WorldWideScience

Sample records for beef eating-quality guarantee

  1. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness....... The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed...

  2. Review: The variability of the eating quality of beef can be reduced by predicting consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2018-04-02

    The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each 'cut×cooking method combination' from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.

  3. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of beef: 1. A single composite score can predict beef quality grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2017-08-01

    tenderness is more important than flavour to the consumer when determining quality. The accuracy of the discriminant analysis to predict the consumer scored quality grades was similar across all consumer groups, 68%, and similar to previously reported values. These results demonstrate that this technique, as used in the MSA system, could be used to predict consumer assessment of beef eating quality and therefore to underpin a commercial eating quality guarantee for all European consumers.

  4. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The variation in the eating quality of beef from different sexes and breed classes cannot be completely explained by carcass measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Hocquette, J-F; Pethick, D W; Farmer, L J; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Polkinghorne, R J; Gardner, G E

    2016-06-01

    Delivering beef of consistent quality to the consumer is vital for consumer satisfaction and will help to ensure demand and therefore profitability within the beef industry. In Australia, this is being tackled with Meat Standards Australia (MSA), which uses carcass traits and processing factors to deliver an individual eating quality guarantee to the consumer for 135 different 'cut by cooking methods' from each carcass. The carcass traits used in the MSA model, such as ossification score, carcass weight and marbling explain the majority of the differences between breeds and sexes. Therefore, it was expected that the model would predict with eating quality of bulls and dairy breeds with good accuracy. In total, 8128 muscle samples from 482 carcasses from France, Poland, Ireland and Northern Ireland were MSA graded at slaughter then evaluated for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking by untrained consumers, according to MSA protocols. The scores were weighted (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3) and combined to form a global eating quality (meat quality (MQ4)) score. The carcasses were grouped into one of the three breed categories: beef breeds, dairy breeds and crosses. The difference between the actual and the MSA-predicted MQ4 scores were analysed using a linear mixed effects model including fixed effects for carcass hang method, cook type, muscle type, sex, country, breed category and postmortem ageing period, and random terms for animal identification, consumer country and kill group. Bulls had lower MQ4 scores than steers and females and were predicted less accurately by the MSA model. Beef breeds had lower eating quality scores than dairy breeds and crosses for five out of the 16 muscles tested. Beef breeds were also over predicted in comparison with the cross and dairy breeds for six out of the 16 muscles tested. Therefore, even after accounting for differences in carcass traits, bulls still differ in eating quality when compared with females and steers

  6. Effect of grazing and dietary protein on eating quality of Podolian beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Caroprese, M; Napolitano, F; Santillo, A; Braghieri, A

    2011-11-01

    Twenty-four young Podolian bulls were used to evaluate the effect of rearing system (extensive vs. intensive) in relation to postmortem aging (11 and 18 d) on the eating quality of the meat, with the diet of outdoor animals adjusted to the protein content of the indoor system (15% CP) or to the minimum protein content required for satisfactory growth (12% CP). At 415 ± 9.35 (SE) d of age, with a mean BW of 337.5 ± 16.51 (SE) kg, animals were allotted to 3 groups for the finishing period (172 d): 1) indoor group receiving a diet at 15% CP; 2) grazing animals receiving a diet at 15% CP of DM; and 3) grazing animals receiving a diet at 12% CP of DM. Longissimus dorsi lumborum muscle sampled from the right half and divided longitudinally into 2 sections was aged in vacuum packaging at 4°C until 11 and 18 d postmortem, respectively. Rearing system did not affect (P > 0.05) color, Warner-Bratzler shear force, texture profile, water-holding capacity, and most of the sensory attributes of the beef steaks. However, sensory tenderness was less in the meat from outdoor animals receiving a diet with 15% CP than in meat from outdoor animals receiving a diet with 12% CP or from the indoor group (P < 0.05). Meat aged 18 d showed decreased Warner-Bratzler shear force (P < 0.001), hardness (P < 0.001), cohesiveness (P < 0.05), springiness (P < 0.05), gumminess (P < 0.01), chewiness (P < 0.01), and thawing loss (P < 0.01) compared with meat aged for 11 d. Prolonging the aging time up to 18 d significantly increased b* (yellowness; P < 0.05), cooking losses (P < 0.001), and the intensity of all the texture sensory attributes, namely, juiciness and fatness (P < 0.05), chewiness, tenderness, and flavor (P < 0.01). Significant correlations were found between instrumental and sensory variables (range of r = -0.55 to -0.85, P < 0.05 to 0.001). Overall, in the present study, the rearing system did not markedly affect meat sensory and physical properties. Thus, we conclude that an

  7. Untrained consumer assessment of the eating quality of European beef: 2. Demographic factors have only minor effects on consumer scores and willingness to pay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Gardner, G E; Pethick, D W; Allen, P; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F

    2017-08-01

    The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer's perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were

  8. Do extended transport times and rest periods impact on eating quality of beef carcasses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, Rod; Philpott, Judy; Thompson, J M

    2018-02-24

    The experiment tested the effect of four extended transport treatments on sensory and objective meat quality in beef. A total of 343 steers (88 steers from each of three properties and 79 from a fourth property) were allocated to four treatments including a 12 hour transport time (T12), 24 hour transport time (T24), 24 h as 12 hour transport time, a 12 hour rest, with a further 12 hour transport (T12 ~ T12), 36 hour transport treatment (T36). Within property departure times of treatments were staggered to arrive at the abattoir together. There were no significant transport effects (P > .05) on live animal, carcass traits, consumer sensory scores, and objective meat quality of the longissimus lumborum. There was large between property variation in the proportions of carcasses excluded from grading on the basis of low ribfat, high ultimate pH and dark meat color scores. Variation in these traits was not associated with transport treatments and was likely related to variation in on-farm factors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effects of dried cassava pulp as a main source of energy in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Yimmongkol

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding dried cassava pulp (DCP as a main source of energy at a higher level in concentrate on growth performance, carcass composition, economic return and some beef eating qualities of feedlot cattle. Fifteen Brahman-native crossbred young bulls at an average age of 2 years and initial weight of 277±10.36 kg were randomly allocated to 3 groups in a completely randomized trial. The animals received either control concentrate(CTRL, concentrate in which cassava meal was replaced by DCP at 50 (DCP50 or 100% (DCP100 by weight. Experimental diets were fed to the animals ad libitum and supplemented with 3 kg of para grass (Brachiaria mutica. The feeding period was 150 days. The results indicated that feedlot cattle on CTRL showed the best feedlot performance and carcass quality as compared to the other groups. However, the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05. The DCP50 had highereconomic return compared to the CTRL and DCP100, while DCP100 can be potentially incorporated into the ration when the cassava price is too high to be used. Carcass composition (slaughtering weight, carcass weight, carcass percentage, lean weight and lean percentage of the experimental feedlot cattle were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100, respectively. Some beef eating qualities (shear force, tenderness, juiciness, meat flavor and overall satisfaction were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the cattle fed with CTRL, DCP50 and DCP100 total, respectively.

  10. Eating quality of "Vitela Tradicional do Montado"-PGI veal and Mertolenga-PDO veal and beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Ana C G; Gomes, Eduardo; Barreto, António S; Silva, Marina F; Fontes, Magda A; Bessa, Rui J B; Lemos, José P C

    2013-05-01

    Physicochemical and sensory characteristics were measured in veal and beef from the Portuguese Mertolenga breed having 3 quality labels as follows: Mertolenga-PDO beef and veal which apply to purebred animals and "Vitela Tradicional do Montado"-PGI veal which applies to crossbred animals. Measurements were made in longissimus lumborum muscle aged for 6days. The temperature 3h post-mortem (T3), cooking losses and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) reflected carcass weight (CW) differences between groups. The pigment content was influenced by age, with beef having higher values than veal. WBSF correlated negatively with intramuscular fat in Mertolenga-PDO beef, but not on veal. WBSF correlated positively with cooking losses and negatively with myofibrillar fragmentation index, tenderness, juiciness and overall acceptability. Cooking losses and juiciness were the main contributors for the tenderness differences. Vitela Tradicional do Montado-PGI and Mertolenga-PDO veal had lighter colour and were considered tender. The three meat types were well discriminated based on pHu, a* and C* parameters by canonical discriminant analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of physico-chemical traits related to eating quality of young dairy bull beef at different ageing times using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nian, Yingqun; Zhao, Ming; O'Donnell, Colm P; Downey, Gerard; Kerry, Joseph P; Allen, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics were investigated for the prediction of eating quality related physico-chemical traits of Holstein-Friesian bull beef. Raman spectra were collected on the 3rd, 7th and 14th days post-mortem. A frequency range of 1300-2800cm -1 was used for partial least squares (PLS) modelling. PLS regression (PLSR) models for the prediction of WBSF and cook loss achieved an R 2 CV of 0.75 with RMSECV of 6.82 N and an R 2 CV of 0.77 with RMSECV of 0.97%w/w respectively. For the prediction of intramuscular fat, moisture and crude protein content, R 2 CV values were 0.85, 0.91 and 0.70 with RMSECV of 0.52%w/w, 0.39%w/w and 0.38%w/w respectively. An R 2 CV of 0.79 was achieved for the prediction of both total collagen and hydroxyproline content, while for collagen solubility the R 2 CV was 0.88. All samples (100%) from 15- and 19-month old bulls were correctly classified using PLS discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), while 86.7% of samples from different muscles (longissimus thoracis, semitendinosus and gluteus medius) were correctly classified. In general, PLSR models using Raman spectra on the 3rd day post-mortem had better prediction performance than those on the 7th and 14th days. Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics have potential to assess several beef physical and chemical quality traits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of ageing under tropical conditions on the eating qualities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef is a major source of animal protein in Ghana but most of it comes from old and poorly conditioned animals, which produce tough meat with poor eating qualities. The eating quality of tough beef can, however, be improved by methods of tenderizing such as ageing, electrical stimulation and application of enzymes.

  13. Assessment of meat quality properties and development of a palatability prediction model for Korean Hanwoo steer beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S H; Kim, J; Park, B Y; Seong, P N; Kang, G H; Kim, J H; Jung, S G; Im, S K; Kim, D H

    2010-09-01

    Effects of the Korean carcass-grading system on carcass traits and meat quality parameters for the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles were investigated for Hanwoo steer beef. High quality grade beef cuts had significantly higher intramuscular fat content than those of low quality grade beef cuts. To establish a guaranteed system of eating quality for Hanwoo steer beef, a palatability prediction model was developed. The model development approach used canonical discriminant analysis and multivariate regression to assess effects of muscle type, cooking method, and aging treatment on Hanwoo beef quality grade. The palatability prediction model can provide Korean consumers with detailed information about expected eating quality for an individual cut, as well as provide critical information to the industry for maintaining high-quality beef production. The model is a significant advance in grading compared with the traditional carcass grading system, which applies a single quality grade to an entire carcass.

  14. Effect of breed and feeding strategy on the eating quality of Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya, most of the livestock are reared on grass using extensive pastoral systems. Nevertheless, intensive feed-lot systems to finish beef cattle have become popular among local producers. The two systems are likely to have a different impact on the eating quality of beef, because quality is determined by the combined ...

  15. Assuring eating quality of meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalen, G A

    1996-01-01

    The way of assuring quality has changed over the years, from inspection of end product to quality management systems and on-line process control. The latter concepts have had a great impact in many industries during the last decades. But the concept of Total Quality is continuos improvement so it is time to take advantage of the next generation of quality assurance tools: Quality by Design. This is the most powerful instrument in quality assurance today. Quality by design has been used with outstanding results in many industries as the automobile and the electronics industry. Maybe the meat industry will be the next? To succeed, the "eating quality attributes" that are most important to the customer must be brought into focus. The challenge to the meat research scientist is to design products and processes that take care of customer needs despite variation in the raw material and the consumer's rough handling. The Quality Management Standards are helpful in conducting the design and production process, but to focus on the right aspects, there also are need for suitable methods as Quality Function Deployment. Customer needs change and new research changes old 'truths'. This require an organisation, a quality system and a culture which can handle rapid changes and a diversity of customer needs.

  16. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relat...

  17. Consumer perception of the quality of beef resulting from various fattening regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2005-01-01

    with beef will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced at home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers...

  18. Consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in the consumers' quality perception of national branded, national store branded, and imported store branded beef. Partial Least Squares analysis is used for modelling the quality perception process. Results show that consumers perceived national branded...... Carnalentejana beef, as better on all quality cues and quality aspects than the other two store branded beefs. Preference for Carnalentejana beef stayed highly consistent even after the blind test, where consumers differentiated this beef from the other two beef brands on all sensory dimensions: taste......, tenderness, and juiciness, and chose it as the preferred one. Consumers utilized more perceived intrinsic cues to infer expected eating quality of store branded beefs....

  19. European consumers' acceptance and rejection of novel beef technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    As part of ProSafeBeef, an integrated research project funded by the European Commission, the present qualitative study was carried out with European consumers to obtain insights into their acceptance or rejection of eight selected novel beef production and processing technologies, identified here...... as concepts: 1) marinating by injection for increased healthiness; 2) marinating by injection for increased safety; 3) marinating by injection for increased eating quality; 4) marinating by submerging for increased eating quality; 5) nutritional enhancement; 6) shock wave treatment; 7) muscle profiling and 8...... are less demanding in terms of beef quality and have less culinary skills. However, consumers support the development of technologies that can provide more healthiness and better eating quality, and if such technologies are 'not invasive', the chances to be accepted increase. Current trends and development...

  20. European citizen and consumer attitudes and preferences regarding beef and pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Pérez-Cueto, Federico J A; Barcellos, Marcia D de; Krystallis, Athanasios; Grunert, Klaus G

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents the combined mid-term findings of the consumer research components of two EU Sixth Framework Programme integrated projects concerning meat, ProSafeBeef and Q-PorkChains. The consumer pillar of ProSafeBeef carried out eight focus group discussions in May 2008, in France, Germany, Spain and the UK. Q-PorkChains conducted a large-scale, web-based, consumer survey in January 2008 in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece and Poland. The first project provides a set of qualitative data from a small cohort of focus groups and the second a set of quantitative data from a larger consumer sample. This paper draws together the main findings of both projects and provides a comprehensive overview of European citizens' and consumers' attitudes towards and preferences regarding beef and pork. In general, consumers consider meat to be a healthy and important component of the diet. Consumers support the development of technologies that can improve the health attributes of meat products and guarantee eating quality, but they have a negative view of what they see to be excessive manipulation and lack of naturalness in the production and processing of beef products. In the Q-PorkChains study consumer and citizen segments are identified and profiled. Consumer segments were built upon the frequency and variety of pork consumption. The citizen segments were built upon their attitudes towards pig production systems. Overall, the relationship between individuals' views as citizens and their behaviour as consumers was found to be quite weak and did not appear to greatly or systematically influence meat-buying habits. Future studies in both projects will concentrate on consumers' acceptance of innovative meat product concepts and products, with the aim of boosting consumer trust and invigorating the European beef and pork industries.

  1. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  2. BANK GUARANTEES

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile NEME

    2012-01-01

    The present study propose the analyse of the irrevocable commitment of a bank entity towards a determined person, through which guarantees a certain legal conduct of its client, and, in case of breach, assumes the payment obligation of a determined amount of money. This kind of legal technique it is called bank guarantee and in the usual business language it is called “Letter of Bank Guarantee”. The determined reason to choose this scientific initiative it is the frequency of this kind of fin...

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashmaa Dashdorj

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow, eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness, microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %, trims loss (3 to 24 %, risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as “dry-aged beef”. But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the cooking and eating quality of mutant lines obtained from irradiating a local cultivar, Supa. Five early maturing mutant lines plus two controls, IR! 53234-27-1 and Supa were evaluated for their physical grain characteristics including length and shape of grain kernel, translucence and ...

  5. Sources of variation in quality of South African beef: Case studies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African classification system describes beef carcasses in regard to visual fat cover, conformation and age by dentition. Animal age provides a fairly accurate description of expected eating quality in regard to tenderness in an industry where other sources of variation in tenderness are limited. Since deregulation in ...

  6. Quality guaranteed theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ui Cheol

    1988-08-01

    This book tells of introduction of quality guaranteed theory like definition of quality and quality management, quality guaranteed, requirement of quality guaranteed, contrast of QA and QC, quality of guaranteed object, activity of quality guaranteed, set-up of quality that is naturally supposed such as quality guaranteed in plan and design, check of quality guaranteed, order of claim processing and cases of claim management.

  7. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  8. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  9. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study are to understand how Portuguese consumers perceive beef quality in a real-life purchase environment, which intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues consumers use when evaluating and forming beef quality expectations, and how extrinsic quality cues influence t...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality.......The main objectives of the present study are to understand how Portuguese consumers perceive beef quality in a real-life purchase environment, which intrinsic and extrinsic quality cues consumers use when evaluating and forming beef quality expectations, and how extrinsic quality cues influence...... the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...

  10. The effects of age on muscle texture and eating qualities of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of age on the eating qualities of broiler chickens slaughtered at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 weeks of age for the Nigerian consumers. The birds that provided the meat for the experiment were raised conventionally. Thigh and drumstick meat of the ovenroasted chickens were ...

  11. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  12. SEAFOODplus - how to provide health promoting, safe seafood of high eating quality to consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Torger

    2008-01-01

    The strategic objective of the SEAFOOD plus Integrated Project is to reduce health problems and to increase well-being among European consumers by applying the benefits obtained through consumption of health promoting and safe seafood products of high eating quality. The relevance of seafood in t...

  13. Consumer thresholds for establishing the value of beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M F; Carr, M A; Ramsey, C B; Crockett, K L; Hoover, L C

    2001-12-01

    In the present study, a national consumer evaluation was conducted for beef tenderness on USDA Select strip loin steaks of known Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values, ranging from tough (> 5.7 kg) to tender (market price if guaranteed tender, and to estimate the number of meals in a 2-wk period that included beef. The consumers were 52% light beef users, consuming 0 to 8 meals containing beef in 2 wk, 41% heavy beef users (greater than 12 meals/2 wk), and 6% moderate beef users (9 to 12 meals/2 wk). Consumer tenderness acceptability increased as WBS values decreased (P or = 86% consumer acceptability. Consumer acceptability for tenderness decreased from 86% at 4.3 kg for a "slightly tender" rating to 59% at 4.9 kg for a "slightly tough" rating. Data from the present study suggested that consumer WBS tenderness values of 4.9 kg would result in 100, 99, 94, 86, and 25% customer satisfaction for beef tenderness, respectively. Seventy-eight percent of the consumers would purchase steaks if the retailer guaranteed them to be tender. The retail steak value differences found in this study would result in the opportunity for a premium to be paid for a guaranteed tender ( 5.7 kg) classification. A premium of $66.96 could be paid to the tender classification carcasses vs the tough (> 4.9 kg) classification carcasses, and a premium of $36.58 could be paid for the tender classification carcasses vs the intermediate (> 3.0 to < 4.6 kg) classification carcasses. Results from the present study show that consumers can segregate differences in beef tenderness and that consumers are willing to pay more for more-tender beef.

  14. NCA & Credit Guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stooppn

    Credit Act? 2.1 What is a credit guarantee? The National Credit Act provides, subject to certain exemptions, that the Act generally applies to every credit agreement (eg, money-lending transactions irrespective of .... Lubbe 1984 THRHR 383; De Wet and Van Wyk Kontraktereg 391; Pretorius 2001 SA Merc LJ. 95; Sonnekus ...

  15. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  16. Genotypes analysis of ten genes related to eating quality of 22 Shanghai important rice varieties by molecular marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Mixue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of rice eating quality is a very important direction of rice breeding.Clearing the different genotype of rice eating quality provides the basis for the parent selection on breeding good eating quality rice.Using molecular marker detection technology,genotypes of ten genes related to eating quality of 22 Shanghai important rice varieties,including conventional rice and hybrid parents were detected.The results showed that "Zixiangnuo 861" rice contained many poor genotypes which might affect rice eating quality.The genotypes of 3 male parents,"Xiangqin","R44" and "Fan14" for three kinds of hybrid rice,"Hannyouxiangqing","Qiuyoujinfeng" and "Huayou14",respectively,were not as good as their corresponding female parents,"HanfengA","JinfengA" and "Shen9A" and another conventional rice varieties.Wx polymorphism analysis showed that there were two glutinous rice,four soft rice japonica and 16 non-soft rice japonica."Baonong34","Jinfeng" and "Yinxiang18" had relatively better genotypes of the genes controlling eating quality among the 16 non-soft rice japonica.

  17. Modelling of beef sensory quality for a better prediction of palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Van Wezemael, Lynn; Chriki, Sghaier; Legrand, Isabelle; Verbeke, Wim; Farmer, Linda; Scollan, Nigel D; Polkinghorne, Rod; Rødbotten, Rune; Allen, Paul; Pethick, David W

    2014-07-01

    Despite efforts by the industry to control the eating quality of beef, there remains a high level of variability in palatability, which is one reason for consumer dissatisfaction. In Europe, there is still no reliable on-line tool to predict beef quality and deliver consistent quality beef to consumers. Beef quality traits depend in part on the physical and chemical properties of the muscles. The determination of these properties (known as muscle profiling) will allow for more informed decisions to be made in the selection of individual muscles for the production of value-added products. Therefore, scientists and professional partners of the ProSafeBeef project have brought together all the data they have accumulated over 20 years. The resulting BIF-Beef (Integrated and Functional Biology of Beef) data warehouse contains available data of animal growth, carcass composition, muscle tissue characteristics and beef quality traits. This database is useful to determine the most important muscle characteristics associated with a high tenderness, a high flavour or generally a high quality. Another more consumer driven modelling tool was developed in Australia: the Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme that predicts beef quality for each individual muscle×specific cooking method combination using various information on the corresponding animals and post-slaughter processing factors. This system has also the potential to detect variability in quality within muscles. The MSA system proved to be effective in predicting beef palatability not only in Australia but also in many other countries. The results of the work conducted in Europe within the ProSafeBeef project indicate that it would be possible to manage a grading system in Europe similar to the MSA system. The combination of the different modelling approaches (namely muscle biochemistry and a MSA-like meat grading system adapted to the European market) is a promising area of research to improve the prediction

  18. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  19. Do Job Security Guarantees Work?

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Lorenzo Cappellari; Claudio Lucifora

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the effect of employer job security guarantees on employee perceptions of job security. Using linked employer-employee data from the 1998 British Workplace Employee Relations Survey, we find job security guarantees reduce employee perceptions of job insecurity. This finding is robust to endogenous selection of job security guarantees by employers engaging in organisational change and workforce reductions. Furthermore, there is no evidence that increased job security through job...

  20. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....

  1. LiGAPS-Beef 2018

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  2. LiGAPS-Beef 2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    LiGAPS-Beef is a mechanistic model to assess potential and feed-limited beef production in different beef production systems across the world. The model is one of the first using concepts of production ecology to simulate livestock production. LiGAPS-Beef consists of a thermoregulation sub-model, a

  3. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. CONCLUSIONS: The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct......BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  4. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  5. Beef consumer segment profiles based on information source usage in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żakowska-Biemans, Sylwia; Pieniak, Zuzanna; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicki, Jerzy; Cieszyńska, Katarzyna; Sajdakowska, Marta; Kosicka-Gębska, Małgorzata

    2017-02-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify market segments based on consumers' usage of information sources about beef and to investigate whether the use of information sources was associated with the type of information consumers were searching for, factors guiding their decision processes to buy beef and motives related to beef consumption. Data were collected in 2014 through a self-administered survey of 501 regular beef consumers. Three distinct clusters were identified: Enthusiast (38.5%), Conservative (43.1%) and Ultra Conservative (18.4%). This study revealed that culinary and personal sources of information on beef were the most frequently used. Taste, perceived healthiness and suitability to prepare many dishes were reported as primary motives to eat beef. These results show that communication channels such as culinary programs and opportunities provided by the development of labelling systems to guarantee beef quality should be considered when developing policies and strategies to increase beef consumption in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beef Production & Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, Jennifer; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  7. Foxtail millet: nutritional and eating quality, and prospects for genetic improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu HE,Bin ZHANG,Xingchun WANG,Hongying LI,Yuanhuai HAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet is a minor yet important crop in some areas of the world, particularly northern China. It has strong adaptability to abiotic stresses, especially drought, and poor soil. It also has high nutritional value. Foxtail millet is rich in essential amino acids, fatty acids and minerals, and is considered to be one of the most digestible and non-allergenic grains available and has significant importance for human health. Given foxtail milletrsquo;s ability to adapt to abiotic stresses associated with climate change, it is more important than ever to develop breeding strategies that facilitate the increasing demand for high quality grain that better satisfies consumers. Here we review research on foxtail millet quality evaluation, appearance, cooking and eating quality at the phenotypic level. We review analysis of the main nutrients in foxtail millet, their relationships and the biochemical and genetic factors affecting their accumulation. In addition, we review past progress in breeding this regionally important crop, outline current status of breeding of foxtail millet, and make suggestions to improve grain quality.

  8. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  9. Eating Quality of Carrots (Daucus carota L.) Grown in One Conventional and Three Organic Cropping Systems over Three Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Vibe; Kidmose, Ulla; Kristensen, Hanne L; Edelenbos, Merete

    2015-11-11

    The eating quality of carrots (Daucus carota L.) was investigated to evaluate the impact of cropping systems (one conventional and three organic systems) and growing years (2007, 2008, and 2009) on root size, chemical composition, and sensory quality. The content of dry matter, sugars, polyacetylenes, and terpenes as well as the sensory quality and root size were related to the climate during the three growing years. A higher global radiation and a higher temperature sum in 2009 as compared to 2007 and 2008 resulted in larger roots, higher contents of dry matter, sucrose, total sugars, and total polyacetylenes, and lower contents of terpenes, fructose, and glucose. No differences were found between conventional and organic carrots with regard to the investigated parameters. This result shows that organically grown carrots have the same eating quality as conventionally grown carrots, while being produced in a more sustainable way.

  10. 7 CFR 1720.9 - Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to absorb losses relative to risk in the guaranteed lender's portfolio and requirements on the guaranteed lender to hold additional capital against the risk of default; (16) Payment by RUS; (17) RUS... Agreement. (a) The guaranteed lender will be required to sign a guarantee agreement with the Secretary...

  11. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly,...

  12. Financial Crises and Deposit Guarantee

    OpenAIRE

    Catalin Dan; Vasile Bleotu; Nicoleta Moise

    2011-01-01

    Bankruptcies of major credit institutions in the UK and the U.S., since late 2007, have generated a large-scale financial crisis that affected most countries of the world economy significantly. To limit the effects of the crisis and restore confidence in the banking system, states have taken various measures, including providing substantial loans to banks in liquidity crisis, nationalization, as well as measures to increase the effectiveness of deposit guarantee schemes in the banking system....

  13. 7 CFR 1720.14 - Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. 1720.14 Section 1720.14 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... TELEPHONE PURPOSES § 1720.14 Nature of guarantee; acceleration of guaranteed bonds. (a) Any guarantee...

  14. 42 CFR 422.390 - Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statements must include the guarantor's balance sheets, profit and loss statements, and cash flow statements... including other guarantees, intangibles and restricted reserves) equal to three times the amount of the PSO... guarantees and all investments in and loans to organizations covered by guarantees excluded from its assets...

  15. Eating quality of UK-style sausages varying in price, meat content, fat level and salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, P R; Hope, E; Hughes, S I; Baker, A; Nute, G R

    2010-05-01

    Thirty-six brands of pork sausage were purchased from a total of 10 retailers over a 4 months period and assessed for eating quality. The brands included 5 of the 10 most popular sausages in the UK, 4 basic, 14 standard, 10 premium and 8 healthy eating brands. The average price, meat content, fat content and salt content was 3.31 pounds/kg, 62%, 17% and 1.6%, respectively, but there were wide differences in price (1.08 pound/kg-5.23 pounds/kg), meat content (32-97%), fat content (2.1-29.1%) and salt content (0.5-2.5%). Sausages were assessed by a trained sensory panel using 100mm unstructured line scales and 14 descriptors (skin toughness, firmness, juiciness, pork flavour, fattiness, meatiness, particle size, cohesiveness, saltiness, sweet, acidic, bitter and metallic) including overall liking. The declared meat content was positively correlated with price, skin toughness, firmness, pork flavour, meatiness, particle size and perceived saltiness (r=0.5 or better). The declared fat content was positively correlated with fattiness and sweetness (r=0.42 or better) but not juiciness. There was no significant correlation between declared salt content and perceived saltiness. A principal component analysis showed that the first two principal components accounted for 51% of the variability in the data. Products could be separated into four quadrants according to their price, meat content, fat content and their associated eating quality attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How do US and Canadian consumers value credence attributes associated with beef labels after the North American BSE crisis of 2003?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo; Yang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    place a significant valuation on beef tested for BSE, which is striking because Canada's current legal environment does not permit testing and labelling of such beef by private industry participants. Montana consumers' valuation was found highest for a guarantee that the steaks were produced without GMO....... Effective supply-chain responses to consumers' valuation of credence attributes, for example, in the form of labelling, should therefore take consumers' heterogeneity into account....

  17. Government guarantees and public debt in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Bajo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Government fi nancial and performance guarantees have been issued in Croatia since 1996, to support funding and ensure favourable borrowing conditions in the fi nancial market for companies in majority state ownership. However, government guarantees have rarely been part of defi ned strategies and goals of public debt and risk management. Despite their steady growth, the structure of active guarantees and their infl uence on Croatian public debt are still unknown. This paper analyses the amount and structure of state guarantees, their maturities and the authority and accountability for their management, and it compares the structure of guarantees in terms of economic sectors. The main objective of the paper is to determine the infl uence of government guarantees on the public debt growth.

  18. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....315 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF... Association Louisiana Beef Industry Council Maryland Beef Council Michigan Beef Industry Commission Minnesota...

  19. 78 FR 691 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2013; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed...; Annual Renewal Fee for Fiscal Year 2013 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... persistently poor, are experiencing trauma as a result of natural disaster, or are experiencing fundamental...

  20. 77 FR 5759 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2012; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Business-Cooperative Service Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed...; Annual Renewal Fee for Fiscal Year 2012 AGENCY: Rural Business-Cooperative Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice... remain persistently poor, that experience long-term population decline and job deterioration, that are...

  1. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    OpenAIRE

    G. HOLLÓ; A. KOVÁCS; G. ZSARNÓCZAY; J. SEREGI; I. HOLLÓ

    2008-01-01

    In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids) and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian) was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the ...

  2. The pricing of bank debt guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the optimal pricing of government-sponsored bank debt guarantees within the context of an asset substitution framework. We show that the desirability of fair pricing of guarantees depends on the degree of transparency of the banking sector: in relatively opaque banking systems, fair

  3. 22 CFR 231.03 - The Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Guarantee. 231.03 Section 231.03 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND CONDITIONS...

  4. 22 CFR 231.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 231.04 Section 231.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD TERMS AND...

