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Sample records for beef cow diets

  1. Methane emissions from two breeds of beef cows offered diets containing barley straw with either grass silage or brewers' grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Hyslop, J J; Waterhouse, A

    2015-10-01

    Increasing the concentration of dietary lipid is a promising strategy for reducing methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants. This study investigated the effect of replacing grass silage with brewers' grains on CH4 emissions of pregnant, non-lactating beef cows of two breeds. The experiment was a two×two factorial design comprising two breeds (LIMx, crossbred Limousin; and LUI, purebred Luing) and two diets consisting of (g/kg diet dry matter (DM)) barley straw (687) and grass silage (301, GS), or barley straw (763) and brewers' grains (226, BG), which were offered ad libitum. Replacing GS with BG increased the acid-hydrolysed ether extract concentration from 21 to 37 g/kg diet DM. Cows (n=48) were group-housed in equal numbers of each breed across two pens and each diet was allocated to one pen. Before measurements of CH4, individual dry matter intake (DMI), weekly BW and weekly body condition score were measured for a minimum of 3 weeks, following a 4-week period to acclimatise to the diets. CH4 emissions were subsequently measured on one occasion from each cow using individual respiration chambers. Due to occasional equipment failures, CH4 measurements were run over 9 weeks giving 10 observations for each breed×treatment combination (total n=40). There were no differences between diets for daily DMI measured in the chambers (9.92 v. 9.86 kg/day for BG and GS, respectively; P>0.05). Cows offered the BG diet produced less daily CH4 than GS-fed cows (131 v. 156 g/day: P0.05). However, when expressed as a proportion of metabolic BW (BW0.75), LUI cows had greater DMI than LIMx cows (84.5 v. 75.7 g DMI/kg BW0.75, Pbeef cows, with no suppression of DMI. PMID:26145179

  2. Inclusion of Ethanol Co-Products in Beef Cow Diets: Impact on Cow Performance and Developmental Programming of the Progeny

    OpenAIRE

    Shee, Christie N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal for a cow-calf producer is profitability, which requires optimum reproductive performance, while keeping feed costs low and ensuring that nutritional needs are met. Cow herds are grazed on pasture or crop residues, but these may not always meet nutritional requirements. Ethanol co-products such as dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS) and condensed distiller's solubles (CDS) may be supplemented to increase the energy and protein concentration of the diet. Recently it has...

  3. The effects on cow performance and calf birth and weaning weight of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in a barley straw diet offered to pregnant beef cows of two different breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, J A; Duthie, C-A; Hyslop, J J; Morgan, C A; Waterhouse, T

    2016-08-01

    The effects on cow and calf performance of replacing grass silage with brewers grains in diets based on barley straw and fed to pregnant beef cows are reported. Using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of breed and diet, cows pregnant by artificial insemination (n = 34) of two breeds (cross-bred Limousin, n = 19 and pure-bred Luing, n = 15) were fed diets ad libitum which consisted of either (g/kg dry matter) barley straw (664) and grass silage (325; GS) or barley straw (783) and brewers grains (206, BG) and offered as total mixed rations. From gestation day (GD) 168 until 266, individual daily feed intakes were recorded and cow body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS) measured weekly. Calving date, calf sex, birth and weaning BW, and calf age at weaning were also recorded. Between GD 168 and 266, cross-bred Limousin cows gained more weight than Luing cows (p < 0.05) and cows offered BG gained more weight than cows offered GS (p < 0.001). Luing cows lost more BCS than cross-bred Limousin cows (p < 0.05), but diet did not affect BCS. There were no differences in dry matter intake as a result of breed or diet. Calf birth BW, however, was greater for cows fed BG than GS (44 vs. 38 kg, SEM 1.0, p < 0.001) with no difference between breeds. At weaning, calves born to BG-fed cows were heavier than those born to GS-fed cows (330 vs. 286 kg, SEM 9.3, p < 0.01). In conclusion, replacement of grass silage with brewers grains improved the performance of beef cows and increased calf birth and weaning BW. Further analysis indicated that the superior performance of cows offered the BG diet was most likely due to increases in protein supply which may have improved both energy and protein supply to the foetus. PMID:26613658

  4. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Beef production without mature cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, G E; Whittier, J C

    2015-09-01

    Nutrients in animal feed get partitioned to growth, lactation, pregnancy, fat accretion, and/or maintenance. For mature beef cows, >80% of nutrients consumed annually go to unproductive maintenance. Integrated over the entire U.S. beef cattle production system, nearly one-half of the nutrients consumed go to maintenance of cow herds. This accounts for much of the inefficiency of beef production and can be minimized by the single-calf heifer system, in which heifers are fattened and slaughtered after having their first calf. We propose a modification, use of sexed semen, so that most heifers replace themselves with a heifer calf. This greatly decreases the size of the inherently inefficient cow herd required for beef production and greatly increases efficiency of beef production in terms of nutrients consumed and waste produced, such as methane, by increasing the ratio of nutrients used for growth to those used for maintenance. Additional management is required including AI, early weaning, and the attention required when calving 2-yr-old heifers. Low conception rates with sexed semen and less efficient growth of females than males also must be considered. However, these issues seem greatly outweighed by the benefits of increased efficiency from decreasing cow herd size while eliminating the need for breeding back lactating first-calf heifers, the need for castration, and health problems inherent in older cows such as mastitis and lameness. Moreover, the decreased generation interval can greatly accelerate genetic progress. PMID:26440323

  5. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level. PMID:27180327

  6. The effect of high-starch diets fed to beef cows during late gestation on the feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fetus requires glucose as an energy source; hence, it was hypothesized that diets rich in glycogenic substrates during late gestation would yield offspring that have a greater potential to produce a high quality carcass. In November of 2005 and 2006, 54 and 59, respectively, non-lactating cows o...

  7. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  8. Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet hhh

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Beef duis brisket pariatur cow veniam tempor filet mignon mollit aute ham hock culpa drumstick. Dolor in jerky beef ribs consectetur andouille ham swine aliquip mollit beef fugiat nostrud et. Eiusmod consequat pork, turducken capicola ham hock tongue sint ribeye officia. Irure in ex swine duis kevin tenderloin incididunt meatball cillum doner enim strip steak short ribs pork chop. Swine duis irure rump, exercitation jerky capicola aliqua kevin pancetta shankle. Ullamco chuck corned beef, ut b...

  9. Beef quality traits of heifer in comparison with steer, bull and cow at various feeding environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Reddy, Bandugula; Sivakumar, Allur S; Jeong, Dawoon W; Woo, Yang-Byung; Park, Sang-June; Lee, So-Young; Byun, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Chang-Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Hwang, Inho

    2015-01-01

    The present review has been focused largely on the sex type differences in beef quality among heifers, cows, steers and bulls in various feeding environments. Genetic groups, feeding systems and gender are the major factors that change carcass characteristics and fatty acid profiles of cattle. Studies identified that heifer beef has super characteristics in eating quality and a better healthy composition in fatty acids than steer, cow and bull. Diet influences the variation of fatty acid profile; particularly the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) interacts with breed and sex. Animals finished in pasture systems were reported to show better ratios of PUFA/ saturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3. Carcasses of roughage-fed beef are lighter and have less marbling and lower quality grades but have higher cutability than carcasses of grain-fed bulls. Heifers and cows are reported to deposit more fat than steers and bulls. Among males, lower production of testosterone by steers favors more fat thickness compared with bulls. Marbling greatly varies among cattle belonging to different sexes, and particularly, females have genetic makeup that efficiently controls deposition. The current review identified that heifers can be a premium beef brand, while steer beef currently take a large part of market share across the world. PMID:25236779

  10. DOWN MARKET EFFECTS IN BEEF COW-CALF HERDS

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Stephen L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1995 and 1996, prices for weaned calves were at the lowest point for the current cattle market cycle. The National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS) Beef ,97 Study examined the effects of the down market on beef cow-calf herd management practices. Most producers did not alter management practices in response to the down market. Among producers who made changes, costs were cut largely in the area of herd health management. Specific management practices in which costs were cut included...

  11. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    OpenAIRE

    Persson Waller, Karin; Persson, Ylva; Nyman, Ann-Kristin; Stengärde, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Produ...

  12. Application of an ELISA Milk Pregnancy Test in Beef Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J N; Byrem, T M; Grooms, D L

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the binucleate giant cells of the ruminant placenta and enter maternal circulation at the time of placental attachment. The IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Test (IDEXX, Westbrook, ME) detects a subset of PAG in milk. Although designed as a management tool for dairy cows, there is potential for using the milk PAG test in beef cows. Our objective was to compare the performance of the milk PAG ELISA with a gold standard method for pregnancy diagnosis and determine the agreement between milk and serum PAG analysis in lactating beef cows. Angus and Angus-crossed cows (n = 332) from two Michigan beef herds were enrolled in this study. Cows were subjected either to timed artificial insemination followed by exposure to a bull or exclusively exposed to a bull. The bulls and cows were separated 30 days prior to examination. Serum and milk samples were collected and submitted within 24 h of collection to a commercial laboratory for PAG analysis using the IDEXX Milk Pregnancy Assay (milk) and the IDEXX Bovine Pregnancy Assay (serum). Concurrently with milk and serum collection, each cow was examined transrectally by palpation or ultrasonography. When compared to transrectal examination, the performance (and 95% confidence intervals) of the milk PAG ELISA was sensitivity of 99.7% (99.0-100.0%) and specificity of 80.8% (65.6-95.9%). The lower specificity is likely due to the low prevalence (9.9%) of open cows (n = 30) in the herds examined. Of the 332 cows examined, 1.8% (n = 6) were classified as rechecks using the milk PAG ELISA. Results of the milk and serum PAG ELISA were in high agreement (kappa coefficient = 0.91). The milk PAG ELISA was accurate in predicting pregnancy status using milk collected from beef cattle between days 37 and 125 post-insemination and may be useful for aiding management decisions in beef herds. PMID:26058919

  13. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  14. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Every December, for 3 years, 87 beef cows, nursing cows, (594 ' 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November) were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender. They were divided randomly into 6 groups and assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual swards (0.45 hectares/cow...

  15. Studies on post-partum anoestrus in Alentejano beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-partum ovarian activity in Alentejano beef cows maintained on natural pastures was monitored by measuring plasma progesterone levels using the radioimmunoassay method. Post-partum anoestrus was compared in cows calving in two different seasons (winter and summer). Differences between primiparous and multiparous cows, the effect of short term nursing interruption (72 hours by the 20th day post-partum) and the dam's body weight at calving (BWC) were also considered with respect to their influence on the onset of post-partum ovarian activity. Fertility after two breeding seasons of natural mating (April-May) and November-December) was also studied. Post-partum anoestrus was significantly longer in winter calving cows than in those calving in summer, in both multiparous and primiparous cows (73.9 versus 33.1 and 111.1 versus 35.6 days, respectively; P2=0.41; P<0.03). Because of a longer post-partum anoestrus, fertility was reduced in cows calving during the winter season compared with those calving in summer in all three years of the study (63.9 versus 76.9%, 57.8 versus 62.9% and 36.5 versus 60.6%, for 1984, 1985 and 1986, respectively). The results presented show that the winter period in Portugal impairs the return to ovarian activity post-partum in this breed. 19 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  16. Effects of organic or inorganic cobalt, copper, manganese, and zinc supplementation to late-gestating beef cows on productive and physiological responses of the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, M C; Cappellozza, B I; Mills, R R; Larson, C K; Moriel, P; Bohnert, D W

    2016-03-01

    CON and INR cohorts. Collectively, these results suggest that feeding the AAC diet to late-gestating beef cows stimulated programming effects on postnatal offspring growth and health compared with the CON diet. Therefore, supplementing late-gestating beef cows with an organic complexed source of Co, Cu, Zn, and Mn instead of no supplementation appears to optimize offspring productivity in beef production systems. PMID:27065282

  17. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Gavin F.; McNiven, Mary A.; Petit, Hélène V.; Duynisveld, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 1...

  18. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  19. Sensory quality of beef from different finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resconi, V C; Campo, M M; Font i Furnols, M; Montossi, F; Sañudo, C

    2010-11-01

    Beef production under different local husbandry systems might have meat sensory quality implications for the marketing of these products abroad. In order to assess the effect of finishing diet systems on beef quality, a trained sensory taste panel assessed meat aged for 20 days from 80 Uruguayan Hereford steers that were finished on one of the following diets: T1=Pasture [4% of animal live weight (LW)], T2=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (0.6% LW)], T3=Pasture [3% LW plus concentrate (1.2% LW)], or T4=Concentrate plus hay ad libitum. Beef odour and flavour intensities decreased with an increase in the energy content of the diet. The meat from T2 had the lowest acid flavour and strange odours intensities. In general, steers fed only concentrate plus hay (T4) produced meat that had an inferior sensory quality because they had more pronounced off-flavours and was tougher. PMID:20696533

  20. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Dejatkina; Ekaterina Goryacheva; Vladimir Kozlov; Mihail Dejatkin

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  1. Enriching the diet of dairy cows natural zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Dejatkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic rations of dairy cows reveals a lack of these minerals, it found that the data on the nutritional diets meet the necessary requirements. Introduction to the diet of natural zeolite cows completely fills the mineral deficiency and enhances milk production.

  2. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pbeef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level. PMID:24174549

  3. Soybean silage in the diet for beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Rasmo Garcia; Andreia Santos Cezário

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of molasses with or without microbial additive on soybean silage regarding the intake, digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four treatments (diets with soybean silage (SS), SS with microbial inoculant, SS with molasses and SS with microbial inoculant and molasses) and seven replications. Animal were feedlot fed for 99 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30, the forage...

  4. Evaluation of subclinical endometritis and consequences on fertility in piedmontese beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, A; Gallo, S; Molinaro, F; Dondo, A; Zoppi, S; Vincenti, L

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical endometritis (SEM) is poorly investigated in beef cows, as stated in the literature. This project aims to evaluate the rate and the consequences of SEM in Piedmontese cows, with a focus on bacteriological findings and fertility parameters. Uterine cytology was performed for 97 subjects; a total of 31% of the cows were diagnosed as being positive for SEM and as having an 8% neutrophil (PMN) presence on the slide, which is considered as the best cut-off to diagnose the pathology. Only 13% of the cows positive for SEM were pregnant within 130 dpp and generally showed increases of 40 days in the partum to conception interval compared with the negative cows (142 vs 182, p = 0.01). Cows positive for both bacteriology and cytology showed a lower fertility than cows with only inflammation or only a bacterial presence (p = 0.0004). Bacterial isolation detected different species, but no difference in regard to the impact of these bacteria on SEM was shown. Parity, presence of calves, hygiene condition, age and number of service did not affect whether a cow was positive for subclinical endometritis (p cows; cows bred in tie stalls were more likely to be positive for SEM (OR = 2.2; p = 0.04). In conclusion, cytology seems to be a good technique for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in beef cows, and as in dairy cows, subclinical endometritis has a detrimental effect on fertility, causing an increase in partum to conception and a decrease in the rate of cows who become pregnant within 130 dpp, particularly for those cows housed in a tie stall. PMID:25598020

  5. Milk Yield of Primiparous Beef Cows From Three Calving Systems and Varied Weaning Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a 2-yr study, primiparous beef cows produced in 3 calving systems were used to study milk yield throughout a 190-d lactation (2002, n = 20; 2003, n = 24 per calving system). Calving occurred in late winter (average calving date = February 4 ± 2 d), early spring (average calving date = March 30 ± ...

  6. Preovulatory estradiol and the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in suckled beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In postpartum beef cows, GnRH-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality. In Exp. 1, single ovulation reciprocal embryo transfer (ET) was utilized to examine the relationship between preovulatory serum concentrations of estrad...

  7. Veterinary involvement in management practices of beef cow-calf producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, M W; Gay, J M

    1996-02-15

    Management practices of 53 beef cow-calf producers were surveyed by use of a mail questionnaire. Producers were randomly selected from those who employ veterinarians to perform herd pregnancy examinations. Questions were asked about animal management, grazing and feeding, vaccination, and record-keeping practices. Median herd size was 250 breeding cows, and 2,329 of 2,491 (93%) randomly sampled cows in these herds were pregnant. Less than half of producers associated with these herds reported adoption of many beneficial practices related to bull management, infectious disease management, nutrition, and individual-animal record keeping, suggesting that a considerable number of producers are missing opportunities to optimize production and, thus, economic return. Use of individual-animal production records, which would enable more objective decision making on the basis of production and economic data, was not widespread. These findings suggested that veterinarians serving beef ranches have opportunities to provide additional services incorporating these management practices. PMID:8603893

  8. Short-term energy restriction during late gestation of beef cows decreases postweaning calf humoral immune response to vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the pre- and postweaning growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune response of beef calves born to cows fed 70 or 100% of NEm requirements during the last 40 d of gestation. On d 0 (approximately 40 d before calving), 30 multiparous Angus cows pregnant to embryo transfer (BW = 631 ± 15 kg; age = 5.2 ± 0.98 yr; BCS = 6.3 ± 0.12) were randomly allocated into 1 of 10 drylot pens (3 cows/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (5 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows limit-fed (d 0 to calving) isonitrogenous, total-mixed diets formulated to provide 100 (CTRL) or 70% (REST) of daily NEm requirements of a 630-kg beef cow at 8 mo of gestation. Immediately after calving, all cow-calf pairs were combined into a single management group and rotationally grazed on tall fescue pastures (6 pastures; 22 ha/pasture) until weaning (d 266). All calves were assigned to a 40-d preconditioning period in a drylot from d 266 to 306 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), , and spp. on d 273 and 287. Blood samples from jugular vein were collected from cows on d 0, 17, and 35 and from calves within 12 h of birth and on d 266, 273, 274, 276, 279, and 287. By design, REST cows consumed less ( ≤ 0.002) total DMI, TDN, and NEm but had similar CP intake ( = 0.67), which tended ( = 0.06) to increase BW loss from d 0 to calving, than CTRL cows (-1.09 vs. -0.70 ± 0.14 kg/d, respectively). However, gestational NEm intake did not affect ( ≥ 0.30) plasma concentrations of cortisol, insulin, and glucose during gestation and BCS at calving as well as postcalving pregnancy rate, BW, and BCS change of cows. Calf serum IgG concentrations and plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth as well as calf pre- and postweaning BW and ADG did not differ ( ≥ 0.15) between calves born to REST and CTRL cows. However, calf postweaning overall plasma concentrations of cortisol; plasma

  9. A field study of culling and mortality in beef cows from western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, Cheryl L; Kennedy, Richard I; Rosengren, Leigh; Clark, Edward G

    2009-05-01

    The objectives were to describe the pattern of losses through culling, sales of breeding stock, mortality, and disappearance, and to characterize the causes of mortality of cows and replacement heifers of breeding age from Western Canadian beef herds. Cows and replacement heifers from 203 herds were observed for a 1-year period starting June 1, 2001. Veterinarians examined dead animals on-farm using a standard postmortem protocol. The incidence of culling in cows and replacements heifers was 14.3 per 100 cow-years at risk, and the frequencies of sales for breeding stock, mortality, and cows reported missing per cow-years at risk were 4.0, 1.1, and 0.4, respectively. During the study, 355 animals died or were euthanized, 209 were examined postmortem, and the requested tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination from 184. A cause of death was determined for 70% (128/184) of the cows with complete gross postmortem and histopathologic examinations. Hardware disease (traumatic reticuloperitonitis), malignant neoplasia (cancer), calving-associated injury, rumen tympany (bloat), myopathy, and pneumonia accounted for 56% (72/128) of the animals where a cause of death was determined. Twenty-three other causes of death accounted for the remaining 44% (56/128). Factors relating to cow nutrition accounted for 25% of the deaths, emphasizing the importance of feeding management as a determinant of cow health in western Canada. PMID:19436634

  10. Onion toxicosis in a herd of beef cows.

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, H A

    1999-01-01

    A herd consumed approximately 20 kg onions/cow/day for 6 weeks. Five cows died and two aborted. Onion toxicosis results in methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. These changes can cause secondary organ damage and death, if enough onions are consumed.

  11. Frequency of Neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A M; Maresca, S; Cano, D B; Armendano, J I; Combessies, G; Lopéz-Valiente, S; Odriozola, E R; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group A: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group B: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group C: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. Serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf operations were obtained every 3 months during 2 years. A group of 30 replacement heifers from each group were tested similarly since they were 10-21 months old. Twenty four, 20 and 34 calves from groups A, B and C respectively, were bled before colostrum intake and again 6 months later. The samples were analyzed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for detection of total IgG against N. caninum at a serological titre ≥200 for multiparous cows and replacement heifers, and a serological titre ≥25 for calves. Serum samples from seropositive cows were assessed by ELISA to evaluate the avidity of their specific antibodies. There were no differences in the proportion of seropositive cows from groups A, B and C at the beginning of the trial (p>0.05). Interestingly, the lowest serological titres in seropositive cows from all groups were observed during the first trimester (p<0.05). Although seropositive cows had medium to high avidity antibodies, suggesting chronic infection; seroconversion associated with low antibody avidity was found in 2, 3 and 3 seropositive cows from groups A, B and C. All replacement heifers remained seronegative. No abortions were recorded but 2, 1, and 2 calves from groups A, B and C were seropositive before colostrum intake, respectively. Seropositive calves born from cows having intermediate or high avidity remained with the same serostatus at 6 months of age. Even under varying extensive management conditions, both N. caninum horizontal and

  12. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  13. The effects of dietary omega fatty acids on pregnancy rate, plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels, serum progesterone levels, and milk fatty-acid profile in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Gavin F; McNiven, Mary A; Petit, Hélène V; Duynisveld, John L

    2013-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of feeding supplements rich in omega-6 or omega-3 fatty acids (FA) during the late gestation to the early postpartum and breeding periods on reproduction and milk FA profile in beef cows. For each of two years, at the beginning of period 1 (mid-December), 72 beef cows, calving in January or February, were assigned to diets supplemented with roasted flaxseed (Flax) or roasted soybean (Soybean). For each of two years, after 11 wk (end of period 1), 18 cows of 36 in the Flax group were switched to the soybean supplement and 18 cows of 36 in the Soybean group were switched to the flax supplement (start of Period 2). Cows were bred by timed artificial insemination (TAI) in week 5 of period 2. The FA composition of the milk reflected the FA profile of the oilseed supplements. There were no differences in pregnancy rates among the 4 groups. The treatments had no effect on plasma prostaglandin metabolite levels or ratios at 4 to 11 d postpartum. At 5 to 6 d post- TAI, pregnant cows fed Flax in period 1 had lower (P Flax in period 2 had higher (P < 0.05) serum progesterone levels at 5 to 6 d post-TAI than cows fed Soybean, but there was no difference at 19 to 20 d post-TAI. The dietary treatments had no effect on pregnancy rates, but there were some effects on plasma PGFM levels, PGFM to PGEM ratios, and serum progesterone levels. The FA supplements influenced the FA composition of milk. PMID:24124276

  14. Cool-season annual pastures with clovers to supplement wintering beef cows nursing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Stacey A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In December of 3 years, 87 beef cows with nursing calves (594 ± 9.8 kg; calving season, September to November at side were stratified by body condition score, body weight, cow age, and calf gender and divided randomly into 6 groups assigned to 1 of 6 cool-season annual pastures (0.45 ha/cow that had been interseeded into a dormant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon [L.] Pers./bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge sod. Pastures contained 1 of the following 3 seeding mixtures (2 pastures/mixture: 1 wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., WRG, 2 wheat and ryegrass plus red clover (Trifolium pretense L., WRR, or 3 wheat and ryegrass plus white (Trifolium repens L. and crimson clovers (Trifolium incarnatum L., WRW. All groups had ad libitum access to grass hay (12% crude protein; 58% total digestible nutrients. The second week in December, cow estrous cycles were synchronized and artificially inseminated. In late December, a bull was placed with each group for 60-d. Data were analyzed with an analysis of variance using a mixed model containing treatment as the fixed effect and year as the random effect. Body weight and condition scores did not differ (P ≥ 0.27 among cows between February and June. Calf birth weights or average daily gain did not differ (P ≥ 0.17 among treatments; however, calves grazing pastures with clovers did tend (P = 0.06 to weigh more than calves grazing grass only. Weaning weight per cow exposed to a bull was greater (P = 0.02 for WRR and WRW than WRG. Cows grazing winter-annual pastures containing clovers tended to wean more calf body weight per cow exposed to a bull than cows grazing the grass only pastures.

  15. Milk yield and composition from Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, P F; Menezes, L M; Azambuja, R C C; Suñé, R W; Barbosa Silveira, I D; Cardoso, F F

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed milk yield and composition of Angus and Angus-cross beef cows raised in southern Brazil. A total of 128 records were collected in 2 consecutive calving seasons from cows between 3 and 5 yr of age of 4 breed compositions: Angus (ANAN), Caracu × Angus (CRAN), Hereford × Angus (HHAN), and Nelore × Angus (NEAN). These cows were mated to Brangus (BN) or Braford (BO) bulls and managed under extensive grazing conditions in southern Brazil. Milk production of these cows was assessed by 2 procedures: indirectly by the calf weigh-suckle-weigh procedure (WD) and directly by machine milking (MM). Lactation curves were estimated using nonlinear regression and the following related traits were derived: peak yield (PY), peak week (PW), total yield at 210 d (TY210), and lactation persistence (PERS). Milk composition and calf weaning weight adjusted to 210 d (WW210) were also determined. The MM technique was considered more accurate because of lower standard errors of estimated means, greater statistical power, and greater correlation between TY210 and WW210 (0.50) compared to WD (0.36). Considering the more precise evaluation by MM, the CRAN and NEAN cows had greater TY210 (1070 and 1116 kg, respectively) and PY (8.1 and 7.8 kg, respectively) compared to ANAN and HHAN cows, which had 858 and 842 kg for TY210 and 6.6 and 6.3 kg for PY, respectively. The NEAN cows had the latest PW at 10.8 wk. Late-calving cows had 21% lower TY210 compared to cows that calved earlier. Milk composition was influenced by cow genotype, with CRAN and NEAN cows producing milk with greater fat (3.8 and 3.9%, respectively) and protein (3.2 and 3.1%, respectively) content compared to ANAN and HHAN cows. Regardless of the genotype, fat, protein, and total solids increased in concentration from beginning to end of lactation, while lactose content decreased. Crossbreeding of Angus with adapted breeds of taurine or indicine origin can be effective in increasing milk yield and nutrient

  16. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  17. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  18. Nutrient restriction and realimentation in beef cows during early and mid-gestation and maternal and fetal hepatic and small intestinal in vitro oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezotto, L D; Camacho, L E; Lemley, C O; Keomanivong, F E; Caton, J S; Vonnahme, K A; Swanson, K C

    2016-05-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of advancing gestation, maternal nutrient restriction during early and mid-gestation, and realimentation on fetal liver and jejunal mass and energy use in both dams and fetuses. On day 30 of pregnancy, multiparous, non-lactating beef cows (initial BW=621±11.3 kg and body condition score=5.1±0.1) were assigned to one of the two dietary treatments: control (CON; 100% requirements; n=18) and restricted (R; 60% requirements; n=28). On day 85, cows were slaughtered (CON, n=6; R, n=6), and remaining cows continued on control (CC; n=12) and restricted (RR; n=12) diets, or were realimented to the control diet (RC; n=11). On day 140, cows were slaughtered (CC, n=6; RR, n=6; RC, n=5), remaining cows continued on the control diet (CCC, n=6; RCC, n=5), or were realimented to the control diet (RRC, n=6). On day 254, all remaining cows were slaughtered. Maternal liver O2 consumption linearly increased (P⩽0.04) and jejunal weight (g/kg) linearly decreased (P=0.04) as gestation advanced in CON groups. Fetal BW, and hepatic and small intestinal absolute mass, protein content and O2 consumption linearly increased (P⩽0.04) as pregnancy advanced in CON groups. However, mass and O2 consumption relative to BW linearly decreased (P⩽0.001) in the fetal liver in CON groups. When analyzing the effects of dietary treatment, at day 85, fetal jejunal O2 consumption (mol/min per kg BW) was lower (P=0.02) in the R group when compared with the CON group. At day 140, maternal hepatic weight (g) was lower (P=0.02) in RC and RR cows when compared with CC, and fetal jejunual O2 consumption (mmol/min per mg tissue and mmol/min per g protein) was greater (P⩽0.02) in RC when compared with RR. At day 254, maternal hepatic O2 consumption (absolute and relative to BW) was lower (P⩽0.04) in the RCC cows when compared with RRC. Fetal hepatic weight was lower (P=0.05) in the CCC group when compared with RCC and RRC. The changes in response to nutrient

  19. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Guillermo M; Moeller, Robert B

    2013-01-01

    An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle. PMID:26464912

  20. Escherichia fergusonii Associated with Pneumonia in a Beef Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo M. Rimoldi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An adult Angus cow developed hyperthermia, prostration, and respiratory distress, dying 36 hours after the onset of clinical signs. The main finding during postmortem examination was a severe focally extensive pneumonia. Icterus and a chronic mastitis were also noticed. Histologic examination of the lungs detected fibrinonecrotic pneumonia, with large number of oat cells and intralesional Gram-negative bacterial colonies. Samples from lung lesions were collected, and a pure growth of Escherichia fergusonii was obtained. E. fergusonii is a member of Enterobacteriaceae, related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. In veterinary medicine, E. fergusonii has been reported in calves and sheep with clinical cases suggestive of salmonellosis; in a horse and a goat with enteritis and septicemia; and in ostriches with fibrinonecrotic typhlitis. To our knowledge, this report represents the first description of E. fergusonii associated with an acute pneumonia in cattle.

  1. Low intake supplement for non-pregnant beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelcino Francisco de Paula

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this work was evaluate the effect of level different of low intake supplements on body weight (BW change, body condition score (BCS, intake, digestibility and protein microbial efficiency of non-pregnancy cow, crossbreed, with Nellore blood predominance and initial BW of 394.7±13.14 kg in Urochloa decumbens Stapf during dry season. Four treatments were evaluated: Control (without supplementation, T250, T500, and T750, corresponding 250, 500, and 750 g of supplement/animal/ day, respectively. The experiment was carried in a completely randomized experimental design. There was not effect of the level supplementation on final BW, average gain daily (AGD, and BCS, with average of 409.8 kg, 0.181 kg, and 4.85 point, respectively. There was increase (P0.10 the microbial protein synthesis. Concluded that level supplementation increased the nutrient amount, but not able to increase the performance the animals.

  2. Determinant of Funding Accessibility and its Impacts to The Performance of Beef-Cow Breeding Enterprises in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawi, Aslina

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the cattle breeding undertakings or enterprises actively performed by rural communities and has its business development motivated by the government at present is the beef-cow breeding enterprise, because during the last few years, particularly before 2010, the total production of beef was relatively low compared to the demand and consumption of beef. This is also strengthened by the Program of Minister of Agriculture on Self Fulfillment in Buffalo Meat and Beef for ...

  3. Evaluation of oestrus observation and conception rates in suckling beef cows using whole milk progesterone concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Lourens

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A 2-sample regime was used to measure whole milk progesterone concentration on the day of oestrus and insemination (Day 0 and 6 days later (Day 6 in a sample of 50 primiparous and 100 multiparous suckling beef cows. Exposure to teaser bulls and observation by cattlemen identified the occurrence of oestrus. Three sets of criteria used to define ovulatory oestrus were compared : a milk progesterone concentration less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 ; b milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6; c milk progesterone less than 6 nmol / l on Day 0 and rising to greater than 6 nmol / l on Day 6, or cow diagnosed pregnant to 1st insemination. Using only a single milk sample on Day 0 (criterion a would have resulted in the positive predictive value of heat detection being estimated at 98.7%. Using a paired measurement (criterion b resulted in a significantly lower estimate of 84.7%. The inclusion of cows that conceived despite not showing a marked rise in milk progesterone concentration (criterion c resulted in a more accurate estimate of 89.3%. Use of a 2-sample regime also allowed calculation of conception rates while eliminating the effect of heat detection errors. In the cows sampled, of those in ovulatory oestrus that were inseminated, 73.1% conceived to the 1st insemination. These results demonstrate that artificial insemination within a limited breeding season can be successful if nutrition is optimal and management is intensive. The use of a 2-sample milk progesterone test may be a valuable tool in investigating heat detection and conception problems in beef herds in which artificial insemination is used.

  4. Faecal near-IR spectroscopy to determine the nutritional value of diets consumed by beef cattle in east Mediterranean rangelands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Roudman, M; Muklada, H; Barkai, D; Yehuda, Y; Ungar, E D

    2016-02-01

    Rapid assessment of the nutritional quality of diets ingested by grazing animals is pivotal for successful cow-calf management in east Mediterranean rangelands, which receive unpredictable rainfall and are subject to hot-spells. Clipped vegetation samples are seldom representative of diets consumed, as cows locate and graze selectively. In contrast, faeces are easily sampled and their near-IR spectra contain information about nutrients and their utilization. However, a pre-requisite for successful faecal near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (FNIRS) is that the calibration database encompass the spectral variability of samples to be analyzed. Using confined beef cows in Northern and Southern Israel, we calibrated prediction equations based on individual pairs of known dietary attributes and the NIR spectra of associated faeces (n=125). Diets were composed of fresh-cut green fodder of monocots (wheat and barley), dicots (safflower and garden pea) and natural pasture collected at various phenological states over 2 consecutive years, and, optionally, supplements of barley grain and dried poultry litter. A total of 48 additional pairs of faeces and diets sourced from cows fed six complete mixed rations covering a wide range of energy and CP concentrations. Precision (linearity of calibration, R2cal, and of cross-validation, R2cv) and accuracy (standard error of cross-validation, SEcv) were criteria for calibration quality. The calibrations for dietary ash, CP, NDF and in vitro dry matter digestibility yielded R2cal values >0.87, R2cv of 0.81 to 0.89 and SEcv values of 16, 13, 39 and 31 g/kg dry matter, respectively. Equations for nutrient intake were of low quality, with the exception of CP. Evaluation of FNIRS predictions was carried out with grazing animals supplemented or not with poultry litter, and implementation of the method in one herd over 2 years is presented. The potential usefulness of equations was also established by calculating the Mahalanobis (H

  5. Global endometrial transcriptomic profiling: transient immune activation precedes tissue proliferation and repair in healthy beef cows

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    Foley Cathriona

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All cows experience bacterial contamination and tissue injury in the uterus postpartum, instigating a local inflammatory immune response. However mechanisms that control inflammation and achieve a physiologically functioning endometrium, while avoiding disease in the postpartum cow are not succinctly defined. This study aimed to identify novel candidate genes indicative of inflammation resolution during involution in healthy beef cows. Previous histological analysis of the endometrium revealed elevated inflammation 15 days postpartum (DPP which was significantly decreased by 30 DPP. The current study generated a genome-wide transcriptomic profile of endometrial biopsies from these cows at both time points using mRNA-Seq. The pathway analysis tool GoSeq identified KEGG pathways enriched by significantly differentially expressed genes at both time points. Novel candidate genes associated with inflammatory resolution were subsequently validated in additional postpartum animals using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Results mRNA-Seq revealed 1,107 significantly differentially expressed genes, 73 of which were increased 15 DPP and 1,034 were increased 30 DPP. Early postpartum, enriched immune pathways (adjusted P P SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes were significantly elevated 30 DPP and are functionally associated with tissue repair and the restoration of uterine homeostasis postpartum. Conclusions The results of this study reveal an early activation of the immune response which undergoes a temporal functional change toward tissue proliferation and regeneration during endometrial involution in healthy postpartum cows. These molecular changes mirror the activation and resolution of endometrial inflammation during involution previously classified by the degree of neutrophil infiltration. SAA1/2, GATA2, IGF1, SHC2, and SERPINA14 genes may become potential markers for resolution of endometrial inflammation in

  6. Ovarian activity in beef and dairy cows with prolonged postpartum period and heifers that fail to conceive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, N; Rosnina, Y; Wahid, H; Saharee, A A; Yap, K C; Ganesamurthi, P

    2010-04-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate incidence of abnormal ovarian cyclicity (AOC) and its type in dairy and beef cows with prolonged postpartum period (>90 days) and in heifers that fail to conceive. A total of 53 animals were included in the study: 17 Friesian crosses, 16 Braford crosses, eight Brangus crosses, and 12 local Kedah-Kelantan (KKX) crosses. These animals were initially checked for absence of pregnancy via palpation per rectum. Blood samples for progesterone analysis were obtained twice a week for 2 to 3 months following their spontaneous oestrous cycle, and all animals were rechecked for pregnancy at the end of the study. Progesterone analysis indicated that 33.9% of the total animals were having AOC: 18.9% with cessation of ovarian cyclicity, 9.4% with prolonged luteal phases (PLP), and 5.7% short luteal phases. The highest incidence was observed in Brangus crosses (62.5%), followed by Braford crosses (43.8%), and Friesian crosses (35.3%). In contrast, no AOC was observed in the local KKX breeds, and all of them were found to be pregnant at the end of the study. A significant difference (p 0.05), Friesian crosses showed a higher percentage incidence of AOC than beef cows (40% vs 36.4%), with major types being PLP (26.7%) in dairy and cessation of ovarian cycle (27.3%) in beef cows. Compared with beef heifers, beef cows showed a higher percentage of AOC (36.4% vs 28.6%) where again, cessation of cyclicity was the predominant abnormality. In conclusion, AOC reflected by abnormal endocrine pattern is a possible cause of reduction in fertility for dairy and beef cows beyond 90 days postpartum and heifers that fail to conceive. PMID:19809886

  7. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

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    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  8. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyono

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN. This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec, soya bean waste sauce (SBWs, wheat pollard (WP and WP bypass protein (WPBp. It has also been developed using medicated block (MB. The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG, milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively. On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/(animal d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56% respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05.The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces.

  9. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  10. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of Hereford sired steers born to beef-cross-dairy and Angus breeding cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lucy W; Hickson, Rebecca E; Schreurs, Nicola M; Martin, Natalia P; Kenyon, Paul R; Lopez-Villalobos, Nicolas; Morris, Stephen T

    2016-11-01

    Steers from Angus, Angus×Holstein Friesian, Angus×Holstein Friesian-Jersey and Angus×Jersey cows and a Hereford sire were measured for their carcass and meat quality characteristics. Steers from the Angus×Holstein Friesian cows had a greater final body weight and carcass weight (Ppercentage (Pfat depth over the rump at 12 and 18months of age for the steers from Angus cows (P<0.05) but, not at 24months of age. The steers had similar meat quality characteristics across the breed groups. Steers from Angus×Holstein Friesian and Angus×Jersey cows had a higher ratio of n6 to n3 fatty acids. Using beef-cross-dairy cows to produce steers for meat production does not impact on meat quality. Using Jersey in the breed cross reduced the carcass tissues in the live weight and the potential meat yield. PMID:27448194

  11. Cow's milk allergy in children: adherence to a therapeutic elimination diet and reintroduction of milk into the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Tuokkola, Jetta; Kaila, Minna; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Sinkko, Harri; Klaukka, Timo; Pietinen, Pirjo; Veijola, Riitta; Simell, O; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The basic treatment of cow's milk allergy (CMA) is the elimination of all cow's milk proteins (CMP) from the diet. The present study aimed at characterising the diet of children with a diagnosis of CMA, to assess the degree of adherence to the elimination diet and to evaluate factors associated with the adherence and age of recovery. Subjects/Methods: From a birth cohort study, food records of 267 children with diagnosed CMA were studied to defin...

  12. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Breviario

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet.

  13. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, R A; Miles, J R; Rempel, L A; McDaneld, T G; Kuehn, L A; Chitko-McKown, C G; Nonneman, D; Echternkamp, S E

    2013-06-01

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1 to 3 mm) antral follicles in their ovaries. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that this GRIA1 polymorphism was affecting antral follicle numbers in repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows (n = 64) and control cows (n = 72) that had always produced a calf were housed in a dry lot and observed twice daily for behavioral estrus. Blood samples were collected, and cows were genotyped for this GRIA1 polymorphism and for a polymorphism in the GnRH receptor (GnRHR) that was proposed to influence age at puberty. On d 3 to 8 after estrus cows were slaughtered, and reproductive organs were collected to determine antral follicle count, ovary size, and uterine horn diameter. Repeat breeder cows were older at first calving than control cows (P = 0.006). The length (P = 0.03) and height (P = 0.02) of the ovary contralateral to the corpus luteum (CL) were greater in control cows than repeat breeder cows. The endometrial diameter in the horn ipsilateral to the CL was greater in the control cows than the repeat breeder cows. Repeat breeder cows had fewer small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles than control cows (P = 0.003); however, there was no association between GRIA1 genotype and antral follicle number. The GnRHR polymorphism was associated with age at first calving because cows that were homozygous for the C allele had a greater age at first calving than heterozygous cows or cows that were homozygous for the T allele (P = 0.01). In the granulosa cells from small (1 to 5 mm) antral follicles, mRNA abundances of 2 markers of oocyte quality, anti-Müllerian hormone and pentraxin 3, did not differ between fertility groups (P ≥ 0.12). We conclude that this GRIA1 polymorphism exists in beef cows but

  14. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease. PMID:18998232

  15. Effects of whole linseed and rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid enriched diets on beef quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, M; Olleta, J L; Sañudo, C; Albertí, P; Panea, B; Pérez-Juan, M; Realini, C E; Campo, M M

    2016-04-01

    Instrumental assessments and sensory tests were performed to evaluate the effects of diet and postmortem ageing time (1, 7 and 21 days) on beef quality. A total of 48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed+CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at 458±16.6 kg live weight and 11 months of age. Ageing was more significant than diet on most instrumental parameters. Meat from linseed enriched diets had greater drip loss (P⩽0.001) and intramuscular fat (P⩽0.01) than meat from animals fed CLA. Beef aged for 7 and 21 days had lower cooking losses (P⩽0.01) and shear force (P⩽0.001) than beef aged for 1 day. Lightness was affected only by display time. The addition of CLA in the diet increased hue and yellowness, whereas the inclusion of linseed decreased these values, as well as increased redness. Linseed in the diet decreased fat odour (P⩽0.05), but increased beef (P⩽0.01) and liver (P⩽0.05) flavours. Meat aged for 21 days was significantly more rancid (P⩽0.001), even under vacuum storage. Several organoleptic properties were improved with the inclusion of linseed in the diet, whereas they remained unaffected by the inclusion of CLA. PMID:26592312

  16. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  17. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  18. Characteristics of Fluid Composition of Left Displaced Abomasum in Beef Cattle Fed High-Starch Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ICHIJO, Toshihiro; SATOH, Hiroshi; YOSHIDA, Yuki; MURAYAMA, Isao; KIKUCHI, Tomoko; SATO, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid. PMID:24813464

  19. Johne's disease: reliability of environmental sampling to characterize Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) infection in beef cow-calf herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawonn, W; Einax, E; Pützschel, R; Schmidt, M; Donat, K

    2016-08-01

    Environmental samples are considered to be a cost-effective method of identifying Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP)-positive dairy herds, but evidence for beef cow-calf herds is weak. This study aims at evaluating this approach in a total of 20 German herds that were characterized by individual faecal samples (n = 2545) of all cows. For 14 MAP-positive herds having at least one MAP-positive animal, the within-herd prevalence was calculated from concurrent individual faecal culture-based testing. Six herds certified as 'MAP free' based on the negative results of previous years served as MAP-negative controls. On average, six environmental samples were taken at the end of winter from areas with high cow traffic and tested for MAP by faecal culture. According to the environmental samples, nine (64·3%) out of the 14 MAP-positive cow-calf herds were infected. The percentage of positive environmental samples and the apparent within-herd prevalence (Spearman's P = 0·73, P test results (positive and negative) and the herd's status based on individual testing (Fisher's exact test, P = 0·014) showed a positive association. Considering limitations in low-prevalence herds, MAP-positive beef cow-calf herds are detectable by environmental samples in temperate climate zones. PMID:27094619

  20. Supplementation with a mixture of whole rice bran and crude glycerin on metabolic responses and performance of primiparous beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Clariget; Lorena Román; Mauricio Karlen; Andrea Álvarez-Oxiley; Carlos López-Mazz; Raquel Pérez-Clariget

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT - This study investigated the effect of a supplement containing whole rice bran and crude glycerin for 21 days before mating on metabolic, productive, and reproductive responses of 28 primiparous suckling beef cows. Cows were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n = 14), grazing on grasslands, and a supplemented group (SUP, n = 14), grazing on grasslands and supplemented daily individually with 1 kg dry matter (DM) of whole rice bran + 550 mL crude glycerin (224 g kg−1 DM of me...

