing factors that will... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 [No. AMS-LS-10-0086] Beef...

  18. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non-additive effects on weight traits ... total weight of weaned calves. ... Weight traits are not all equally important to efficiency ... values to model total herd productivity. ..... The maintenance requirement of a cow is affected by her weight: the larger the.

  19. Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...

  20. Characterization of radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria in beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, A.B.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground beef contains numerous microorganisms of various types. The commonly recognized bacteria are associated with current problems of spoilage. Irradiation, however, contributes a new factor through selective destruction of the microflora. The residual microorganisms surviving a nonsterilizing dose are predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli. Various classifications have been given, e.g., Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, etc. For a more detailed study of these radiation-resistant bacteria occurring in ground beef, an enrichment procedure was used for isolation. By means of morphological and biochemical tests, most of the isolates were found to be Moraxella, based on current classifications. The range of growth temperatures was from 2 to 50 C. These bacteria were relatively heat sensitive, e.g., D 10 of 5.4 min at 70 0 C or less. The radiation resistance ranged from D 10 values of 273 to 2,039 krad. Thus, some were more resistant than any presently recognized spores. A reference culture of Moraxella osloensis was irradiated under conditions comparable to the enrichment procedure used with the ground beef. The only apparent changes were in morphology and penicillin sensitivity. However, after a few subcultures these bacteria reverted to the characteristics of the parent strain. Thus, it is apparent that these isolates are a part of the normal flora of ground beef and not aberrant forms arising from the irradiation procedure. The significance, if any, of these bacteria is not presently recognized. (auth)

  1. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  2. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  3. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  4. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  5. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  6. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  7. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the principles related to different grading and classification systems of the world with specific focus on beef quality related outcomes. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful as guidelines to those involved in the ...

  8. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study isolated and discussed the factors driving beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data generated from 120 households randomly selected from five villages in Ekwusigo L.G.A was used. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was ...

  9. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  10. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  11. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO 4 . Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  12. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: Additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic components of fitness traits measured in Afrikaner (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), Hereford (H) and Simmentaler (S). For this study, the fitness traits recorded were percentage of cows ...

  13. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    young bulls of l6 breeds were obtained fiorn the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize ... breeds for their effective use in either straight breeding or cross- breeding programmes. ... Scheme as the only data source for breed characterization pur- poses.

  14. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ... cation rate at spreading time instead of waiting two or three weeks to receive the results ... Operation mechanism of metal-oxide gas sensors. The sensors used in this study were ...

  15. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  16. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  17. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that have occurred since the most recent Board... Farms, and Livestock Operations,'' USDA's National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) estimates that in 2009 the number of operations in the United States with cattle totaled approximately 950,000. The...

  18. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the Highland Sourveld of Natal. ... Teen 'n lae veebelading van 0,75 GVE/ha (vir die weiperiode) op somerveld, het verse betekenisvol (P < 0,01) meer in massa toegeneem vergeleke met 'n hoë veebelading (1,25 GVE/ha). Binne elk van die ...

  19. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Food Safety of Livestock Products (Meatball, Corned Beef, Beef Burger and Sausage Studied from Heavy Metal Residues Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Harlia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of animal husbandry improvements are to increase both the quality and the quantity of livestock production and to ensure the safety of the product. It is necessarry for consumers to pay attention to the food safety of livestock product because it is related to human's health. The research was conducted to determine the food safety of livestock product condition by detecting heavy metal residues on several food products from livestock like meatball, corned beef, burger’s beef, and sausages. This research was explored by using survey's method and purposive technique sampling, then the resulted data were descriptively analyzed. The observed variables were heavy metal contents such as Plumbum (Pb and Cadmium (Cd in which being measured by using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometri . The result showed that in general, heavy metal residue of Pb from several livestock products (meatball, corned beef, beef burger, and sausages were smaller than Maximum Residue Limit (MRL, while the Cd’s residue was partly over the MRL concentration, therefore further action has to be taken as it affects the human's health. (Animal Production 12(1: 50-54 (2010 Key words : food safety, MRL, heavy metal Pb, Cd.

  1. Possibility of introducing Smallholder Beef Cattle Farmer’s Association as a starting point to develop the beef cattle chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candia, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the research is “Possibility of introducing smallholder Beef Cattle Farmers Association as a starting point to develop the beef chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda”. The study was carried out in two Sub Counties of Arua district, Uganda. The objective was to

  2. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić, S.; Fang, Sun; Di, Liu; Petrović, M.M.; Pantelić, V.; Stanišić, N.; Ostojić-Andrić, D.; Petričević, M.; Nikšić, D.; Delić, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  4. Short communication. Sensory evaluation of commercial beef produced in Uruguay and three European countries

    OpenAIRE

    San-Julián, R.; Campo, M. M.; Nute, G.; Montossi, F.; Font-i-Furnols, M.; Guerrero, L.; Oliver, M. A.; Sañudo, C.

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to characterize and compare the organoleptic quality of beef from Uruguay and from three European countries. In Uruguay, 40 Hereford steers were raised exclusively under grazing conditions up to either two or three years old. Meat samples were aged for 20 days, matching commercial conditions. In Europe, one commercial local beef type, with two ageing times (7 and 20 days), from Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom were compared with Uruguayan beef samples, usi...

  5. The Economic Effects of New-Product Beef Promotion in Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Leister, Amanda M.; Capps, Oral, Jr.; Rosson, C. Parr, III

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of the Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR) has expanded trade opportunities for U.S. agricultural producers. U.S. beef is an important product affected by the agreement, and the United States Meat Export Federation (USMEF) invested in a new product promotion program to increase exports of U.S. beef to Guatemala. Consumer responsiveness and the effectiveness of the U.S. branded beef promotion program are analyzed in this study. Demand responses...

  6. Application of FTIR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics for Halal Authentication of Beef Meatball Adulterated with Dog Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Wiranti Sri; Rohman, Abdul; Martono, Sudibyo; Sudjadi, Sudjadi

    2018-01-01

    Beef meatball is one of the favorite meat-based food products among Indonesian community. Currently, beef is very expensive in Indonesian market compared to other common meat types such as chicken and lamb. This situation has intrigued some unethical meatball producers to replace or adulterate beef with lower priced-meat like dog meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of FTIR spectroscopy combined with chemometrics for identification and quantification of dog meat (D...

  7. [Study of biological value of beef produced by interspecies hybrids of domestic cattle and wild yaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagirov, V A; Chernukha, I M; Lisitsin, A V; Zinovieva, N A

    2014-01-01

    The comparative study of the chemical composition and biological values of beef produced by hybrids of Angus cattle with wild yaks (hybrid beef) and pure-bred Angus cattle (traditional beef) has been carried out. Longissimus muscle samples were used for analysis. It was observed, that the hybrid beef samples had the practically equal protein content comparing to traditional beef (21.1 vs. 21.6 per cent) but were characterized by the lower fat content (1.2 vs. 2.5 per cent). The higher biological value of hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef has been shown. The value of protein-quality index, calculated as the ratio of tryptophan amino acid to oxyprolin and characterizing the ratio of high biological value proteins to low biological value proteins was 8.1 vs. 5.7. The values of amino acid indexes [ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to non-essential amino acids (NAA) and ratio of EAA to the total amount of amino acids (TAA)] were EAA/NAA = 0.77 vs. 0.65 and EAA/TAA = 0.43 vs. 0.39. The protein of hybrid beef was characterized by the higher content of a number of the essential amino acids: by a factor of 1, 77 for threonin, 1.23--for valin, 1.09--for lysin, 1.17--for leucine and 1.19--for tryptophan. The amount of the essential amino acids in 1 gram of protein of the hybrid beef was 434.7 mg against 393.1 mg for traditional beef It has been shown, that the protein of the hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef is characterized by the higher values of the amino acid scores calculated for EAA.

  8. Meat Standards Australia as an Innovation in the Australian Beef Production and Marketing System

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Garry R.; Thompson, John M.; Polkinghorne, Rod; Gunner, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Variable eating quality was identified as a major contributor to declining Australian beef consumption in the early 1990s. The primary issue was the inability to predict the eating quality of cooked beef before consumption. A R&D program funded by industry and Meat and Livestock Australia investigated the relationships between critical control points along the supply chain, cooking methods and beef palatability. These relationships were underpinned by extensive consumer taste panels. Out of t...

  9. Travailler loin de son domicile

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnet, Estelle; Verley, Elise; Ries, Tammy

    2017-01-01

    Résumé : La mobilité géographique liée à un lieu de travail éloigné du domicile – supposant soit de longs trajets quotidiens, soit de dormir en dehors du domicile – s’inscrit à l’articulation de la sphère professionnelle et de la sphère privée. Elle met à l’épreuve le couple et la distribution des rôles sexués en son sein. Cet article interroge les divisions sexuées inhérentes à cette articulation selon que l’on se place du point de vue d’une mobilité féminine ou masculine. Il examine en quoi...

  10. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  11. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  12. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  13. Irradiation of ground beef with the purpose of refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.

    1977-01-01

    Ground beef packaged in polyethylene film was irradiated at different dose levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 Mrad and stored at 3+-1 0 C. Bacteriological and organoleptic evaluations were carried out immediately after irradiation and at weekly intervals thereafter. The red color of the meat was darker after irradiation and this darkening increased with radiation dose. This color change was limited to the surface of the samples. The results of the bacteriological and organoleptic examination indicate that irradiation at 0.25 Mrad permits refrigerated storage of ground beef for 3 weeks, 0,5 Mrad for 6 weeks. Coliforms were found only in non-irradiated samples [fr

  14. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  15. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  16. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D R; Roebert, D L; Bates, P K; Schmidt, T B; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Brooks, J C; Morgan, J B; Montgomery, T H; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling

  17. Optimising reproductive performance of beef cows and replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2014-05-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd is fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognisant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires significant technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval for each successive calving, conception and pregnancy rate and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals and number of calves weaned over her lifetime. Puberty in heifers is a consequence of the interactive effects of genetics and both pre- and post-weaning nutrition. Early onset of puberty is essential to achieving the first main reproductive target for beef cow herds; first calving at 2 years of age. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. Following the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through artificial insemination. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. While, increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively

  18. Identifying efficiency trends for Queensland broad-acre beef enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, Daniel; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Productivity and efficiency improvements in agriculture have recently been targeted as Federal Government priorities in Australia. This research examined a dataset of 116 broad-acre beef enterprises from Queensland who participated in a program, Profit Probe, developed to improve management and profitability of enterprises. The aim of this research was to identify the sources, if any, of productivity growth for this sample of enterprises. Two potential sources of productivity growth were iden...

  19. Evaluation of Fresh Food Internet Shopping in Korean Beef

    OpenAIRE

    金, 鍾和; 森高, 正博; 福田, 晋; Kim, Jong-hwa; Moritaka, Masahiro; Fukuda, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on consumer reactions to the fresh food internet shopping on Korea beef. In the paper, we have analyzed an effective relation in consumer's perceived qualities, the evaluation of commodities and the evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. As a result, two effective relations were found. Firstly, consumer's perceived qualities affect the evaluation of commodities. Secondly, the evaluation of commodities affects t-he evaluation of fresh food internet shopping. This result...

  20. Electrophoretic comparison of nuclear and nucleolar proteins : I. Beef Pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, C.

    1961-01-01

    Nuclei and nucleoli, isolated from beef pancreas, are extracted with 0.14 M NaCl, 1 M NaCl and 0.1 N NaOH in the order given. The 0.14 M NaCl and 0.1 N NaOH extracts lend themselves to paper and agar electrophoresis and the electropherograms obtained from these extracts of nuclei and nucleoli are

  1. Assessing impacts of organic production on pork and beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Sundrum, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Organic livestock farming is based on a low input production method, aiming to provide products of a high product and process quality rather than maximizing production. The production of a high meat quality corresponds to the expectations of consumers who are both seeking a premium product and who are willing to pay premium prices. This review focuses on the question of whether organic pork and beef production currently meet consumer demands, and it elaborates the potentials and limitations f...