  5. What Guarantees Should Society Offer Its Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Criticising the concept of a "youth guarantee" as it was understood by the OECD in the 1990s and recently again by the European Community, the author argues that just more schooling and training will not help, let alone guarantee a future for disadvantaged, unemployed young people. Rather any policy that wants to help youth to become…

  6. 22 CFR 230.04 - Guarantee eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Financial Officer, Assistant Administrator and Deputy, Bureau for Economic Growth, Agriculture and Trade... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guarantee eligibility. 230.04 Section 230.04 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ISRAEL LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY...

  7. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    ' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  8. 78 FR 76593 - Guarantee Fee Rates for Guaranteed Loans for Fiscal Year 2014; Maximum Portion of Guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... agriculture and result in farmers benefiting financially or must be a high impact business investment as... disaster, or are experiencing fundamental structural changes in its economic base. For guaranteed loans...

  9. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intramuscular color stability variations in beef semimembranosus have been reported previously. Mitochondria remain biochemically active in postmortem muscle and can influence fresh beef color stability. However, the role of mitochondrial functionality in intramuscular color variations in beef semimembranosus is yet to be ...

  10. Beef Production and Consumption: Sustainable Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    MacAdam, J.; Brain, Roslynn

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable living involves choosing a lifestyle with minimal environmental impacts. The ultimate goal is to leave future generations with a healthier environment than the one we were born into. How can we do that with beef consumption? Beef is part of American culture, so is there a way to make wiser choices when it comes to purchasing beef ? The short answer is, yes!

  11. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-10-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy.

  12. Understanding consumer response to service guarantees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, E.L.; Cole, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Whether the goal is customer loyalty to a competitive energy service provider or customer satisfaction with monopoly distribution services, service guarantees must be seen as one way a company can communicate with its customers about the relationship it has (or wants) with them. In short, service guarantees must be evaluated as part of a company's overall brand management strategy. To do this, a conceptual framework within which to develop and link models of service delivery and brand management is needed. This means seeing both as examples of inference management. In this article the authors first interpret findings from their research on utility service guarantees in light of the model of service delivery proposed by Smith, Bolton, and Wagner. The authors then situate this model within their own model of utility brand management. The resulting approach can be used by a utility to evaluate whether and how to adopt service guarantees as part of its overall branding strategy

  13. Security Guarantees and Nuclear Non-Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno Tertrais

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the value of 'security guarantees', that is, positive security assurances that include a formal or informal defense commitment, in preventing nuclear proliferation. It demonstrates that such guarantees have proven to be a very effective instrument in preventing States from going nuclear. It would thus seem logical to reinforce or extend them. However, this path is fraught with obstacles and dilemmas

  14. CREDIT SYSTEM AND CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Turgay GECER

    2012-01-01

    Credit system is an integrated architecture consisted of financial information, credit rating, credit risk management, receivables and credit insurance systems, credit derivative markets and credit guarantee programs. The main purpose of the credit system is to provide the functioning of all credit channels and to make it easy to access of credit sources demanded by all of real and legal persons in any economic system. Credit guarantee program, the one of prominent elements of the credit syst...

  15. Eating quality and health-promoting properties of two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars stored in passive modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Isabel; Camats, Josep A; Comabella, Eva; Ortiz, Abel

    2015-03-01

    Two sweet cherry cultivars ('New Star' and 'Sweet Heart') were chosen to explore the impact of passive modified atmosphere packaging on the eating quality and health-promoting properties of fruit. Packaged and unpackaged fruits were stored at 0 ℃ for 15 or 30 days, followed by zero or three days at 20 ℃, after which the analyses were undertaken. In most cases, modified atmosphere packaging helped preserving higher firmness values and reducing the incidence of alterations and decay in both cultivars, but the effects on other physicochemical attributes were different for each cultivar. Partial least squares regression procedures were used to reveal relationships among the different variables assessed. Generally, fruits displaying higher antioxidant capacity were also characterised by higher values for firmness and titratable acidity, in turn related to better acceptability scores in both cultivars. However, the attributes contributing most to acceptability were different in each case. In 'New Star' fruit, acceptability was closely related to the perception of cherry flavour. In this cultivar, acetaldehyde content was related to the perception of off-flavours, while ethanol content was found to associate to soluble solids and to the perception of sweetness. In contrast, acceptability of 'Sweet Heart' fruit was related mainly to the perception of firmness and, to a lower extent, of sweetness. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  16. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  17. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wanjie; Cao, Jing; Fan, Yan; Zhu, Kefeng; Dai, Qiwei

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS) framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC) were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain. PMID:26431340

  18. Modeling and Implementation of Cattle/Beef Supply Chain Traceability Using a Distributed RFID-Based Framework in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjie Liang

    Full Text Available In recent years, traceability systems have been developed as effective tools for improving the transparency of supply chains, thereby guaranteeing the quality and safety of food products. In this study, we proposed a cattle/beef supply chain traceability model and a traceability system based on radio frequency identification (RFID technology and the EPCglobal network. First of all, the transformations of traceability units were defined and analyzed throughout the cattle/beef chain. Secondly, we described the internal and external traceability information acquisition, transformation, and transmission processes throughout the beef supply chain in detail, and explained a methodology for modeling traceability information using the electronic product code information service (EPCIS framework. Then, the traceability system was implemented based on Fosstrak and FreePastry software packages, and animal ear tag code and electronic product code (EPC were employed to identify traceability units. Finally, a cattle/beef supply chain included breeding business, slaughter and processing business, distribution business and sales outlet was used as a case study to evaluate the beef supply chain traceability system. The results demonstrated that the major advantages of the traceability system are the effective sharing of information among business and the gapless traceability of the cattle/beef supply chain.

  19. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than 10...

  20. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  1. 7 CFR 1779.64 - Issuance of Lender's Agreement, Loan Note Guarantee, and Assignment Guarantee Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issuance of Lender's Agreement, Loan Note Guarantee, and Assignment Guarantee Agreement. 1779.64 Section 1779.64 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND...

  2. Probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection in SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yang; Ma, Shugen

    2016-01-01

    For determining whether kidnapping has happened and which type of kidnapping it is while a robot performs autonomous tasks in an unknown environment, a double guarantee kidnapping detection (DGKD) method has been proposed. The good performance of DGKD in a relative small environment is shown. However, a limitation of DGKD is found in a large-scale environment by our recent work. In order to increase the adaptability of DGKD in a large-scale environment, an improved method called probabilistic double guarantee kidnapping detection is proposed in this paper to combine probability of features' positions and the robot's posture. Simulation results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Large-Scale Similarity Joins With Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The ability to handle noisy or imprecise data is becoming increasingly important in computing. In the database community the notion of similarity join has been studied extensively, yet existing solutions have offered weak performance guarantees. Either they are based on deterministic filtering...... techniques that often, but not always, succeed in reducing computational costs, or they are based on randomized techniques that have improved guarantees on computational cost but come with a probability of not returning the correct result. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of randomized techniques...

  4. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... onions, or onion powder; (3) Garlic, including fresh garlic, dehydrated garlic, or garlic powder; (4) Water; (5) Beef broth or beef stock; (6) Monosodium glutamate; (7) Hydrolyzed plant protein; (8) Beef...

  5. 13 CFR 115.31 - Guarantee percentage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals, on behalf of a... Contracts in excess of $100,000 which are executed on behalf of non-disadvantaged concerns. (c) Contract... Applicable Statutory Limit represents multiplied by the guarantee percentage approved by SBA. For example if...

  6. 40 CFR 280.96 - Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative coverage as specified in § 280.110(c). (c) The guarantee must be worded as follows, except that... any and all third parties that: In the event that fails to provide alternative coverage within 60 days...) Property damage to any property owned, rented, loaded to, in the care, custody, or control of, or occupied...

  7. 78 FR 46528 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... 2013, Public Law 112-239, 126 Stat. 1632: (1) Increasing the contract amount for which SBA is... remedies under contract law, the Act, and the regulations in this part, SBA is relieved of liability in...), including the provisions that increase the contract amounts for which SBA is authorized to guarantee bonds...

  8. 76 FR 58089 - Guaranteed Loan Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... tribal governments or the private sector. Agencies generally must prepare a written statement, including... borrower from meeting their financial obligations. FSA is dedicated to providing guaranteed credit to as... funding, which has had budget cuts over the years. Response: FSA is limited by budgetary constraints and...

  9. 76 FR 8403 - Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... Agency will evaluate the lender's eligibility on a case- by-case basis given the risk of loss posed by... program requirements are not conducive to lenders, particularly in light of the inherent risks associated... identified potential benefits and costs of the Biorefinery Assistance Guaranteed Loan Program to lenders...

  10. Differentiation between fresh beef and thawed frozen beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M T; Yang, W D; Guo, S L

    1988-01-01

    In order to prevent meat retailers offering thawed, imported frozen beef as fresh domestic beef, the method of Gottesmann and Hamm for differentiating between fresh and frozen/thawed meat is recommended. The principle of this method is based on the fact that freezing and thawing of meat results in a release of the enzyme β-hydroxyacyl CoA-dehydrogenase (HADH) from the mitochondrion into the sarcoplasm; an elevated HADH activity in the muscle press-juice indicates freezing and thawing of tissue. The HADH colour test of Gottesmann and Hamm was modified by replacing the electron-transmitter meldolablue by resazurin which results in a much higher colour stability after reaction with fresh meat extracts. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli in the beef jerky production line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fernanda Pereira; Voloski, Flávia Liége Schütz; Ramires, Tassiana; Haubert, Louise; Reta, Giulia Giugliani; Mondadori, Rafael Gianella; Silva, Wladimir Padilha da; Conceição, Rita de Cássia Dos Santos da; Duval, Eduarda Hallal

    2017-05-01

    Intense manipulation during beef jerky production increases the possibility of contamination with pathogenic microorganisms. This study evaluated the contamination by thermotolerant coliforms, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp., on processing surfaces and raw materials during beef jerky production, as well as in the final product. Thermotolerant coliforms were found on all surfaces tested and in the raw material. Escherichia coli was identified in 6.7% of the surface samples, while Salmonella spp. was found in 3.3% of the surface samples and 8.6% of raw material samples. Virulence genes were detected in Salmonella spp. isolates. One Salmonella spp. isolate was resistant to sulfonamide, while one E. coli isolate was multiresistant, including the presence of resistance genes sul2, strA, strB, tetA and tetB. The presence of coliforms demonstrates failings in hygienic-sanitary procedures. The presence of pathogenic microorganisms causing foodborne diseases in the production line indicates persistent contamination in the production plant. Although the drying process applied to beef jerky should guarantee the safety of the final product, the presence of multiresistant pathogenic microorganisms, presenting virulence genes, should be a matter of concern. Because beef jerky is a ready-to-eat product, a failure in the production process may cause such microorganisms to pose a public health risk. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. THE BEEF COW REPLACEMENT DECISION

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Kenneth H., Jr.; Short, Sara D.

    2001-01-01

    This analysis examines effects of several common assumptions on net present values (NPVs) of beef cows. While effects on NPVs vary over a price cycle or successive price cycles, several generalities manifest themselves. A cow is not likely to recover the lost revenue from not having just one calf. Incorporating genetic improvement into the herd increases the probability of an older cow being culled. Variable net replacement/culling rates make sense in the context of cattle inventory and price...

  13. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  15. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen...

  16. Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beef traders' and consumers' perceptions on the development of a natural pasture-fed beef (NPB) brand by smallholder cattle producers were investigated. In total, 18 meat traders (five abattoirs and 13 beef retailers) and 155 beef consumers were interviewed using structured questionnaires. All meat traders had the ...

  17. Potential for organic beef production by communal farmers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumers perceive organic beef as healthier and safer than conventional beef, and are willing to pay a premium. Civic engagement amongst all stakeholders through efficient management of indigenous knowledge systems and science is required for establishing organic beef niche market. Keywords: Organic beef, Nguni ...

  18. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  19. Virginia 4-H Contest Guide - Beef Ambassador Contest

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Beef Ambassador Contest provides the opportunity for youth to educate consumers about beef nutrition, food safety and stewardship practices of the beef industry. This program utilizes youth to tell the beef production story to consumers through promotion, education, media and the online environment.

  20. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  1. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  2. Legal Status of Credit Bank Guarantee in Indonesia’s Legal Guarantee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erma Defiana Putriyanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze  about the legal status of the letter hiring as collateral for bank loans in the Indonesian security law. The method of this research is a normative juridical. The results of this research indicate that the decree hiring is not included in the objects that can be bound by pledge, fiduciary, and mortgage then hiring decree hiring is not included in the personal guarantee and corporate guarantee. Although the hiring decree is issued by a legitimate institution, the institution is not bound by an agreement between the debtor debts with the bank but when the decree was used as security for the bank. Hiring letter is not also included in the general collateral. Decree hiring is not an object and does not qualify as material that can be used as general collateral. The conclusion of this research is that the position of the decree hiring as collateral for bank loans is a new form of guarantee which is not included in the general guarantees and the specific ones. This shows that the system of legal guarantees in Indonesia is not pure anymore embrace a closed system, but has started shifting into an open system.

  3. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to $1,250,000...

  4. 13 CFR 107.1720 - Characteristics of SBA's guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. 107.1720 Section 107.1720 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS... Characteristics of SBA's guarantee. If SBA agrees to guarantee a Licensee's Debentures or Participating Securities...

  5. 7 CFR 1779.30 - Loan guarantee limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan guarantee limitations. 1779.30 Section 1779.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.30 Loan guarantee...

  6. 7 CFR 1779.4 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions of guarantee. 1779.4 Section 1779.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.4 Conditions of guarantee. A...

  7. 7 CFR 1720.8 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., redemption features, pledged security, additional borrowing terms including an explicit agreement to make... legally authorized to issue the guaranteed bonds and enter into the bond documents; (6) No material... guaranteed bond without regard to the guarantee; (8) The applicant shall provide evidence of a credit rating...

  8. 12 CFR 370.12 - Payment on the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... claimant's ownership of the FDIC-guaranteed debt obligation. The demand also must be accompanied by an... Guaranteed Debt of participating entities in default. —(1) In general. The FDIC's obligation to pay holders of FDIC-guaranteed debt issued by a participating entity shall arise upon the uncured failure of such...

  9. A model for 'sustainable' US beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Shaket, Taga; Cotler, Brett D; Gilutz, Stav; Giddings, Daniel; Raymo, Maureen E; Milo, Ron

    2018-01-01

    Food production dominates land, water and fertilizer use and is a greenhouse gas source. In the United States, beef production is the main agricultural resource user overall, as well as per kcal or g of protein. Here, we offer a possible, non-unique, definition of 'sustainable' beef as that subsisting exclusively on grass and by-products, and quantify its expected US production as a function of pastureland use. Assuming today's pastureland characteristics, all of the pastureland that US beef currently use can sustainably deliver ≈45% of current production. Rewilding this pastureland's less productive half (≈135 million ha) can still deliver ≈43% of current beef production. In all considered scenarios, the ≈32 million ha of high-quality cropland that beef currently use are reallocated for plant-based food production. These plant items deliver 2- to 20-fold more calories and protein than the replaced beef and increase the delivery of protective nutrients, but deliver no B 12 . Increased deployment of rapid rotational grazing or grassland multi-purposing may increase beef production capacity.

  10. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Bellika, Siri Karlsen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  11. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  12. Guaranteeing CERN’s excellence: consolidate experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    For its missions CERN requires staff with solid experience in all its domains of activity The Organization has several missions: fundamental research, technical developments and innovation, training the several hundreds of associates, fellows and students, while at the same time taking care of more than 10000 users. In order to guarantee excellence in all of these areas, CERN has to put in place an efficient personnel policy. Such a policy must allow the Organization to recruit collaborators with the highest competence from all Member States, and to keep and motivate them during their entire professional career. But, more importantly, the Organization has to be able to count on a stable workforce. It needs staff with experience gained over a long period in the fields of accelerators, detectors, and operating procedures, if it is to fulfil successfully its important mission of training and knowledge transfer, which is very much appreciated by our Member states, since it highlights a visible return on invest...

  13. Framework for analysis of guaranteed QOS systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Shailender; Choudhary, Alok

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia data is isochronous in nature and entails managing and delivering high volumes of data. Multiprocessors with their large processing power, vast memory, and fast interconnects, are an ideal candidate for the implementation of multimedia applications. Initially, multiprocessors were designed to execute scientific programs and thus their architecture was optimized to provide low message latency and efficiently support regular communication patterns. Hence, they have a regular network topology and most use wormhole routing. The design offers the benefits of a simple router, small buffer size, and network latency that is almost independent of path length. Among the various multimedia applications, video on demand (VOD) server is well-suited for implementation using parallel multiprocessors. Logical models for VOD servers are presently mapped onto multiprocessors. Our paper provides a framework for calculating bounds on utilization of system resources with which QoS parameters for each isochronous stream can be guaranteed. Effects of the architecture of multiprocessors, and efficiency of various local models and mapping on particular architectures can be investigated within our framework. Our framework is based on rigorous proofs and provides tight bounds. The results obtained may be used as the basis for admission control tests. To illustrate the versatility of our framework, we provide bounds on utilization for various logical models applied to mesh connected architectures for a video on demand server. Our results show that worm hole routing can lead to packets waiting for transmission of other packets that apparently share no common resources. This situation is analogous to head-of-the-line blocking. We find that the provision of multiple VCs per link and multiple flit buffers improves utilization (even under guaranteed QoS parameters). This analogous to parallel iterative matching.

  14. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  15. Bioactivity of herb-enriched beef patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Eileen; Aherne, S Aisling; O'Grady, Michael N; McGovern, Laura; Kerry, Joseph P; O'Brien, Nora M

    2009-08-01

    Interest exists in the manufacture of meat products with added functional ingredients to enhance consumer health. Because experimental evidence suggests that many herbs and spices, particularly those of the Lamiaceae family such as Salvia officinalis L. (sage) and Origanum vulgare L. (oregano), possess a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities, they represent promising functional ingredients for incorporation into meat and meat products. The present study aimed to determine the bioactivity of cooked beef patties that were enriched with or without sage or oregano extracts (1,200 microg/g). Cooked beef patties were subjected to an in vitro digestion procedure, and the resulting micelles isolated from the digested meats were added to human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The antioxidant potential (ferric reducing antioxidant power [FRAP] value) of enriched beef patties was significantly higher than the FRAP value of non-enriched beef patties, both before and after in vitro digestion. Cell viability significantly increased following treatment with certain concentrations of the micelle fractions from digested sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties. Pretreatment with micelles derived from sage- or oregano-enriched beef patties did not significantly protect against cell injury or DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2). However, micelles derived from digested sage-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly increased cellular reduced glutathione (GSH) content. In addition, micelles derived from both sage- and oregano-enriched beef patties (10% vol/vol) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced GSH depletion. Thus, it appears that sage and oregano exhibit some bioactivity within a meat system. Our findings suggest that herbal extracts have potential as possible functional ingredients in meat products.

  16. Antimicrobial usage and resistance in beef production

    OpenAIRE

    Cameron, Andrew; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobials are critical to contemporary high-intensity beef production. Many different antimicrobials are approved for beef cattle, and are used judiciously for animal welfare, and controversially, to promote growth and feed efficiency. Antimicrobial administration provides a powerful selective pressure that acts on the microbial community, selecting for resistance gene determinants and antimicrobial-resistant bacteria resident in the bovine flora. The bovine microbiota includes many harm...

  17. Hypomagnesaemia in beef cows wintered in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Hidiroglou, M; Thompson, B K; Ho, S K; Proulx, J G

    1981-01-01

    A field experiment was undertaken in northern Ontario in order to assess the magnesium status of beef cattle raised in the area. Magnesium status was assessed using several criteria including blood and urine magnesium levels, and bone biopsy samples. Eighteen groups each containing four pregnant Shorthorn beef cows were used. Each of the following three mineral feeds were offered to six groups throughout the experiment: a mineral feed without magnesium, a mineral feed containing 8% magnesium ...

  18. Australian Beef Exports: Dead or Alive?

    OpenAIRE

    Rutherford, Arlene

    1995-01-01

    Northern Australia's live cattle exports to Southeast Asia have increased dramatically in recent years. In Australia's current political environment calling for greater domestic value-adding, the issue of potential trade-offs between Australia's live cattle and slaughtered beef exports are examined. From an investigation into the origins of Australia's live cattle export industry and the production and marketing of beef in Australia's major live cattle importing countries, it is concluded tha...

  19. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  20. Vitamin D-biofortified beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, Sarah K.; O'Doherty, John V.; Rajauria, Gaurav

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates dietary fortification of heifer feeds with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol sources and effects on beef total vitamin D activity, vitamer, respective 25-hydroxymetabolite contents, and meat quality. Thirty heifers were allocated to one of three dietary treatments [(1......) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (Vit D3); (2) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2 (Vit D2); and (3) basal diet + 4000 IU of vitamin D2-enriched mushrooms (Mushroom D2)] for a 30 day pre-slaughter period. Supplementation of heifer diets with Vit D3 yielded higher (p ...) total vitamin D activity (by 38–56%; p vitamin D source, carcass characteristics, sensory and meat quality parameter were unaffected (p > 0.05) by the dietary...

  1. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  2. Essence and classification of legal guarantees of creditors’ rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Sil’chenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to conduct a comprehensive study of the concept of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights and to identify some features of guarantees on the basis of the presented classification. Methods general scientific deduction comparative and system analysis formal logical method and special comparative legal and structuralfunctional methods. Results basing on the evaluation of different scientistsrsquo opinions the definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. Four classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are proposed. Scientific novelty author39s definition of the notion laquolegal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rightsraquo is given. The essence of legal guarantees in general and legal rights of creditors in particular is defined. Classifications of legal guarantees of creditorsrsquo rights are given by the content and methods of implementation of creditorsrsquo rights guarantees by forms of providing guarantees to creditors general and special guarantees by the form of termination of legal personrsquos activity. The classifications are described in detail through examples. Practical value the results of this research can be used in scientificresearch activity. Theoretical conclusions formulated in the work can be used in the process of improving of the existing legislation and practice of its application.

  3. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  4. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    and novel beef products and processes. Method: Eight focus groups, each with between 7 and 9 participants were conducted in the capital cities of Germany, Spain, France and the United Kingdom in May 2008. In total 65 individuals aged between 19 and 60 years took part in the discussions. The focus group......Introduction: A trend towards a higher awareness of health with respect to food intake has been noticed during the last years. This makes the concept of health in relation to beef production and consumption a highly relevant research topic. Objective: To investigate beef healthiness and nutritional...... discussions were based on a common topic guide, translated into each language. The guide consisted of several sections, including one designed to elicit information on their opinions about beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement of beef. Results: Consumers associated health with wellbeing, an absence...

  5. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberger, Dirk; Nuernberg, Karin; Herdmann, Andrea; Nuernberg, Gerd; Hagemann, Elke; Kienast, Walter

    2013-07-09

    The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB), tea sausage spread (TSS), scalded sausage (SS)). Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%), or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12%) and linseed oil (3%). The study revealed that upon an 18:3 n -3 vs. 18:2 n -6 intervention the amounts of 18:3 n -3, EPA and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n -3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3 n -3 and Σ n -3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium) were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n -3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  6. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  7. Financial Innovation and Risk Management: The Cross-Guarantee Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Bert Ely

    1998-01-01

    The cross-guarantee concept, which is summarized below, will eliminate the regulatory moral hazard that electronic technology has greatly exacerbated in recent years. The paper concludes by outlining the many benefits cross-guarantees will bring to the financial system as well as the structural and international implications of using cross-guarantees to bring market-driven regulation to the financial services sector of the American economy.

  8. 42 CFR 57.1507 - Limitations applicable to loan guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession...

  9. HEDONIC DEMAND ANALYSIS FOR BEEF IN BENIN METROPOLIS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIUAGRIC2

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... implicit demand for beef within the framework of a hedonic analysis, and the implicit or shadow price of beef were examined. Primary data ... results of the Hedonic analysis showed that, with an average unit price of N836.57 for beef, a consumer is strongly willing to pay ... method and strategies. Lancaster ...

  10. The economic analysis of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the economic efficiency of beef marketing in Akure, Ondo State. In this regard, the different marketing function performed by the beef sellers were identified and evaluated. Also the size and different components of beef marketing costs and margins were determined. A total sample of 110 respondents ...

  11. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  12. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Joint Building Contracts Committee (JBCC) 1991 suite of contracts was the first in South Africa to introduce the concept of construction and payment guarantees that provided the requisite cover available on call from approved financial institutions. In the process the construction guarantee replaced the performance ...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-60 - Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Characteristics. 52.247-60 Section 52.247-60 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-60 Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics. As prescribed in 47.305-16(b)(1), insert the following clause: Guaranteed Shipping Characteristics (DEC 1989) (a) The offeror is requested to complete...

  14. 7 CFR 1493.260 - Facility payment guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; or, in the absence of specific information regarding declared customs value, the fair market...; or in the absence of an arms-length transaction, the fair market value of the services at the time... amend the facility payment guarantee so as to change the guaranteed value must have the concurrence of...

  15. 7 CFR 1980.488 - Guaranteed industrial development bond issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. 1980... Program § 1980.488 Guaranteed industrial development bond issues. (a) Loans to public bodies will be... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 of the taxability of the proposed bond issue. ...

  16. 77 FR 40785 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... Farm Service Agency 7 CFR Part 1980 RIN 0575-AC90 Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program... Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP) (also referred to as ``Agency'') by requiring an annual fee for... to exceed 0.5 percent of the outstanding principal balance of the loan for the life of the loan. The...

  17. 7 CFR 4279.186 - Issuance of the guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans... following documents, as appropriate, will be issued: (1) Assignment Guarantee Agreement. In the event the..., “Certificate of Incumbency and Signature (Business and Industry),” of the signature and title of the Agency...

  18. 7 CFR 4280.123 - Guaranteed loan funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.123 Guaranteed loan funding. (a) The... the renewable energy system or energy efficiency improvement. (1) Post-application purchase and...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.152 - Servicing guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.152 Servicing guaranteed loans. The lender... the business, along with such other documentation as the Agency may request to determine eligibility...

  20. Investment Guarantees in the South African Life Insurance Industry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper explores the risks faced by South African life insurance companies arising from the provision of investment guarantees in products sold. The current thinking and practice of the larger South African life insurance companies regarding investment guarantees is set out following their responses to a survey.

  1. 7 CFR 1779.96 - Termination of Loan Note Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of Loan Note Guarantee. 1779.96 Section 1779.96 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.96...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.149 - Personal and corporate guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantees are part of the collateral for the loan, but are not considered in determining whether a loan is... documents to the Agency's satisfaction that collateral, equity, cashflow, and profitability indicate an... guarantee form. When warranted by an Agency assessment of potential financial risk, Agency approved...

  3. 7 CFR 2201.28 - Participation in guaranteed Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Participation in guaranteed Loans. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a Loan guaranteed under the Program by sale of participations therein if... in part as a result of the sale of such participations; (2) The Lender remains solely responsible for...

  4. 14 CFR 1300.23 - Participation in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a loan guaranteed under the program by sale of... transferred in whole or in part; (2) The lender remains solely responsible for the administration of the loan... loans guaranteed under the program: (1) Eligible lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance...

  5. 49 CFR 260.51 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REHABILITATION AND IMPROVEMENT FINANCING PROGRAM Loan Guarantees-Lenders § 260.51 Conditions of guarantee. (a... between the Lender and the Applicant, subject to the Administrator's approval. The maximum percentage of... allowed will depend on the total credit quality of the transaction and the level of risk believed to be...

  6. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack......Executive summary 1. This report describes and analyses the market for fresh beef in Europe including both supply and demand issues. The report is made on the basis of published and unpublished reports and supplemented by in-depth interviews with industrialists in various types of companies...

  7. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality......, whereas low-familiarity consumers tend to believe that the brand is the most valid cue for assessing beef quality. However, due to the lack of consistency in sensory beef quality, high-familiarity consumers’ ability to form quality expectations that are predictive of their quality experience is no better...

  8. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... of cattle going through markets is declining. 10. Product quality has been very difficult to control in the beef sector. The cattle supplied for slaughtering is of a very varying quality with regard to important consumer-oriented quality characteristics like tenderness and taste, and the lack...

  9. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (Pmeat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (Pmeat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system.

  10. Modeling Irrigation Benefits on Beef Ranches

    OpenAIRE

    Watt, David L.; Johnson, Roger G.; Schluntz, Larry J.; Ali, Mir B.

    1988-01-01

    A major irrigation benefit for beef ranchers is herd size stability. A sequential multiyear linear programming model was developed to trace the effect of drought with and without irrigation on a South Dakota ranch over 31 years. Irrigation benefits were higher with the dynamic model than with traditional static analysis.

  11. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... A total of 30 Qinchuan cattle were used to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of beef from three different parts of cattle carcass, namely longissimus dorsi (LD), serratus ventralis (SV) and semitendinosus (ST). Multiple parameters were ranked in the descending order of ST > SV > LD, and.

  12. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    evaluate the mating performance of bulls used in such herds. One facet which appears to warrant attention is that ... more females over a limited breeding season (Blockey, 1980). Fifty-four virgin beef bulls undergoing a phase D2 ... active pursuit of the female with persistent sexual interest. 4 one mount or mounting attempt, ...

  13. Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overwintering beef animals on kikuyu ( Pennisetum clandestinum ) — its effect on animal performance and soil fertility. ... These by-products of animal digestion contain many ingredients necessary for plant growth, including nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Disadvantages include a tendency for K levels to ...

  14. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  15. Pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Novkaniza, F.; Novita, M.

    2017-07-01

    Unit-linked insurance is an investment-linked insurance, that is, the given benefit is the premium investment out-come. Recently, the most widely marketed insurance in the industry is unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. With guaranteed benefit applied, the insurance benefits form is similar to the payoff form of European call option. Thereby, pricing European call option is involved in pricing unit-linked insurance with guaranteed benefit. The dynamics of investment outcome is assumed to follow stochastic interest rate. Hence, change of measure methods is used in pricing unit-linked insurance. The discount factor with stochastic interest rate needs to be modified as well to be zero coupon bond price. Eventually, the insurance premium is calculated by equivalence principle with guaranteed benefit and insurance period explicitly given.

  16. EXTERNAL EVALUATION OF LEARNING AS A GUARANTEE OF QUALITY EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Arribas Estebaranz

    2014-12-01

    Almost all countries and all reports use contemplated, in varying degrees, the always-complementary external evaluation by the teachers-as an essential guarantee of educational quality at different levels of detail curriculum evaluation.