  1. Serum testosterone concentration, efficiency of estrus detection and libido expression in androgenized beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nix, J P; Spitzer, J C; Chenoweth, P J

    1998-04-15

    Twenty multiparous, cyclic, nonlactating beef cows were blocked by dominance rank and randomly and equally allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: an untreated control group, a synovex-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with no additional hormones, a testosterone-treated group which received 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 with additional 1000 mg, s.c. doses of testosterone enanthate every 14 d, and a synovex + testosterone-treated group which received 8 Synovex-H implants with 500 mg, i.m. and 1500 mg, s.c. testosterone enanthate on Day 1 only. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture once a week beginning 3 wk prior to start of treatment. In addition, samples were collected just prior to treatment; once a day for 1 wk after initiation of treatment; and then twice a week until 225 d after treatment. Efficiency of estrus detection was assessed 22 d prior to start of treatment and every 14 d thereafter for 98 d, using estrus detection trials with synchronized females or modified libido tests. Scores for estrus detection trials included total mounts in 1 h and the percentage of estrous cows detected. Libido was scored on a scale of 0 through 6. All testosterone treatments raised plasma testosterone concentrations above control and pretreatment levels (testosterone and synovex + testosterone > synovex > control; all P < 0.05). Synovex-, testosterone- and synovex + testosterone-treated females performed more mounts in 1 h than the controls (18, 9, 6 and 1, respectively; all P < 0.05). All testosterone-treated cows mounted a higher number of estrous females than the controls (P < 0.05). Only synovex + testosterone- and testosterone-treated cows received libido scores above pretreatment and control values. However, libido of testosterone-treated cows decreased over time, while that of synovex + testosterone-treated females remained high until Day 98. Libido scores correlated positively with the number of mounts in 1

  2. Diet, tillage and soil moisture effects on odorous emissions following land application of beef manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef manure from animals fed diets containing different amounts of wet distillers grain with solubles (WDGS) was applied to soil as a fertilizer to plot located across the slope. The applied manure and soil were either tilled or not tilled. The odor emissions were measured for 24 hours. Then a sing...

  3. EFFECT OF DRY BAKERY YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIАE IN MILK COWS DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryadchikov V. G.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with dry bakery yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae in high concentrate diet (F:C=47:53 on milk yeald and rumen fermentation were studied on two groups primiparous lactaiting cows (8 cows per group and four ruminally cannulated nonlactaiting cows on diet F:C=25:75. Cows fed yeast during 67 days produced 1.24 kg/d and 1.66 kg/d natural and 4% fat corrected milk respectively more, than control cows. Milk protein and fat percentages were also higher. On diet with yeast ruminal concentration of lactate was lower and butirate+propionate was higher. The yeast incrised rumen pH, decreased NH3 in rumen and urea in blood, decreased viscosity of rumen fluid

  4. GROWTH EFFICIENCY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING MALE COWS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC CHROMIUM YEAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amata, I.A

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the effect of organic chromium yeast supplementation in feedlot diets of growing male cows on growth efficiency and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan (7.380 N and 3.930 E, in the South Western region of Nigeria. The study lasted six months (180 days. A total of seventy-five Ndama Ndama growing male cows with average weights ranging between 280 and 284kg were kept outdoors in feedlot pens of 15 cows per treatment. The different treatment groups received organic chromium yeast mix of 9%, 18%, 27% and 36%, representing 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 ppm organic chromium yeast respectively. Each cow was replicated 3 times with 5 cows per replicate. Parameters recorded during the experimental period include average daily gain, feed: gain ratio and feed consumption. Carcass characteristics studied at the end of the experiment include final yield grade, marbling scores, dressing percentage, quality grade and longissimus muscle area. Statistical analysis revealed significant (P<0.05 differences between the means. Cows fed diets supplemented with 0.3 ppm organic chromium yeast showed higher performance characteristics than cows fed the control diet and the other experimental diets. Treatment with 0.3 ppm organic chromium yeast in the diet of the cows significantly (P<0.05 increased carcass characteristics and these values were higher than the values obtained from cows fed the control diet and the other experimental diets.

  5. Feeding behavior of dairy cows in feedlot and fed on crude glycerin levels in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Antônio Ferraz Porto Junior

    2014-01-01

    Current experiment evaluated the inclusion effect of crude glycerin levels in the diet on the feeding behavior of confined dairy cows. Fifteen crossbred Holsteinx Zebu cows were used, divided into three 5 x 5 Latin squares, with treatments: control (no addition of glycerin) and inclusion of 50, 100, 150 and 200 gcrude glycerin per kg of dry matter (DM) in the diet. The animals were subjected to five visual assessments of feeding behavior for 24 hours in each period. Linear increase on feeding...

  6. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment. PMID:23644048

  7. Relationship between serum insulin-like growth factor-I and genotype during the postpartum interval in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, L J; Chase, C C; Rutter, L M

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of genotype and week postpartum on serum concentrations of IGF-I, body condition score (BCS), BW, and ovarian function in beef cows. Cows from the following genotypes were utilized in two consecutive years: Angus (A x A; n = 9), Brahman (B x B; n = 10), Charolais (C x C; n = 12), Angus x Brahman (A x B; n = 22), Brahman x Charolais (B x C; n = 19) and Angus x Charolais (A x C; n = 24). Serum concentrations of IGF-I, BCS, and BW were determined between wk 2 and 9 postpartum. Rectal ultrasound was used to determine days postpartum to first medium (6 to 9 mm) and first large (> or = 10 mm) follicle. Averaged across genotype, BCS decreased (P x B cows (46 +/- 5 ng/mL) compared with all other genotypes; lowest in A x A (12 +/- 4 ng/mL), C x C (13 +/- 4 ng/mL), and A x C cows (18 +/- 3 ng/mL); and intermediate (P x B (28 +/- 3 ng/mL) and B x C (26 +/- 3 ng/mL) cows compared with all other genotypes. Serum IGF-I concentrations did not change (P > 0.10) with week postpartum in C x C, A x A, and A x C cows, but increased (P x C, A x B, and B x B cows. Average interval to first medium (16 +/- 2 d) and first large (35 +/- 2 d) follicle did not differ (P > 0.10) among genotypes. Serum IGF-I concentrations correlated with BCS (r = 0.53 to 0.72, P 0.10). Averaged across genotypes, cows that lost BCS postpartum had lower (P or = 5) had greater (P 0.10). In conclusion, concentrations of IGF-I in serum differed among genotypes and were associated with BCS but not days to first large or medium follicle in postpartum beef cows. PMID:11890407

  8. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez Toral, Pablo; Bernard, Laurence; Belenguer, A.; Rouel, Jacques; Hervás, G.; Chilliard, Yves; Frutos, P.

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2....

  9. Studies on post-partum reproductive performance of Hereford beef cows in Uruguay with the aid of progesterone assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was undertaken on Hereford beef cows to determine the length of their post-partum (pp) anoestrous periods under traditional conditions of feeding and management in Uruguay. Three subsequent trials to shorten pp anoestrus involving early weaning (at 40 days pp), temporary weaning for 72 hours (at 45 days), and temporary weaning for 24 hours combined with GnRH, were run in different parts of Uruguay under different soil and pasture conditions. No treatment differences were found, but cows on improved pastures had shorter pp anoestrous periods (74, 99 and 102 days for the three trials respectively) and higher pregnancy rates (80%, 46% and 55% respectively). It was concluded that the main cause of low reproductive efficiency was poor nutrition and that, under such conditions, no treatment to shorten the pp anoestrus would ever be expected to be successful. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Effects of short-term oilseed supplementation on plasma fatty acid composition, progesterone and prostaglandin F metabolite in lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholljegerdes, E J; Lekatz, L A; Vonnahme, K A

    2014-05-01

    Twenty-four 3-year-old Angus cows (512.2±21.6 kg) and six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (523.1±16.9 kg) were used to determine the impact of feeding oilseeds starting at the beginning of estrous synchronization until maternal recognition of pregnancy on plasma fatty acid composition. Starting ~60 days postpartum cows were synchronized with the Select Synch+controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) device and timed artificial insemination (AI) protocol. The day CIDR was inserted; cattle were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments being grazing only (CON) or a supplement containing whole soybeans (SOY); or whole flaxseed (FLX). Cattle continued to receive these diets for 28 days. Blood was collected every 3 days until 10 days after insemination and then every day until 18 days after insemination. All cattle grazed a common pasture and supplemented cattle were individually fed their respective supplements once daily. Ruminally cannulated heifers were used to evaluate the impact supplements had on forage intake, which was reduced (P=0.05) with oilseed supplementation. Feeding oilseeds increased total fatty acid intake (Pflax-fed cattle did not exhibit an increase (P=0.02) until day 15 of supplementation over that of CON. Plasma concentrations for 18:3n-3 was greater (Pbreeding had an effect on serum progesterone (P=0.01) with day 16 after timed AI being lower compared with other days. Feeding oilseeds during the time of estrous synchronization will not only increase the energy density of the diet but will provide key fatty acids around the time of maternal recognition of pregnancy. PMID:24572170

  11. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  12. The effects of intramuscular or intravenous injections of gonadotropin releasing hormone at fixed-time artificial insemination on pregnancy rates of Bos indicus beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Demeterco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an intramuscular versus intravenous administration of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH at fixed-time AI (FTAI on the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows was evaluated. Pluriparous nursing calv cows (n=120 were synchronized as follows: d 0 cows received a 2.0 mg injection of estradiol benzoate (EB and insertion of a controlled intravaginal progesterone releasing device containing 0.558 g of progesterone, d 8 removal of the progesterone device , a 0.15 mg injection of prostaglandin F2α (PGF, a 1.0 mg injection of EB, and 400 IU injection of equine chorionic gonadotropin. Fifty-four hr after PGF, all cows were exposed to FTAI and a 0.084 mg injection of GnRH was administered either via Vena caudalis (n=60, or via Longissimus dorsi (n=60. Cows were inseminated with the same sire and by a single AI technician. Pregnancy was determined by the transrectal ultrasonography on d 40 after AI. Cows receiving the intravenous administration of GnRH had higher (P = 0.04 pregnancy rates than the cows receiving the intramuscular injection of GnRH (65 vs 46.6%, respectively. It was concluded that the intravenous administration of GnRH at the time of AI improved the pregnancy rates of crossbred Bos indicus beef cows submitted to FTAI.

  13. Lower pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows fed a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, D J; Kastelic, J P; Corbett, R; Pitney, P A; Petit, H V; Small, J A; Zalkovic, P

    2006-08-01

    The objectives were to determine if a diet enriched in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) would influence ovarian function, early embryo survival, conception rates, and pregnancy losses in lactating dairy cows. Beginning 28 d before breeding, Holstein cows (55 +/- 22 d postpartum; mean +/- SD) were assigned to diets supplemented with either rolled flaxseed (FLAX; 56.7% ALA, n = 62) or rolled sunflower seed (SUNF; 0.1% ALA, n = 59) to provide approximately 750 g of oil/d. Diets continued for 32 d after timed artificial insemination (TAI, d 0) following a Presynch/Ovsynch protocol. Barley silage- and barley grain-based TMR were formulated to meet or exceed National Research Council requirements. Metabolizable protein and net energy for lactation concentrations were similar in the 2 diets. Based upon a mean dry matter intake of 22 kg/d, cows fed FLAX or SUNF consumed > 410 g or FLAX increased the ALA content of milk by 187%. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed in 8 cows per diet; the mean diameter of ovulatory follicles was larger in cows fed FLAX compared with SUNF (16.9 +/- 0.9 vs. 14.1 +/- 0.9 mm), but follicle number, corpus luteum size, and plasma progesterone concentrations remained unaffected. Presumptive conception (progesterone 1 ng/mL on d 21) rates to first TAI were greater in FLAX than in SUNF (72.6 vs. 47.5%). Pregnancy losses were lower in cows fed FLAX (9.8%) compared with those fed SUNF (27.3%). Including flaxseed in the ration of dairy cows increased the size of the ovulatory follicle and reduced pregnancy losses. PMID:16840624

  14. GROWTH EFFICIENCY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF GROWING MALE COWS FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH ORGANIC CHROMIUM YEAST

    OpenAIRE

    Amata, I.A; D.O. Adejumo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine the effect of organic chromium yeast supplementation in feedlot diets of growing male cows on growth efficiency and carcass characteristics. The experiment was conducted in Ibadan (7.380 N and 3.930 E), in the South Western region of Nigeria. The study lasted six months (180 days). A total of seventy-five Ndama Ndama growing male cows with average weights ranging between 280 and 284kg were kept outdoors in feedlot pens of 15 cows per treatment. The...

  15. Lactation performance and digestibility of forages and diets in dairy cows fed a hemicellulose extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, K J; Hippen, A R; Kalscheur, K F; Anderson, J L; Ranathunga, S D; Patton, R S; Abdullah, M

    2012-06-01

    Inclusion of hemicellulose extract (HE) in cattle diets have shown potential for improving fiber digestibility and production efficiency. The objective of this research was to evaluate production and digestibility effects of a HE on midlactation cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (142 ± 44 d in milk, 685 ± 19 kg of body weight) including 4 with ruminal fistula were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed a control (CON) diet containing 55% forage [dry matter (DM) basis, 2/3 corn silage and 1/3 alfalfa hay] or a similar diet where 1.0% of the diet DM was replaced with HE (TRT). Dry matter intake averaged 27.1 and 26.9 kg/d, for CON and TRT respectively, and was not affected by addition of extract. The percentage of milk protein (3.40 vs. 3.29%) was greater, whereas the percentage of milk fat (3.91 vs. 3.80%) tended to be greater, for cows fed the CON compared with the TRT diet. Because of numerically greater milk production (38.8 vs. 39.2 kg/d) for cows fed the TRT diet, no differences were observed in component yields other than lactose (1.86 vs. 1.94 kg/d), which tended to be greater for cows fed the TRT ration. Treatment improved neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (38.6 vs. 48.1%) for the TRT diet compared with the CON diet but did not affect apparent total-tract DM (67.8 vs. 68.5%), crude protein (67.2 vs. 67.9%), acid detergent fiber (ADF; 37.1 vs. 43.3%), or starch (92.8 vs. 92.2%) digestibility. For in situ determinations, Dacron bags containing corn silage, alfalfa hay, and either the CON or TRT ration were incubated in triplicate in the rumens of the cannulated cows at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h on d 18 of each period. Each total mixed ration was incubated only in cows assigned to the corresponding diet. For corn silage, the rate of disappearance of NDF (1.70 vs. 4.27%) and ADF (1.79 vs. 4.66%) increased for cows fed the TRT diet. For alfalfa hay, the disappearance of fraction A of DM, NDF, and ADF decreased

  16. Use of a corn milling product in diets for dairy cows to alleviate milk fat depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P

    2012-04-01

    Various diet formulation strategies were evaluated to alleviate milk fat depression using a corn milling product (CMP) that contained approximately 28% crude protein, 34% neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and 12% starch (dry basis). The control diet comprised mostly corn silage, alfalfa silage, corn grain, and soybean meal and contained approximately 22% forage NDF (fNDF), 28% total NDF, and 33% starch. Another diet included 25% CMP that replaced corn grain and soybean meal and contained 27% starch and 33% NDF. Two other diets included 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate and contained 19 and 17% fNDF, 31 and 32% total NDF, and 30 and 28% starch, respectively. Diets were fed to 16 mid-lactation Holstein cows in 4 replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares. Milk fat percentage was low for the control diet (2.9%) but increased to 3.5% when cows were fed the diet with 25% CMP that replaced concentrate. Cows fed diets with 25 or 40% CMP that replaced forage and concentrate also had low milk fat percentages (3.0 and 2.9%, respectively). Intake was lowest for cows fed the control diet. Milk yield was reduced when CMP replaced only concentrate but because of the substantial increase in milk fat, the yield of energy-corrected milk was greater. Calculated energy use (maintenance+milk+body weight change) divided by dry matter intake was similar for the control and for the diet in which CMP replaced only concentrate, but it decreased linearly as increasing amounts of CMP replaced both forage and concentrate. A quadratic equation using the ratio of dietary starch to fNDF was the best predictor of milk fat percentage (ratios >1.4 were associated with reduced milk fat). Overall, CMP was effective at alleviating milk fat depression when it replaced corn grain but not when it replaced forage and concentrate. PMID:22459853

  17. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF PLASMA, MEDIAL BASAL HYPOTHALAMUS, AND UTERINE TISSUE IN PRIMIPAROUS BEEF COWS FED HIGH-LINOLEATE SAFFLOWER SEEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The experimental objectives were to evaluate the influence of supplemental high-linoleate safflower seeds on fatty acid concentrations in plasma, medial basal hypothalamus, uterine tissues, and serum 13,14-dihydro-15-keto PGF2' metabolite (PGFM) in primiparous beef cows during early lactation. Begin...

  18. Relationships of milk yield and quality of six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality to calf preweaning average daily gain (ADG) of beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvie...

  19. Effect of ovulatory follicle size on steroidogenic capacity and molecular markers of oocyte competence prior to GnRH-induced ovulation in non-lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced ovulation of small dominant follicles decreased pregnancy rates and increased late embryonic/fetal mortality in beef cows. Inadequate oocyte competence, as affected by the physiological status of the dominant follicle, is a potential explanation for the...

  20. Relationships of milk production of beef cows to postweaning gain of thier calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk yield from 157 Brangus cows bred to 6 breeds (Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Romosinuano) was measured over a 3-yr period with a single-cow milking machine to estimate the relationship of actual milk yield of cows and their calves’ postweaning average daily gain on two postweaning man...

  1. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  2. Economic performance of dairy cows fed diets with different levels of oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the economic viability of using different levels of oregano in diets for lactating cows fed sugar cane. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares. The four treatments consisted of different levels of oregano: oregano free-control diet (0% and diets added with 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% oregano. Diets were formulated to meet the requirements for maintenance and milk production of 15 kg day-1. For economic analysis, we employed two economic indicators, net present value and internal rate of return. The total cost per animal and per liter of milk produced has increased with the inclusion of oregano. The inclusion of oregano was not effective for both productivity and profitability, with prices equal to R$ 0.87, 0.97, 1.09, 1.22, and R$ 0.78, 1.03, 1.28, and 1.52 of milk and concentrate, respectively for each level of inclusion. The internal rate of return was more advantageous when not adding oregano in the diet, indicating the viability of using oregano up to 0.8% inclusion to the diet of dairy cows under the conditions of this experiment. The net present value demonstrated that this investment is interesting for all discount rates used in the diet without the addition of oregano, pointing out that, in this treatment, the activity was feasible for any opportunity cost.

  3. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  4. Performance of beef cattle bulls in feed lots and fed on diets containing enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current paper evaluates the performance of confined beef cattle supplemented with amylolytic enzyme complex produced by fungus Aspergillus awamori and a commercial product containing multienzyme complex, yeast and MOS. Treatments comprised control (basal diet composed of 16% Mombasa grass silage, 66% ground corn, 3% vitamin nuclear mineral and 15% cottonseed meal, amylase treatment (control diet with the addition of 48.7 saccharifying units kg-1 diet and compound treatment (control diet with the addition of enzymatic complex composed of 83.2 saccharifying units, 8.8 fibrolytic units, 0.05 g of mannan oligosaccharides and 0.2 g of inactivated yeast Kg-1 of the dry matter diet. The addition of products did not significantly increase daily weight gain, intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of cattle. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD in the diets. The percentage of residual fecal starch was not influenced by exogenous amylolytic enzymes of amylase and compound treatments. The tested products were not able to improve animal performance.

  5. Lowering ruminally degradable protein in lacatating dairy cow diets

    OpenAIRE

    Cyriac, Joby

    2009-01-01

    Lactating dairy cows convert 25 to 35% of intake N to milk N, and a part of the remaining N ends up in the environment, causing pollution. Dairy cows absorb amino acids available in the small intestine supplied mainly by digestion of microbial protein and ruminally undegraded feed protein (RUP). Ruminally degradable feed protein (RDP) is the major supplier of N for microbial protein synthesis. Most of the excess RDP will be degraded to ammonia and eliminated as urea in urine. Thus, avoiding e...

  6. Soybean hull and enzyme inclusion effects on diet digestibility and growth performance in beef steers consuming corn-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-06-01

    A beef feedlot study was conducted to determine the effects of increasing soybean hull (SH) inclusion and enzyme addition on diet digestibility and animal performance. The hypothesis was SH inclusion and enzyme addition would increase fiber digestibility with no negative effect on animal performance. Eight treatments (TRT) were arranged in a 4 × 2 factorial using four diets and two enzyme (ENZ) inclusion rates. The diets were composed primarily of whole shell corn (WSC) with 0%, 7%, 14%, or 28% SH replacing corn. The ENZ was a commercial proprietary mix of , and (Cattlemace, R&D Life Sciences, Menomonie, WI) included in the diets at 0% (S0, S7, S14, S28) or 0.045% DM basis (S0e, S7e, S14e, S28e). Eighty steers (287 ± 31 kg, SD) were stratified by weight and blocked into pens with 1 heavy and 1 light pen per TRT (2 pen/TRT, 5 steers/pen). Steers were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diets for the final 15 d. Fecal samples were collected on d 70 to determine diet digestibility. Diets were balanced for AA and RDP requirement based on available ME. Individual DMI was measured using a GrowSafe system. Diet, ENZ, and diet × ENZ effects were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Initial BW was applied as a covariate for final BW (FBW), and DMI was included as a covariate for all digestibility measures. The diet × ENZ interaction had no effect on FBW, ADG, DMI, or any digestibility measure ( ≥ 0.11). Steers fed ENZ tended to have greater FBW ( = 0.09) and had numerically greater ADG than steers not fed ENZ. Diet influenced DMI ( < 0.01), as steers fed S7 diets had the greatest DMI ( ≤ 0.3), steers fed S0 diets had the least DMI ( ≤ 0.002), and DMI of steers fed S14 and S28 diets did not differ ( = 0.5). There was a diet × ENZ interaction for G:F ( = 0.02) in which S0, S0e, S14e, and S28e did not differ ( ≥ 0.3) and were greatest ( ≤ 0.05). There was no effect of diet or ENZ on DM, OM, or CP digestibility ( ≥ 0.2). Diet had an effect

  7. The usage of transfer coefficients to describe radionuclide transport from a cow's diet to its milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The terms 'transfer coefficient', 'transfer function' and 'transfer rate' are used to describe the transport of radionuclides from a cow's diet to her milk. Simple derivation of these parameters, their interpretations and interrelationships are given, and possible misinterpretations of published values due to imprecise definitions or incorrectly supplied or omitted units are reviewed. (author)

  8. Lactation performance of dairy cows fed yeast-derived microbial protein in low- and high-forage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Kalscheur, K F; Garcia, A D; Mjoun, K

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of substituting soybean meal products with yeast-derived microbial protein (YMP) on lactation performance in diets containing 2 forage-to-concentrate ratios. Sixteen Holstein cows (4 primiparous and 12multiparous) were randomly assigned to multiple 4×4 Latin squares with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets contained low (LF; 45% of diet DM) or high forage (HF; 65% of diet DM) and YMP at 0 (NYMP) or 2.25% (WYMP) of the diet. The forage mix consisted of 67% corn silage and 33% alfalfa hay on a DM basis. No interactions of forage and YMP were noted for any of the production parameters measured. Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake) was greater for cows fed NYMP compared with WYMP. Regardless of the addition of YMP, cows fed LF had greater dry matter intake and produced more milk than cows fed HF. In addition, cows fed LF produced more energy-corrected milk than those fed HF. Milk fat percentage was lower in cows fed LF compared with HF, whereas fat yield was similar between forage concentrations. Fat yield tended to decrease with feeding YMP. Interactions of forage and YMP were observed for propionate concentration, acetate and propionate proportion, and acetate-to-propionate ratio. A tendency for an interaction of forage and YMP was also noted for ruminal pH. Cows fed HF diets had greater ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations, as well as proportion of butyrate. Arterial concentrations of Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val were greater in cows fed LF. Cows fed NYMP had greater arterial concentrations of Ile, Lys, Trp, and Val than cows fed WYMP. Substitution of soybean proteins with YMP did not improve performance or feed efficiency of high-producing dairy cows regardless of the forage-to-concentrate ratio of the diet. PMID:26851859

  9. Relationships of milk yield and quality from six breed groups of beef cows to preweaning average daily gain of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Mays, A R; Turner, K E; Wu, J P; Brown, M A

    2015-04-01

    Milk yield and quality influence calf preweaning growth and ultimately the sale value of the calf at weaning. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationships of milk production and quality of beef cows to calf preweaning ADG in beef cows sired by Bonsmara, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, and Romosinuano and from Brangus dams to determine whether the relationships were homogeneous across cow breed group. Approximately 50 cows/yr were milked monthly for 6 mo in each of the 7 yr of this study. Milk traits were included in models as linear and quadratic covariates along with interactions of the covariates with sire breed. Tests for curvilinearity and homogeneity of regression coefficients indicated the relationship of calf preweaning ADG to milk yield and quality was quadratic and homogeneous across Charolais and Gelbvieh; linear and homogeneous across Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano; and linear and different from other sire breeds in Herefords (P Brangus (P 0.05) of a relationship in Bonsmara, Charolais, Hereford, or Romosinuano. There was little evidence (P > 0.05) of a relationship of calf preweaning ADG to MUN in any of the sire breed groups. Results from this study confirmed the importance of the influence of milk yield and quality on calf preweaning growth but indicated this influence can depend on the breed composition of the cow. Furthermore, results suggest that breed origin or adaptation may have influenced the relationships of calf preweaning ADG to cow milk yield and quality. PMID:26020207

  10. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Kusuma Diwyanto; Atien Priyanti

    2008-01-01

    Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that i...

  11. Evaluation of calving seasons and marketing strategies in Northern Great Plains beef enterprises: I. Cow-calf systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisenauer Leesburg, V L; Tess, M W; Griffith, D

    2007-09-01

    A bioeconomic computer model was used to evaluate alternate calving seasons in a cow-calf enterprise under range conditions representative of the Northern Great Plains. The simulated ranch utilized a rotational breeding system based on Hereford and Angus and had a fixed forage base (4,500 animal unit months of native range, 520 t of grass hay, and 183 t of alfalfa hay). Calving seasons studied were spring (SP, beginning March 15), summer (SU, beginning May 15), and fall (FA, beginning August 15). Weaning dates were October 31, December 15, and February 1, for SP, SU, and FA. The SP system was also simulated with a 5% increase in calf mortality (SP-IM), and SU with early weaning on October 31 (SU-EW). Herd size for the fixed resource was 509, 523, 519, 560, and 609 cows exposed per year for SP, SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, respectively. Corresponding values for weight weaned per cow exposed were 206, 186, 193, 153, and 145 kg. Steer calves, nonreplacement heifer calves, and cull cows were sold at the time of weaning. Quarterly cattle and feed prices used were representative of the peak, descending, valley, and ascending phases of the 1990s cattle cycle adjusted for inflation. Estimates of ranch gross margin (gross returns minus variable costs) were greatest for SP, followed by SP-IM, SU, SU-EW, and FA, and the ranks were consistent across phases of the cattle cycle. Differences between ranch gross margin for SP-IM and SU were small. In beef enterprises representative of the Northern Great Plains, with a restricted grazing season, limited access to low-cost, high-quality grazeable forage, and with calves sold at weaning, switching from early spring to a summer or fall calving date is not expected to improve profitability. If delaying calving improves calf survival, then calving in early summer may be a competitive choice. PMID:17504951

  12. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rice William C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG, a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG, and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG, 5S (5% sorghum-based DG, 10S (10% sorghum DG, and 15S (15% sorghum DG were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%, Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%, Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%, Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%, Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%, and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%. Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01, WS3 (p = 0

  13. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( < 0.01) at breeding with lower BCS ( = 0.03); nevertheless, overall pregnancy rate was not different ( = 0.80). No differences ( ≥ 0.22) in milk production were detected. For feedlot progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.19) across treatments. Feedlot calf health was monitored with no differences ( ≥ 0.68) in morbidity and mortality observed. No differences

  14. A methodological approach to estimate the lactation curve and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, T Z; Medeiros, S R; Torres, R A A; Zocchi, S S; Oltjen, J W; Strathe, A B; Lanna, D P D

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods to predict the secretion of milk and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows (Bos indicus and B. taurus) after approximately 1 mo postpartum using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NLME). Twenty Caracu × Nellore (CN) and 10 Nellore (NL) cows were inseminated to Red Angus bulls, and 10 Angus × Nellore (AN) were bred to Canchim bulls. Cows were evaluated from just after calving (25 ± 11 d) to weaning (220 d). Milk yield was estimated by weighing calves before and after suckling (WSW) and by machine milking (MM) methods at 25, 52, 80, 109, 136, 164, 193, and 220 ± 11 d of lactation. Brody and simple linear equations were consecutively fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For the Brody equation, a NLME model was used to estimate all lactation profiles incorporating different sources of variation (calf sex and breed of cow, cow as a nested random effect, and within-cow auto-correlation). The CV for the MM method (29%) was less than WSW (45%). Consequently, the WSW method was responsible for reducing the variance about 1.5 times among individuals, which minimized the ability to detect differences among cows. As a result, only milk yield MM data were used in the NLME models. The Brody equation provided the best fit to this dataset, and inclusion of a continuous autoregressive process improved fit (P energy and protein yield at the beginning of lactation were affected by cow genotype and calf sex (P energy and net protein requirements for milk yield followed a similar ranking. Male calves stimulated their dams to produce 11.7, 11.4, and 11.9% more milk, energy and protein, respectively (P energy and protein requirements. The NLME is a powerful tool to describe differences in the secretion of milk due to heterosis and cell mammary external stimulus in beef cows. PMID:22665632

  15. Milk yield and quality in cows sired by different beef breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breed differences in milk production and quality are related to differences in calf preweaning growth, differences in cow maintenance requirements, and differences in efficiency of production. Cows from Brangus dams and sired by 12 Bonsmara, 12 Brangus, 15 Charolais, 18 Gelvieh, 13 Hereford, and 13...

  16. Supplementation with a mixture of whole rice bran and crude glycerin on metabolic responses and performance of primiparous beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Clariget

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT - This study investigated the effect of a supplement containing whole rice bran and crude glycerin for 21 days before mating on metabolic, productive, and reproductive responses of 28 primiparous suckling beef cows. Cows were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n = 14, grazing on grasslands, and a supplemented group (SUP, n = 14, grazing on grasslands and supplemented daily individually with 1 kg dry matter (DM of whole rice bran + 550 mL crude glycerin (224 g kg−1 DM of methanol per cow. After 33 days of natural mating, cows that had not expressed estrus were subjected to a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol. Ten days after the insemination program, bulls were reintroduced for 21 days. Supplementation increased milk yield (SUP: 5.7±0.2 vs. CON: 5.0±0.2 kg d−1, milk protein content (SUP: 3.1±0.2 vs. CON: 2.8±0.2%, and body weight of cow (SUP: 379±2 vs. CON: 373±2 kg and calf (SUP: 150±2 vs. CON: 142±2 kg. Supplementation improved the energy balance, increased plasma concentrations of cholesterol (SUP: 223.2±6.4 vs. CON: 202.1±6.4 mg dL−1 and glucose (SUP: 72.0±1.2 vs. CON: 68.6±1.2 mg dL−1, and reduced non-esterified fatty acids (SUP: 0.45±0.02 vs. CON: 0.56±0.02 mmol L−1. The percentage of cows on superficial anestrous after supplementation was greater in SUP than in CON group (57 vs. 21%, respectively; however, no difference in final pregnancy rate was found (SUP: 79 vs. CON: 64%. There was no evidence that the ingestion of crude glycerin with high content of methanol induced clinical or hepatic disorders. Supplementation of whole rice bran and crude glycerin is not toxic, and can improve the energy balance, reflecting in increase in milk yield and calf growth, with a slight effect on the reproductive activity.

  17. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira; Mara Lúcia Albuquerque Pereira; Saulo Tannus Azevedo; Ricardo Dias Signoretti; Gustavo Rezende Siqueira; Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg ...

  18. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Teixeira Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matter; the diet was balanced to contain enough nutrients for the maintenance and milk production of 15 kg.dia-1. Sixteen (16 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed into four 4x4 Latin Squares. The animals were submitted to observation of 24 hours every five minutes to evaluate ingestive behavior. The observation of the activities was recorded. The animal´s behavior was visually determined with five minutes of intervals to determine the times spent in idle, feeding, rumination, and were calculated patterns of feeding and rumination. The addition of glycerin to the diet did not affect the ingestive behavior parameter in lactating cows fed sugarcane, might be explained by the similarity in NDF content of diets, and up to 12% may be added of the diet’s dry matter.

  19. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  20. Supplemental protein and energy for beef cows consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcherio, J C; Catlett, G E; Paterson, J A; Kerley, M S; Ellersieck, M R

    1995-11-01

    Effects of energy and protein supplementation of endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected (E+) and noninfected (E-) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) on forage intake, digestibility, N flow to the small intestine, and cow-calf productivity was evaluated in two experiments. In Exp. 1, 10 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers were fed either E- or E+ hay with four supplements or E- or E+ hay unsupplemented. Four supplements formulated with either cracked corn or soybean hulls with 100 or 200 g/d of ruminally undegraded intake protein (UIP) were compared. Levels of UIP were varied by adding soybean meal or blood meal. Hay OM intake was not affected (P > .20) by source of energy of level of UIP; however, intake of E- was greater (P .20) microbial efficiencies. In Exp. 2, 30 cows (average initial BW 459 +/- 26 kg) and their calves (average initial BW 74 +/- 5 kg and 74 +/- 5 d of age) grazed an 8.1-ha E+ pasture from late May to late July. Cows were individually fed supplements used in Exp. 1 each day. Cows that received cracked corn lost .10 kg/d when fed 100 g/d of UIP but gained .33 kg/d when fed 200 g/d. Cows fed soybean hulls and 100 g/d of UIP gained .07 kg/d, whereas cows provided 200 g/d lost .10 kg/d. Calves nursing cows supplemented with 100 g/d of UIP gained more (P < .08) BW because of increased (P < .07) milk consumption and slightly greater (P < .19) forage intake than calves nursing cows supplemented with 200 g/d of UIP. PMID:8586603

  1. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  2. Pre- and postpartum nutritional effects on milk production, milk composition, calf weaning weight and postpartum reproductive performance of commercial beef cows

    OpenAIRE

    Kearnan, Jeffrey Mark

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of prepartum and postpartum nutrition on milk production of commercial beef cows. Forty-three Angus or Angus X Holstein females, ranging in age from 2 to 6 yr, were randomly assigned by age and percentage Holstein within age to one of two prepartum grazing treatments (PRE). All females, regardless of PRE, were assigned at calving to receive the same post-calving nutritional energy. Females were assigned at calving by ag...

  3. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Richard J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Bell, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a...

  4. Feeding a High-Concentrate Corn Straw Diet Induced Epigenetic Alterations in the Mammary Tissue of Dairy Cows

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Guozhong; Qiu, Min; Ao, Changjin; Zhou, Jun; Khas-Erdene,; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Zhu; YANG You

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS) diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw) on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS) diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw) and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF) diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage). Experimental Design Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets fo...

  5. Postpartum interval to estrus and patterns of LH and progesterone in first-calf suckled beef cows exposed to mature bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, E E; Berardinelli, J G; Short, R E; Wehrman, M; Adair, R

    1990-05-01

    Two trials were conducted in which Angus x Hereford first-calf cows were assigned randomly at calving to one of two treatments: exposure to mature penile-blocked bulls (BE) or isolation from bulls (NE). In Trial 1 (BE, n = 38; NE, n = 37), cow to bull ratio increased from 12:1 to 19:1 over a 14-d period; in Trial 2 (BE, n = 25; NE, n = 24), this ratio was maintained at 13:1. In both trials, blood samples were collected weekly for progesterone and ovaries and uteri of cows were examined rectally. Cows were observed for estrus twice daily (am:pm) beginning 10 d after calving. In Trial 2, intensive blood sampling for LH began 10 d after calving (eight cows per treatment) and continued at weekly intervals until estrus or the end of the trial. Postpartum weight change, condition score change and time to uterine involution did not differ (P greater than .10) between treatments in either trial. Interval to estrus was shorter (P less than .05) for BE cows than for NE cows in both trials. A greater proportion (P less than .05) of BE cows exhibited estrus by 60 and 90 d after calving and showed an increase in progesterone before first estrus. Mean and baseline LH concentrations and amplitude, frequency and duration of LH pulses were not altered (P greater than .10) by bull exposure. In conclusion, exposing first-calf suckled beef cows to bulls after calving hastened resumption of estrous cycles. Bull exposure did not alter patterns of LH concentrations but did increase proportions of cows that showed increased progesterone before first estrus. PMID:2365649

  6. Body condition score to predict the postpartum fertility of crossbred beef cows Condição corporal na predição da fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte cruzadas

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Ferrugem Moraes; Carlos Miguel Jaume; Carlos José Hoff de Souza

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between changes in body condition score (BCS) during the postpartum and fertility in beef cows suckling calves under extensive conditions were investigated. Cows were subjected to four BCS evaluations over the postpartum period, starting around one month after calving. In the second evaluation cows were treated with medroxy-progesterone acetate impregnated pessaries and received an injection of estradiol benzoate. At the third evaluation, pessaries were removed and calves wer...

  7. Ingestive behavior of lactating cows fed sugarcane and crude glycerin levels on the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Rodrigo Mateus; Roberio Rodrigues Silva; Alex Rezende Schio

    2014-01-01

    The crude glycerin used as feed for ruminants has drawn attention of the researchers for dealing with environmental aspects. Considering current legislation did not establish how to treat this product, this is a low cost alternative of great amount of a residue of the biodiesel production. In this study we evaluated different crude glycerin levels on ingestive behavior which were studied as the diet of lactating cows fed with sugarcane. The glycerin levels were 0, 4, 8 and 12% of the dry matt...

  8. Metabolic attributes, yield and stability of milk in Jersey cows fed diets containing sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of sodium citrate and sodium bicarbonate in the diet of lactating Jersey cows, and its effects on the metabolic attributes, productivity and stability of milk. We evaluated urinary pH, levels of glucose and urea in blood, body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk stability (ethanol test, and milk physicochemical properties of 17 cows fed diets containing sodium citrate (100 g per cow per day, sodium bicarbonate (40 g per cow per day or no additives. Assessments were made at the 28th and 44th days. Supply of sodium citrate or bicarbonate has no influence on the metabolic attributes, productivity, body weight, and body condition score of the cows, neither on the composition and stability of milk.

  9. Expression of estrus modifies the gene expression profile in reproductive tissues on Day 19 of gestation in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, S; Cooke, R F; Fernandes, A C C; Cappellozza, B I; Vasconcelos, J L M; Cerri, R L A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of expression of estrus at artificial insemination (AI) on endometrium, conceptus, and CL gene expression of beef cows. Thirty-six multiparous nonlactating Nelore cows were enrolled on an estradiol- and progesterone (P4)-based timed AI protocol (AI = Day 0) and then slaughtered for the endometrium, CL, and conceptus collection on Day 19. The animals were retrospectively grouped on the basis of cows that (1) showed signs of estrus near AI (n = 19; estrus) and (2) did not show any signs of estrus (n = 17; nonestrus). Body condition score, blood sampling, and ultrasound examination were performed on Days 0, 7, and 18 of the experiment followed by messenger RNA extraction and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of 58 target genes. Data were checked for normality and analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures using proc GLM, MIXED, and UNIVARIATE of SAS. Only pregnant cows were included in the analyses (n = 12; nonestrus, n = 11). Estrous expression had no correlation with parameters such as body condition score, preovulatory follicle and CL diameter, P4 concentration in plasma on Days 7 and 18 after AI, and interferon-tau concentration in the uterine flushing (P > 0.15); however, a significant increase was observed in conceptus size from cows that expressed estrus (P = 0.02; 38.3 ± 2.8 vs. 28.2 ± 2.9 mm). The majority of transcripts affected by estrous expression in the endometrium belong to the immune system and adhesion molecule family (MX1, MX2, MYL12A, MMP19, CXCL10, IGLL1, and SLPI; P ≤ 0.05), as well as those related with prostaglandin synthesis (OTR and COX-2; P ≤ 0.05). Genes related to apoptosis, P4 synthesis, and prostaglandin receptor were downregulated (CYP11A, BAX, and FPr; P < 0.05) in the CL tissue of cows that expressed estrus. In addition, four genes were identified as differentially expressed in the 19-day-old conceptus from cows that expressed

  10. U.S. beef industry faces new policies and testing for mad cow disease

    OpenAIRE

    O’Neill, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The years 2003 and 2005 were pivotal for the North American cattle industry. In May 2003, Canada announced its first case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as mad cow disease. This was the first time North America’s indigenous cattle had been confirmed to have BSE. Seven months later in December, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) announced that a dairy cow in Washington state (born in Canada and brought into the United States in 2001, at about 4 years old) had also...

  11. Raw, extruded and expanded pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cows diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the nutritive value of raw, extruded or expanded peas relative to soybean meal in lactating dairy cows feeding. Twenty four Italian Holstein cows (8 primiparous and 16 pluriparous, 604 ± 109 kg body weight, 34.5 ± 2.5 kg/d milk yield, were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a 4x4 Latin square arrangement with periods of four weeks and washout period of seven days. Diets were fed ad libitum(5% orts. The bulk of the base diet on a dry matter basis was corn silage (31.2%, alfalfa hay (16.7%, grass hay (4.1%, protein supplement (10.3%, whole cotton seed (8.5%, corn and barley mix (24.9%, soybean meal (3.4% and calcium soap (0.9%. The pea (2.5 kg/cow/day partially replaced the soybean meal and totally replaced the barley meal of the base diet. The unprocessed or differently processed pea did not affect the dry matter intake. The extruded pea group had a 3.2% increase (P< 0.05 of the milk yield compared to the control group. When estimated as contrast analysis, the technological treatment (extruded or expanded on peas did not modify the milk yield and composition. Among pea diets, animal fed the extruded pea had the higher (P< 0.05 milk protein content, although not different than that of the control group. The rumen acetate was reduced (P< 0.05 and the butyrate and valerate were increased (P< 0.05 in animals fed extruded pea compared to the control. No differences were observed among feeding groups on blood parameters except for the cholesterol level higher (P< 0.05 in animals fed the expanded pea diet. There were no effects of diets on milk rennet coagulation characteris- tics. Results support the partial substitution of soybean meal and the total substitution of barley meal with peas in diets for lactating cows with no negative effects on milk yield and composition.