  2. Calm temperament improves reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Asay, M; Schroeder, S; Kasimanickam, V; Gay, J M; Kastelic, J P; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2014-12-01

    Profitability of a beef operation is determined by the proportion of cows attaining pregnancy early in the breeding season and those that are pregnant at the end of breeding season. Many factors, including temperament, contribute to those reproductive parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of temperament on reproductive performance of beef cows. In Experiment 1, Angus and Angus-cross beef cows (n = 1546) from eight locations were assigned a body condition score (BCS; 1 = emaciated; 9 = obese) and chute exit and gait score (1 = slow exit, walk; calm temperament; 2 = jump, trot or run; excitable temperament). Cows were grouped with bulls (1 : 25 to 1 : 30; with satisfactory breeding potential and free of venereal disease) for an 85-day breeding season. Pregnancy status and stage of gestation were determined (transrectal palpation) 35 days after the end of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p score interaction (p scores for body condition and chute exit and gait (as described in Experiment 1) and assigned to bulls (breeding sound and free of venereal disease; 1 : 25 to 1 : 30) for 85 days. Pregnancy status was determined by transrectal palpation at 2 and 6 months after the onset of the breeding season. Controlling for BCS (p reproductive performance than calmer cows. The modified two-point chute exit-gait scoring method was repeatable and identified cattle with an excitable temperament. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Cooking frozen and thawed roasts: beef, pork, and lamb cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, C; Davis, C

    1975-09-01

    Cooking time, yield, and palatability of paired beef, pork, and lamb roasts cooked from the frozen and thawed states were compared. Cooking time for all roasts averaged from 3 to 22 min. per pound longer for meat cooked from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state. The longer cooking time from the frozen state was greater for roasts with a large amount of bone and for cuts cooked by braising than for less bony roasts and cuts cooked by roasting. Except for thawed beef rump roasts, which had a higher yield of cooked lean meat, yield of cooked lean meat from the various cuts of beef, pork, and lamb was not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Collectively, all pork roasts had a higher yield of cooked lean meat when cooked from the frozen state. Juiciness and natural flavor of the roasts were not affected by the state at the start of cooking. Lamb leg and rib roasts were more tender when cooked from the thawed state.

  4. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  5. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental verification of the possibility to estimate senzoric and quality parameters of beef with use of bioimpedance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, J.; Kadlec, R.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Bezdíček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 38-49 ISSN 0139-7265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : beef quality * biompedance * basic chemical composition of beef Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  7. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  8. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-Francois; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Vidal, Veronique; Jesson, Beline; Levéziel, Hubert; Renand, Gilles; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle

    2012-08-15

    Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40) was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) and beef quality. We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1). RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism) which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group), was validated in the groups of 30 Charolais young

  9. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  10. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  11. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  12. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 78 FR 15645 - Mandatory Country of Origin Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Labeling of Beef, Pork, Lamb, Chicken, Goat Meat, Wild and Farm-Raised Fish and Shellfish, Perishable...), lamb, chicken, goat, and pork; ground beef, ground lamb, ground chicken, ground goat, and ground pork... The baseline for this analysis is the present state of the beef, chicken, goat, lamb and pork...

  14. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  15. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  16. Genotype x Nutritional Environment Interaction in a Composite Beef Cattle Breed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental effects have been shown to influence several economically important traits in beef cattle. In this study, genetic x nutritional environment interaction has been evaluated in a composite beef cattle breed(50% Red Angus, 25% Charolais, 25% Tarentaise).Cows were randomly assigned to be fe...

  17. 9 CFR 319.312 - Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce. 319.312 Section 319.312 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE..., Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.312 Pork with barbecue sauce and beef with barbecue sauce...

  18. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For two weeks prior to the start of the breeding season, the sucklingbehaviour of beef calves, separated from their dams for 12 h out of ..... BARB., C.R.. 1986. Naloxone infusion increases pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in post partum beef cows. Dom. Anim. Endocrin. 3, 49. WILLIAMS. G.L., KOTWICA. 1., SLANGER ...

  19. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  20. Similarities and differences in composition and selected sensory attributes of reindeer, caribou and beef

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rincker, P.J.; Bechtel, P.J.; Finstadt, G.; Buuren, Van R.G.C.; Killefer, J.; McKeith, F.K.

    2006-01-01

    The longissimus from caribou (n = 6), reindeer (n = 6) and beef (n = 6) were evaluated to determine differences in composition, color and sensory properties. Caribou contained the least fat followed by reindeer, and then beef (P <0.05). Both venison sources contained more heme pigment and had a

  1. Grazing supplementation and crop diversification on beef farm simulations in southern Brazil: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economics and environmental footprints of beef cattle raised on natural pasture or combined with soybean in specific biomes are still not well evaluated. The objective of this research was to simulate and evaluate the economics of three common pastured beef grazing systems in southern Brazil along w...

  2. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  3. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  4. Spatial variability in nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedyard pen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots include enteric carbon dioxide and methane, and manure-derived methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Enteric methane comprises the largest portion of the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle feedyards. For the manure component, methane is th...

  5. Association of microRNAs with antibody response to mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in t...

  6. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  7. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  8. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  9. Fatty acid profile of zebu beef cattle from the Central African sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, based on the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportion, 13.9% of the total lipids and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, 1.95, consumption of beef from these breeds could be beneficial to human health. This is possibly owing to the pasture feeding and low fat content of the beef. Keywords: Intramuscular fat; fatty acid composition ...

  10. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir. Meat Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  11. An environmental assessment of grass-finishing beef operations in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern for the environmental sustainability of traditional beef production has increased consumer interest in alternatively produced beef products perceived to be more environmentally friendly. This includes those marketed under “grassfed beef” labels. However, little information exists on the env...

  12. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  13. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; De Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-02-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n = 108) and Norway (n = 110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An index for beef and veal characteristics in dairy cattle based on carcass traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der J.H.J.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Groen, A.F.; Jong, de G.

    1998-01-01

    Carcass data are nowadays routinely collected from Dutch slaughterhouses. The aim of this study was to develop a selection index for beef production traits in a dairy cattle population based upon such data. Records were available from three categories of animals: veal calves, beef bulls, and cows

  15. What Brings People to Leadership Roles: A Phenomenological Study of Beef Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, B. Lynn; Ellis, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership has been deeply studied in the literature; however, little research exists studying the role of volunteer peer leaders in non-formalized leadership roles in membership-based organizations. This phenomenological study was designed to explore the experience of beef industry leaders in leadership roles. Twelve active beef industry…

  16. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdanowska-Sąsiadek, Żaneta; Marchewka, Joanna; Horbańczuk, Jarosław Olav; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka; Lipińska, Paulina; Jóźwik, Artur; Atanasov, Atanas G; Huminiecki, Łukasz; Sieroń, Aleksander; Sieroń, Karolina; Strzałkowska, Nina; Stelmasiak, Adrian; De Smet, Stefaan; Van Hecke, Thomas; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-05-25

    The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich ( m. ambiens ), beef ( m. semimembranosus ), and broiler chicken meat ( m. pectoralis major ). The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef), biologically active peptides (carnosine-in beef, anserine-in ostrich then in chicken meat). The, beneficial to human health, n -3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  17. Nutrients Composition in Fit Snacks Made from Ostrich, Beef and Chicken Dried Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żaneta Zdanowska-Sąsiadek

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare three types of meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat in relation to their nutrients content including fat, fatty acids, heme iron, and peptides, like anserine and carnosine, from which human health may potentially benefit. Dry meat samples were produced, from one type of muscle, obtained from ostrich (m. ambiens, beef (m. semimembranosus, and broiler chicken meat (m. pectoralis major. The composition of dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat, with and without spices was compared. We show that meat snacks made from ostrich, beef, and chicken meat were characterized by high concentration of nutrients including proteins, minerals (heme iron especially in ostrich, than in beef, biologically active peptides (carnosine—in beef, anserine—in ostrich then in chicken meat. The, beneficial to human health, n-3 fatty acids levels differed significantly between species. Moreover, ostrich jerky contained four times less fat as compared to beef and half of that in chicken. In conclusion we can say that dried ostrich, beef, and chicken meat could be a good source of nutritional components.

  18. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  19. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  20. 01 Nsoso - A survey of traditional beef cattle farmers....…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    The aims of this survey were to characterise traditional beef cattle farmers and evaluate the adoption of certain improved ... The survey was conducted from March 2002 to October 2002. Beef cattle farmers from fifty (50) .... The most important advantages of using AI in traditional farming in Botswana is that it would lead to ...

  1. Temperament affects rangeland use patterns and reproductive performance of beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    • The American beef industry is paying more attention to cattle temperament, but studies examining relationships between temperaments and grazing behavior or animal performance on rangelands are limited. • We studied range beef cow temperaments using the behavioral syndromes framework. Cows classifi...

  2. Intensive vs. free-range organic beef. A preference study through consumer liking and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Torres, S; López-Gajardo, A; Mesías, F J

    2016-04-01

    This paper evaluates consumer liking and preferences towards organic beef from two production systems allowed by EU regulation: i) free-range and ii) intensive (fattened in feed-lot with organic feedstuff) as compared with conventionally produced beef. Data were obtained in April-May 2014 with a sample of 150 regular beef consumers who completed two tasks: firstly a sensory test where consumers tasted and rated the meats and secondly a conjoint analysis to study beef purchasing preferences. Willingness-to-pay for the different meats was also calculated from conjoint results. Results show that consumers preferred organic-from-concentrate beef at sensory level while organic beef from animals fed on grass was preferred when process characteristics (i.e. farming system) or attributes perceived at the point of purchase (i.e. colour) were evaluated. It was also found that the price-premium for organic beef is over 40%, with organic-fed-on grass beef preferred slightly over that fed-on-concentrate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Farmer, Linda; Scollan, Nigel D; Polkinghorne, Rod; Rødbotten, Rune; Allen, Paul; Pethick, David W

    2014-07-01

    Despite efforts by the industry to control the eating quality of beef, there remains a high level of variability in palatability, which is one reason for consumer dissatisfaction. In Europe, there is still no reliable on-line tool to predict beef quality and deliver consistent quality beef to consumers. Beef quality traits depend in part on the physical and chemical properties of the muscles. The determination of these properties (known as muscle profiling) will allow for more informed decisions to be made in the selection of individual muscles for the production of value-added products. Therefore, scientists and professional partners of the ProSafeBeef project have brought together all the data they have accumulated over 20 years. The resulting BIF-Beef (Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef) data warehouse contains available data of animal growth, carcass composition, muscle tissue characteristics and beef quality traits. This database is useful to determine the most important muscle characteristics associated with a high tenderness, a high flavour or generally a high quality. Another more consumer driven modelling tool was developed in Australia: the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme that predicts beef quality for each individual muscle×specific cooking method combination using various information on the corresponding animals and post-slaughter processing factors. This system has also the potential to detect variability in quality within muscles. The MSA system proved to be effective in predicting beef palatability not only in Australia but also in many other countries. The results of the work conducted in Europe within the ProSafeBeef project indicate that it would be possible to manage a grading system in Europe similar to the MSA system. The combination of the different modelling approaches (namely muscle biochemistry and a MSA-like meat grading system adapted to the European market) is a promising area of research to improve the prediction

  4. Failure of irradiated beef and ham to induce genetic aberrations of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ham that had been irradiated by electrons and beef which had been exposed to gamma rays from 60 Co were fed to Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether meat sterilized by these methods would induce genetic aberrations. The results showed that for yB/sc 8 y + Y males, fed on irradiated ham or beef, thermally preserved beef or frozen beef for their entire larval life, there was no significant increase in the loss of X or Y chromosomes or non-disjunction of these chromosomes; there was also no significant increase in any of the broods. Similarly for the Oregon R males, there was no significant increase in yield of sex-linked recessive lethals. Thus feeding of irradiated ham and beef to Drosophila males did not induce significant increases in genetic aberrations. The present findings are discussed in relation to the conflicting results of previous studies. (U.K.)