  17. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  18. Financial guarantees and public debt in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogutu Miruka

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A few years since the worst of the Euro sovereign debt crisis, many nations, from Cyprus to Ireland, including South Africa are re-visiting their public debt management to avert or lessen the impact of similar such happenings in the future. There are a number of studies on risk assessments of fiscal sustainability; however, few focus on contingent liabilities and even fewer on financial guarantees. In South Africa, financial guarantees have consistently comprised just above or below 50% of all contingent liabilities since the early days of majoritarian rule. In lieu of this, the paper analyses the risks posed by financial guarantees to fiscal sustainability in South Africa. We estimate the effect of financial guarantees on public debt in South Africa via the Engle Granger and causality model with quarterly time series data obtained from the South African Reserve Bank (SARB as well as the National Treasury. The data covers the April 1997 to December 2011 period. All econometric methods were executed using the statistical software package E-Views 7. We found that no long run relationship exists between national net loan debt and financial guarantees in South Africa. The pass rate of financial guarantees significantly affects its present value. The pass rate of financial guarantees has a predicting ability in determining the present value of national net loan debt. These findings may be contrary to what would be expected in the case of South Africa considering that the country is managing the issuance of financial guarantees prudently and that at present levels, there is no need for a radical policy shift. The study therefore offers a lesson to similar merging economies on the good governance of contingent liabilities.

  19. Implementation of a financial guarantee policy at the CNSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) was established in 2000 under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) to replace the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). Prior to the coming in force of the NSCA, financial guarantees associated with licensed activities were not prescribed in the Atomic Energy Control Act or its regulations. Under the NSCA, the Commission Tribunal 'the Commission' was given authority to impose conditions in licences requiring financial guarantees from licensees. Other provisions of the NSCA provided information on the application of financial guarantees and for refunds when decommissioning obligations had been met. Since 2000, the application of financial guarantees has been primarily focussed on licences issued pursuant to the Class I Nuclear Facilities Regulations and the Uranium Mines and Mills Regulations. This was to assure that the requirements for financial guarantees were initially directed at the high risk, complex facilities licensed by the CNSC. However, all licensees have not yet been required to provide a financial guarantee for all licensed facilities, activities or licence types. Additionally, CNSC expectations in relation to when financial guarantees, associated decommissioning plans and cost estimates need to be reviewed, updated and submitted, and what they should entail have been evolving, indicating a need for a clear CNSC policy on the subject. Consequently, the CNSC is proceeding with the development of a financial guarantee policy and implementation plan to assure that generators of nuclear waste will have the financial resources available to decommission nuclear facilities, operations and devices and that this activity will not fall to government as a future liability. This program will require approval by the Commission, planned for 2012. This paper will further describe this policy and its possible outcomes. (author)

  20. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore,

  1. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  2. Customer intentions to invoke service guarantees: Do excellence in service recovery, type of guarantee, and cultural orientation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vaerenbergh, Yves; De Keyser, Arne; Larivière, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – Many service providers feel confident about their service quality and thus offer service guarantees to their customers. Yet service failures are inevitable. As guarantees can only be invoked when customers report service failures, firms are given the opportunity to redress the original failure potentially influencing customer outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to provide the first empirical investigation of whether excellence in service recovery affects customers’ intentions to ...

  3. Optimal Replacement and Management Policies for Beef Cows

    OpenAIRE

    W. Marshall Frasier; George H. Pfeiffer

    1994-01-01

    Beef cow replacement studies have not reflected the interaction between herd management and the culling decision. We demonstrate techniques for modeling optimal beef cow replacement intervals and discrete management policies by incorporating the dynamic effects of management on future productivity when biological response is uncertain. Markovian decision analysis is used to identify optimal beef cow management on a ranch typical of the Sandhills region of Nebraska. Issues of breeding season l...

  4. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART III: BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part III: Beef Cow/Calf Health & Health Management were collected by federal and state veterinary officers (VMO's) in 18 of the largest cow/...

  5. TAX REFORM AND BEEF COW REPLACEMENT STRATEGY

    OpenAIRE

    Innes, Robert; Carman, Hoy F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper models optimal beef cow replacement strategy in a stochastic environment under U.S. income tax rules effective before and after the Tax Reform Act of 1986. Under each tax regime, the producer's buy versus raise decision and optimal culling age choice are analyzed. Per-cow profit levels are also calculated. Results of the numerical analysis indicate that tax law changes, particularly the loss of the capital gains exclusion and restrictions on preproduction expensing, will have signi...

  6. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  7. Robust guaranteed cost tracking control of quadrotor UAV with uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiwei; Nian, Xiaohong; Wang, Haibo; Chen, Yinsheng

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a robust guaranteed cost controller (RGCC) is proposed for quadrotor UAV system with uncertainties to address set-point tracking problem. A sufficient condition of the existence for RGCC is derived by Lyapunov stability theorem. The designed RGCC not only guarantees the whole closed-loop system asymptotically stable but also makes the quadratic performance level built for the closed-loop system have an upper bound irrespective to all admissible parameter uncertainties. Then, an optimal robust guaranteed cost controller is developed to minimize the upper bound of performance level. Simulation results verify the presented control algorithms possess small overshoot and short setting time, with which the quadrotor has ability to perform set-point tracking task well. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bank guarantee in Serbian and European legal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajtić Bojan L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses a bank guarantee as an institute derived from a surety contract. By issuing a bank guarantee the bank commits to the creditor that it will fulfill valid and due liabilities of a debtor, in the event of default by the debtor. This collateral demonstrates significant advantages as compared to other personal assets, particularly with regards to a higher level of protection to creditors in contractual relations. Due to the aforementioned benefit the institute has been increasingly applied in legal dealings, both in our and other legal systems. In the paper, I will point out normative solutions in terms of regulation of a bank guarantee as a specific legal activity in which there is no accessoriness, which is not the case with security. This research particularly focuses on the comparative legal analysis of this collateral.

  9. Coverage and Rate of Downlink Sequence Transmissions with Reliability Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jihong; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Real-time distributed control is a promising application of 5G in which communication links should satisfy certain reliability guarantees. In this letter, we derive closed-form maximum average rate when a device (e.g. industrial machine) downloads a sequence of n operational commands through...... cellular connection, while guaranteeing a certain coverage for all n messages. The result is based on novel closed-form n- successive coverage bounds. The proposed lower bound provides a simple approximation that is increasingly accurate in the high reliability region. For moderate coverage, a linear...

  10. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MokolobateM

    2014-08-16

    Aug 16, 2014 ... Beef cattle are unique, because they not only suffer from climate change, but they also contribute to .... designed crossbreeding systems, thereby reducing the carbon footprint of beef production. The fact that there are large differences in the kgC/LSU between certain genotypes, points to genetic differences ...

  11. Formulation and evaluation of beef/soy patties | Igene | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated composite beef/soy patties to ascertain the optimal level of soy flour inclusion acceptable to consumers and producers. These patties were formulated to contain 100/0%, 85/15%, 80/20%, 75/25% and 70/30% beef/soy flour respectively. This experiment was conducted 3 times as replicates. It was a ...

  12. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross sectional study was conducted from April to June, 2016 with the objective of assessing the beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in and around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study area, by face-to-face interview using a pretested structured and ...

  13. Qualitative evaluation of Kilishi prepared from beef and pork

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... beef and pork had similar values (P > 0.05) for moisture, protein and fat while Kilishi from beef gave a higher ash value (P < 0.05) ... or two days depending on the relative humidity, intensity of the sun and air velocity. The meat .... give a cumulative mineral level minus the loss during processing. In this study ...

  14. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America

    The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and

  15. Estimates of crossbreeding parameters in a multibreed beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    ease and 24-h calf survival in a four-bred diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 64, 65. Cundiff, L.V, Gregory, K.E., Koch, R.M. & Dickerson, G.E., 1986. Genetic diversity among cattle breeds and its use to increase beef production efficiency in a temperate environment.

  16. Price Transmission Asymmetry in Pork and Beef Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, William F.

    1990-01-01

    Farm, wholesale, and retail prices for beef and pork show significant evidence of asymmetric price interactions. All prices display greater sensitivity to price-increasing shocks than to price-decreasing shocks. The farm beef price, in particular, reacts faster to wholesale price increases than to whole sale price decreases.

  17. Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. MM Magoro, BI Zondagh, PJ Jooste, L Morey. Abstract. This study determined the sensory attributes and acceptability of cooked meat sausages containing beef offal. Four formulations of sausages were selected for sensory evaluation and comparison ...

  18. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production of an extra calf (I\\4eaker et al., 1980). Since small- framed breeds usually mature earlier than large-framed breeds, the Nguni, which is the smallest beef breed in South Africa, was used to investigate the possibilities of early mating in beef cattle under extensive conditions. The research was conducted on the farm ...

  19. Antagonism in the carbon footprint between beef and dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher increase in production (milk) of intensive dairy cows, compared to the increase in production (calf weight) of intensive beef cows, explains the antagonism in the carbon footprint between different beef and dairy production systems. Unfortunately, carbon sequestration estimates have been neglected and thus the ...

  20. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  1. prevalence of escherichia coli 0157:h7 in fresh and roasted beef

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    on Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) at 250C for two hours for roasted beef samples. Presumptive colonies were confirmed by using E. coli 0157:H7 latex agglutination test kit. Prevalence rate of. 53% was obtained in fresh beef and 25.3% in roasted beef. Consumption of inadequately cooked beef poses a serious risk of infection.

  2. Environmentally Optimal, Nutritionally Aware Beef Replacement Plant-Based Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Noor, Elad; Milo, Ron

    2016-08-02

    Livestock farming incurs large and varied environmental burdens, dominated by beef. Replacing beef with resource efficient alternatives is thus potentially beneficial, but may conflict with nutritional considerations. Here we show that protein-equivalent plant based alternatives to the beef portion of the mean American diet are readily devisible, and offer mostly improved nutritional profile considering the full lipid profile, key vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients. We then show that replacement diets require on average only 10% of land, 4% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and 6% of reactive nitrogen (Nr) compared to what the replaced beef diet requires. Applied to 320 million Americans, the beef-to-plant shift can save 91 million cropland acres (and 770 million rangeland acres), 278 million metric ton CO2e, and 3.7 million metric ton Nr annually. These nationwide savings are 27%, 4%, and 32% of the respective national environmental burdens.

  3. Mukhabarah as Sharia Financing Model in Beef Cattle Farm Entrepise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnawi, A.; Amrawaty, A. A.; Nirwana

    2018-02-01

    Financing constraints on beef cattle farm nowadays have received attention by the government through distributed various assistance programs and program loans through implementing banks. The existing financing schemes are all still conventional yet sharia-based. The purpose of this research is to formulate financing pattern for sharia beef cattle farm. A qualitative and descriptive approach is used to formulate the pattern by considering the profit-sharing practices of the beef cattle farmers. The results of this study have formulated a financing pattern that integrates government, implementing banks, beef cattle farmers group and cooperative as well as breeders as its members. This pattern of financing is very accommodating of local culture that develops in rural communities. It is expected to be an input, especially in formulating a business financing policy Sharia-based beef cattle breeding.

  4. Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Doubts raised on the validity of construction and payment guarantees. Peer reviewed. Abstract. It has become common practice in the building industry for ... Faculty of Engineering, Built Environment and Information Technology, University of Pretoria, .... Hotels (Pty) Ltd and Others 2001, Judge Van Reenen stripped the.

  5. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Birbhum

    OpenAIRE

    Dey, Subhasish; Bedi, Arjun Singh

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study of the functioning of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme between February 2006 and July 2009 in Birbhum district, West Bengal reveals that in order to serve as an effective “employer of last resort”, the programme should provide proportionately more job-days during the agricultural lean season and wages should be paid in a timely manner.

  6. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme in Birbhum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study of the functioning of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme between February 2006 and July 2009 in Birbhum district, West Bengal reveals that in order to serve as an effective “employer of last resort”, the programme should provide proportionately

  7. Toward Improvement of Credit Policies on Guaranteed Student Loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Robert P.

    Four aspects of the Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) Program are compared with credit policies on other loans made by consumer installment lenders. The four aspects are: (1) the planning, screening, monitoring, collecting, and write-off policies on GSLs versus uninsured loans; (2) the importance of the Student Loan Marketing Association in providing…

  8. 48 CFR 52.228-1 - Bid Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... as accepted. (c) The amount of the bid guarantee shall be ____ percent of the bid price or $____, whichever is less. (d) If the successful bidder, upon acceptance of its bid by the Government within the period specified for acceptance, fails to execute all contractual documents or furnish executed bond(s...

  9. 32 CFR 151.7 - Fair trial guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MILITARY JUSTICE STATUS OF FORCES POLICIES AND INFORMATION § 151.7 Fair trial guarantees. The following is... competent interpreter when the accused does not understand the language in which the trial is conducted and does not have counsel proficient in the language both of the court and of the accused. (p) Accused is...

  10. Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pricing variable annuity guarantees in South Africa under a Variance-Gamma model. AM Ngugi, Eben Maré, R Kufakunesu. Abstract. The purpose of this study is to investigate the pricing of variable annuity embedded derivatives using a suitably refined model for the underlying assets, in this case the Johannesburg ...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.72 - Conditions of guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4287 of this chapter will apply to all outstanding guarantees. In the event of a conflict between the... misrepresentation of which a lender or holder has actual knowledge at the time it becomes such lender or holder or... knowledge thereof. Any losses occasioned will be unenforceable to the extent that loan funds are used for...

  12. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, D. Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous…

  13. 75 FR 27949 - Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... efficiency in managing the SFHGLP. The proposed changes are in accordance with the recommendations of the... Housing Service proposes two changes to its Single Family Housing Guaranteed Loan Program (SFHGLP...-quarter of 1 percent. The first proposed rule change would eliminate the lender's published VA rate for...

  14. Improvements Needed in Administration of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies improvements needed in administration of the guaranteed student loan program. Improvements needed are based on the fact that that lenders are not informed when student borrowers drop out of school. Alternatives for providing lenders with timely information on enrollment terminations are indicated. Additional administrative…

  15. H2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Colmenares

    2000-01-01

    guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  16. 13 CFR 400.214 - Participations in guaranteed loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Subject to paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) of this section, a Lender may distribute the risk of a portion of a... the Guarantee is assigned, conveyed, sold, or transferred in whole or in part; (2) The Lender remains... Lenders; (2) Private investment funds and insurance companies that do not usually invest in commercial...

  17. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  18. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT OF IMPORTED FROZEN BEEF: AN ALTERNATIVE TO INTEGRATE WITH LOCAL BEEF SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sani R.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to describe the supply chain management of imported frozen beef from Australia to Indonesia; to analyze where the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats for the frozen meat distributor, and what strategy should be chosen; and to analyze alternatives of cooperation between imported frozen beef distribution with local beef distribution chain. The research approach is qualitative, and the research strategy is a case study. This research was conducted in Jakarta, data collecting technique by interview method and literature study. Data analysis techniques use supply chain management (SCM and strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis. The results show that the distribution chain management of imported frozen beef needs to tripartite cooperation with government and local beef distributors to conduct joint marketing of imported frozen beef and cooler procurement to the point of retailers in traditional markets; expanding the market share of imported frozen beef to industrial segments (hotels, restaurant, catering company; and meat processing factories; and cooperate with imported beef suppliers to overcome the problem of taste flavor and lack of weight of imported frozen meat, and clarify halal certification.

  19. Comparative effects of supplementing beef steers with zilpaterol hydrochloride, ractopamine hydrochloride, or no beta agonist on strip loin composition, raw and cooked color properties, shear force, and consumer assessment of steaks aged for fourteen or twenty-one days postmortem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Hodgen, J M; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Rathmann, R J; Miller, M F

    2014-08-01

    Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to 1 of 3 β-adrenergic agonist (βAA) supplementation treatments-zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 308 mg·head(-1)·d(-1) for 28 d), or no βAA (CON)-to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, and ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA influenced (P 0.05) acceptability. Quality grade impacted (P < 0.01) all traits and acceptability in steaks aged 14 and 21 d. In 14-d steaks, Premium Choice typically was scored higher than Low Choice or Select; however, consumers rated 21-d Low Choice and Premium Choice similarly-both receiving greater scores than Select. Consumers detected several differences in eating quality at 14 d because of βAA supplementation. Increasing aging from 14 to 21 d mitigated differences in shear force and tenderness scores because of feeding ZH, so that tenderness and overall acceptability were similar between ZH, RH, and CON.

  20. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  1. Maxillary osteosarcoma in a beef suckler cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prins Diether G J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A ten-year-old beef suckler cow was referred to the Scottish Centre for Production Animal Health & Food Safety of the University of Glasgow, because of facial swelling in the region of the right maxilla. The facial swelling was first noticed three months earlier and was caused by a slow growing oral mass which contained displaced, loosely embedded teeth. The radiographic, laboratory and clinicopathological findings are described. Necropsy, gross pathology and histological findings confirmed the mass as a maxillary osteosarcoma.

  2. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness: results from a qualitative study in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Scholderer, Joachim; Perez-Cueto, Federico

    2010-06-15

    Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. Eight focus group discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness of beef consumed. Focus group participants were not in favour of improving beef healthiness during processing, but rather focussed on appropriate consumption behaviour and preparation methods. The individual responsibility for health implies that consumers should be able to make correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which are important for the innovation and product differentiation in the European beef sector, as well as for public health policy decisions related to meat consumption in general and beef consumption in particular.

  3. Factors influencing intention to purchase beef in the Irish market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M; de Boer, M; O'Reilly, S; Cotter, L

    2003-11-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a study into consumer perceptions towards beef and the influence of these perceptions on consumption. Fishbein and Ajzen's [Belief, attitude, intention and behaviour. An introduction to theory and research (1995) Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley] Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) provided a useful framework for this analysis. The influence of attitudes and important others (subjective norm) on intention to consume beef were explored. The findings support the usefulness of this model in understanding behaviour towards beef. In this study both attitude and the subjective norm influenced intention to consume beef, but it was attitude that was of greater importance. Health, eating enjoyment and safety were most important determinants of attitude with price, environment and animal welfare less so. An evaluation of the impact of the introduction of new information which related to one belief (health) was also conducted. Those indicating that they would consider increasing their consumption of beef had a more positive attitude towards beef and had more positive health and eating enjoyment beliefs about beef than the 'no' group who had significantly higher safety concerns.

  4. The fiduciary guarantee in the Romanian and European legal context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the fiduciary guarantee has not reached its full potential in the Romanian market, nor in the European area. The ongoing “dispute” between the fiduciary operations (familiar to the continental law and the trust (with its common -law heritage seems to be won by the latter. However, considering the express provisions on the fiduciary operations in the Romanian Civil Code entered into force in 2011, similar to the introduction of the same legal instrument in the French Civil Code in 2007, could give a boost to this ancient tool, present from the Roman era. Even if the European legal framework do not provide many rules on this institution, however, the Financial Collateral Directive raised many questions on how the fiduciary guarantees can be used in practice, and contributed to the change that followed in this area.

  5. [Microbiological quality of mechanically deboned beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasovská, M; Pleva, J; Gorzová, A

    1991-01-01

    Microbial quality of mechanically deboned beef (MDB), which was obtained by the discontinuous hydraulic horizontal separator, type Inject-Star (firm LASKA, Austria), was analyzed for the presence of indicatory microorganisms (coliforms and enterococci), pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microorganisms. The basic microbial parameters have been determined separately for MDB of 1st, 2nd degrees as well as for average daily samples from one collecting vessel. Apart from it, also a raw material (beef from flesh bones intended for separation) and salt MDB after 24 hrs storing in chiller before working it into meat products were examined by the same way. From our results it follows that the number of all microorganisms observed in MDB of 1st degree was lower than that of 2nd degree. During the separation process the increase of microbial parameters compared with those in initial raw material occurred by 1-2 radices and following subsequent salting and storing in chiller there was a repeated decrease by 1 radix (with exception of the number of Staphylococci remaining unchanged). The change in the amount of microflora present was also influenced by season--in summer there was an increase by about 1 radix. From the view point of food hygiene the finding of salmonellas and the presence of large number of Staphylococci including Staphylococcus aureus on average 10(5).g-1 as well as the presence of wide extent of conditionally pathogenic microorganisms from the family of Enterobacteriaceae, especially from genera Proteus, Providencia, Morganella and Citrobacter are of great importance.

  6. H 2 guaranteed cost control of discrete linear systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmenares W.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a quadratically stabilizing output feedback controller which also assures H 2 guaranteed cost performance on a discrete linear uncertain system where the uncertainty is of the norm bounded type. The conditions are presented as a collection of linear matrix inequalities.The solution, however requires a search over a scalar parameter space.

  7. Unions, Within-Workplace Job Cuts and Job Security Guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Bryson; Michael White

    2006-01-01

    Using data from the Workplace Employment Relations Survey 1998, this paper shows that unionisation increased the probability of within-workplace job cuts and the incidence of job security guarantees. As theory predicts, both are more prevalent among market-sector workplaces with higher union density and multi-unionism. Expectations that these effects would be more muted in the public sector were also confirmed.

  8. Do Lower Lender Subsidies Reduce Guaranteed Student Loan Supply?

    OpenAIRE

    D. Andrew Austin

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes effects of borrower interest rates and student lender subsidies on federally guaranteed student loan volumes from 1988 to 1994 and from 1996 to 2006. Some have argued that lender subsidy cuts would reduce loan supply or cause lenders to exit the student loan market. If lenders get economic rents due to overly generous subsidies, a simple model of the student loan market suggests that small changes in subsidy levels should not affect loan supply. Empirical results based on...

  9. Guaranteeing Spoof-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-12

    Trappe, W.: Channel-based detection of sybil attacks in wireless networks . Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on 4(3), 492–503 (2009...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Guaranteeing Spoof-Resilient Multi-Robot Networks Stephanie Gil †1 · Swarun Kumar †2 · Mark...Mazumder 3 · Dina Katabi 1 · Daniela Rus 1 December 14, 2015 Abstract Multi-robot networks use wireless communica- tion to provide wide-ranging services

  10. Secure Approximation Guarantee for Cryptographically Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-22

    follows. We used Paillier cryptosystem with N = 1024-bit public key and comparison protocol (Damgard et al., 2008) for 60 bits of integers . The program is...SECURE APPROXIMATION GUARANTEE Hospital (knows clinical information) Genome testing institute (knows genomic information) Model for disease risks...were collected in a research institute, while clinical information were collected in a hospital , and both institutes do not want to share their data

  11. Mate extract as feed additive for improvement of beef quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Zawadzki, Andressa; Arrivetti, Leandro de O.R.; Vidal, Marília P.

    2017-01-01

    Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality ...... to improve the oxidative stability, nutritive value and sensory quality of beef.......Mate (Ilex paraguariensis A.St.-Hil.) is generally recognized as safe (GRAS status) and has a high content of alkaloids, saponins, and phenolic acids. Addition of mate extract to broilers feed has been shown to increase the oxidative stability of chicken meat, however, its effect on beef quality...

  12. GUARANTEES OF THE RIGHT TO A FAIR CIVIL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Loredana Jalbă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure the effective protection of human rights and provide for more than theoretical and illusory substantive rights, the need to define the right to a fair trial is emerging, along with the necessity that litigants become aware of the guarantees established by article 6 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Thus, the article aims to approach the ample issue regarding the litigants’ right to a fair civil trial in light of current legal regulations, and in particular, in light of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Given the fact that the right to a fair civil trial involves establishing, throughout the trial, a set of rules of procedure aimed at creating a balance between the parties in the process - the so-called guarantees of a fair trial - in her scientific pursuits, the author analyzes both explicit and implicit guarantees of fair trial, highlighting relevant European standards as well as their degree of implementation in the national (procedural law.

  13. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Chee Hao; Wong, Woan Chwen; Pui, Chai Fung; Mahyudin, Nor Ainy; Tang, John Yew Huat; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2013-12-01

    A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9) from three wet markets (A, B, and C) in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR) method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  14. Prevalence and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes in beef offal at retail level in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Hao Kuan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 63 beef offal samples (beef liver = 16; beef lung = 14; beef intestine = 9; beef tripe = 15; beef spleen = 9 from three wet markets (A, B, and C in Selangor, Malaysia were examined for the prevalence and microbial load of Listeria monocytogenes. A combination of the most probable number and polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR method was employed in this study. It was found that L. monocytogenes detected in 33.33% of the beef offal samples. The prevalence of L. monocytogenes in beef offal purchased from wet markets A, B, and C were 22.73%, 37.50% and 41.18% respectively. The density of L. monocytogenes in all the samples ranged from 2,400 MPN/g. The findings in this study indicate that beef offal can be a potential vehicle of foodborne listeriosis.

  15. Econometrics Analysis Of Semi Intensive Beef Cattle Fattening In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Nigeria: A Case Study Of Yola South Local Government Area. ... KEY WORDS: Econometrics analysis, Semi intensive, Beef cattle fattening, Profitability and marketing routes. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(1) 2005: 35- ...

  16. Identification of Social Capital on Beef Cattle Farmers Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, V. S.; Sirajuddin, S. N.; Abdullah, A.

    2018-02-01

    Social capital plays an important role in the development of beef cattle farms in South Sulawesi. The aim of this research was to know the social capital of beef cattle farmers in South Sulawesi. Population of this research was 31 beef cattle farmers. Variable of social capital was mutual trust, norms and linkage. The data were collected from observation and depth interview by using questionnaire. There were 10 questions which were adopted from Australian Center for International Agriculture Research. The answer was scored by using Likert scale ranging from 1 refer to strongly disagree; 2 refer to disagree; 3 refer to not sure; 4 refer to agree and 5 refer to strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively by using frequency distribution. The research revealed that the social capital of beef cattle farmers was categorized as “high”.

  17. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda veld, receiving three different levels of lick supplementation - Preliminary results. LA Foster, PJ Fourie, FWC Neser ...

  18. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; Eller, A. L. (Arthur Laxton), 1933-

    2011-01-01

    Contains articles on August beef management, Tri-State Cow Calf Conference, Virginia Livestock Hall of Fame, tips for successful sheep breeding, sheep field day, and an upcoming conference on parasite control in sheep and goats.

  19. Total quality management in beef production and distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović, Zoran; Milićević, Dragan; Parunović, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Total quality management is the concept of product quality management focused on the final consumer. The application of this concept in beef production is primarily determined by the definition of quality beef, or what is the ultimate goal of quality management, and defining measurable quality parameters. Defining physical parameters of quality, such as shear force according to the Warner-Bratzler, in the sample of m. longissimus dorsi muscle can be accepted as the resulting measurable value ...

  20. Beef Cow Numbers, Crop Acreage, and Crop Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barry W. Bobst; Joe T. Davis

    1987-01-01

    Land use shifts between cropland and pasture affect the demand for beef cow inventories because economically viable cow-calf enterprises are pasture-based. Econometric analysis indicates an inverse relationship of −36.6 thousand head of beef cows per million acre change in harvested cropland. Curtailment of the expansion phase of the current cattle cycle and subsequent declines in cow numbers is in part attributable to large acreages converted from pasture to cropland in the early 1980s. Conv...

  1. Value-added beef products (Productos Carnicos con Valor Agregado)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donaldson; Will Holder; Jan Holder

    2006-01-01

    I'm speaking for Will and Jan Holder, who couldn't be here. I happen to be familiar with Will and Jan's company, Ervin's Natural Beef, and its program because I've sold them cattle. Will and Jan's value-added beef program is based on their family ranch in the area known as The Blue, in the mountains of eastern Arizona.

  2. A Market Analysis for Specialty Beef in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Waddle, Ashleigh Danielle

    2009-01-01

    Virginia beef producers have been overwhelmed with increasing costs and decreasing profits as well as facing challenges such as development pressures, drought, increasing competition for grazing land. Together these have reduced opportunities for expansion and often increased incentives for farmers to sell land for non-agriculture use. Nevertheless, opportunities exist for the Virginia beef market. Consumer demand is changing and consumers are seeking food from alternative production systems ...

  3. Meeting European consumers’ demand for imported beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    combine data from an online choice experiment for beef using shelf simulations with questions to define respondents' attribute cut-off values, and the validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit......Utility cut-off values allow consumers to use simplifying decision strategies to lower the cognitive burden of decision making. Product attributes that do not pass the cut-off values are either not being considered by the individual or considered but with a great discount on their values....... This study provides deeper insights into consumers' use of attribute cut-off values when making choices. More specifically, we focus on "involvement", one of the potential drivers of both attribute cut-off use and cut-off violation. Involvement is considered a key component in consumer choice theory. We...

  4. Campylobacter in poultry, pork and beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Mathilde Hasseldam; Carroll, C.; Rudi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of Campylobacter is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly...... focuses on rapid methods for detection of Campylobacter in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of Campylobacter...... throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for Campylobacter. Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods...

  5. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  6. Opportunities for predicting and manipulating beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocquette, Jean-François; Botreau, Raphaëlle; Picard, Brigitte; Jacquet, Alain; Pethick, David W; Scollan, Nigel D

    2012-11-01

    Meat quality is a complex concept and can be defined as the characteristics of meat which satisfy consumers and citizens. The quality concept can be divided into intrinsic quality traits (which are the characteristics of the product itself) and extrinsic quality traits (which are more or less associated to the product for instance the price, a major determinant of purchase, or any brand or quality label). Quality can also be generic for the mass market or specific for niche markets. The relative importance of the different quality traits varies with human culture and time with a general trend of an increasing contribution of healthiness, safety and extrinsic quality traits. This review underlines the need for the development of methods to interpret and aggregate measures under specific rules to be defined in order to produce an overall assessment of beef quality. Such methods can be inferred for example from genomic results or data related to muscle biochemistry to better predict tenderness or flavor. A more global assurance quality scheme (the Meat Standards Australia System) based on the aggregation of sensory quality traits has been developed in Australia to ensure palatability to consumers. We speculated that the combination of indices related to sensory and nutritional quality, social and environmental considerations (carbon footprint, animal welfare, biodiversity of pasture, rural development, etc.) and economic efficiency (incomes of farmers and of others players along the supply chain, etc.) will provide objective assessment of the overall quality of beef (i.e. incorporating an all encompassing approach) not only for the mass market but also to support official quality labels of niche markets which are so far mainly associated with the geographical origins of the products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  8. Milestones in beef cattle genetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, B L; Garrick, D J; Benyshek, L L

    2009-04-01

    National beef cattle genetic evaluation programs have evolved in the United States over the last 35 yr to create important tools that are part of sustainable breeding programs. The history of national beef cattle genetic evaluation programs has lessons to offer the next generation of researchers as new approaches in molecular genetics and decision support are developed. Through a series of complex and intricate pressures from technology and organizational challenges, national cattle evaluation programs continue to grow in importance and impact. Development of enabling technologies and the interface of the disciplines of computer science, numerical methods, statistics, and quantitative genetics have created an example of how academics, government, and industry can work together to create more effective solutions to technical problems. The advent of mixed model procedures was complemented by a series of breakthrough discoveries that made what was previously considered intractable a reality. The creation of modern genetic evaluation procedures has followed a path characterized by a steady and constant approach to identification and solution for each technical problem encountered. At its core, the driving force for the evolution has been the need to constantly improve the accuracy of the predictions of genetic merit for breeding stock, especially young animals. Sensible approaches, such as the principle of economically relevant traits, were developed that created the rules to be followed as the programs grew. However, the current systems are far from complete or perfect. Modern genetic evaluation programs have a long way to go, and a great deal of improvement in the accuracy of prediction is still possible. But the greatest challenge remains: the need to understand that genetic predictions are only parameters for decision support procedures and not an end in themselves.