  12. Extending the duration of treatment with progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotropin improves fertility in suckled beef cows with low body condition score subjected to timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, M G; Massara, N; Ramos, S; Zapata, L O; Farcey, M F; Pesoa, J; Turic, E; Vázquez, M I; Bartolome, J A

    2016-07-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of an extended progesterone treatment on follicular development and fertility in postpartum, suckled beef cows subjected to timed artificial insemination (TAI). In experiment 1, cows (n = 24) with body condition score (BCS) ≥4.5 received either a 2-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -23 or a 0.558-g progesterone intravaginal device on Day -9. Then, all cows received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate on Day -9; removal of the device, 1-mg estradiol cypionate, and PGF2α on Day -2; and TAI on Day 0. Metabolic status was assessed between Days -9 and -2. Ovarian structures and plasma progesterone were determined weekly from Day -23 to -9, daily from Day -9 to 0, and weekly until Day 28. In experiment 2, cows (n = 302) with BCS ≥4.5 received identical treatment to cows in experiment 1, but on Day -2, cows received 400 IU of two different commercial preparations of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG). Ovarian structures were determined on Days -23 and -9 on a subset of cows (n = 40). Pregnancy was determined 39 days after TAI. In experiment 3, multiparous cows (n = 244) with BCS AI. In experiment 3, extended progesterone treatment combined with eCG increased the size of the dominant follicle (P = 0.01). Both extended progesterone treatment (P = 0.02) and eCG (P = 0.03) increased pregnancy per AI. In conclusion, an extended progesterone treatment stimulated follicular growth postpartum and improved fertility only in cows with low BCS. PMID:26944539

  13. Effects of diet type on establishment of pregnancy and embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gath, V P; Crowe, M A; O'Callaghan, D; Boland, M P; Duffy, P; Lonergan, P; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of elevated blood urea concentrations on: (i) the response to superovulation, fertilisation rate, and early embryonic development in beef heifers, and (ii) embryo survival from days 7 to 35 of gestation. In Experiment 1, heifers (18-24 months) were allocated at random (n=20 per treatment) to one of the following diets: (i) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg commercial beef concentrates per day (controls); (ii) ad libitum grass silage plus 5 kg concentrates and 250 g feed grade urea per day (HE/HU); or (iii) ad libitum wheaten straw plus 250 g feed grade urea and 50 g vitamin/mineral mix per day (LE/HU). Serum urea concentrations were monitored throughout the experiment. Oestrus in heifers was synchronised using an intravaginal releasing device (CIDR(®), InterAg, New Zealand). Oestrus was detected and in vitro produced blastocysts (day 7, morphological grades 1 and 2) were transferred to the heifers 7 days later (19 days after start of treatment diets). The heifers were maintained on the dietary treatments for a further 28 days, when pregnancy status was determined by transrectal ultrasonography. Detected pregnancies were terminated using 15 mg luprostiol and recycled for Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, following a 14-day dietary rest period, the heifers were re-allocated at random to the three dietary treatments above. Heifers were treated with a CIDR for 8 days and 15 mg luprostiol was given 12h before pessary withdrawal. They received 144 mg pFSH (Folltropin(®)-V, Vetrepharm, Canada) given as 8 injections over 4 days commencing on day 6 of CIDR/dietary treatment. Heifers were artificially inseminated 48 h after progesterone pessary withdrawal using commercial semen of proven fertility by a competent inseminator. The heifers were maintained on their diets until slaughter, 3 days post insemination when corpora lutea numbers were determined and embryos were recovered and cell numbers determined visually. Serum urea

  14. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  15. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  16. Factors influencing feed efficiency for beef cows of varying proportion of Brahman influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed constitutes the greatest proportion of costs in cow-calf production. Therefore, genetic merit for feed efficiency has received interest from producers, but has generally been assessed in growing animals. The objectives of this study were to determine the main factors that contribute to variance...

  17. Corn grain and liquid feed as nonfiber carbohydrate sources in diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L; Lefeld, A H; Eilenfeld, A M; Gott, P N; Bowen, W S; Firkins, J L

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of sources and processing methods for nonstructural carbohydrates may affect the efficiency of animal production. Five rumen-cannulated cows in late lactation were placed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design and fed experimental diets for 2 wk. In the production trial, 54 cows were fed the experimental diets for 12 wk beginning at d 60 in milk. Diets contained 24% corn silage and 22% hay, averaging 20% alfalfa and 2% grass but being adjusted as needed to maintain dietary concentrations of 36% neutral detergent fiber. The control diet contained steam-flaked corn (SFC) and the other diets contained either finely (FGC; 0.8 mm) or coarsely ground corn (CGC; 1.9 mm), factorialized with or without 3.5% liquid feed (LF). The LF diets provided 1.03% of dietary dry matter as supplemental sugar. The FGC decreased rumen pH and concentration of NH(3)N compared with CGC. The SFC and FGC tended to increase the molar percentage of ruminal propionate and decrease the acetate:propionate ratio. The LF increased molar percentage of ruminal butyrate with FGC but not CGC. The LF tended to decrease starch digestibility with the CGC but not with the FGC. As expected, the SFC and FGC increased total tract starch digestibility. The DMI and milk yield were similar among dietary treatments. Compared with ground corn diets, the SFC tended to decrease milk fat percentage; thus, 3.5% fat-corrected milk and feed efficiency were decreased with SFC. The LF decreased milk protein percentage but had no effect on milk protein yield. The SFC compared with dry ground corn decreased the concentration of milk urea nitrogen. Sugar supplementation using LF appeared to be more beneficial with FGC than CGC. Increasing the surface area by finely grinding corn is important for starch digestibility and optimal utilization of nutrients. PMID:21605774

  18. Prepartum supplement level and age at weaning: I. Effects on pre- and postpartum beef cow performance and calf performance through weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, L M; Kloth, A C; Wilson, T B; González-Peña, D; Ireland, F A; Rodriguez-Zas, S; Felix, T L; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Objectives were to determine the interaction of prepartum supplement level and age at weaning on cow BW, BCS, milk production, reproduction, and calf performance up to weaning in a fall-calving system over 2 yr. Mature, multiparous, Angus × Simmental cows (yr 1: 326 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 632 ± 67 kg, and BCS = 5.7 ± 0.58; yr 2: 383 cows, 9 pastures, BW = 606 ± 70 kg, and BCS = 5.8 ± 0.74) were used in a split-plot design that included 3 supplement levels-no supplement (NS), low supplement (LS; 2.16 kg∙cow∙d), or high supplement (HS; 8.61 kg∙cow∙d)-and 2 ages at weaning-78 ± 11 d of age (early weaned; EW) or 186 ± 11 d of age (normal weaned; NW). Cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue/red clover pastures and were bunk fed supplement (70% dried distillers' grains with solubles and 30% soybean hulls) 103 ± 11 d prepartum to 2 ± 11 d postpartum. Cow BW was greater ( unassisted. Prepartum supplementation tended ( = 0.10) to improve AI conception. Early weaning increased ( ≤ 0.05) AI conception and postbreeding cow BW and BCS compared with cows with NW calves. Neither prepartum supplementation nor age at weaning affected ( ≥ 0.28) overall pregnancy rate. At time of early weaning, BW was increased ( = 0.05) for steers from cows fed LS compared with steers from cows fed NS. Steer BW at time of normal weaning and ADG between early and normal weaning was greater ( < 0.01) for EW steers compared with NW steers. A year × age at weaning interaction occurred ( < 0.01) for ultrasound marbling score at time of normal weaning. In yr 1, marbling was decreased ( = 0.04) for EW steers compared with NW steers; however, in yr 2, marbling was increased ( < 0.01) for EW steers compared with NW steers. In conclusion, there was no interaction between level of supplement during late gestation and age at weaning on cow BW, BCS, milk production, AI conception, and overall pregnancy rate in mature beef cows nor in their steer progeny's BW or ultrasound marbling. Both

  19. A conjugated linoleic acid-enriched beef diet attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in mice in part through PPARgamma-mediated suppression of toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Clare M; Draper, Eve; Keogh, Brian; Rahman, Arman; Moloney, Aidan P; Mills, Kingston H G; Loscher, Christine E; Roche, Helen M

    2009-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a PUFA found in beef and dairy products that has immunoregulatory properties. The level of CLA in beef can be enhanced by feeding cattle fresh grass rather than concentrates. This study determined the effect of feeding a high-CLA beef diet on inflammation in an in vivo model of septic shock. Mice were fed a high-CLA beef (4.3% total fatty acid composition) or low-CLA beef diet (0.84% total fatty acid composition) for 6 wk. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 microg) or sterile PBS was injected i.v. and serum was harvested 6 h after injection. Serum interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-12p70, IL-12p40, and interferon-gamma concentrations were significantly reduced in response to the LPS challenge in the high-CLA beef diet group. Bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) from the high-CLA beef diet group had significantly less IL-12 and more IL-10 in response to ex vivo LPS stimulation. Furthermore, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and CD14 protein and mRNA expression on BMDC was significantly attenuated in the high-CLA compared with the low-CLA beef diet group. Complimentary in vitro experiments to determine the specificity of the effect showed that synthetic cis9, trans11-CLA suppressed surface expression of CD14 and TLR4 on BMDC. Treatment with the PPARgamma inhibitor GW9662 partially reversed TLR4 expression in immature BMDC. The results of this study demonstrate that feeding a diet enriched in high-beef CLA exerts profound antiinflammatory effects in vivo within the context of LPS-induced sepsis. In addition, downregulation of BMDC TLR4 is mediated through induction of PPARgamma. PMID:19846417

  20. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Fonken, B.C.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Perdok, H.B.; Fokkink, W.B.; Newbold, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives in

  1. Short communication: Effects of molasses supplementation on performance of lactating cows fed high-alfalfa silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurhoo, B; Mustafa, A

    2014-02-01

    Twelve Holstein cows were used in a replicated Latin square experiment to determine the effect of adding dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets on dairy cow performance. Three isonitrogenous diets were formulated with a 68:32 forage:concentrate ratio, with alfalfa silage as the only forage source. Dietary treatments were a control diet with no added molasses and 3 and 6% dried molasses diets. Three lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation. Dietary treatments had no effect on dry matter (average 23.3 kg/d), crude protein (average 4.4 kg/d), or neutral detergent fiber (average 7.4 kg/d) intake. Milk yield, energy-corrected milk (average 35.4 kg/d), and 4% fat-corrected milk (average 33.8 kg/d) were not influenced by dietary treatments. Cows fed the control diet produced milk with less milk urea nitrogen concentration than those fed molasses-supplemented diets. Ruminal pH, NH3-N concentration, and total volatile fatty acids were not different among dietary treatments. The molar proportion of acetate linearly increased, whereas the molar proportion of propionate linearly decreased as the level of dried molasses increased. It was concluded that addition of dried molasses to high-alfalfa silage diets at 6% of the diet (dry matter basis) increased milk urea nitrogen but had no effect on animal performance. PMID:24315324

  2. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( carcass characteristics. PMID:26523577

  3. Effects of dietary amylase and sucrose on productivity of cows fed low-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Rodriguez, C F; Engstrom, M; Azem, E; Bradford, B J

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies have observed positive effects of both sucrose and exogenous amylase on the productivity of dairy cattle. Our objective was to evaluate direct effects and interactions of amylase and sucrose on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, and milk components. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows between 70 and 130 d in milk were randomly assigned to each of 4 pens (12 cows/pen). Pens were randomly assigned to treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design, balanced for carryover effects. Treatment periods were 28 d, with 24 d for diet adaptation and 4d for sample and data collection. The treatments were a control diet (36% NDF and 21% starch), the control diet with amylase [0.5 g/kg of DM; Ronozyme RumiStar 600 (CT); DSM Nutritional Products Ltd., Basel, Switzerland], a diet with sucrose replacing corn grain at 2% of DM, and the sucrose diet with amylase (0.5 g/kg of DM). All data were analyzed with mixed models, including the fixed effects of sugar, amylase, and their interaction, and the random effects of period and pen. Milk data included the random effects of cow nested within pen and pen × period to provide the error term for the pen-level analysis. Dry matter intake was not affected by treatments. Milk yield and milk composition were not altered by the inclusion of sucrose or amylase; however, a tendency for an amylase × sucrose interaction was observed for milk protein content, reflecting slightly lower milk protein concentrations for amylase and sucrose treatments (3.00 and 2.99 ± 0.03%) compared with the control and amylase + sucrose treatments (3.02 and 3.03 ± 0.03%). Solids-corrected and fat-corrected milk yields were not significantly altered by treatment, although the direct effect of amylase approached significance for both variables, suggesting possible small increases with amylase supplementation (~0.5 kg/d). Feed efficiency (energy-corrected milk divided by dry matter intake) numerically increased with either amylase (1.57 ± 0

  4. Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kasal; Igino Andrighetto; Giovanni Peratoner; Franziska Schwienbacher; Elisabeth Werth; Priska Egger; Gabriele Holzer; Severino Segato

    2010-01-01

    The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA) profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg) and cracked maize (0.5 kg) as Control diet (C-diet); full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg), cracked barley...

  5. Nitrogen utilisation by dairy cows fed diets differing in crude protein level with a deficit in ruminal fermentable nitrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Monteils, Valérie; Jurjanz, Stefan; Blanchart, Gérard; Laurent, François

    2002-01-01

    We studied the efficiency of nitrogen utilisation by dairy cows, using three diets differing in the crude protein (CP) level but with similar deficits (10 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ dry matter, DM) in ruminal fermentable nitrogen. There was no difference in milk yield from the cows offered the three diets (130, 145 and 160 g CP$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$ DM). The milk protein content differed between the two most extreme diets (28.9 vs. 29.9 g$\\cdot$kg$^{-1}$, $P < 0.05$), resulting in higher protein yields for ...

  6. Feeding behavior of lactating cows fed palm kernel cake in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of including of palm kernel cake on feeding behavior of lactating crossbred cows. Twelve crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares, with the following treatments: control; inclusion of 5%; inclusion of 10%; inclusion of 15% palm kernel cake in the diet dry matter. The animals were observed during four periods as to feeding behavior, 24 hours in each period. There was no effect of inclusion of palm kernel cake (p > 0.05 on time spent on eating, ruminating and idling. The feeding efficiencies of dry matter and corrected neutral detergent fiber, total digestible nutrients, and the rumination efficiency of corrected neutral detergent fiber were not influenced (p > 0.05. There was a linear increase with the inclusion of palm kernel cake (p 0.05. The inclusion of palm kernel cake in diets for dairy cows causes no change in behavior activities and efficiencies of feeding and rumination, until the 15% level of inclusion.

  7. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    OpenAIRE

    Carberry, CIara A.; Kenny, David A.; Kelly, Alan K.; Waters, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) ...

  8. Sugar cane fresh or ensiled with or without bacterial additive in diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruzia Vitória Moreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of using fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage with or without Lactobacillus buchneri, and burnt sugar cane silage with or without L. buchneri on ingestive behavior, nitrogen balance and synthesis of microbial nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Five ¾ Holstein x Gir crossbred cows, assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square design, were given diets with a 60:40 forage: concentrate ratio on a dry matter basis, to meet an average body weight of 550 kg and production of 15 kg of milk per day. The treatment with fresh sugar cane showed higher values (p 0.05 the nitrogen intake and balance, but led to a greater (p 0.05, and showed an average value of 204.32 g microbial crude protein kg-1 total digestible nutrients.

  9. Evaluation of lower-starch diets for lactating Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, H M; Tucker, H A; Cotanch, K W; Krawczel, P D; Mooney, C S; Grant, R J; Eguchi, T

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure ruminal and lactational responses of Holstein dairy cows fed diets containing 3 different starch levels: 17.7 (low; LS), 21.0 (medium; MS), or 24.6% (high; HS). Twelve multiparous cows (118 ± 5 d in milk) were assigned randomly to dietary treatment sequence in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3-wk periods. All diets were fed as total mixed rations and contained approximately 30.2% corn silage, 18.5% grass silage, and 5.0% chopped alfalfa hay. Dietary starch content was manipulated by increasing dry ground corn inclusion (% of dry matter) from 3.4 (LS) to 10.1 (MS) and 16.9 (HS) and decreasing inclusion of beet pulp and wheat middlings from 6.7 and 13.4 (LS) to 3.4 and 10.1 (MS) or 0 and 6.8 (HS). In vitro 6-h starch digestibility of the diet increased as nonforage sources of fiber replaced corn grain (% of dry matter; 73.6, HS; 77.3, MS; 82.5, LS) resulting in rumen-fermentable starch content by 14.6, 16.2, and 18.1% for the LS, MS, and HS diets, respectively. Diets had similar neutral detergent fiber from forage and particle size distributions. Dry matter intake, solids-corrected milk yield, and efficiency of solids-corrected milk production were unaffected by diet, averaging 26.5 ± 0.8, 40.8 ± 1.6, and 1.54 ± 0.05 kg/d, respectively. Reducing dietary starch did not affect chewing time (815 ± 23 min/d), mean ruminal pH over 24h (6.06 ± 0.12), acetate-to-propionate ratio (2.4 ± 0.3), or microbial N synthesized in the rumen (585 ± 24 g/d). Total tract organic matter digestibility was higher for HS compared with MS and LS diets (69.2, 67.3, and 67.0%, respectively), but crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch digestibilities were unaffected. As dietary starch content decreased, in vitro ruminal starch fermentability increased and, consequently, the range between HS and LS in rumen-fermentable starch (3.5 percentage units) was less than the range in starch content (6.9 percentage units

  10. Evaluation of dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha fed different levels of concentrate at diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this research was to evaluate the dairy cows intake behavior grazing Brachiaria brizantha submitted to different levels of concentrate supplementation in the diet. Used 16 lactating cows ½ Holstein x ½ Zebu, with an average of 80 ±10.14 days of lactation and body weight of 454.7 ± 54.51 kg. The animals were distributed in four treatments, using a 4x4 Latin square. The evaluation of behavior was done every ten minutes, during 24 hours on the 16th day of period. We used analysis of variance and regression probability of 0.05. The time spent grazing, ruminating and other activities, the numbers of grazing, ruminating, of bites per day and chews per cake, the grazing times, total power and total chewing, bit rate, time to swallow; time per bolus ruminated; chewing speed and power efficiency for NDF were not altered by increased levels of concentrate. The time of trough, the trough period, the bit size, the chews time for bolus, feeding efficiency for DM, NFC, and TDN and rumination efficiency linearly increased. Periods of rumination, deglutition bits, number of rumination chews per day, decreased linearly with increasing levels of concentrate. Significant quadratic effect of concentrate level on the number of periods in other activities and over time on other activities. Supplementation with 33.8% concentrate in the diet of cows grazing not promote changes in the activity of grazing, ruminating and other activities, but increases the time of trough. The increase in concentrate diet improves the efficiencies of feeding and rumination

  11. Pea (Pisum sativum in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant protein in place of soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked pea appears interesting in dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked peas as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (8.3% soybean meal was compared to a “Pea” concentrate (5% soybean meal and 15% flaked peas. Forages fed to animals included mixed grass hay and alfalfa hay in experiment 1, and hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality, and the characteristics of grab faecal samples, examined to get some empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. Compositional changes (crude protein and solubility in forages used as common base in the diets of both experiments had a slight effect on milk and plasma urea contents. There was a tendency for a higher milk urea content in the “Pea” group (32.3 vs 30.1mg/dl in experiment 1, P<0.1; 30.2 vs 28.0mg/dl in experiment 2, P<0.1. The plasma urea content was different only in experiment 2 (4.9 vs 5.6mmol/l, respectively for “Control” and “Pea” groups; P<0.05. The inclusion of the heatprocessed pea within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  12. Milk production and composition of mid-lactation cows consuming perennial ryegrass-and chicory-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, S K; Ward, G N; Jacobs, J L

    2014-02-01

    Dry matter intakes (DMI), nutrient selection, and milk production responses of dairy cows grazing 3 herbage-based diets offered at 2 allowances were measured. The 2 allowances were 20 (low) and 30 (high) kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day and these were applied to 3 herbage types: perennial ryegrass (PRG) and chicory (CHIC+) monocultures and a mixed sward of chicory and perennial ryegrass (MIX). The CHIC+ diet was supplemented with alfalfa hay (approximately 2 kg of DM/cow per day) to maintain dietary neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration and all diets were supplemented with energy-based pellets (6 kg of DM/cow per day). Holstein-Friesian dairy cows averaging 136 ± 30 d in milk were allocated to 4 replicates of the 6 treatments using stratified randomization procedures. Cows were adapted to their experimental diets over a 14-d period, with measurements of DMI, milk yield, and composition conducted over the following 10 d. Herbage DMI was lowest (12.8 vs. 14.0 kg of DM/d) for CHIC+ compared with the MIX and PRG, although total forage intake (grazed herbage plus hay) was similar (14.0 to 15.0 kg of DM/d) across the 3 treatments. Milk production, milk protein, and milk fat concentrations were not different between herbage types. Grazed herbage DMI increased with increasing herbage allowance and this was associated with increased milk protein concentration (3.23 to 3.34%) and total casein production (41.7 to 43.6 mg/g). Concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat, particularly linoleic acid, were increased in milk from cows offered the CHIC+ or the MIX diets, indicating potential benefits of chicory herbage on milk fatty acid concentrations. Although feeding CHIC+ or MIX did not increase milk yield, these herbage types could be used as an alternative to perennial ryegrass pasture in spring. PMID:24290818

  13. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  14. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet, 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10 and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30. Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C sequencing batch reactors (SBRs fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM, volatile solids (VS, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  15. The 9-day CIDR-PG protocol: Incorporation of PGF2α pretreatment into a long-term progestin-based estrus synchronization protocol for postpartum beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jordan M; Bishop, Brianne E; Abel, Jillian M; Ellersieck, Mark R; Smith, Michael F; Patterson, David J

    2016-06-01

    A pilot experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that administration of PGF2α before progestin treatment would allow for a reduced duration of progestin treatment in a long-term progestin-based estrus synchronization protocol. A modified presynchronization treatment was compared with a standard long-term controlled internal drug release (CIDR) treatment, and treatments were compared on the basis of ovarian follicular dynamics, estrous response rate, synchrony of estrus expression, and pregnancy rates resulting from timed artificial insemination (TAI) in postpartum beef cows. Estrous was synchronized for 85 cows, with cows assigned to one of two treatments based on age, days postpartum, and body condition score. Cows assigned to the 14-day CIDR-PG protocol received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0, CIDR removal on Day 14, and administration of PGF2α (25 mg im) on Day 30. Cows assigned to the 9-day CIDR-PG protocol received PGF2α concurrent with CIDR insertion on Day 5, PGF2α concurrent with CIDR removal on Day 14, and administration of PGF2α on Day 30. In both treatments, split-time AI was performed based on estrous response. At 72 hours after PGF2α (Day 33), cows having expressed estrus received TAI; cows that failed to express estrus by 72 hours received TAI 24 hours later (96 hours after PGF2α on Day 34), with GnRH (100 μg im) administered to nonestrous cows. Estrus-detection transmitters were used from CIDR removal until AI to determine onset time of estrus expression both after CIDR removal and after PGF2α. Ovarian ultrasonography was performed at CIDR removal on Day 14, PGF2α on Day 30, and AI on Days 33 or 34. At CIDR removal on Day 14, diameter of the largest follicle present on the ovary was similar between treatments. The proportion of cows expressing estrus after CIDR removal tended to be higher (P = 0.09) among cows assigned to the 9-day CIDR-PG treatment (93%; 40 of 43) than among cows assigned to the 14-day CIDR

  16. Performance and ultrasound measurements of beef cattle fed diets based on whole corn or oats grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo M Arelovich

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to contrast dietary effects of whole grain oats versus corn included in rations with moderate roughage content on animal performance, beef ultrasound measurements, rumen and blood parameters. Ten Aberdeen Angus steers (203 kg in individual pens were fed twice daily on either whole oats (OD or corn (CD based diets. Measurements were: DM intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG, feed to gain ratio (F/G; back fat (BF and rib eye area (RA; blood parameters. Four cannulated steers were used to study rumen pH, NH3-N and grain degradability. Rations dietary components were 55% grain, 30.1% barley straw, and 10.6% whole soybeans. Despite calculated higher ME supply (P = 0.0887 no differences were found for DMI, ADG, or F/G. Metabolizable protein intake (19.4% was larger and degradable protein intake (43.3% smaller for CD compared with OD (P < 0.01. The growth rate (cm² d-1 for RA was 40% grater for OD, but larger BF deposition (P = 0.0787 was found for CD. Blood Mg was higher for OD (p = 0.0564, nevertheless other blood parameters remained unaffected. Rumen pH and NH3-N were not influenced by diet, variations were only observed within time periods. Rumen pH decreased linearly from 7.05 to 6.13 and 7.11 to 6.37 for OD and CD respectively (P < 0.05. Minimum NH3-N concentrations (mg dL-1 were reached 12 and 18 h after morning meal for OD (7.10 and CD (5.82 respectively. Rumen degradation was larger for oats than corn. Whole oats rather than corn fed up to 55% of total DM seems to improve protein deposition, without significant changes in animal performance, rumen environment or blood parameters.

  17. Effects of apple pomace proportion levels on the fermentation quality of total mixed ration silage and its digestibility, preference and ruminal fermentation in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiachen; Cao, Yang; Matsuzaki, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Four Japanese black beef cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square to evaluate the fermentation quality, digestibility, ruminal fermentation and preference of total mixed ration (TMR) silages prepared with differing proportions of apple pomace (AP). Experimental treatments were the control (no AP added, CAP), 5% (low, LAP), 10% (medium, MAP) and 20% (high, HAP) of TMR dry matter (DM) as AP. All TMR silages were well preserved. Ethanol was produced in silages containing AP and the amount increased with the proportion of AP (P silages should be less than 5% of dietary DM. PMID:26278555

  18. FEEDING AND MARKETING CULL COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale of cull beef cows accounts for 15-25% of yearly gross revenues of cow-calf operations in the United States. Beef from market cows is widely used in the retail and food service sector in a variety of product forms, not all of which is ground. Producers should identify opportunities to add value...

  19. Frequency of wet brewers grains supplementation during late gestation of beef cows and its effects on offspring postnatal growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Artioli, L F A; Piccolo, M B; Marques, R S; Poore, M H; Cooke, R F

    2016-06-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate postnatal growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of beef calves born to dams fed wet brewers grains (WBG) daily or 3 times weekly during late gestation. On d 0 (approximately 60 d before calving), 28 multiparous, spring-calving Angus cows (BW = 578 ± 19 kg; age = 4.7 ± 0.65 yr; BCS = 7.0 ± 0.18) were stratified by sire, age, BW, and BCS and then randomly allocated into 1 of 14 drylot pens (2 cows/pen; 18 by 3 m; 27 m/cow). Cows were offered ground tall fescue hay ad libitum and received similar weekly WBG supplementation (DMI = 0.5% of BW multiplied by 7 d). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (7 pens/treatment) and consisted of cows receiving WBG supplementation daily (S7; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 7 d) or 3 times weekly (S3; weekly DMI of WBG divided by 3 d; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) from d 0 until calving. Cow-calf pairs were managed as a single group on tall fescue pastures from calving to weaning (d 226). Calves were immediately submitted to a preconditioning period from d 226 to 266 and vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus, , and on d 231 and 245. Decreasing the frequency of WBG supplementation did not impact ( ≥ 0.21) precalving intake of total DM, CP, and TDN; BW and BCS change; overall plasma cortisol concentrations; and postcalving growth and pregnancy rate of cows. Overall plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin did not differ ( ≥ 0.28) between S3 and S7 cows, whereas S3 cows had greater ( = 0.002) plasma glucose concentrations and tended ( = 0.06) to have greater plasma insulin concentrations on days they were not fed WBG vs. days of WBG supplementation. Calf plasma concentrations of haptoglobin and cortisol at birth but not serum IgG ( = 0.63) tended ( = 0.10) to be greater for S3 vs. S7 calves. However, additional calf growth and immunity variables obtained during pre- and postweaning phases did not differ between S3 and S7 calves

  20. Faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for farmed animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among the possible alternatives, the heat-processed (flaked faba beans appears interesting for dairy cow diet. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to test flaked faba beans as a partial substitute for soybean meal in the diet of Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a “Control” concentrate (12% soybean meal, no faba beans was compared with a “Faba” concentrate (7.5% soybean meal and 10% flaked faba beans. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa plus mixed grass in experiment 1, hay only in experiment 2. Milk yield and quality and the characteristics of grab faecal samples as empirical indicators of digestibility, were similar between feeding groups. The milk urea content was slightly lower in the “Faba” group, particularly in experiment 2 (“Control” vs “Faba”: 34.6 vs 32.9 mg/dL in experiment 1, P<0.1; 27.4 vs 23.4 mg/dL in experiment 2, P<0.01; the plasma urea content in experiment 2 confirmed the trend observed in milk (3.9 vs 3.0 mmol/L, P<0.01. The inclusion of faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a partial substitution of soybean meal.

  1. Effect of repeated eCG treatments and ovum pick-up on ovarian response and oocyte recovery during early pregnancy in suckling beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, J F; Mucci, N C; Kaiser, G G; Callejas, S S; Alberio, R H

    2012-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate in suckling early pregnant beef cows with and without eCG-pre-stimulation: (i) the influence of day gestation (from 40 to 101 days) and the consecutive eCG treatments on the follicular growth induced by means of ultrasound-guided transvaginal follicle ablation (FA; all follicles ≥ 5 mm) and the number and quality oocytes recovered by ovum pick-up (OPU) and (ii) the possible effects of repeated hormonal stimulation and FA/OPU on pregnancy outcome. Twelve suckling early pregnant Angus cows (40 days post fixed-time artificial insemination) were randomly assigned to each of two groups (n=6 group(-1)). Group 1 treatments included: FA (Day 0), eCG (1600 IU; Day 1) and OPU (Day 5). Group 2: as cited Group 1 with no eCG treatment. In both groups, OPU was repeated five times (Days 45, 59, 73, 87 and 101 of gestation). The numbers (mean ± SEM) of class II (5-9 mm; 4.3 ± 0.9) and class III (≥10 mm; 2.5 ± 0.4) follicles visualized per cow per OPU session in eCG-treated cows were greater (P<0.05) than for non-treated cows (0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.9 ± 0.1, respectively). In contrast, the number (mean ± SEM) of class I (<5mm) follicles per cow per OPU session was lower for cows with eCG treatment (2.8 ± 0.4) than for non-treated cows (5.7 ± 0.5). The mean number of aspirated follicles was not significantly different (P<0.05) between eCG-treated cows and non-treated cows at 45 and 59 days of pregnancy. However, the mean number of aspirated follicles was greater (P=0.03) in eCG-treated cows than non-treated cows from 73 day of pregnancy onwards. The numbers (mean ± SEM) of recovered oocytes and viable oocytes/cow/session were greater (P<0.05) for eCG-treated cows (2.2 ± 0.2 and 1.6 ± 0.4, respectively) than for non-treated cows (1.0 ± 0.2 and 0.9 ± 0.2, respectively). No donor pregnancies were lost either during or following OPU procedure. We can conclude that (1) eCG-treated pregnant suckled cows can be a source of oocytes for IVF at

  2. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

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    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  3. Partial selective treatment of Rhipicephalus microplus and breed resistance variation in beef cows in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão; Fortes, Fernanda Silva; Buzatti, Andréia; Kloster, Fernando Staude; Sprenger, Lew Kan; Coimbra, Eliane; Soares, Luis Dorneles

    2013-02-18

    Rhipicephalus microplus infestation causes heavy losses in cattle. The majority of farmers control the cattle tick by using long-acting drugs throughout the year, which evidently increases selection pressure for drug resistance. Partial selective treatment (PST) may be used to directly reduce selection pressure by treating only the portion of the herd that is most infested. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of PST in two herds of beef cows and the effect of breed tolerance. The Santiago (n=306 animals) and the São Francisco de Assis (n=204 animals) herds were composed of up to eight pure breeds of Bos taurus and Bos indicus and their crosses and were evaluated during the first and second (8 months) tick generations. Ticks larger than 4.5mm were counted on one side of the animal, and the animals were treated when numbers exceeded 20 ticks per host. On both farms, the tick-tolerant breeds with a high proportion of B. indicus (Braford, Brangus, and Nellore) consistently carried fewer ticks than Charolais. The economical evaluation showed an average profit margin in the use of PST of 674.25% and 1394.5% on the Santiago and São Francisco de Assis farms, respectively, in comparison to all-herd treatment. These results indicate that PST is a reliable tool for health management and may be used as a standard protocol for tick control with significant economic benefits on farms. In addition, the maintenance of the highest possible tolerant/resilient breeds is also an essential factor that should be considered in today's more sustainable animal production systems. PMID:23219046

  4. Silage of residue from the extraction of cassava starch in diets from lactating holstein cows

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    Maximiliane Alavarse Zambom

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of evaluating the intake and digestibility of nutrients, milk production, production efficiency and composition, and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed silage of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch (SRECS, replacing 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the corn feed. Cows with average production of 35 kg of milk a day were assigned in a 5x5 Latin square design, and for the 21 days trial period, they were housed in stalls and fed individually to control the dietary food, stool samples were performed to estimate the digestibility of nutrients. Milking were held twice a day, measuring the production and analysis of milk composition in each experimental period. Blood collections were performed at the end of each period to evaluate the metabolic condition of the cows. The data were analyzed using variance analysis and polynomial regression. The replacement of corn by SRECS did not affect the intake of dry matter (DM or total carbohydrates (TC. There was a linear decrease in the intake of ether extract (EE, and a linear increase in the intake of neutral (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, indicating a quadratic regression with the intake of crude protein (CP. The use SRECS presented growing effect digestibility of the ADF, showing a positive linear effect. The total digestible nutrients (TDN did not differ between the diets and had an average of 66.03%. There was a trend of reduction (10% in the production, with consequent increase in delight in the concentration of its components. There was no change in the measured metabolites. The use of silage of the residue from the extraction of cassava starch to replace the ground corn on feed, negatively affects the nutrient intake without changing the efficiency of milk production, milk composition, in the same way as blood parameters of lactating cows.

  5. Responses of late-lactation cows to forage substitutes in low-forage diets supplemented with by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B; Chase, L E

    2014-05-01

    In response to drought-induced forage shortages along with increased corn and soy prices, this study was conducted to evaluate lactation responses of dairy cows to lower-forage diets supplemented with forage substitutes. By-product feeds were used to completely replace corn grain and soybean feeds. Forty-eight late-lactation cows were assigned to 1 of 4 diets using a randomized complete block design with a 2-wk covariate period followed by a 4-wk experimental period. The covariate diet contained corn grain, soybean meal, and 61% forage. Experimental diets contained chopped wheat straw (WS)/sugar beet pulp at 0/12, 3/9, 6/6, or 9/3 percentages of diet dry matter (DM). Corn silage (20%), alfalfa silage (20%), pelleted corn gluten feed (25.5%), distillers grains (8%), whole cottonseed (5%), cane molasses/whey blend (7%), and vitamin and mineral mix with monensin (2.5%) comprised the rest of diet DM. The WS/sugar beet pulp diets averaged 16.5% crude protein, 35% neutral detergent fiber, and 11% starch (DM basis). Cows consuming the experimental diets maintained a 3.5% fat- and protein-corrected milk production (35.2 kg; standard deviation=5.6 kg) that was numerically similar to that measured in the covariate period (35.3 kg; standard deviation=5.0 kg). Intakes of DM and crude protein declined linearly as WS increased, whereas neutral detergent fiber intake increased linearly. Linear increases in time spent ruminating (from 409 to 502 min/d) and eating (from 156 to 223 min/d) were noted as WS inclusion increased. Yields of milk fat and 3.5% fat-and protein-corrected milk did not change as WS increased, but those of protein and lactose declined linearly. Phosphorous intakes were in excess of recommended levels and decreased linearly with increasing WS inclusion. Nutritional model predictions for multiparous cows were closest to actual performance for the National Research Council 2001 model when a metabolizable protein basis was used; primiparous cow performance was

  6. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

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    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  7. Effects of oilseed supplements on milk production and quality in dairy cows fed a hay-based diet

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    Andreas Kasal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of rapeseed (Brassica napus L. and linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. on feed consumption, milk yield, composition and fatty acid (FA profile was investigated in lactating dairy cows. According to a Latin square design, twelve cows were assigned to three experimental settings which received a haybased diet supplemented with one of the following mixtures: cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Control diet (C-diet; full fat ground rapeseed (1.0 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Rapeseed diet (R-diet and extruded linseed (1.2 kg, cracked barley (1.0 kg and cracked maize (0.5 kg as Linseed diet (L-diet. Diet supplemented with rape- and linseed did not affect dry matter intake. As result of the high amount of dietary ether extract R- and L-diet showed higher crude fat intake as compared to the control. Despite the higher intake of crude fat and, in particular, of the polyunsaturated fraction, milk yield and composition resulted similar among treatments. Compared to C-diet, R-diet resulted in milk containing significantly lower amounts of saturated fatty acids (SFA (60.9 vs 66.9% of total detected SFA as well as higher amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (30.6 vs 24.2%. However, R-diet had no effect on polyunsaturated fatty acid content (PUFA. With respect to C-diet, L-diet also significantly reduced the content of SFA (59.8 vs 66.9% and increased both MUFA (29.1 vs 24.2% and PUFA (4.7 vs 4.1% contents. Feeding about 1 kg of whole oilseeds per head per day had no clear effects on milk vaccenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid contents. The inclusion of rapeseed in the diet significantly reduced the content of n-6 FA in the milk, whereas the linseed-supplemented diet significantly increased the content of n-3 FA. In comparison to C-diet, n-6/n-3 ratio was lower in L-diet milk and intermediate in R-diet milk. Feeding lactating dairy cows with oilseeds rich in unsaturated fatty acids (UFA did not

  8. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  9. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

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    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  10. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel I. Massé; Guillaume Jarret; Chaouki Benchaar; Fadi Hassanat

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding corn DDGS to the dairy cow diet as well as the bedding types (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) on manure fugitive CH4 emissions. The incorporation of DDGS in the diet has increased manure methane emission by 15% and the use of peat moss as bedding has increased manure methane emission by 27%. Abstract The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn ...