  5. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  6. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  8. Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-12-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

  9. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  10. Building beef cow nutritional programs with the 1996 NRC beef cattle requirements model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, G P; Adams, D C; Klopfenstein, T J; Patterson, H H

    2004-01-01

    Designing a sound cow-calf nutritional program requires knowledge of nutrient requirements, diet quality, and intake. Effectively using the NRC (1996) beef cattle requirements model (1996NRC) also requires knowledge of dietary degradable intake protein (DIP) and microbial efficiency. Objectives of this paper are to 1) describe a framework in which 1996NRC-applicable data can be generated, 2) describe seasonal changes in nutrients on native range, 3) use the 1996NRC to predict nutrient balance for cattle grazing these forages, and 4) make recommendations for using the 1996NRC for forage-fed cattle. Extrusa samples were collected over 2 yr on native upland range and subirrigated meadow in the Nebraska Sandhills. Samples were analyzed for CP, in vitro OM digestibility (IVOMD), and DIP. Regression equations to predict nutrients were developed from these data. The 1996NRC was used to predict nutrient balances based on the dietary nutrient analyses. Recommendations for model users were also developed. On subirrigated meadow, CP and IVOMD increased rapidly during March and April. On native range, CP and IVOMD increased from April through June but decreased rapidly from August through September. Degradable intake protein (DM basis) followed trends similar to CP for both native range and subirrigated meadow. Predicted nutrient balances for spring- and summer-calving cows agreed with reported values in the literature, provided that IVOMD values were converted to DE before use in the model (1.07 x IVOMD - 8.13). When the IVOMD-to-DE conversion was not used, the model gave unrealistically high NE(m) balances. To effectively use the 1996NRC to estimate protein requirements, users should focus on three key estimates: DIP, microbial efficiency, and TDN intake. Consequently, efforts should be focused on adequately describing seasonal changes in forage nutrient content. In order to increase use of the 1996NRC, research is needed in the following areas: 1) cost-effective and

  11. Replacement Beef Cow Valuation under Data Availability Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Hagerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Economists are often tasked with estimating the benefits or costs associated with livestock production losses; however, lack of available data or absence of consistent reporting can reduce the accuracy of these valuations. This work looks at three potential estimation techniques for determining the value for replacement beef cows with varying types of market data to proxy constrained data availability and discusses the potential margin of error for each technique. Oklahoma bred replacement cows are valued using hedonic pricing based on Oklahoma bred cow data—a best case scenario—vector error correction modeling (VECM based on national cow sales data and cost of production (COP based on just a representative enterprise budget and very limited sales data. Each method was then used to perform a within-sample forecast of 2016 January to December, and forecasts are compared with the 2016 monthly observed market prices in Oklahoma using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE. Hedonic pricing methods tend to overvalue for within-sample forecasting but performed best, as measured by MAPE for high quality cows. The VECM tended to undervalue cows but performed best for younger animals. COP performed well, compared with the more data intensive methods. Examining each method individually across eight representative replacement beef female types, the VECM forecast resulted in a MAPE under 10% for 33% of forecasted months, followed by hedonic pricing at 24% of the forecasted months and COP at 14% of the forecasted months for average quality beef females. For high quality females, the hedonic pricing method worked best producing a MAPE under 10% in 36% of the forecasted months followed by the COP method at 21% of months and the VECM at 14% of the forecasted months. These results suggested that livestock valuation method selection was not one-size-fits-all and may need to vary based not only on the data available but also on the characteristics (e

  12. Replacement Beef Cow Valuation under Data Availability Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Amy D.; Thompson, Jada M.; Ham, Charlotte; Johnson, Kamina K.

    2017-01-01

    Economists are often tasked with estimating the benefits or costs associated with livestock production losses; however, lack of available data or absence of consistent reporting can reduce the accuracy of these valuations. This work looks at three potential estimation techniques for determining the value for replacement beef cows with varying types of market data to proxy constrained data availability and discusses the potential margin of error for each technique. Oklahoma bred replacement cows are valued using hedonic pricing based on Oklahoma bred cow data—a best case scenario—vector error correction modeling (VECM) based on national cow sales data and cost of production (COP) based on just a representative enterprise budget and very limited sales data. Each method was then used to perform a within-sample forecast of 2016 January to December, and forecasts are compared with the 2016 monthly observed market prices in Oklahoma using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE). Hedonic pricing methods tend to overvalue for within-sample forecasting but performed best, as measured by MAPE for high quality cows. The VECM tended to undervalue cows but performed best for younger animals. COP performed well, compared with the more data intensive methods. Examining each method individually across eight representative replacement beef female types, the VECM forecast resulted in a MAPE under 10% for 33% of forecasted months, followed by hedonic pricing at 24% of the forecasted months and COP at 14% of the forecasted months for average quality beef females. For high quality females, the hedonic pricing method worked best producing a MAPE under 10% in 36% of the forecasted months followed by the COP method at 21% of months and the VECM at 14% of the forecasted months. These results suggested that livestock valuation method selection was not one-size-fits-all and may need to vary based not only on the data available but also on the characteristics (e.g., quality or age) of the

  13. Effect of castration and carcass suspension method on the quality and fatty acid profile of beef from male dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yingqun; Allen, Paul; Harrison, Sabine M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2018-02-12

    The use of bulls rather than steers for beef production offers some considerable advantages; however, the eating quality of bull beef is an issue of marketing concern. This study assessed the physicochemical characteristics of young Holstein-Friesian (HF) bull and steer beef. Steer carcasses were suspended by the Achilles tendon (AS) and by pelvic suspension (PS). HF steer beef had higher redness, yellowness and chroma values, whereas bulls had higher ultimate pH and darker muscle. Warner-Bratzler shear force, cook loss at different ageing times, moisture, and insoluble and total collagen were higher for HF bull beef, whereas intramuscular fat, soluble collagen and collagen solubility were higher for steer beef. HF steer beef had a higher proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas bull beef had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios. In comparison to AS, PS increased redness and chroma after 24 h blooming; PS improved tenderness up to 7 days of ageing and accelerated the ageing process. For young dairy cattle, steer beef would likely have superior eating quality but a relatively less favourable nutritional fatty acid profile to bull beef. Suspension method affected the tenderness and colour intensity of dairy steer beef at different ageing times. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products

    OpenAIRE

    Rodas?Gonz?lez, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L.; Uttaro, Bethany; Ju?rez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260?C for 0, 10, 20 or 30?min, and roasting at 160 or 135?C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven?seared for 10?min at 232?C and roasted at 135?C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5?kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10?min at 232?C followed by roast at 135?C h...

  15. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  16. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  17. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  18. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-03-22

    The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  19. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Maia de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  20. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  1. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  2. Beef Quality Identification Using Thresholding Method and Decision Tree Classification Based on Android Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the animal food products that have high nutrition because it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, the quality of beef should be maintained so that consumers get good beef quality. Determination of beef quality is commonly conducted visually by comparing the actual beef and reference pictures of each beef class. This process presents weaknesses, as it is subjective in nature and takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore, an automated system based on image processing that is capable of determining beef quality is required. This research aims to develop an image segmentation method by processing digital images. The system designed consists of image acquisition processes with varied distance, resolution, and angle. Image segmentation is done to separate the images of fat and meat using the Otsu thresholding method. Classification was carried out using the decision tree algorithm and the best accuracies were obtained at 90% for training and 84% for testing. Once developed, this system is then embedded into the android programming. Results show that the image processing technique is capable of proper marbling score identification.

  3. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  4. Genetic improvement of beef cattle in the United States: cattle, people and their interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willham, R L

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this essay is to develop a historic perspective of the beef cattle population and the legion of people directing its genetic change so that future leadership can increase the rate of breeding technology assimilation. Use of cattle for beef to feed millions is relatively recent. The beef industry of the United States has a rich, romantic heritage that combined Spanish exploitation with British tradition. Spanish cattle became adapted as the Texas longhorn and the European cattle became indigenous. Breeds developed in Britain replaced both. The Zebu was introduced to produce cattle adapted to the Gulf Coast. Selection for early maturity in the British breeds promoted by livestock shows was ended by the dwarf gene. The Charolais breed demonstrated growth potential. Then in 1967, Continental European breeds were imported, given an array of biological types from which to select. Beef cattle breeding research expanded after the second world war through the three regional projects. Performance Registry International was the focal point for performance. The Beef Improvement Federation produced guidelines for recording beef performance including those for national sire evaluation. U.S. Meat Animal Research Center evaluated the several newly introduced breeds. To date, breeding researchers have developed breeding technology for the use by breeder. The major breed association are keeping and utilizing performance records. The genetic structure of the beef breeds is being altered by the use of AI such that genetic change can be made rapidly by the use of superior sires evaluated on their progeny in many herds.

  5. Characteristics and Health Benefit of Highly Marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Takafumi

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the characteristics and health benefit of highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef. Marbling of Wagyu and Hanwoo beef has been increased in Japan and Korea to meet domestic consumer preferences. Wagyu and Hanwoo cattle have high potential of accumulating intramuscular fat (IMF) and producing highly marbled beef. The IMF content varies depending on the feeding of time, finishing diet, and breed type. IMF increases when feeding time is increased. The rate of IMF increase in grain-fed cattle is faster than that in pasture-fed cattle. Fatty acid composition are also different depending on breeds. Highly marbled Wagyu and Hanwoo beef have higher proportions of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) due to higher concentrations of oleic acid. MUFAs have little effect on total cholesterol. They are heart-healthy dietary fat because they can lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol while increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Clinical trials have indicated that highly marbled beef does not increase LDL-cholesterol. This review also emphasizes that high oleic acid beef such as Wagyu and Hanwoo beef might be able to reduce risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:28115881

  6. Financial feasibility analysis, small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Halid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are: 1 analyze the responses of farmers on small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 2 analyze the feasibility of small business farm beef cattle livestock in Gorontalo District, 3 analyze the estimated increase of beef cattle production in Gorontalo District. The research method that used is survey method. The data analysis used in this research are descriptive analysis, feasibility analysis, and forecasting analysis. The result of this research showed: 1 The development of beef cattle business is an industry in the field of agribusiness with no limited. Beef cattle farmers said this business could give a huge profits. It can be seen from people welfare that increased, this business does not require a large cost from the technical point of view (cost of facilities and infrastructure, 2 Based on financial analysis aspect of beef cattle livestock is feasible to develop. 3 The result of forecasting analysis can be seen that there will be increased production for the Year 2017-2019 at all intervals except at 1-2cows. Keyword: Financial Feasibility, Beef Cattle, Agribusiness

  7. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  9. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  10. RESEARCHING OF MEAT AND FAT COLOUR AND MARBLING IN BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Lisitsyn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies of meat and fat colour and marbling in Longissimus dorsi of different cattle — beef-producing (Aberdeen-Angus,Herefordbreeds and dual-purpose (Simmental, Black-and-white breeds — allowed to define groups by the colour values according to Lab international colour model. Measurements were performed 24 hours post-mortem between 12th and 13th ribs. It was found that different ranges of meat colour differed primarily in L* (lightness and a* (redness values, while b* (yellowness values did not significantly differ. The highest differentiation between ranges of fat colour was noted in b* values, whereas L* and a* slightly differed. Moreover, visual assessment of beef marbling by four grades (small, moderate, good, and rich and instrumental (microstructural analysis using a computer image analysis system were carried out. The morphometric study of marbling was conducted in accordance with the principles of system quantitative analysis. To perform quantitative measurements, object analysis parameters (area were specified. Both automatic and manual measurements of specified parameters were used. The study of Longissimus dorsi marbling established high agreement between visual and instrumental evaluations of marbling.