  9. Guaranteeing global synchronization in networks with stochastic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinglmayr, Johannes; Kirst, Christoph; Bettstetter, Christian; Timme, Marc

    2012-07-01

    We design the interactions between oscillators communicating via variably delayed pulse coupling to guarantee their synchronization on arbitrary network topologies. We identify a class of response functions and prove convergence to network-wide synchrony from arbitrary initial conditions. Synchrony is achieved if the pulse emission is unreliable or intentionally probabilistic. These results support the design of scalable, reliable and energy-efficient communication protocols for fully distributed synchronization as needed, e.g., in mobile phone networks, embedded systems, sensor networks and autonomously interacting swarm robots.

  10. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.

  11. Guarantee of Criminal Policy as Limited to Criminal Decisionism

    OpenAIRE

    María Belén Bonilla Albán

    2016-01-01

    The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy...

  12. [Living wills in a nursing home, guaranteeing freedom of expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigard Guyader, Céline; Richard, Christian

    The drawing up of a living will in a nursing home for elderly people is a complex process. Not only must the resident think about the end of life, which is not easy, but the institution must be fully aware of the law. Guaranteeing the resident's expression is essential. A study enabled this subject to be reviewed in a nursing home where different players are present around the resident. It enabled professionals to reflect on their practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptation of failure scenario based resilience schemes toward availability guarantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Matthias

    2006-07-01

    Various resilience schemes have been proposed to allow for fault-tolerant transport networks. Their common aim is to survive certain failure patterns such as node or span failures by providing alternative transmission paths. However, network operators guarantee the resulting network reliability in terms of service availability to their business customers. A maximum duration of service disruption per year must not be exceeded. We investigate an optimal design of resilient network configurations that adapts to end-to-end availability requirements. We formulate an integer linear program that minimizes the resource utilization and investigate a case study.

  14. The Financial Cost of Export Credit Guarantee Programs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    resembles a Ponzi scheme . To accurately assess the performance of an insurance program, losses must be matched with the premiums paid to 16 Table 8 LOSSES...4413296 THE FtINANCIAL : )T )F EXPwORT "REDIT UARANTEE PPCGRAMSU) ?AND :,. P :ANTA MOMIC-A -^ D P HiNRY JUN 91 RAND -2491-U:DP MDA993-85-r-9930 IFF...5/3 ML RE90WUTION TEST O4H1 ’Lr-.7-7 DTIC ELETE AUG 19 The Financial Cost of Export Credit Guarantee Programs AD-A 183 296 Donald Putnam Henry 67 8

  15. The Minimum Price Guarantee Policy before and after Real Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackelline Favro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the performance of the Minimum Price Guarantee Policy - MPGPin Brazil for the main agricultural products, during the 1980s and 1990s, and especially the post-Real Plan period. The research has a bibliographic and descriptive nature. The main results showed that the MPGP remains an important tool for ensuring income to farmers and the supply of selected crops in the analyzed period, but there was a reduction of public action for the new MPGP and new private instruments has revealed efficiency

  16. An Optimal Turkish Private Pension Plan with a Guarantee Feature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül İşcanog̃lu-Çekiç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish Private Pension System is an investment system which aims to generate income for future consumption. This is a volunteer system, and the contributions are held in individual portfolios. Therefore, management of the funds is an important issue for both the participants and the insurance company. In this study, we propose an optimal private pension plan with a guarantee feature that is based on Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI. We derive a closed form formula for the optimal strategy with the help of dynamic programming. Moreover, our model is evaluated with numerical examples, and we compare its performance by implementing a sensitivity analysis.

  17. National Beef Market Basket Survey - 2006: External fat thickness measurements and separable component determinations for beef from US retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, C L; Nicholson, K L; Brooks, J C; Delmore, R J; Henning, W R; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E; Gwartney, B L; Harris, K B; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Savell, J W

    2009-02-01

    A market basket survey for beef retail cut composition at the retail level (four stores each from two chains in each city) was conducted in 11 US cities from January to March 2006. Beef cuts (n=17,495) were measured for external fat thickness with cuts from the chuck (0.05cm), round (0.05cm), and miscellaneous (0.04cm) having less (Pmarketing purposes.

  18. Entrepreurship and Credit Constraints - Evidence from a French Loan Guarantee Program

    OpenAIRE

    C. LELARGE; D. SRAER; D. THESMAR

    2008-01-01

    We use information on a French loan guarantee program in order to assess the consequences of credit constraints for new ventures. Loan Guarantee Programs, as implemented in France, are an effective instrument to help young firms grow faster, both in terms of employment and capital. These effects are quite persistent, since they are still significant four years after obtaining the guarantee. Loan guarantees also allow firms to pay cheaper interest rate, but a potential drawback of this policy ...

  19. 13 CFR 120.521 - What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rate applies after... 504 Loans Sba's Purchase of A Guaranteed Portion § 120.521 What interest rate applies after SBA purchases its guaranteed portion? When SBA purchases the guaranteed portion of a fixed interest rate loan...

  20. 7 CFR 760.634 - SURE guarantee for value loss crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false SURE guarantee for value loss crops. 760.634 Section... Payments Program § 760.634 SURE guarantee for value loss crops. (a) The SURE guarantee for value loss crops... otherwise specified. (1) For each insurable crop on the farm, 115 percent of the product obtained by...

  1. 13 CFR 115.18 - Refusal to issue further guarantees; suspension and termination of PSB status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... guarantee practices—(1) Imprudent practices. SBA may refuse to issue further guarantees to a Prior Approval... determination that the Surety (in its underwriting, its efforts to minimize Loss, its claims or recovery practices, or its documentation related to SBA guaranteed bonds) has failed to adhere to prudent standards...

  2. Asymptotic Tracking Controller Design for Nonlinear Systems With Guaranteed Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Yang, Qinmin; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Sun, Youxian

    2017-07-21

    In this paper, a novel adaptive control strategy is presented for the tracking control of a class of multi-input-multioutput uncertain nonlinear systems with external disturbances to place user-defined time-varying constraints on the system state. Our contribution includes a step forward beyond the usual stabilization result to show that the states of the plant converge asymptotically, as well as remain within user-defined time-varying bounds. To achieve the new results, an error transformation technique is first established to generate an equivalent nonlinear system from the original one, whose asymptotic stability guarantees both the satisfaction of the time-varying restrictions and the asymptotic tracking performance of the original system. The uncertainties of the transformed system are overcome by an online neural network (NN) approximator, while the external disturbances and NN reconstruction error are compensated by the robust integral of the sign of the error signal. Via standard Lyapunov method, asymptotic tracking performance is theoretically guaranteed, and all the closed-loop signals are bounded. The requirement for a prior knowledge of bounds of uncertain terms is relaxed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the merits of the proposed controller.

  3. GMG: A Guaranteed, Efficient Global Optimization Algorithm for Remote Sensing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Helon, CD

    2004-08-18

    The monocular passive ranging (MPR) problem in remote sensing consists of identifying the precise range of an airborne target (missile, plane, etc.) from its observed radiance. This inverse problem may be set as a global optimization problem (GOP) whereby the difference between the observed and model predicted radiances is minimized over the possible ranges and atmospheric conditions. Using additional information about the error function between the predicted and observed radiances of the target, we developed GMG, a new algorithm to find the Global Minimum with a Guarantee. The new algorithm transforms the original continuous GOP into a discrete search problem, thereby guaranteeing to find the position of the global minimum in a reasonably short time. The algorithm is first applied to the golf course problem, which serves as a litmus test for its performance in the presence of both complete and degraded additional information. GMG is further assessed on a set of standard benchmark functions and then applied to various realizations of the MPR problem.

  4. Resilient guaranteed cost control of a power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hisham M.; Soliman, Mostafa H.; Hassan, Mohammad. F.

    2013-01-01

    With the development of power system interconnection, the low-frequency oscillation is becoming more and more prominent which may cause system separation and loss of energy to consumers. This paper presents an innovative robust control for power systems in which the operating conditions are changing continuously due to load changes. However, practical implementation of robust control can be fragile due to controller inaccuracies (tolerance of resistors used with operational amplifiers). A new design of resilient (non-fragile) robust control is given that takes into consideration both model and controller uncertainties by an iterative solution of a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). Both uncertainties are cast into a norm-bounded structure. A sufficient condition is derived to achieve the desired settling time for damping power system oscillations in face of plant and controller uncertainties. Furthermore, an improved controller design, resilient guaranteed cost controller, is derived to achieve oscillations damping in a guaranteed cost manner. The effectiveness of the algorithm is shown for a single machine infinite bus system, and then, it is extended to multi-area power system. PMID:25685505

  5. DEPOSIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES JOIN FINANCIAL SAFETY-NET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Dijmarescu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Deposit Guarantee Schemes (DGS become more visible under the current conditions of the world financial markets. If those have played in the past a rather discreet role for social stability through the function of pay box following a bank failure, the recent crisis put them in a new light, once the guarantee ceiling for eligible deposits grew in order to make for the accumulation of wealth worldwide and the increased risk incurred by the leverage of banking operations. Consequently, the resources accumulated by the DGS from the member banks and their proper management make possible their involvement in pre-emptive actions aimed to avoid bankruptcies via special administration and purchase of assets and assumption of liabilities. These new attributes give DGS a role in the mechanism of financial safety-net, along the supervisors of the market. Hence, an increased preoccupation for applied corporate governance has developed and Core Principles for Effective Deposit Insurance Systems have been adopted by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision together with International Association of Deposit Insurers. Concurrently, the EU Commission has put forward a process for reviewing the Directives 94/39 and 09/14 EC, in order to make the European DGS more prepared to deal with above mentioned issues and bestow increased confidence upon depositors.

  6. The Role of Consumer risk Perceptions and Attitudes in Cross Cultural Beef Consumptions Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Better understanding of the forces causing observed consumer

  7. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however,

  8. The impact of health-care service guarantees on consumer decision-making: an experimental investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennett-Hensel, Pamela A; Min, Kyeong Sam; Totten, Jeff W

    2012-01-01

    While examples of the successful use of service guarantees in health-care do exist, to-date, researchers have yet to examine this industry-specific application beyond a case study perspective. The results of this experiment begin to shed light on whether or not guarantees should be used, and if so, under what conditions are they appropriate. Respondents indicate that the thoughtful use of service guarantees can positively impact their perceptions of the health-care provider's reputation and, ultimately, their behavioral intentions towards the same provider. However, consideration must be given to the type of guarantee being offered and to whom the guarantee is targeted.

  9. Effects of Price and Quality Differences in Source Differentiated Beef on Market Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young-Jae; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2009-01-01

    In order to estimate demand elasticities of source differentiated beef in South Korea, this study used the quantity of an endogenous demand system derived through maximizing the economic welfare of market participants including local beef consumers and local and foreign beef suppliers. The demand system is then weighted with respect to quality adjustment parameters to identify the effects of quality differences in source differentiated beef on market demand. As implied by the high relative pr...

  10. 9 CFR 94.27 - Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beef from Japan. 94.27 Section 94.27 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... IMPORTATIONS § 94.27 Importation of whole cuts of boneless beef from Japan. Notwithstanding any other... slaughtered in Japan may be imported into the United States under the following conditions: (a) The beef is...

  11. An analysis of beef demand in a nigerian urban city | Udoh | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of beef demand and consumption in Nigerian cities has been questionably and progressively low. This study empirically modeled a demand function of beef meat in Lagos city with the aim of identifying major demand shifters. Based on the regression analysis, unit retail price of beef and disposable income were ...

  12. Efficient Vessel Tracking  with Accuracy Guarantees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redoutey, Martin; Scotti, Eric; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Safety and security are top concerns in maritime navigation, particularly as maritime traffic continues to grow and as crew sizes are reduced. The Automatic Identification System (AIS) plays a key role in regard to these concerns. This system, whose objective is in part to identify and locate...... vessels, transmits location-related information from vessels to ground stations that are part of a so-called Vessel Traffic Service (VTS), thus enabling these to track the movements of the vessels. This paper presents techniques that improve the existing AIS by offering better and guaranteed tracking...... accuracies at lower communication costs. The techniques employ movement predictions that are shared between vessels and the VTS. Empirical studies with a prototype implementation and real vessel data demonstrate that the techniques are capable of significantly improving the AIS....

  13. Honeywell starts energy-management service: savings guaranteed; BOSS replaced

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, R.

    1983-01-24

    Honeywell Inc. guarantees that its new Honeywell Service Link Operation (HSLO), a time-sharing service, will produce greater energy savings than its monthly fees. There are no front-end costs because the central computer is located at the supplier's Atlanta site, making energy management cost-affordable for facilities as small as 25,000 square feet. HSLO replaces Honeywell's Building Operations Service System (BOSS) that has a minimum-size requirement of 100,000 square feet. BOSS customers will be automatically changed to HSLO at no charge. All 21 regional computer centers will be available to users. Johnson Controls, Inc. also operates a time-sharing operation called Total Automated Building Services (TABS). (DCK)

  14. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  15. Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2018-12-01

    To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  16. Feature Selection for Ridge Regression with Provable Guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saurabh; Drineas, Petros

    2016-04-01

    We introduce single-set spectral sparsification as a deterministic sampling-based feature selection technique for regularized least-squares classification, which is the classification analog to ridge regression. The method is unsupervised and gives worst-case guarantees of the generalization power of the classification function after feature selection with respect to the classification function obtained using all features. We also introduce leverage-score sampling as an unsupervised randomized feature selection method for ridge regression. We provide risk bounds for both single-set spectral sparsification and leverage-score sampling on ridge regression in the fixed design setting and show that the risk in the sampled space is comparable to the risk in the full-feature space. We perform experiments on synthetic and real-world data sets; a subset of TechTC-300 data sets, to support our theory. Experimental results indicate that the proposed methods perform better than the existing feature selection methods.

  17. AUTOMATION OF PLC PROGRAMMING WHEN IMPLEMENTING ALGORITHMS OF GUARANTEEING CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Levinskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During developing programs for programmable logic controllers (PLCs the concept of model-oriented design is increasingly used. In particular, usage of Simulink PLC Coder is giving the opportunity to get SCL program codefrom Simulink model which contains certain dynamic elements. Then, for example, this SCL code can be transformed to functional blocks of the Simatic S7-300 (VIPA 300 PLC. This significantly reduces the timerequired to develop code in the language of SCL and reduces requirements for specialists’ qualification when developing control systems. In this article we provide an example of PLC programming automation whenimplementing algorithms of guaranteeing control (AGC. For certain types of technological processes it is typical to contain monotonically increasing function of the effectiveness with fixed one-way restriction in regulations. Forexample, in the grinders, presses, extruders the load current of the drive is stabilized using the change of feed. Energy efficiency of these plants will increase with increasing of the set point (SP to the controller of the drive loadcurrent stabilization loop. However, an increase in SP increases the probability of triggering appropriate protection, for example, as a result of random changes in the properties of raw materials. Therefore, to avoid this accident, thepower of driving motors is often unreasonably overrated. And in this case they are used with currents equal to the half of rated.Systems of guaranteeing control (SGC are used to solve the contradiction between the need to improvethe efficiency and increasing probability of an accident.

  18. Arcobacter Isolation from Minced Beef Samples in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba-Calderón, Oscar; Redondo-Solano, Mauricio; Castro-Arias, Eduardo; Arias-EchandI, María Laura

    2017-04-03

    The presence of Arcobacter spp. in minced meat (including beef) samples has been well documented in different countries, with varying frequencies. Nevertheless, the only Latin American country reporting this bacterium in minced beef samples is Mexico, with a 28.8% frequency in 2003. Previous studies in Costa Rica have demonstrated the presence of Arcobacter species in samples taken from the poultry production chain, but still there are no studies performed in bovine meat. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of this bacterium in 120 samples of minced beef acquired from the Central Valley region of Costa Rica and to describe the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the isolates obtained. A total of 75 different Arcobacter strains were isolated from minced beef samples, for a final frequency of 48.3%. After species PCR identification, the strains were classified as A. butzleri (37.3%), A. cibarius (14.7%), A. thereius (12%), and Arcobacter spp. (36%). All samples were sensitive to gentamicin but were resistant to ampicillin, levofloxacin, nalidixic acid, and ciprofloxacin. The results obtained in this study show that the frequency of isolation of Arcobacter in minced beef samples is high and that there is a high resistance rate for antibiotics in common use. This suggests that Arcobacter represents a health risk for Costa Rica and that control measures should be developed to decrease its potential impact.

  19. Industrial development of beef and pork cecina with different flavors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco A. Nuñez-Gonzalez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cecina used traditional technique for salting and preserving meat as well as to impart flavor; however, addition of spices is a viable alternative to diversify the flavors of the product. The objective of this research was to develop beef and pork cecina of flavors and evaluate lipid oxidation after 30 days of storage. Beef and pork cecina were distributed independently in four treatments: Formulation 1 or base (10.7% salt, 1.3% sugar, 0.5% nitrite and seasoning 0.1%; formulation 2, base plus 10 g of mixture of coriander, celery, parsley dehydrated/kg meat; formulation 3, base plus 10 g dry mirasol chilli/kg of meat and liquid smoke (2 mL/L and formulation 4, base plus 0.80 mL of essential oregano oil/L. Beef cecina was dried at 80 °C for 150 minutes and pork cecina for 180 minutes until these achieved a water activity (aw of 0.75. Beef cecina was packaged in cellophane bag, while for pork cecina in vacuum bags. Lipid oxidation was determined using thiobarbituric acid test (TBA. The results revealed that only beef cecina presented fat rancidity.

  20. Space Weather: Where Is The Beef?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, H. E. J.

    Space weather has become a highly fashionable topic in solar-terrestrial physics. It is perhaps the best tool to popularise the field and it has contributed significantly to the dialogue between solar, magnetospheric, and ionospheric scientist, and also to mu- tual understanding between science and engineering communities. While these are laudable achievements, it is important for the integrity of scientific space weather re- search to recognise the central open questions in the physics of space weather and the progress toward solving them. We still lack sufficient understanding of the solar physics to be able to tell in advance when and where a solar eruption will take place and whether it will turn to a geoeffective event. There is much to do to understand ac- celeration of solar energetic particles and propagation of solar mass ejecta toward the Earth. After more than 40 years of research scientific discussion of energy and plasma transfer through the magnetopause still deals mostly with qualitative issues and the rapid acceleration processes in the magnetosphere are not yet explained in a satisfac- tory way. Also the coupling to the ionosphere and from there to the strong induction effects on ground is another complex of research problems. For space weather science the beef is in the investigation of these and related topics, not in marketing half-useful space weather products to hesitant customers.

  1. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality.

  2. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Guaranteeing the implementation of guarantees of origin: Creating a fair mechanism for renewable electricity generation and trade in europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houwing; Michiel; Vries, Laurens J. de

    2005-01-01

    With the Renewables Directive (2001/77/EC) the EU has obliged its Member States to implement the Guarantees of Origin (GO) policy instrument into their national renewable electricity support schemes. Compared to formerly existing policy instruments as tradable green certificates, GOs can in a Union broad quota obligation scheme, for example, prove to be of major value in arriving at a more transparent and efficient way of trading renewable electricity. This paper gives an overview of the most important hurdles still to be addressed, mainly being double counting issues and policy interactions. When more clarity is given from the Commission in the future and when more EU Member States implement GOs beyond the minimum requirements, international trading of renewable electricity can become truly feasible. (Author)

  4. Factors affecting beef consumption in the valley of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Tellez Delgado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to know the factors that determine the consumption of beef in the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico, using logit and probit modeling (nominal variable with 400 surveys. The results showed that significant variables that determine the probability of purchasing beef are schooling, number of members per family, meat preference, family income, and presence of disease in the individual. The largest marginal effects on the purchase decision were provided by the income and the meat preference variables, while the price was not significant. The main factors that determine the consumption of beef are schooling and the number of members in the family, while the meat preference and income are dismissed.

  5. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    .5-22.7 versus 42.9 m2year, and 41.3-48.2 versus 59.2 MJ, respectively). The breakdown analysis helped identify the key areas in the "cradle to farm gate" beef production system where sustainable management strategies are needed to improve environmental performance. The study also included a sensitivity analysis......The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental consequences of beef meat production in the EU, using a life cycle approach. Four beef production systems were studied - three from intensively reared dairy calves and one from suckler herds. According to the results of the analysis...... on a depreciation period of 20 years. This highlights the importance of taking into account the impacts of land use in assessing the environmental impacts of livestock production....

  6. Antimicrobial Effect of Nisin against Bacillus cereus in Beef Jerky during Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Lee, Joo Yeon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The microbial distribution of raw materials and beef jerky, and the effect of nisin on the growth of Bacillus cereus inoculated in beef jerky during storage, were studied. Five strains of pathogenic B. cereus were detected in beef jerky, and identified with 99.8% agreement using API CHB 50 kit. To evaluate the effect of nisin, beef jerky was inoculated with approximately 3 Log CFU/g of B. cereus mixed culture and nisin (100 IU/g and 500 IU/g). During the storage of beef jerky without nisin, t...

  7. [Rapid evaluation of beef quality by NIRS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Song; Meng, Qing-Xiang; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Xie, Xiang-Xue

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy rapid method for evaluation of beef quality. Partial least squares (PLS) prediction model for the physic-chemical characteristics such as moisture, fat, protein, pH, color and WBSF in beef was established with good veracity. One hundred fourteen samples from five different parts of beef carcass (tenderloin, ribeye, topside, shin, striploin) were collected from meat packer after 48 h aging. Spectra were obtained by scanning sample from 950 to 1 650 nm and pretreated the model by MSC, SNV and first derivative. Predictive correlation coefficients of physic-chemical parameters in beef were 0.947 2 (moisture), 0.924 5 (fat), 0.934 6 (protein), 0.620 2 (pH), 0.820 3 (L), 0.864 6 (a*), 0.753 0 (b*) and 0.475 9 (WBSF) respectively. Root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC) were 0.313 3 (moisture), 0.221 0 (fat), 1.243 2 (protein), 0.744 6 (pH), 1.778 3 (L*), 1.394 2 (a*), 1.763 9 (b*) and 1.0743 (WBSF). They were externally validated with additional 30 beef samples. Statistics showed that there was no significant difference between predicted value and those obtained with conventional laboratory methods. The results showed that NIRS is a rapid, effective technique for evaluating beef quality. The predictions for chemical characteristics gave higher accuracy than prediction for physical characteristics.

  8. Beef identification in industrial slaughterhouses using machine vision techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Velez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate individual animal identification provides the producers with useful information to take management decisions about an individual animal or about the complete herd. This identification task is also important to ensure the integrity of the food chain. Consequently, many consumers are turning their attention to issues of quality in animal food production methods. This work describes an implemented solution for individual beef identification, taking in the time from cattle shipment arrival at the slaughterhouse until the animals are slaughtered and cut up. Our beef identification approach is image-based and the pursued goals are the correct automatic extraction and matching between some numeric information extracted from the beef ear-tag and the corresponding one from the Bovine Identification Document (BID. The achieved correct identification results by our method are near 90%, by considering the practical working conditions of slaughterhouses (i.e. problems with dirt and bad illumination conditions. Moreover, the presence of multiple machinery in industrial slaughterhouses make it difficult the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID beef tags due to the high risks of interferences between RFID and the other technologies in the workplace. The solution presented is hardware/software since it includes a specialized hardware system that was also developed. Our approach considers the current EU legislation for beef traceability and it reduces the economic cost of individual beef identification with respect to RFID transponders. The system implemented has been in use satisfactorily for more than three years in one of the largest industrial slaughterhouses in Spain.

  9. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  10. Semen quality of fertile US males in relation to their mothers' beef consumption during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, S H; Liu, F; Overstreet, J W; Brazil, C; Skakkebaek, N E

    2007-06-01

    BACKGROUND To look at possible long-term risks from anabolic steroids and other xenobiotics in beef, we examined men's semen quality in relation to their mother's self-reported beef consumption during pregnancy. The study was carried out in five US cities between 1999 and 2005. We used regression analyses to examine semen parameters in 387 partners of pregnant women in relation to the amount of beef their mothers reported eating while pregnant. Mothers' beef consumption was also analysed in relation to the son's history of previous subfertility. RESULTS Sperm concentration was inversely related to mothers' beef meals per week (P = 0.041). In sons of "high beef consumers" (>7 beef meals/week), sperm concentration was 24.3% lower (P = 0.014) and the proportion of men with sperm concentration below 20 x 10(6)/ml was three times higher (17.7 versus 5.7%, P = 0.002) than in men whose mothers ate less beef. A history of previous subfertility was also more frequent among sons of "high beef consumers" (P = 0.015). Sperm concentration was not significantly related to mother's consumption of other meat or to the man's consumption of any meat. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that maternal beef consumption, and possibly xenobiotics in beef, may alter a man's testicular development in utero and adversely affect his reproductive capacity.

  11. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2014-07-01

    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune

    2012-01-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study...... investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n=108) and Norway (n=110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different...... technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries...

  13. Antimicrobial Effect of Nisin against Bacillus cereus in Beef Jerky during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Kim, Hyoun Wook; Lee, Joo Yeon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The microbial distribution of raw materials and beef jerky, and the effect of nisin on the growth of Bacillus cereus inoculated in beef jerky during storage, were studied. Five strains of pathogenic B. cereus were detected in beef jerky, and identified with 99.8% agreement using API CHB 50 kit. To evaluate the effect of nisin, beef jerky was inoculated with approximately 3 Log CFU/g of B. cereus mixed culture and nisin (100 IU/g and 500 IU/g). During the storage of beef jerky without nisin, the number of mesophilic bacteria and B. cereus increased unlikely for beef jerky with nisin. B. cereus started to grow after 3 d in 100 IU nisin/g treatment, and after 21 d in 500 IU nisin/g treatment. The results suggest that nisin could be an effective approach to extend the shelf-life, and improve the microbial safety of beef jerky, during storage.

  14. Chemical basis for beef charqui meat texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Y. Youssef

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the relationship of charqui meat (CHM chemical composition with the tenderness throughout its production. CHM was prepared from beef Vastus lateralis of 4-5 years old. Shear force of fresh CHM showed an approx. 3-fold increase in toughness compared to the raw material while, in the case of cooked CHM it was 6-fold increased in relation to the raw charqui. The moisture content decreased by 39.0 and 58.0% (pEste trabalho avaliou a relação entre a composição química aproximada do charque (CHM com a maciez durante todas as etapas de sua produção. CHM foi produzida do m. Vastus lateralis bovino (patinho de aproximadamente 4-5 anos de idade. A força de cisalhamento do charque cru mostrou o valor aproximado de 3 vezes maior em dureza comparada à matéria prima enquanto que no caso do CHM cozido houve 6 vezes maior em aumento sob as mesmas condições.O índice de umidade diminui de 39 a 58% (p<0,05 para CHM cru e cozido, respectivamente, em relação à matéria prima. O modelo matemático da influência destes componentes mostrou que a força de cisalhamento aumentou exponencialmente com a perda de umidade. A textura do charque é o resultado da associação de multifatores envolvendo proteínas miofibrilares que provocam eventos bioquímicos dinâmicos como a sua ligação com as moléculas da água. É a quantidade destas que determina a textura final do charque.

  15. Financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at OPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hengel, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on the establishment and maintenance of a financial guarantee for decommissioning and nuclear waste management activities at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) in accordance with CNSC requirements. The process and timelines are documented leading to the establishment of the guarantee effective July 31, 2003. Reference plans, cost estimates, funding mechanisms and reporting mechanisms are summarized. The renewal process projected at the end of the 5-year initial financial guarantee period is also included. (author)

  16. Safety-Guaranteed Trajectory Tracking Control for the Underactuated Hovercraft with State and Input Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Mingyu; Gao, Shuang; Wang, Chenglong

    2017-01-01

    This paper develops a safety-guaranteed trajectory tracking controller for hovercraft by using a safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system, an integral sliding mode control, and an adaptive neural network method. The safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system is designed to implement system state and input constraints. By considering the relationship of velocity and resistance hump, the velocity of hovercraft is constrained to eliminate the effect of resistance hump and obtain better stabili...

  17. ACCESS TO FINANCE FOR SMEs BY CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEMES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Sarigul, Hasmet

    2013-01-01

    Credit guarantee schemes assist banks in lending to SMEs by overcoming collateral problems. The guarantees are used to share the risk between the bank and the guarantee institution in an agreed ratio. Thus, the bank’s risk and operation costs are lowered and its returns increased. This encourages banks to lend to SMEs who are unable to provide adequate collateral. In our study, we investigate the relationship between SMEs, banks and CGSs. We also aimed to explain the functioning of CGSs...

  18. Guaranteed energy-efficient bit reset in finite time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Cormac; Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O; Vedral, Vlatko

    2014-09-05

    Landauer's principle states that it costs at least kBTln2 of work to reset one bit in the presence of a heat bath at temperature T. The bound of kBTln2 is achieved in the unphysical infinite-time limit. Here we ask what is possible if one is restricted to finite-time protocols. We prove analytically that it is possible to reset a bit with a work cost close to kBTln2 in a finite time. We construct an explicit protocol that achieves this, which involves thermalizing and changing the system's Hamiltonian so as to avoid quantum coherences. Using concepts and techniques pertaining to single-shot statistical mechanics, we furthermore prove that the heat dissipated is exponentially close to the minimal amount possible not just on average, but guaranteed with high confidence in every run. Moreover, we exploit the protocol to design a quantum heat engine that works near the Carnot efficiency in finite time.

  19. On routing algorithms with end-to-end delay guarantees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-11-01

    The authors consider the transmission of a message of size r from a source to a destination with guarantees on the end-to-end delay over a computer network with n nodes and m links. There are three sources of delays: (a) propagation delays along the links, (b) delays due to bandwidth availability on the links, and (c) queuing delays at the intermediate nodes. First, the authors consider that delays on various links and nodes are given as functions of the message size. If the delay in (b) is a non-increasing function of the bandwidth, they propose O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute a path with the minimum end-to-end delay for any given message size r. They then consider that the queuing delay in (c) is a random variable correlated with the message size according to an unknown distribution. At each node, the measurements of queuing delays and message sizes are available. They propose two algorithms to compute paths whose delays are close to optimal delays with a high probability, irrespective of the distribution of the delays, and based entirely on the measurements of sufficient size.

  20. COCOA PRODUCTION - AGRICULTURAL CREDIT GUARANTEE SCHEME FUND NEXUS IN NIGERIA: A COINTEGRATION APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Oyakhilomen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to examine the relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund using time series data on cocoa production in Nigeria, value of loans guaranteed and number of loans guaranteed spanning over the period of 1981 to 2011. The Johansen cointegration test was employed in this study and the result indicated that there was no cointegrating relationship between cocoa production in Nigeria and Agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund over the period under study. This could be attributed to the guaranteeing of few number as well as limited value of credit to the farmers by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund and the high incidence of loan diversion by the cocoa farmers who had access to the loans guaranteed by agricultural credit guarantee scheme fund. It is recommended that the number as well as the value of credit guaranteed to cocoa farmers should be significantly increased so as to enable the farmers expand their production and thereby, reposition the cocoa to assume a critical role as a major non-oil foreign exchange earner in the Agricultural transformation plan of Nigeria.