  11. Influence of excessive dietary protein intake during late gestation on drylot beef cow performance and progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T B; Long, N M; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2016-05-01

    Spring-calving cows ( = 49) were used to investigate the effects of excessive prepartum dietary protein intake on late gestation cow performance as well as subsequent progeny growth, carcass characteristics, and plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. Treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and provide 100% (REQ) or 129% (HP) of CP requirement. Treatments were limit-fed 78 ± 12 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at initiation of treatments and within 48 h post-calving. Milk production was estimated via the weigh-suckle-weigh technique 69 ± 11 d postpartum. Calf BW was measured at birth and at weaning (121 ± 11 d of age). Progeny ( = 42) were weaned as a group and placed into a feedlot and fed a common finishing diet. Glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed on a subset of progeny (12 per treatment) 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min post-feeding, 2 d before slaughter (342 ± 11 d of age). Treatment had no effect ( ≥ 0.22) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, and subsequent reproduction or progeny preweaning growth. Progeny finishing growth and marbling scores were not affected ( ≥ 0.24) by treatment, yet 12th rib fat thickness ( < 0.01), KPH ( = 0.04), and YG ( = 0.01) were greater for progeny born to HP dams. Progeny born to HP dams had decreased ( ≤ 0.01) glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin to glucose ratios, indicating greater insulin sensitivity. Although feeding cows 129% of CP requirement during late gestation did not affect cow performance or progeny preweaning or finishing period growth; carcass adiposity was increased by maternal treatment. PMID:27285701

  12. Effects of monensin and starch level in early lactation diets on indices of immune function in dairy cows.

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    Yasui, T; McCarthy, M M; Ryan, C M; Gilbert, R O; Felippe, M J B; Mechor, G D; Overton, T R

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary starch level and monensin on immune function. Prior to parturition, primiparous (n=21) and multiparous (n=49) Holstein cows were fed a common controlled energy close-up diet with a daily topdress of either 0 or 400 mg/d monensin. From 1 to 21 d in milk (DIM), cows were fed a high-starch (HS; 26.2% starch) or low-starch (LS; 21.5% starch) total mixed ration with a daily topdress of either 0 or 450 mg of monensin/d continuing with prepartum topdress assignment. From 22 through 63 DIM, all cows were fed HS and continued with assigned topdress treatment until 63 DIM. Endometrial cytology and whole-blood immune function were assessed at 8 DIM and on 1 d between 40 and 60 DIM. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS had an increased percentage (%) of phagocytic monocytes and tended to have a greater phagocytosis index (% of positive cells × mean fluorescence intensity) in monocytes compared with cows fed LS. At 8 DIM, cows fed HS also tended to have a higher percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst and a higher monocyte oxidative burst index compared with LS cows. At 8 DIM, blood polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) isolated from cows fed monensin during the periparturient period tended to have higher PMN glycogen content compared with control cows. At 40 to 60 DIM, the incidence of cytological endometritis as diagnosed by uterine cytology was not affected by dietary treatment. However, at 40 to 60 DIM, cows fed monensin had an increased percentage of Escherichia coli-stimulated PMN, tended to have a greater percentage of monocytes involved in oxidative burst, and tended to have an increased E. coli-stimulated monocyte oxidative burst index. At 40 to 60 DIM, blood PMN isolated from cows fed HS during early lactation had higher PMN glycogen content compared with cows fed LS during early lactation. Overall, results suggest that feeding higher starch diets postpartum and peripartal supplementation with monensin may

  13. Effect of maize starch concentration in the diet on starch and cell wall digestion in the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Hindle, V.A.; Klop, A.; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An in vivo experiment was performed to determine the effect of level of maize starch in the diet on digestion and site of digestion of organic matter, starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In a repeated change-over design experiment, three cows fitted with a rumen cannula and T-piece cannulae in

  14. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  15. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the NM stover-based diet was higher (P silage and QPM silage-based diets. However, the daily intake of DOM (9.3 kg) and ME (140.8 MJ) for cows on QPM silage-based diet was higher (P silage-based diet (7.9 kg and 119.1 MJ). Body weight of cows was affected (P  0.05) on body condition score, milk yield and milk composition. The digestible organic matter in the NM stover-based diet (724 g/kg DM) was lower (P silage-based diet (762 g/kg DM). It was concluded that the performances of the cows on the NM silage and QPM silage diets were similar and were not superior to that of the NM stover-based diet. PMID:20577806

  16. Effects of anion supplementation to low-potassium prepartum diets on macromineral status and performance of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Nieves, J M; Thering, B J; Waldron, M R; Jardon, P W; Overton, T R

    2009-11-01

    Data from multiparous Holstein cows (n = 43) were used to determine whether supplementation of anions to low-potassium (K) prepartum diets would improve periparturient energy and macromineral status and affect performance during the postpartum period. Beginning 21 d before expected parturition, cows were fed a control diet (1.29% K; +10 mEq/100 g; n = 21) or a low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) diet (1.29% K; -15 mEq/100 g; n = 22) with anions provided through a combination of sulfate from calcium sulfate dihydrate (0.40% S total ration) and chloride (1.17% Cl total ration) from SoyChlor 16-7 (West Central, Ralston, IA). All cows were fed the same postpartum diet from parturition through 63 d postpartum. Feeding anions decreased overall urine pH (8.17 vs. 6.70) during the prepartum period. Overall, peripartum concentrations of plasma Ca, P, and Mg were similar between treatments; however, concentrations of plasma Ca tended to be increased during the first 24 h postcalving in cows fed the low DCAD diet. Overall, concentrations of plasma P tended to be increased by feeding the anionic diet prepartum; this effect was more pronounced during the immediate peripartal period. Anionic supplementation did not affect incidence of clinical (hypocalcemia, clinical hypophosphatemia (cows fed the anionic diet prepartum. Anion supplementation decreased prepartum dry matter intake (15.6 vs. 14.4 kg/d), but did not affect postpartum dry matter intake (22.4 vs. 23.0 kg/d), milk yield (46.5 vs. 46.1 kg/d), or content and yield of milk fat and true protein. Plasma concentrations of energy-related metabolites (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate) were similar for both groups during the prepartum and postpartum periods. Glucose rate of appearance was determined by continuous infusion of 6,6-dideuterated glucose in a subset of cows between 6 and 10 d prepartum (control, n = 12; low DCAD, n = 9) and 7 and 10 d postpartum (control, n = 9; low DCAD, n = 8

  17. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  18. Immune and oxidative response to linseed in the diet of periparturient Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đidara, M; Poljičak-Milas, N; Milinković-Tur, S; Mašek, T; Šuran, J; Pavić, M; Kardum, M; Šperanda, M

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the influence of dietary replacement of n-6 with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cellular immunity and oxidative stress in the transition period dairy cows. The experiment was conducted on 20 dairy Holstein cows from 3 ± 1 weeks before parturition until the 6th week of lactation. Both groups were fed an iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diet. Soybean meal from control (C) group was replaced with linseed in the experimental (LS) group. Cellular immunity and oxidative stress were measured on days -10, 1, 21 and 42 relative to parturition. During the entire experimental period, the proportion of CD45+ cells was lower (Pcows fed with n-3 fatty acids were significantly reduced (Pcows fed with n-6 fatty acids. The most severe decrease in phagocytosis ability was on day -10 and 1 relative to parturition. The activity of superoxide dismutase (Pperiod. In that matter we can conclude that not only dietary n-3 fatty acids but also oxidative stress, which reached peak at time of parturition, contributed to the reduced cellular immunity during the periparturient period. PMID:25786897

  19. Cow-specific diet digestibility predictions based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy scans of faecal samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtiö, T; Rinne, M; Nyholm, L; Mäntysaari, P; Sairanen, A; Mäntysaari, E A; Pitkänen, T; Lidauer, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed to obtain information on prediction of diet digestibility from near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) scans of faecal spot samples from dairy cows at different stages of lactation and to develop a faecal sampling protocol. NIRS was used to predict diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) and indigestible neutral detergent fibre content (iNDF) from faecal samples, and dry matter digestibility (DMD) using iNDF in feed and faecal samples as an internal marker. Acid-insoluble ash (AIA) as an internal digestibility marker was used as a reference method to evaluate the reliability of NIRS predictions. Feed and composite faecal samples were collected from 44 cows at approximately 50, 150 and 250 days in milk (DIM). The estimated standard deviation for cow-specific organic matter digestibility analysed by AIA was 12.3 g/kg, which is small considering that the average was 724 g/kg. The phenotypic correlation between direct faecal OMD prediction by NIRS and OMD by AIA over the lactation was 0.51. The low repeatability and small variability estimates for direct OMD predictions by NIRS were not accurate enough to quantify small differences in OMD between cows. In contrast to OMD, the repeatability estimates for DMD by iNDF and especially for direct faecal iNDF predictions were 0.32 and 0.46, respectively, indicating that developing of NIRS predictions for cow-specific digestibility is possible. A data subset of 20 cows with daily individual faecal samples was used to develop an on-farm sampling protocol. Based on the assessment of correlations between individual sample combinations and composite samples as well as repeatability estimates for individual sample combinations, we found that collecting up to three individual samples yields a representative composite sample. Collection of samples from all the cows of a herd every third month might be a good choice, because it would yield a better accuracy. PMID:26412206

  20. Behavior patterns of cows with Charolais or Nellore breed predominance fed diets with plant extract or monensin sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Rumpel Segabinazzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the ingestive behavior of feedlot cows fed additives based on plant extracts or monensin sodium. Twenty-four Charolais and Nellore crossbred cows with age and average initial weight of 7 years and 423 kg, respectively, were used. The experimental diets were plant extracts: basal diet + 5 g/animal/day of a natural additive composed of 750 mg of essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris, 150 mg of garlic (Allium sativum, 250 mg of rosemary extract (Rosmarimus officinalis, 250 mg of canola oil (Brassica napus, 250 mg extract of quillaja (Quillaja saponaria, and 3350 mg of corn starch; sodium monensin: basal diet + 300 mg/monensin/animal/day; and control: basal diet without additive. The basal diet contained sorghum silage and concentrate in a 62:38 ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 3 × 2 (3 diets and 2 breed predominances factorial arrangement, and means were compared using DMS test at 5% of significance. The type of additive consumed did not alter animal feeding behavior. Cows with Charolais predominance consumed more dry matter (13.78 vs. 12.38 kg/day and neutral detergent fiber (7.81 vs. 6.89 kg/day, ruminated for longer (8.47 vs. 7.82 h, spent more time chewing (13.05 vs 12.01 h, had a greater number of chews per minute (58.88 vs 53.21 and a greater number of ruminal bolus (541.43 vs. 464.09 boluses/day; however, cows with Nellore predominance had greater idling time (11.82 vs. 10.74 h.

  1. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  2. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi; André Soares de Oliveira; José Maurício de Souza Campos; Amanda Vasconcelos Guimarães; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Flávio Pereira Cobianchi; Thalita Evani Silva de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg) of soybean meal (SBM) by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg) was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM)...

  3. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  4. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  5. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  6. Diet supplementation with cinnamon oil, cinnamaldehyde, or monensin does not reduce enteric methane production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary addition of cinnamon oil (CIN), cinnamaldehyde (CDH), or monensin (MON) on enteric methane (CH4) emission in dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (28-day periods). Cows were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration ((TMR); 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio, on a dry matter (DM) basis) not supplemented (CTL), or supplemented with CIN (50 mg/kg DM intake), CDH (50 mg/kg DM intake), or monensin (24 mg/kg of DM intake). Dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility, N retention, and milk performance were measured over 6 consecutive days. Ruminal degradability of the basal diet (with no additive) was assessed using in sacco incubations (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h). Ruminal fermentation characteristics (pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and ammonia (NH3)) and protozoa were determined over 2 days. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured over 6 consecutive days using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer gas technique. Adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet had no effects on DMI, N retention, in sacco ruminal degradation and nutrient digestibility of the diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics and protozoa numbers were not modified by including the feed additives in the diet. Enteric CH4 emission and CH4 energy losses averaged 491 g/day and 6.59% of gross energy intake, respectively, and were not affected by adding CIN, CDH or MON to the diet. Results of this study indicate that CIN, CDH and MON are not viable CH4 mitigation strategies in dairy cows. PMID:26888487

  7. Hydrogen and methane emissions from beef cattle and their rumen microbial community vary with diet, time after feeding and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, John A; Wallace, R John; Duthie, Carol-Anne; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Ross, David W; Waterhouse, Tony; Roehe, Rainer

    2014-08-14

    The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (Pbeef cattle. PMID:24780126

  8. Effects of herbage allowance of native grasslands in purebred and crossbred beef cows: metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, J; Astessiano, A L; López-Mazz, C; Soca, P; Espasandin, A C; Carriquiry, M

    2014-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the metabolic, endocrine and hepatic mRNA profiles through the gestation-lactation cycle in purebred (PU: Angus and Hereford) and crossbred (CR: reciprocal F1 crosses) mutliparous beef cows (n=32), grazing on two herbage allowances of native pastures (2.5 v. 4 kg dry matter/kg BW; LO v. HI) and their associations with cow's productive performance (calf birth weight, milk production and commencement of luteal activity). Cow BW, body condition score (BCS) and blood samples were collected monthly, starting at -165 days relative to calving (days), and every 2 weeks after calving until +60 days of lactation. Liver biopsies were collected at -165, -75, -45, -15±10, and +15 and +60±3 days. Metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression profiles, and calf birth weight, milk yield and postpartum commencement of luteal activity were evaluated. Overall, the most pronounced changes in metabolic, endocrine and hepatic gene expression occurred during winter gestation (-165 to -45 days), when all cows experienced the onset of a negative energy balance (decreased BCS, glucose and insulin, and increased non-esterified fatty acid concentrations, Pcows. However, serum IGF-I concentrations and hepatic growth hormone receptor (GHR) and IGF1 mRNA decreased (Pcows. Although IGF-I concentrations decreased (Pcows, the typical molecular mechanism that control the uncoupling of the growth hormone-IGF1 axis during the transition period of the dairy cattle (reduced hepatic GHR1A and IGF-I mRNA) was not observed in this study. The hepatic mRNA expression of key transcripts involved in gluconeogenesis and fatty-acid oxidation were upregulated (Pcow groups). Particularly, acyl-CoA oxidase-1 mRNA was greater for CR than for PU cows during winter gestation (-75 and -45 days), and fibroblast growth factor-21 mRNA was downregulated (Pcows during the transition (-15 v. 15 days) and lactation period (+15 to +60 days, Pmilk yield and shorter commencement of luteal

  9. Beef cow prepartum supplement level and age at weaning: II. Effects of developmental programming on performance and carcass composition of steer progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoup, L M; Wilson, T B; González-Peña, D; Ireland, F A; Rodriguez-Zas, S; Felix, T L; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Objectives were to determine the interaction of prepartum dam supplement level and age at weaning on growth performance, glucose and insulin concentrations, and carcass characteristics of steers (134 steers in yr 1; 147 steers in yr 2). Mature, multiparous Angus × Simmental cows were used in a split-plot design that included 3 supplement levels (no supplement [NS], 2.16 kg·cow·d [LS], and 8.61 kg·cow·d [HS]) and 2 ages at weaning (78 ± 11 d of age [early weaned; EW] or 186 ± 11 d of age [normal weaned; NW]). Cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue/red clover pastures and were bunk fed supplement (70% dried distiller's grains plus solubles and 30% soybean hulls) 103 ± 11 d prepartum to 2 ± 11 d postpartum. Dam prepartum supplement level did not affect ( ≥ 0.29) finishing phase growth performance or morbidity. The percentage of steers grading Average Choice or greater was increased ( = 0.04) for steers from cows fed HS compared to the percentage of steers from cows fed NS. Early weaning increased ( carcasses that graded Low Choice or greater and Average Choice or greater than carcasses from NW steers. The EW steers had greater ( ≤ 0.05) occurrence of single antibiotic treatments in yr 2 and mortality due to respiratory disease than NW steers. A trend for a year × wean interaction ( ≤ 0.07) occurred for plasma insulin concentration and insulin:glucose; EW steers had numerically greater plasma insulin concentrations and insulin:glucose than NW steers in yr 1. In conclusion, these data suggest that there is no interaction between maternal level of supplement during late gestation and age at weaning on steer finishing phase performance, glucose and insulin concentrations, and carcass yield and quality characteristics. Overfeeding supplement to the dam did not affect finishing phase growth performance but did improve quality grades of steers. Early weaning increased HCW and improved carcass quality. Both dam supplement level and age at weaning are

  10. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13...

  11. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  12. Desempenho reprodutivo pós-parto de vacas de corte submetidas a indução/sincronização de cio Postpartum reproductive performance of beef cows in moderate body condition submitted to estrus induction/synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio Cassal Brauner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte submetidas à indução/sincronização de cio, foram utilizadas 42 vacas da raça Aberdeen Angus com condição corporal 3 (escala de 1-5 sob manejo extensivo. A produção de leite foi estimada pelo método pesagem-mamada-pesagem. Nos exames ginecológicos, utilizou-se aparelho de ultra-sonografia e palpação trans-retal. Foram considerados fatores fixos nível de produção de leite (acima e abaixo da média de produção das vacas, gestação, condição reprodutiva pré-acasalamento (CRPA, anestro superficial (tônus uterino, folículos > 10 mm e ausência de CL e anestro profundo (ausência de tônus uterino, folículos To assess the reproductive performance of beef cows submitted to estrus induction/synchronization, 42 Aberdeen Angus cows with body condition 3 (1-5 scale under extensive management were used. The milk production was estimated through the weight-suckling-weight method. For gynecological examinations, ultrasound equipment and trans-rectal palpation were used. The milk production level (above and below the average production of cows, pregnancy, prebreeding reproductive condition (CRPA, surface anoestrus (uterine tone, follicles > 10 mm and absence of CL and deep anoestrus (no uterine tone, follicles <10 mm and absence of CL and the estrus induction/synchronization response (RISC were considered as constant factors. The variables analyzed were the pre-delivery, delivery weight, mating and conception weights, weaning weight, the average daily weight gain from birth to weaning and total milk production. The prebreeding reproductive condition influenced the pre-birth and birth weights, showing that the better pre-birth and birth performance favors the restoration of reproductive activity in cows with moderate body condition (CC in the post-partum period. The classification of the pre-breeding reproductive condition in beef cows can be a resource to determine the

  13. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of NaHCO3 and trona in beef cattle diets. Trace element (n = 28) analysis revealed no toxicological or safety concerns with the use of trona. Trona was more (P less than .05) soluble in ruminal fluid than Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 and had greater (P less than .05) buffering capacity (9.6 meq/g) than NaHCO3 (6.1 meq/g) but less (P less than .05) than Na2CO3 (11.1 meq/g). Calcium carbonate was insoluble and did not buffer ruminal fluid. Six yearling (avg 272 kg) Hereford X Angus steers, each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas, were fed 50:50 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) or 90:10 concentrate diets with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3 or with 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Propionate (mmol/liter) increased (17.6 vs 13.5; P less than .05) and butyrate decreased (3.5 vs 5.2; P less than .05) with trona in the 90:10 diet as compared with no buffer. Propionate (16.8) increased (P less than .05) with NaHCO3 in the 90:10 diet. Average ruminal pH was greater (P less than .05) in 90:10 diets with trona or NaHCO3 than with no buffer (5.61, 5.61 vs 5.55); duodenal pH was greater (P less than .01) with trona than with no buffer (2.66 vs 2.55). Trona reduced ruminal pH-hours (P less than .05) and pH-area (P less than .12; time and area below mean pH of control) below control for both concentrate levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3038823

  14. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh;

    2014-01-01

    (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...... were measured in Swedish Holstein cows (n = 28) during 2 complete lactations. All cows were fed a 100% organic diet containing grass-legume silage, cold-pressed rapeseed cake, peas, cereal grains, and minerals. Blood samples were collected from each cow 3 wk before expected calving, at calving, and 3...... wk, 3 to 5 mo, and 7 to 9 mo after calving. Samples of colostrum were taken and milk samples were collected 4 d after calving and at the same time as the 3 blood samplings after calving. The only difference in vitamin status between groups was found in colostrum in yr 1, when CON cows tended to have...

  15. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P change the intake of digestible dry matter, average daily gain, final body weight, carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  16. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Eckard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq. intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively, whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively. Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  17. Nutritional value of high moisture corn silage in the diet of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Persichetti Júnior

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Five Holstein cows were distributed in a 5x5 latin square design to assess the effect of replacement levels of dry ground corn grain (DGCG by high moisture corn silage (HMCS on intake, total nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, according to the following treatments: 1 100% DGCG; 2 75% DGCG and 25% HMCS; 3 50% DGCG and 50% HMCS; 4 25% DGCG and 75% HMCS; 5 100% HMCS. The experiment lasted 70 days, divided into five phases of 14 days each. The digestibility was obtained using chromic oxide (Cr2O3 as the indicator. Fecal samples were collected twice daily and blood samples were collected on the last day of each period before the first meal (0h and 2h, 4h, 6h and 12h after the meal. There was no effect (P>0.05 on the intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and starch. The total apparent digestibility of DM, crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF were not affected (P>0.05 by the treatments, as well as the plasma glucose concentration. However, there was a decreased linear effect (P<0.05 for the protein intake and increased linear effect (P<0.05 for starch digestibility, as the level of HMCS was increased in the diets.

  18. Nutritional adequacy of diets containing growing up milks or unfortified cow's milk in Irish children (aged 12–24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janette Walton

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Growing up milks (GUM are milk-based drinks with added vitamins and minerals intended for children aged 12–36 months. Few data are available on the consumption of GUM and their role in the diets of young children. Objective : To determine the nutritional adequacy of two groups of 12–24-month-old Irish children by type of milk consumption (consumers or non-consumers of GUM. Design : Using data from a cross-sectional study of Irish children, the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey (2010–2011, two groups of children were defined. The groups included children aged 12–24 months with an average daily total milk intake of at least 300 g and consuming GUM (≥100 g/day together with cow's milk (n=29 or cow's milk only (n=56. Results : While average total daily energy intakes were similar in both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of protein, saturated fat, and vitamin B12 were lower and intakes of carbohydrate, dietary fibre, iron, zinc, vitamins C and D were higher in consumers of GUM. These differences in nutrient intakes are largely attributable to the differences in composition between GUM and cow's milk. For both consumers and non-consumers of GUM, intakes of carbohydrate and fat were generally in line with recommendations while intakes of protein, dietary fibre and most micronutrients were adequate. For children consuming cow's milk only, high proportions had inadequate intakes of iron and vitamin D; however, these proportions were much lower in consumers of GUM. Conclusions : Consumption of GUM reduced the risk of inadequacies of iron and vitamin D, two nutrients frequently lacking in the diets of young children consuming unfortified cow's milk only.

  19. Effect of whole linseed and protected CLA enriqued diet on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Barahona, M.; Campo, M. M.; Olleta Castañer, José Luis; Sañudo Astiz, Carlos; Albertí Lasalle, Pere; Ripoll García, Guillermo; Realini, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    48 Friesian calves were randomly allocated to four feeding batches: control, whole linseed (10% linseed), CLA (2% protected CLA), and whole linseed + CLA (10% linseed and 2% protected CLA). Animals were slaughtered at approximately 450 kg live weight. The inclusion of linseed, protected CLA and both showed lower pH values than the control at 48 h post mortem. Meat from CLA fed animals showed higher cooking losses than the other treatments except for linseed. Beef from linseed f...

  20. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  1. Pea (Pisum sativum and faba beans (Vicia faba in dairy cow diet: effect on milk production and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Moschini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of alternative plant proteins in place of the soybean meal protein in diets for producing animals aims to reduce the extra-EU soybean import and partially substitute the GMO in the food chain. Among possible alternatives, the heat-processed legume grains seem interesting for dairy cow diets. Two consecutive experiments were carried out to evaluate flaked pea and faba beans as substitute for soybean meal in diets for Reggiana breed dairy cows producing milk for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese-making. In both experiments a C concentrate (110 g/kg soybean meal, no pea and faba beans was compared to a PF concentrate (150 g/kg flaked pea, 100 g/kg flaked faba beans, no soybean meal. Forages fed to animals were hay (mixed grass and alfalfa in experiment 1 and hay plus mixed grass in experiment 2. Concentrate intake, milk yield and milk quality (rennet coagulation traits included were similar between feeding groups. Parameters on the grab faecal samples, as empirical indicators of digestibility, had a smaller (Pvs 3.1 and 2.3 vs 2.8%, respectively for PF and C in experiment 1 and 2. Some blood indicators of nitrogen metabolism (protein, albumin, urea were similar between the feeding groups. The inclusion of pea and faba beans, within the allowed limit of the Parmigiano-Reggiano Consortium for diet formulation, could represent a feasible opportunity for a total substitution of soybean meal.

  2. Diet-induced bacterial immunogens in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows: Impacts on immunity and metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Jun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dairy cows are often fed high grain diets to meet the energy demand for high milk production or simply due to a lack of forages at times. As a result, ruminal acidosis, especially subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA, occurs frequently in practical dairy production. When SARA occurs, bacterial endotoxin (or lipopolysaccharide, LPS is released in the rumen and the large intestine in a large amount. Many other bacterial immunogens may also be released in the digestive tract following feeding dairy cows diets containing high proportions of grain. LPS can be translocated into the bloodstream across the epithelium of the digestive tract, especially the lower tract, due to possible alterations of permeability and injuries of the epithelial tissue. As a result, the concentration of blood LPS increases. Immune responses are subsequently caused by circulating LPS, and the systemic effects include increases in concentrations of neutrophils and the acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid-A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, LPS binding protein (LBP, and C-reactive protein (CRP in blood. Entry of LPS into blood can also result in metabolic alterations. Blood glucose and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations are enhanced accompanying an increase of blood LPS after increasing the amount of grain in the diet, which adversely affects feed intake of dairy cows. As the proportions of grain in the diet increase, patterns of plasma β-hydoxybutyric acid, cholesterol, and minerals (Ca, Fe, and Zn are also perturbed. The bacterial immunogens can also lead to reduced supply of nutrients for synthesis of milk components and depressed functions of the epithelial cells in the mammary gland. The immune responses and metabolic alterations caused by circulating bacterial immunogens will exert an effect on milk production. It has been demonstrated that increases in concentrations of ruminal LPS and plasma acute phase proteins (CRP, SAA, and LBP are associated with declines in

  3. Influence of feed efficiency classification on diet digestibility and growth performance of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Minton, N O; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S; Hansen, S L

    2016-04-01

    The diet digestibility and feed efficiency (FE) relationship is not well characterized in cattle. The study objective was to determine effects of growing phase FE and diet as well as finishing phase diet on diet digestibility and finishing phase FE. Two groups, totaling 373 crossbred steers, were fed for 70 d at the University of Missouri for the growing phase and then shipped to Iowa State University (ISU) for finishing. GrowSafe feed bunks were used during both the growing and the finishing phases. Steers were fed either growing phase whole shell corn (G-Corn) or growing phase roughage-based (G-Rough) diets. Within each group, the 12 greatest and 12 least feed efficient steers from each growing diet ( = 96 total; 48 steers/group; 488 ± 5 kg) were selected for further evaluation. At ISU, steers were fed an average of 10 g TiO/steer daily in receiving phase diets similar to growing diets for 15 d, with fecal grab samples collected on d 14 and 15 to determine diet DM digestibility during receiving (GDMdig). For finishing, steers were transitioned to byproduct-based diets (F-Byp) or corn-based diets (F-Corn) with 12 steers per growing-finishing diet combination per group. Optaflexx (200 mg/d) was fed for 28 d before harvest, and the TiO protocol was repeated immediately before introducing Optaflexx to determine diet DM digestibility during finishing (FDMdig). Data from the 2 groups (96 steers) were pooled, and steers were ranked by growing phase G:F and then classified as the 24 greatest feed efficient (HFE) or 24 least feed efficient (LFE) steers from each growing diet. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS with group applied as a fixed effect. There was a positive correlation between GDMdig and FDMdig for steers fed nutritionally similar diets during both feeding phases, G-Rough/F-Byp steers ( = 0.68, Corn/F-Corn steers ( = 0.49, = 0.02), but a negative correlation for G:F between phases in G-Rough/F-Corn steers ( = -0.57, corn finished, reinforcing the idea

  4. Effects of different levels of physically effective fibers in diets for cows in early lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanovic, B.; Grubic, G.; Djordjevic, N.; Glamocie, D.; Bozieckovic, A.; Ivetic, A.

    2012-11-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of a total mixed ration (TMR) particle size on digestibility and production performances of the high-yielding cows in early lactation. The treatments were TMRs with forage-toconcentrate ratio 43:57 in diet dry matter, with four different mean particle lengths and physically effective fiber (PENDF) content based on different cut length of corn silage and alfalfa haylage. Determined values of PEF (physical effectiveness factor) and PENDF (through original and modified Penn State Particle Separator, PSPS) were considerably higher for forages and TMRs using the modified PSPS. The cut length of forage and particle size of TMRs did not affect dry matter intake. However reduced forage cut length significantly increased the apparent total tract digestibility of NDF (from 53.9 to 58.66%), and crude protein (from 71.56 to 77.90%), with the decrease in the non-fiber carbohydrate digestibility (from 91.99 to 86.80%). The increase in the milk yield (35.62 vs. 38.36 kg), and decrease in the milk fat (3.50 vs. 3.10%) and protein content (3.11 vs. 2.99%) were observed with the reduction of particle size in forages. There was no effect on milk fat daily yield, but the increase of the milk protein yield (1.08 vs. 1.15 kg) was determined with the reduced forage cut lengths. The milk fat to protein ratio had tendency to decrease with the reduced forage cut length. Decrease in forage particle size improved feed conversion ratio for milk production, improved digestibility and the milk yield, whereas milk protein content was reduced. (Author) 25 refs.

  5. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  6. Evaluation of palm kernel meal and corn distillers grains in corn silage-based diets for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, L P F; Cabrita, A R J; Dewhurst, R J; Vicente, T E J; Lopes, Z M C; Fonseca, A J M

    2006-07-01

    The effects of increasing levels of solvent-extracted palm kernel meal (SPKM) and corn distillers dried grains (CDG) in corn silage-based diets on feed intake and milk production were examined in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, 20 Holstein cows averaging 100 d in milk (DIM) (SD = 61.5) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 4 treatments in 5 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of SPKM in the diet. During a 3-wk preliminary period, cows were fed a standard diet. At the end of the preliminary period, cows were blocked by 4% fat-corrected milk yield, parity number (primiparous and multiparous), and DIM, and were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 experimental diets. The total mixed ration (TMR) consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of SPKM were achieved by replacing protein sources and citrus pulp with SPKM and urea (0, 5, 10, and 15% SPKM and 0.06, 0.22, 0.38, and 0.55% urea for SPKM0, SPKM5, SPKM10, and SPKM15, respectively). In Experiment 2, 18 Holstein cows averaging 93 DIM (SD = 49.1) at the start of the experiment were utilized in an 11-wk randomized complete block design with 3 treatments in 6 blocks to study effects of increasing levels of CDG in the diet. The preliminary period lasted for 2 wk. Assignment of cows to treatments was the same as in Experiment 1. The TMR consisted of (dry matter basis) 40% corn silage, 5% coarsely chopped wheat straw, and 55% concentrate. The increasing dietary levels of CDG were achieved by replacing soybean meal and citrus pulp with CDG and urea (0, 7, and 14% CDG and 0, 0.22, and 0.49% urea for CDG0, CDG7, and CDG14, respectively). There were no significant treatment effects on dry matter intake, milk yield, or milk composition in Experiment 1. Inclusion of SPKM tended to increase protein and lactose contents of milk. The SPKM0 diet promoted body weight loss. There were no

  7. Social and breed effects on the expression of a PGF2alpha induced oestrus in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaeta-Hernández, A J; Palomares-Naveda, R; Soto-Castillo, G; Atencio, A; Chase, C C; Chenoweth, P J

    2004-10-01

    Social organization and breed effects following PGF2alpha were studied in mature Angus, Brahman and Senepol cows allocated into two groups (each A = 5, B = 5 and S = 5). Variables including interval to oestrus onset (IEO), oestrous duration (DE), total mounts received (TMR), and oestrous intensity (IE) were derived via HeatWatch. Breed-type influenced IEO (B = 42.6 +/- 6.7 h; S = 54.6 +/- 6.0 h; and A = 27.8 +/- 5.8 h; p Angus (21.5 +/- 2.4 h) and B (22.1 +/- 3.0 h) cows had longer (p x social order showed that dominant S had shorter DE than dominant A and B (10.1 +/- 3.3; 34.8 +/- 6.0 h; and 20.0 +/- 6.4 h, respectively; p Angus cows had less TMR than B (p 0.05). Dominant cows tended (p < 0.10) to have less TMR (3.2 +/- 0.7 mounts) than subordinate (4.1 +/- 0.4 mounts) and intermediate (4.7 +/- 0.6 mounts) throughout, especially 3-6 h after oestrus onset (p < 0.07). Breed and social order both influence PGF2alpha-induced oestrus behaviour. PMID:15367263

  8. Trona and sodium bicarbonate in beef cattle diets: effects on site and extent of digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerner, B J; Byers, F M; Schelling, G T; Coppock, C E; Greene, L W

    1987-07-01

    Six yearling Hereford X Angus steers (avg 272 kg), each with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulas were used in a 6 X 6 Latin-square metabolism trial to evaluate the impact of NaHCO3 and trona (a ground, nonrefined ore with chemical composition NaHCO3-Na2CO3-2H2O) on site and extent of digestion of nutrients in the digestive tract. The diets were 50:50 or 90:10 (cracked corn-based concentrate:cottonseed hulls) with no buffer, 1% NaHCO3, or 1% trona. Intake, across all treatments, averaged 2.4% of body weight. Dry matter (DM) and starch digestibility (via indigestible acid detergent fiber) before the duodenum was decreased (P less than .10) with trona in the 50:50 diet. Digestibility of DM, crude protein and starch before the ileum were greater (P less than .05) in the 90:10 diet vs 50:50 diet. Total tract digestibility was similar across buffer treatments in the 90:10 diet. Addition of NaHCO3 increased (P less than .05) digestibility of dry matter and cell solubles in the 50:50 diet. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were also increased (P less than .10) with NaHCO3. Apparent crude protein and cell solubles digestibility were greater (P less than .10) with trona than NaHCO3 in the 50:50 diet. This trial indicates that buffers provide overall enhancement of diet digestibility in mixed grain/roughage diets. PMID:3038822

  9. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; João Teodoro Pádua; Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego; Marcos Antônio Sales Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Elis Aparecido Bento; Leonardo Guimarães Oliveira; Danilo Grandini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM) in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE); 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100) + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV) + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day. The variables analyz...

  10. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle f...

  11. MARKETING COWS FOR INCREASED PROFITABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substantial quantities of quality milk are the primary concern of dairy producers; however, approximately 33% of beef production in the U.S is from market dairy cows. Dairy cows are the class of cattle with the greatest violation of antibiotic residues. Additional feeding of market cows can increa...

  12. Productive performance and efficiency of utilization of the diet components in dairy cows fed castor meal treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Variz Cobianchi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing of 0; 0.33; 0.67 and 1.0 (kg/kg of soybean meal (SBM by undecorticated castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide (CMT - 60 g/kg was evaluated on performance and efficiency of nutrient utilization in dairy cows. Sixteen Holstein and crossbred cows were distributed in four 4 × 4 latin squares. Animals received concentrated feed at a ratio of 1 kg for 3 kg of milk produced, in the natural matter. The diets had the same amount of nitrogen (150.4 g crude protein/kg DM, containing 325.6 g of concentrated feed/kg DM. There was no effect on the serum concentration of transaminase and the animals showed no clinical symptoms of intoxication by ricin. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. The intake of neutral detergent fibers corrected for ash and protein (NDFap increased from 0.33 replacement of SBM with CMT. Although the digestibility of dietary components decreased from 0.33 replacement, the intake of digestible components only reduced from 0.67 replacement. Because of the reduction of digestible energy, the synthesis of microbial CP and the utilization efficiency of rumen-degradable protein for the synthesis of microbial CP reduced with full replacement of SBM by CMT. Milk yield, milk composition, daily variation of body weight and the efficiency of utilization of the nutrients for the synthesis of N in milk reduced from 0.67 replacement of SBM by CMT. Castor seed meal treated with calcium oxide can replace up to 0.33 of SBM (50 g/kg DM diet DM in the diet of dairy cows with an average milk production of 20 kg/day.

  13. Methane output and diet digestibility in response to feeding dairy cows crude linseed, extruded linseed, or linseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Rouel, J; Jouany, J P; Doreau, M; Chilliard, Y

    2008-10-01

    This experiment studied the effect of 3 forms of presentation of linseed fatty acids (FA) on methane output using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, total tract digestibility, and performance of dairy cows. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows (initial milk yield 23.4 +/- 2.2 kg/d) were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design: a control diet (C) consisting of corn silage (59%), grass hay (6%), and concentrate (35%) and the same diet with crude linseed (CLS), extruded linseed (ELS), or linseed oil (LSO) at the same FA level (5.7% of dietary DM). Each experimental period lasted 4 wk. All the forms of linseed FA significantly decreased daily CH(4) emissions (P Methane production per unit of digested NDF was similar for C, CLS, and ELS but was less for LSO (138 vs. 68 g/kg of digested NDF, respectively; P methane emission was similar for C and CLS and was less for ELS and LSO (P 0.05) but was decreased with ELS and LSO (-3.1 and -5.1 kg/d, respectively; P dietary means to depress ruminal methanogenesis. The form of presentation of linseed FA greatly influences methane output from dairy cows. The negative effects of linseed on milk production will need to be overcome if it is to be considered as a methane mitigation agent. Optimal conditions for the utilization of linseed FA in ruminant diets need to be determined before recommending its use for the dairy industry. PMID:18469051

  14. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C.L.; Ribble, C.S.; Janzen, E.D.; Campbell, J.R. [Western College of Veterinary Medicine, AB (Canada). Dept. of Herd Medicine and Theriogenology

    2000-07-01

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H{sub 2}S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality.

  15. A prospective field study examining the association between environmental emissions from the petroleum industry and the productivity of commercial beef cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health and productivity of seven cow-calf herds located near a new sour gas processing plant was measured using newly developed intensive biological accounting methods. Production records from more than 7000 bull contacts were examined from 1991 to 1997. Detailed information was collected on other risk factors which could influence beef herd productivity. Published reports were in good agreement with the collected data on the median risks for non-pregnancy, abortion, late calving, stillbirth, calf mortality, calving date or weaning weight. Herd age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves improved significantly. Exposure assessments made on individual animals indicated that there is no consistent association between the total sulfation and H2S deposition which was used as markers for the compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants and flares. However, five examples of association were found to exist between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Finally, the association between cow-calf productivity and cumulative animal proximity to petroleum field facilities and sour gas flares from battery sites was examined. It was determined that an increased risk of non-pregnancy was sometimes associated with exposure to sour flaring, battery facilities, active gas wells and larger field facilities, but the association was not consistent from from year to year. Flaring was not found to be associated with increased abortion risk, but volume of flared sour gas from battery sites was associated with an increased risk of stillbirth. In the 1992-1993 calf crop, sour flaring was found to be associated with an increased risk in calf mortality

  16. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  17. Grape marc reduces methane emissions when fed to dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moate, P J; Williams, S R O; Torok, V A; Hannah, M C; Ribaux, B E; Tavendale, M H; Eckard, R J; Jacobs, J L; Auldist, M J; Wales, W J

    2014-01-01

    Grape marc (the skins, seeds, stalk, and stems remaining after grapes have been pressed to make wine) is currently a by-product used as a feed supplement by the dairy and beef industries. Grape marc contains condensed tannins and has high concentrations of crude fat; both these substances can reduce enteric methane (CH4) production when fed to ruminants. This experiment examined the effects of dietary supplementation with either dried, pelleted grape marc or ensiled grape marc on yield and composition of milk, enteric CH4 emissions, and ruminal microbiota in dairy cows. Thirty-two Holstein dairy cows in late lactation were offered 1 of 3 diets: a control (CON) diet; a diet containing dried, pelleted grape marc (DGM); and a diet containing ensiled grape marc (EGM). The diet offered to cows in the CON group contained 14.0kg of alfalfa hay dry matter (DM)/d and 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d. Diets offered to cows in the DGM and EGM groups contained 9.0kg of alfalfa hay DM/d, 4.3kg of concentrate mix DM/d, and 5.0kg of dried or ensiled grape marc DM/d, respectively. These diets were offered individually to cows for 18d. Individual cow feed intake and milk yield were measured daily and milk composition measured on 4d/wk. Individual cow CH4 emissions were measured by the SF6 tracer technique on 2d at the end of the experiment. Ruminal bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protozoan communities were quantified on the last day of the experiment. Cows offered the CON, DGM, and EGM diets, ate 95, 98, and 96%, respectively, of the DM offered. The mean milk yield of cows fed the EGM diet was 12.8kg/cow per day and was less than that of cows fed either the CON diet (14.6kg/cow per day) or the DGM diet (15.4kg/cow per day). Feeding DGM and EGM diets was associated with decreased milk fat yields, lower concentrations of saturated fatty acids, and enhanced concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular cis-9,trans-11 linoleic acid. The mean CH4 emissions were

  18. Feed intake and production parameters of lactating crossbred cows fed maize-based diets of stover, silage or quality protein silage

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehawariat, Efrem; Tamir, Berhan; Tegegne, Azage

    2010-01-01

    Thirty-six Boran × Friesian dairy cows (392 ± 12 kg; mean ± SD) in early parity were used in a randomised complete block design. Cows were blocked by parity into three blocks of 12 animals and offered normal maize (NM) stover (T1), NM silage (T2) or quality protein maize (QPM) silage (T3) basal diets supplemented with a similar concentrate mix. Feed intake, body weight and condition changes and milk yield and composition were assessed. The daily intake of DM, OM, NDF and ADF for cows fed the ...

  19. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven

    2015-01-01

    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p period. However, this did not result in any metabolic deviation postpartum as the effects of prepartum concentrate feeding were not carried over into postpartum period. Multiparous cows responded more profoundly to energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of

  20. Effect of changes in diet energy density on feed intake, milk yield and metabolic parameters in dairy cows in early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, N.I.; Friggens, N.C.; Larsen, T.;

    2007-01-01

    groups (HHH and NNN), where H and N refer to a high and normal energy density in the total mixed ration (TMR), respectively. The experimental period covered the first 9 weeks post calving, which was split up in three 3-week periods. Thus, cows assigned to HNH or NHN shifted TMR in weeks 4 and 7 after......The purpose of this experiment was to investigate how early lactating cows adjust their metabolism and production to acute, but moderate changes in the energy density of the diet. Sixty dairy cows were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: two change-over groups (HNH and NHN) and two control...... calving while cows assigned to HHH or NNN were fed the same TMR for all 9 weeks. Results from cows on treatment HNH were compared with group HHH while cows on treatment NHN were compared with group NNN. When the diet changed from N to H and H to N, cows increased and decreased their dry-matter intake (DMI...