  11. Hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary bacterial infection in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiuyuan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin A is essential for normal growth, development, reproduction, cell proliferation, cell differentiation, immune function and vision. Hypovitaminosis A can lead to a series of pathological damage in animals. This report describes the case of hypovitaminosis A associated with secondary complications in calves. Case presentation From February to March in 2011, 2-and 3-month old beef calves presented with decreased eyesight, apparent blindness and persistent diarrhea occurred in a cattle farm of Hubei province, China. Based on history inspection and clinical observation, we made a tentative diagnosis of hypovitaminosis A. The disease was confirmed as a congenital vitamin A deficiency by determination of the concentrations of vitamin A in serum and feed samples. Furthermore, pathological and microbiological examination showed that the disease was associated with pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli infection and mucosal barriers damage in intestines. The corresponding treatments were taken immediately, and the disease was finally under control for a month. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of hypovitaminosis A coupled to secondary infection of E. coli in beef cattle, advancing our knowledge of how vitamin A affects infection and immunity in animals. This study could also be contributed to scientific diagnosis and treatments of complex hypovitaminosis A in cattle.

  12. Identification and dose evaluation of irradiated beef containing bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiacotti, M.; Alberti, A.; Fuochi, P.G.; Chiesa, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Food irradiation is a well-established technique to extend the food shelf life and to reduce the food-related health hazards caused by pathogenic micro-organisms. At present, radiation treatment is permitted for various categories of food and food ingredients in many countries. At the European level, irradiation of food is regulated by the European Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC. Community legislation states that any food or food ingredients, authorised in the European Union, must be labelled with the word 'irradiated' and that every year each Member State has to carry out checks at the product marketing stage to enforce correct labelling. The present work aimed at identifying irradiated beef meat by using a reliable and sensitive detection of DNA comets as screening biological method and performing an Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry as confirmatory qualitative standard. The influence of storage conditions and time after irradiation on DNA degradation was also investigated. Furthermore the application of ESR technique as a quantitative method was successfully applied to beef bones, using the approach of calibration curve. Results, although the limited statistics, proved for reliability of the dose reconstruction method and blind tests were carried out resulting in very satisfactory difference between actual treatment dose and reconstructed dose.

  13. Nutrigenomics and Beef Quality: A Review about Lipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio M. Ladeira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present review is to discuss the results of published studies that show how nutrition affects the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and how diet manipulation might change marbling and composition of fat in beef. Several key points in the synthesis of fat in cattle take place at the molecular level, and the association of nutritional factors with the modulation of this metabolism is one of the recent targets of nutrigenomic research. Within this context, special attention has been paid to the study of nuclear receptors associated with fatty acid metabolism. Among the transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs stand out. The mRNA synthesis of these transcription factors is regulated by nutrients, and their metabolic action might be potentiated by diet components and change lipogenesis in muscle. Among the options for dietary manipulation with the objective to modulate lipogenesis, the use of different sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids, starch concentrations, forage ratios and vitamins stand out. Therefore, special care must be exercised in feedlot feed management, mainly when the goal is to produce high marbling beef.

  14. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular traceability of beef from synthetic Mexican bovine breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, R; Arana, A; Alfonso, L; González-Córdova, A F; Torrescano, G; Guerrero Legarreta, I; Vallejo-Cordoba, B

    2011-10-06

    Traceability ensures a link between carcass, quarters or cuts of beef and the individual animal or the group of animals from which they are derived. Meat traceability is an essential tool for successful identification and recall of contaminated products from the market during a food crisis. Meat traceability is also extremely important for protection and value enhancement of good-quality brands. Molecular meat traceability would allow verification of conventional methods used for beef tracing in synthetic Mexican bovine breeds. We evaluated a set of 11 microsatellites for their ability to identify animals belonging to these synthetic breeds, Brangus and Charolais/Brahman (78 animals). Seven microsatellite markers allowed sample discrimination with a match probability, defined as the probability of finding two individuals sharing by chance the same genotypic profile, of 10(-8). The practical application of the marker set was evaluated by testing eight samples from carcasses and pieces of meat at the slaughterhouse and at the point of sale. The DNA profiles of the two samples obtained at these two different points in the production-commercialization chain always proved that they came from the same animal.

  16. Effect of marination in gravy on the radio frequency and microwave processing properties of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Basaran-Akgul, Nese; Rasco, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Dielectric properties (the dielectric constant (ε′) and the dielectric loss factor (ε″)) and the penetration depth of raw eye of round beef Semitendinosus muscle, raw beef marinated in gravy, raw beef cooked in gravy, and gravy alone were determined as a function of the temperature (20–130 °C) and frequency (27–1,800 MHz). Both ε′ and ε″ values increased as the temperature increased at low frequencies (27 and 40 MHz). At high frequencies (915 and 1,800 MHz), ε′ showed a 50 % decrease while ε″...

  17. THE EFFECT OF LOST EXPORTS ON U.S. BEEF PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Jin, Hyun Joung; Koo, Won W.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003, U.S. beef exports have declined approximately 85 percent. A number of countries, including Japan and Korea (the top export markets for U.S. beef), have banned imports of beef from the United States, while U.S. exports to other important markets, such as Mexico and Canada, have been well below previous levels. Domestic demand in the United States was not significantly affected by the BSE discov...

  18. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary To better address consumer concerns, the beef sector is working on strategies to enhance the sustainability of all aspects of the beef supply chain. Among these strategies are (1) the development of science-based frameworks and indicators capable of measuring progress at all stages of beef production; (2) the engagement of different stakeholders along the beef supply chain at regional and global levels; and (3) the improvement of communication among stakeholders and transparency towards consumers. Progress on these three fronts was presented during the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef, hosted by the Global and Canadian Roundtables for Sustainable Beef. During the event, there was a clear understanding that the beef industry is substantially advancing efforts to continuously improve its sustainability, both at regional and global levels, by developing assessment frameworks and indicators to measure progress. However, it is also clear that the beef sector has a need to more clearly define the concept of beef sustainability, strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among national roundtables for sustainable beef, as well as improve the flow of information along the supply chain. An improved transparency in the beef sector will help consumers make more informed decisions about food products. Abstract The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various

  19. A comparison between beef fed organically, in a feedlot, and on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    2 Centre for Sustainable Agriculture, University of the Free State, P.O. Box 339, ... Keywords: Production system, organic, meat quality, profit margins, feedlot, beef cattle ..... Table 5 Calculation of price and feed margin, and profit or loss.

  20. Simulating economics and environmental impacts of beef and soybean systems in Brazil's Pamas and Amozon Biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent reductions in the deforestation of the Amazon biome have highlighted the need for the sustainable intensification of beef and commodity crop production in Brazil to increase agricultural productivity without accelerating adverse environmental impacts related to greenhouse gas emissions, eutro...

  1. Prevalence, Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Serovars from Retail Beef in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thung, Tze Y; Radu, Son; Mahyudin, Nor A; Rukayadi, Yaya; Zakaria, Zunita; Mazlan, Nurzafirah; Tan, Boon H; Lee, Epeng; Yeoh, Soo L; Chin, Yih Z; Tan, Chia W; Kuan, Chee H; Basri, Dayang F; Wan Mohamed Radzi, Che W J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium in retail beef from different retail markets of Selangor area, as well as, to assess their pathogenic potential and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 240 retail beef meat samples (chuck = 60; rib = 60; round = 60; sirloin = 60) were randomly collected. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) in combination with the most probable number (MPN) method was employed to detect Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in the meat samples. The prevalence of Salmonella spp., S . Enteritidis and S . Typhimurium in 240 beef meat samples were 7.50, 1.25, and 0.83%, respectively. The microbial loads of total Salmonella was found in the range of retail beef products tested were widely contaminated with multi-drug resistant (MDR) Salmonella and various virulence genes are present among the isolated Salmonella serovars.

  2. A PVC/polypyrrole sensor designed for beef taste detection using electrochemical methods and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingtao; Wang, Xiaodan; Han, Yunxiu; Cai, Yingming; Jin, Jiahui; Wang, Hongmei; Xu, Liping; Wu, Ruijia

    2018-03-01

    An electrochemical sensor for detection of beef taste was designed in this study. This sensor was based on the structure of polyvinyl chloride/polypyrrole (PVC/PPy), which was polymerized onto the surface of a platinum (Pt) electrode to form a Pt-PPy-PVC film. Detecting by electrochemical methods, the sensor was well characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The sensor was applied to detect 10 rib-eye beef samples and the accuracy of the new sensor was validated by sensory evaluation and ion sensor detection. Several cluster analysis methods were used in the study to distinguish the beef samples. According to the obtained results, the designed sensor showed a high degree of association of electrochemical detection and sensory evaluation, which proved a fast and precise sensor for beef taste detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Index selection of beef cattle for growth and milk production using computer simulation modelling. ... South African Journal of Animal Science ... into the model allowed for the introduction of variation between individuals and generations.

  4. Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle Market ... device which allows consumers, traders and farmers to search market appropriate ... level of local network coverage and access to mobile financial services (M-Pesa).

  5. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimizing preweaning growth of suckling calves and reconcep- tion of the lactating cow. ... daily requirements of a lactating beef cow grazing spring grass. ...... buffalo cows which had the greatest mass at calving also lost most thereafter, when ...

  6. Differential effects of negative publicity on beef consumption according to household characteristics in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyungho; Lim, Byung In; Jin, Hyun Joung

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines how South Korean households responded to an unprecedented boycott campaign against US beef from spring to summer of 2008, and investigates differential responses in relation to households' characteristics. It was found that beef consumption reduced by 4.8% immediately after the so-called candle-light demonstration. Instead, pork and chicken consumption increased by 17.2% and 16.6%, respectively. This confirms a substitution effect due to the negative publicity concerning US beef. It was also found that the negative publicity effect was transitory and the reactions of consumers were not uniform; they differed depending on their socio-economic characteristics. The econometric model revealed that younger, less-educated, and/or lower-income households were more susceptible to the negative publicity, and reduced their beef consumption more than other households. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  8. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...

  9. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  10. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  11. Effects of slow-release urea on ruminal digesta characteristics and growth performance in beef steers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor-Edwards, C C; Hibbard, G; Kitts, S E

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers.......Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of slow urea (SRU) versus feed-grade urea on ruminal metabolite characteristics in steers and DMI, gain, and G:F in growing beef steers....

  12. Changes in fat content of pork and beef after pan-frying under different conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Ina; Ovesen, Lars

    2005-01-01

    ) gained 0.4 g. Similar results were obtained for low- (8%) and high-fat (12%) beef patties. Meatballs (7.5% fat initially) gained up to 2.4 g fat/100 g raw product depending on the cooking conditions. The greatest fat loss was 7.2 g for high fat ground beef (12% fat), which was pan-fried and then rinsed...

  13. Antibiotic of resistence profile of Salmonella spp. serotypes isolated from retail beef in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Nova Nayarit-Ballesteros; María Salud Rubio-Lozano; Enrique Delgado-Suárez; Danilo Méndez-Medina; Diego Braña-Varela; Oscar Rodas-Suárez

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the serotype and antibiotic resistance profile of Salmonella spp. isolated from retail ground beef in Mexico City. Materials and methods. A total of 100 samples of ground beef were analyzed. The pathogen was isolated by conventional methods and confirmed by PCR (invA gene, 284 bp). The antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the Kirby-Bauer method while serotyping was performed according to the Kauffman-White scheme. Results. We isolated a total of 19 strains o...