  1. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Discrete-Time Positive Impulsive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness of discrete-time positive impulsive switched systems. Firstly, the definition of guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness is introduced. By using the multiple linear copositive Lyapunov function (MLCLF and average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller is designed and sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop system is guaranteed cost finite-time boundedness (GCFTB. Such conditions can be solved by linear programming. Finally, a numerical example is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. A Scheduling Discipline for Latency and Bandwidth Guarantees in Asynchronous Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Tobias; Sparsø, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Guaranteed services (GS) are important in that they provide predictability in the complex dynamics of shared communication structures. This paper discusses the implementation of GS in asynchronous Network-on-Chip. We present a novel scheduling discipline called Asynchronous Latency Guarantee (ALG......) scheduling, which provides latency and bandwidth guarantees in accessing a shared media, e.g. a physical link shared between a number of virtual channels. ALG overcomes the drawbacks of existing scheduling disciplines, in particular the coupling between latency and bandwidth guarantees. A 0.12 &956;m CMOS...

  3. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Determinants and opportunities for commercial marketing of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to examine the factors influencing smallholder producers' potential to sell cattle and identify marketing opportunities for sustainable beef production in South Africa. A total of 95 structured questionnaires was administered to the Ncorha and Gxwalibomvu communities in the Eastern Cape ...

  5. In Vitro Iron Availability from Insects and Sirloin Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Yang, Wenge; Vera Aviles, Mayra

    2016-11-09

    Interest in the consumption of insects (entomophagy) as an alternative environmentally sustainable source of protein in the diet of humans has recently witnessed a surge. Knowledge of the nutrient composition and, in particular, the bioavailability of minerals from insects is currently sparse. This study evaluated the availability of Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn from four commonly eaten insects and compared these to sirloin beef. Soluble iron from the samples was measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Iron bioavailability was determined using an in vitro simulated peptic-pancreatic digestion, followed by measurement of ferritin (a surrogate marker for iron absorption) in Caco-2 cells. Cricket and sirloin beef had comparably higher levels of Fe, Ca, and Mn than grasshopper, meal, and buffalo worms. However, iron solubility was significantly higher from the insect samples than from beef. The complementation of whole-wheat flour with insect or beef protein resulted in overall decreases in mineral content and iron solubility in the composite mixtures. Collectively, the data show that grasshopper, cricket, and mealworms contain significantly higher chemically available Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, and Zn than sirloin. However, buffalo worms and sirloin exhibited higher iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO 4 . Commonly consumed insect species could be excellent sources of bioavailable iron and could provide the platform for an alternative strategy for increased mineral intake in the diets of humans.

  6. Management characteristics of beef cattle production in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    A comprehensive life cycle assessment of the United States’ beef value chain requires the collection of region-specific data for accurate characterization of the country’s diverse production practices. Cattle production in Hawaii is very different from the rest of the country due to its unique ecosy...

  7. Physical and chemical properties of selected beef muscles infused ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, the biceps femoris (BF, silverside), rectus femoris muscle (RF), semitendinosus muscle (ST, eye of the silverside), supraspinatus muscle (SS, scotch fillet) and longissimus et lumborum muscles from the left side of beef carcasses were infused, 3 d post mortem, with a blend consisting of various ...

  8. Measuring beef production in the cow herd | Klosterman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (1981) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Measuring beef production in the cow herd.

  9. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review different means of expressing genetic reproductive merit. The breeding objective considered was to maximize the number of calves born or weaned for a given number of cows in a herd under prevailing ...

  10. Scrotal circumference in young beef bulls: Relationships to growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Young beef bulls, scrotal circumference, growth para- meters, compatible. 149 ... dairy cattle, but natural mating accounts for most of the pregnancies .... quality and fertility. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 5, 31. SWANEPOEL, F.J.C. & HEYNS, H., 1986. Relationships between growth parameters and scrotal circumference in.

  11. National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National genetic improvement programmes in the United States beef industry. L.L. Benyshek* and J.K. Bertrand ... cattle industry is accepting, in fact, demanding estimates of genetic values on yearling bulls. Single and multiple analy- ses are ... teristic in a directed fashion without change of the genetic material (mutation) or ...

  12. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SH

    IJAAAR 9 (1&2): 106-112, 2013 International Journal of Applied Agricultural and Apicultural Research. © Faculty ... 1Department of Agricultural Economics, and 2Department of Animal Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo. University ... Factors identified were; household size, educational level, occupation, expenditure on beef, and.

  13. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef cattle with measured milk production. MD MacNeil, VR Leesburg, TB Mott. Abstract. The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation ...

  14. Botswana's Beef Global Commodity Chain: Explaining the Resistance to Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    In an era of increasing global agricultural trade, many firms and farms seek to upgrade their agricultural commodity chains to become better integrated into global markets. Utilizing a global commodity chain (GCC) approach, this analysis unravels the challenges to and the potential consequences of upgrading Botswana's beef commodity chain.…

  15. Quantitative Analysis of Oxytetracycline Residue in Beef and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study showed that a high proportion of beef and chicken consumed in the cities contained violative levels of oxytetracycline residue arising possibly from indiscriminate antibiotics usage in Nigeria livestock industry. These could predispose meat consumers to the associated health risks of antibiotic residue. Regulatory ...

  16. Quality related principles of the South African beef classification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses the principles related to different grading and classification systems of the world with specific focus on beef quality related outcomes. The paper uses the definitions that classification is a set of descriptive terms describing features of the carcass that are useful as guidelines to those involved in the ...

  17. Comparative analysis of beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study isolated and discussed the factors driving beef and fish consumption in Ekwusigo Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Anambra State, Nigeria. Cross sectional data generated from 120 households randomly selected from five villages in Ekwusigo L.G.A was used. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis was ...

  18. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2013-06-06

    Jun 6, 2013 ... Keywords: Direct effects, heterosis, maternal effects, taurus, indicus, sanga. # Corresponding author: atheunissen@ncpg.gov.za. Introduction. Crossbreeding systems are employed mainly to improve the efficiency of beef production through the use of heritable difference among breeds and heterosis.

  19. Comparative determination of trimethylamine in fresh beef samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was carried out to determine the concentration of trimethylamine (TMA) in fresh samples of beef purchased from markets within Kaduna metropolis namely: Central Market, Sabo Market and Kawo Market. The analysis was carried out using spectrophotometry in which the levels of trimethylamine in 100 g of ...

  20. Characterization of beef cattle breeds by virtue of their performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average growth and body weight data, which comprised 745 400 weaning records and 14 990 Phase C growth records of young bulls of 16 breeds were obtained from the National Beef Cattle Performance and Progeny Testing Scheme and used in this re-analysis to characterize breeds for a variety of important traits.

  1. Sustainable crossbreeding systems of beef cattle in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An effective way to reduce the carbon footprint from beef cattle would be to reduce the numbers and increase the production per animal, thereby improving their productivity. Sustainable crossbreeding systems can be an effective way to reduce GHG, as it has been shown to increase production. There are a wide range of ...

  2. Variance component estimation on female fertility traits in beef cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The purpose of this review is to define possible breeding objectives for Southern African beef cattle farmers and to review ... records and weigh animals at birth, weaning, yearling age and 18 months of age. ..... calving ease between 2-year old dams and 3-year old dams with mature dams, were estimated to be 0.46 and.

  3. Beef-derived Mesoporous Carbon as Highly Efficient Support for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    incorporated into the graphene layer but also formed a variety of functional groups, which likely play an important role in the dispersion of metal nanoparticles and the electrocatalytic process. Figure 10b shows the Pt 4f XPS analysis of PtRuIr/C-Beef and. PtRuIr/C catalysts, respectively. The two intense XPS peaks represent ...

  4. AN APPRAISAL OF BEEF BREEDING IN THE REPUBLIC OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yet to doubt the general theory and its mathematics and a very sound foundation therefore is available from which to develop furhter. Defining Characteristics of Economic Importance and their Meas,rres. Sheets (1933) was probably first in modern times to consider beef characteristics of economic importance and how best ...

  5. The U.S. beef cattle industry: The carbon footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was an invited 20 minute oral presentation concerning the carbon footprint of the U.S. beef cattle industry. The audience at the workshop (about 30 people) included university professors and graduate students from agriculture and enviornmental sciences. The presentation included a brief revie...

  6. Brazilian beef produced on pastures: sustainable and healthy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, J F P; Freitas, A K; Devincenzi, T; Cardoso, L L; Tarouco, J U; Vieira, R M; Dillenburg, D R; Castro, I

    2014-11-01

    With a herd of 209 million cattle, Brazilian beef production estimate for 2023 is 10,935 million tons, representing an increase of 28.9% and accounting for 20% of the world trade. Beef cattle production is constantly evolving; however, there are extremes, ranging from simple existing farm ranges to intensive forage systems, strategic supplementation, updated health and genetic improvement programs for the production of quality beef. This modern production is based on scientific research carried out at universities and other research institutions. A new generation of professionals with multidisciplinary knowledge and a holistic vision of the productive chain-proposed management practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the production of grass-fed beef cattle, whose meat has high omega-3 and CLA contents. Age at slaughter of steers and of heifers at first mating, significant increases in the ratio calves/100 cows, adequate traceability for pastoral systems with hundreds or thousands of animals per farm and a more intense transference of technology are required. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Carcass characteristics of tropical beef cattle breeds (West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... This preliminary study was conducted using 35 animals to provide a means of a more accurate estimation of live and carcass weights of three tropical cattle beef cattle; the Zebu (Plate1), the humpless West African shorthorn (WASH) (Plate2) and the Sanga ...

  8. Characterization of radiation-resistant vegetative bacteria in beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, A.B.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground beef contains numerous microorganisms of various types. The commonly recognized bacteria are associated with current problems of spoilage. Irradiation, however, contributes a new factor through selective destruction of the microflora. The residual microorganisms surviving a nonsterilizing dose are predominantly gram-negative coccobacilli. Various classifications have been given, e.g., Moraxella, Acinetobacter, Achromobacter, etc. For a more detailed study of these radiation-resistant bacteria occurring in ground beef, an enrichment procedure was used for isolation. By means of morphological and biochemical tests, most of the isolates were found to be Moraxella, based on current classifications. The range of growth temperatures was from 2 to 50 C. These bacteria were relatively heat sensitive, e.g., D 10 of 5.4 min at 70 0 C or less. The radiation resistance ranged from D 10 values of 273 to 2,039 krad. Thus, some were more resistant than any presently recognized spores. A reference culture of Moraxella osloensis was irradiated under conditions comparable to the enrichment procedure used with the ground beef. The only apparent changes were in morphology and penicillin sensitivity. However, after a few subcultures these bacteria reverted to the characteristics of the parent strain. Thus, it is apparent that these isolates are a part of the normal flora of ground beef and not aberrant forms arising from the irradiation procedure. The significance, if any, of these bacteria is not presently recognized. (auth)

  9. Beef Production on Rotationally Grazed F1 Pennisetum Hybrid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative studies of elephant grass and the F1 hybrids between the 'maiwa' cultivar of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and elephant grass (P. purpureum) indicated a superiority in quality of the hybrids. To ascertain this potential superiority animal performance was measured by estimating beef production on F1 ...

  10. Polymorphisms in the leptin gene promoter in Brazilian beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, R C; Azevedo, J S N; Corrêa, S C; Campelo, J E G; Barbosa, E M; Gonçalves, E C; Silva Filho, E

    2016-12-02

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of beef cattle; however, the quality of its herds needs to be improved. The use of molecular markers as auxiliary tools in selecting animals for reproduction with high pattern for beef production would significantly improve the quality of the final beef product in Brazil. The leptin gene has been demonstrated to be an excellent candidate gene for bovine breeding. The objective of this study was to sequence and compare the leptin gene promoter of Brazil's important cattle breeds in order to identify polymorphisms in it. Blood samples of the Nellore, Guzerat, Tabapuã, and Senepol breeds were collected for genomic DNA extraction. The genomic DNA was used as a template for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify a 1575-bp fragment, which in turn was sequenced, aligned, and compared between animals of different breeds. Twenty-three single nucleotide polymorphic sites, including transitions and transversions, were detected at positions -1457, -1452, -1446, -1397, -1392, -1361, -1238, -963,-901, -578, -516, -483, -478, -470, -432, -430, -292, -282, -272, -211, -202, -170, and -147. Additionally, two insertion sites at positions -680 and -416 and two deletion sites at positions -1255 and -1059 were detected. As the promoter region of the leptin gene has been demonstrated to vary among breeds, these variations must be tested for their use as potential molecular markers for artificial selection of animals for enhanced beef production in different systems of bovine production in Brazil.

  11. Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress and adaptation in beef heifers. 2. Influence of pen conditions on thyroid activity of Shorthoffi, ... 1971). The aim of the study was to determine the influence of penning on thyroxine concentrations of Shorthorn, ... intermediate (Bonsmara) types, were used in a switchback experimental design (Cochran & Cox, 1957).

  12. Assessment of beef microbial contamination at abattoir and retail ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross section study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality to assess microbial contamination in beef production chain from abattoir to retail meat shops during February to May, 2012. Questionnaire on abattoir and meat shop hygiene was administered to 60 respondents. Meat, meat in-contact surface swab and water ...

  13. Development of breeding objectives for beef cattle breeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... traits influencing income and expense, derivation of economic values, choice of selection criteria, and estimation of phenotypic and genetic parameters. The modelling methods to derive economic weights can be divided into simulation, dynamic programming and profit functions. Keywords: Beef cattle, Breeding objectives ...

  14. Bacteriological Quality of Dried Sliced Beef (Kilishi) Sold In Ilorin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The bacteriological quality of dried sliced beef (kilishi) obtained from three selling points in. Ilorin metropolis was determined in order to ascertain its safety. The total bacterial count, Enterobacteriaceae count, Staphylococcus aureus count and E.coli counts were used as index of bacteriological quality. Samples.

  15. Population structure and genetic trends for indigenous African beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate population structure and genetic trends based on pedigree and performance records of five indigenous African beef cattle breeds (Afrikaner, Boran, Drakensberger, Nguni and Tuli) in South Africa. Pedigree completeness over six generations was higher than 88.5% in the first ...

  16. Potential use of gas sensors in beef manure nutrient content ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to develop a gas sensor array to estimate the manure nutrient contents. Three metal-oxide gas sensors including methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were used. Forty manure samples were collected from four beef operations in Southwest North Dakota. Manure samples were sent to be ...

  17. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls | Crichton | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (1985) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Libido evaluation of virgin beef bulls. JS Crichton ...

  18. Factors influencing Consumer Preference for Fresh Beef in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 90 Household heads (15 from each of the six electoral wards of Sokoto metropolis) were randomly selected and interviewed to identify factors that affect preference for fresh beef and to determine the nature of the relationship. Factors identified were; household size, educational level, occupation, expenditure on ...

  19. The development of a production system for beef animals on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three years' results from a trial designed to develop a production system for a breeding herd of beef animals are presented. The trial, located in the northern Transvaal, comprised 30 ha of dryland Cenchrus ciliaris grazed by 30 cows and their calves. During the 1973/74, 1974/75 and 1975/76 seasons the pasture produced ...

  20. Pesticide Residues in Beef and Camel Meat From Slaughterhouses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty one beef (n=136) and camel (n=15) meat samples comprising mainly of adipose tissue were collected from animals slaughtered in 13 districts in Kenya for analysis of organophosphate and organochlorine pesticide residues. Gas chromatographic method (GLC) and ECD and FID was used for ...

  1. Towards a regional beef carcass classification system for Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is partly because the current beef carcass grading and classification systems used in the region value inappropriately carcasses from slow-maturing indigenous cattle breeds that are ideally suited to being marketed off natural pasture. The existing systems use carcass yield and quality attributes, but do not predict ...

  2. Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Supplementary winter feeding and reproduction of beef heifers on Dohne sourveld. JA Erasmus, HH Barnard. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for ...

  3. Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of winter nutritional levels on subsequent growth of beef heifers in the. Highland Sourveld of Natal. A. van Niekerk* and R. Kernick. Department of Agriculture and Water Supply, Private Bag X9059, Pietermaritzburg 3200, Republic of South Africa. A.W. Lishman. Department of Animal Science, University of Natal, P.O. ...

  4. Manure total nitrogen flux from condensed tannin fed beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feedyard steers on total nitrogen (N) flux from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5, and 1 percent of the daily ration on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected over two ...

  5. Assessment of beef cattle fattening practices and its challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    around Mekelle. Accordingly, data was collected from all (N=108) beef cattle fatteners in the study ... straints, such as shortage of feed (100%), shortage of land (78.7%), market problem (75.9%), and diseases ..... height, good body condition and big and stand-high hump, in addition to coat color and sex. According to the ...

  6. Crossbreeding to increase beef production: Additive and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fitness is of paramount importance to efficient and profitable beef production. Thus, the objective of this study was to estimate genetic components of fitness traits measured in Afrikaner (A), Brahman (B), Charolais (C), Hereford (H) and Simmentaler (S). For this study, the fitness traits recorded were percentage of cows ...

  7. Effective extensive beef production as a prelude to feedlotting

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    should be used when mating replacement heifers. The bull. By far the majority of beef females in South Africa are bred by natural service. Accepting that bulls contribute 50!1Joof the genetic make-up of each calf crop, it is imperative to pay attention to performance records when selecting a sire, as they indicate the real ...

  8. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  9. Differentiation of pork from beef, chicken, mutton and chevon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The detection of pork in various food products has been an important subject of study in many countries. The current study was aimed to differentiate pork from selected meats of beef, mutton, chevon and chicken based on their primary amino acid contents using reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography ...

  10. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  11. Water footprinting of pasture-based farms; beef and sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; Curran, T P; Holden, N M; O'Brien, D; Upton, J

    2017-11-06

    In the context of water use for agricultural production, water footprints (WFs) have become an important sustainability indicator. To understand better the water demand for beef and sheep meat produced on pasture-based systems, a WF of individual farms is required. The main objective of this study was to determine the primary contributors to freshwater consumption up to the farm gate expressed as a volumetric WF and associated impacts for the production of 1 kg of beef and 1 kg of sheep meat from a selection of pasture-based farms for 2 consecutive years, 2014 and 2015. The WF included green water, from the consumption of soil moisture due to evapotranspiration, and blue water, from the consumption of ground and surface waters. The impact of freshwater consumption on global water stress from the production of beef and sheep meat in Ireland was also computed. The average WF of the beef farms was 8391 l/kg carcass weight (CW) of which 8222 l/kg CW was green water and 169 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture (including silage and grass) contributed 88% to the WF, concentrate production - 10% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF of beef was 91 l H2O eq/kg CW, implying that each kg of beef produced in Ireland contributed to freshwater scarcity equivalent to the consumption of 91 l of freshwater by an average world citizen. The average WF of the sheep farms was 7672 l/kg CW of which 7635 l/kg CW was green water and 37 l/kg CW was blue water; water for the production of pasture contributed 87% to the WF, concentrate production - 12% and on-farm water use - 1%. The average stress-weighted WF was 2 l H2O eq/kg CW for sheep. This study also evaluated the sustainability of recent intensification initiatives in Ireland and found that increases in productivity were supported through an increase in green water use and higher grass yields per hectare on both beef and sheep farms.

  12. Realization of Human Rights Guarantees in Civil Proceedings in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badma V. Sangadzhiev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Civil legal proceedings are conducted according to the federal laws existing during consideration and permission of a civil case (making of separate legal proceedings or execution of court decrees. In case of lack of the regulation of a procedural law governing the relations which arose during civil legal proceedings, federal courts of the general jurisdiction and magistrate's courts apply the regulation governing the similar relations (analogy of the law. In the absence of such regulation of the judge work proceeding from the general principles of implementation of justice in the Russian Federation (analogy is right. Dispositions of general constitutional guarantees (which don't belong directly to judicial system, however their sense can quite be applied to judicial process of consideration of civil cases contain in the following articles of the Constitution of Russia: 17, 19, 29 and 45. Judicial activities are characterized by the major indicators: quality and efficiency (observance of procedural terms. According to the conventional principles and rules of international law to be an offender without unjustifiable delay constitutes one of the fundamental human rights inseparably linked with the right to fair legal proceeding. In a sense of the constitutional regulation, first, everyone has the right, but isn't obliged to protect the rights, secondly, to protect by all methods which aren't forbidden by the law. It is thought, the last purchases the force and the importance not as ascertaining (or transfer these methods in the law and as availability of real mechanisms of their use by the individual and availability of use.

  13. Market Impacts of Reducing the Prevalence of Bovine Respiratory Disease in United States Beef Cattle Feedlots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamina Keiko Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine respiratory disease (BRD is a common endemic disease among North American feedlot cattle. BRD can lead to significant economic losses for individual beef cattle feedlot producers through mortality and morbidity. With promising new management and technology research that could reduce BRD prevalence, this study evaluates the potential impacts of a reduction of BRD in the US beef cattle feedlot sector. Using a multi-market, multi-commodity partial equilibrium economic model of the US agricultural industry, we evaluate the market impacts of reduced BRD to producers from various livestock, meat, and feedstuffs industries. We find that as morbidity and mortality is reduced, beef cattle producers experience losses due to increased supplies (lower beef cattle prices and increased demand for feedstuff (higher feedstuff prices. Beef cattle processors see gains as the price of beef cattle is lower, whereas feedstuff producers gain from higher feedstuff prices. Producers in the allied industries (pork, lamb, poultry, and eggs see a small reduction in returns as consumers substitute with less expensive beef products. Consumers see gains in welfare as the increase in beef cattle supply results in lower beef prices. These lower beef prices more than offset the small increases in pork, lamb, poultry, and egg prices. Overall, the potential economic welfare change due to management and technologies that reduce BRD is a net gain for the US society as a whole.

  14. Classification and characterization of Japanese consumers' beef preferences by external preference mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Keisuke; Ooi, Motoki; Nagura, Naoto; Motoyama, Michiyo; Narita, Takumi; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Hagi, Tatsuro; Ojima, Koichi; Kobayashi, Miho; Nomura, Masaru; Muroya, Susumu; Hayashi, Takeshi; Akama, Kyoko; Fujikawa, Akira; Hokiyama, Hironao; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Nishimura, Takanori

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, beef producers in Japan have improved marbling in their beef products. It was recently reported that marbling is not well correlated with palatability as rated by Japanese consumers. This study sought to identify the consumer segments in Japan that prefer sensory characteristics of beef other than high marbling. Three Wagyu beef, one Holstein beef and two lean imported beef longissimus samples were subjected to a descriptive sensory test, physicochemical analysis and a consumer (n = 307) preference test. According to consumer classification and external preference mapping, four consumer segments were identified as 'gradual high-fat likers', 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers', 'Wagyu likers' and 'distinctive texture likers'. Although the major trend of Japanese consumers' beef preference was 'marbling liking', 16.9% of the consumers preferred beef samples that had moderate marbling and distinctive taste. The consumers' attitudes expressed in a questionnaire survey were in good agreement with the preference for marbling among the 'moderate-fat and distinctive taste likers'. These results indicate that moderately marbled beef is a potent category in the Japanese beef market. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase from beef liver: purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, T; Anderson, B M

    1987-04-01

    Nicotinamide riboside phosphorylase (NR phosphorylase) from beef liver has been purified to apparent homogeneity at 300-fold purification with a 35% yield. Kinetic constants for the enzyme-catalyzed phosphorolysis were as follows Knicotinamide riboside, 2.5 +/- 0.4 mM; Kinorganic phosphate, 0.50 +/- 0.12 mM; Vmax, 410 +/- 30 X 10(-6) mol min-1 mg protein-1, respectively. The molecular weights of the native enzyme and subunit structure were determined to be 131,000 and 32,000, respectively, suggesting the beef liver NR phosphorylase to be tetrameric in structure and consistent with the presence of identical subunits. The amino acid composition was shown to be very similar to that reported for human erythrocyte purine-nucleoside phosphorylase but differing considerably from that found for rat liver purine-nucleoside phosphorylase. In addition to catalytic activity with nicotinamide riboside, the beef liver enzyme catalyzed a phosphorolytic reaction with inosine and guanosine exhibiting activity ratios, nicotinamide riboside:inosine: guanosine of 1.00:0.35:0.29, respectively. These ratios of activity remained constant throughout purification of the beef liver enzyme and no separation of these activities was detected. Phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside was inhibited competitively by inosine (Ki = 75 microM) and guanosine (Ki = 75 microM). Identical rates of thermal denaturation of the beef liver enzyme were observed when determined for the phosphorolysis of either nicotinamide riboside or inosine. These observations coupled with studies of pH and specific buffer effects indicate the phosphorolysis of nicotinamide riboside, inosine, and guanosine to be catalyzed by the same enzyme.

  16. Effects of a DASH-like diet containing lean beef on vascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, M A; Hill, A M; Gaugler, T L; West, S G; Ulbrecht, J S; Vanden Heuvel, J P; Gillies, P J; Kris-Etherton, P M

    2014-10-01

    A DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) dietary pattern rich in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products with increased dietary protein provided primarily from plant protein sources decreases blood pressure. No studies, however, have evaluated the effects of a DASH-like diet with increased dietary protein from lean beef on blood pressure and vascular health. The aim of this study was to study the effect of DASH-like diets that provided different amounts of protein from lean beef (DASH 28 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet (BOLD) 113 g beef per day; beef in an optimal lean diet plus additional protein (BOLD+) 153 g beef per day) on blood pressure, endothelial function and vascular reactivity versus a healthy American diet (HAD). Using a randomized, crossover study design, 36 normotensive participants (systolic blood pressure (SBP), 116 ± 3.6 mm Hg) were fed four isocaloric diets,: HAD (33% total fat, 12% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 17% protein (PRO), 20 g beef per day), DASH (27% total fat, 6% SFA, 18% PRO, 28 g beef per day), BOLD (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 19% PRO, 113 g beef per day) and BOLD+ (28% total fat, 6% SFA, 27% PRO, 153 g beef per day), for 5 weeks. SBP decreased (Pdiet (111.4 ± 1.9 mm Hg) versus HAD (115.7 ± 1.9). There were no significant effects of the DASH and BOLD diets on SBP. Augmentation index (AI) was significantly reduced in participants on the BOLD diet (-4.1%). There were no significant effects of the dietary treatments on diastolic blood pressure or endothelial function (as measured by peripheral arterial tonometry). A moderate protein DASH-like diet including lean beef decreased SBP in normotensive individuals. The inclusion of lean beef in a heart healthy diet also reduced peripheral vascular constriction.

  17. The Impact of Public Guarantees on Bank Risk Taking : Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, government guarantees for savings banks in Germany were removed following a law suit. We use this natural experiment to examine the effect of government guarantees on bank risk taking, using a large data set of matched bank/borrower information. The results suggest that banks whose

  18. Evaluating India's national rural employment guarantee scheme : The case of Birbhum districts, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Dey (Subhasish)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe world's biggest Employment Guarantee Programme, India's National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) has been in operation in rural India since February 2006. In principle, the scheme is a self-targeted programme designed to provide 100 days of employment to rural households

  19. Linking Financial Service Providers to Commercial Capital : How Do Guarantees Add Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexia Latortue; Jasmina Glisovic-Mezieres

    2008-01-01

    In microfinance, experimentation with loan guarantees began largely as an attempt to demonstrate to local banks that Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) are creditworthy. Though loan guarantees are far less common than other funding instruments, such as debt, equity, and grants, they are beginning to be used more often. This brief is based on a joint Consultative Group to Assist the Poorest (...

  20. 22 CFR 231.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-impairment of the Guarantee. 231.05 Section 231.05 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ARAB REPUBLIC OF EGYPT LOAN GUARANTEES ISSUED UNDER THE EMERGENCY WARTIME SUPPLEMENTAL APPROPRIATIONS ACT OF 2003, PUBLIC LAW 108-11-STANDARD...

  1. Do not pay for a Danish interest guarantee. The law of the triple blow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillén, Montserrat; Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Perch Nielsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of pension schemes of with-profit policies containing a guaranteed minimum rate of return and we have found that the price of the guarantee measured in terms of lost returns is enormous. We use simple simulations rather than complex pricing methods to illustra...

  2. 7 CFR 1940.563 - Section 502 non-subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (RH) loans. 1940.563 Section 1940.563 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... guaranteed Rural Housing (RH) loans. (a) Amount available for allocations. See § 1940.552(a) of this subpart... percentage range used for Section 502 guaranteed RH loans is plus or minus 15. (e) Base allocation. See...

  3. 7 CFR 1980.443 - Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and... Industrial Loan Program § 1980.443 Collateral, personal and corporate guarantees and other requirements. (a) Collateral. (1) The lender is responsible for seeing that proper and adequate collateral is obtained and...

  4. 26 CFR 1.817A-1 - Certain modified guaranteed contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the tax reserves for an MGC under sections 807(c)(3) or (d)(2). During a non-equity-indexed MGC's... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.817A-1 Certain modified guaranteed contracts... by a formula set forth under the terms of the MGC. (3) Equity-indexed modified guaranteed contract...

  5. 75 FR 42571 - Guarantees for Bonds and Notes Issued for Electrification or Telephone Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... existing guaranteed lender, RUS believes that it is still prudent risk management to consider the amount of... program for cooperative and other not-for-profit lenders that make loans for eligible electric and... has determined that this rule relating to loan guarantees for non-profit lenders does not pre-empt...

  6. 42 CFR 57.1514 - Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GRANTS GRANTS FOR CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Loan Guarantees and Interest Subsidies to Assist in Construction of Teaching Facilities for Health Profession Personnel § 57.1514 Loan guarantee and interest subsidy agreements. For each application for a...

  7. Possibility of introducing Smallholder Beef Cattle Farmer’s Association as a starting point to develop the beef cattle chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Candia, A.

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the research is “Possibility of introducing smallholder Beef Cattle Farmers Association as a starting point to develop the beef chain and improve their income in Arua district, Uganda”. The study was carried out in two Sub Counties of Arua district, Uganda. The objective was to

  8. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety-Guaranteed Trajectory Tracking Control for the Underactuated Hovercraft with State and Input Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyu Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a safety-guaranteed trajectory tracking controller for hovercraft by using a safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system, an integral sliding mode control, and an adaptive neural network method. The safety-guaranteed auxiliary dynamic system is designed to implement system state and input constraints. By considering the relationship of velocity and resistance hump, the velocity of hovercraft is constrained to eliminate the effect of resistance hump and obtain better stability. And the safety limit of drift angle is well performed to guarantee the light safe maneuvers of hovercraft tracking with high velocities. In view of the natural capabilities of actuators, the control input is constrained. High nonlinearity and model uncertainties of hovercraft are approximated by employing adaptive radical basis function neural networks. The proposed controller guarantees the boundedness of all the closed-loop signals. Specifically, the tracking errors are uniformly ultimately bounded. Numerical simulations are implemented to demonstrate the efficacy of the designed controller.