  1. Visceral organ weights, digestion and carcass characteristics of beef bulls differing in residual feed intake offered a high concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) with digestion, body composition, carcass traits and visceral organ weights in beef bulls offered a high concentrate diet. Individual dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and growth were measured in a total of 67 Simmental bulls (mean initial BW 431 kg (s.d.=63.7)) over 3 years. Bulls were offered concentrates (860 g/kg rolled barley, 60 g/kg soya bean meal, 60 g/kg molasses and 20 g/kg minerals per vitamins) ad libitum plus 0.8 kg grass silage DM daily for 105 days pre-slaughter. Ultrasonic muscle and fat depth, body condition score (BCS), muscularity score, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility (indigestible marker) were determined. After slaughter, carcasses and perinephric and retroperitoneal fat were weighed, carcasses were graded for conformation and fat score and weight of non-carcass organs, liver, heart, kidneys, lungs, gall bladder, spleen, reticulo-rumen full and empty and intestines full, were determined. The residuals of the regression of DMI on average daily gain (ADG), mid-test metabolic BW (BW0.75) and the fixed effect of year, using all animals, were used to compute individual RFI coefficients. Animals were ranked on RFI and assigned to high (inefficient), medium or low groupings. Overall mean ADG and daily DMI were 1.6 kg (s.d.=0.36) and 9.4 kg (s.d.=1.16), respectively. High RFI bulls consumed 7 and 14% more DM than medium and low RFI bulls, respectively (P0.05) for ADG, BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, muscularity scores, ultrasonic measurements, carcass weight, perinephric and retroperitoneal fat weight, kill-out proportion and carcass conformation and fat score. However, regression analysis indicated that a 1 kg DM/day increase in RFI was associated with a decrease in kill-out proportion of 20 g/kg (Pcarcass conformation of 0.74 units (Pcarcass organs did not differ (P>0.05) between RFI groups except for the empty weight of reticulo

  2. LA CONDICIÓN CORPORAL COMO HERRAMIENTA PARA PRONOSTICAR EL POTENCIAL REPRODUCTIVO EN HEMBRAS BOVINAS DE CARNE BODY CONDITION SCORE AS TOOL TO PREDICT THE REPRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF BEEF COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Correa-Orozco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta revisión es describir el efecto de la condición corporal (CC sobre el desempeño reproductivo y la función endocrina en vacas de carne. Los intervalos parto al primer estro y ovulación, intervalos desde el parto a la actividad luteal normal y a la concepción son más cortos en vacas con CC moderada cuando son comparados con vacas delgadas. El tamaño del folículo dominante al primer estro es más grande y la tasa de preñez es mayor para vacas con condición moderada en comparación con vacas delgadas. Además, han sido estudiados los efectos de la CC sobre la secreción de hormona luteinizante, estradiol, leptina, insulina y factor de crecimiento semejante a la insulina I (IGF-I. El programa para inducción de la ovulación puede aumentar la tasa de preñez en vacas de carne con CC pobre. Sin embargo, la eficacia del protocolo para inducir el estro y la ovulación es dependiente de la CC. En conclusión, la CC es un indicador útil del estado de energía y potencial reproductivo, por sus efectos sobre la dinámica folicular, actividad ovárica, función endocrina y tasa de preñez en vacas de carne.The objective of this review is to describe the effect of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance and endocrine function of beef cows. Interval to first estrus and ovulation, interval from parturition to normal luteal activity and to conception are shorter for moderate body condition cows than thin cows. Size of the dominant follicle at the first estrus is larger and pregnancy rate is greater for moderate condition cows as compared with thin cows. In addition has been studied to effects of BCS on secretion of luteinizing hormone, estradiol, leptin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. The program for induction of ovulation can increase the pregnancy rate in beef cows in poor body condition. However, the effectiveness of the protocol for inducing estrus and ovulation is dependent on body condition

  3. Impact of adding nitrate or increasing the lipid content of two contrasting diets on blood methaemoglobin and performance of two breeds of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, C-A; Rooke, J A; Troy, S; Hyslop, J J; Ross, D W; Waterhouse, A; Roehe, R

    2016-05-01

    Adding nitrate to the diet or increasing the concentration of dietary lipid are effective strategies for reducing enteric methane emissions. This study investigated their effect on health and performance of finishing beef cattle. The experiment was a two×two×three factorial design comprising two breeds (CHX, crossbred Charolais; LU, Luing); two basal diets consisting of (g/kg dry matter (DM), forage to concentrate ratios) 520 : 480 (Mixed) or 84 : 916 (Concentrate); and three treatments: (i) control with rapeseed meal as the main protein source replaced with either (ii) calcium nitrate (18 g nitrate/kg diet DM) or (iii) rapeseed cake (RSC, increasing acid hydrolysed ether extract from 25 to 48 g/kg diet DM). Steers (n=84) were allocated to each of the six basal diet×treatments in equal numbers of each breed with feed offered ad libitum. Blood methaemoglobin (MetHb) concentrations (marker for nitrate poisoning) were monitored throughout the study in steers receiving nitrate. After dietary adaptation over 28 days, individual animal intake, performance and feed efficiency were recorded for a test period of 56 days. Blood MetHb concentrations were low and similar up to 14 g nitrate/kg diet DM but increased when nitrate increased to 18 g nitrate/kg diet DM (P0.05). Neither basal diet nor treatment affected carcass quality (P>0.05), but CHX steers achieved a greater killing out proportion (Pbeef steers when used within the diets studied. PMID:26627142

  4. The true absorption of 131I, and its transfer to milk in cows given different stable iodine diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the stable iodine content in the diet on the absorption of radioiodine and its transfer to cow's milk was investigated for cows at different stages of lactation. Three different rates of stable iodine: a low intake rate of 4 mg d-1, a moderate intake of 35 mg d-1 and a high rate of 75 mg d-1 were fed to two groups of three lactating cows in mid- and late-lactation. The transfer to milk of a single oral administration of radioiodine was measured for the three different intake rates. The lactation phase had no significant effect on iodine transfer to milk; therefore, the data from the two lactation groups were pooled for further statistical analyses. The mean transfer coefficient values for oral radioiodine to milk increased from 0.020 d l-1 for the low treatment to 0.024 d l-1 for the moderate stable iodine rate. There was a statistically significant decrease in the transfer to milk for the high stable dietary iodine intake rate (mean transfer coefficient=0.018 d l-1) compared with the moderate treatment. These differences were not due to effects on absorption since true absorption was complete for all three stable iodine treatments, but rather to differential affinities and saturation levels of the thyroid and milk pathways competing for the available iodine. The same behaviour and comparable values of transfer coefficients (range 0.015-0.020 d l-1) were observed for stable iodine

  5. Diet and genotype effects on the quality index of beef produced in the Argentine Pampeana region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimori, N J; Kloster, A M; García, P T; Carduza, F J; Grigioni, G; Pensel, N A

    2008-07-01

    Steers of varying genotypes (Aberdeen Angus, Charolais x AA and Argentine Holstein) in four feeding systems were evaluated. Feeding systems were: S1=a diet based on pastures only; S2=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 0.7% of l.w./head/day; S3=a similar forage base as S1 plus a daily supplementation with cracked corn, at 1.0% of l.w./head/day; and S4=a regular feedlot diet. Tenderness and marbling were not affected by the feeding system. Feedlot meat showed an n-6/n-3 ratio significantly higher than meat produced with the diets based on pastures (S1=2.1; S2=3.1; S3=4.5; S4=14.2) (Pmeat with better nutritional characteristics than other productive alternatives, without significant effects of the biotypes. PMID:22062907

  6. Effect of feeding 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 with a negative cation-anion difference diet on calcium and vitamin D status of periparturient cows and their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Azem, E; Steinberg, W; Reinhardt, T A

    2015-08-01

    Holstein cows (>1 gestation) were fed 1 of 3 diets during the last 13 d of gestation (ranged from 22 to 7 d). The control diet (16 cows) was formulated to provide 18,000 IU/d of vitamin D3 and had a dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) of 165mEq/kg (DCAD=Na + K - Cl - S). The second diet (DCAD + D) provided the same amount of vitamin D3 but had a DCAD of -139mEq/kg (17 cows). The third diet (DCAD + 25D) had no supplemental vitamin D3 but provided 6mg/d of 25-(OH) vitamin D3 [25-(OH)D3] with a DCAD of -138mEq/kg (20 cows). Diets were fed until parturition and then all cows were fed a common lactation diet that contained vitamin D3. Negative DCAD diets reduced urine pH, with the greatest decrease occurring with the DCAD + D treatment. Urinary Ca excretion was greatest for cows fed DCAD + 25D followed by cows fed DCAD + D. Urinary pH was negatively correlated with urinary excretion of Ca for cows fed DCAD + D. No such correlation was observed with the DCAD + 25D treatment because substantial excretion of urinary Ca occurred at moderate urinary pH values for that treatment. Cows fed DCAD + 25D had greater serum concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 than other treatments from 5 d after supplementation started through 7 d in milk. Concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 in serum were greatest in DCAD + 25D cows starting at 2 d before calving and continued through 7 d in milk. Serum Ca concentrations 5 d before calving were greatest for cows fed DCAD + 25D, but at other time points before and after parturition treatment did not affect serum Ca. Incidence of clinical hypocalcemia was not statistically different between treatments, but cows fed DCAD + 25 had the highest incidence rate (12.5, 0, and 20% for control, DCAD + D, and DCAD + 25D). Calves born from cows fed DCAD + 25D had greater concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 in serum at birth than calves from other treatments (before colostrum consumption), but concentrations were similar by 3 d of age. Concentrations of 25-(OH)D3 in colostrum and

  7. Replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, S; Manafi, M; Olfati, Z; Hedyati, M; Latifi, M; Veysi, A

    2016-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of replacing soybean meal with gelatin extracted from cow skin and corn protein concentrate as a protein source in broiler diets. Experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design where each experiment involved 4 treatments of 6 replicates and 10 chicks in each pen. Soybean meal proteins in a corn-soy control diet were replaced with 15, 30, and 45% of cow skin gelatin (CSG) or corn protein concentrate (CPC), respectively, in experiments 1 and 2. BW and cumulative feed intake were measured at 7, 21, and 42 d of age. Blood characteristics, relative organs weight and length, ileal digesta viscosity, ileal morphology, and cecal coliform and Salmonella population were measured at 42 d of age. Apparent total tract digestibility of protein was determined during 35 to 42 d of age. Replacement of soybean meal with CSG severely inhibited BW gain, decreased feed intake, and increased FCR in broilers during the experimental period (P ≤ 0.01). The inclusion of CPC reduced BW and increased FCR significantly (P ≤ 0.05) at 21 and 42 d of age without any consequence in feed intake. Protein digestibility was reduced and ileal digesta viscosity was increased linearly by increasing the amount of CSG and CPC in the control diet (P ≤ 0.01). Replacement of soybean meal with CSG and CPC did not significantly alter blood cell profile and plasma phosphorus, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Aspartate transaminase, and HDL and LDL cholesterol concentration. The inclusion of CSG linearly (P ≤ 0.05) increased plasma uric acid concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) when the amount of CSG replacement was 15%. The results of this experiment showed that using CSG and CPC negatively affects broiler performance and therefore is not a suitable alternative to soybean meal in commercial diets. PMID:26574036

  8. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges; Rogério Ferreira; Lucas Carvalho Siqueira; Rodrigo Camponogara Bohrer; Jacson William Borstmann; João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira; Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI) system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227), 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg) and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0). On day six, cloprostenol (125µg) and eCG (400IU) were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group) or on day eight (TAI group). All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit sta...

  9. Effects of a combination of feed additives on methane production, diet digestibility, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zijderveld, S M; Fonken, B; Dijkstra, J; Gerrits, W J J; Perdok, H B; Fokkink, W; Newbold, J R

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of a mixture of dietary additives on enteric methane production, rumen fermentation, diet digestibility, energy balance, and animal performance in lactating dairy cows. Identical diets were fed in both experiments. The mixture of feed additives investigated contained lauric acid, myristic acid, linseed oil, and calcium fumarate. These additives were included at 0.4, 1.2, 1.5, and 0.7% of dietary dry matter, respectively (treatment ADD). Experimental fat sources were exchanged for a rumen inert source of fat in the control diet (treatment CON) to maintain isolipidic rations. Cows (experiment 1, n=20; experiment 2, n=12) were fed restricted amounts of feed to avoid confounding effects of dry matter intake on methane production. In experiment 1, methane production and energy balance were studied using open-circuit indirect calorimetry. In experiment 2, 10 rumen-fistulated animals were used to measure rumen fermentation characteristics. In both experiments animal performance was monitored. The inclusion of dietary additives decreased methane emissions (g/d) by 10%. Milk yield and milk fat content tended to be lower for ADD in experiment 1. In experiment 2, milk production was not affected by ADD, but milk fat content was lower. Fat- and protein-corrected milk was lower for ADD in both experiments. Milk urea nitrogen content was lowered by ADD in experiment 1 and tended to be lower in experiment 2. Apparent total tract digestibility of fat, but not that of starch or neutral detergent fiber, was higher for ADD. Energy retention did not differ between treatments. The decrease in methane production (g/d) was not evident when methane emission was expressed per kilogram of milk produced. Feeding ADD resulted in increases of C12:0 and C14:0 and the intermediates of linseed oil biohydrogenation in milk in both experiments. In experiment 2, ADD-fed cows tended to have a decreased number of protozoa in rumen fluid when

  10. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. PMID:26454286

  11. Correlation between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows fed diets containing sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate the correlations between production and milk composition and feeding behavior of lactating cows. The cows had an average of 100 days of lactation and a production were arranged in two 4 x 4 Latin squares conpound of the four periods, four diets and four animals. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous with roughage: concentrate ratio of approximately 55:45. As forage, were evaluate four silages sugar cane: without additive (control, with 1% urea, with 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO and with 1% CaO. The experimental period lasted 60 days divided into four periods of 15 days. Feeding behavior was assessed on the 13 day of each experimental period, for 24 hours, every five minutes. From the data 24 behavioral variables were determined, which were correlated with the data of production and milk composition. The behavioral variable eating and ruminating, DM intake in grams/day, rumination efficiencies in grams of DM and neutral detergent fiber were positively correlated (P<0.05 with milk production in kg/day and the production corrected for 4% fat. However, there was a negative correlation between feeding time and the milk fat percentage. Despite the low values of the correlations can be inferred from the results, the data can be used to develop models to predictyield and composition of milk from the feeding behavior variables.

  12. Effect of incremental levels of sunflower-seed oil in the diet on ruminal lipid metabolism in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingfield, K J; Ahvenjärvi, S; Toivonen, V; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Griinari, J M

    2008-05-01

    Based on the potential benefits of cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for enhancing the concentration of this fatty acid in ruminant-derived foods. Most evidence to date suggests that endogenous synthesis is the major source of cis-9, trans-11 in milk fat and ruminal outflow is limited and largely independent of dietary 18 : 2n-6 supply. Four lactating cows fitted with a rumen cannula were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square with 14 d experimental periods to examine the effects of sunflower-seed oil (SFO) as a source of 18 : 2n-6 on ruminal lipid metabolism. Cows were offered grass silage-based diets supplemented with 0, 250, 500 or 750 g SFO/d. Supplements of SFO had no effect on DM intake, milk fat or protein secretion, but increased linearly (P < 0.01) milk yield and milk lactose output and shifted (P < 0.001) rumen fermentation towards propionate at the expense of acetate. SFO supplements increased linearly (P < 0.05) the flow of 18 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and total CLA at the omasum and enhanced ruminal cis-9-18 : 1, 18 : 2n-6 and 18 : 3n-3 metabolism. Flows of all-trans- (Delta4-16) and cis- (Delta9-16) 18 : 1 isomers were elevated, while increases in ruminal CLA outflow were confined to trans-8, trans-10 and geometric 9,11 and 10,12 isomers. It is concluded that supplementing grass silage-based diets with plant oils rich in 18 : 2n-6 enhances ruminal outflow of trans-11-18 : 1 and cis-9, trans-11-CLA in lactating cows. PMID:18005482

  13. The use of insulin to improve fertility of timed-inseminated postpartum suckled beef cows Uso de insulina para aumento da fertilidade de vacas de corte pós-parto lactantes inseminadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Schneider

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of insulin alone or in association with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on the fertility of postpartum beef cows subjected to synchronization. A total of 340 cows was subjected to fixed time artificial insemination. In the trial 1, the cows were subjected to temporary weaning (TW, while in the trial 2 the same protocol was tested without TW. The addition of an insulin injection to a progesterone/eCG-based protocol without TW increased the pregnancy rate of beef cows with body condition score (BCS equal to or lower than 2.5. Insulin had no effect on cows submitted to TW or with BCS equal to or higher than 3.0.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar apenas o efeito da insulina ou dela em associação com gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na fertilidade de vacas em pós-parto submetidas à sincronização. Um total de 340 vacas foi submetido à inseminação artificial em tempo fixo. No experimento 1, as vacas foram submetidas ao desmame temporário (DT, enquanto no experimento 2, o mesmo protocolo foi testado sem DT. A adição de uma injeção de insulina a um protocolo baseado em progesterona/eCG sem DT aumentou a taxa de prenhez de vacas de corte com escore de condição corporal (ECC igual ou menor que 2,5. A insulina não teve efeito em vacas submetidas a DT ou com ECC igual ou maior que 3,0.

  14. Alfalfa leaf meal in beef steer receiving diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; DiCostanzo, A.; Smith, L.B.

    1998-06-01

    Two trials were conducted to study the effects of alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) in receiving diets of steers. In trial one, ninety-six medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 500 lb) were allotted to a heavy or light weight block and then randomly assigned to one of four dietary treatments for a 29-day receiving trial. In trial two, sixty medium frame, Angus and Angus cross steer calves (average initial weight 518 lb) were allotted to one of ten dietary treatments. Trial two was divided into two periods, defined as a receiving period, 29 days, and a step-up period, 33 days. In trial one, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) providing 33%, 66%, or 100% of supplemental protein; the balance was soybean meal. Receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P. In study two, treatments were control (supplemental soybean meal), ALM providing 33%, 66%7 100% of supplemental protein, the balance was soybean meal and urea or a blend of ALM and blood meal (93 % ALM and 7 % blood meal) to provide supplemental protein. Each protein treatment was fed in diets consisting of cracked or whole corn. Trial two receiving diets were formulated to contain .54 Mcal NE{sub g} /lb dry matter, 14% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P, step-up diets were formulated to contain .58 Mcal NE9 /lb dry matter, 11.3% crude protein, .6 % Ca and .3 % P.

  15. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Bittante; Rina Verdiglione

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B) and double-muscled Piemontese (PI) or Belgian Blue (BB) bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA), two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. Th...

  16. Desempenho de vacas de descarte recebendo dietas com ou sem monensina Performance of cull cows receiving diets with or without monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Kuss

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho em confinamento de vacas de descarte recebendo dietas sem ou com (200mg animal-1 dia-1 monensina sódica. A dieta continha 12,5% de proteína bruta e 2,99Mcal de energia digestível kg-1 de matéria seca, composta de 48% de volumoso e 52% de concentrado. Os consumos de matéria seca e energia digestível sofreram redução com a presença de monensina sódica na dieta, representando uma queda de 20,9%. Esta redução no consumo de energia digestível por parte dos animais alimentados com monensina afetou negativamente o desempenho dos mesmos, demonstrando redução no ganho de peso de 22,6%. Com maior consumo de alimento e, conseqüentemente, desempenho superior, os animais-controle apresentaram maior peso vivo ao abate (527,49 vs 498,00kg, sendo 5,8% mais pesados em relação aos animais alimentados com monensina. Quanto à conversão alimentar e eficiência energética, ambas as características não sofreram efeito significativo quando da presença de monensina na dieta (médias de 7,78 e 23,24; respectivamente. A presença de monensina sódica na dieta resultou em decréscimo do consumo de matéria seca e no ganho de peso, porém não alterou a conversão alimentar.The feedlot performance of beef cull cows receiving diets without or with monensin (200mg animal-1 day-1, was evaluated. The diet, 48% of roughage and 52% of concentrated, contained 12.5% of crude protein and 2.99Mcal of digestible energy kg-1 of dry matter. The intake of dry matter and digestible energy was reduced 20.9% with the presence of monensin in the diet. The reduction in digestible energy intake by the animals fed with monensin affected negatively their performance, causing a decrease of 22.6% in their weight gain. With higher food intake and consequently superior performance, the control animals presented higher live weight at slaughter (527.49 vs 498.00kg, being 5.8% heavier in relation to the animals fed with monensin. The feed:gain ratio and

  17. The transfer of 60Co from feed into vitamin B12 in cow liver, milk and beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of the radionuclide 60Co from feed to milk, meat and the organs of a cow and its incorporation into vitamin B12 were studied in order to determine the transfer coefficient of 60Co into vitamin B12 in cattle. Upper limits of transfer coefficients for 60Co organically complexed into vitamin B12 were determined to be 6.0 x 10-5 days/litre in milk and 3.9 x 10-5 days/kg in meat, based on values measured after 140 days in bovine liver. (author)

  18. Effect of a long chain n-3 PUFA-enriched diet on production and reproduction variables in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elis, Sebastien; Freret, Sandrine; Desmarchais, Alice; Maillard, Virginie; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Dupont, Mickael; Faverdin, Philippe; Chajès, Véronique; Uzbekova, Svetlana; Monget, Philippe; Dupont, Joëlle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a rumen-protected fish oil supplement on the production and reproduction variables in postpartum dairy cows. Holstein cows (n=46) were given a basal total mixed diet plus one PUFA supplement: n-3 (n-3; protected fish oil; 1% dry matter intake (DMI); n=23) or control (n-6; toasted soybeans; 1.8% DMI; n=23), in a switchback design over two consecutive lactations. Supplements were added to the diet between calving and 2 months after calving to assess the effect on growth and maturation of ovarian follicles from which ovulation occurred around the day of insemination. Body weight (BW), milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), subcutaneous fat thickness, plasma fatty acid composition, plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose and urea concentrations, follicular activity, embryo mortalities and fertility (conception rate after first AI, AI1) were assessed. BW, MY, DMI, plasma NEFA, glucose and urea were unaffected by the diet. There was a trend of an increased number of large follicles (diameter≥10mm) with the n-3 dietary supplementation (P=0.06) and a decrease in infertility or early embryo mortality rate 21 days after AI, 13.5% in the n-3 compared with 38.8% in the n-6 group (P=0.09), with no effect on the conception rate at 35d or 90d after AI1. These data suggest that the effect seen on ovarian variables is not associated with an effect on production and metabolic variables and is specific to n-3 PUFA supplementation. Further studies are necessary to determine whether DHA or EPA enhances fertility in lactating dairy cattle. PMID:26651949

  19. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Volden, H.; Randby, Å.; Aaes, O.; Mehlqvist, M.

    The objective of the Norfor structure system was to establish a model for prediction of eating- (EI), ruminating- (RI) and total chewing index (CI) for feeds and total rations fed to dairy cows. The model was predicted from a Meta analysis of more than 100 published experiments including results on...... minutes per kg of total DMI is considered to ensure a sufficient intake of physically effective fibre in order to ensure good ruminal fibre digestion and to prevent a low rumen pH, digestive disorders and a low milk fat content in high-yielding dairy cows....

  20. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...

  1. Supplementing rumen-protected methionine and lysine in low-protein diets based on corn distillers grains fed to lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding rumen-protected methionine (RPM) and lysine (RPL) may allow feeding lower crude protein (CP) diets to dairy cows, thereby increasing nitrogen efficiency and reducing environmental impact. Moreover, RPL supplementation may improve the value of corn distillers dried grains plus solubles (DDGS)...

  2. Fatty Acid Profile of Milk and Cheese from Dairy Cows Supplemented a Diet with Palm Kernel Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid supplements (oilseeds vegetables are included in ruminant diet to increase its energy density and improve fatty acid composition of milk and consequently of fresh cheese. Milk and cheeses were evaluated from crossbred Holstein × Zebu, fed diets enriched with 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% inclusion levels of palm kernel cake in concentrated supplement, which were supplied daily (3.0 kg. Milk and fresh cheese (p = 0.001 fatty acids C12:0 exhibited quadratic negative values. Milk fatty acids C13:0, C20:0, C18:2t10c12, and C20:2n-6 presented positive quadratic values. The milk C18:2n-6 decreased linearly and in fresh cheese exhibited an increasing linear effect (p = 0.016. However, the fatty acids grouped in milk fat were not affected. The medium-chain fatty acids varied negatively and quadratically (p = 0.045. There was no effect on milk and fresh cheese chemical composition (p > 0.05. The milk fat was increased (p = 0.0065 quadratically (minimum point of 24.7%. Thus, the addition of palm kernel cake to cow diets negatively altered the fatty acid profile, it raises the percentage of lauric (C12 and tridecanoic (C13 acids fat which is not beneficial to human health from a nutraceutical perspective, although it did not influence the atherogenicity index.

  3. Effect of substituting brown rice for corn on lactation and digestion in dairy cows fed diets with a high proportion of grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, M; Matsuyama, H; Hosoda, K

    2014-02-01

    The effects of the substitution of brown rice (Oryza sativa L.; BR) for corn (Zea mays L.) in ensiled total mixed ration (TMR) that had a high proportion of grain on feed intake, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and N utilization were evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (51 ± 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 dietary treatments: a diet containing 0, 20, or 40% steam-flaked BR and 40, 20, or 0% steam-flaked corn (dry matter basis). Cows were fed ad libitum an ensiled TMR consisting of 40.7% alfalfa silage, 11.8% grass silage, 7.1% soybean meal, and 40.0% steam-flaked grain (dry matter basis). The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR, and then sealed by a bale wrapper and stored outdoors at 5 to 30 °C for over 6 mo. Dry matter intake and milk yield were lower for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The ruminal ammonia-N concentration decreased as the percentage of BR in the diets was elevated. The proportion of acetate decreased, and that of propionate and butyrate increased with the increasing levels of BR. Plasma urea-N concentrations was lower and glucose and insulin concentrations were higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn. The whole-tract apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and starch increased, and the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased with the increasing BR level in the diet, with no dietary effect on crude protein digestion. As a proportion of N intake, the urinary N excretion was lower and the retention of N was higher for cows fed 40% BR than for cows fed 40% corn, with no dietary effect observed on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results show that substituting BR for corn decreases urinary N losses and improves N utilization, but causes adverse effects on milk production when cows

  4. Long-term reticuloruminal pH dynamics and markers of liver health in early-lactating cows of various parities fed diets differing in grain processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, E; Khol-Parisini, A; Gruber, L; Gasteiner, J; Abdel-Raheem, Sh M; Zebeli, Q

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the long-term effect of feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (La) with or without thermal treatment on reticuloruminal pH dynamics and metabolic activity of the liver in 12 primiparous and 18 multiparous early-lactating dairy cows. All cows were included on d 21 postpartum and sampled until d 90 postpartum. Cows were fed a diet based on differently processed ground barley grain: untreated grain (control diet, CON), or grain treated with 1% La alone for 24 h before feeding (La), or with an additional oven-heating at 55°C for 12 h (LaH). The reticuloruminal pH and temperature were measured via indwelling sensors that allowed for continuous (every 10min) and long-term measurement from d 21 to 80 postpartum. Blood samples were taken on d 21, 40, and 90 of lactation and analyzed for liver enzymes aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and serum amyloid A. Dry matter intake was higher in multiparous cows (20.7±0.27 kg/d) compared with primiparous cows (18.2±0.33 kg/d), but was not affected by dietary treatment. Overall, the relatively short duration (51±5min/d) of reticuloruminal pH 39.5°C, being 60±19min/d shorter in primiparous cows. The measured activities of the liver enzymes AST, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase, as well as bilirubin, bile acids, and the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, were not affected by grain feeding. Additionally, only one small effect of parity on investigated serum variables was noticed, showing slightly but significantly higher values of AST in multiparous (80.5±1.4 U/L) compared with primiparous cows (76.0±1.7 U/L). In conclusion, our results indicate greater risk for primiparous cows to develop subacute ruminal acidosis-like conditions during early lactation than multiparous cows. The study also suggests limited benefits of feeding processed barley grain with La with or without

  5. Ruminal, Intestinal, and Total Digestibilities of Nutrients in Cows Fed Diets High in Fat and Undegradable Protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmquist, D.L.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hvelplund, Torben

    1993-01-01

    To study relationships of high undegradable intake protein and dietary fat on intestinal AA supply, the ruminal, intestinal, and total digestibilities of diets with or without added fat (5% of DM) and animal protein (blood meal: hydrolyzed feather meal, 1:1; 8% of DM) were examined with four cows...... in a 2×2 factorial design in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Ruminal degradabilities were 14.9 and 18.6%, and intestinal digestibilities were 98.9 and 68.3%, respectively, for CP in blood meal and feather meal. Treatment effects on ruminal digestibilities were small. Protein supplementation increased...... total N intake by 29%, duodenal AA N flow by 39%, and AA N absorbed by 37%; absorption of Leu and Lys increased 60 and 33%, and absorption of ne and Met increased 11 and 7%, respectively. Measured duodenal AA N flow (Cr2O3 marker) was 33% higher in cows cannulated adjacent to the pylorus compared with...

  6. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jun; Dong, Guozhong; Ao, Changjin; Zhang, Sen; Qiu, Min; Wang, Xi; Wu, Yongxia; Erdene, Khas; Jin, Lu; Lei, Chunlong; Zhang, Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.29, weighing 543 ± 57 kg and producing 24.32 ± 3.86 kg milk per d...

  7. The effect of an exogenous amylase on performance and total-tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed a high-byproduct diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, M M; Engstrom, M A; Azem, E; Gressley, T F

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the performance and digestibility response of lactating dairy cows fed a reduced-starch diet containing a commercial amylase product. Treatments consisted of a normal-starch total mixed ration (NS-), a reduced-starch total mixed ration (RS-), and a reduced-starch total mixed ration with exogenous amylase (RS+) added to the concentrate. Treatments were assigned according to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Twenty-three cows completed the study. Starch concentrations in NS-, RS-, and RS+ total mixed rations were 27.7, 23.5, and 22.7%, respectively. Effects of treatment on intake, milk production, milk composition, and total-tract apparent nutrient digestibility were evaluated during the last week of each period. Effects of amylase on in vitro starch digestibility of the NS- and RS- grain mixes were also measured. We hypothesized that the reduction in dietary starch in the RS- ration would decrease diet digestibility and limit milk production compared with NS- due to a decrease in available energy, and that RS+ would alleviate some of this decrease by increasing nutrient digestibility. Contrary to this hypothesis, the RS- diet did not affect intake or milk production relative to the NS- diet, except for increased milk urea nitrogen and a tendency for a decrease in milk protein yield. This lack of response is attributed to both low milk fat concentrations across treatments and greater than predicted dietary energy content preventing the energy deficit that was intended to occur with the reduced-starch rations. Cows fed the RS+ ration had the lowest production performance, with reduced milk, fat-corrected milk, protein, and lactose yields relative to cows fed NS-. Cows fed RS+ also had reduced lactose yield and tended to have reduced milk and fat-corrected milk relative to cows fed RS-. Despite the negative effects of the RS+ treatment on performance, exogenous amylase did increase both in vitro

  8. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating time index (RI) values. The EI values are...... ground concentrate (NDFIc) and rolled barley (NDFIRB) was related to NDFIf in the models, which included effects of BW, NDFIf/BW, NDFIRB/BW, NDFIRB/NDFIf, NDFIc/NDFIf, DM content of silage, interaction between forage type and physiological state of the cattle, method for recording chewing, and with...

  9. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  10. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier stage of maturity improved hay  quality in comparison with the more mature forages (crude protein: 21.4 vs 16.5% DM; P  DM; P  er lignin content for the latter (8.6 vs 8.2% DM; P  tating cows were formulated using an equal amount of corn silage and the maximum inclusion of one of the tested hays  as forage base. The better quality of the early cut hay made it possible to increase its inclusion in the diet up to 44% of  total dietary DM, while the two more mature hays covered only 36% of total DM of the respective diets. According to a  3 x 3 Latin square design, the diets were fed to 3 Italian Brown cows (initial average days in milk 121 ± 24 and milk  yield 20 kg ± 1.3 fitted with ruminal cannula in 3 consecutive periods of 28 d each. Alfalfa stage of maturity and  germplasm did not affect dietary DM intake (average 16 kg/d. Degradability parameters of dietary DM, calculated by in  situ nylon bags technique, showed similar kinetics of rumen disappearance for all diets. No differences were noticed in  the ruminal rate of passage of the solid phase among diets, while the liquid phase showed a slower rate of passage for  the early flowering hay diet. Consistent with the degradation process, the stage of maturity or the alfalfa germplasm did  not affect the rumen fluid data or the in vivo digestibility coefficients of the diets. Milk yield did not show any change due  to either alfalfa maturity or cultivar, while milk protein was lowered when cows received the early cut hay

  11. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP maintenance significantly increased with increasing FP. However, the increase between the 2 high FP groups did not research significance. It is concluded that increasing diet FP had no effects on kl but significantly increased maintenance energy requirement (MJ/kg(0.75)). These results indicate that using the current energy feeding systems to ration dairy cows managed under low input systems may underestimate their nutrient requirements, because the majority of feeding systems adopted globally do not differentiate the maintenance energy requirements between low and high forage input systems. PMID:26454288

  12. Effect of forage-to-concentrate ratio in dairy cow diets on emission of methane, carbon dioxide, and ammonia, lactation performance, and manure excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A; Powell, J M; Broderick, G A; Arndt, C

    2011-06-01

    Holstein cows housed in a modified tie-stall barn were used to determine the effect of feeding diets with different forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) on performance and emission of CH(4), CO(2) and manure NH(3)-N. Eight multiparous cows (means ± standard deviation): 620 ± 68 kg of body weight; 52 ± 34 d in milk and 8 primiparous cows (546 ± 38 kg of body weight; 93 ± 39 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers, constructed to fit 4 cows each. Chambers were assigned to dietary treatment sequences in a single 4 × 4 Latin square design. Dietary treatments, fed as 16.2% crude protein total mixed rations included the following F:C ratio: 47:53, 54:46, 61:39, and 68:32 [diet dry matter (DM) basis]. Forage consisted of alfalfa silage and corn silage in a 1:1 ratio. Cow performance and emission data were measured on the last 7 d and the last 4 d, respectively of each 21-d period. Air samples entering and exiting each chamber were analyzed with a photo-acoustic field gas monitor. In a companion study, fermentation pattern was studied in 8 rumen-cannulated cows. Increasing F:C ratio in the diet had no effect on DM intake (21.1 ± 1.5 kg/d), energy-corrected milk (ECM, 37.4 ± 2.2 kg/d), ECM/DM intake (1.81 ± 0.18), yield of milk fat, and manure excretion and composition; however, it increased milk fat content linearly by 7% and decreased linearly true protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat content (by 4, 1, and 2%, respectively) and yield (by 10, 6, and 6%, respectively), and milk N-to-N intake ratio. On average 93% of the N consumed by the cows in the chambers was accounted for as milk N, manure N, or emitted NH(3)-N. Increasing the F:C ratio also increased ruminal pH linearly and affected concentrations of butyrate and isovalerate quadratically. Increasing the F:C ratio from 47:53 to 68:32 increased CH(4) emission from 538 to 648 g/cow per day, but had no effect on manure NH(3)-N emission (14.1 ± 3.9 g/cow per day) and CO(2) emission

  13. Effects of alfalfa germplasm and stage of maturity on digestive process and productive response of dairy cows fed alfalfa hay-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Paolo Berzaghi; Flaviana Gottardo; Martina Dorigo; Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    The effects on the digestive process and the productive performances of dairy cows fed diets containing alfalfa hay from  different germplasms and maturity were assessed in the present study. Three different lots of first-cut alfalfa hay were  used in the study: the improved variety “Boreal”, harvested at two consecutive maturity stages (early flowering and full  flowering) and the ecotype “Vogherese”, at full flowering. Cutting the plant at an earlier s...

  14. Greater Mortality and Morbidity in Extremely Preterm Infants Fed a Diet Containing Cow Milk Protein Products

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Steven A.; Schanler, Richard J.; Lee, Martin L.; Rechtman, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Provision of human milk has important implications for the health and outcomes of extremely preterm (EP) infants. This study evaluated the effects of an exclusive human milk diet on the health of EP infants during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  15. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute to the expression of immune related genes in the livers of dairy cows fed a high concentrate diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjun Chang

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications critically regulate the expression of immune-related genes in response to inflammatory stimuli. It has been extensively reported that a high concentrate (HC diet can trigger systemic inflammation in dairy cows, yet it is unclear whether epigenetic regulation is involved in the expression of immune genes in the livers of dairy cows. This study aimed to investigate the impact of epigenetic modifications on the expression of immune-related genes.In eight mid-lactating cows, we installed a rumen cannula and catheters of the portal and hepatic veins. Cows were randomly assigned to either the treatment group fed a high concentrate (HC diet (60% concentrate + 40% forage, n = 4 or a control group fed a low concentrate (LC diet (40% concentrate + 60% forage, n = 4.After 10 weeks of feeding, the rumen pH was reduced, and levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS in the rumen, and portal and hepatic veins were notably increased in the HC group compared with the LC group. The expression levels of detected immune response-related genes, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, cytokines, chemokines, and acute phase proteins, were significantly up-regulated in the livers of cows fed a HC diet. Chromatin loosening at the promoter region of four candidate immune-related genes (TLR4, LPS-binding protein, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A3 was elicited, and was strongly correlated with enhanced expression of these genes in the HC group. Demethylation at the promoter region of all four candidate immune-related genes was accompanied by chromatin decompaction.After HC diet feeding, LPS derived from the digestive tract translocated to the liver via the portal vein, enhancing hepatic immune gene expression. The up-regulation of these immune genes was mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, which involve chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation. Our findings suggest that modulating epigenetic mechanisms could provide novel ways to treat systemic inflammatory

  16. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based finishing diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives were to characterize the effects of supplemental CP concentration and ruminal degradability in barley-based finishing diets on microbial protein synthesis, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestion, and route and chemical form of N excretion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (564 ± 18 kg BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square with four 28-d periods (9 d for diet adaptation and 19 d for measurements). The basal diet consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% barley-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (13% CP) or diets containing 14.5% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). Nutrient digestion was determined using Yb as a digesta flow marker and purine N as a microbial marker with the collection of ruminal, duodenal, and fecal samples over 5 d. The next week, total collections of feces and urine were performed for 5 d to quantify route and chemical form of N excretion. Feed offered was restricted (95% of ad libitum) and there was no effect of the dietary treatments on DMI (P = 0.55); therefore, N intake was less (P < 0.05) in heifers fed the 13% CP diets than the 14.5% CP diets. Supplemental RDP and RUP had no effect on ruminal NH3-N (P = 0.17), peptide N (P = 0.46), and VFA (P = 0.62) concentrations, flow of microbial (P = 0.69) and feed (P = 0.22) N, and ruminal and total tract nutrient digestibility (P ≥ 0.18). Nutrient digestion in the rumen and total tract averaged 75.4 ± 3.8% and 84.6 ± 0.9% for OM, 80.8 ± 3.6% and 95.8 ± 0.8% for starch, and 41.2 ± 7.9% and 60.4 ± 3.3% of intake for NDF, respectively. Daily output of N in feces (P = 0.91) and urine (P = 0.14) were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fecal N output averaged 19.9 ± 1.9% (P = 0.30) and urine N output averaged 44.1 ± 2.8% (P = 0.63) of N intake

  17. Effect of diets with different content of starch and protein fed to dairy cows in early lactation on milk yield and traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the effect on milk yield and its traits of 2 different levels of fermentable carbohydrates (LS: 25.5%, and HS: 29.5% DM combined with 2 protein levels (LP: 15.5% and HP: 16.5% DM, 4 Italian Friesian dairy cows in early lactation housed in a tied stall were used. The experimental diets were obtained adjusting in 4 supplements the proportion of high energy fibrous (beet pulp, soybean hull or starchy (corn meal feeds and of meal protein more (soybean meal or less (Soy-Pass®: xylose-treated soybean meal degradable. The highest DMI was observed in HSHP which showed also a low content of NDF. Milk yield resulted over 45 kg/d throughout the study and higher when HSHP diet was fed (46.1 kg. Milk fat was always at high level and the lowest value (3.89% with HSHP and the highest (4.08% with LSLP were observed. The diets did not modified milk protein (their average levels resulted of 3.25% and lactose content. Milk acidity and renneting traits were higher when HSLP was fed, and resulted at adequate levels when all the diets were fed. When the diets for dairy cow are formulated to cover the animal requirements and respect their digestion physiology, it is possible to reach high milk yield level and maintaining, at the same time, a high milk quality .

  18. Impact of NDF content and digestibility of diets based on corn silage and alfalfa on intake and milk yield of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zanfi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta analysis (22 studies, 83 dietary treatments evaluated the impact of neutral detergent fiber (NDF content and whole tract NDF digestibility (NDFD on dry matter intake (DMI and milk yield (MY in high producing dairy cows fed corn silage and alfalfa based diets. Experimental diets were ingested at high levels to support high MY (24.1 and 37.3 kg/d, respectively of DM and MY. The average NDFD was of 42.9% (range: 20.0-68.0 %; within study standard error: ±4.0 %. DMI was negatively related with the dietary NDF (e.g. ± 1.0 % of NDF caused ±160 g/d of DMI;r2=0.51; P<0.01, while NDFD and NDF were positively related (r2=0.74; P<0.01; ±1.0 % of NDF caused approximately ±1.0 % of NDFD. MY was not influenced by dietary NDF. Considering a subset of 5 studies, the regression between NDFD and corn silage:alfalfa ratio in the diet (r2=0.84; P<0.01 allowed to estimate the NDFD of diets containing only alfalfa hay (55% or corn silage (44%. In conclusion, the dietary NDF concentration influences the NDFD and this has implications both for DMI and MY of cows. Diets based on alfalfa hay have higher NDFD than those based on corn silage.

  19. Ovarian follicular growth suppression by long-term treatment with a GnRH agonist and impact on small follicle number, oocyte yield, and in vitro embryo production in Zebu beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, E O S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Dias, E A R; Bayeux, B M; Accorsi, M F; Monteiro, F M; Souza, A H; Baruselli, P S; D'Occhio, M J

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate small follicle number, oocyte yield, and in vitro embryo production (IVEP) in Zebu beef cows treated long term with a GnRH agonist to suppress ovarian follicular growth. Nelore (Bos indicus) cows (n = 20) showing regular estrous cycles were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 10, placebo ear implant without a GnRH agonist); GnRH agonist (n = 10, GnRH agonist ear implant containing 9.4-mg deslorelin). All cows underwent an ovum pick-up (OPU) session 14 days (Day 14) before the start of treatments (Day 0) followed by seven OPU-IVEP procedures at 30-day intervals (Days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180). Semen from a single batch of a previously tested bull was used for all the IVEP. Cows treated with agonist reported a decrease over time in the proportion of animals with a (CL; P ≤ 0.05) and large follicles (>10 mm, P ≤ 0.05). These cows had a lesser number of medium + large follicles (>5 mm; 1.74 ± 0.5 vs. 4.13 ± 0.5; P ≤ 0.05), greater number of small follicles (2-5 mm; 44.3 ± 2.8 vs. 30.8 ± 1.8; P ≤ 0.05), greater yield of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs; 21.0 ± 2.3 vs. 15.6 ± 1.9; P ≤ 0.05), greater proportion of COCs cultured (79.2 vs. 73.9%; P ≤ 0.05), COCs cleaved (10.6 ± 1.5 vs. 6.8 ± 1.1, P ≤ 0.05), and cleaved rate (52.8 vs. 44.3%; P ≤ 0.05) compared with control cows. The number (3.4 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 0.6; P > 0.05) and proportion (16.5 vs. 19.1%; P > 0.05) of blastocysts produced were similar between agonist and control cows, respectively. The study has shown that Zebu beef cows treated long term with a GnRH agonist had follicular growth restricted to small follicles. This did not compromise the ability of oocytes to undergo IVF and embryonic development. PMID:26924682

  20. Beef quality traits of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers fed at the maintenance level or ad libitum with two concentrate levels in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanna Moraes de Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This trial was conducted to evaluate some beef quality attributes of Nellore, F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore steers finished on feedlot. The effects of feeding regime and genetic group on shear force, thawing losses, cooking (leak + evaporation losses, total losses and muscle fiber type, as well as carcass pH and temperature during 24 h of chilling were evaluated. There was a genetic group effect on shear force, where the beef from F1 Simmental × Nellore and F1 Angus × Nellore animals had lower values than Nellore animals. Beef of the animals fed the diets with 1% and 2% of body weight on concentrated lost more liquid than the meat of the animals fed at maintenance during thawing and when considering total losses. During cooking there was a difference among the feeding regimes for drip losses which were greater on the animals fed the diet of 1% of body weight on concentrate, followed by the 2% diet and, finally, by the animals fed at maintenance. The muscle of the Nellore steers had larger proportion of intermediate fibers and lower proportion of oxidative fibers than the crossbred animals. The proportion of glycolytic fibers was not influenced by genetic group. The Nellore animals had larger proportion of fibers of fast contraction and smaller proportion of fibers of slow contraction when compared with the crossbred animals. Feeding regime did not influence the proportion of muscular fibers or shear force. Nellore cattle produce tougher beef than crossbred Simmental × Nellore or Angus × Nellore, although all of them have the potential to produce an acceptable beef when slaughtered at young age. Feed restriction up to 90 days is not enough to cause modification on muscle fiber frequencies, then not affecting beef quality.

  1. Intake, digestibility of nutrients, milk production and composition in dairy cows fed on diets containing cashew nut shell liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Antignani Coutinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of supplementing cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL in the diet of lactating dairy cows on the intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield and composition, and fatty acids composition of milk fat. Four Holsteincows (600±43 kg were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with 21 days experimental periods. Experimental treatments consisted of CNSL inclusion in a total mixed ration (dry matter basis, as follows: 1 CNSL 0% (control, CON, 2 CNSL 0.012% (0.012, 3 CNSL 0.024% (0.024 and 4 CNSL 0.036% (0.036. Dry matter and nutrients intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, fat corrected milk yield and milk composition were not affected (p > 0.05 by the inclusion of CNSL in the ration. CNSL linearly decreased the C6:0 concentration (p < 0.02, produced a quadratic response on C13:1n-5 concentration (p < 0.03 and a linear increase on C16:1n-7 concentration (p < 0.04. Results show that an intake of up to 7 gcow-1day-1 (0.036% of CNSL may alter the milk fatty acid composition but does not influence intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield.