  14. Returns on investment in wild dog management-beef production in the South Australian Arid Lands

    OpenAIRE

    Wicks, Santhi; Allen, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Beef cattle producers in Australia have reported an increase in calf losses as a result of wild dog attacks in recent years. However, while control measures may reduce calf losses from wild dog attacks, they may also reduce attacks on kangaroos. Thus, wild dog control measures may inadvertently increase kangaroo competition with cattle for grazing vegetation, which is potentially costly for graziers. In this study the net returns to beef production from investments in wild dog controls in a c...

  15. Optimal Stochastic Advertising Strategies for the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kun C. Lee; Stanley Schraufnagel; Earl O. Heady

    1982-01-01

    An important decision variable in the promotional strategy for the beef sector is the optimal level of advertising expenditures over time. Optimal stochastic and deterministic advertising expenditures are derived for the U.S. beef industry for the period `1966 through 1980. They are compared with historical levels and gains realized by optimal advertising strategies are measured. Finally, the optimal advertising expenditures in the future are forecasted.

  16. NEW INSTRUMENTS FOR CO-ORDINATION AND RISK SHARING WITHIN THE CANADIAN BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.

    2000-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Canadian beef industry has stated objectives of improving beef quality and consumer satisfaction while reducing unit costs of production. Suggested methods for achieving these goals include working towards value based marketing and improved information flows between different market levels through systems such as a birth to plate information system. These initiatives are designed to provide a more direct link between consumer product needs and breeding and management dec...

  17. Does Excluding Cross-commodity Interactions Matter? Beef and Lamb in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Siobahn K.; Piggott, Roley R.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Griffith, Garry R.

    2003-01-01

    Australian broadacre agriculture is typified by strong cross-commodity relationships, where sheep and cattle grazing enterprises compete for pasture and both compete with wheat and other crops for land. Further, some commodities produced by multi-product farms are also used in the production of final products that are substitutes in demand, such as beef and lamb. Economic analyses of the beef market, for example, should also include consideration of the market for the related product, lamb. I...

  18. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR AND ATTITUDES TOWARD ALTERNATIVE BEEF LABELING STRATEGIES IN FRANCE, GERMANY, AND THE UK

    OpenAIRE

    Roosen, Jutta; Lusk, Jayson L.; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A wide array of food safety scares and breakdowns have led to loss of consumer confidence in the quality and safety of beef products. To counteract such concerns, firms and regulators have the ability to utilize brands or labels to signal quality. Utilizing a mail survey in France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, we analyzed consumer preferences for alternative beef labeling strategies. Using an ordered probit model and a double bounded logit model, we estimate consumer preferences for alter...

  19. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  20. The effects of skeletal separation and moisture enhancement for improving the eating quality of cull cow beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiter, P J; Campbell, C P; Mandell, I B

    2012-12-01

    Sixty-two cull beef cows were slaughtered to investigate effects of skeletal separation and moisture enhancement on beef eating quality. Muscles from each carcass side were randomly assigned to 1) no postmortem processing (NPP), 2) prerigor skeletal separation (SS), 3) moisture enhancement (ME) using calcium ascorbate or 4) a combination of SS and ME (SS/ME). Postmortem processing treatment (PPT) by ageing (PM) interactions (Padditive effect of combining SS and ME improved palatability traits versus SS or ME alone. Panellists found no differences (P>0.14) in softness and tenderness between SS/ME and Canadian AA or AAA beef. Postmortem processing of beef cows may produce beef as tender and juicy as beef from younger carcasses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Determination of optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-González, Argenis; Larsen, Ivy L; Uttaro, Bethany; Juárez, Manuel; Parslow, Joyce; Aalhus, Jennifer L

    2015-11-01

    In order to determine optimum oven cooking procedures for lean beef, the effects of searing at 232 or 260°C for 0, 10, 20 or 30 min, and roasting at 160 or 135°C on semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles were evaluated. In addition, the optimum determined cooking method (oven-seared for 10 min at 232°C and roasted at 135°C) was applied to SM roasts varying in weight from 0.5 to 2.5 kg. Mainly, SM muscles seared for 0 or 10 min at 232°C followed by roast at 135°C had lower cooking loss, higher external browning color, more uniform internal color, and were more tender and flavorful (P searing is the recommended oven cooking procedure; with best response from muscle roast weight ≥1 kg.

  2. Radiographical evaluation of bone maturation in Japanese black beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, A.; Hamada, S.; Sakamoto, H.; Kamiya, S.; Yanagida, K.; Kubota, C.; Watanabe, Y.; Shimizu, R.

    1996-01-01

    Epiphyseal ossification in the radius, ulna, metacarpus, proximal phalanx and tuber calcaneous was examined radiographically in Japanese Black beef cattle. The grade of standard ossification was assessed monthly for each epiphysis. Bone maturations could be divided into 8 grades for the distal radius and distal ulna, 7 grades for the distal metacarpus, 5 grades for the proximal phalanx, and 8 grades for the tuber calcaneous, respectively. The closure of the epiphyseal line completed at the earliest on the proximal phalanx, and at the latest on the distal ulna. Changes in gradings were steep at 0 to 5 months of age but became almost constant after 10 months of age in all the epiphysis. There were no significant differences in bone maturation between the cattle with different sex and breeding conditions

  3. Brazilian ground beef authentication by multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Carlos do Sacramento de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy ofmultiplex PCR in detecting the adulterationof commercially available ground beefvia addition and/orsubstitution ofground buffalo meat. Experimentally adulterated ground beefsamples were prepared in triplicate, and dilutions of DNA from Bos taurus and Bubalusbubalis were prepared to determine the detection limit of the method. Concurrently, 91 ground meatsamples sold as “ground beef” were collected from differentstores in northern Brazil andanalyzed bymultiplex PCR. Buffalo DNA was detected in 17.5% of the collected ground meat samples.Our results showed that multiplex PCR is an efficient method for detectingthe incorporation of groundbuffalo meatatpercentages ranging from 10 to 100% and the incorporation of beef at percentages ranging from0.1 to 100% intoground meat samples.

  4. Processing companies' preferences for attributes of beef in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Irene

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess processing companies' preferences for attributes of Swiss beef. To this end, qualitative interviews were used to derive product attributes that determine the buying decision. Through an adaptive-choice based conjoint analysis survey and latent class analysis of choice data, we compute class preferences. Results show that there are two distinct classes. A smaller class emphasizes traceability back to the birth farm and low producer price, a larger class focuses on environmental effects and origin. Additionally we see that larger companies are more price-sensitive and smaller companies are more sensitive to origin of the animals. The results outlined in this paper may be used to target market segments and to derive differentiation strategies based on product characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...... from animals supplemented with mate extract has not been investigated so far. Addition of extract of mate to a standard maize/soy feed at a level of 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5% w/w to the diet of feedlot for cattle resulted in increased levels of inosine monophosphate, creatine and carnosine in the fresh meat....... The content of total conjugated linoleic acid increased in the meat as mate extract concentration was increased in the feed. The tendency to radical formation in meat slurries as quantified by EPR spin-trapping decreased as increasing mate extract addition to feed, especially after storage of the meat...

  6. Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Rangel Fernandes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Fernandes H.R., Oliveira L.C., Ribeiro S.C.A. & Lourenço L.F.H. [Physical chemistry and microscopic characteristics of matured beef peccary (Tayassu tajacu.] Características físicas e microscópicas da carne maturada de caititu (Tayassu tajacu. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:167-172, 2015. Universidade do Estado do Pará, Travessa Enéas Pinheiro, 2626, Marco, Belém, PA 66113-200, Brasil. Email: suziar@yahoo.com The objective of this article was to analyze the physical and microscopic matured beef peccary. Were performed analyses of shear force, water holding capacity, weight loss by cooking and scanning electron microscopy in matured beef. The matured beef presented values of shear force between 3.76 and 5.26 %, water activity between 0,96 to 0,98 and weight loss by cooking between 19,46 and 21,17%. Therefore, it was found that the matured beef peccary, were considered soft according to analysis of shear force. The matured beef at 0ºC for 12 days was considered the best product for having less weight loss by cooking and softness according to analysis of shear force and scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Prasetiyono, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko

    2018-02-01

    Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2) to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3) to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4) to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  8. High-pressure effects on cooking loss and histological structure of beef muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anjun; Zhan, Hu; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Dongyue; Jia, Peiqi

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of high pressures (up to 600 MPa) applied at room temperature for 10 min on beef cooking loss and structure. The data on cooking loss, pH and protein solubility, as well as the electron microscopy, illustrate the changes in cooking loss and structure with high pressure processing (HPP). There is a significant reduction in cooking loss of beef with HPP. When the beef sample is imposed upon by 300 or 400 MPa, the cooking loss reduction is about 12%. Further, the pH of beef is dramatically increased as the pressure increases, and the pH increases by about 5% when imposed upon by 500 MPa. When a high pressure was applied at room temperature, the structure of the beef tissue apparently changed. Muscle fiber fragments gradually became slender and sarcomeres became lengthened. Our data indicated that high-pressure treatment on beef leads to stretching of the muscle fiber and an increase in the water-holding capacity.

  9. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Budi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1 to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2 to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3 to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4 to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  10. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  11. Determination of Total Volatile Basic Nitrogen (TVB-N Content in Beef by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Shanmei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive determination of TVB-N content in beef using hyperspectral imaging (HSI technique was evaluated. In order to create a robust model to predict the TVB-N content in beef, partition of sample set, spectral pretreatment, and the optimum wavelength selection were discussed. After the beef sample set was parted by concentration gradient (CG algortithm, and the spectra of beef samples were preprocessed by standard normalized variate (SNV combined with auto scale(AS, the partial least square regression (PLSR model was established using the full spectral range, which had the best prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9124, Rp2 of 0.8816, RMSECV of 1.5889, and RMSEP of 1.7719, respectively. After the optimum wavelengths which is closely related to the TVB-N content of beef samples was obtained using the competitive adaptive re-weighted (CARS algorithm, a new PLSR model was established using the optimum wavelengths, which had outstanding prediction abilities with Rcv2 of 0.9235, Rp2 of 0.9241, RMSECV of 1.4881, and RMSEP of 1.4882, respectively.The study showed that HSI is a powerful technique to predict the TVB-N content in beef by a nondestructive way.

  12. Rosemary and Pitanga Aqueous Leaf Extracts On Beef Patties Stability under Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Carolina Vargas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Because processing and storage conditions affect several beef quality attributes, the food industry uses a variety of synthetic antioxidants. However, some synthetic antioxidants have been questioned regarding its safety, and thus the interest in using natural antioxidants in food products is increasing. This paper aimed at assessing leaf aqueous extracts of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linnaeus and Pitanga (Eugenia uniflora Linnaeus as antioxidants in beef cold storage. After 48h storage, patties added of Rosemary leaf extracts showed increased pH. Patties added of Pitanga extracts had the lowest a* color values. Oxymyoglobin levels were significantly higher for Negative control, than for Pitanga treatment. The 10% extract addition increased lipid oxidation of beef patties. Correlation coefficients between lipid and myoglobin oxidations were all above 0.85. Pitanga leaf extracts negatively influenced beef color, probably because of its higher chlorophyll content. Lipid oxidation of beef patties was increased with the addition of leaf extracts. The inclusion of 10% leaf extract into beef patties seems not suitable, because it may enhance the amount of prooxidant compounds, as well as the amount of substances capable of reacting with lipid secondary products. Correlations between lipid and myoglobin oxidations demonstrated strong relationship.