  10. Japanese SMEs and the credit guarantee system after the global financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyoshi Yamori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief explanation of the Japanese public credit guarantee system and analyzes what role it played during the global financial crisis. The author conducted a questionnaire survey of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs in Aichi Prefecture, the prefecture most seriously hit by the crisis, in collaboration with the Aichi-ken Credit Guarantee Corporation. Using the survey, which provides valuable information about the usage of the credit guarantee program, this paper finds that the credit guarantee system was effective in protecting the economy from collapsing. The system was so generous that now almost all SMEs want it to remain unchanged. However, as the generous system brings heavy financial burdens on the Japanese government and, more seriously, discourages firms and banks from improving their efficiencies, the author insists that reforms, such as limiting the target and the guarantee coverage, are inevitable.

  11. Certain aspects of the accounting of the bank guarantee at the principal and the beneficiary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Zimakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For any kind of business such category as risks is peculiar. The research of this category was conducted by scientists from the different sides, certain approaches of protection against risks were developed and instruments of decrease in financial risks are offered. The bank guarantee is one of the most demanded instruments of additional financial protection today. Its active using of the commercial organizations courses questions of the organization of the detailed accounting of guarantees at the principal and the beneficiary. A little concerning the historical aspect of the bank guarantee, authors provided the overview of the determinations of "bank guarantee" characterizing it as the banking service providing distribution of responsibility between the guarantor and the principal under certain conditions. Having considered the essence of the legal nature and features of the bank guarantee recommendations about the organization of the disaggregated financial accounting on off-balance accounts were developed. In particular, need of allocation of a currency type as the directions of conducting the analytics providing correctness of reflection of cost criterion is proved. For the purpose of control of timeliness of carrying out calculations it is recommended to allocate guarantees: coincident and in coincident with primary obligation; short-term and long-term. From the point of view of nature of guarantees payment guarantees and guarantees of obligation fulfilment were allocated. These recommendations concern the beneficiary, and lack of accounting entries at a principal generates need of creation of additional registers and analytical reports which forms were offered by authors. The provided recommendations will allow obtaining transparent information on bank guarantees for the purpose of its full disclosure in the financial reporting.

  12. IMPROVING THE PROVISION OF STATE GUARANTEES UNDER CREDITS OR BONDED LOANS RAISED FOR INVESTMENT PROJECTS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lola D. Sanginova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Importance: Under current conditions, the Russian economy needs investment resources to ensure sustainable social and economic development. One of instruments of state-financing backing that can be used to support capital intensive, economically viable, financially and socially efficient investment projects that create "growing points" are state guarantees of theRussian Federation.Objective: The objective of this study is to identify possible ways to improve the requirements and procedures of providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationwhich contribute to the increase in the quantity and quality of investment projects of high social importance. Methods: Through the use of general scientific methods, analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction the possibility of creating a more attractive environment for principals is analyzed, measures to reduce the risk for public legal entities in providing state guarantees of theRussian Federationunder credits or bonded loans raised for investment projects implementation.Results: Principles of state guarantee support that ensure the interests of both the principals and the guarantor are defined. The basic directions for improving the mechanism how state guarantees of theRussian Federationsupport investment projects are justified. These directions include increasing availability of obtaining state guarantee support by lowering the cost of investment projects for which the state guarantees may be provided; reducing time of decision making on granting a state guarantee; increasing the creditors’ responsibility for a qualitative assessment of the creditworthiness of principals and investment projects; changing the methodology for assessing the social efficiency of investment projects; increasing the information transparency of provided state guarantees of the Russian Federation.Conclusions: The main result of this study is that under current conditions of economic turbulence state guarantees of the

  13. The dynamics of beef trade between Brazil and Russia and their environmental implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schierhorn, Florian; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Kastner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the production or consumption of agricultural commodities in one place can drastically affect land use and the environment elsewhere. We show how changes in beef production and consumption in Russia following the breakdown of the Soviet Union in 1991 contributed to the emergence...... of a beef trade linkage between Brazil and Russia. We argue that the decline of Russian beef production after 1991, the rebound of domestic consumption since the late 1990s, the global beef trade constellation of the early 2000s, and the booming Brazilian cattle sector during the same periods forged...... a strong and lasting telecoupling in the beef trade between Brazil and Russia. As a result, Russia became the largest importer of both CO2 and non-CO2 emissions embodied in Brazilian beef exports since the 2000s. Our review exemplifies how the combination of institutional and socioeconomic shocks along...

  14. Beef customer satisfaction: factors affecting consumer evaluations of clod steaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, K J; Morgan, W W; Reagan, J O; Gwartney, B L; Courington, S M; Wise, J W; Savell, J W

    2002-02-01

    An in-home beef study evaluated consumer ratings of clod steaks (n = 1,264) as influenced by USDA quality grade (Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select), city (Chicago and Philadelphia), consumer segment (Beef Loyals, who are heavy consumers of beef; Budget Rotators, who are cost-driven and split meat consumption between beef and chicken; and Variety Rotators, who have higher incomes and education and split their meat consumption among beef, poultry, and other foods), degree of doneness, and cooking method. Consumers evaluated each steak for Overall Like, Tenderness, Juiciness, Flavor Like, and Flavor Amount using 10-point scales. Grilling was the predominant cooking method used, and steaks were cooked to medium-well and greater degrees of doneness. Interactions existed involving the consumer-controlled factors of degree of doneness and(or) cooking method for all consumer-evaluated traits for the clod steak (P 0.05). One significant main effect, segment (P = 0.006), and one significant interaction, cooking method x city (P = 0.0407), existed for Overall Like ratings. Consumers in the Beef Loyals segment rated clod steaks higher in Overall Like than the other segments. Consumers in Chicago tended to give more uniform Overall Like ratings to clod steaks cooked by various methods; however, consumers in Philadelphia gave among the highest ratings to clod steaks that were fried and among the lowest to those that were grilled. Additionally, although clod steaks that were fried were given generally high ratings by consumers in Philadelphia, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks cooked in this manner significantly lower than those in Philadelphia. Conversely, consumers in Chicago rated clod steaks that were grilled significantly higher than consumers in Philadelphia. Correlation and stepwise regression analyses indicated that Flavor Like was driving customer satisfaction of the clod steak. Flavor Like was the sensory trait most highly correlated to Overall

  15. Effect of microbial transglutaminase on the natural actomyosin cross-linking in chicken and beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahhmed, Abdulatef Mrghni; Nasu, Tetsuo; Huy, Dang Quang; Tomisaka, Yoshito; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the difference between chicken and beef in the interaction of actomyosin (myosin B) with microbial transglutaminase (MTG). The gel strength of myosin B was improved in both species and was significantly greater in beef than in chicken (Pactivity. SEMI also suggested that all MTG-dependent mega-structures of protein molecules generated in chicken and beef may vary greatly in size, configuration and complexity after treatment with MTG. We concluded that the optimal cross-links in myosin B induced by MTG are heterogeneous in chicken and beef.

  16. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Kadek Karang Agustina; I Made Ricky Dwi Cahya; Gusti Made Widyantara; Ida Bagus Ngurah Swacita; Anak Agung Gde Oka Dharmayudha; Mas Djoko Rudyanto

    2017-01-01

    This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef qual...

  17. Carbon monoxide packaging shows the same color improvement for dark cutting beef as high oxygen packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Qin, Libo; Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Han, Guangxing; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to increase redness (a*) and lightness (L*) values of dark cutting beef (ultimate pH (pHu)≥6.10), compared to normal pHu beef and intermediate pHu beef (pH: 5.40-5.79; pH: 5.80-6.09, respectively) during 20 d chilled storage. Compared with HiOx-MAP, CO-MAP exhibited similar color improvement effects (increased L*, a*, b* values) for all pHu beef groupings. The metmyoglobin (MetMb) content was lower under CO-MAP than that of HiOx-MAP in normal pHu beef, but opposite effects were observed in dark, high pH beef. This result could not be explained by MetMb reducing ability (MRA) and lipid oxidation, as both parameters were higher in CO-MAP beef than either normal or high pHu beef, compared with HiOx-MAP. In conclusion, CO-MAP was effective to maintain the cherry red color for dark cutting beef, but the color improvement mechanisms might be different with HiOx packaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contamination of beef products with staphylococcal classical enterotoxins in Egypt and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawish, Reyad R.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food-borne pathogens are of high concern for public health and food safety. food poisoning is one of the most economically devastating types of food poisoning globally. The purpose of this study was to detect staphylococcal classical enterotoxins (SEs in processed beef from Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA and Egypt. In the present investigation a total of 250 random processed meat samples (50 each of minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon were collected from different super markets in the study area. Using conventional cultural methods, samples were cultured for isolation and identification of . Multiplex PCR was used to detect SEs of the classical type SEA, SEB, SEC and SED from isolates.The percentage presence of in minced meat, beef burger, beef sausage, beef kofta and beef luncheon was 38%, 22%, 30%, 32% and 12%, respectively. Multiplex PCR indicated that all examined samples contain different types of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins and only minced meat samples contained all four types of toxins. Multiplex PCR is efficient in detection of SEs from food and may be used in tracing of toxins to promote food hygiene. Implications of contamination of processed meat to food hygiene in the study area are highlighted.

  19. You say "lean finely textured beef," I say "pink slime".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Rita-Marie Cain

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. (ABC) broadcast a segment on its evening news show regarding the manufacture of "lean finely textured beef" by Beef Products, Inc. (BPI). The broadcast, as well as follow-up reports and social media communications, repeatedly referred to the product as "pink slime," a term originated by a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) employee for the processed meat. The market backlash against the product was immediate and intense. Ultimately, BPI closed three processing plants, cut hundreds of jobs, and filed for bankruptcy. BPI sued ABC and others for food libel, defamation, and tortious interference. This research analyzes those claims and defenses and discusses the future of such cases.

  20. Irradiation of ground beef with the purpose of refrigerated storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, S.

    1977-01-01

    Ground beef packaged in polyethylene film was irradiated at different dose levels ranging from 0.25 to 1.0 Mrad and stored at 3+-1 0 C. Bacteriological and organoleptic evaluations were carried out immediately after irradiation and at weekly intervals thereafter. The red color of the meat was darker after irradiation and this darkening increased with radiation dose. This color change was limited to the surface of the samples. The results of the bacteriological and organoleptic examination indicate that irradiation at 0.25 Mrad permits refrigerated storage of ground beef for 3 weeks, 0,5 Mrad for 6 weeks. Coliforms were found only in non-irradiated samples [fr

  1. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G. [Instituto de Quimica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Campus Universitario de Ondina, 40.170-280 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M. [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS - Departamento de Engenharia e Arquitetura, - Av. Cardeal da Silva 132, 40.220-141 - Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Mendonca, Daniel R. [Escola Politecnica - Universidade Federal da Bahia, Av. Aristides Novis 2, 40.210-630, Salvador, Bahia (Brazil); Teixeira, Josanaide S.R. [Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologica da Bahia - IFBAHIA - Rua Emidio de Morais S/N, 40.625-650, Salvador - BA (Brazil)

    2009-09-15

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  2. Comparison between conventional and ultrasonic preparation of beef tallow biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Assis, Julio C.R.; Santos, Iran T.V.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.B.; Pontes, Luiz A.M.; Mendonca, Daniel R.; Teixeira, Josanaide S.R.

    2009-01-01

    Tallow is biodiesel feedstock that, due to its highly centralized generation in slaughter/processing facilities and historically low prices, may have energetic, environmental, and economic advantages that could be exploited. Transesterification of fatty acids by means of ultrasonic energy has been used for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils. However, application of ultrasonic irradiation for biodiesel production from beef tallow has received little attention. In this work, the transesterification of beef tallow with methanol was performed in the presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst using ultrasound irradiation (400 W, 24 kHz). The reaction time, conversion and biodiesel quality were compared with that seen in conventional transesterification. The results indicated that the reaction conversion and biodiesel quality were similar; however, the use of ultrasonic irradiation decreased the reaction time, showing that this method may be a promising alternative to the conventional method. (author)

  3. Consumers' willingness to pay for irradiated prepared ground beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayga, R.M. Jr.; Woodward, R.; Aiew, W.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating willingness to pay for reducing the risk of contracting foodborne illness using a non-hypothetical experiment utilizing real food products (i.e. prepared ground beef), real cash and actual exchange in a market setting. Respondents were given positive information about the nature of food irradiation. Single bounded and one and one-half bounded models are developed using dichotomous choice experiments. The results indicate that individuals are willing to pay for a reduction in the risk of foodborne illness once informed about the nature of food irradiation. Respondents are willing to pay a premium of about US $0.77 for 450 g (1 pound) of irradiated ground beef, which is higher than the cost of irradiating the product. (author)

  4. Beef quality attributes: A systematic review of consumer perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchion, Maeve M; McCarthy, Mary; Resconi, Virginia C

    2017-06-01

    Informed by quality theory, this systematic literature review seeks to determine the relative importance of beef quality attributes from a consumer perspective, considering search, experience and credence quality attributes. While little change is anticipated in consumer ranking of search and experience attributes in the future, movement is expected in terms of ranking within the credence category and also in terms of the ranking of credence attributes overall. This highlights an opportunity for quality assurance schemes (QAS) to become more consumer focused through including a wider range of credence attributes. To capitalise on this opportunity, the meat industry should actively anticipate new relevant credence attributes and researchers need to develop new or better methods to measure them. This review attempts to identify the most relevant quality attributes in beef that may be considered in future iterations of QAS, to increase consumer satisfaction and, potentially, to increase returns to industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of beef using restriction fragment length polymorphism–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Al-Sanjary

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To differentiate the beef from other types of meat consumed by human, DNA markers based on polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism technique is performed by using universal primers designed on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene to obtain amplified band 359 bp, then digested with some of restriction enzymes like Tru91, RsaI, Hinf I, Hae III, Alu I, Taq I, Mob I. The result revealed that, the Hinf I enzyme produce three bands 198, 117, 44 bp and the Hae III enzyme revealed two band 285, 74 bp, the Alu I enzyme also produced two band but the molecular weight are 190, 169 bp. The other enzymes did not reveal any digestion of the amplified bands and this result is a characteristic unique to beef compared with other types of meat when using same enzymes.

  6. Guaranteed Cost Finite-Time Control of Fractional-Order Positive Switched Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leipo Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of guaranteed cost finite-time control of fractional-order positive switched systems (FOPSS is considered in this paper. Firstly, a new cost function is defined. Then, by constructing linear copositive Lyapunov functions and using the average dwell time (ADT approach, a state feedback controller and a static output feedback controller are constructed, respectively, and sufficient conditions are derived to guarantee that the corresponding closed-loop systems are guaranteed cost finite-time stable (GCFTS. Such conditions can be easily solved by linear programming. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. The impact of SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee on bank efficiency in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien-Wen Liang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how small and medium-size enterprises’ (SMEs’ lending and credit guarantee affect Korean banks’ efficiency, by employing the stochastic frontier approach on 14 banks over the period 2001–2010. When lending increases to SMEs, the findings indicate that banks’ cost efficiency decreases due to information asymmetry. However, the increased proportion of credit guarantee can improve their cost efficiency. This proves that South Korea’s credit guarantee system can indeed share SMEs’ credit risk of lending in order to help raise bank efficiency.

  8. An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    AD-A264 299 SELECTE October 1992 S MAY1 4 1993U C An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program MT901R I N1. Augustine...NUMBERS An Electronic Commerce Strategy for MTMC’s Guaranteed Traffic Program C MDA903-85-C -0139 M DA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) M...239-1L 299-01 LMI Executive Summary AN ELECTRONIC COMMERCE STRATEGY FOR MTMC’S GUARANTEED TRAFFIC PROGRAM In 1979, the Military Traffic Management

  9. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ronchi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF, fumonisins (FB, ochratoxin A (OTA, deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenol (ZEN]. Total mixed rations (TMR resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  10. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2004-01-01

    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  11. THE FUTURE ROLE OF IMPROVED PASTURES FOR BEEF CATTLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thanks the helpful assistance of Mr J.K. Arnott in as- sembling the data and the useful criticism of the paper and that of Mr B. Mappledoram who was responsible for the care of the field experiments reported in this paper. References. HARMN, G.O., 1974. Role of nutrition in beef cattle production.,F.S.S.,4. J.,2.21. HARWIN.

  12. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  13. Package systems and storage times serve as postlethality controls for Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and pork and beef smoked sausage sticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Axman, Tyler J; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Barry, Bruce; Higgins, James J

    2011-02-01

    To validate how packaging and storage reduces Listeria monocytogenes on whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks, four packaging systems (heat sealed [HS] without vacuum, heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger [NFOS], and vacuum) and four ambient temperature storage times were evaluated. Commercially available whole-muscle beef jerky and smoked pork and beef sausage sticks were inoculated with a five-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, packaged, and then stored at 25.5 °C until enumerated for L. monocytogenes at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h and 30 days after packaging. The interaction of packaging and storage time affected L. monocytogenes reduction on jerky, but not on sausage sticks. A >2-log CFU/cm(2) reduction was achieved on sausage sticks after 24 h of storage, regardless of package type, while jerky had 2 log CFU/cm(2), except for NFOS (1.22-log CFU/cm(2) reduction). Processors could package beef jerky in HS packages with oxygen scavenger or vacuum in conjunction with a 24-h holding time as an antimicrobial process to ensure a >1-log CFU/cm(2) L. monocytogenes reduction or use a 48-h holding time for HS- or NFOS-packaged beef jerky. A >3-log CFU/cm(2) mean reduction was observed for all beef jerky and sausage stick packaging systems after 30 days of 25.5 °C storage. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection

  14. Experimental verification of the possibility to estimate senzoric and quality parameters of beef with use of bioimpedance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Říha, J.; Kadlec, R.; Vondra, Vlastimil; Bezdíček, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2009), s. 38-49 ISSN 0139-7265 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : beef quality * biompedance * basic chemical composition of beef Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  15. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  16. Chilled boneless beef international trade: a cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigo Ramos Xavier Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure and classify the international beef trade. For this, data related to the international chilled boneless beef (CBB trade, the major and most important market, were analyzed. Producing countries were classified into groups according to their trade relations, and the main factors that influenced one country to prefer to import CBB from a specific exporting country were analyzed. The results revealed four markets related to client demands with regard to the sanitation and traceability of beef products. Furthermore, extrinsic characteristics of the product are discussed, such as a productive system that aims to minimize environmental impacts and to value animal welfare and respect for social demands. The markets that pay highest prices require sanitary quality of suppliers, demanding traceable and process-certified products. Brazil does not access these markets because it does not meet these requirements. To change this scenario it is necessary to eradicate FMD across the Brazilian territory, acquiring a status of a zone with minimal BSE risk, aligning the intrinsic value of the CBB with expectations of consumers and implementing a traceability program that is both feasible and acceptable for clients.

  17. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Judy; Nguyen, Van; Adorno, Paul; Droulez, Veronique

    2015-11-19

    Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia's food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  18. Genetic parameters of beef quality traits for Piemontese cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Carnier

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate heritability of beef quality traits in Piemontese cattle. A total of 804 young bulls, progeny of 109 AI sires, were sampled from 124 fattening farms (FF and slaughtered in different days at the same commercial abattoir. At slaughter, bulls were 523±73 d old and average carcasses weight (CW was 417±45 kg. Carcasses were scored for fleshiness (EUS and fatness. An individual beef sample was collected from Longissimus Thoracis 24 h after slaughter and held refrigerated at 4 °C for 8 d. Measured traits were pH at ageing (pH8d, beef colour (L*, a*, b*, Hue and Chroma, shear force (SF, drip (DL and cooking loss (CL. A REML linear animal model including the fixed effects of FF, slaughter age and CW class and the random effect of the bull was used. The estimated heritability for EUS, SF, DL, Hue, L* and a* was of intermediate magnitude (from 0.22 to 0.49 whereas heritabilities for all other traits were low (from 0.04 to 0.16.

  19. Beef quality parameters estimation using ultrasound and color images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jose; Piquerez, Martín; Pujadas, Leonardo; Armstrong, Eileen; Fernández, Alicia; Lecumberry, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Beef quality measurement is a complex task with high economic impact. There is high interest in obtaining an automatic quality parameters estimation in live cattle or post mortem. In this paper we set out to obtain beef quality estimates from the analysis of ultrasound (in vivo) and color images (post mortem), with the measurement of various parameters related to tenderness and amount of meat: rib eye area, percentage of intramuscular fat and backfat thickness or subcutaneous fat. An algorithm based on curve evolution is implemented to calculate the rib eye area. The backfat thickness is estimated from the profile of distances between two curves that limit the steak and the rib eye, previously detected. A model base in Support Vector Regression (SVR) is trained to estimate the intramuscular fat percentage. A series of features extracted on a region of interest, previously detected in both ultrasound and color images, were proposed. In all cases, a complete evaluation was performed with different databases including: color and ultrasound images acquired by a beef industry expert, intramuscular fat estimation obtained by an expert using a commercial software, and chemical analysis. The proposed algorithms show good results to calculate the rib eye area and the backfat thickness measure and profile. They are also promising in predicting the percentage of intramuscular fat.

  20. Diseases and pathogens associated with mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagea, Mihai I; Bateman, Kenneth G; van Dreumel, Tony; McEwen, Beverly J; Carman, Susy; Archambault, Marie; Shanahan, Rachel A; Caswell, Jeff L

    2006-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of diseases and pathogens associated with mortality or severe morbidity in 72 Ontario beef feedlots in calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Routine pathologic and microbiologic investigations, as well as immunohistochemical staining for detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antigen, were performed on 99 calves that died or were euthanized within 60 days after arrival. Major disease conditions identified included fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia (49%), caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia or arthritis (or both) caused by Mycoplasma bovis (36%), viral respiratory disease (19%), BVDV-related diseases (21%), Histophilus somni myocarditis (8%), ruminal bloat (2%), and miscellaneous diseases (8%). Viral infections identified were BVDV (35%), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (9%), bovine herpesvirus-1 (6%), parainfluenza-3 virus (3%), and bovine coronavirus (2%). Bacteria isolated from the lungs included M. bovis (82%), Mycoplasma arginini (72%), Ureaplasma diversum (25%), Mannheimia haemolytica (27%), Pasteurella multocida (19%), H. somni (14%), and Arcanobacterium pyogenes (19%). Pneumonia was the most frequent cause of mortality of beef calves during the first 2 months after arrival in feedlots, representing 69% of total deaths. The prevalence of caseonecrotic bronchopneumonia caused by M. bovis was similar to that of fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia, and together, these diseases were the most common causes of pneumonia and death. M. bovis pneumonia and polyarthritis has emerged as an important cause of mortality in Ontario beef feedlots.

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of fatty acids in foods. II. Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, B A; Kinsella, J A; Watt, B K

    1975-07-01

    An estensive survey of the literature on lipids of beef covering the past fouteen years revealed that a number of factors, such as sex, age, and diet of animal, and analytical method, can affect the lipid content and fatty acid composition of beef. The feeding regimen of the animal was a factor considered in evaluating data for the food table. Extraction method was important in assessing information on lean tissue lipids. Statistical analysis showed that fatty acid patterns for the separable fat and separable lean of various meat cuts were not significantly different at the 5 per cent level. Cooking by dry or moist heat has little effect on relative fatty acid composition. Methods for converting methyl ester data into per cent composition of fatty acids in the meat cut are presented. A comprehensive table of fatty acids per 100 gm. separable lean, separable fet, and total edible portions of Choice grade cuts of beef is given, as well as a table acids per 100 gm. fat for lean and adipose tissues.

  2. Salmonella serovars along two beef chains in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiko, Adem; Irsigler, Herlinde; Ameni, Gobena; Zessin, Karl-Hans; Fries, Reinhard

    2016-11-24

    Salmonella has been reported from foods and the food production environment, with outbreaks occurring in the human population worldwide. A survey on Salmonella in two beef production lines (a beef abattoir line and a processing line) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was conducted, with a total of 668 various samples randomly collected from animal-related materials, the environment, and a beef product (mortadella). Overall, a 12.9% prevalence (26.3% from the abattoir line, 5.3% from the processing plant line) was observed. The prevalence in the abattoir line environment (36.6%) was higher than that in animal-related samples (14.7%); the reverse was true for the processing plant line. Out of 86 isolates, 10 serovars were identified, and 8 remained unidentified. The predominant serotypes were S. Saintpaul (32.5%), S. Muenchen (19.8%), and S. Larochelle (12.8%). S. Kastrup and S. London were isolated for the first time in Ethiopia. Data indicate open ports of entry for Salmonella, with possible transfer along the line. Further investigations from farm to fork are recommended in order to identify these positions of entry.

  3. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, Benjamin Paul; Moses, Rebekah; Sammons, Norman

    2017-01-01

    in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake...... occupation (70% and 79%, respectively), primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB) at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55–45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents), water......The food demands of the United States (US) impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal...

  4. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  5. Is biomass always a renewable fuel as guaranteed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veski, Rein

    1999-01-01

    alternative electric energy must be energy which is not produced from oil shale. TheLong-Term Development Plan for the Estonian Fuel and Energy Sector includes such misleading terms as peat, wood and renewable energy resources, biofuels and peat. However, there are also quite correct phrases such as peat, wood and other renewable natural resources, as wood and other biofuels are renewable natural resources. As a rule, wood and wood waste, energy cultures, agricultural, woodpulp and paper industry waste, as well as solid animal breeding and household waste, and also peat are classified as biomass in many countries. Biomass seems to be a more convenient term instead of renewable biofuel. In most statements it is with no doubt classified as renewable resource, while biofuels are not because fossil fuels are also biofuels (or fuels of biological origin) and they are renewable only to a very limited extent. Fossil fuels originated in sapropel and peat, oil and natural gas from dispersed organic matter, too. So, their recovery depends on the speed of accumulation of organic carbon in recent sediments. The recovery should not be a question of what somebody believes in or not. It must not be a 'religious' question but a purely scientific and methodological issue. There is only one condition when a fuel (or biomass as one type of biofuel) is renewable: biomass or biofuel may be considered renewable if they are replenished at a rate which is comparable to the rate at which they are consumed in a country or part of it (on an island, for example). The overused amount is a non-renewable biomass or biofuel. So, the replenishment of biomass or biofuel is not guaranteed. Biomass and other biofuels, including fossil ones, are products of the activity of the sun. There are also other, non-fuel types of energy such as water and wind energy, as well as solar and geothermal energy. They are also considered renewable energy resources as is biomass. All these types of energy (except, may be, the

  6. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  7. Joint Production of Safer, Cleaner and Animal Friendlier Beef: Do Consumers Join it Too? - Insights from Focus Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Viegas, Ines; Santos, Jose Manuel Lima; Fontes, Magda Aguiar

    2011-01-01

    Consumers’ motivations and behaviour towards food safety, animal welfare and the environment in beef production and beef products were discussed in several focus groups, within a broader research program aiming at determining Portuguese consumers’ willingness to pay for safer, cleaner and animal friendlier beef. Regarding the supply context, food safety, animal welfare and environmental protection are, to some extent, jointly produced within beef production systems. From the demand perspectiv...

  8. Potential to curb the environmental burdens of American beef consumption using a novel plant-based beef substitute.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Goldstein

    Full Text Available The food demands of the United States (US impart significant environmental pressures. The high rate of consumption of beef has been shown to be the largest driver of food-borne greenhouse gas emissions, water use and land occupation in the US diet. The environmental benefits of substituting animal products with vegetal foods are well documented, but significant psychological barriers persist in reducing meat consumption. Here we use life cycle assessment to appraise the environmental performance of a novel vegetal protein source in the mean US diet where it replaces ground beef, and in vegetarian and vegan diets where it substitutes for legumes, tofu and other protein sources. We find that relative to the mean US diet, vegetarian and vegan diets significantly reduce per-capita food-borne greenhouse gas emission (32% and 67%, respectively, blue water use (70% and 75%, respectively and land occupation (70% and 79%, respectively, primarily in the form of rangeland. The substitution of 10%, 25% and 50% of ground beef with plant-based burger (PBB at the national scale results in substantial reductions in annual US dietary greenhouse gas emissions (4.55-45.42 Mt CO2 equivalents, water consumption (1.30-12.00 km3 and land occupation (22300-190100 km2. Despite PBB's elevated environmental pressures compared to other vegetal protein sources, we demonstrate that minimal risk exists for the disservices of PBB substitution in non-meat diets to outweigh the benefits of ground-beef substitution in the omnivorous American diet. Demand for plant-based oils in PBB production has the potential to increase land use pressures in biodiversity hotspots, though these could be obviated through responsible land stewardship. Although the apparent environmental benefits of the PBB are contingent on actual uptake of the product, this study demonstrates the potential for non-traditional protein substitutes to play a role in a transition towards more sustainable consumption

  9. 22 CFR 230.05 - Non-impairment of the Guarantee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agreement or other document executed by a Noteholder, USAID, the Fiscal Agent or the Borrower in connection... guarantee provision shall not, however, be operative with respect to any loss arising out of fraud or...

  10. 7 CFR 1940.564 - Section 502 subsidized guaranteed Rural Housing loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... representing each criterion is multiplied by the weight factor and summed to arrive at a basic State factor (SF... 502 guaranteed RH loans is plus or minus 15. (e) Base allocation. See § 1940.552(e) of this subpart...

  11. Supply guarantee initiatives for nuclear fuel materials and services and their compatibility with the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagano, Koji

    2009-01-01

    This paper first discusses where and why those ideas for nuclear fuel supply assurance and guarantee mechanisms came out, and attempts to draw a comparison among the proposed schemes and thereby examine possible steps forward. (author)

  12. 10 CFR 140.21 - Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred premiums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agencies and Nonprofit Educational Institutions § 140.21 Licensee guarantees of payment of deferred... million for each reactor he is licensed to operate: (a) Surety bond, (b) Letter of credit, (c) Revolving...

  13. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Balfour, John [High Performance PV, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  14. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring the Impacts of Service Guarantee Strategy in the Casual Restaurant Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kyuho

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impacts of service guarantees in terms of consumers' perceived risks, loyalty, and word-of-mouth intent in the casual dining restaurant segment. In addition, the study investigated what type of service guarantee consumers preferred. A total of seven research hypotheses were developed on the basis of relevant literature review. In an effort to test the research hypotheses, a scenario method was developed. A total of seven research scenarios were created based on the Vir...

  16. An Active Queue Management for QoS Guarantee of the High Priority Service Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Jong; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Hwa-Suk; Cho, Kee Seong; Choi, Seong Gon

    In this paper, we propose the active queue management mechanism (Active-WRED) for guaranteeing the quality of the high priority service class (VoIP or IPTV) in the multi-class traffic service environment. In the congestion situation, this mechanism increases the drop probability of the low priority traffic and reduces the drop probability of the high priority traffic; therefore it can guarantee the quality of the high priority service class from the poor quality by the packet loss.