  2. Nitrogen metabolism and route of excretion in beef feedlot cattle fed barley-based backgrounding diets varying in protein concentration and rumen degradability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of the study were to characterize the effects of CP concentration and ruminal degradability of barley-based backgrounding diets on route and chemical form of N excretion, ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, and nutrient digestion in beef cattle. Four Angus heifers (479 ± 14.6 kg average BW) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in an experiment designed as a 4 × 4 Latin square. The basal diet consisted of 54% barley silage and 46% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Dietary treatments included the basal diet with no added protein (12% CP) or diets formulated to contain 14% CP by supplementation with urea (UREA), urea and canola meal (UREA+CM), or urea, corn gluten meal, and xylose-treated soybean meal (UREA+CGM+xSBM). The amount of feed offered was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. There was no effect of the diets on DMI (P = 0.38), and therefore, N intake was less (P 0.10) on the amount of urine N output. Urine N output was 38.9 and 45.1 ± 5.50% of N intake in heifers fed the 12% CP and 14% CP diets (P < 0.05), respectively. Urea N, the form of N most susceptible to NH3-N volatilization and loss, was the major form of N in urine (75.5% in heifers fed the 12% CP diet and 81.4 ± 1.7% in heifers fed the 14% CP diets; P < 0.05). Supplemental RDP (UREA+CM) and RUP combined with urea (UREA+CGM+xSBM) to provide 14% CP increased (P < 0.05) ruminal NH3-N but had no effect on ruminal peptide N (P = 0.62) and free AA N (P = 0.18) concentration, the flow of microbial (P = 0.34) and feed (P = 0.55) N, and ruminal (starch, P = 0.11; NDF, P = 0.78) and total tract nutrient digestibility (OM, P = 0.21; starch, P = 0.16). Supplementation of barley-based backgrounding diets containing 12% CP with NPN alone or combined with ruminally degradable and undegradable true protein to attain 14% CP had no effect on fecal N output, but urine N and urea N increased irrespective of protein source. In addition, the ruminal degradability of

  3. Feedlot finishing cull cows fed diets with different levels of concentrateTerminação em confinamento de vacas de descarte recebendo dietas com diferentes teores de concentrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryon Guilherme Strack

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance and carcass quality and beef and cull cow subjected to diets with two levels of concentrate (1.08 and 1.62% of body weight, whith base in dry matter durind the feedlot finishing. In this study were used twenty cull cows of the breed Aberdeen Angus, Charolais, Caracu, Canchim and Charolais x Caracu whith a mean age of 7.2 years. The average weight gain during the termination was similar between levels 1.08 and 1.62% (1.81 and 2.00 kg/day, respectively. However, animals in the 1.62% group consumed much digestible energy (46.13 Mcal / day compared to the lowest level (38.32 Mcal / day, showing similarity (P > 0.01 in the values of conversion food (6.78 and 6.93 kg dry matter / kg weight gain and energy efficiency (21.68 and 23.40 between the two groups. In feedlot finishing cull cows with an average age of 7.5 years, the increase of the concentrate from 1.08 to 1.62% of body weight based on dry matter based on corn silage, no benefits productive performance of cows nor the quality characteristics of meat. Increasing the concentrate level in the diet of this category can cause greater haunch thickness and better carcass conformation in feedlot finishing.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade da carcaça e da carne de vacas de descarte submetidas a dietas com dois teores de concentrado (1,08 e 1,62% do peso vivo, com base na matéria seca durante o processo de terminação em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas de descarte, de raça mestiça, que compõem a formação do composto Purunã, Aberdeen Angus, Charolês, Caracu, Canchim e Caracu x Charolês com idade média de 7,2 anos. Independente do nível de concentrado o ganho de peso médio durante a terminação foi semelhante entre os teores 1,08 e 1,62% (1,81 e 2,00 kg/ dia, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais do grupo 1,62% consumiram maior quantidade energia digestível (46,13Mcal/dia em relação ao

  4. Methane production, nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, N balance, and milk production of cows fed timothy silage- or alfalfa silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Massé, D I; Petit, H V; Benchaar, C

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changing forage source in dairy cow diets from timothy silage (TS) to alfalfa silage (AS) on enteric CH₄ emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio of 60:40, dry matter basis), with the forage portion consisting of either TS (0% AS; 0% AS and 54.4% TS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (50% AS; 27.2% AS and 27.2% TS in the TMR), or AS (100% AS; 54.4% AS and 0% TS in the TMR). Compared with TS, AS contained less (36.9 vs. 52.1%) neutral detergent fiber but more (20.5 vs. 13.6%) crude protein (CP). In sacco 24-h ruminal degradability of organic matter (OM) was higher for AS than for TS (73.5 vs. 66.9%). Replacement of TS with AS in the diet entailed increasing proportions of corn grain and bypass protein supplement at the expense of soybean meal. As the dietary proportion of AS increased, CP and starch concentrations increased, whereas fiber content declined in the TMR. Dry matter intake increased linearly with increasing AS proportions in the diet. Apparent total-tract digestibility of OM and gross energy remained unaffected, whereas CP digestibility increased linearly and that of fiber decreased linearly with increasing inclusion of AS in the diet. The acetate-to-propionate ratio was not affected, whereas ruminal concentration of ammonia (NH₃) and molar proportion of branched-chain VFA increased as the proportion of AS in the diet increased. Daily CH₄ emissions tended to increase (476, 483, and 491 g/d for cows fed 0% AS, 50% AS, and 100% AS, respectively) linearly as cows were fed increasing proportions of AS. Methane production adjusted for dry matter intake (average=19.8 g/kg) or gross energy intake (average=5.83%) was not affected by increasing AS inclusion

  5. Increasing linseed supply in dairy cow diets based on hay or corn silage: Effect on enteric methane emission, rumen microbial fermentation, and digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C; Ferlay, A; Mosoni, P; Rochette, Y; Chilliard, Y; Doreau, M

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of increasing extruded linseed supply in diets based on hay (H; experiment 1) or corn silage (CS; experiment 2) on enteric methane (CH4) emission, rumen microbial and fermentation parameters, and rumen and total-tract digestibility. In each experiment, 4 lactating Holstein cows fitted with cannulas at the rumen and proximal duodenum were used in a 4×4 Latin square design (28-d periods). Cows were fed ad libitum a diet [50:50 and 60:40 forage:concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis for experiments 1 and 2, respectively] without supplementation (H0, CS0) or supplemented with extruded linseed at 5% (H5, CS5), 10% (H10, CS10), and 15% (H15, CS15) of dietary DM (i.e., 1.8, 3.6 and 5.4% total fatty acids added, respectively). All measurements were carried out during the last 8 d of each period. Linseed supply linearly decreased daily CH4 emission in cows fed H diets (from 486 to 289g/d for H0 to H15, on average) and CS diets (from 354 to 207g/d for CS0 to CS15, on average). The average decrease in CH4 per kilogram of DM intake was, respectively, -7, -15, and -38% for H5, H10, H15 compared with the H0 diet, and -4, -8, and -34% for CS5, CS10, and CS15 compared with the CS0 diet. The same dose-response effect was observed on CH4 emission in percent of gross energy intake, per kilogram of nutrient digested, and per kilogram of 4% fat- and 3.3% protein-corrected milk (FPCM) in both experiments. Changes in the composition of rumen volatile fatty acids in response to increasing linseed supply resulted in a moderate or marked linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio for H or CS diets, respectively. The depressive effect of linseed on total protozoa concentration was linear for H diets (-15 to -40%, on average, for H5 to H15 compared with H0) and quadratic for CS diets (-17 to -83%, on average, for CS5 to CS15 compared with CS0). Concentration of methanogens was similar among H or CS diets. The energetic benefits from the decreased CH4 emission

  6. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your diet is made up of what you eat. A healthy diet May include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- ... added sugars There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include ...

  7. Effect of breed, energy level of diet, and lactation stage on the evolution of milk lipolysis in dairy cow

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbergue, Elise; Delaby, Luc; Colette, Ségolène; Gallard, Yves; Hurtaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous lipolysis is the result of the activity of a native milk enzyme, the lipoprotein lipase. Lipolysis leads to a release of free fatty acids (FFA) that cause rancid flavor in milk products. A trial was carried out to study the effects of breed, energy levels, and lactation stage on milk spontaneous lipolysis in dairy cows. Sixty-four cows were used through a year of lactation. Cows were divided into 4 homogenous groups according to their breed [Holstein (HO) or Norm...

  8. Short communication: Evaluation of acid-insoluble ash and indigestible neutral detergent fiber as total-tract digestibility markers in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Hristov, A N

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate acid-insoluble ash (AIA) and indigestible NDF (iNDF) as intrinsic digestibility markers in comparison with total fecal collection (TC) in dairy cows fed corn silage- and alfalfa haylage-based diets. The experiment was part of a larger experiment, which involved 8 Holstein cows [102±28.4 d in milk, 26.4±0.27 kg/d of dry matter (DM) intake, and 43±5.3 kg/d milk yield]. The experimental design was a replicated 4×4 Latin square with the following treatments: metabolizable protein (MP)-adequate diet [15.6% crude protein (CP); high-CP], MP-deficient diet (14.0% CP; low-CP), and 2 other low-CP diets supplemented (top-dressed) with ruminally protected Lys or Lys and Met. Data for the 3 low-CP diets were combined for this analysis. Total feces were collected for 5 consecutive days during each period to estimate total-tract apparent digestibility. Digestibility was also estimated using AIA (digestion with 2 N HCl) and iNDF (12-d ruminal incubation in 25-μm-pore-size bags). Significant diet × digestibility method interactions were observed for fecal output of nutrients and digestibility. Fecal output of nutrients estimated using AIA or iNDF was lower compared with TC and fecal output of DM, organic matter, and CP tended to be higher for iNDF compared with AIA for the high-CP diet. For the low-CP diet, however, fecal output of all nutrients was lower for AIA compared with TC and was higher for iNDF compared with TC. Data from this experiment showed that, compared with TC, AIA underestimated fecal output and overestimated digestibility, particularly evident with the fiber fractions and the protein-deficient diet. Compared with TC, fecal output was overestimated and digestibility of the low-CP diet was underestimated when iNDF was used as a marker, although the magnitude of the difference was smaller compared with that for AIA. In the conditions of the current study, iNDF appeared to be a more reliable digestibility marker

  9. Effect of diet on maintenance of acid-basal balance in blood of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaál T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance breeds of ruminants often exhibit production disorders which can be accompanied by a disturbed acid-basal balance. Most of the disorders in the acid-basal balance are closely related to digressions in the diet norms of these animals. A deficiency or surplus of energy equally cause disorders in the acid-basal status of the organism. Metabolic acidosis is the most frequent of the four types of basic disorders in the acid-basal balance in ruminants. It appears as a consequence of rumen acidosis, ketosis, or diarrhea. Acute disorders in the acid-basal balance are far more dangerous than chronic ones. Therapy of the basic diseases is generally sufficient compensation for the effects of the acid-basal disorders, but in certain cases it is necessary to perform alkalization, that is, acidification of the rumen content using the necessary preparations.

  10. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  11. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  12. Vertical Coordination in the Evolving High Quality Beef Market (PowerPoint)

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.

    2010-01-01

    Panelists will discuss vertical aspects of vertical coordination in the beef industry. Focus will include cow herd production management and genetics, calf market price incentives, costs of producing high quality beef, and retail marketing of high quality beef and premium brands. Together this complete vertical supply chain discussion will provide a comprehensive assessment of how the U.S. beef industry can improve beef quality and enhance consumer demand. Implicit in this overview is an asse...

  13. Differences in the rumen methanogen populations of lactating Jersey and Holstein dairy cows under the same diet regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Erin E; Smith, Rachel P; St-Pierre, Benoit; Wright, André-Denis G

    2011-08-15

    In the dairy cattle industry, Holstein and Jersey are the breeds most commonly used for production. They differ in performance by various traits, such as body size, milk production, and milk composition. With increased concerns about the impact of agriculture on climate change, potential differences in other traits, such as methane emission, also need to be characterized further. Since methane is produced in the rumen by methanogenic archaea, we investigated whether the population structure of methanogen communities would differ between Holsteins and Jerseys. Breed-specific rumen methanogen 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from lactating Holstein and Jersey cows, generating 180 and 185 clones, respectively. The combined 365 sequences were assigned to 55 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Twenty OTUs, representing 85% of the combined library sequences, were common to both breeds, while 23 OTUs (36 sequences) were found only in the Holstein library and 12 OTUs (18 sequences) were found only in the Jersey library, highlighting increased diversity in the Holstein library. Other differences included the observation that sequences with species-like sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter millerae were represented more highly in the Jersey breed, while Methanosphaera-related sequences and novel uncultured methanogen clones were more frequent in the Holstein library. In contrast, OTU sequences with species-level sequence identity to Methanobrevibacter ruminantium were represented similarly in both libraries. Since the sampled animals were from a single herd consisting of two breeds which were fed the same diet and maintained under the same environmental conditions, the differences we observed may be due to differences in host breed genetics. PMID:21705541

  14. Incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal do not improve animal performance but do increase milk iodine output in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antaya, N T; Soder, K J; Kraft, J; Whitehouse, N L; Guindon, N E; Erickson, P S; Conroy, A B; Brito, A F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of incremental amounts of Ascophyllum nodosum meal (ANOD) on milk production, milk composition including fatty acids and I, blood metabolites, and nutrient intake and digestibility in early lactation dairy cows fed high-forage diets. Twelve multiparous Jersey cows averaging (mean±standard deviation) 40±21 d in milk and 464±35 kg of body weight and 4 primiparous Jersey cows averaging 75±37 d in milk and 384±17kg of body weight were randomly assigned to treatment sequences in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 21 d with 14 d for diet adaptation and 7 d for data and sample collection. Cows were fed a total mixed ration (64:36 forage-to-concentrate ratio) supplemented (as fed) with 0, 57, 113, or 170 g/d of ANOD. Milk yield as well as concentrations and yields of milk components (fat, protein, lactose, milk urea N) were not affected by increasing dietary amounts of ANOD. Concentration (from 178 to 1,370 µg/L) and yield (from 2.8 to 20.6 mg/d) of milk I increased linearly in cows fed incremental amounts of ANOD as a result of the high concentration of I (820 mg/kg of dry matter) in ANOD. Overall, only minor changes were observed in the proportion of milk fatty acids with ANOD supplementation. Quadratic trends were observed for dry matter intake and total-tract digestibilities of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber, whereas negative linear trends were observed for serum concentration of cortisol and crude protein digestibility with ANOD supplementation. Serum concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine were not affected by ANOD supplementation and averaged 1.1 and 48.4 ng/mL, respectively. However, feeding increasing amounts of ANOD linearly reduced the plasma concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (from 164 to 132 mEq/L). Quadratic effects were found for the total-tract digestibility of ADF and urinary output of purine derivatives, suggesting that ANOD supplementation

  15. Effect of dietary starch concentration and fish oil supplementation on milk yield and composition, diet digestibility, and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirondini, M; Colombini, S; Mele, M; Malagutti, L; Rapetti, L; Galassi, G; Crovetto, G M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different starch concentrations and fish oil (FO) supplementation on lactation performance, in vivo total-tract nutrient digestibility, N balance, and methane (CH4) emissions in lactating dairy cows. The experiment was conducted as a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement: 2 concentrations of dietary starch [low vs. high: 23.7 and 27.7% on a dry matter (DM) basis; neutral detergent fiber/starch ratios: 1.47 and 1.12], the presence or absence of FO supplement (0.80% on a DM basis), and their interaction were evaluated. Four Italian Friesian cows were fed 1 of the following 4 diets in 4 consecutive 26-d periods: (1) low starch (LS), (2) low starch plus FO (LSO), (3) high starch (HS), and (4) high starch plus FO (HSO). The diets contained the same amount of forages (corn silage, alfalfa and meadow hays). The starch concentration was balanced using different proportions of corn meal and soybean hulls. The cows were housed in metabolic stalls inside open-circuit respiration chambers to allow measurement of CH4 emission and the collection of separate urine and feces. No differences among treatments were observed for DM intake. We observed a trend for FO to increase milk yield: 29.2 and 27.5kg/d, on average, for diets with and without FO, respectively. Milk fat was affected by the interaction between dietary starch and FO: milk fat decreased only in the HSO diet. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) was affected by the interaction between starch and FO, with a positive effect of FO on the LS diet. Fish oil supplementation decreased the n-6:n-3 ratio of milk polyunsaturated fatty acids. High-starch diets negatively influenced all digestibility parameters measured except starch, whereas FO improved neutral detergent fiber digestibility (41.9 vs. 46.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively, and ether extract digestibility (53.7 vs. 67.1% for diets without and with FO, respectively). We observed

  16. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  17. Influence of pregnancy in mid-to-late gestation on circulating metabolites, visceral organ mass, and abundance of proteins relating to energy metabolism in mature beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-12-01

    In mid-to-late gestation, nutrient demand increases to meet the growth requirements of the conceptus and cows may alter metabolism in response to energy demands of pregnancy. By better understanding the metabolic role of pregnancy, there may be opportunities to better understand maintenance energy costs and improve overall feed efficiency. Eighteen mature Simmental/Angus crossbred cows, pregnant (PREG; n = 9) and nonpregnant (OPEN; n = 9), were used to investigate the effect of pregnancy on BW change, carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and circulating serum metabolites. Cows were blocked by day of expected parturition such that each block was slaughtered 4 to 5 wk before parturition. Cows were individually fed for ad libitum intake using Calan gates for 89 to 105 d. Cows were weighed, ultrasounded for rib (over the 12th and 13th rib) and rump fat, and a serum sample obtained at d 1, 56, and 3 to 5 d before slaughter. At slaughter, organs were removed, trimmed of fat, and weighed. Serum was analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), NEFA, glucose, urea, total cholesterol, and triiodothyronine (T3). Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papillae, pancreas, and small intestinal mucosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na(+)/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS as a replicated randomized complete block. Liver weights (actual, relative to BW, relative to HCW) were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) in OPEN. Rumen mass and kidney fat weight, both relative to BW, were also greater (P ≤ 0.04) in OPEN. On d 56

  18. Performance of feedlot steers fed diets containing laidlomycin propionate or monensin plus tylosin, and effects of laidlomycin propionate concentration on intake patterns and ruminal fermentation in beef steers during adaptation to a high-concentrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Malcolm, K J; Duff, G C

    1992-10-01

    Two hundred eighty-eight beef steers (British x Continental x Brahman) were fed a 90% concentrate diet containing either no ionophore (control), laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of dietary DM, or monensin plus tylosin (31 and 12 mg/kg of DM, respectively). Neither of the two levels of laidlomycin propionate nor monensin plus tylosin affected (P greater than .10) ADG or feed:gain ratio. Monensin plus tylosin reduced (P less than .01) daily DMI for the 161-d trial period compared with the other three treatments. Laidlomycin propionate at 6 mg/kg increased (P less than .05) DMI relative to the control, laidlomycin propionate at 12 mg/kg, and monensin plus tylosin diets during the 2nd wk of the trial and from d 57 to 84. Treatments did not affect carcass measurements. In a second experiment, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed diets containing no ionophore or laidlomycin propionate at either 6 or 12 mg/kg of DM. Samples were obtained for two consecutive days while the dietary concentrate level was 75%, after which the diet was switched abruptly to 90% concentrate, and samples were collected on several days during a 21-d period. The rate at which steers consumed their daily allotment of feed was not altered markedly by laidlomycin propionate. Likewise, laidlomycin propionate did not affect total ruminal VFA concentrations or proportions. Ruminal concentrations of D-lactate were reduced (P less than .10) by 6 but not by 12 mg/kg of laidlomycin propionate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1429270

  19. Prevalence and distribution of Arcobacter spp. in raw milk and retail raw beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Murugaiyah, M; Zunita, Z; Memon, A A

    2012-08-01

    A total of 106 beef samples which consisted of local (n = 59) and imported (n = 47) beef and 180 milk samples from cows (n = 86) and goats (n = 94) were collected from Selangor, Malaysia. Overall, 30.2% (32 of 106) of beef samples were found positive for Arcobacter species. Imported beef was significantly more contaminated (46.80%) than local beef (16.9%). Arcobacter butzleri was the species isolated most frequently from imported (81.8%) and local (60%) beef, followed by Arcobacter cryaerophilus in local (33.3%) and imported (18.2%) beef samples. Only one local beef sample (10%) yielded Arcobacter skirrowii. Arcobacter species were detected from cow's milk (5.8%), with A. butzleri as the dominant species (60%), followed by A. cryaerophilus (40%), whereas none of the goat's milk samples were found positive for Arcobacter. This is the first report of the detection of Arcobacter in milk and beef in Malaysia. PMID:22856572

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Japan: consumers’ food safety perceptions and willingness to pay for tested beef

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill J.; Kristine M. Grimsrud; Ouchi, Hiromi; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2005-01-01

    The discovery of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly known as ‘mad cow disease’, in Japan caused anxiety about consuming beef and beef products. As a result, there was a sudden fall in sales of beef that hurt the Japanese beef industry as well as major beef exporters to Japan. We analyse factors that affect Japanese consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) price premiums for BSE-tested beef and estimate the mean WTP for BSE-tested beef using data obtained from a consumer survey in Jap...

  1. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  2. Effect of Propionibacterium spp. on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility, and methane emissions in beef heifers fed a high-forage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, D; McGeough, E J; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of different Propionibacterium strains in mitigating methane (CH4) emissions in beef heifers fed a high-forage diet. Twenty ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a randomized block design with 28-d periods. Treatments included 1) Control, 2) Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P169, 3) Propionibacterium acidipropionici strain P5, and 4) Propionibacterium jensenii strain P54. Strains (5 × 10(9) CFU) were administered daily directly into the rumen in 10 g of a maltodextrin carrier in a gel capsule. Control heifers received the carrier only. All heifers were fed a basal diet (70:30 forage to concentrate, DM basis) based on barley silage and corn grain. No treatment effects were observed for overall DMI (P = 0.78) or DMI in chambers (P = 0.29). Dry matter intake was 12 to 29% less in the chambers, with intake depression numerically lower in heifers receiving Propionibacterium than Control. Mean ruminal pH averaged 6.47 and was not affected by treatments (P = 0.34). Likewise, no treatment differences were observed for ruminal concentrations of total VFA (P = 0.24) and ammonia-N (P = 0.49) or for molar proportion of individual VFA. Total daily enteric CH4 production was not affected by Propionibacterium strains as compared to Control and averaged 178 g/d (P = 0.69). However, enteric CH4 emission intensity (g CH4/kg of DMI) was reduced by 12, 8, and 13% with P169, P5, and P54 as compared to Control, respectively (P = 0.03). No treatment effects were observed for total tract digestibility of nutrients. Likewise, total universal bacterial (P = 0.22) and methanogen (P = 0.64) counts were similar among treatments. However, the relative abundance of total Propionibacteria tended to increase with inoculation as compared to Control (P = 0.06). The relative abundance of Propionibacterium P169 tended to be greater at 3 h postdosing, but returned to pretreatment (0 h) levels within 9 h, suggesting it failed to

  3. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  4. Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don't include meats. Others, like the Mediterranean diet, describe a traditional way of eating of a specific region. And there are diets for people with certain health problems, such as diabetes and high blood pressure. ...

  5. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  6. Effects of grass hay proportion in a corn silage-based diet on rumen digesta kinetics and digestibility in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Kyaw San; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of six levels of orchardgrass hay (GH) proportion (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% of dry matter) in finely chopped corn silage (CS)-based diets on digesta kinetics of CS and GH in the rumen. Six non-lactating, rumen-cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design. Ruminal digesta kinetics was measured by ruminal dosing of feed particle markers (dysprosium for CS, erbium for GH) followed by fecal sampling. The increase of GH proportion had a quadratic effect (P < 0.01) on total tract digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber. The proportion of GH did not affect the particle size distribution of rumen digesta, total weight of dry matter or NDF in the rumen. The rates of large particle size reduction in the rumen for CS tended to increase linearly with increasing GH proportion (P = 0.077). A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was found with increasing the GH proportion for the ruminal passage rate of small GH particles, but not for CS particles. The results suggested that associative effects between CS and GH could be generated on rumen digesta kinetics when cows were fed a CS-based diet with an increased proportion of GH. PMID:25599766

  7. Peripartal calcium homoeostasis of multiparous dairy cows fed rumen-protected rice bran or a lowered dietary cation/anion balance diet before calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Tereso, J; ter Wijlen, H; van Laar, H; Verstegen, M W A

    2014-08-01

    Milk fever is one of the most important metabolic diseases in dairy cattle. Reducing the dietary cation/anion balance (DCAD) with anionic salts is a common prevention strategy. However, many small European farms cannot use total mixed rations (TMR) in the close-up period. Including anionic salts in compound feeds can result in feed refusals and moderate inclusions to preserve feed palatability results in insufficient DCAD reduction. Rumen-protected rice bran induces the adaptation of Ca metabolism in dairy cows by a reduction of Ca intake and by a reduction of the availability of dietary Ca. In the presence of a negative control, rumen-protected rice bran (2.8 kg/day) was compared with a lowered DCAD diet (from 269 to 4 meq/kg DM) in their effect to prevent milk fever. In a randomized block design, 45 multiparous Holstein cows joined the trial sequentially from 21 days before the expected calving date and were observed until the 8th week of lactation. Feed and nutrient intakes were recorded, and Ca, P, Mg in serum and urine, urine pH, serum NEFA and milk production in early lactation were compared. Feeding rumen-protected rice bran before calving improved the recovery of calcaemia after calving and had a positive effect on DMI after calving. The moderately low DCAD diet did not positively influence serum Ca at calving. Calcaemia recovered even later than in control, and cows showed reduced DMI post-calving and higher NEFA levels in the first 36 h after calving. This moderate reduction of DCAD did not provide an intermediate prevention level indicating that DCAD needs to be reduced to the recommended levels to prevent milk fever. Rumen-protected rice bran may be a suitable feed to reduce hypocalcaemia post-partum and can be included in pre-calving compound feeds representing a palatable alternative to anionic salts. PMID:24138155

  8. Evaluation of the impacts of spaying by either the dropped ovary technique or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy on the welfare of Bos indicus beef heifers and cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, J C; McCosker, K; Mayer, D G; Letchford, P; McGowan, M

    2013-01-01

    The welfare outcomes for Bos indicus cattle (100 heifers and 50 cows) spayed by either the dropped ovary technique (DOT) or ovariectomy via flank laparotomy (FL) were compared with cattle subjected to physical restraint (PR), restraint by electroimmobilization in conjunction with PR (EIM), and PR and mock AI (MAI). Welfare assessment used measures of morbidity, mortality, BW change, and behavior and physiology indicative of pain and stress. One FL heifer died at d 5 from peritonitis. In the 8-h period postprocedures, plasma bound cortisol concentrations of FL, DOT, and EIM cows were not different and were greater (P0.05) between treatments in BW changes. For both heifers and cows, FL and DOT spaying caused similar levels of acute pain, but FL had longer-lasting adverse impacts on welfare. Electroimmobilization during FL contributed to the pain and stress of the procedure. We conclude that: i) FL and DOT spaying should not be conducted without measures to manage the associated pain and stress; ii) DOT spaying is preferable to FL spaying; iii) spaying heifers is preferable to spaying cows; and iv) electroimmobilization causes pain and stress and should not be routinely used as a method of restraint. PMID:23048132

  9. Soil nutrients, bacterial communities, and veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle backgrounding confinement on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States hosts the world’s largest grain fed beef production. Commercial beef production in the US consists of three tiers that include: cow-calf enterprises, cattle backgrounding/stockering, and feedlot finishing. Beef cattle backgrounding/stockering represents an intermediate between the ...

  10. Effects of alfalfa hay particle size in high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat: chewing behavior, total-tract digestibility, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahyani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of increasing the physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF) intake of lactating dairy cows fed high-concentrate diets supplemented with unsaturated fat on intake, eating behavior, diet sorting, chewing activity, total-tract digestibility, and milk production and composition. Diets contained 24% alfalfa hay (AH), 16% corn silage, 58% concentrate, and 2% yellow grease [dry matter (DM) basis], and dietary peNDF content was increased by varying the particle size (PS) of the AH. Nine multiparous cows averaging 87.8 ± 14.8d in milk and weighing 653 ± 53 kg were randomly assigned to a triplicate 3 × 3 Latin square. During each 21-d period, cows were offered 1 of 3 total mixed rations that varied in PS of AH: fine, medium, and long, with a geometric mean particle length of 3.00, 3.57 and 3.87 mm, respectively. Increasing PS quadratically affected DM intake (DMI; 24.7, 25.4, and 23.7 kg/d, for fine, medium, and long, respectively), but cumulative DMI at 2, 4, and 6h after feeding was similar across treatments, averaging 23.4, 35.6 and 46.4% of total DMI for the 3 time points, respectively. Increased peNDF intake did not affect feed sorting, but increased daily eating time, and eating and total chewing time per kilogram of DMI. Daily rumination time exhibited a quadratic response, with highest rumination time for the medium diet. Dietary PS had no effects on digestibility in the total tract, but we observed, for fine, medium, and long diets, quadratic responses in milk production (41.5, 43.3, and 40.4 kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk production, and milk protein yield. Milk fat content decreased linearly with increasing PS, but milk fat content and fat:protein ratio were low for all treatments, likely due to adding unsaturated fat to a diet containing a high level of nonfiber carbohydrates (42.2% of DM). The composition, degree of saturation, and total conjugated linoleic acid content of fatty acids in milk fat were not affected by

  11. Influence of Genotype and Diet on the Characteristics of Semitendinosus Muscle in Crossbred Young Bulls Derived from Brown Swiss Cow and Double Muscled Bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genotype and diet on the characteristics of muscle fibers and adipocytes of the semitendinosus muscle in crossbred young bulls derived from Brown Swiss cows (B and double-muscled Piemontese (PI or Belgian Blue (BB bulls. For this purpose 24 young bulls divided in 6 groups fed 3 diets have been used: a control diet without supplementation of rumen protected CLA (rpCLA, two other diets added with 8 or 80 g/d of a supplement of rpCLA. The histochemical methods (succinic dehydrogenase and mATPase pointed out the presence of three fiber types: type I, type IIA and type IIX. Results demonstrated that genotype affected both fiber type number and size. While there was no significant difference among the percentages of type I fibers (PI×B 12.73%, BB×B 12.95%, the difference was significant (P<0.05 for IIA fiber type (PI×B 23.03%, BB×B 29.13% and for IIX fiber type (PI×B 64.53%, BB×B 57.84%. All the fiber types of the BB×B genotype had a significantly bigger size (P<0.05 than the fibers of PI×B genotype. The adipocytes analyses showed a significant effect (P<0.05 of genotype on the adipocytes total surface. The level of CLA addition did not affected neither muscle fiber nor adipocytes characteristics.

  12. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB

  13. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S; Loor, Juan J

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  14. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  15. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeeshan Muhammad; Akbar, Haji; Hosseini, Afshin; Bichi Ruspoli Forteguerri, Elena; Osorio, Johan S.

    2016-01-01

    The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON) or high-energy (OVE) diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE) only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation. PMID:27441691

  16. Selenium sources in the diet of dairy cows and their effects on milk production and quality, on udder health and on physiological indicators of heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Oltramari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four dairy cows, with daily average milk production of 18.1 kg, were fed diets containing different selenium (Se sources. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of such diets on milk production and quality, on the occurrence of mastitis, and on physiological variables. During the experimental period (124 days, all the cows received the same diet: a total mixed feed with 0.278 mg.kg- 1 DM of selenium. In the inorganic Se treatment, the selenium source was sodium selenite and in the organic Se treatment the source was selenium yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CNCM I-3060. There were no significant differences in milk yield or in Se concentration in the milk. No significant differences between the treatments were observed in protein, lactose, solids-not-fat andpercentage of total solids. The animals subjected to the organic Se treatment presented higher (P=0.013 percentage of milk fat and lower (P=0.014 somatic cell count (SCC than those subjected to the inorganic Se treatment. There was no significant difference in subclinical mastitisas determined by the California Mastitis Test (CMT between the treatments. However, both Se sources reduced the incidence of mastitis (subclinical positive mastitis and strongly positive mastitis between the pre-experimental and experimental phases. There was no significant difference in rectal temperature (RT between the treatments. Respiratory frequency (RF was lower (P=0.027 in the inorganic treatment than in the organic one, whereas haircoat temperature (HT was lower (P=0.007 in the organic treatment than in the inorganic one.

  17. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei)

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado; Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro; Elzânia Sales Pereira; Emilson Costa Moreira Filho; João Avelar Magalhães; Sônia Maria Pinheiro de Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei) (0, 12, 24, and 36%) on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW) of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each exper...

  18. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Rini; C Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  19. Joint Alpharma-Beef Species Symposium: considerations on puberty in replacement beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, C L

    2013-03-01

    Many important changes occur throughout reproductive development in beef heifers, including during the prenatal, early postnatal, and peripubertal periods. Wave-like patterns of follicular development have been observed in heifer calves as early as 2 wk of age. Some dramatic changes occur from about 2 to 5 mo of age, most notably the transient increase in LH secretion. Most components of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis are fully competent by approximately 5 to 6 mo of age. Peripubertal changes include increases in LH secretion, estradiol production, follicular development, and reproductive tract size. Eventually, the process reaches the point that the initial ovulation is achieved. Heifers that reach puberty and experience multiple estrous cycles before the onset of their initial breeding season have a greater probability for early conception and optimal lifetime productivity. Attainment of puberty typically occurs at around 12 to 14 mo of age in beef heifers but varies greatly. Genetic differences and environmental factors contribute to this variation. In typical U.S. cow-calf operations, calves are generally weaned at approximately 200 d of age. The impact of postweaning management on age at puberty in heifers has been demonstrated, and there is considerable flexibility in the timing of gain from weaning to breeding. However, even when heifers are grown to the desired BW before the start of breeding, there remains a pronounced variation in the timing of puberty, which impacts pregnancy rates. Less attention has been focused on the impact of preweaning management on age at puberty. Heifer calves with increased growth rates from birth to weaning have reached puberty at earlier ages. Precocious puberty has also been induced in a majority of heifers with early weaning and feeding a high-concentrate diet. Nutritional control during early maturation in heifers exerts a substantial influence on the timing of puberty. Understanding the mechanisms involved in

  20. Effects of Propionibacterium strains on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and methane emissions in beef cattle fed a corn grain finishing diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, D; McGeough, E J; Mohammed, R; McGinn, S M; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-11-01

    Twenty ruminally cannulated beef heifers were fed a high corn grain diet in a randomized block design to determine the effect of three direct fed microbial (DFM) strains of Propionibacterium on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and methane (CH4) emissions. The heifers were blocked in five groups on the basis of BW and used in five 28-day periods. Dietary treatments included (1) Control and three strains of Propionibacterium (2) P169, (3) P5, and (4) P54. Strains were administered directly into the rumen at 5×109 CFU with 10 g of a maltodextrin carrier in a gel capsule; Control heifers received carrier only. All heifers were fed the basal diet (10 : 90 forage to concentrate, dry matter basis). Rumen contents were collected on days 15 and 18, ruminal pH was measured continuously between days 15 and 22, enteric CH4 emissions were measured between days 19 and 22 and diet digestibility was measured from days 25 to 28. Mean ruminal pH was 5.91 and was not affected by treatments. Similarly, duration of time that pH<5.8 and 5.6 was not affected by treatment. Likewise, total and major volatile fatty acid profiles were similar among all treatments. No effects were observed on dry matter intake and total tract digestibility of nutrients. Total enteric CH4 production (g/day) was not affected by Propionibacterium strains and averaged 139 g/day. Similarly, mean CH4 yield (g CH4/kg of dry matter intake) was similar for all the treatments. The relative abundance of total Propionibacteria in the rumen increased with administration of DFM and were greater 3 h post-dosing relative to Control, but returned to baseline levels before feeding. Populations of Propionibacterium P169 were higher at 3 and 9 h as compared with the levels at 0 h. In conclusion, moderate persistency of the inoculated strains within the ruminal microbiome and pre-existing high propionate production due to elevated levels of starch fermentation might have reduced the efficacy of Propionibacterium

  1. Effect of diet on animal performance, lipid composition of subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, N; McDowell, L R; Johnson, D D

    1987-01-01

    Two trials were carried out with Brahman beef cattle to study animal performance and carcass characteristics as well as fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose and hepatic tissue, as influence by length of grain feeding period or a pasturing regimen. In trial 1, steers were allotted to three feedlot finishing periods (76, 104 and 146 days) after being backgrounded on pasture. Steers fed 76 days had greater average daily gains (P grades, fat over ribeye, quality yield and per cent kidney, pelvic and heart (KPH) fat than steers fed for 104 and 76 days. The proprortions of certain fatty acid of subcutaneous fat and liver tissue were influenced by the length of grain feeding. There was a marked increased in the proportion of oleic acid in both tissues as the steers remained longer in the feedlot and a higher percentage of total saturated fatty acids at 76 days than at the other two times. Quantitative separation of hepatic lipid classes by the Iatroscan revealed that phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine were the main components of the phospholipids. Presents as minor components were cardiolipin and sphingomyelin. No differences (P > 0.·05) in these individual subclasses of liver lipids or in triglycerides were observed between the feedlot groups. Liver polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher (P yield grade, quality grade, fat over ribeye and per cent KPH were higher (P < 0·01) for the concentrate group while fat color scores were higher (P < 0·01) for the pasture group. Liver fatty acid analysis of summed ω6 PUFAs of triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine were higher for the feedlot than the pasture group. Linoleic acid was higher (P < 0·05) in the TG and PC liver subclass of the feedlot animals while higher (P < 0·05) linolenic acid occurred in the pasture group. PMID:22054497

  2. Total tract nutrient digestion and milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows fed diets containing different levels of whole raw soya beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, B C; de Freitas Júnior, J E; Takiya, C S; de Araújo, A P C; Santos, M C B; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Vendramini, T H A; Rennó, F P

    2015-12-01

    Whole oilseeds such as soya beans have been utilized in dairy rations to supply additional fat and protein. However, antinutritional components contained in soya beans, such as trypsin inhibitors and haemagglutinins (lectins) may alter digestibility of nutrients and consequently affect animal performance. The objective of the present experiment was to quantify the effect of different levels of whole raw soya beans in diets of dairy cows on nutrient intake, total tract digestion, nutrient balances and milk yield and composition. Sixteen mid to late-lactation cows (228 ± 20 days in milk; mean ± SD) were used in four replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment with 21-d periods. Cows were assigned to each square according to milk yield and DIM. The animals were randomly allocated to treatments: control (without soya beans addition; CO), WS9, WS18 and WS27, with addition of 9%, 18% and 27% of whole raw soya bean in diet on a dry matter (DM) basis respectively. All diets contained identical forage and concentrate components and consisted of maize silage and concentrate based on ground corn and soya beans at a ratio of 60:40. There were no differences in OM, CP, NDF and NEL intakes (kg/day and MJ/day) among the treatments (p > 0.05). However, DM and NFC intakes were negatively affected (p = 0.04 and p < 0.01, respectively) and ether extract (EE) intake was positively affected (p < 0.01). Total tract digestion increased linearly with whole raw soya beans for EE (p < 0.01) and NDF (p = 0.01). The excretion (kg/day) of digested soya beans grains increased linearly according to addition of whole raw soya beans. However, the nutritive characteristics of excreted grains were not altered. Milk (kg), milk lactose (kg) and protein (kg) yield decreased linearly (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively) milk fat content (%) increased linearly (p < 0.01) with whole raw soya beans inclusion. Increasing addition of whole raw soya beans affected milk fatty acid profile

  3. Influence of the combination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and a diet negative in cation-anion difference on peripartal calcium homeostasis of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, M R; Oberheide, I; Schröder, B; Azem, E; Steinberg, W; Breves, G

    2012-01-01

    Around parturition, many dairy cows experience varying degrees of hypocalcemia, which increases the incidence of several diseases in early lactation. In the current study, an established concept of feeding a diet negative in cation-anion difference (DCAD) was combined with oral supplementation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OHD(3)) from d 270 of gestation until parturition. Fifty-six dairy cows were divided into 2 feeding groups (low DCAD and control). Fourteen animals of each group received a daily dosage of 3mg of 25-OHD(3). From the beginning of the treatment to d 10 after parturition, plasma samples for analysis of 25-OHD(3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3), parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca(2+), phosphate, the bone resorption marker CrossLaps, and osteocalcin were collected every other day, at calving, and at 6, 12, and 24h after calving. Urine samples for determination of macrominerals and measures of acid-base status were collected on d 6 of treatment and on d 6 after calving. The induction of a compensated metabolic acidosis by the animals on the DCAD diet could be demonstrated by decreased urinary pH. A linear correlation between treatment duration and the plasma concentration of 25-OHD(3) indicated effective absorption of 25-OHD(3) in supplemented animals. The mean plasma concentrations of Ca(2+) from d -4 prepartum to d 4 postpartum were significantly higher in animals treated with the combination of the low DCAD diet and 25-OHD(3) supplementation (1.24±0.02 mmol/mL) compared with the 3 other groups (low DCAD: 1.17±0.02 mmol/mL; control diet plus 25-OHD(3): 1.16±0.02 mmol/mL; control diet: 1.18±0.02 mmol/mL). We postulate that the increased tissue responsiveness to parathyroid hormone induced by the low DCAD is crucial for the observed positive effects of the 25-OHD(3) treatment. PMID:22192194

  4. In situ identification and quantification of starch-hydrolyzing bacteria attached to barley and corn grain in the rumen of cows fed barley-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yun; Kong, Yunhong; Seviour, Robert; Yang, Hee-Eun; Forster, Robert; Vasanthan, Thavaratnam; McAllister, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Cereal grains rich in starch are widely used to meet the energy demands of high-producing beef and dairy cattle. Bacteria are important players in starch digestion in the rumen, and thus play an important role in the hydrolysis and fermentation of cereal grains. However, our understanding of the composition of the rumen starch-hydrolyzing bacteria (SHB) is limited. In this study, BODIPY FL DQ starch staining combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative FISH were applied to label, identify and quantify SHB possessing active cell-surface-associated (CSA) α-amylase activity in the rumen of heifers fed barley-based diets. When individual cells of SHB with active CSA α-amylase activity were enumerated, they constituted 19-23% of the total bacterial cells attached to particles of four different cultivars of barley grain and corn. Quantitative FISH revealed that up to 70-80% of these SHB were members of Ruminococcaceae in the phylum Firmicutes but were not Streptococcus bovis, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Succinomonas amylolytica, Bifidobacterium spp. or Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, all of whose amylolytic activities have been demonstrated previously in vitro. The proportion of barley grain in the diet had a large impact on the percentage abundance of total SHB and Ruminococcaceae SHB in these animals. PMID:26142428

  5. Effects of sex control and twinning on economic optimization of culling cows in Japanese Black cow-calf production systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, K; Hirooka, H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of sex control and twinning techniques on determination of optimal culling parity of cows in beef cow-calf production systems were deterministically analyzed using a herd model simulation. The model simulated the annualized net revenue as an economic indicator during the whole life cycle of a cow. Biological factors (survivability, growth, reproduction, and feed requirements) and economic factors (returns from sales of live calves and cows' carcasses and production costs) were inc...

  6. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef consum...

  7. Beef of Burden? : An investigation of attitudes towards beef consumption among Norwegian consumers

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This thesis set out to investigate Norwegians’ attitudes towards beef consumption. UNEP calls for a worldwide dietary change, away from animal products. Still, the Norwegian authorities do not address the problem of consumption levels. The issue is left for the consumer to solve. The role of beef in the Norwegian diet needs to be challenged, and the responsibility of the consumer needs to be emphasized. The production and consumption of beef is today causing environmental degradation and ...