  13. The effects of feeding broiler litter on microbial contamination of beef carcasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.R.; Apple, J.K.; Hellwig, D.H.; Kegley, E.B.; Pohlman, F.W. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Department of Animal Science

    2002-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the effects of feeding broiler litter, either directly in the diet or indirectly through pasture-fertilization, to beef cattle on the incidence of Salmonella typhimurium (S) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC) contamination of carcasses and ground beef. In Experiment 1, beef cows (n=32) were allotted either ad libitum access to grass hay or a formulated diet (80% deep-stacked broiler litter and 20% corn). In Experiment 2, beef cows (n=32) were assigned to graze on pastures fertilized with a commercial fertilizer or fresh broiler litter. Cows in Experiment 1 were harvested following a 56-d feeding period; whereas, cows in Experiment 2 were harvested after 5, 10, 20, and 40 d of grazing pastures. All samples of muscle, purge, and ground beef were culture-negative for S and EC, suggesting that beef cattle may consume properly handled deep-stacked broiler litter, or pastures fertilized with fresh litter, without increasing the likelihood of carcass/meat contamination with S and (or) EC. (author)

  14. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  15. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-10

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  16. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 < 0; and socio-economic factors that determine the preference of farmers against risk are age, education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  17. Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance against Tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in Cattle and Beef Meat from Selangor, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Anuar, Aimi S.; Thung, Tze Young; Satharasinghe, Dilan A.; Jambari, Nuzul Noorahya; Abdul-Mutalib, Noor-Azira; Huat, John Tang Yew; Basri, Dayang F.; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Campylobacter is a major foodborne pathogen frequently associated with human bacterial gastroenteritis in the world. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. in the beef food system in Malaysia. A total of 340 samples consisting of cattle feces (n = 100), beef (n = 120) from wet markets and beef (n = 120) from hypermarkets were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. The overall prevalence of Campylobacter was 17.4%, consisting of 33% in cat...

  18. Identifications of Carcass Characteristic for Estimating the Composition of Beef Carcass

    OpenAIRE

    Hafid, H; Gurnadi, R.E; Priyanto, R; Saefuddin, A

    2010-01-01

    The research aimed to identify carcass characteristic that can be used for estimating composition ofbeef carcass. It was used 165 Brahman crossbred cattle in this research. Carcass characteristics wereweight of a half cold carcass (WC) ranged from 96 to 151 kg, loin eye area (LEA) ranged from 22.09 to304.8 mm2, 12th rib fat thickness (FT12) ranged from 0.80 to 2.90 mm, meat ranged from 53.55 to 90.10kg and carcass fat ranged from 5.54 to 39.72 kg. Result showed that a half weight cold carcass...

  19. A comparison of gamma-irradiation and microwave treatments on the lipids and microbiological pattern of beef liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, R.S.; Daw, Z.Y.; Farag, S.A.; Abd El-Wahab, S.A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of gamma-irradiation treatments (0, 2.5, 5 and, 10 kGy) and microwaves generated from an oven at low and defrost settings for 0.5, 1 and 2 min on the chemical composition and microbiological aspects of beef liver samples were studied. The chemical and microbiological analyses were performed on the non-treated and treated beef liver immediately after treatments and during frozen storage (-18 degree) for 3 months. The chemical analyses of beef liver lipids showed that acid, peroxide and TBA ( Thiobarbituric acid) values were slightly increased after irradiation treatments and also during frozen storage (-18 degree c). On the contrary, iodine value of the treated beef liver was decreased. Irradiation treatments remarkably reduced the total bacterial counts in beef liver. The percent reduction of bacterial load for beef liver exposed to microwaves generated from an oven at defrost mode for 2 min and after 3 months at (-18 degree c) was 62%. The bacterial load for beef liver exposed to gamma-irradiation at 10 kGy after 3 months at -18 degree c was decreased by 98%. Hence, gamma-irradiation treatment was far better than microwave treatment for inhibiting the multiplication of the associated microorganisms with beef liver. Salmonellae was not detected in non-irradiated and irradiated beef liver throughout the storage period

  20. A qualitative study of Southern U.S. consumers' top of the mind beliefs about the safety of local beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telligman, Amy L; Worosz, Michelle R; Bratcher, Christy L

    2017-02-01

    Following the Reasoned Action Approach, the aim of this study was to explore consumers' top-of-mind food safety beliefs about local beef. Beef consumers recruited from farmers' markets (N = 101) and grocery stores (N = 174) across the state of Alabama participated in face-to-face intercept surveys. The survey included closed- and open-ended questions designed to elicit consumers' food safety beliefs about local beef. Results indicate that beef safety was not a top-of-mind concern for a majority of participants, however of the total number of participants familiar with the term "local beef" (n = 168, 61%), a majority (n = 105, 63%) associated local beef with improved food safety. Content analysis of verbatim text revealed that consumers believed local beef was safer because they possess greater knowledge about the product and less shipping was involved. Respondents also believe that locally processed meat is derived from small-scale operations which provided the assurance that local beef is more likely to meet U.S. regulatory standards and therefore be safer. Consumers believe they have more oversight of local beef due to both their relationships with supply chain actors and proximity which also provided food safety assurances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Efficiency of UVC Radiation in the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on Beef-Agar Food Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian James

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the eff ect of meat content and surface smoothness on the deactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in beef-agar food models achieved by shortwave ultraviolet (UVC light. Food models with various meat contents were made using chopped beef slices and agar solution. Prepared models together with a Listeria selective agar (LSA plate and a slice of cooked beef were inoculated with L. monocytogenes and then exposed to UVC light. Population of Listeria reduced to below the level of detection on the LSA plates. As the content of beef in the beef-agar models increased, more L. monocytogenes cells survived. Survival was greatest on the treated cooked slice of beef. To bett er understand the effect of surface irregularities, a white light interferometer was used to analyse the surface smoothness of beef-agar media and LSA plates. No correlation was observed between the surface roughness of seven out of nine types of produced beef-agar media and the degree of inactivation resulting from UVC radiation at the given dose, whereas, less bacterial cells were killed as beef content of the food models increased. The findings of the current study show that the chemical composition of the treated sample also plays an important role in pathogen resistance and survival, meaning that two samples with similar surface irregularities but diff erent chemical composition might produce very diff erent inactivation results when exposed to UVC light.

  2. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Impact of mineral and vitamin status on beef cattle immune function and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Ball, J J; Beck, P A

    2016-12-01

    The importance of optimal mineral and vitamin nutrition on improving immune function and health has been recognized in the preceding decades. In the southeast, beef cattle are raised predominantly on forages that may be limiting in nutrients for optimal health, especially trace minerals such as Cu, Zn, and Se. Clinical deficiencies of these nutrients produce classic symptoms that are common to several nutrient deficiencies (e.g., slow growth and unthrifty appearance); however, subclinical deficiencies are more widespread and more difficult to detect, yet may result in broader economic losses. Dietary mineral concentrations often considered adequate for maximum growth, reproductive performance, or optimal immune function have been found to be insufficient at times of physiological stress (weaning, transport, comingling, etc.), when feed intake is reduced. The impacts of these deficiencies on beef cattle health are not apparent until calves have been subjected to these stressors. Health problems that are exacerbated by mineral or vitamin deficiencies include bovine respiratory disease, footrot, retained placenta, metritis, and mastitis. Many micronutrients have antioxidant properties through being components of enzymes and proteins that benefit animal health. In dairy cattle, high levels of supplemental Zn are generally associated with reduced somatic cell counts and improved foot health, possibly reflecting the importance of Zn in maintaining effective epithelial barriers. Neutrophils isolated from ruminants deficient in Cu or Se have reduced ability to kill ingested bacteria in vitro. Supplemental vitamin E, in its role as an intracellular antioxidant has been shown to decrease morbidity in stressed calves. There is more understanding of the important biological role that these nutrients play in the functioning of the complex and multifaceted immune system. However, there is still much to be learned about determining the micronutrient status of herds (and hence

  3. A nationwide survey on seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañales, Pedro; Fernandez, Leandro; Repiso, María V; Gil, Andres; Dargatz, David A; Osawa, Takeshi

    2006-06-30

    Bovine abortions due to Neospora caninum infection have been reported worldwide and its economic impact on the beef industry has been acknowledged as a problem. Uruguay has the largest export value of beef per acre in South America. However, no data on the prevalence of N. caninum infection have been available in this country. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and distribution of N. caninum infection in beef cattle in Uruguay through a nationwide survey. A two stage sampling design was used with farms being selected in stage one and animals being selected in stage two. A brief questionnaire was administered on each farm. Seroprevalence of N. caninum in 4444 beef cattle from 229 farms in all the counties, except Montevideo, of Uruguay was determined by an ELISA. The data were then analyzed to identify associations between infection and variables such as type of animal (cow or heifer), herd size, use of veterinary advice, productivity of the soil in relation to the national average, use of improved grass, use of mineral salts, use of supplemental feed, and presence of a dog(s) on the farm. The estimated proportion of positive farms for all the beef cattle operations was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 53.7-84.7). The overall cattle seroprevalence was estimated as 13.9% (95% CI, 11.6-16.3). The prevalence estimation by animal category was 14.3% (95% CI, 11.4-17.2) for beef cows and 12.9% (95% CI, 10.0-15.8) for beef heifers. There was no significant difference in the estimated prevalence between the two animal types. There was no significant difference in the animal level prevalence of N. caninum infection among different herd sizes. None of the herd demographic or management variables was significantly associated with the seropositivity to N. caninum infection. In conclusion, these results show that N. caninum infection is common among beef herds across Uruguay. Since the beef industry is one of the key industries in Uruguay, the

  4. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  5. Effect of Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles on Beef Quality and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Hafizur; Hossain, Mohammad Mujaffar; Rahman, Syed Mohammad Ehsanur; Hashem, Mohammad Abul

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to know the effect of repeated freeze-thaw cycles of beef on the sensory, physicochemical quality and microbiological assessment. The effects of three successive freeze-thaw cycles on beef forelimb were investigated comparing with unfrozen fresh beef for 75 d by keeping at −20±1℃. The freeze-thaw cycles were subjected to three thawing methods and carried out to know the best one. As the number of freeze-thaw cycles increased color and odor declined significantly before cook within the cycles and tenderness, overall acceptability also declined among the cycles after cook by thawing methods. The thawing loss increased and dripping loss decreased significantly (pcycles and then decreased. Cooking loss increased in cycle 1 and 3, but decreased in cycle 2. pH decreased significantly (pcycles. Moreover, drip loss, cooking loss and WHC were affected (pcycles. 2-Thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) value increased (pcycles and among the cycles by thawing methods. Total viable bacteria, total coliform and total yeast-mould count decreased significantly (pcycles in comparison to the initial count in repeated freeze-thaw cycles. As a result, repeated freeze-thaw cycles affected the sensory, physicochemical and microbiological qua- lity of beef, causing the deterioration of beef quality, but improved the microbiological quality. Although repeated freeze-thaw cycles did not affect much on beef quality and safety but it may be concluded that repeated freeze and thaw should be minimized in terms of beef color for commercial value and WHC and tenderness/juiciness for eating quality. PMID:26761286

  6. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleasant, J.C.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M; Killough, G.G.