  17. Farm gate environmental impacts of beef production in the Northern Plains and Midwest regions of the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradle-to-farm gate environmental impacts of beef production in two cattle producing regions were assessed as part of an on-going national sustainability study of the U.S. beef value chain launched by the Beef Checkoff. Region-specific data on common ranch and feedlot management practices were chara...

  18. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  19. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  20. Economic Valuation of Sufficient and Guaranteed Irrigation Water Supply for Paddy Farms of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kavoosi Kalashami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of the strategic crop of rice highly depends to the existence of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water, and water shortage stresses have irreparable effects on yield and quality of productions. Decrease of the Sefidrud river inflow in Guilan province which is the main source of supplying irrigation water for 171 thousand hectares under rice cropping area of this province, has been challenged sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply in many regions of mentioned province. Hence, in present study estimating the value that paddy farmers place on sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been considered. Economic valuation of sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply improves water resource management policies in demand side. Requested data set were obtained on the base of a survey and are collected from 224 paddy farms in rural regions that faced with irrigation water shortages. Then, using open-ended valuation approach and estimation of Tobit model via ML and two stages Heckman approach, eliciting paddy farmers' willingness to pay for sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water supply has been accomplished. Results revealed that farmers in investigated regions willing to pay 26.49 percent more than present costs of providing irrigation water in order to have sufficient and guaranteed irrigation water.

  1. What Brings People to Leadership Roles: A Phenomenological Study of Beef Industry Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, B. Lynn; Ellis, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Leadership has been deeply studied in the literature; however, little research exists studying the role of volunteer peer leaders in non-formalized leadership roles in membership-based organizations. This phenomenological study was designed to explore the experience of beef industry leaders in leadership roles. Twelve active beef industry…

  2. Improved pasture and herd management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from a Brazilian beef production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzetto, A.M.; Feigl, B.J.; Schils, R.L.M.; Cerri, C.E.P.; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian farms produce 15% of the world[U+05F3]s beef, and consequently they are important sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). The beef sector faces the challenge to meet the increasing demand without further increase of GHG emissions. To reduce the pressure on forests it is essential that

  3. Spatial-temporal interactions of beef cattle and wolves on a western Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to detect and evaluate interactions between free-roaming beef cattle (Bos taurus) and wolves (Canis lupus) using GPS technology. Ten mature, lactating beef cows from a herd of about 450 cow-calf pairs and 1 wolf from a pack of 13 wolves were GPS collared and trac...

  4. Impact of "raised without antibiotics" beef cattle production practices on occurrences of antimicrobial resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The specific antimicrobial resistance (AMR) decreases that can be expected from reducing antimicrobial (AM) use in U.S. beef production have not been defined. To address this data gap, feces were recovered from 36 lots of “raised without antibiotics” (RWA) and 36 lots of “conventional” (CONV) beef c...

  5. The effect of cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules on vacuumed ground beef quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilliana, I. N.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.; Khasanah, L. U.

    2017-04-01

    Ground beef has a short shelf life because it is susceptible to damage due to microbial contamination and lipid oxidation. So some sort of preservation method such as refrigerated storage, vacuum packaging or natural preservative addition is needed to extend the shelf life of ground beef. A natural preservative that can be used as a food preservative is the cinnamon bark (Cinnamomum burmanii) essential oil microcapsules. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of a cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules (0%;0.5% and 1% w/w of the ground beef) on the Total Plate Count (TPC), Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA), pH and color of ground beef during refrigerated storage (4±1°C). The result showed that cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules affected the TPC, TBA, pH and color of ground beef. The addition of the cinnamon bark essential oil microcapsules on ground beef can inhibit microbial growth, inhibit lipid oxidation, inhibit discoloration and lowering pH of fresh ground beef during refrigerated storage compared to the control sample. The higher of the microcapsules were added, the higher the inhibition of microbial growth, lipid oxidation and discoloration of ground beef, indicating better preservation effects.

  6. Derivation of economic values for veal, beef and milk production traits using profit equations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekman, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In this study profit equations for milk, veal and beef bull production were developed to obtain economic values for different traits. Veal and beef production were described in terms of fat and protein daily gain. For categorical traits, dystocia and carcass quality traits, economic values were

  7. Spatial variability in nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedyard pen surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedlots include enteric carbon dioxide and methane, and manure-derived methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Enteric methane comprises the largest portion of the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle feedyards. For the manure component, methane is th...

  8. NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM SOUTHERN HIGH PLAINS BEEF CATTLE FEEDYARDS: MEASUREMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive models for nitrous oxide emission are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas footprint of beef cattle production. The Texas Panhandle produces approximately 42% of finished beef in the U.S. and cattle production is estimated to contribute 8 Tg carbon dioxide equivalents from nitrous oxi...

  9. Suckling behaviour and fertility in beef cows on pasture 2. Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For two weeks prior to the start of the breeding season, the sucklingbehaviour of beef calves, separated from their dams for 12 h out of ..... BARB., C.R.. 1986. Naloxone infusion increases pulsatile luteinizing hormone release in post partum beef cows. Dom. Anim. Endocrin. 3, 49. WILLIAMS. G.L., KOTWICA. 1., SLANGER ...

  10. Effects of ascorbic acid and antioxidants on color, lipid oxidation and volatiles of irradiated ground beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, D.U. E-mail: duahn@iastate.edu; Nam, K.C

    2004-10-01

    Beef loins with 3 different aging times after slaughter were ground, added with none, 0.1% ascorbic acid, 0.01% sesamol+0.01% {alpha}-tocopherol, or 0.1% ascorbic acid+0.01% sesamol+0.01% tocopherol. The meats were packaged in oxygen-permeable bags, irradiated at 2.5 kGy, and color, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), lipid oxidation and volatile profiles were determined. Irradiation decreased the redness of ground beef, and visible color of beef changed from a bright red to a green/brown depending on the age of meat. Addition of ascorbic acid prevented color changes in irradiated beef, and the effect of ascorbic acid became greater as the age of meat or storage time after irradiation increased. The ground beef added with ascorbic acid had lower ORP than control, and the low ORP of meat helped maintaining the heme pigments in reduced form. During aerobic storage, S-volatiles disappeared while volatile aldehydes significantly increased in irradiated beef. Addition of ascorbic acid at 0.1% or sesamol+{alpha}-tocopherol at each 0.01% level to ground beef prior to irradiation were effective in reducing lipid oxidation and S-volatiles. As storage time increased, however, the antioxidant effect of sesamol+tocopherol in irradiated ground beef was superior to that of ascorbic acid.

  11. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  12. European consumer acceptance of safety-improving interventions in the beef chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O.

    2011-01-01

    and the United Kingdom). Acceptance levels differ between countries and consumer segments, and between stages of application, processes, and level of information detail provided. Higher a priori confidence in beef and beef products, as well as higher risk perception were associated with increased acceptance...

  13. 75 FR 81632 - Australia Beef Imports Approved for the Electronic Certification System (eCERT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... Fisheries and with the approval of the United States Government. DATES: The use of the eCERT process for all Australian beef importations subject to within quantity restrictions will be effective for beef entered, or... by the Government of Australia is in effect for the goods. The existing tariff rate quotas and export...

  14. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Campylobacter Foodborne Illness in Raw Beef Offal Consumption in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jiyeon; Lee, Jeeyeon; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Ki-Sun; Yoon, Yohan

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal in South Korea. The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. in raw beef offal (liver and tripe) was investigated by plating samples on modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar with Preston enrichment broth. Data were collected about storage temperature and length of storage of raw beef offal, and probabilistic distributions for the data were determined, using @RISK software. Predictive models were developed to describe the fate of Campylobacter in raw beef offal, and the amount and frequency of consumption and dose-response model were surveyed. Subsequently, these data were used to estimate the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness caused by the intake of raw beef offal. Of 80 beef offal samples, 1 (1.25%) was contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni . Predictive models were used for exposure assessment. An exponential distribution was selected to represent beef offal consumption by people who eat this occasionally, with a mean of 60.2 g and 3.6% monthly consumption frequency. Simulations using @RISK predicted that the probability of Campylobacter foodborne illness per person per month is 1.56 × 10 -5 for home consumption and 1.74 × 10 -5 for restaurant consumption in South Korea, which indicates the risk of Campylobacter foodborne illness by intake of raw beef offal in South Korea.

  15. Application of hyperspectral imaging for characterization of intramuscular fat distribution in beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, a hyperspectral imaging system in the spectral region of 400–1000 nm was used for visualization and determination of intramuscular fat concentration in beef samples. Hyperspectral images were acquired for beef samples, and spectral information was then extracted from each single sampl...

  16. Fatty acid profile of zebu beef cattle from the Central African sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additionally, based on the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) proportion, 13.9% of the total lipids and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio, 1.95, consumption of beef from these breeds could be beneficial to human health. This is possibly owing to the pasture feeding and low fat content of the beef. Keywords: Intramuscular fat; fatty acid composition ...

  17. Grazing supplementation and crop diversification on beef farm simulations in southern Brazil: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economics and environmental footprints of beef cattle raised on natural pasture or combined with soybean in specific biomes are still not well evaluated. The objective of this research was to simulate and evaluate the economics of three common pastured beef grazing systems in southern Brazil along w...

  18. Measurement of soy contents in ground beef using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Models for determining contents of soy products in ground beef were developed using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Samples were prepared by mixing four kinds of soybean protein products (Arconet, toasted soy grits, Profam and textured vegetable protein (TVP)) with ground beef (content from 0%–100...

  19. The effect of technology information on consumer expectations and liking of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Rødbotten, Rune; De Smet, Stefaan; Scholderer, Joachim; Verbeke, Wim

    2012-02-01

    European consumers increasingly attach value to process characteristics of food. Although beef technologies are hardly communicated to consumers, providing consumer-oriented information about technology application might increase perceived transparency and consumer acceptance. This study investigates how information about beef technologies influences consumer expectations and liking of beef. Beef consumers in Belgium (n = 108) and Norway (n = 110) participated in an information experiment combined with sensory testing in which each consumer tasted three beef muscles treated with different technologies: unprocessed tenderloin M. Psoas major, muscle profiled M. Infraspinatus, and marinated (by injection) M. Semitendinosus. The findings indicate that detailed information about beef technologies can enhance consumers' expectations and liking of beef. However, this effect differs between countries and beef technologies. Information becomes either less relevant when the product is actually tasted, as indicated by the findings in Norway, or more relevant when information is confirmed by own experience during tasting, as indicated by the findings in Belgium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  1. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  2. Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of replacement rate, production system and beef price on total herd efficiency. P. du Toit and J. van ... Percentage differ- ences (minimum, point in between, maximum) in beef prices for the period 1984 to 1992 (RSA Livestock and Meat Statrs- ..... therefore replacement rate, as an economic trait (Hetzel &. Seifert, 1986 ...

  3. Consumer Food Safety Risk Perceptions and Attitudes: Impacts on Beef Consumption across Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroeder, T.C.; Tonsor, G.T.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.

    2007-01-01

    Beef food safety events have contributed to considerable market volatility, produced varied consumer reactions, created policy debates, sparked heated trade disputes, and generally contributed to beef industry frustrations. Utilizing data from a total of 4,005 consumers in the United States, Canada,

  4. The effects of degree of dark cutting on tenderness and sensory attributes of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of degree of dark cutting (DC) on the tenderness, juiciness, and flavor attributes of beef. During carcass grading at a large U.S. commercial beef harvesting facility, DC carcasses (n = 160) and matching normal control (NC) carcasses (n = 160)...

  5. 77 FR 12752 - Beef Promotion and Research; Amendment to the Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... industry-governed organizations existed with the requisite knowledge, skills, and experience related to the... possessing the requisite experience, skills and information related to the marketing of beef and beef products that exist today while still requiring a minimum level of organizational experience so as not to...

  6. Consumption pattern of beef: A survey of selected meat retail shops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed the pattern of beef consumption behavior among a sample of 179 consumers who patronize meat retail shops in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State. The influences of various socio-economic factors on quantity of beef consumed per month by households were estimated using OLS. Level of education of ...

  7. Enterococcus on U.S. Beef Cow-calf Operations, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) conducted the Beef 2007-08 study, which focused on beef cow-calf health and management practices in 24 States from three regions of the United States. These States represented 79.6 percent of U.S. operations with ...

  8. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  9. Documentation of 50% water conservation in a single process at a beef abattoir. Meat Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275 kPa), and flowra...

  10. 7 CFR 59.104 - Mandatory reporting of boxed beef sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The price for each lot of each boxed beef sale, quoted in dollars per hundredweight on a F.O.B. plant basis; (2) The quantity for each lot of each sale, quoted by number of pounds sold; and (3) The...) The cut of beef, referencing the most recent version of the Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications...

  11. Outbreak of Salmonellosis associated with beef jerky--New Mexico, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-27

    In February 1995, the New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) was notified of cases of salmonellosis in two persons who had eaten beef jerky. An investigation by the New Mexico Environment Department determined that these cases were associated with beef jerky processed at a local plant. An investigation by NMDOH identified 91 additional cases. This report summarizes the investigation of this outbreak.

  12. 01 Nsoso - A survey of traditional beef cattle farmers....…

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    The aims of this survey were to characterise traditional beef cattle farmers and evaluate the adoption of certain improved ... The survey was conducted from March 2002 to October 2002. Beef cattle farmers from fifty (50) .... The most important advantages of using AI in traditional farming in Botswana is that it would lead to ...

  13. Failure of irradiated beef and ham to induce genetic aberrations of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittler, S.

    1979-01-01

    Ham that had been irradiated by electrons and beef which had been exposed to gamma rays from 60 Co were fed to Drosophila melanogaster to determine whether meat sterilized by these methods would induce genetic aberrations. The results showed that for yB/sc 8 y + Y males, fed on irradiated ham or beef, thermally preserved beef or frozen beef for their entire larval life, there was no significant increase in the loss of X or Y chromosomes or non-disjunction of these chromosomes; there was also no significant increase in any of the broods. Similarly for the Oregon R males, there was no significant increase in yield of sex-linked recessive lethals. Thus feeding of irradiated ham and beef to Drosophila males did not induce significant increases in genetic aberrations. The present findings are discussed in relation to the conflicting results of previous studies. (U.K.)

  14. NUTRITION LEVEL AND PHYSICAL QUALITY OF BALI BEEF ACCORDING TO THE SEX AND AGE OF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadek Karang Agustina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aims were to measure nutrition level and the physical quality of bali beef according to the age and sex of cattle. A total of 60 bali beef samples have been examined, consisting of 30 male and 30 female, in which they were divided into six age groups. The parameters of quality and nutritions of bali beef included: meat color, pH, water holding capacity, water content, crude protein, fat and ash content. The result showed that according to the sex and age of cattle, the beef quality and nutrition were not significantly different. This indicates that the bali beef have the similar qualities based on the different of sex and age.

  15. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle ( Muscle Transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H group and low marbling (L group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein coding were detected in all samples, and 749 genes exhibited differential expression between the H and L groups based on fold change (>1.5-fold, p<0.05. Multiple gene ontology terms and biological pathways were found significantly enriched among the differentially expressed genes. The transcriptome data will facilitate future functional studies on marbling formation in beef cattle and may be applied to improve breeding programs for cattle and closely related mammals.

  16. Color stability of ground beef packaged in a low carbon monoxide atmosphere or vacuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Youn; Claus, James R

    2011-01-01

    Ground beef was either packaged in an atmosphere of 0.4% CO, 30% CO₂, and 69.6% N₂ (CO-MAP) or vacuum. After storage (48 h, 2-3°C), packages of CO-MAP and vacuum were opened and overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride. Other CO-MAP and vacuum packages were left intact. Packages were initially displayed for 7 days (2-3°C). Intact packages were further displayed up to 35 days before being opened and displayed (1 or 3 days). Intact CO-MAP packaged ground beef was always more red than intact vacuum-packaged ground beef. Color was relatively stable for both types of intact packages over 35 days of display. Upon opening CO-MAP packaged ground beef, the red color decreased slower than in ground beef from vacuum packages. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Relationship between colorimetric (instrumental) evaluation and consumer-defined beef colour acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between instrumental colorimetric values (L*, a*, b*, the ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm) and consumer perception of acceptable beef colour was evaluated using a web-based survey and standardised photographs of beef m. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics. Only L* and b* were found to relate to average consumer opinions of beef colour acceptability. Respondent nationality was also identified as a source of variation in beef colour acceptability score. Although this is a preliminary study with the findings necessitating additional investigation, these results suggest L* and b* as candidates for developing instrumental thresholds for consumer beef colour expectations. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PRICING AND ASSESSING UNIT-LINKED INSURANCE CONTRACTS WITH INVESTMENT GUARANTEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciumas Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting life insurance products to have emerged in recent years in the Romanian insurance market has been the unit-linked contract. Unit-linked insurance products are life insurance policies with investment component. A unit-linked life insurance has two important components: protection and investment. The protection component refers to the insured sum in case of the occurrence of insured risks and the investment component refers to the policyholders’ account that represents the present value of the units from the chosen investment funds. Due to the financial instability caused by the Global Crisis and the amplification of market competitiveness, insurers from international markets have started to incorporate guarantees in unit-linked products. So a unit- linked life insurance policy with an asset value guarantee is an insurance policy whose benefit payable on death or at maturity consists of the greater of some guaranteed amount and the value of the units from the investment funds. One of the most challenging issues concerns the pricing of minimum death benefit and maturity benefit guarantees and the establishing of proper reserves for these guarantees. Insurers granting guarantees of this type must estimate the cost and include the cost in the premium. An important component of the activity carried out by the insurance companies is the investment of the premiums paid by policyholders in various types of assets, in order to obtain higher yields than those guaranteed by the insurance contracts, while providing the necessary liquidity for the payment of insurance claims in case of occurrence of the assumed risks. So the guaranteed benefits can be broadly matched or immunized with various types of financial assets, especially with fixed-interest instruments. According to Romanian legislation which regulates the unit-linked life insurance market, unit-linked life insurance contracts pass most of the investment risk to the

  19. Ground Beef Handling and Cooking Practices in Restaurants in Eight States†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K.; Fuller, Candace C.; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A.; Smith, Kirk E.

    2017-01-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef. PMID:24290692

  20. Ground beef handling and cooking practices in restaurants in eight States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogard, April K; Fuller, Candace C; Radke, Vincent; Selman, Carol A; Smith, Kirk E

    2013-12-01

    Eating in table-service restaurants has been implicated as a risk factor for Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. To explore this association and learn about the prevalence of risky ground beef preparation practices in restaurants, the Environmental Health Specialists Network (EHS-Net) assessed ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants in California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, and Tennessee. Eligible restaurants prepared and served hamburgers. EHS-Net specialists interviewed a restaurant employee with authority over the kitchen (defined as the manager) using a standard questionnaire about food safety policies, hamburger preparation policies, and use of irradiated ground beef. Interviews were followed by observations of ground beef preparation. Data from 385 restaurants were analyzed: 67% of the restaurants were independently owned and 33% were chain restaurants; 75% of the restaurants were sit down, 19% were quick service or fast food, and 6% were cafeteria or buffet restaurants. Eighty-one percent of restaurants reported determining doneness of hamburgers by one or more subjective measures, and 49% reported that they never measure the final cook temperatures of hamburgers. At least two risky ground beef handling practices were observed in 53% of restaurants. Only 1% of restaurants reported purchasing irradiated ground beef, and 29% were unfamiliar with irradiated ground beef. Differences in risky ground beef handling policies and practices were noted for type of restaurant ownership (independently owned versus chain) and type of food service style (sit down versus quick service or fast food). This study revealed the pervasiveness of risky ground beef handling policies and practices in restaurants and the need for educational campaigns targeting food workers and managers. These results highlight the importance of continued efforts to reduce the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in ground beef.

  1. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  2. PRODUCT SAFETY AND COLOR CHARACTERISTICS OF GROUND BEEF PROCESSED FROM BEEF TRIMMINGS TREATED WITH PEROXYACETIC ACID ALONE OR FOLLOWED BY NOVEL ORGANIC ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Pohlman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antimicrobial interventions using peroxyacetic acetic acid (PAA followed by novel organic acids on beef trimmings prior to grinding with conventional spray (CS or electrostatic spray (ES on ground beef microbial populations and color. Beef trimmings (80/20; 25kg were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, non- O157:H7 shiga toxin producing (STEC E. coli (EC and Salmonella spp. (SA at 105 CFU/g. Inoculated trimmings (1.5 kg /treatment/replicate, 2 replicates were treated with CS application of 0.02% PAA alone or followed by CS or ES application of 3% octanoic acid (PO, 3% pyruvic acid (PP, 3% malic acid (PM, saturated solution of fumaric acid (PF or deionized water (W. Findings from this study suggest that PA as a single or multiple chemical hurdle approach with malic, pyruvic, octanoic and fumaric acid on beef trimmings may be effective in reducing E. coli O157:H7 as well as non-STEC serotypes and Salmonella in ground beef up to day 2 of simulated retail display. Results of this study showed that instrumental color properties of ground beef treated with peroxyacetic acid followed by organic acids had little or no difference (P > 0.05 compared to the untreated un-inoculated control ground beef samples. The results also indicate that ES application of some organic acids may have similar or greater efficiency in controlling ground beef microbial populations compared to the CS application of the same acid providing a more economical and waste manageable decontamination approach.

  3. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Pighin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina’s actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  4. A Contribution of Beef to Human Health: A Review of the Role of the Animal Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighin, Dario; Pazos, Adriana; Chamorro, Verónica; Paschetta, Fernanda; Cunzolo, Sebastián; Godoy, Fernanda; Messina, Valeria; Pordomingo, Anibal; Grigioni, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Meat and meat products constitute important source of protein, fat, and several functional compounds. Although beef consumption may implicate possible negative impacts on human health, its consumption can also contribute to human health. Quality traits of beef, as well as its nutritional properties, depend on animal genetics, feeding, livestock practices, and post mortem procedures. Available data show that emerging beef production systems are able to improve both, quality and nutritional traits of beef in a sustainable way. In this context, Argentina's actions are aimed at maximising beef beneficial effects and minimising its negative impact on human health, in a way of contributing to global food security.

  5. New data on the total lipid, cholesterol and fatty acid composition of raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi

    OpenAIRE

    Bragagnolo, N; Rodriguez-Amaya, DB

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous analyses of total lipids, cholesterol and fatty acids were carried out on raw and grilled beef longissimus dorsi trimmed of external fat. Cholesterol was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and the fatty acids by gas chromatography. Mean total lipid (g/100 g) ranged from 2.1 to 2.6 for raw beef and 3.5 to 4.0 for grilled beef steaks. Cholesterol levels (mg/100 g) ranged from 40 to 43 for raw beef and 67 to 70 for grilled beef steaks. The main intramuscular fatty ...

  6. QUALITY INDICATORS OF BEEF FROM YOUNG BULLS OF VARIOUS DAIRY AND BEEF BREEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Miroshhikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It was established that studied meat raw material from young bulls of different breeds (Group I — red steppe, Group II — black-andwhite, Group III — Kalmyk, 15 animals per group was balanced by amino acid and fatty acid composition and by fatty acid ratio.In terms of safety, it corresponds to all parameters standardized in SanPiN  2.3.2.1078-01.The biological value of meat from beef bulls is higher compared to dairy bulls by 3.7% and 0.9%. In all groups, the essential amino acid content in meat proteins exceeds the values recommended by FAO/WHO for humans.Oleic acid had the highest concentration in the intramuscular fat (38.71, 39.02, 40.16% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Palmitic acid content in the sample of  intramuscular fat from red steppe bulls was 26.40%, in black-and-white bulls — 25.86%, and in Kalmyk bulls — 25.07%. Stearic acid concentration was 21.09%, 21.95% and 20.41% in Groups I, II and III, respectively. Thus, the intramuscular fat of Kalmyk bulls is characterized by a lower content of saturated fatty acids compared to herdmates from Groups I and II: palmitic acid by 1.33% and 0.79%, stearic acid by 0.68% and 1, 54% and myristic acid by 0.37% and 0.15%, respectively. The content of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and myristic in intramuscular fat samples from Group I was higher than in Groups II and III, and the content of stearic acid was the lowest. Polyunsaturatedfatty acid (PUFA concentration in the intramuscular fat of all breeds is sufficiently high. Thus, total PUFA content in Group I was 5.64%, in Group II — 6.42% and in Group III — 7.18%. While differences in PUFA content were insignificant, animals in Group III had a higher PUFA level compared to Groups I and II by 1.54 and 0.76%, respectively.Ecologically pure food product has been obtained in the SouthernUrals with its increased anthropogenic burden on natural and agricultural ecosystems. In Group III, lead content is lower than in Groups I and

  7. Performance of beef heifers supplemented with sodium lasalocid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Everton Dezordi; Canellas, Leonardo Canali; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Moojen, Fernanda Gomes; Carvalho, Helena Robatini; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2017-02-01

    This study was conducted on 78 13-month-old crossbred beef heifers that weighed 215 kg in Southern Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. We evaluated the performance of beef heifers that were reared in a pasture system that received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added sodium lasalocid (LAS). The heifers were randomly and uniformly divided into 2 groups, with 39 animals in each group. One group of animals received a mineral supplement energy-type protein without sodium lasalocid (CON), and the other group received a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS. The mean feed intake, the body weight (BW), the average daily gain (ADG), the body condition score (BCS), and ovarian cyclicity were recorded, and economic parameters were calculated. No differences in supplement intake were observed between the groups, which ensures adequate intake of the other components of the mineral mixture, which are part of the nutritional requirements for the production process. Similarly, no difference in the ADG was observed between treatments. We observed that the heifers in the LAS group had a higher BW gain (51 kg) that the CON heifers (40 kg; P heifers had a higher BCS (3.53) than CON heifers (3.38) at the end of the experiment (P heifers supplemented with LAS had a higher profitability than the CON heifers, even with the higher cost of the supplement containing LAS; this effect was due to the higher live BW at the end of the study. We concluded that the administration of a mineral supplement energy-type protein with added LAS has beneficial effects on beef heifers in terms of production and economic feasibility.

  8. Replacement Beef Cow Valuation under Data Availability Constraints

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    Amy D. Hagerman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Economists are often tasked with estimating the benefits or costs associated with livestock production losses; however, lack of available data or absence of consistent reporting can reduce the accuracy of these valuations. This work looks at three potential estimation techniques for determining the value for replacement beef cows with varying types of market data to proxy constrained data availability and discusses the potential margin of error for each technique. Oklahoma bred replacement cows are valued using hedonic pricing based on Oklahoma bred cow data—a best case scenario—vector error correction modeling (VECM based on national cow sales data and cost of production (COP based on just a representative enterprise budget and very limited sales data. Each method was then used to perform a within-sample forecast of 2016 January to December, and forecasts are compared with the 2016 monthly observed market prices in Oklahoma using the mean absolute percent error (MAPE. Hedonic pricing methods tend to overvalue for within-sample forecasting but performed best, as measured by MAPE for high quality cows. The VECM tended to undervalue cows but performed best for younger animals. COP performed well, compared with the more data intensive methods. Examining each method individually across eight representative replacement beef female types, the VECM forecast resulted in a MAPE under 10% for 33% of forecasted months, followed by hedonic pricing at 24% of the forecasted months and COP at 14% of the forecasted months for average quality beef females. For high quality females, the hedonic pricing method worked best producing a MAPE under 10% in 36% of the forecasted months followed by the COP method at 21% of months and the VECM at 14% of the forecasted months. These results suggested that livestock valuation method selection was not one-size-fits-all and may need to vary based not only on the data available but also on the characteristics (e

  9. Screening of quinolone antibiotic residues in chicken meat and beef sold in the markets of Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Demirhan, Burak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan; Abbasoglu, Ufuk

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to find the effects of quinolone antibiotics in chicken and beef used in Ankara, Turkey. Total number of 127 chicken and 104 beef meat samples were collected randomly from local markets for analysis. Extraction and determination of quinolones were made by ELISA procedure. One hundred eighteen of 231 (51.1%) examined chicken meat and beef samples were found to contain quinolone antibiotic residue. Among the chicken meat and beef samples, 58 (45.7%) of chicken meat samples and 60 (57.7%) of beef meat samples were positive for quinolones, respectively. The mean levels (±SE) of quinolones were found to be 30.81 ± 0.45 µg/kg and 6.64 ± 1.11 µg/kg in chicken and beef samples, respectively. This study indicated that some chicken and beef meat sold in Ankara contains residues of quinolone antibiotics.

  10. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-03-22

    The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  11. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Maia de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various initiatives that are being developed to address aspects of beef sustainability. This paper reviews the main discussions that occurred during this event, along with the key lessons learned, messages, and strategies that were proposed to improve the sustainability of the global beef industry.

  12. A unique method for detecting beef tenderness based on viscoelasticity principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yuan; Tang, Xiuying; Wang, Wenjuan; Peng, Yankun; Dong, Xiaoguang; Kang, Xilong; Li, Yongyu

    2017-10-01

    Tenderness is an important parameter for evaluating textural properties of beef. Viscoelasticity is a comprehensive property of viscosity and elasticity. Detection of beef tenderness based on beef viscoelasticity could avoid sample destruction inherent to the traditional evaluation method. This study has built a novel detection system using an air flow supply and laser displacement sensor to evaluate beef viscoelasticity, collecting measurements of beef sample deformation from the air flow, and of the subsequent recovery occurring during a 12-second time period. Compression curves and recovery curves were fitted by exponential function. The maximum compression deformation, d1, the recovery deformation, d2, and the total deformation, d3, were calculated. Instantaneous deformations of L1 and L2 were evaluated, including deformation areas of S1 and S2, respectively. The deformations for the period from 8 to 12 s were fitted by linear regression. Principal component analysis was used to find optimal principal components. Partial least squares regression method was used to build a model to predict the validation set. The optimal model was obtained using 12 principal components. Correlation coefficient and root mean square error of calibration set were 0.8541and 5.9727, respectively. Similarly, correlation coefficient and root means square error of validation set were 0.8357, respectively. The results showed that beef tenderness detection based on viscoelasticity can be of great value for practical application. This research provides a unique method for nondestructive and quantitative detection of meat and poultry. Tenderness is of great importance while evaluating the quality of beef. However, there is a lack of effective nondestructive methods to measure beef tenderness. A new method was developed to evaluate beef tenderness by applying air flow pressure on a beef sample surface and using a laser displacement sensor to measure the associated surface deformation as

  13. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. PRICE DEVELOPMENTS OF BEEF CARCASSES IN ROMANIA AND EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA BĂLAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of the classification of cattle carcasses (beef and veal are represented by the correct payment to cattle breeders, according to carcass weight and quality, and standardization, the common language in the international meat trade. The European Union set uniform procedures for quality assessment (the EUROP system, defined by the same parameters in the whole continent. Romania is at the beginning of cattle carcass classification; it is in the third year of reporting on the classification results to the European Commission. In this context, we consider it is very important to analyze these results, for a continuous improvement of carcass quality.