  8. OVULATION INDUCTION IN BEEF COWS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGES ALLOWANCES DURING POST PARTUM INDUÇÃO DA OVULAÇÃO EM VACAS DE CORTE COM DIFERENTES OFERTAS FORRAGEIRAS DURANTE O PERÍODO PÓS-PARTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Herter Terra

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment compared the efficiency of combined hormonal treatment and 96-hour calf removal with weaning in cows fed different forages allowances and with different weight gains. A total of 310 cows (190 Aberdeen Angus and 120 Charolais, 50 to 70 days postpartum, were sorted into 6 groups. Groups A2, A5, B2 and B5 were composed of 53, 49, 53 and 55 cows, respectively; the first two groups had higher forage availability, while the others had lower forage availability, in the postpartum period; groups A2 and B2 received 2mg estradiol benzoate (day zero and the groups A5 and B5 5mg estradiol benzoate as well as an intra-vaginal device (CIDR with progesterone. Six days later they received 1000UI equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG. At day 7 the CIDR device was removed and the 96-hour calf removal period began. Groups AD and BD, with 52 and 48 cows and high and low forage availability respectively, in the postpartum period, were weaned on day 7. All cows that showed estrous were inseminated between day 7 and 17, and then were bred, up to day 67. Between days 60 and 127, ultrasounds diagnosis of pregnancy were performed. Data analysis was carried out using to the PROC CATMOD in the SAS statistical program. There were no significant differences in pregnancy (p>0.05 rates among groups submitted to different forage offers. Data was then analyzed according to whether the cow gamed or lost weight in the post partum period. These results indicate that weaning was more efficient than the hormonal treatment used and cows that lost weight in the have gained weight in the same period. KEY WORDS: Beef cows, forages availability, ovulation induction

  9. Changes in lipid metabolism and β-adrenergic response of adipose tissues of periparturient dairy cows affected by an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenéz, Á; Tienken, R; Locher, L; Meyer, U; Rizk, A; Rehage, J; Dänicke, S; Huber, K

    2015-08-01

    Dairy cattle will mobilize large amounts of body fat during early lactation as an effect of decreased lipogenesis and increased lipolysis. Regulation of lipid metabolism involves fatty acid synthesis from acetate and β-adrenergic-stimulated phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and perilipin in adipocytes. Although basic mechanisms of mobilizing fat storage in transition cows are understood, we lack a sufficiently detailed understanding to declare the exact regulatory network of these in a broad range of dairy cattle. The objective of the present study was to quantify 1) protein abundance of fatty acid synthase (FAS), 2) extent of phosphorylation of HSL and perilipin in vivo, and 3) β-adrenergic stimulated lipolytic response of adipose tissues in vitro at different stages of the periparturient period. We fed 20 German Holstein cows an energy-dense or an energetically adequate diet prepartum and 0 or 24 g/d nicotinic acid (NA) supplementation. Biopsy samples of subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were obtained at d 42 prepartum (d -42) and at d 1, 21, and 100 postpartum (d +1, d +21, d +100, respectively). To assess β-adrenergic response, tissue samples were incubated with 1 μ isoproterenol for 90 min at 37°C. The NEFA and glycerol release, as well as HSL and perilipin phosphorylation, was measured as indicators of in vitro stimulated lipolysis. In addition, protein expression of FAS and extent of HSL and perilipin phosphorylation were measured in fresh, nonincubated samples. There was no effect of dietary energy density or NA on the observed variables. The extent of HSL and perilipin phosphorylation under isoproterenol stimulation was strongly correlated with the release of NEFA and glycerol, consistent with the functional link between β-adrenergic-stimulated protein phosphorylation and lipolysis. In the nonincubated samples, FAS protein expression was decreased at d +1 and d +21, whereas HSL and perilipin phosphorylation increased

  10. Linseed oil supplementation to dairy cows fed diets based on red clover silage or corn silage: Effects on methane production, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Martineau, R; Gervais, R

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of linseed oil (LO) supplementation to red clover silage (RCS)- or corn silage (CS)-based diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, N balance, and milk production. Twelve rumen-cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Cows were fed (ad libitum) RCS- or CS-based diets [forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter (DM) basis] without or with LO (4% of DM). Supplementation of LO to the RCS-based diet reduced enteric CH4 production (-9%) and CH4 energy losses (-11%) with no adverse effects on DM intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation characteristics, protozoa numbers, or milk production. The addition of LO to the CS-based diet caused a greater decrease in CH4 production (-26%) and CH4 energy losses (-23%) but was associated with a reduction in DM intake, total-tract fiber digestibility, protozoa numbers, acetate:propionate ratio, and energy-corrected milk yield. Urinary N excretion (g/d) decreased with LO supplementation to RCS- and CS-based diets, suggesting reduced potential of N2O emissions. Results from this study show that the depressive effect of LO supplementation on enteric CH4 production is more pronounced with the CS- than with the RCS-based diet. However, because of reduced digestibility with the CS-based diet, the reduction in enteric CH4 production may be offset by higher CH4 emissions from manure storage. Thus, the type of forage of the basal diet should be taken into consideration when using fat supplementation as a dietary strategy to reduce enteric CH4 production from dairy cows. PMID:26298755

  11. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models. PMID:24398839

  12. Efeito do fósforo suplementar sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte em pastagem de Brachiaria humidicola Effect of phosphorus supplementation on the reproductive performance of beef cows grazing Brachiaria humidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIZ ROBERTO LOPES S'THIAGO

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste experimento foi observar e quantificar o efeito de duas misturas minerais (ad libitum, uma sem (M e outra com fósforo suplementar (MP, sobre o desempenho produtivo e reprodutivo de vacas de cria neloradas em pastejo de Brachiaria humidicola. O trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Modelo (Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, localizada em Terenos, MS, em duas fases, a primeira, em 1988/92, e a segunda, em 1992/94. Na segunda fase, reduziu-se a carga animal durante a seca e os dias de amamentação (de 1,0 para 0,5 vacas/ha e de 210 para 90 dias, respectivamente. Foram realizadas medidas de consumo da mistura mineral (M = 76 e MP = 112 g/cab./dia; teor médio de fósforo na forrageira (época das chuvas = 0,16%, época seca = 0,11%; peso vivo (primeira fase: M = 363±3,3 e MP = 371±3,8 kg; segunda fase: M = 407± 5,7 e MP = 417± 6,5 kg; taxa de natalidade (primeira fase: M = 67±3,3 e MP = 66± 3,5%; segunda fase: M = 74± 6,3 e MP = 80± 5,7% e bezerros desmamados (primeira fase: M = 86± 5,0 e MP = 91± 5,3; segunda fase: M = 55± 6,4 e MP = 67± 5,7. As vacas de cria não responderam ao fósforo suplementar.The objective of this experiment was to observe and quantify the effect of two mineral mixtures, as free-choice feeding, one without (M and other with phosphorus supplement (MP, on the productive and reproductive performance of Nellore beef cows grazing Brachiaria humidicola. This work was conducted at the Fazenda Modelo (Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Gado de Corte, located in Terenos, MS, Brazil, in two phases, 1st from 1988/92 and 2nd from 1992/94. During the 2nd phase, stocking rate, for the dry period, and suckling days were reduced (from 1.0 to 0.5 cows/ha and 210 to 90 days, respectively. Mineral intake (M = 76 and MP = 112 g/had/day, forage phosphorus level (wet season = 0.16%; dry season = 0.11%, liveweight (1st phase: M = 363± 3.3 and MP = 371± 3.8 kg; 2nd phase: M = 407± 5.7 and MP

  13. Screening for diets that reduce urinary nitrogen excretion and methane emissions while maintaining or increasing production by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, Pablo; Beukes, Pierre C; Dalley, Dawn; Romera, Alvaro J

    2016-05-01

    Farmers face complex decisions at the time to feed animals, trying to achieve production goals while contemplating social and environmental constraints. Our purpose was to facilitate such decision making for pastoral dairy farmers, aiming to reduce urinary N (UN) and methane emissions (CH4), while maintaining or increasing milk production (MP). There is a number of feeds the farmers can choose from and combine. We used 50 feeds (forages and grains) combined systematically in different proportions producing 11,526 binary diets. Diets were screened, using an a posteriori approach and a Pareto front (PF) analysis of model (Molly) outputs. The objective was to identify combinations with the best possible compromise (i.e. frontier) between UN, CH4, and MP. Using high MP and low UN as objective functions, PF included 10, 14, 12 and 50 diets, for non-lactating, early-, mid- and late-lactation periods, with cereals and beets featuring strongly. Using the same objective functions, but including ryegrass as dietary base PF included 2, 4, 8 and 4 diets for those periods. Therefore, from a wide range of diets, farmers could choose from few feeds combined into binary diets to reduce UN while maintaining or increasing MP. If the intention is maintaining pasture-based systems, there are fewer suitable options. Reducing UN will simply require dilution of N supplied by pasture by supplementing low N conserved forages. The results also evidence the risk of pollution swapping, reaching the frontier means arriving at a point where trade-off decisions need to be made. Any further reduction in UN implies an increment in CH4, or reduction in CH4 emissions increases UN. There is no perfect diet to optimize all objectives simultaneously; but if the current diet is not in the frontier some options can offset pollution swapping. The choice is with the farmers and conditioned by their context. PMID:26874758

  14. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Massé, Daniel I.; Guillaume Jarret; Chaouki Benchaar; Noori M. Cata Saady

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure dur...

  15. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  16. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    concentrations increased and IFN-γ production decreased peripartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased the incidence of lameness postpartum, although other health and fertility parameters were unaffected. In conclusion, supplementing low BCS cows with concentrates during the dry period had no effect on performance and fertility and resulted in a higher neutrophil phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum and an increased incidence of lameness compared with offering cows a grass silage-only diet prepartum. PMID:27394939

  17. Analysis of production responses to changing crude protein levels in lactating dairy cow diets when evaluated in continuous or change-over experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate by meta-analysis the effect of experimental design on the production response functions obtained when changing crude protein (CP) levels in lactating dairy cow diets. The final database of studies meeting the selection criteria contained 55 publications with 23 classified as using a continuous (80 diets) and 34 classified as using a change-over (173 diets) experimental design (2 publications reported results from trials using both designs). Mixed model, weighted analysis of covariance was conducted on production measures in response to CP including the continuous covariates year of publication and average days in milk (DIM) and the discrete classification covariate of experimental design. The model was evaluated for curvilinearity in the response to CP, variance heterogeneity, and coincidence in the response between experimental designs, with PProduction responses to increasing CP were increased dry matter intake (DMI), milk and component yield, and feed efficiency (milk Mcal/kg of DMI), and decreased milk N:intake N. Response in milk yield and feed efficiency to increased CP interacted with experimental design where continuous experiments had greater milk yield and feed efficiency response at higher levels of CP. Interaction between CP and design effects on yield of milk protein and fat or milk N:intake N did not approach significance. The database is limited by the lower number of continuous studies and the differences in average DIM between designs; nevertheless, it is concluded that DMI, milk protein yield, milk fat yield, and milk N:intake N responses to CP did not depend on experimental design. Response of milk yield and feed efficiency to CP interacted with experimental design; however, prospective research on the influence of experimental design is required to test these results. PMID:27060818

  18. Calving sub-season and reproductive efficiency of beef cows Subépoca de parição e eficiência reprodutiva de vacas de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Reinher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated in this work the effect of calving sub-season on the pregnancy rate of 7,726 multiparous Hereford beef cows grazing on natural pastures in southern Brazil, from 1994 to 2007. Calving sub-season periods were divided in 20-day intervals from August 12th to 31st; from September 1st to 20th; from September 21st to October 10th; from October 11th to 31st; from November 1st to 20th. Calving in each sub-season and pregnancy rate (PR were analyzed by the Chi-square test. Overall means of each sub-season were 92.7% (from August 12th to 31st, 90.6% (from September 1st to 20th, 82.1% (from September 21st to October 10th, 77.7% (from October 11th to 31st, and 70.6% (from November 1st to 20th. Calving sub-season significantly influenced pregnancy rate. Cows which calved in the initial sub-season showed higher pregnancy rates than cows which calved from the fourth calving sub-season. However this difference did not occur in 1999 and in 2007 since calving rates did not statistically differ among the five sub-seasons. In 1998 and 2004, calving rates were lower and the effects of calving sub-season on pregnancy rates were higher, possibly due to climate variations. In general, pregnancy rate decreases as calving occurs later in the year, particularly in years when the weather adversely affects pasture growth.Avaliou-se o efeito da subépoca de parição sobre a taxa de prenhez de 7.726 vacas de corte multíparas Hereford mantidas em campo natural no Sul do Brasil, entre os anos de 1994 e 2007. As subépocas foram divididas em intervalos de 20 dias: de 12 a 31 de agosto; de 1 a 20 de setembro; 21 de setembro a 10 de outubro; 11 a 31 de outubro; e 1 a 20 de novembro. Foram analisados os partos ocorridos na subépoca de parição e a taxa de prenhez (PR pelo qui-quadrado. As médias gerais de cada subépoca foram 92.7% (12 a 31 de agosto, 90.6% (1 a 20 de setembro, 82.1% (21 de setembro a 10 de outubro, 77.7% (11 a 31 de outubro e 70.6% (1 a 20 de

  19. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  20. Effect of plant oils and camelina expeller on milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed diets based on red clover silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A; Kokkonen, T; Lampi, A-M; Toivonen, V; Shingfield, K J; Vanhatalo, A

    2011-09-01

    Five multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fed red clover silage-based diets were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 21-d experimental periods to evaluate the effects of various plant oils or camelina expeller on animal performance and milk fatty acid composition. Treatments consisted of 5 concentrate supplements containing no additional lipid (control), or 29 g/kg of lipid from rapeseed oil (RO), sunflower-seed oil (SFO), camelina-seed oil (CO), or camelina expeller (CE). Cows were offered red clover silage ad libitum and 12kg/d of experimental concentrates. Treatments had no effect on silage or total dry matter intake, whole-tract digestibility coefficients, milk yield, or milk composition. Plant oils in the diet decreased short- and medium-chain saturated fatty acid (6:0-16:0) concentrations, including odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and enhanced milk fat 18:0 and 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acid content. Increases in the relative proportions of cis 18:1, trans 18:1, nonconjugated 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk fat were dependent on the fatty acid composition of oils in the diet. Rapeseed oil in the diet was associated with the enrichment of trans 18:1 (Δ4, 6, 7, 8, and 9), cis-9 18:1, and trans-7,cis-9 CLA, SFO resulted in the highest concentrations of trans-5, trans-10, and trans-11 18:1, Δ9,11 CLA, Δ10,12 CLA, and 18:2n-6, whereas CO enhanced trans-13-16 18:1, Δ11,15 18:2, Δ12,15 18:2, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, Δ11,13 CLA, Δ12,14 CLA, Δ13,15 CLA, Δ9,11,15 18:3, and 18:3n-3. Relative to CO, CE resulted in lower 18:0 and cis-9 18:1 concentrations and higher proportions of trans-10 18:1, trans-11 18:1, cis-9,trans-11 CLA, cis-9,trans-13 18:2, and trans-11,cis-15 18:2. Comparison of milk fat composition responses to CO and CE suggest that the biohydrogenation of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids to 18:0 in the rumen was less complete for camelina lipid supplied as an expeller than as free oil. In conclusion

  1. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    different countries. Legal and political issues are also discussed in the report. 2. The consumption of beef in Europe has been stable around 20 kg/head/year since the 1960's with a slightly falling trend. With a steady increase in total meat consumption, this has resulted in a significant decrease in beef...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows are...... instrumental measures of these characteristics has made the sorting int consumer-relevant quality categories impossible. Recently, schemes have been set up in several countries to produce beef under certain controlled conditions with the aim of assuring a certain quality. These schemes involve participation of...

  2. Diet choice by dairy cows. 1. Selection of feed protein content during the first half of lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolkamp, B.J.; Dewhurst, R.J.; Friggens, N.C.; Kyriazakis, I.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Oldham, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of weeks in milk and milk yield on diet choice were recorded during the first half of lactation. Low and high protein feeds were used, and both consisted of 30% concentrate and 70% grass silage (fresh matter basis). Both feeds contained similar amounts of energy, but the crude protein conten

  3. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE, Mad Cow Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Bruckner

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Mad Cow Disease or BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy became a household name internationally and also in South Africa. International hysteria resulted following reports of a possible link between a disease diagnosed in cattle in Britain and a variant of the disease diagnosed in humans after the presumed ingestion or contact with meat from infected cattle. The European Union instituted a ban on the importation of beef from the United Kingdom during March 1996 that had a severe effect on the beef industry in the UK and also resulted in a world wide consumer resistance against beef consumption.

  4. Desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca na identificação de alimentos industrializados com e sem leite vaca The performance of parents of children receiving cow's milk free diets at indentification of commercial food products with and without cows's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabata Koester Weber

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar o desempenho de pais de crianças em dieta isenta da proteína do leite de vaca no reconhecimento de expressões e alimentos que contenham ou não proteínas do leite de vaca. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 24 pais de crianças em dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca e derivados e 23 sem necessidade de nenhum tipo de dieta de exclusão. Foi questionado se reconheciam 12 expressões relacionadas ao leite de vaca. A seguir, foi solicitado que classificassem 10 produtos industrializados quanto ao conteúdo ou não de proteínas do leite de vaca. RESULTADOS:Termos iniciados com a palavra leite foram os mais reconhecidos pelos dois grupos. Os responsáveis por crianças em dieta de exclusão reconheceram mais freqüentemente as palavras proteína do leite de vaca, traços do leite e formulação ou preparação láctea (p OBJECTIVE: To investigate how well the parents of children on cow's milk free diets perform at recognizing whether or not expressions describe and foods contain cow's milk proteins. METHODS: Interviews were conducted with 24 parents of children on cow's milk and by-products exclusion diets and 23 parents of children with no need for any type of exclusion diet. They were asked if they recognized 12 expressions relating to cow's milk. They were then asked to classify 10 commercial food products in terms of whether or not they contained cow's milk proteins. RESULTS: Terms that included the word milk were more often recognized by both groups of parents. The parents of children on exclusion diets recognized the terms cow's milk protein, traces of milk and milk formulation or preparation most frequently (p < 0.05. Less than 25.0% of those interviewed recognized casein, caseinate, lactalbumin and lactoglobulin. Both groups correctly identified more of the commercial products containing cow's milk than those free from milk. The median number of products containing cow's milk (total = 5 correctly identified by the parents

  5. Nutrient Utilization, Lactational Performance, and Profitability of Dairy Cows by Feeding Protein Supplements in High-Forage Lactation Diets

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing cost of soybean meal and concerns of excess N being excreted into the environment, new protein supplements have been developed. Two products that have shown potential in increasing N utilization efficiency are slow release urea (SRU; Optigen) and ruminal escape protein derived from yeast (YMP; DEMP). The objective of this study was to assess the effects of feeding these 2 supplements in high-forage [(54% of total dietary dry matter (DM)] dairy diets on nutrient utilizati...

  6. Simulation of milk production by dairy cows fed sugarcane top-based diets with locally available supplements under Indian condition

    OpenAIRE

    Behera, U.K.; Kebreab, E.; Dijkstra, J.; Assis, A.G.; France, J

    2005-01-01

    A model of sugarcane digestion was applied to indicate the suitability of various locally available supplements for enhancing milk production of Indian crossbred dairy cattle. Milk production was calculated according to simulated energy, lipogenic, glucogenic and aminogenic substrate availability. The model identified the most limiting substrate for milk production from different sugarcane-based diets. For sugarcane tops/urea fed alone, milk production was most limited by amino acid followed ...

  7. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  8. Ingestão de nutrientes e estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados Nutrient intake and nutritional status of children following a diet free from cow's milk and cow's milk by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian C. S. Medeiros

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ingestão alimentar e o estado nutricional de crianças em dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 26 crianças, na primeira consulta realizada em ambulatório de gastroenterologia pediátrica, que vinham recebendo dieta isenta de leite de vaca e derivados (média de idade = 19,1 meses e 30 crianças com dieta normal, isto é, sem nenhum tipo de restrição alimentar (média de idade = 16,8 meses. Empregou-se o método do dia alimentar habitual para a obtenção dos dados sobre consumo alimentar. A ingestão alimentar foi comparada entre os grupos e em relação às Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. O estado nutricional foi avaliado com base nos escores z de peso/idade, estatura/idade e peso/estatura. RESULTADOS: O grupo em dieta isenta de leite de vaca apresentou menor ingestão de energia (p = 0,005, proteínas (p OBJECTIVE: To assess the food intake and the nutritional status of children on a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet. METHODS: Twenty-six children receiving a cow's milk and cow's milk by-products free diet were assessed during their first visit to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic (mean age = 19.1 months. Thirty children with no food restriction (mean age = 16.8 months were also assessed. The usual daily food intake method was used to make the dietary assessment. The food intake was compared between the groups and in relation to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs. The z-scores for weight/age, height/age and weight/height were used to evaluate the nutritional status. RESULTS: The cow's milk free diet group presented lower energy (p = 0.005, protein (p < 0.001, lipid (p < 0.001, calcium (p < 0.001 and phosphorous (p < 0.001 intake when compared to the control group. The number of children who had energy, calcium and phosphorous intake below the DRIs was higher in the cow's milk free diet group than in the control group. The z-score means for the cow's milk free diet and

  9. ROMANIAN BEEF & VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  10. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-01-01

    Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being depend...

  11. Eficiência reprodutiva de matrizes bovinas de corte submetidas a três diferentes tipos de suplementação mineral Reproduction performance of beef cattle cows given three different types of mineral supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Em uma fazenda do município de Cássia, Minas Gerais, o desempenho reprodutivo de aproximadamente 1200 matrizes bovinas de corte, criadas a campo, foi avaliado frente a três diferentes tipos de suplementação mineral, durante cinco anos. Enquanto que a mistura A (sal mineral comercial foi oferecida nos anos de 1997 e 1998, a mistura B (cloreto de sódio 50% e fosfato bicálcico 50% foi disponibilizada, em 1999, para as matrizes mantidas em um dos setor es da fazenda e a mistura C (apenas cloreto de sódio, foi oferecida, neste mesmo ano, para os lotes criados em outros dois setores. Nos anos de 2000 e 2001, a mistura C foi ofertada a todas matrizes. Não houve queda na eficiência reprodutiva pela suplementação exclusiva com cloreto de sódio, pelo contrário, as percentagens de matrizes inseminadas e matrizes prenhes, que eram, respectivamente, de 92,5 e 78,2 (1997 e 92,2 e 80,5 (1998 alcançaram níveis de 94,5 e 85,7 (2000 e 96,7 e 89,7 (2001. A redução nos índices de matrizes inseminadas e de prenhez verificadas no ano de 1999 foi atribuída à baixa precipitação pluviométrica registrada naquele ano. Os autores ressalvam, porém, que a suplementação seletiva, isto é, aquela baseada na exclusiva administração do (s mineral (is que está (ão faltando em uma determinada fazenda, só deve ser implantada mediante avaliação e acompanhamento clínico-nutricional do rebanho, o que exige apoio de profissional com adequados conhecimentos sobre nutrição, deficiências minerais e clínica de ruminantes. Por outro lado, a suplementação seletiva, pode representar uma despesa 2 a 3 vezes menor do que a verificada com a ''mineralização'' convencional do rebanho. Discute-se se a melhoria dos índices reprodutivos deveu-se à adequação do manejo ou à cessação de possível antagonismo entre os minerais.The reproduction performance of about 1,200 beef cows, raised on pasture and given three different mineral supplements, was

  12. Periparturient effects of feeding a low dietary cation-anion difference diet on acid-base, calcium, and phosphorus homeostasis and on intravenous glucose tolerance test in high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, W; Donkin, S S; Constable, P D

    2011-02-01

    Feeding rations with low dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) to dairy cows during late gestation is a common strategy to prevent periparturient hypocalcemia. Although the efficacy of low-DCAD rations in reducing the incidence of clinical hypocalcemia is well documented, potentially deleterious effects have not been explored in detail. The objective of the study presented here was to determine the effect of fully compensated metabolic acidosis on calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, insulin responsiveness, and insulin sensitivity as well as on protein metabolism. Twenty multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups and fed a low-DCAD ration (DCAD = -9 mEq/100g, group L) or a control ration (DCAD = +11 mEq/100g, group C) for the last 3 wk before the expected calving date. Blood and urine samples were obtained periodically between 14 d before to 14 d after calving. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests and 24-h volumetric urine collection were conducted before calving as well as 7 and 14 d postpartum. Cows fed the low-DCAD ration had lower urine pH and higher net acid excretion, but unchanged blood pH and bicarbonate concentration before calving. Protein-corrected plasma Ca concentration 1 d postpartum was higher in cows on the low-DCAD diet when compared with control animals. Urinary Ca and P excretion was positively associated with urine net acid excretion and negatively associated with urine pH. Whereas metabolic acidosis resulted in a 6-fold increase in urinary Ca excretion, the effect on renal P excretion was negligible. A more pronounced decline of plasma protein and globulin concentration in the periparturient period was observed in cows on the low-DCAD diets resulting in significantly lower total protein and globulin concentrations after calving in cows on low-DCAD diets. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests conducted before and after calving did not reveal group differences in insulin response or insulin sensitivity. Our

  13. Effect of decreasing dietary cation anion difference on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonmaker, J P; Korn, K T; Condron, K N; Shee, C N; Claeys, M C; Nennich, T D; Lemenager, R P

    2013-12-01

    The manipulation of acid-base balance has been extensively investigated as a means of manipulating Ca homeostasis and managing milk fever in dairy cows. A low dietary cation anion difference (DCAD) increases urinary Ca, blood-ionized Ca, and responsiveness to Ca-homeostatic hormones. Very little attention has been focused on the possibility of using a low dietary DCAD to increase muscle Ca availability, calpain activity, and meat tenderness of beef cattle. Thus, 90 Angus × Simmental crossbred steers were allotted by weight (590.1 ± 2.4 kg) and breed composition (% Simmental) to 3 treatments (6 pens/treatment, 5 steers/pen) to evaluate the effects of DCAD on beef tenderness. Treatments were initiated 2 wk before slaughter and consisted of 3 DCAD (mEq/100 g) treatments: -16, 0, and +16. Basal diets (DM basis) were 62 to 64% corn, 6 to 9% soybean meal, and 20% corn silage, and were formulated to contain similar concentrations of protein, energy (NEm; NEg), and minerals, with the exception of sodium and chlorine. A commercial chloride ion supplement (PASTURChlor, West Central, Ralston, IA) was added to diets to decrease DCAD and sodium bicarbonate was added to diets to increase DCAD. Performance before initiation of the study did not differ among treatments (P > 0.22). Urine pH did not differ at the initiation of the study (P > 0.57), but did increase at a decreasing rate on d 7 (6.37, 7.69, 8.13) and d 14 (5.68, 7.66, 8.03) of the study as DCAD increased from -16 to 0 to +16, respectively (quadratic, P carcass weight, dressing percent, fat thickness, LM area, yield grade, marbling score, quality grade distribution, 48 h muscle pH, and Ca content of muscle did not differ among treatments (P > 0.16). In addition, DCAD did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force among treatments after 7 and 21 d of aging (P > 0.23). Although urine pH was decreased by feeding a -16 DCAD diet, Ca influx into the LM and beef tenderness were not affected by altering the DCAD in finishing

  14. Incorporating mixed rations and formulated grain mixes into the diet of grazing cows: Effects on milk composition and coagulation properties, and the yield and quality of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auldist, M J; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Williams, R P W; Moate, P J; Wales, W J

    2016-06-01

    Effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the composition and coagulation properties of milk and the subsequent yield and quality of Cheddar cheese were measured. The experiment used milk from 72 Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, fed according to 1 of 3 feeding strategies: (1) cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture [approximately 14kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day, to ground level] supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock (control); (2) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock (FGM); or (3) same pasture and allowance as control, supplemented with a partial mixed ration comprising the same formulated grain mix but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking (PMR). For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio (78:22, DM basis). Within each feeding strategy, milk was sampled from cows receiving either 8 or 16kg (DM) of supplement/cow per day. There were 2 replicated groups of 6 cows per supplement amount per dietary strategy; approximately 250L of milk was sampled from each for analyses of composition and coagulation properties and the manufacture of Cheddar cheese. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. For cows fed according to the control strategy, those fed 16kg/cow per day produced milk with lower concentrations of milk fat than cows fed 8kg/cow per day. This effect was not observed for cows fed according to the FGM and PMR strategies. Milk from cows fed 16kg of DM/cow per day according to the control strategy yielded less Cheddar cheese than milk from cows fed according to the PMR strategy, with cheese yields from FGM cows being intermediate. Amount of supplement offered had

  15. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  16. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  17. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    OpenAIRE

    He Mao L; Mir Priya S; Okine Erasmus K; Napadajlo Helen

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synth...

  18. Efecto de la suplementación de grasas sobre características productivas, tasas de preñez y algunos metabolitos de los lípidos en vacas para carne en pastoreo Effect of fat supplementation on productive traits, pregnancy rates and some lipid metabolites in beef cows on range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Espinoza-Villavicencio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto de la suplementación con dos fuentes de grasa en vacas para carne en pastoreo se utilizaron 120 hembras adultas en dos hatos. De manera independiente, en un hato (A con 60 vacas Charolais y en otro (B con 60 vacas Chinampas (criollo local se suplementaron (2 kg/vaca/día concentrados isoproteicos (PC = 16,6% con un contenido similar de EM (≈ 3,0 Mcal/kg durante 90 días (iniciando 30 días preparto. En cada hato, las vacas se dividieron aleatoriamente en tres grupos. Los grupos testigo (TE; n = 20 recibieron suplemento con 3,2% de grasa. Otro grupo de 20 vacas en cada hato recibió un suplemento conteniendo grasa adicional (13,2% en forma de jabones de calcio de ácidos grasos (JCAG. El tercer grupo (SB dentro de cada hato (n = 20 consumió suplemento con 13,4% de grasa a base de sebo de bovino. Para la comparación de las medias en las variables no categóricas se utilizaron contrastes ortogonales (TE vs SB + JCAG y SB vs JCAG. En el hato A, la producción de leche fue mayor a los 35 (P In order to evaluate the effect of a supplementation with two sources of fat in beef cows on range, 120 adult females in two herds were used. One herd of 60 Charolais cows (A and another herd of 60 Chinampo cows (B, local Creole were fed (2 kg/cow/day isoproteic concentrates (PC = 16.6% with a similar content of ME (aprox. 3.0 Mcal/kg during a 90 days period (initiating 30 days precalving, respectively. In each herd, cows were randomly assigned into three groups. The control groups (TE; n = 20 were fed a supplement containing 3.2% of fat. Another group of 20 cows per herd was fed a supplement containing additional fat (13.2% as calcium soaps of fatty acids (JCAG. The third group (SB within each herd (n = 20 was fed a supplement containing 13.4% of fat (bovine tallow. Orthogonal contrasts (TE vs SB + JCAG and SB vs JCAG were used to compare the means of non categorical variables. In herd A, milk yield was greater at 35 (P < 0

  19. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  20. Effects of a short energetic supplementation during the transition period over the ovarian postpartum reactivation in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is known the nutritional status of how the cow enters to a new production cycle is determinant for the negative energetic balance (NEB) behaviour during the postpartum period. The follicular development and the ovulation rate are directly related with the NEB1. There is also a positive correlation between the number of presented heats and the fertility at the first artificial insemination (AI)2. That is why it is important to understand the relation of the nutritional balance during the transition period on the reproductive axis in the cow. The effect of a short energetic supplementation during the transition period over the return of the ovarian activity postpartum in dairy and beef crossbred cows was evaluated in the north-eastern of Honduras. During the period of November of 2007- September 2008 a total of 32 cows were used for this experiment, 16 treated (T1) and 16 as control (T2). The T1 group was treated beginning 21 d before the expected calving date and until 21 d postpartum. The diet consisted in the prepartum period in a palm nut by-product and wheat by-product (slow degradation energy sources) and in the postpartum: corn meal, molasses (fast degradation energy sources), and palm nut and wheat by-product. In both periods the supplement was offered in two pound per day divided in two portions. The T2 group was not supplemented at all and in was managed as usual in the farm. The diet was complemented for all the cows with grazing in Brachiaria decumbens pastures. In both groups the postpartum ovarian activity was measured by Progesterone detection in blood serum using the Radioimmunology analysis (RIA) technique. Samples were taken twice a week, starting at the day 18th postpartum and until the presence of an onset heat in the cow. Both treatments showed a marked behaviour on the presence of first onset heat postpartum; been the mean of 87 d for the T1 cows compare with 133 d for the T2 cows, with a difference of 46 d between both groups (P< 0

  1. Palm (Elaeis guineensis L. kernel cake in diets for dairy cowsTorta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis L. em dietas de vacas leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odislei Fagner Ribeiro Cunha

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of different dietary inclusion levels of palm (Elaeisguineensis L. kernel cake (PKC for lactating dairy cows on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Diets containing 0, 113, 228, 342g of PKC/kg dry matter were formulated and fed to eight crossbred (Holandês x Zebu dairy cows with mean weight of 382kg at 60-90 days of lactation. The cows were used in a double 4 x 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted for 15 days, with 11 days adaptation and four days sampling. Increasing the levels of PKC in the diet reduced the intake of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, hemicellulose, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN. The NDF intake was higher at the 113g/kg PKC inclusion level compared to other treatments. There was linear decreasing effect on fat corrected milk with the inclusion of PKC. There was linear reduction in digestibility of dry matter(DM and total carbohydrate (TC, but no effect was observed on the NDF and ADF digestibility. Linear increase was observed on crude protein (CP, NFC and ether extract (EE digestibility. The digestibility of these nutrients probably increased because of the longer retention time of the digest in the rumen caused by reduced DM intake. The addition of PKC decreased the nutritive value of the diets, which subsequently reduced linearly milk production.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão (0.0; 113,4; 227,8 e 341,7 g/kg de matéria seca da torta de dendê (TD em dietas para vacas leiteiras lactantes sobre o consumo, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e dos nutrientes e produção de leite. Foram utilizadas oito vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, primíparas, com peso médio de 382 kg, entre 60 e 90 dias de lactação, distribuídas em duplos quadrados latinos 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 15 dias, sendo 11 dias para adaptação e quatro

  2. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  3. Range Beef Cattle Productivity in Southern Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Maiga, Mouslim A.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-six range beef cattle ranches in southern Utah were surveyed by personal interview to obtain production data. The data were used to characterize the level of production efficiency in terms of calving rate, weaning rate, weaning weight, and net weaning weight in these operations; and to identify factors associated with differences in productivity. The data revealed that productive efficiency was generally lower than the potential. Mean calving rate of cows exposed for breeding was...

  4. Selection and Development of Replacement Beef Heifers

    OpenAIRE

    Stenquist, Norris J.; Bennett, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Selection, development, management, and nutrition of heifer calves to be used as herd replacements are key factors in maintaining beef herd productivity. A cow/calf producer, to be successful, must have some goals or criterion for heifer selection and development. For practically all Utah cattle production areas, economics dictate that heifers must calve as two-year-olds. Heifers must be properly developed and managed to permit this. The following factors are important: Heifers should 1) beco...

  5. Valuing Beef Herd Dam Genetic Pedigree Management

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson-Carolan, Jessica; Parcell, Joseph L.; Patterson, David J.; Eakins, Roger; Franken, Jason R.V.

    2011-01-01

    An important component of the beef cow herd is the contribution of the dam to herd profitability. Yet, no research has contributed to valuing the dam’s genetic contribution to herd quality performance or profitability. This paper examines how managing for dam genetic pedigree quality grade affected the outcome of calf crop quality, and simulates the economic impact for different levels of quality premium. The results show that managing for dam pedigree genetics beyond three generations in t...

  6. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  7. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  8. Short communication: Substituting dry distillers grains with solubles and rumen-protected amino acids for soybean meal in late-lactation cows' diets based on corn silage or ryegrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Zeringue, L K; Leonardi, C; Jenny, B F; Williams, C C; McCormick, M E; Moreira, V R

    2015-11-01

    Excess protein in dairy cattle diets increases production costs and contributes to environmental pollution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding dry distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) supplemented with rumen-protected Lys and Met in place of solvent-extracted soybean meal on the performance of late-lactation cows. Two experiments were carried out, with each using 24 late-lactating dairy cows distributed among 4 pens. In trial 1, corn silage was the main forage source. Control (HP1) total mixed ration (TMR) contained 16.3% crude protein (CP) with soybean meal as the main protein source. Treatment TMR (LP1) had 13.7% CP when soybean meal was replaced with DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Forage in trial 2 was ryegrass silage; control TMR (HP2; 15.4% CP) contained soybean meal and rumen-protected Met, whereas treatment TMR (LP2; 13.8% CP) contained DDGS and rumen-protected Lys and Met. Trials were analyzed as crossover design using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary NC) with cow as sampling unit and pen as the experimental unit. Treatments were similar in dry matter intake (21.0 and 20.4 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) and milk yield (20.7 and 20.5 kg/cow per day for HP1 and LP1, respectively) during trial 1. Milk composition was similar between treatments, averaging 4.22, 3.73, 4.54, and 9.15, respectively, for fat, protein, lactose, and solids nonfat. Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 17.2 mg/dL for HP1 to 9.93 mg/dL for LP1. In trial 2, no significant differences were observed for dry matter intake (21.4 and 20.9 kg/cow per day for HP2 and LP2, respectively), milk yield (28.1 and 26.6 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), fat yield (0.99 vs. 0.92 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively), protein yield (0.94 vs. 0.86 kg/d for HP2 and LP2, respectively) and lactose yield (1.37 vs. 1.28 for HP2 and LP2, respectively). Milk urea nitrogen decreased from 9.88 mg/dL with HP2 to 6.39 mg/dL with the LP2

  9. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain relatively high concentrations of NDF and ADF compared with other grains and concentrates it replaces in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the U. S. contain 8.3 and 9.0% rougha...

  10. Indução hormonal da ovulação e desmame precoce na fertilidade pós-parto de vacas de corte homozigotas e heterozigotas para o microssatélite BMS3004 Hormonal induction of ovulation and early weaning in postpartum fertility of homozigous and heterozigous beef cows for the microsatellite BMS3004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme de Medeiros Bastos

    2003-10-01

    , associated to the temporary weaning for 96 hours, with the definitive weaning at 60 days in beef cows, for the induction of estrus and ovulation. One hundred and eighty-three suckled beef cows were used. The breeds of the cows were Charolais (C and Nellore (N and their crosses. The animals were genotyped as homozygous (HOM and heterozigous (HET for the microsatellite BMS3004, that is localized in the same chromossome of the LH beta chain gene. The cows were distributed in two groups between 60 and 80 days postpartum (day 0. In the hormonal induction group (HI, the cows (n=87 received (day 0 250 mg of medroxiprogesteron acetate for 8 days, 2.5 mg of estradiol benzoate (day 1 and 500 UI of eCG (day 7. On day 8, the calves were weaned for 96 hours. In the same day (day 8, the cows (n=96 of the other group were just submitted to early weaning (group EW. Twelve hours after weaning, artificial insemination (AI was done during four days. After this period, they were mated. The first diagnosis of pregnancy (DP was performed 60 days after the AI period and, the second, 60 days after the end of mating. The estrus rates were higher in cows from HI group than in those of EW group. In the HI group, the cows with body condition 2.5 and 3.0 presented lower pregnancy rates at the 1st DP (29.6 and 46.4% than in the EW group (56.0 and 72.2%. The rates of pregnancy in cows with body index 65-73 did not differ between the HI and EW groups. The N cows of HI group presented lower pregnancy rate at 1st DP than the F1 (27.7 vs. 64.2%, but was not different than the C cows (40.0%. In the HI group, the pregnancy rate at the 2nd DP was lower in HOM cows than in the HET ones. The cows in the early definitive weaning group showed to be more efficient than in the hormonal induction group to improve the pregnancy rate.

  11. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  12. Open Cow Replacement Decisions: an Application of Asset Replacement Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ibendahl, Gregory A.; Anderson, John D.

    2001-01-01

    Beef producers must decide what to do with a cow that fails to conceive during the breeding season. Keeping the open cow results in a years expenses without any revenue. Replacing the open cow with a bred heifer provides immediate revenue although it will take a few years before the heifer reaches peak productivity. A net present value framework is employed to examine this decision. The problem is unique because the open cow and the replacement heifer have different life spans. Finding a comm...

  13. OVULATION INDUCTION IN BEEF COWS WITH DIFFERENT FORAGES ALLOWANCES DURING POST PARTUM INDUÇÃO DA OVULAÇÃO EM VACAS DE CORTE COM DIFERENTES OFERTAS FORRAGEIRAS DURANTE O PERÍODO PÓS-PARTO

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Herter Terra; Paulo Bayard Dias Gonçalves; João Francisco Coelho de Oliveira; Tania de Azevedo Weimer; Jairo Pereira Neves

    2008-01-01

    This experiment compared the efficiency of combined hormonal treatment and 96-hour calf removal with weaning in cows fed different forages allowances and with different weight gains. A total of 310 cows (190 Aberdeen Angus and 120 Charolais), 50 to 70 days postpartum, were sorted into 6 groups. Groups A2, A5, B2 and B5 were composed of 53, 49, 53 and 55 cows, respectively; the first two groups had higher...

  14. Efeitos do manejo pós-parto de vacas primíparas no desempenho de bezerros de corte até um ano de idade Effects of post-partum management of primiparous cows on growth of beef calves up to one year of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Augusto Albornoz Pötter

    2004-04-01

    weaning at 100 (EW and at 180 (CW days of age, were evaluated using 92 beef calves from Hereford and Braford primiparous cows. The sex of the calves affected significantly the birth weight, and no effect was observed for the breed of cow. The treatments and breed of cow did not affect the average daily gain (ADG of the calves from birth to early weaning (GEW. Calves born from Braford cows had higher LW at EW (WEW than calves born from Hereford cows, while the WEW was not affected by the treatments. Calves born from Braford cows on T2 had ADG up to 180 days (ADG180 and LW at 180 days (LW180 greater than calves born from Braford cows on T1 and Hereford cows on T2. Calves from CW had greater LW180 and ADG180 than calves from EW. However, treatments and weaning ages did not affect the LW at 365 days and the ADG up to 365 days of age. The three cows post-partum management schemes and the two calves weaning ages evaluated did not affect the calves performance up to one year of age.

  15. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas; José Esler de Freitas Júnior; Julianne de Rezende Naves; Marco Aurélio de Felicio Porcionato; Luís Felipe Prada e Silva; Francisco Palma Rennó; Marcos Veiga dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9) or inorganic (n = 10) sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to...

  16. Efeito de duas cargas animais em campo nativo e de duas idades à desmama no desempenho de vacas de corte primíparas Effect of two stocking rates on natural pasture and two weaning ages on primiparous beef cows performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Inácio Braccini Fagundes

    2003-12-01

    two stocking rates (CA280= 280 kg LW/ha and CA=360= 360 kg LW/ha and two weaning ages of calves (DC = Conventional weaning at seven months of age and DP= Early weaning at three/four months of age on reproductive performance of primiparous beef cows of two breed compositions (½ Nelore ½ Hereford and ¼ Nelore ¾ Hereford. Average daily weight gain (GMD from calving to DC, during the mating period, and in the period from DP to DC (GPC, the body condition score (CC at beginning and at the end of mating period and at DC, the pregnancy rate (TP, and the calving interval (IEP of the cows were evaluated. Cows managed under CA280 had significantly higher GMD than cows under CA360 in all three periods considered. Cows submitted to DP had higher GPC (P<0.01 than cows submitted to DC(0.539 vs. 0.257 kg/day, respectively. Cows under CA280 had signicantly higher CC from the beginning of the mating period to the date of DC than cows under CA360, while cows submitted to DP showed higher CC at the date of DC than cows submitted to DC under both stocking rates (4.33 vs. 3.68 for CA280 and 3.14 vs. 2.92 for CA360. The breed composition of the cows did not significantly influence on GMD and CC of the cows over the experimental period. The TP of cows under CA280 (67.56% was significantly better than cows under CA360 (22.56%, as well as their IEP were significantly lower than cows under CA360 (395.4 vs. 409.9 days. Therefore, the lowest stocking rate allowed cows to better recover their weight and body condition after calving, causing improvement of conception rate and calving interval.