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME

  7. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of DNA quality of frozen beef based on DNA yield, gel electrophoresis and PCR amplification and their correlations to beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Ting; Liu, Yongfeng; Wang, Xingyu; Zhang, Lan; Ku, Ting; Quek, Siew Young

    2018-09-15

    Freezing is a practical method for meat preservation but the quality of frozen meat can deteriorate with storage time. This research investigated the effect of frozen storage time (up to 66 months) on changes in DNA yield, purity and integrity in beef, and further analyzed the correlation between beef quality (moisture content, protein content, TVB-N value and pH value) and DNA quality in an attempt to establish a reliable, high-throughput method for meat quality control. Results showed that frozen storage time influenced the yield and integrity of DNA significantly (p quality degraded dramatically with the increased storage time based on gel electrophoresis results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA) were observed in all frozen beef samples. Using real-time PCR for quantitative assessment of DNA and meat quality revealed that correlations could be established successfully with mathematical models to evaluate frozen beef quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at random as they exited the abattoir, cooled and packed following industry practices. Beef cuts were selected based on an earlier, unreplicated analysis of 21 common cuts, to represent a wide range of cuts currently available to consumers. Large and significant differences were observed in fat content with a mean of 2.12%, ranging between 4.23% for sirloin strip and 0.68% for butcher’s roast. The cholesterol content did not differ between cuts (mean 44.7 mg/100 mg meat and was unrelated to fat percentage. A stringent discriminant analysis of the fatty acid profiles detected highly significant differences between cuts and correctly classified 37 of the 40 samples. The n6:n3 ratio did not differ between cuts and ranged between 1.9 for sirloin strip and 2.6 for rib roast and silverside’s end. Significant differences between cuts were detected for most fatty acids, and for the atherogenicity index. Nevertheless, the latter only varied between 0.60 and 1.07 for topside and sirloin strip respectively. The results are compared with literature values. Notwithstanding differences between cuts, all beef samples were lean and had lipid profiles compatible with human health as part of a balanced diet.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar el contenido de grasa, colesterol y perfil de ácidos grasos de ocho cortes provenientes de terneros lactantes, de 7-8 meses de edad y engordados en prados permanentes de la VII Region de Chile, por productores pequeños. Se

  9. Schools: Army Correspondence Course Program Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-26

    utilization of recipes ; preparation of beverages, breakfast foods, meat, poultry, seafood, paste products, and dessert and other pastry. MOS: 92G. Crd...market ready beef, ground beef, diced beef, beef roasts and steaks, beef livers, wholesale market cuts of lamb and pork, cured and smoked meats, and...surveillance inspection procedures for waterfoods. MOS: 91R10. Crd hrs: 10. Subcourse: MD0712 Title: Poultry I. Description: Introduction to poultry ( chicken

  10. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  11. De relatieve duurzaamheid van de Nederlandse roodvleessector: een kwalitatieve vergelijking = A comparative study on the sustainability of the Dutch beef cattle production sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sustainability of Dutch specialized beef production is compared qualitatively with two other Dutch animal production systems (porc and broilers), and with beef production in Ireland and Brazil, the most prominent exporters of beef to the Dutch market with which the Dutch sector

  12. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  13. Digital-image analysis to predict weight and yields of boneless subprimal beef cuts Análise de imagem digital para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes de carne bovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Teira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, beef carcass evaluation for grading or research purposes has relied upon subjective visual scores, and manually taken measurements, but in recent times there has been a growing interest in new technologies capable of improving accuracy of estimates. Equations to predict weight and yield of beef pistol subprimal cuts were developed in this work using digital image analysis (VIA of the 12th rib steak. Equations to predict total pistol subprimal cuts weight (CUTS had coefficients of determination (CD of 0.84, or 0.87 to 0.88, when the independent variables were the VIA parameters and the half carcass weight (HC or the total pistol weight (TP, respectively. The predicted values for the total seven subprimal cuts, as a percentage of half carcass weight (CUTS%, presented CD values ranging from 0.37 to 0.47, or 0.21 to 0.31, using HC or TP as a principal independent variable. Likewise, the equation for weight of the individual subprimal cuts had CD values ranging from 0.40 to 0.72, or 0.43 to 0.74 using HC or TP, respectively. In this research, the developed VIA procedure has demonstrated good repeatability and accuracy to estimate the total pistol subprimal weights, and some individual subprimal weights.Por várias décadas, a avaliação de carcaça bovina em sistemas de tipificação ou em pesquisas tem dependido de escores subjetivos e medidas obtidas manualmente, mas ultimamente tem havido um crescente interesse por novas tecnologias capazes de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver equações para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes bovinos, através da análise de imagem digital (VIA de uma seção do contrafilé da 12ª costela. As equações de previsão do peso dos cortes do traseiro especial (CUTS apresentaram coeficientes de determinação (CD de 0,84 e de 0,87 – 0,88, quando as variáveis independentes usadas eram os parâmetros VIA e o peso da meia carcaça (HC ou

  14. Estimating animal abundance in ground beef batches assayed with molecular markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Sheng Hu

    Full Text Available Estimating animal abundance in industrial scale batches of ground meat is important for mapping meat products through the manufacturing process and for effectively tracing the finished product during a food safety recall. The processing of ground beef involves a potentially large number of animals from diverse sources in a single product batch, which produces a high heterogeneity in capture probability. In order to estimate animal abundance through DNA profiling of ground beef constituents, two parameter-based statistical models were developed for incidence data. Simulations were applied to evaluate the maximum likelihood estimate (MLE of a joint likelihood function from multiple surveys, showing superiority in the presence of high capture heterogeneity with small sample sizes, or comparable estimation in the presence of low capture heterogeneity with a large sample size when compared to other existing models. Our model employs the full information on the pattern of the capture-recapture frequencies from multiple samples. We applied the proposed models to estimate animal abundance in six manufacturing beef batches, genotyped using 30 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers, from a large scale beef grinding facility. Results show that between 411∼1367 animals were present in six manufacturing beef batches. These estimates are informative as a reference for improving recall processes and tracing finished meat products back to source.

  15. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeel, Anthony K; Cushman, Robert A

    2015-10-15

    Lifetime productivity and longevity are greater in beef cows that give birth early in their first calving season. The ability of heifers to conceive early in the breeding season is traditionally thought to be a function of pubertal status; however, recent evidence suggests that antral follicle count is positively associated with calving day in pubertal beef heifers. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that the total number of ovarian follicles may alter response to hormonal synchronization protocols. The objectives of this study were to confirm the beneficial influence of antral follicle count on calving day in beef heifers and to determine whether response to PGF2α is associated with differences in antral follicle counts. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to investigate the interaction between calving period (early vs. late) and PGF2α (control vs. PGF) on calving day and antral follicle count in yearling beef heifers (n = 95). As intended, calving day was less in the early calving period compared to the late calving period (P 0.05). There was a significant interaction between calving period and PGF2α on age at first calving (P reproductive tract scoring for commercial production because of its association with calving day. As a prebreeding ovarian phenotype, antral follicle counts may hold additional applicability for organic beef producers looking to reduce the length of their calving season without increasing the total number of replacement heifers retained. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Progress in the molecular and genetic modification breeding of beef cattle in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Bin; Zhang, Li; Li, Guang-Peng

    2017-11-20

    The studies of beef cattle breeding in China have been greatly improved with the rapid development of the international beef cattle industrialization. The beef cattle breeding technologies have rapidly transformed from traditional breeding to molecular marker-assisted breeding, genomic selection and genetic modification breeding. Hundreds of candidate genes and molecular markers associated with growth, meat quality, reproduction performance and diseases resistance have been identified, and some of them have already been used in cattle breeding. Genes and molecular markers associated with growth and development are focused on the growth hormone, muscle regulatory factors, myostatin and insulin-like growth factors. Meat quality is mediated by fatty acid transport and deposition related signals, calpains and calpain system, muscle regulatory factors and muscle growth regulation pathways. Reproduction performance is regulated by GnRH-FSH-LH, growth differentiation factor 9, prolactin receptor and forkhead box protein O1. Disease resistance is modulated by the major histocompatibility complex gene family, toll-like receptors, mannose-binding lectin and interferon gene signals. In this review, we summarize the most recent progress in beef cattle breeding in marker-assisted selection, genome-wide selection and genetic modification breeding, aiming to provide a reference for further genetic breeding research of beef cattle in China.

  17. Effect of Novel Quick Freezing Techniques Combined with Different Thawing Processes on Beef Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seon-Mi; Han, Gui-Jung

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality of beef. Meat samples were frozen using natural convection freezing (NF), individual quick freezing (IQF), or cryogenic freezing (CF) techniques, followed by natural convection thawing (NCT) or running water thawing (RT). The meat was frozen until the core temperature reached -12℃ and then stored at -24℃, followed by thawing until the temperature reached 5℃. Quality parameters, such as the pH, water binding properties, CIE color, shear force, and microstructure of the beef were elucidated. Although the freezing and thawing combinations did not cause remarkable changes in the quality parameters, rapid freezing, in the order of CF, IQF, and NF, was found to minimize the quality deterioration. In the case of thawing methods, NCT was better than RT and the meat quality was influence on the thawing temperature rather than the thawing rate. Although the microstructure of the frozen beef exhibited an excessive loss of integrity after the freezing and thawing, it did not cause any remarkable change in the beef quality. Taken together, these results demonstrate that CF and NCT form the best combination for beef processing; however, IQF and NCT may have practical applications in the frozen food industry. PMID:26761674

  18. Review: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2018-04-02

    The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each 'cut×cooking method combination' from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.

  19. Concentrations in beef and lamb of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purchas, R W; Rutherfurd, S M; Pearce, P D; Vather, R; Wilkinson, B H P

    2004-03-01

    Levels of taurine, carnosine, coenzyme Q(10), and creatine were measured in beef liver and several muscles of beef and lamb and in cooked and uncooked meat. The amino acid taurine has numerous biological functions, the dipeptide carnosine is a buffer as well as an antioxidant, coenzyme Q(10) is also an antioxidant present within mitochondria, and creatine along with creatine phosphate is involved with energy metabolism in muscle. Large differences were shown for all compounds between beef cheek muscle (predominantly red fibres) and beef semitendinosus muscle (mainly white fibres), with cheek muscle containing 9.9 times as much taurine, and 3.2 times as much coenzyme Q(10), but only 65% as much creatine and 9% as much carnosine. Levels in lamb relative to beef semitendinosus muscles were higher for taurine but slightly lower for carnosine, coenzyme Q(10) and creatine. Values for all the compounds varied significantly between eight lamb muscles, possibly due in part to differences in the proportion of muscle fibre types. Slow cooking (90 min at 70 °C) of lamb longissimus and semimembranosus muscles led to significant reductions in the content of taurine, carnosine, and creatine (Plamb, but that these levels vary between muscles, between animals, and with cooking.

  20. Identification of offal adulteration in beef by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Hasan Murat; Sezer, Banu; Bilge, Gonca; Baytur, Süleyman Efe; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-01

    Minced meat is the major ingredient in sausages, beef burgers, and similar products; and thus it is the main product subjected to adulteration with meat offal. Determination of this kind of meat adulteration is crucial due to religious, economic and ethical concerns. The aim of the present study is to discriminate the beef meat and offal samples by using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). To this end, LIBS and multivariate data analysis were used to discriminate pure beef and offal samples qualitatively and to determine the offal mixture adulteration quantitatively. In this analysis, meat samples were frozen and LIBS analysis were performed. The results indicate that by using principal component analysis (PCA), discrimination of pure offal and offal mixture adulterated beef samples can be achieved successfully. Besides, adulteration ratio can be determined using partial least square analysis method (PLS) with 0.947 coefficient of determination (R 2 ) and 3.8% of limit of detection (LOD) values for offal mixture adulterated beef samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  2. Raman spectroscopic differentiation of beef and horse meat using a 671 nm microsystem diode laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Halah Al; Sowoidnich, Kay; Kronfeldt, Heinz-Detlef

    2013-11-01

    A non-invasive Raman spectroscopic approach for meat species identification and quality detection was successfully demonstrated for the two closely related species beef and horse. Fresh beef and horse muscles were cut and ice-stored at 5 °C, and time-dependent Raman measurements were performed daily up to 12 days postmortem. Applying a 671 nm microsystem diode laser and a laser power of 50 mW, spectra were recorded with integration times of 1-4 s. A pronounced offset of the Raman spectra was observed between horse and beef, with high fluorescence background for horse compared to beef for all days of storage. Principal components analysis was applied for data evaluation revealing a clear distinction between beef and horse meat which can be attributed to differences in the myoglobin content of both species. Furthermore, separations according to aging and spoilage for the two species could be identified simultaneously. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy might be an efficient test method for meat species identification in combination with spoilage detection.