  15. Argentine Beef Demand and Household Choices of Retail Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Rossini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Household choices of outlet retail channels in beef purchases depend on several characteristics related to the quality of the product, convenience and ease of purchase, and economic factors such as price, income and payment methods. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of demographic and socio-economic attributes in the choice made by argentine consumers using a Multinominal Logit Model. The results show that the total number of purchases, the type of household, payment methods, and gender and schooling years of household head are the most relevant variables in the sample.

  16. Beef tallow biodiesel produced in a pilot scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    da Cunha, Michele Espinosa; Krause, Laiza Canielas; Moraes, Maria Silvana Aranda; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Almeida, Suelen Rodrigues; Caramao, Elina Bastos [Chemistry Institute/Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS - Av. Bento Goncalves, 9500, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Jacques, Rosangela Assis [Federal University of Pelotas/Federal University of Pampa (UFPel/UNIPAMPA-Bage) (Brazil); Rodrigues, Maria Regina Alves [Department of Organic Chemistry (DQO), Chemistry Institute (IQ), Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Campus Universitario, s/n - Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas/RS (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In the present work, the process of biodiesel production in a pilot plant has been studied using beef tallow as raw materials with methanol and potassium hydroxide as catalyst. The biodiesel quality is regulated by Brazilian specifications (Resolution 42) by the National Agency of Petroleum (ANP). The alkaline transesterification of animal fat with methanol produces a biodiesel with high quality and also with a good conversion rate. The process is possible but the economical viability must be improved by recovering methanol and glycerin. The obtained results have been used for industrial scale up of the process. (author)

  17. Effect of sonication on technological properties of beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Dolatowski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound treatment during rigor mortis period led to an acceleration of aging processes. No significant influence of sonication on acidity during ageing was observed. Ultrasound treatment did not influence the lightness, but according to the shear force measurements, improve meat tenderness. Differentiated technological properties of examined samples may result from influence of ultrasound on protein structures of meat. As a result of ultrasound treatment an increase of free calcium ions concentration occurred. Obtained results pointed out that sonication may be an effective method of formation of technological properties of beef during ageing.

  18. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  19. The Beef Jerky Blues: Methemoglobinemia From Home Cured Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jillian L; Spoelhof, Rachel; Pallasch, Erin M; Mycyk, Mark B

    2016-09-30

    Methemoglobinemia can result from ingestion of nitrite- or nitrate-containing foods. Here, we report a case where an adolescent girl and her father developed clinically significant methemoglobinemia after ingestion of "homemade" beef jerky prepared with sodium nitrate salt purchased at a local grocery store. Both had palpitations, dyspnea, and visible mucosal cyanosis. The daughter had a methemoglobin level of 44.2% and the father's methemoglobin level was 34.2%. Prompt recognition of methemoglobinemia is important for initiating antidotal therapy with methylene blue.

  20. Community oral health literacy: improving use of oral-health care guarantee in children aged 6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cornejo-Ovalle

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of comprehensive oral health care for children aged 6 (GES-6years showed low utilization of this guarantee, with lower use for children from municipal public schools. The empowerment and health literacy of parents improve their role as oral-health promoters for their children. Objective: To implement and to assess a strategy of empowerment and health literacy of the community about their guaranteed health rights to increase the use of GES-6years. Methods: A mixed design. Using qualitative methodology we will design a communication tool, culturally and socially appropriate to be sent to the beneficiary community of this guarantee. Using a nonrandomized community trial, this instrument designed to empower and improve oral health literacy on GES-6 guarantee, will be sent as personalized letter (intervention signed by the mayor of the municipality with a message aimed to children beneficiaries for GES -6years and another addressed to their parents/guardians. Schools would be selected from clusters (communes of the two regions selected for convenience. Communes will be randomly selected amog those whose authorities agree to participate, and will be selected as for intervention or control. Data analysis will assess the differences in the prevalence of use of this guarantee among children from municipal schools belonging to the intervention or control arm.

  1. On QoS guarantee in MPLS network with software deadline awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Jin, Yaohui; Cheng, Hong; Yu, Yingdi; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei; Hu, Weisheng

    2007-11-01

    With the increasing number of internet users, more and more real-time services are added into the network, such as IPTV, online-video, Voice over IP, etc. As we know, throughput is a highly important performance criterion for scheduling algorithms of networks. Besides throughput, these growing real-time services are very sensitive to delay variance termed as jitter. Therefore, high performance scheduling algorithm should achieve good performance in terms of throughput, delay, jitter and fairness together. Scheduling algorithm with deadline-awareness employed in packet switching plays a key role in QoS guarantees. Although traditional hard-deadline can provide guarantee on in-node delay-deadline criteria, the end-to-end delay-deadline criteria cannot be guaranteed due to the characteristic of hard-deadline, while the delay-deadline guaranteed throughput is low. Thus, soft-deadline scheduling algorithm has been proposed. In this paper, we investigate and compare the classical hard-deadline and soft-deadline switching algorithm. A new scheme "Bonus System" is proposed in order to realize the idea of soft-deadline switching algorithm. Bonus System based on soft-deadline is compared with classical Early-Deadline First scheme based on hard-deadline, which shows that Bonus System has better performance in End-to-End deadline guarantee.

  2. Modelling the guaranteed QoS for wireless sensor networks: a network calculus approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless sensor networks (WSNs became one of the high technology domains during the last 10 years. Real-time applications for them make it necessary to provide the guaranteed quality of service (QoS. The main contributions of this article are a system skeleton and a guaranteed QoS model that are suitable for the WSNs. To do it, we develop a sensor node model based on virtual buffer sharing and present a two-layer scheduling model using the network calculus. With the system skeleton, we develop a guaranteed QoS model, such as the upper bounds on buffer queue length/delay/effective bandwidth, and single-hop/multi-hops delay/jitter/effective bandwidth. Numerical results show the system skeleton and the guaranteed QoS model are scalable for different types of flows, including the self-similar traffic flows, and the parameters of flow regulators and service curves of sensor nodes affect them. Our proposal leads to buffer dimensioning, guaranteed QoS support and control in the WSNs.

  3. Execution of Fiduciary Guarantee Under Law No. 42 of 1999 on Fiduciary Guarantee (A Socio-Juridical Analysis to Anticipate Its Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Sukanti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiduciary Guarantee (Fiduciary Law which approved by the House of Representatives of the Republic of Indonesia (DPR RI on September 9, 1999 has accommodate the public needs to help business activities and to provide legal certainty to the interested parties. With the increase in the development activities and the needs for funding, a majority of funds are needed to meet the lending and borrowing activities that require protection for the lender and the borrower through a guarantee institution that can provide legal certainty and protection to the lender or the borrower. Viewed from the current lending practices, there is a difficulty on the part of the Fiduciary Guarantee to conduct the fiduciary execution if the Fiduciary Grantor defaults since in fact the goods being a fiduciary object are still in the possession of the Fiduciary Grantor or Debtor, then in line with the provisions of article 1977 of the Indonesian Civil Code, known as the principle of bezit geldt als volkomen titel.

  4. The role of food standards on international trade: assessing the Brazilian beef chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Marques Vieira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify how Brazilian beef managers have responded to a rapid expansion and intensification of standards for beef exports. This issue relates to how some Brazilian beef exporters are strategically repositioning themselves in the supply chains. The literature of this study reviews global chain governance and international standards. The method uses case studies consisting of six medium and large scale beef exporters who export fresh beef to the European Union. The main findings describe the kinds of governance that stimulate upgrading and transferral of the best practices and, consequently, full compliance with mandatory standards. This study suggests that standards do matter for companies trying to increase international competitiveness. These results contribute an understanding of the Brazilian beef chain, and also of other supply chains coping with demanding and changing international markets. Managerial implications show the challengesfacing Brazilian beef exporters in their efforts to sustain exports to the European Union and how they are using chain governance to improve their compliance with international standards and increase competitiveness.

  5. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulira, G L; Saunders, J R; Barth, A D

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses.Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X(2)) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis.

  6. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  7. Detection of chicken contamination in beef meatball using duplex-PCR Cyt b gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, E. P.; Kartikasari, L. R.; Cahyadi, M.

    2017-04-01

    Beef is one of expensive animal protein sources compared to other meats, on the other hand, chicken is cheap animal protein source. Mixing of chicken into beef meatball is possibly performed to decrease production cost. The aim of this study was to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball using Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene by duplex-PCR. Sample was designed and prepared as follows, 100% of chicken meatball, 100% of beef meatball and serial level of chicken contaminations in beef meatball (1, 5, 10 and 25%, respectively). Isolation of DNA genome from meatball was according to the guideline of gSYNCTM DNA Extraction Kit for animal tissue. The PCR reaction was carried out using KAPA2G Fast Multiplex Mix. This study found that the DNA genome was succesfully extracted. Moreover, chicken contamination in beef meatball was indicated by the presence of 227 bp DNA band on 2% of agarose gels. Current study revealed that duplex-PCR using Cyt b gene as a genetic marker was able to detect chicken contamination in beef meatball until 1% of chicken meat in the sample. It can be effectively used to identify contamination and also authenticate species origin in animal products to protect consumer from undesirable contents in the food.

  8. Consumer preferences for beef color and packaging did not affect eating satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, C E; Cornforth, D P; Whittier, D

    2001-04-01

    We investigated whether consumer preferences for beef colors (red, purple, and brown) or for beef packaging systems (modified atmosphere, MAP; vacuum skin pack, VSP; or overwrap with polyvinyl chloride, PVC) influenced taste scores of beef steaks and patties. To test beef color effects, boneless beef top loin steaks (choice) and ground beef patties (20% fat) were packaged in different atmospheres to promote development of red, purple, and brown color. To test effects of package type, steaks and patties were pre-treated with carbon monoxide in MAP to promote development of red color, and some meat was repackaged using VSP or PVC overwrap. The differently colored and packaged meats were separately displayed for members of four consumer panels who evaluated appearance and indicated their likelihood to purchase similar meat. Next, the panelists tasted meat samples from what they had been told were the packaging treatments just observed. However, the meat samples actually served were from a single untreated steak or patty. Thus, any difference in taste scores should reflect expectations established during the visual evaluation. The same ballot and sample coding were used for both the visual and taste evaluations. Color and packaging influenced (Pred>purple >brown and PVC >VSP>MAP. Appearance scores and likelihood to purchase were correlated (r=0.9). However, color or packaging did not affect (P>0.5) taste scores. Thus, consumer preferences for beef color and packaging influenced likelihood to purchase, but did not bias eating satisfaction.

  9. Using instrumental (CIE and reflectance) measures to predict consumers' acceptance of beef colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Benjamin W B; van de Ven, Remy J; Mao, Yanwei; Coombs, Cassius E O; Hopkins, David L

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to establish colorimetric thresholds based upon the capacity for instrumental measures to predict consumer satisfaction with beef colour. A web-based survey was used to distribute standardised photographs of beef M. longissimus lumborum with known colorimetrics (L*, a*, b*, hue, chroma, ratio of reflectance at 630nm and 580nm, and estimated deoxymyoglobin, oxymyoglobin and metmyoglobin concentrations) for scrutiny. Consumer demographics and perceived importance of colour to beef value were also evaluated. It was found that a* provided the most simple and robust prediction of beef colour acceptability. Beef colour was considered acceptable (with 95% acceptance) when a* values were equal to or above 14.5. Demographic effects on this threshold were negligible, but consumer nationality and gender did contribute to variation in the relative importance of colour to beef value. These results provide future beef colour studies with context to interpret objective colour measures in terms of consumer acceptance and market appeal. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beef Quality Identification Using Thresholding Method and Decision Tree Classification Based on Android Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the animal food products that have high nutrition because it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, the quality of beef should be maintained so that consumers get good beef quality. Determination of beef quality is commonly conducted visually by comparing the actual beef and reference pictures of each beef class. This process presents weaknesses, as it is subjective in nature and takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore, an automated system based on image processing that is capable of determining beef quality is required. This research aims to develop an image segmentation method by processing digital images. The system designed consists of image acquisition processes with varied distance, resolution, and angle. Image segmentation is done to separate the images of fat and meat using the Otsu thresholding method. Classification was carried out using the decision tree algorithm and the best accuracies were obtained at 90% for training and 84% for testing. Once developed, this system is then embedded into the android programming. Results show that the image processing technique is capable of proper marbling score identification.

  11. The structure and economic significance of government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Primorac

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the financial crisis, when countries are facing difficulties in raising the amounts of revenue needed to cover the expenditure side of the budget, fiscal risks can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of public finance. This became particularly evident in the case of public enterprises and their liabilities, which often increased public debt because of difficulties in meeting their financial obligations. The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal risks from government guarantees in Croatia and the European Union in general. Moreover, the paper aims to analyse the dynamics of the value and structure of government guarantees in Croatia in the period from 2009 to first half of 2015. Particular emphasis is placed on the impact of government guarantees on direct public debt in the context of methodological changes in the registration of public debt.

  12. Cooperative Cloud Service Aware Mobile Internet Coverage Connectivity Guarantee Protocol Based on Sensor Opportunistic Coverage Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the Internet coverage ratio and provide connectivity guarantee, based on sensor opportunistic coverage mechanism and cooperative cloud service, we proposed the coverage connectivity guarantee protocol for mobile Internet. In this scheme, based on the opportunistic covering rules, the network coverage algorithm of high reliability and real-time security was achieved by using the opportunity of sensor nodes and the Internet mobile node. Then, the cloud service business support platform is created based on the Internet application service management capabilities and wireless sensor network communication service capabilities, which is the architecture of the cloud support layer. The cooperative cloud service aware model was proposed. Finally, we proposed the mobile Internet coverage connectivity guarantee protocol. The results of experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm has excellent performance, in terms of the security of the Internet and the stability, as well as coverage connectivity ability.

  13. Asset securitization and rate of return: A study on letters of guarantee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binghui

    2018-01-01

    Using the theory of asset securitization, we analyze the feasibility of the securitization of letters of guarantee in theory. In the process of constructing the model of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee, we propose two indices: the risk probability of asset-backed securities and the loss rate of asset-backed securities to analyze the cash flow of securities. On the basis of no arbitrage principle, the expression of rate of return of securities backed by letters of guarantee is put forward. In order to study the relationship between the rate of return of securities and other influential factor in the model, a simulation experiment is designed. The experiment results show that (i) an increasing risk probability of cash flow or a short maturity date also make the return rate of securities increase and (ii) the return rate of securities is higher in economic boom than that in economic recession when other parameters remain unchanged.

  14. Comparison of feeding systems: feed cost, palatability and environmental impact among hay-fattened beef, consistent grass-only-fed beef and conventional marbled beef in Wagyu (Japanese Black cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithyphone, Khounsaknalath; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Horita, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Keisuke; Fumita, Tomiko; Shiotsuka, Yuji; Etoh, Tetsuji; Ebara, Fumio; Samadmanivong, Olavanh; Wegner, Jochen; Gotoh, Takafumi

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this article is to compare feed cost, palatability and environmental impacts among feeding systems of high concentrate (HC), high hay (HH) and grass-only-fed (Gof) groups. Feed cost was the sum of costs paid for feed intake times the price of feed per kilogram. Palatability was measured by a panel taste test using HH and Gof beef and analyzed for differences. Environmental impacts were calculated based on 1 kg of Japanese beef yield of CO(2) equivalents (eq) and animal end weights at each feeding stage. Results showed that the HH and Gof feeding systems could significantly reduce feed costs by approximately 60% and 78%, respectively, from the HC. In the panel taste test, 50% and 47.50% of panelists indicated that HH beef was 'extremely delicious' and 'acceptable,' respectively, while 15% indicated that Gof beef was 'extremely delicious'; 62.50% indicated that Gof beef was 'acceptable.' Environmental impacts of each feeding system in terms of CO(2) equivalents (eq) were 9.32, 6.10 and 2.04 tonnes of eq for the HC, HH and Gof, respectively. The HH was an economical system that produced moderate impacts on the environment and had impressive taste. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Comparison of the guaranteed analysis with the measured nutrient composition of commercial pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Richard C; Choate, Christina J; Scott, Karen C; Molenberghs, Geert

    2009-02-01

    To compare guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients in commercial pet foods. Cross-sectional study. Annual inspection reports of pet food analyses from 5 states. Guaranteed and measured concentrations of crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude fiber (CFb), moisture, and ash in pet foods were compared. The concentration difference for each nutrient was compared among types of food, target species, target life stages, manufacturers, and laboratories. The guaranteed and measured concentrations of nutrients were significantly different. For all foods, mean concentration differences were as follows: CP, 1.5%; CF, 1.0%; CFb, -0.7%; moisture, -4.0%; and ash, -0.5%. Crude protein difference for treats was significantly larger than differences for dry and canned foods. Crude fat difference for dry foods was significantly less than differences for canned foods and treats. Crude fiber and moisture differences for canned foods were significantly less than the corresponding differences for dry foods and treats. Only CFb differences differed among target species, life stages, manufacturers, or laboratories. Addition of 1.5% and 1% to the guaranteed minimums for CP and CF, respectively; subtraction of 0.7%, 4%, and 0.5% from the guaranteed maximums for CFb, moisture, and ash, respectively; and addition of 0.23 kcal/g to the as-fed metabolizable energy value calculated by use of modified Atwater factors from guaranteed analyses provides a more accurate estimate of the nutrient and metabolizable energy content of commercial pet foods. Nevertheless, the actual composition of a food should be determined whenever possible.

  16. Fixed-time artificial insemination in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background The study was designed to test the effect of fixed-time artificial insemination (fixed-AI) after the slightly modified Ovsynch protocol on the pregnancy rate in beef cattle in Finnish field conditions. The modification was aimed to optimize the number of offsprings per AI dose. Methods Ninety Charolais cows and heifers were entered into the program an average of 1.8 times. Thus, 164 animal cases were included. Animals were administered 10-12 μg of buserelin. Seven days later animals without a corpus luteum (CL) were rejected (20.7%) while the remaining 130 cases with a CL were administered prostaglandin F2α, followed 48 h later with a second injection of buserelin (8-10 μg). Fixed-AI was performed 16-20 hours after the last injection. Results The pregnancy rate was 51.5% (67/130). The pregnancy rate after a short interval (50-70 d) from calving to entering the program was significantly higher than that after a long interval (>70 d). Conclusion This protocol seems to give acceptable pregnancy results in beef herds and its effect on saving labour is notable. PMID:19948052

  17. Identification and dose evaluation of irradiated beef containing bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiacotti, M.; Alberti, A.; Fuochi, P.G.; Chiesa, L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Food irradiation is a well-established technique to extend the food shelf life and to reduce the food-related health hazards caused by pathogenic micro-organisms. At present, radiation treatment is permitted for various categories of food and food ingredients in many countries. At the European level, irradiation of food is regulated by the European Directives 1999/2/EC and 1999/3/EC. Community legislation states that any food or food ingredients, authorised in the European Union, must be labelled with the word 'irradiated' and that every year each Member State has to carry out checks at the product marketing stage to enforce correct labelling. The present work aimed at identifying irradiated beef meat by using a reliable and sensitive detection of DNA comets as screening biological method and performing an Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) spectrometry as confirmatory qualitative standard. The influence of storage conditions and time after irradiation on DNA degradation was also investigated. Furthermore the application of ESR technique as a quantitative method was successfully applied to beef bones, using the approach of calibration curve. Results, although the limited statistics, proved for reliability of the dose reconstruction method and blind tests were carried out resulting in very satisfactory difference between actual treatment dose and reconstructed dose.

  18. Qualitative improvement of low meat beef burger using Aloe vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Ghiasi-Esfahani, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Low meat beef burgers have found their niche in the food markets in developing countries because of their lower price. However, these burgers still lack an acceptable quality. This study investigates the effects of different concentrations of Aloe vera on the quality of this food product. For this purpose, beef burgers were produced with 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% Aloe vera and the changes in their cooking parameters, lipid oxidation, texture, and appeal to consumers over 7days of refrigerated storage were evaluated. Results indicate that Aloe vera contributed to some extent to decreased cooking loss and diameter reduction in the burgers. Increased concentrations of Aloe vera led to improvements in the water absorption and texture of the burgers as well as their lipid stability. However, a concentration level of 3% led to the most acceptability of the product to the panelists. Finally, it was found that Aloe vera acts as a hydrocolloid and improves the quality of burgers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk Preference of Farmer Beef Cattle Smallholder in West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, H.; Fitriani, A.

    2018-02-01

    Beef cattle farm is an economic activity that its correlation relatively high with ecology condition, ever more its activity be dominated by smallholder with farm scale of 1—3 head beef cattle, so the capital of feeder cattle are component production costs relatively large. By doing so, lose one head of cattle means losing some of the capital that had been invested in its farm. This condition has implications for the behavior of farmers in managing its farm. The farmers in the decision-making act reluctant to risk so there is a bit of a program or package of new technologies to improve the performance of farm rejected. Therefore, this study analyzed the preferences of farmers against risks, and find out the socio-economic conditions that be the deciding factor on farmer preference for risk.The method used was a survey with multistage random sampling. The numbers of samples in this study were 150 people from three different areas, namely: District of Bandung, Subang, and Pangandaran (South Ciamis). Data analysis model used in relation to this research problem was the model’s utility function and Component Factor Analysis (CFA). The results showed that the overall breeders had a reluctant attitude to risk (risk averter). This is indicated by the value of x3, namely -63,692.693 education, and experience for farm management; while the business scale factor, number of dependents, and ownership determine the size of the gross margin.

  20. Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) - Guarantees for representatives of the personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 4) entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208527.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 13 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Guarantees for representatives of the personnel" of January 2014. This document contains a single change to reflect the terminology under the new career structure: the term "career path" is replaced by "grade". This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  1. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  2. THE EFFECT OF LOST EXPORTS ON U.S. BEEF PRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Jin, Hyun Joung; Koo, Won W.

    2005-01-01

    Since the discovery of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in the United States in December 2003, U.S. beef exports have declined approximately 85 percent. A number of countries, including Japan and Korea (the top export markets for U.S. beef), have banned imports of beef from the United States, while U.S. exports to other important markets, such as Mexico and Canada, have been well below previous levels. Domestic demand in the United States was not significantly affected by the BSE discov...

  3. A Review of Sustainability Enhancements in the Beef Value Chain: State-of-the-Art and Recommendations for Future Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia de Souza, Danielle; Petre, Ruaraidh; Jackson, Fawn; Hadarits, Monica; Pogue, Sarah; Carlyle, Cameron N.; Bork, Edward; McAllister, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary To better address consumer concerns, the beef sector is working on strategies to enhance the sustainability of all aspects of the beef supply chain. Among these strategies are (1) the development of science-based frameworks and indicators capable of measuring progress at all stages of beef production; (2) the engagement of different stakeholders along the beef supply chain at regional and global levels; and (3) the improvement of communication among stakeholders and transparency towards consumers. Progress on these three fronts was presented during the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef, hosted by the Global and Canadian Roundtables for Sustainable Beef. During the event, there was a clear understanding that the beef industry is substantially advancing efforts to continuously improve its sustainability, both at regional and global levels, by developing assessment frameworks and indicators to measure progress. However, it is also clear that the beef sector has a need to more clearly define the concept of beef sustainability, strengthen cooperation and exchange of information among national roundtables for sustainable beef, as well as improve the flow of information along the supply chain. An improved transparency in the beef sector will help consumers make more informed decisions about food products. Abstract The beef sector is working towards continually improving its sustainability in order to achieve environmentally, socially and economically desirable outcomes, all of which are of increasing concern to consumers. In this context, the Global Roundtable for Sustainable Beef (GRSB) provides guidance to advance the sustainability of the beef industry, through increased stakeholder engagement and the formation of national roundtables. Recently, the 2nd Global Conference on Sustainable Beef took place in Banff, Alberta, Canada, hosted by the GRSB and the Canadian Roundtable for Sustainable Beef. Conference attendees discussed the various

  4. Study on Risk Analysis and the Way of Framing the Activity of Credit Guarantee for SMEs in Prudential Requirements/ Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Nancu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with risk analysis and with the way of framing the activity of credit guaranteefor SMEs in terms of prudential requirements/ indicators. Il also tackles the ways of framing theactivity of guaranteeing, financing and treasury, under prudential requirements/ indicators, withinthe limits laid down for Non-Banking Financial Institutions, for Guaranteeing the Credits grantedto SMEs, by the National Credit Guarantee Fund for SMEs, under the Risk Policy and internalregulations (rules, procedures, operation instructions.

  5. Guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants in Germany and Austria; Gesicherte Leistung der Wasserkraft in Deutschland und Oesterreich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, Markus [VERBUND Hydro Power GmbH, Wien (Austria); Ernst, Hans-Peter; Engels, Klaus [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Sparte Wasserkraft, Landshut (Germany); Metzka, Rudolf [Technische Hochschule Deggendorf (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Balancing fluctuations caused by renewable energy play an important role in the current transition of energy supply systems. Hydro power plants provide both: guaranteed capacity as well as renewability. In Germany and Austria definitions of how to quantify the guaranteed capacity of hydro power plants are well established to calculate the guaranteed capacity for an individual power plant. The definitions are challenged against real examples.

  6. Economic valuation of a toll road concession with traffic guarantees and the abandonment option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Fischberg Blank

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Governments worldwide have been encouraging private participation in transportation infrastructure. To increase the feasibility of a project, public-private partnership (PPP may include guarantees or other support to reduce the risks for private investors. It is necessary to value these opportunities under a real options framework and thereby analyze the project's economic feasibility and risk allocation. However, within this structure, sponsors have an implicit option to abandon the project that should be simultaneously valued. Thus, this article proposes a hypothetical toll road concession in Brazil with a minimum traffic guarantee, a maximum traffic ceiling, and an implicit abandonment option. Different combinations of the minimum and maximum levels are presented, resulting in very high or even negative value added to the net present value (NPV. The abandonment option impacts the level of guarantee to be given. Governments should calibrate an optimal level of guarantees to avoid unnecessarily high costs, protect the returns of the sponsor, and lower the probability of abandonment.

  7. PESTEL Model Analysis and Legal Guarantee of Tourism Environmental Protection in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhiyong, Xian

    2017-08-01

    On the basis of summarizing the general situation of tourism environmental protection in China, this paper analyses the macro factors of tourism environmental protection by using PESTEL model. On this basis, this paper explores the improvement paths of tourism environmental protection based on PESTEL model. Finally, it puts forward the legal guarantee suggestion of tourism environment protection.

  8. 34 CFR 682.713 - Disqualification review of limitation, suspension, and termination actions taken by guarantee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... school's response. (3) The transcript of the agency's hearing. (4) The decision of the agency's hearing... termination actions taken by guarantee agencies against a school. 682.713 Section 682.713 Education... of Lender or Third-party Servicer Eligibility and Disqualification of Lenders and Schools § 682.713...

  9. 13 CFR 120.210 - What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What percentage of a loan may SBA guarantee? 120.210 Section 120.210 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS... percent, except as otherwise authorized by law. [61 FR 3235, Jan. 31, 1996, as amended at 68 FR 51680, Aug...

  10. Infrastructure Development and the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme: Evidence from Bankura, West Bengal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Roy (Jitendra); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. The immediate goal of the National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS) is to ensure a social safety net for vulnerable groups by providing a fall-back source of employment when other alternatives are scarce. However, its long-term goals are to create durable rural

  11. 10 CFR 205.287 - Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other guarantees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other guarantees... Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.287 Escrow accounts, segregated funds and other... the funds in an appropriate interest-bearing escrow account, retention of the funds by the firm in a...

  12. Pricing Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrager, D.F.; Pelsser, A.

    2004-01-01

    We derive general pricing formulas for Rate of Return Guarantees in Regular Premium Unit Linked Insurance under stochastic interest rates. Our main contribution focusses on the effect of stochastic interest rates. First, we show the effect of stochastic interest rates can be interpreted as, what is

  13. Enabling customer satisfaction and stock reduction through service differentiation with response time guarantees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Gabor (Adriana); L.A. van Vianen (Lars); G. Yang (Guangyuan); S. Axsäter (Sven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn response to customer specific service time guarantee requirements, service providers can offer differentiated services. However, conventional customer differentiation models based on fill rate constraints do not take full advantage of the stock reduction that can be achieved by

  14. Deterministic Price Setting Rules to Guarantee Profitability of Unbundling in the Airline Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Diepen, G.; Curran, R.

    2011-01-01

    Unbundling the traditional airfare is one of the airline industry’s practices to generate ancillary revenue in its struggle for profitability. However, unbundling might just as well negatively affect profit. In this paper deterministic price setting rules are established to guarantee profitability

  15. 22 CFR 213.3 - Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loans, guarantees, sovereign and interagency claims. 213.3 Section 213.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CLAIMS COLLECTION... thereof, or any public international organization; (d) Claims where the CFO determines that the...

  16. Balancing Tuition Predictability and Affordability: The Pitfalls of Guaranteed Tuition Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Kearney, Tyler D.; Hemenway, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    As tuition levels rise, predictability is an increasingly important consideration of college financing. In this article, the authors explore contemporary policy tools intended to enhance tuition predictability. They specifically consider guaranteed tuition plans. The authors begin their discussion by considering the prevalence of guaranteed…

  17. 78 FR 8295 - Guarantees for Bonds Issued for Community or Economic Development Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... a population poverty rate of at least 20 percent; (2) has an unemployment rate 1.5 times the... Guarantee Program, as well as interest rates, terms and conditions for Bonds, Bond Issues, the Risk-Share... and transferable to capital markets on terms and conditions that are consistent with comparable...

  18. A Unified Pricing of Variable Annuity Guarantees under the Optimal Stochastic Control Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel V. Shevchenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review pricing of the variable annuity living and death guarantees offered to retail investors in many countries. Investors purchase these products to take advantage of market growth and protect savings. We present pricing of these products via an optimal stochastic control framework and review the existing numerical methods. We also discuss pricing under the complete/incomplete financial market models, stochastic mortality and optimal/sub-optimal policyholder behavior, and in the presence of taxes. For numerical valuation of these contracts in the case of simple risky asset process, we develop a direct integration method based on the Gauss-Hermite quadratures with a one-dimensional cubic spline for calculation of the expected contract value, and a bi-cubic spline interpolation for applying the jump conditions across the contract cashflow event times. This method is easier to implement and faster when compared to the partial differential equation methods if the transition density (or its moments of the risky asset underlying the contract is known in closed form between the event times. We present accurate numerical results for pricing of a Guaranteed Minimum Accumulation Benefit (GMAB guarantee available on the market that can serve as a numerical benchmark for practitioners and researchers developing pricing of variable annuity guarantees to assess the accuracy of their numerical implementation.

  19. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arriva...

  20. Fair Valuation of Guaranteed Contracts : The Interaction Between Assets and Liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.; Kleynen, R.H.M.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the investment behavior of an insurance company consisting of policy and equity holders and issuing fair valued guaranteed contracts.Building up on the work of Briys and De Varenne (1997) and De Munnik and Schotman (1994) an intertemporal stochastic asset model and an interest