  3. Including carbon emissions from deforestation in the carbon footprint of Brazilian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Christel; Persson, U Martin; Neovius, Kristian; Molander, Sverker; Clift, Roland

    2011-03-01

    Effects of land use changes are starting to be included in estimates of life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, so-called carbon footprints (CFs), from food production. Their omission can lead to serious underestimates, particularly for meat. Here we estimate emissions from the conversion of forest to pasture in the Legal Amazon Region (LAR) of Brazil and present a model to distribute the emissions from deforestation over products and time subsequent to the land use change. Expansion of cattle ranching for beef production is a major cause of deforestation in the LAR. The carbon footprint of beef produced on newly deforested land is estimated at more than 700 kg CO(2)-equivalents per kg carcass weight if direct land use emissions are annualized over 20 years. This is orders of magnitude larger than the figure for beef production on established pasture on non-deforested land. While Brazilian beef exports have originated mainly from areas outside the LAR, i.e. from regions not subject to recent deforestation, we argue that increased production for export has been the key driver of the pasture expansion and deforestation in the LAR during the past decade and this should be reflected in the carbon footprint attributed to beef exports. We conclude that carbon footprint standards must include the more extended effects of land use changes to avoid giving misleading information to policy makers, retailers, and consumers.

  4. A comparison of mutagen production in fried ground chicken and beef: effect of supplemental creatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knize, M G; Shen, N H; Felton, J S

    1988-11-01

    Ground chicken breast and ground beef with either endogenous or a 10-fold increase in the concentration of creatine were fried at 220 degrees C for 10 min per side. One patty (100 g) of chicken meat yielded 120,000 Salmonella (TA1538) revertants following metabolic activation. The pan residues had 39% of the total activity. Added creatine (10-fold the endogenous level) increased mutagen yields an average of 2-fold. Beef cooked under identical conditions yielded 150,000 revertants/100 g for the meat patties and pan residues combined. Added creatine to beef prior to cooking increased mutagen yields 3-fold. The mutagenic profiles following initial HPLC separation showed that chicken samples with endogenous or added creatine were remarkably similar. Chicken and beef HPLC mutagenicity profiles were also similar to each other, but not identical. This suggests that the general mutagen-forming reactions with the two different types of muscle are qualitatively similar with only minor quantitative differences. The pan residues from both meat types with and without added creatine showed some significant differences in the mutagen peak profile. This work suggests that the types of mutagens formed in chicken are similar to those formed in beef and that creatine appears to be involved in the formation of all the mutagenic compounds produced from fried muscle tissue.

  5. Determination of Optimum Condition of Leucine Content in Beef Protein Hydrolysate using Response Surface Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Roha Ab Mutalib; Zainal Samicho; Noriham Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimum condition of leucine content in beef hydrolysate. Beef hydrolysate was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using bromelain enzyme produced from pineapple peel. Parameter conditions such as concentration of bromelain, hydrolysis temperature and hydrolysis time were assessed to obtain the optimum leucine content of beef hydrolysate according to experimental design which was recommended by response surface methodology (RSM). Leucine content in beef hydrolysate was determined using AccQ. Tag amino acid analysis method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The condition of optimum leucine content was at bromelain concentration of 1.38 %, hydrolysis temperature of 42.5 degree Celcius and hydrolysis time of 31.59 hours with the predicted leucine content of 26.57 %. The optimum condition was verified with the leucine value obtained was 26.25 %. Since there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the predicted and verified leucine values, thus it indicates that the predicted optimum condition by RSM can be accepted to predict the optimum leucine content in beef hydrolysate. (author)

  6. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of comminution method and raw binder system in restructured beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, J A; Shand, P J

    1998-07-01

    The effect of particle size, method of particle size reduction (grinding, flaking, slicing) and alginate or Fibrimex(™) binding systems on processing properties of restructured beef were investigated. The size of semimembranosus muscles was reduced with a meat slicer, grinder or flaker (Comitrol) through machine openings that were 2, 4 and 8 mm in size. Bind of meat pieces in raw and cooked beef steakettes were measured. Sensory evaluation to determine the effect of method of size reduction on texture of beef steakettes was done only on steakettes manufactured with alginate. Beef steakettes manufactured with the alginate binding system had significantly (p meat for the manufacture of restructured beef steakettes resulted in a higher raw bind than did either grinding or flaking the meat. Significant (p meat was sliced than when it was ground or flaked. However, when Fibrimex was used, bind was stronger when sliced meat was used. The alginate system resulted in higher binds for cooked product when particle size was smaller but with the Fibrimex system bind was higher when particle sizes were larger. A consumer panel on alginate restructured steakettes showed no preference for the texture produced by the different methods of particle size reduction.

  8. Prevalence and Antibiotic Susceptibility of Campylobacter species Isolated From Chicken and Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dabiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: To study prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken and beef meat, and determine the drug susceptibility of strains, 450 samples in Tehran, Iran were investigated. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of entropathogenic Campylobacter strains ,especially C. jejuni isolated from raw chicken and beef meat in Tehran- Iran. Materials and Methods: Out of 250 chickens and 200 beef meats, 121(26.8 % contaminated cases with Campylobacter strains were isolated. Campylobacter was isolated from a significantly larger number of chickens (44% than beef meats (5.5 % (P < 0.05. Results: From all isolated Campylobacter organisms, 93 (76.8% species were identified as C. jejuni and 28 cases (23.1% as C. coli. Susceptibilities of 121 strains (93 C. jejuni and 28 C. coli were determined against 12 antimicrobial drugs using the disk agar diffusion method. Resistance to nalidixic acid (75% and ciprofloxacin (50% was an alarming finding, moreover, 32.6% of isolates was resistant to tetracycline, 10.8% to ampicillin, 29.3% to colisitin and 26.1% to amoxicillin. The highest sensitivity was seen to erythromycin (95 % and gentamicin (96%. Conclusions: These results showed that a high proportion of chicken and beef meat in Iran is contaminated with Campylobacter, particularly with Campylobacter jejuni. The high rate of contamination, especially chicken is a significant public health concern. Most of the isolates were resistant; therefore, human infection with Campylobacter spp. via consumption of these products is possible.

  9. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  10. 76 FR 30987 - Termination of Action and Further Monitoring in Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-27

    ... Connection With the EC-Beef Hormones Dispute AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... Hormones dispute. In January 2009, the Trade Representative announced a determination to modify the list of...) in the EC-Beef Hormones dispute. The MOU provides for the EU to make phased increases in market...

  11. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF AN AIR-TO-BEEF FOOD CHAIN MODEL FOR DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model for predicting concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in beef is developed and tested. The key premise of the model is that concentrations of these compounds in air are the source term, or starting point, for estimating beef concentrations. Vapor-phase concentrations t...

  13. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  14. Simulating Escherichia coli O157:H7 transmission to assess effectiveness of interventions in Dutch dairy-beef slaughterhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vosough Ahmadi, B.; Velthuis, A.G.J.; Hogeveen, H.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Beef contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) is an important food-safety issue. To investigate the effectiveness of interventions against VTEC in Dutch beef industrial slaughterhouses that slaughter 500 dairy cattle per day, a Monte Carlo simulation model was built. We examined seven

  15. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  16. Using alfalfa leaf meal as a supplement in late-gestation beef heifer and nursing beef calf diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, C M; Maddock, T D; DiCostanzo, A; Miller, L R; Hall, J M; Lamb, G C

    2010-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate using alfalfa leaf meal (ALM; 22% CP, DM basis) in beef cattle diets. In Exp. 1, a total of 24 late-gestation Angus heifers (initial BW 470 +/- 9 kg) were blocked by BW, calving date, and BCS to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. All heifers were offered a basal hay diet (7.4% CP and 67.6% NDF, DM basis). Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial consisting of CP supplied at 100 or 112.5% of the recommended daily intake using either soybean meal (SBM) or ALM as the supplemental protein source. Treatments were fed for an average of 100 d before calving. Total DMI was unaffected by supplemental protein source, although heifers consumed more (P Feeding 112.5% of recommended CP to heifers increased precalving rate of BW gain (P = 0.004) and DM digestibility (P = 0.003). Protein source did not affect DM digestibility (P = 0.17). Neither supplemental protein source nor protein amount affected changes in BCS or calving traits. In Exp. 2, replicates of treatments were conducted over 2 consecutive years at 2 locations in northern Minnesota to determine the effects of including ALM in creep-fed supplements on nursing calf performance, supplement BW gain efficiency (GF; BW gain over control/supplement intake), and cow performance. Treatments were control (no supplement), ALM supplement (58% ALM, as-fed basis), or a wheat middling- and soybean hull-based supplement (MIDD). Milk intake (estimated by the weigh-suckle-weigh technique) was similar among treatments. Creep-fed calves had greater (P creep feed DMI than those offered ALM (2.6 vs. 1.3 kg/d, respectively). A year x treatment interaction was noted for GF (P = 0.02). In yr 1, GF for calves offered ALM was greater (P = 0.006) than GF for calves offered MIDD, but in yr 2, there were no differences. Alfalfa leaf meal may substitute for SBM in beef heifer wintering diets and conventional creep feed ingredients. When included in creep feed diets

  17. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Sutanto, H.; Purwanti, Y.; Martanti; Agus, A.; Utomo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  18. Tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the tenderization effect of soy sauce on beef M. biceps femoris (BF). Five marinades were prepared with 4% (w/v) sodium chloride and 25% (w/v) soy sauce solutions (4% salt concentration) and mixed with the ratios of 100:0 (S0, pH 6.52), 75:25 (S25, 5.40) 50:50 (S50, 5.24), 25:75 (S75, 5.05), and 0:100 (S100, 4.85), respectively. The BF samples which were obtained from Hanwoo cows at 48 h postmortem (n=24) were marinated with five marinades for 72 h at 4°C (1:4 w/w), and the effects of soy sauce on tenderness were evaluated. Soy sauce marination resulted in a decrease in the pH value of the BF sample. However, there were no significant differences in the water holding capacity (Psauce may attribute various mechanisms such as increased collagen solubility or proteolysis which depend on soy sauce level in marinade. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Food panics in history: corned beef, typhoid and "risk society".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David F

    2007-07-01

    An outline of the "risk society" thesis of the German social theorist Ulrich Beck is given, and some points that he has taken from food safety examples are discussed. The potential for exploring the viability and utility of the thesis, via a comparative study of historical food safety episodes is illustrated through an account and discussion of the large corned beef-associated typhoid outbreak which occurred in 1964 in Aberdeen, Scotland. The outcome of the Aberdeen affair, in terms of public and political interest in food safety, and impact on the official food safety system, is compared with the outcome and impact of the series of food safety episodes of the 1980s and 1990s. The interactions between the latter episodes and the new food movement, the proactive responses of corporate interests, and the dramatic changes in the food safety regime represented by the formation of the Food Standards Agency in Britain, are contrasted with the relative lack of impact of the Aberdeen outbreak. Despite criticisms of Beck's thesis, this comparative study highlights, in particular, the value of his concept of "subpolitics", and his expectation that the transition to risk society will involve the emergence of new social institutions. Such insights may help orientate epidemiologists and community health specialists who are currently active in food safety and regulation.

  20. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.