  17. Effect of corn inclusion on soybean hull-based diet digestibility and growth performance in continuous culture fermenters and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J R; Sexten, W J; Kerley, M S

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted using soybean hull (SH) diets with increasing corn proportions to determine increasing corn inclusion effects on fermentation characteristics, diet digestibility, and feedlot performance. The hypothesis was that fiber digestibility would quadratically respond to starch proportion in the diet with a break point where starch inclusion improved fiber digestion and feedlot performance. Proportionately, the diets contained 100:0 (SH100), 90:10 (SH90), 80:20 (SH80), 60:40 (SH60), or 20:80 SH:corn (SH20). In Exp. 1, diets were randomly distributed over 24 continuous culture fermenters and fed for 7 d. In Exp. 2, forty steers (347 ± 29 kg BW) and 50 heifers (374 ± 24 kg BW) were blocked by gender, stratified by BW, and distributed across diets. Cattle were fed for 70 d with titanium dioxide included in the diet for the final 14 d and fecal samples collected to measure digestibility. Individual DMI was measured using GrowSafe Feed Intake system. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS with diet evaluated as the fixed effect. In Exp. 1, NDF digestibility (NDFd) linearly decreased ( = 0.04) and ADF digestibility (ADFd) tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.09) as corn increased. Dry matter digestibility (DMd) was cubic ( = 0.01) and OM digestibility (OMd) was quadratic ( = 0.03), and among the 4 SH-based diets, DMd and OMd were greatest for SH90. Acetate:propionate ratio and pH were quadratic ( fiber digestibility decreased as corn inclusion increased. However, based on continuous culture digestibility and VFA values as well as feedlot digestibility and performance, optimal corn inclusion for growth and diet utilization in the 4 SH-based diets fell between SH80 and SH90, or 0.4 and 0.2% BW corn supplementation. In this study, providing 0.4% BW corn supplementation in fiber-based diets (SH80) provided greater improvement in performance compared with 0.2% BW corn supplementation (SH90). PMID:27482678

  18. SUBSTITUTION OF THE TRITURATED CORN GRAIN BY PARBOILED RICE MEAL IN DAIRY COWS DIET: INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY SUBSTITUIÇÃO DO MILHO GRÃO TRITURADO POR FARELO DE ARROZ PARBOILIZADO NA DIETA DE VACAS LEITEIRAS: CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Artiaga da Rosa; Ronaldo Braga Reis; Paulo Cesar Moreira; Pedro Leonardo Rezende; Roberto de Camargo Wascheck; Carlos Lima Neto

    2008-01-01

    The research trials were carried to evaluate the effect of replacement of corn by parboiled rice meal in the diet of lactating dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows, 80 ± 24 days in milk, 20 kg of milk per day at beginning of the trial were use in a 3 x 3 latin square design. The experimental diets varied in the concentrate and forage composition: forage based on sorghum silage and concentrate based on corn grain cracked (CGC); forage based on sorghum silage and green corn by-product silag...

  19. Impact of Bos indicus genetics on the global beef industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than half of the cattle in the world are maintained in tropical environments between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. In the U.S., about 40% of the beef cows are located in subtropical environments of the hot and humid Southeast or more arid Southwest. Results of research documenting the ...

  20. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Doze vacas da raça Holandesa, puras e mestiças, foram distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 X 4, balanceados de acordo com o período de lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo. As dietas experimentais foram à base de silagem de milho com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40, com base na matéria seca, ou à base de cana-de-açúcar, com relação volumoso:concentrado de 60:40 ou 50:50. As vacas foram submetidas à observação visual para avaliação do comportamento ingestivo. Os animais foram observados a cada dez minutos, durante 24 horas, para determinação do tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Não houve diferença para os tempos médios despendidos com alimentação e ruminação entre as dietas experimentais. Entretanto, na dieta à base de silagem de milho, os animais ficaram menos tempo no ócio, quando comparados àqueles alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Com relação à eficiência de alimentação, expressa em gFDN/h, não houve diferença entre as dietas experimentais. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gMS/h, foi semelhante para as diferentes dietas. A eficiência de ruminação, expressa em gFDN/h (ERU FDN foi maior para a dieta à base de silagem de milho. Não houve diferença na ERU FDN entre dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar. Vacas alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar apresentaram maior tempo despendido em ócio e menor consumo de MS, quando comparadas àquelas alimentadas com dietas à base de silagem de milhoTwelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three Latin squares 4 X 4, balanced according to the lactating period, to evaluate the ingestive behavior parameters. The experimental diets were based on corn silage with 60:40 forage:concentrate ratio, in dry matter (DM basis, or based on sugar cane with 60:40 or 50:50 forage:concentrate. The cows were submitted to visual observation for ingestive behavior evaluation

  1. Terminação em Confinamento de Vacas e Novilhas sob Dietas com ou sem Monensina Sódica Feedlot Performance of Cull Cows and Heifers Fed Diets with or without Monensin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os parâmetros relativos ao desempenho, em confinamento, de duas categorias de fêmeas de descarte, vacas e novilhas da raça Charolês, alimentadas com duas dietas, com inclusão ou não de monensina sódica. A quantidade diária de monensina fornecida foi de 150 mg/animal. A relação volumoso:concentrado da dieta alimentar foi de 65:35. O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de sorgo. A inclusão de monensina à dieta alimentar causou redução significativa no consumo voluntário diário de matéria seca (CMSD, sendo mais acentuada nas vacas (9,1% que nas novilhas (1,7%. A interação entre categoria animal x dieta foi significativa para ganho de peso médio diário (GMD. Nas novilhas, a monensina provocou leve aumento no GMD (1,92 versus 1,86 kg, já nas vacas causou redução no GMD (1,56 versus 1,74 kg. A conversão alimentar (CMSD/GMD não foi influenciada pela monensina. As vacas apresentaram maior CMSD que as novilhas. No entanto, quando o CMSD foi expresso por 100 kg de peso vivo e por unidade de tamanho metabólico, a diferença deixou de existir. As novilhas foram mais eficientes que as vacas na transformação da matéria seca consumida em ganho de peso (6,40 versus 8,28 kg de MS/kg de ganho de peso. O custo dos alimentos por kg de peso vivo foi R$ 0,66 e 0,69 nas novilhas e 0,84 e 0,74 nas vacas para as dietas que incluíram ou não monensina, respectivamente.Feedlot parameters of two categories of cull females, cows and heifers, fed two diets, with and without monensin, were studied. The daily amount of monensin supplied was 150 mg/animal. The roughage:concentrate ratio was 65:35. The roughage used was sorghum silage. The inclusion of monensin to the diet caused a significant reduction of the daily voluntary dry matter intake (DDMI, which was more pronounced for the cows (9.1% than for the heifers (1.7%. The animal category x diet interaction affected significantly the average daily weight gain (ADG. Monensin caused a

  2. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CATTLE RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING UREA IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, daily gain, feed conversion and the carcass yield in beef cattle receiving diets containing 0; 0.5; 1.0 e 1.5% of urea in total dry matter were evaluated. Twenty four crossed steers Holstein x Zebu (HxZ, castrated, with initial mean body weight of 290 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Sorghum silage was used as roughage adopting relation roughage:concentrate of 70:30 in dry matter basis. In order to determine the fecal excretion, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. For intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, mean values of 8.42 kg/day or 2.33% of BW and 64.52% were registered, respectively. Mean daily gain (1.05kg, feed conversion (8.07 and carcass yield (48.72% were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. Levels of 1.5% of urea in dry matter of total diet can be used in the preparation of diets for finishing beef cattle (HxZ, without compromising intake and digestibility of nutrients and the animal performance as well.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass yield, feed conversion, feedlot, sorghum silage.

    Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça em bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo 0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% de uréia na matéria seca total. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Holandês x Zebu (HxZ, castrados, com peso vivo inicial médio de 290 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Utilizou-se a silagem de sorgo como volumoso numa relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30, com base na matéria seca. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador. O consumo e a

  3. Influence of genetic type and level of concentrate in the finishing diet on carcass and meat quality traits in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, J F; Paulino, P V R; Filho, S C Valadares; Souza, E J O; Duarte, M S; Benedeti, P D B; Souza, N K P; Cox, R B

    2012-03-01

    Carcass and meat quality traits of thirty-six feedlot beef heifers from different genetic groups (GG) fed at two concentrate levels (CL) were evaluated using 12 - Nellore (NE), 12 - ½Angus x ½Nellore (AN) and 12 - ½Simmental x ½Nellore (SN) animals. Six heifers of each GG were randomly assigned into one of two treatments: concentrate at 0.8% or 1.2% of body weight (BW). Heifers fed concentrate at 0.8% of BW had greater (P0.05) by either CL or GG. Heifers from the AN group had higher (Pcarcass weights, 12th rib fat thickness and lower dressing percentage (P<0.05) compared to the other groups. NE heifers had greater WBSF values (P<0.05) than the other genetic groups. Data suggest that the concentrate level can be reduced without compromising meat quality traits. PMID:22127147

  4. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 107 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  5. Survey of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinski, Murray; Lanigan, Emily; Gilleard, John; Waldner, Cheryl; Royan, Grant

    2016-02-01

    A survey of gastrointestinal parasites in Saskatchewan beef herds was conducted over the summer of 2014. Fecal samples were collected on 3 occasions during the summer grazing season from beef cows and calves from 14 herds. The mean number of strongylid eggs per gram of feces recovered from calves increased 9-fold (95% CI: 4.5 to 18) over the summer period, while egg counts in the cows remained constant over the same period. The prevalence and infection intensities of gastrointestinal nematode parasites in cow-calf herds in Saskatchewan were comparable to what is seen in cattle grazing in the northern regions of the United States and for which anthelmintic treatments have resulted in positive production benefits. PMID:26834267

  6. Modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte com base no escore de condição corporal Simulation model of the reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste trabalho foram desenvolver um modelo matemático dinâmico para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção de bovinos de corte e simular o desempenho reprodutivo do rebanho, com base no desempenho individual das fêmeas, determinado a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto e da maturidade sexual. Trata-se de um modelo empírico, dinâmico e que contém elementos determinísticos e estocásticos. O desenvolvimento do modelo foi baseado na relação entre o escore de condição corporal (ECC e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé. Para novilhas e vacas vazias, a concepção foi baseada na probabilidade de conceber, de modo que, para novilhas, a idade e/ou o peso à puberdade foram fatores limitantes. O modelo tem duas formas de leitura dos dados de entrada: uma do relatório de parição gerado pelo software; e a outra, a partir dos dados de entrada definidos pelo usuário. Os dados de entrada são considerados médias, com exceção dos referentes à estação reprodutiva, e o modelo atribui um desvio-padrão para cada variável, de modo que os dados utilizados na execução do modelo seguem uma distribuição normal. A saída final, em formato de relatórios, fornece, além de outras informações, o total de kg de bezerros desmamados/vaca/ano. É possível alterar valores de entrada para testar o impacto dessas mudanças nas variáveis de resposta. O desenvolvimento do modelo contribuiu para maior compreensão do sistema estudado e permitiu a simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas bovinas de corte a partir do ECC ao parto (ECCPAR. Seu uso, para auxiliar no processo de tomadas de decisão no mundo real, depende das próximas etapas do trabalho, como verificação, calibração e validação.A dynamic mathematical model was developed to describe the reproductive process in beef cattle production systems and to simulate individual cow reproductive performance while

  7. Consumer and Market Responses to Mad-Cow Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Villas-Boas, Sofia B

    2008-01-01

    We examine how consumers and financial markets in the United States react to two health warnings about mad cow disease: the first discovery of an infected cow in December 2003 and an Oprah Winfrey show on the potentially harmful effects that aired seven years earlier. Using a unique product-level scanner data set of a national grocery chain, we find a pronounced and significant reduction in beef sales following the first discovered infection, which dissipates slowly over the next three months...

  8. Sistemas de inseminação artificial em dois dias com observação de estro ou em tempo fixo para vacas de corte amamentando Artificial insemination systems within two days of estrus detection or at fixed time for suckled beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Siqueira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente experimento foi investigar se a realização exclusiva da inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, empregando como indutor da ovulação o benzoato de estradiol (BE, proporciona taxas de prenhez semelhantes a uma associação de IA convencional e IATF com GnRH, em vacas de corte no pós-parto. Duzentos e cinqüenta vacas amamentado receberam um pessário vaginal contendo 250mg de acetato de medroxi-progesterona (MAP e uma injeção intramuscular (IM de 5mg de BE no dia 0. O pessário vaginal permaneceu por sete dias. No dia 6, foram aplicadas 400UI de gonadotrofina coriônica eqüina por via IM e 5mg de análogo de prostaglandina na submucosa vulvar, realizando nesse momento o desmame por 96h. Após a retirada dos pessários (dia 7, as vacas foram distribuídas em dois grupos. No grupo BioRep (n=150, as fêmeas foram observadas duas vezes por dia para detecção de estro por 48h e inseminadas 12h após sua manifestação. Os animais que não manifestaram estro nesse período receberam uma injeção IM de 100mg de GnRH, sendo submetidas à IATF, 16 a 18h após. No grupo BE (n=100, as vacas receberam uma injeção de 1mg de BE IM no dia 8 e foram inseminadas em tempo fixo no dia 9. A porcentagem de prenhez no grupo BioRep (54,7% foi maior (PThis experiment was aimed at comparing two estrus induction protocols for cows in post partum period, using either GnRH and two-day artificial insemination (AI or estradiol benzoate (EB and fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 250 suckled beef cows received a vaginal device containing 250mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA and an injection of 5mg of EB intramuscularly (IM on day 0. The vaginal device was removed on day 7. On day 6, cows were injected with 400IU eCG (IM and 5mg prostaglandin analog (into vulvar submucosa and calves were removed for 96 hours (h. After removing the vaginal devices (day 7, cows were divided in two groups. In the BioRep group (n=150

  9. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  10. Effect of Glucogenic vs. Lipogenic Diets on Energy Balance, Blood Metabolites, and Reproduction in Primiparous and Multiparous Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Brand, van den H.; Dijkstra, J.; Straalen, van W.M.; Jorritsma, R.; Tamminga, S.; Kemp, B.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing the availability of glucogenic nutrients relative to lipogenic nutrients has been hypothesized to decrease the production of milk fat, to improve the energy balance (EB), and to decrease the incidence and severity of metabolic and reproductive disorders in dairy cows in early lactation. T

  11. Substituição do farelo de soja por uréia ou amiréia para vacas em final de lactação - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234 Replacement of soybean meal by urea or starea in diets for late lactation cows urea and starea in diets for lactation cows - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i2.1234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Imaizumi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos para estudar a substituição parcial do farelo de soja (FS por uréia, na forma extrusada com milho (A150S ou convencional (U. No experimento 1 utilizou-se 38 vacas em final de lactação. A substituição não afetou (P > 0,05 a produção de leite e leite corrigido para gordura, o teor e produção de proteína, a produção de sólidos totais e as concentrações plasmáticas de glicose e N-uréico. O tratamento U aumentou (P 0,05. A substituição parcial do farelo de soja por uréia é uma alternativa viável para vacas em final de lactação. O processamento da uréia não apresentou vantagens em relação à forma convencionalTwo trials were conducted to study the partial replacement of soybean meal (FS by urea (U in diets for late lactation cows. Conventional urea was compared to extruded urea (A150S. In trial 1, 38 late lactation cows were used. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea sources or the urea processing did not affect milk and 3.5% FCM yields, protein content and yield, total solids yield, and plasma urea N and glucose. Feeding U increased milk fat and total solids content. In trial 2, five dry cows, fitted with ruminal canulas were used. Dry matter intake, total tract nutrient digestibility’s, rumen VFA molar concentration, plasma urea-N and plasma glucose were not affected by treatments (p > 0.05. The partial replacement of soybean meal by urea is an alternative to reduce costs of diets for late lactating cows. Extrusion of urea did not show any advantage compared to conventional urea

  12. Muscle: Bone ratios in beef rib sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, H G; Murphey, C E; Smith, G C; Carpenter, Z L; McCartor, M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-eight steers and thirty heifers (14 to 17 months of age, from F(1) Hereford × Brahman cows bred to Angus or Hereford bulls), were either forage-fed for 123 days on millet-bermudagrass pasture or grain-fed for 90 days on a high-concentrate diet and were then commercially slaughtered. Warm carcass weights ranged from 167·8 kg to 324·3 kg. At 24 h post mortem, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel (1) assigned scores or took measurements on each carcass for all factors used in yield grading and quality grading, (2) measured the length of hind leg (HL) and carcass length (CL) and (3) assigned a score for carcass muscling (MS) and, as appropriate, made an adjusted longissimus muscle area (ALA) evaluation. The 9th-10th-11th rib section from one side of each carcass was physically separated into longissimus muscle, fat, 'other soft tissue' and bone and ether extract determinations of the longissimus muscle and 'other soft tissue' components were made and used to adjust the yields of each of these components to a fat-free basis. Muscle to bone ratios ranged from 2·38 to 4·37. With both age and carcass weight held constant, diet, breed and sex explained only 35·8% of the variation in muscle to bone ratio. The best simple correlation with muscle to bone ratio was ALA/CL (r = ·59). Other measures significantly correlated with muscle to bone ratio included ALA (r = 0·55), MS (r = 0·50) and carcass weight (r = 0·49). Multiple regression analyses identified a three-variable subset comprised of ALA, carcass weight and CL which was related (P < 0·01) to muscle to bone ratio R(2) = 0·41). Data suggest that muscle to bone ratios differ widely among beef carcasses of similar genetic-management history and that there are carcass measures useful for predicting muscle to bone ratio. PMID:22054706

  13. Effect of Energy Intake during Dry Period on Production Performance of Postparturient Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-fei; WANG Zhe; NIU Shu-ling

    2004-01-01

    24 healthy periparturient cows were randomly allocated into three groups and fed 100% energy diet (NRC standard diets), 120% energy diet and 80% energy diet, respectively, beginning at 28 days prior to anticipated parturition. After parturition, all the cows were provided with the lactation ration ad libitum until the day 56 postpartum.The objectives of the study were to investigate the effect of energy intake during the dry period on the production performance in the postpartum cows. The results indicated that the cows fed with high energy diet during the dry period had a lower dry material intake (DMI) and reduced milk production and a significant body weight (BW) loss compared with the cows fed with 80% energy diet and 100% energy diet, The results suggested that energy intake during the dry period was an important factor that influences and regulates DMI, milk production and energy equilibration of postparturient cows.

  14. Effect of feeding selenium-fertilized alfalfa hay on performance of weaned beef calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean A Hall

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential micronutrient in cattle, and Se-deficiency can affect morbidity and mortality. Calves may have greater Se requirements during periods of stress, such as during the transitional period between weaning and movement to a feedlot. Previously, we showed that feeding Se-fertilized forage increases whole-blood (WB Se concentrations in mature beef cows. Our current objective was to test whether feeding Se-fertilized forage increases WB-Se concentrations and performance in weaned beef calves. Recently weaned beef calves (n = 60 were blocked by body weight, randomly assigned to 4 groups, and fed an alfalfa hay based diet for 7 wk, which was harvested from fields fertilized with sodium-selenate at a rate of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha. Blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for WB-Se concentrations. Body weight and health status of calves were monitored during the 7-wk feeding trial. Increasing application rates of Se fertilizer resulted in increased alfalfa hay Se content for that cutting of alfalfa (0.07, 0.95, 1.55, 3.26 mg Se/kg dry matter for Se application rates of 0, 22.5, 45.0, or 89.9 g Se/ha, respectively. Feeding Se-fertilized alfalfa hay during the 7-wk preconditioning period increased WB-Se concentrations (P Linear<0.001 and body weights (P Linear = 0.002 depending upon the Se-application rate. Based upon our results we suggest that soil-Se fertilization is a potential management tool to improve Se-status and performance in weaned calves in areas with low soil-Se concentrations.

  15. A General Equilibrium Analysis of Foreign and Domestic Demand Shocks Arising from Mad Cow Disease in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Devadoss, Stephen; Holland, David W.; Stodick, Leroy; Ghosh, Joydeep

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of the first case of mad cow disease in the United States in 2003 reverberated across the beef and cattle industry. This study employs a general equilibrium model to analyze the potential economic effects of mad cow disease on the beef, cattle, and other meat industries under three scenarios, ranging form most favorable to most pessimistic. The scenario with 90% foreign demand decline and 10% domestic demand reduction generates results consistent with the actual outcomes after t...

  16. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a greater ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio. However, these differences were not evident for the other 2 diets. Energetically efficient animals do not have a lower ruminal methanogenic potential compared with their more inefficient counterparts and, indeed, some evidence to the contrary was found, which may reflect the greater nutrient digestive potential observed in low-RFI cattle. PMID:27065279

  17. Long-term use of corn coproducts as a source of protein in beef finishing diets and the effects on carcass characteristics and round muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, A M; Segers, J R; Stewart, R L

    2016-03-01

    A finishing trial was conducted during the late spring and summer of 2 consecutive years to evaluate long-term feeding of corn gluten feed and dried distillers' grains with solubles in finishing rations in the southeastern United States on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality attributes. Each year, 36 steers (yr 1 BW = 396 ± 18 kg; yr 2 BW = 436 ± 23 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 finishing diets that contained 1) 25% dried corn gluten feed (CGF), 2) 25% dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS), or 3) 10% soybean meal and 15% ground corn (SBM) and evaluated over a 100-d feedlot period. All steers were previously fed their respective diets at 25% of DM in a corn silage-based stockering system for 84 d. During the 100-d feedlot trial, weights were recorded and carcass traits were estimated via ultrasound on d -0, 50, and 100. All steers were subsequently harvested under federal inspection and had carcass data collected for quality and yield traits. At 48 h postmortem, the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), and semimembranosus (SM) were collected for proximate analysis and aged for 7, 14, and 21 d for Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory analysis. Diet did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) BW, DMI, or ultrasound composition traits; however, DDGS steers had greater ADG ( = 0.05) than SBM steers and had greater ( = 0.04) G:F than CGF or SBM steers. There were no differences in carcass characteristics due to diet except the CGF carcasses had greater LM area and marbling scores ( ≤ 0.05). Protein source did not affect proximate composition, but the RF had greater percent moisture and lower percent protein compared with the VL and SM and greater percent lipid than the SM ( ≤ 0.01). Shear force analysis revealed a diet × aging period interaction ( = 0.04) where DDGS steaks were similar across all aging periods; however, steaks from SBM and CGF carcasses became more tender after 14 and 21 d of aging, respectively. Sensory panel results indicate

  18. 椰子粕等量替代玉米对泌乳牛和干奶牛的影响%Effect of Diet Supplementing Coconut Meal Instead of Maineon Performance of Milking and Dry Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖景涛

    2012-01-01

    【Objective】The objective of this trial was to explore the effect of diet supplementing coconut meal on milking and dry dairy cows.【Method】 20 healthy milking cows and 15 dry cows were chosen and divided into two groups(the control and treatment group) randomly according to breed,age,calving number,yield of milk and body weight.The control group was fed conventional diet(or control diet) and the treatment group was fed the diet supplementing 15% of coconut meal instead of equal amount of maize in the concentrate of conventional diet.The feeding procedure and other management were similar between the tow groups.The daily milk yield and other performance were recorded during the trial period.【Result】 The results showed that the average daily milk yield was 16.00kg for treatment group and 15.99kg for control group,and the average body weight was 475.19 kg and 475.75 kg for the treatment group and control group,respectively.No difference was found in milk yield and body weight(P〈0.05) between the two groups.However,168 yuan was gained from the cost saving of treatment diet.Therefore,15% of coconut meal could be used to replace equal amount maize in the concentrate of dairy diet and much benefit could be gained from feeding this kind of diet in dairy farms.%[目的]为了掌握用椰子粕替代等量玉米对泌乳牛和干奶牛的影响。[方法]挑选健康的泌乳牛20头和干奶牛12头,遵循品种相同,年龄、胎次、产犊日、产奶量和体重相近的原则,将它们两两配对,随机分成试验组和对照组,两组的日粮结构和饲养管理制度基本一致,不同的是,试验组牛所用的试验精料改为在原相应精料基础上添加15%的椰子粕,替代等量的玉米,试验期间,定期记录试验牛的日产奶量,观察膘情和其他相关体征,看两组有何差异。[结果]结果显示:试验期间试验组牛的日平均产奶量为16.00kg,对照组为15.99kg,两组差异不显著(P〉0.05

  19. Induction of parturition in cows using betamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Box, P G; Sreenan, J M

    1982-03-20

    To avoid dystocia and calf mortality two groups of cows were induced to calve six or seven days prematurely. Group I consisted of none Hereford cross Friesian two-and-a-half-year-old recipient cows carrying Continental beef breed fetuses. Group 2 consisted of 10 four-year-old Continental beef breed cows carrying pure or crossbred fetuses of the same breeds. On day 280 of gestation a long-acting betamethasone formulation was injected into all 19 animals, followed five or six days later with an injection of short-acting betamethasone (15 animals) or prostaglandin F2alpha (one animal). Three cows calved before their second injection. Fourteen of the 15 animals given the short-acting betamethasone calved 26 to 70 hours later; the remaining animal was given prostaglandin at 72 hours and calved 36 hours later. The cow that received prostaglandin F2alpha instead of short-acting betamethasone calved after 11 hours. None of the calves in group I was born dead but three died within 36 hours. One calf was born dead in group 2. Cervical dilatation and slackening of pelvic ligaments were satisfactory in all animals. Although calf birthweights were between 39 and 60.5 kg, only two instances of dystocia were encountered. Thirteen of the 19 cows voided their fetal membranes within 12 hours of calving. Only two retained them for more than four days. All cows except two in group I showed good udder development and had a plentiful supply of colostrum at calving. PMID:7080415

  20. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Abuelo, A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-05-01

    During periods of negative energy balance, mobilization of muscle is a physiologic process providing energy and amino acids. This is important in transition dairy cows experiencing negative energy and protein balance postpartum. Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue are not fully understood. Skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-dependent glucose utilization in ruminants. Our objective was to study peripartal skeletal muscle insulin signaling as well as muscle accretion and atrophy in cows with excess energy consumption prepartum. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 28 and 10 days prepartum, as well as 4 and 21 days postpartum from 24 Holstein cows. Biopsies were taken immediately before and 60 min after intravenous glucose challenge causing endogenous release of insulin. Gene expression of IGF-1, myostatin, and atrogin-1, as well as immunoblot analysis of atrogin-1, muRF1, ubiquitinated proteins, LC3, and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and mTORC1 substrate 4EBP1 was performed. Excess energy consumption in late pregnancy did not lead to changes in insulin-dependent molecular regulation of muscle accretion or atrophy compared with the controlled energy group. In both groups, phosphorylation of AKT and mTORC1 substrate was significantly decreased postpartum whereas proteasome activity and macroautopagy were upregulated. This study showed that in addition to the proteasome pathway of muscle atrophy, macroautophagy is upregulated in postpartum negative energy and protein balance regardless of dietary energy strategy prepartum and was higher in cows overfed energy throughout the study period. PMID:26920795

  1. Canadian beef quality audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, J; Jewison, G; Mann, M; Cherry, B; Altwasser, B; Lower, R; Wiggins, K; Dejonge, R; Thorlakson, B; Moss, E; Mills, C; Grogan, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted in 4 Canadian processing plants in 1995-96 to determine the prevalence of quality defects in Canadian cattle. One percent of the annual number of cattle processed in Canada were evaluated on the processing floor and 0.1% were graded in the cooler. Brands were observed on 37% and multiple brands on 6% of the cattle. Forty percent of the cattle had horns, 20% of which were scurs, 33% were stubs, 10% were tipped, and 37% were full length. Tag (mud and manure on the hide) was observed on 34% of the cattle. Bruises were found on 78% of the carcasses, 81% of which were minor in severity. Fifteen percent of the bruises were located on the round, 29% on the loin, 40% on the rib, 16% on the chuck, and 0.02% on the brisket. Grubs were observed in 0.02% of the steers, and injection sites were observed in 1.3% of whole hanging carcasses. Seventy percent of the livers were passed for human food and 14% for pet food; 16% were condemned. Approximately 71% of the liver condemnations were due to liver abscesses. Four percent of the heads, 6% of the tongues, and 0.2% of whole carcasses were condemned. The pregnancy rate in female cattle was approximately 6.7%. The average hot carcass weight was 357 kg (s = 40) in steers, 325 kg (s = 41) in heifers, 305 kg (s = 53) in cows, 388 kg (s = 62) in virgin bulls and 340 kg (s = 39) in mature bulls. The average ribeye area in all cattle was 84 cm2 (s = 12); range 29 cm2 to 128 cm2. Grade fat was highly variable and averaged 9 mm (s = 4) for steers and heifers, 6 mm (s = 6) for cows, 5 mm (s = 1) for virgin bulls, and 4 mm (s = 0.5) for mature bulls. The average lean meat yield was 59.7% in cattle (s = 3.4); range 39% to 67%. One percent of the carcasses were devoid of marbling, 1% were dark cutters, and 0.05% of the steer carcasses were staggy. Six percent of the carcasses had poor conformation, 3.7% were underfinished, and 0.7% were overfinished. Yellow fat was observed in 4% of the carcasses; 10% of carcasses were

  2. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  3. Effect of breed, gender, housing system and dietary crude protein content on performance of finishing beef cattle fed maize-silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, D T; Bryant, M J; Beever, D E; Fisher, A V

    2007-06-01

    Maize silage-based diets with three dietary crude protein (CP) supplements were offered to 96 finishing cattle of contrasting breed (Holstein Friesian (HF) v. Simmental × HF (SHF)) and gender (bull v. steer) housed in two types of feeding system (group fed v. individually fed). The three protein supplements differed either in CP or protein degradability (degradable (LUDP) v. rumen undegradable (HUDP)) and provided CP concentrations of 142 (Con), 175 (LUDP) and 179 (HUDP) g/kg dry matter (DM) respectively, with ratios of degradable to undegradable of 3.0, 1.4 and 0.9:1 for diets Con, LUDP and HUDP, respectively. DM intakes were marginally higher (P = 0.102) for LUDP when compared with Con and HUDP. Rates of daily live-weight gain (DLWG) were higher (P = 0.005) in LUDP and HUDP when compared with Con. HF had higher DM intakes than SHF although this did not result in any improvement in HF DLWG. Bulls had significantly better DM intakes, DLWG and feed conversion efficiency than steers. Conformation scores were better in SHF than HF (P carcass fat scores. PMID:22444477

  4. Mad Cow Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Teens > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... likely are people to get it? What Is Mad Cow Disease? Mad cow disease is an incurable, fatal brain ...

  5. TRITIUM RETENTION BY COWS AND STEERS AND TRANSFER TO MILK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents the results of an investigation designed to evaluate the short- and long-term behavior of tritium in beef animals and dairy cows with emphasis on the resultant hazard to humans consuming meat and dairy products. It is hoped that this information will be of use...

  6. Estimation of the maintenance energy requirements, methane emissions and nitrogen utilization efficiency of two suckler cow genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, C X; Lively, F O; Wylie, A R G; Yan, T

    2016-04-01

    Seventeen non-lactating dairy-bred suckler cows (LF; Limousin×Holstein-Friesian) and 17 non-lactating beef composite breed suckler cows (ST; Stabiliser) were used to study enteric methane emissions and energy and nitrogen (N) utilization from grass silage diets. Cows were housed in cubicle accommodation for 17 days, and then moved to individual tie-stalls for an 8-day digestibility balance including a 2-day adaption followed by immediate transfer to an indirect, open-circuit, respiration calorimeters for 3 days with gaseous exchange recorded over the last two of these days. Grass silage was offered ad libitum once daily at 0900 h throughout the study. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the genotypes for energy intakes, energy outputs or energy use efficiency, or for methane emission rates (methane emissions per unit of dry matter intake or energy intake), or for N metabolism characteristics (N intake or N output in faeces or urine). Accordingly, the data for both cow genotypes were pooled and used to develop relationships between inputs and outputs. Regression of energy retention against ME intake (r 2=0.52; P<0.001) indicated values for net energy requirements for maintenance of 0.386, 0.392 and 0.375 MJ/kg0.75 for LF+ST, LF and ST respectively. Methane energy output was 0.066 of gross energy intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r 2=0.59; P<0.001). There were positive linear relationships between N intake and N outputs in manure, and manure N accounted for 0.923 of the N intake. The present results provide approaches to predict maintenance energy requirement, methane emission and manure N output for suckler cows and further information is required to evaluate their application in a wide range of suckler production systems. PMID:26593693

  7. Bioeconomic analysis of crude glycerin levels in milk crossbred cows diets fed with sugarcane
    Análise bioeconômica de níveis de glicerina bruta em dietas de vacas lactantes alimentadas com cana-de-açúcar

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Teixeira Costa; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Aureliano José Vieira Pires; Paulo Bonomo; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Aires Lima Rocha Neto; Roberio Rodrigue Silva; Alex Resende Schio

    2013-01-01

    The viability of bioeconomic increasing levels of crude glycerin was evaluated, 0, 4, 8 and 12% of dry matter in diets of lactating dairy cows fed with sugarcane. Were used 16 cows Holstein x Zebu (blood level varying from ½ to ¾ Holstein), third or fourth lactation with previous production between 3000 and 4000 kg, adjusted to 300 days, and 80 to 120 days of lactation in beginning of the experiment, which were divided into four 4x4 Latin Square. The information required for elaboration of th...

  8. Condição corporal, variação de peso e desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de cria em pastagem nativa no Pantanal Body condition score, weight variation and reproductive performance of beef cows in rangelands from the Pantanal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Aparecida Santos

    2009-02-01

    probabilidade de produção de um bezerro por vaca por ano.The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition score (BCS on reproductive performance of beef cows before and after calving and to evaluate the calving probability using body condition score and weight variation during critical periods of the cow reproductive cycle. From 2001 to 2005, the body condition score was recorded in 248 multiparous cows raised in native pastures, submitted to different supplementation treatments (mineral mixture only - control; dry supplement; liquid supplement and liquid supplement for cow and calves. Weighing and body condition evaluation were made on a 1-9 point scale in August (prepartum period, 60-90 days before parturition and January (postpartum and reproductive period. A reproduction score was created in function of the body scores in four consecutive years. Except for the treatment, the other factors (body condition score in the prepartum and postpartum periods and cow age influenced the reproduction score. Thus, the calving probabilities were estimated for all cows. Generalized estimating equations (GEE were used to evaluate the calving probability in function of the exploratory variables over time. Calving probability higher than 80% was obtained when cows scored 5,5 before calving. In relation to weight, the results showed that about 60% of calving cows maintained or gained weight in the postpartum period, leading to increase in the rebreeding probability. Similar situation occurred with single cows; however, the calving probability was lower. These results indicate that the calving probability using BCS is better estimated before calving. Furthermore, it indicates the presence of cows more adapted to the Pantanal climatic and feeding conditions than others.

  9. Artificial insemination system without estrous observation in suckled beef cows Sistema de inseminação artificial sem observação de estros em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Kruel Borges

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to develop a timed artificial insemination (TAI system in suckled beef cows. Cows (n=227, 60-80 days postpartum, received estradiol benzoate (5mg and a vaginal device containing 250µg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; day 0. On day six, cloprostenol (125µg and eCG (400IU were administrated and calves were weaned for 88h. The devices were removed on day seven (BioRep group or on day eight (TAI group. All cows of TAI group and cows of BioRep group that did not exhibit standing estrus received GnRH (100µg on day 9. In experiment I, the follicular growth was monitored daily by transrectal ultrasound exams, from day 6 to day 9. The average size of the dominant follicle on day nine was 11.1±0.99mm (BioRep, n=7 and 11.5±0.65mm (TAI, n=7 and all animals ovulated. In experiment II, the BioRep group cows (n=106 were observed for estrous behavior after withdrawal of the device, twice a day for 48h, and inseminated 12h after detection. In the TAI group (n=107, the devices were withdrawn on day eight and after 24h these cows and those from the BioRep group, which were not stand in estrus, received 100µg of GnRH and TAI 16h later. The pregnancy rates were 57.6% (BioRep and 52.3% (TAI. In conclusion, an increase on MPA exposure time did not affect the follicular dynamics and pregnancy rates and allow TAI without estrous observation. Furthermore, the treatment for eight days provides an efficient TAI system in suckled beef cows.O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um protocolo de inseminação artificial com tempo fixo (IATF em vacas de corte durante período de amamentação, avaliando o intervalo entre a retirada do progestágeno e a aplicação de GnRH sobre a dinâmica folicular e a prenhez. Para tanto, vacas (n=227 em pós-parto de 60 a 80 dias receberam benzoato de estradiol (5mg e um pessário vaginal de acetato de medroxiprogesterona (250mg MAP; dia 0. No dia seis, os animais receberam cloprostenol sódico (125µg, gonadotrofina

  10. BEEF SPECIES SYMPOSIUM: Economic considerations related to U.S. beef herd expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonsor, G T; Schulz, L L

    2015-09-01

    Significant attention perpetually surrounds possible changes in breeding herd inventories in the U.S. beef cattle industry. This article outlines economic considerations of U.S. herd expansion. Factors restricting expansion include land availability, increasing production efficiency, operator demographics, capital requirements, and commodity price volatility. Several offsetting factors support herd expansion including unprecedented cow-calf returns, ongoing global beef demand growth, and timing within the current cattle cycle. In addition to these industry-wide factors, several important variations in individual ranch considerations are outlined. The authors' expectations on future herd dynamics are provided, highlighting broader implications for individual operations, industry leaders, and the entire beef-cattle supply chain. The substantial economic impact and importance of the cow-calf sector warrants broader appreciation of these economic factors impacting herd expansion. The future size of the U.S. cattle industry is determined by the individual decisions of over 70,000 cattle owners, making this issue worthy of review by all industry stakeholders. PMID:26440321

  11. Effects of α-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezamand, Pedram; Hatch, Brent P; Carnahan, Kevin G; McGuire, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Immune system and inflammatory responses are affected by α-linolenic acid (αLA: 18:3 ω-3). The objective of this study was to determine the effects of αLA-enriched rations on gene expression of systemic (blood) and local (mammary gland) inflammatory markers in Holstein dairy cattle. Further, the effect of dietary treatments was evaluated on the concentration of αLA in serum phospholipids. Camelina (Camelina sativa) meal (containing 24·2% αLA) was fed at 0, 3, 6, and 9% (dry matter basis) replacing canola meal (rich in 18:1 ω-9) to provide rations with incremental concentrations of αLA. Lactating primiparous Holstein cows (n = 18) were randomly assigned to a treatment sequence in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 16 d and milk and blood samples were collected during the final 2 d of each period. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and milk cells (MC) were harvested, and RNA extracted and converted to complementary DNA for quantitative real time PCR analysis. The effect of dietary treatments (αLA) on the relative abundance of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes in the PBMC and MC was tested by the MIXED procedure of SAS. Expression of pro-inflammatory tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in MC was linearly reduced (up to 40%) as dietary αLA increased. Expression of pro-inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and TNF-α was reduced (29, 20, and 27%, respectively) in PBMC isolated from cows fed 6% camelina meal ration as compared with cows fed 0% (control). Expression of IL-6 was, however, increased with inclusion of camelina meal. Greater dietary αLA linearly increased serum phospholipids αLA contents, and when fed up to 6% DM down-regulated expression of some of the local (milk) and systemic (blood) pro-inflammatory markers in vivo. PMID:26869108

  12. Animal-to-Animal Variation in Fecal Microbial Diversity among Beef Cattle▿

    OpenAIRE

    Durso, Lisa M.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Timothy P L Smith; Bono, James L.; DeSantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M.; Andersen, Gary L.; Keen, James E.; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified.

  13. Effects of grazing cow diet on volatile compounds as well as physicochemical and sensory characteristics of 12-month-ripened Montasio cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, E; Romanzin, A; Corazzin, M; Favotto, S; Betta, E; Gasperi, F; Bovolenta, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pasture type and cow feeding supplementation level on a 12-mo-ripened Montasio protected designation of origin (PDO) cheese, which is one of the most important PDO cheeses produced in northeast Italy. Cheeses were characterized for volatile compounds, color, mechanical variables, and sensory descriptors. Pasture type significantly affected most of the instrumental variables considered and, as a consequence, sensory properties were affected as well. Cheeses from the pasture characterized by a nutrient-rich vegetation type were higher in protein and lower in fat content. Furthermore, such cheeses, evaluated by a sensory panel, were more intense in color with a more pungent and less cow-like odor, in agreement with what found through instrumental analyses. Supplementation level resulted in less pronounced effects, limited to volatile compounds and texture properties, which were not detected by sensory analysis. The characterization of the 12-mo ripened Montasio cheese reported here is an important step for the valorization of this PDO product. PMID:27265179

  14. Wintering Fall-Calving Cow Pairs by Grazing Standing Corn Plants vs. Mechanically Harvested Feeds such as Hay or Straw, A Comparison of the Performance and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R.; Synder, Donald L; Wiedmeier, R D; Meek, Dale; Schimt, P R; McNiven, T D

    2005-01-01

    This publication compares alternataive methods to wintering fall calving beef cows. Traditionally, harvested grass hay has been fed but usually at a cost that is higher than non-traditional approaches of those reported.

  15. Effects of changing diet protein and lysine content on milk performance, nitrogen utilization and blood metabolic hormones for dairy cows%改变日粮蛋白质和赖氨酸含量对奶牛产奶性能和氮利用及代谢激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙建全; 赵红波; 刘春林; 游伟; 王星凌

    2011-01-01

    为观察不同日粮蛋白质(CP)和赖氨酸(Lys)含量对奶牛产奶性能、氮利用和血液代谢激素的影响,试验采用4×4拉丁方设计,选择4头经产中国荷斯坦奶牛,随机接受4种日粮处理:12.5%CP和0.44%Lys的Et粮1;12.6%CP和0.58%Lys的日粮2;14.1%cP和0.45%Lys的日粮3;14.1%CP和0.60%Lys的日粮4.试验分为4期,每期18 d.第1天至第14天为适应期,第15天至第18天为收集期.结果表明:日粮4和日粮2的产奶最显著高于日粮3和日粮1(P0.05);日粮4和日粮2的氮利用率和奶氮排出量明显高于日粮3和日粮1(P<0.05):日粮4和日粮2的尿素氮(SUN)浓度明显低于日粮3和日粮1(P<0.05);日粮4和日粮2的胰岛素和催乳素浓度明显高于日粮3和日粮1(P<0.05).赖氨酸含量相同时,日粮CP含量为14.1%或12.6%,奶牛产奶性能不受影响,乳氮产量增加,氮利用率提高;当奶牛日粮赖氨酸含量从0.60%降到0.45%,尽管蛋白质含量相同,但奶牛产奶量下降,乳蛋白略呈下降趋势,乳氮产量降低,氮利用率降低.%A nitrogen balance experiment was performed to characterize the effects of decreasing dietary crude protein (CP)from 14. 1% to 12.6% and dietary lysine from 0.60% to 0.45 % on milk yield, N utilization and blood metabolic hormones for lactating cows. Four multiparous Holstein lactating cows were used in a 4×4 Latin Square. Four diets were formulated to contain 12.5% CP and 0.44% Lys(Diet 1) ,12.6% CP and 0.58% Lys(Diet 2) ,14.1% CP and 0.45% Lys(Diet 3)and 14.1% CP and 0.60% Lys(Diet 4). Each lactating cow had 4 experimental periods and each period had a 14 d adaptation,followed by a 4 d total milk, faecal and urine collection. Blood samples were taken in the last 2 days of the collection. During the experiment, the milk production of cows for Diet 4 and Diet 2 were similar( P>0.05 ), but higher than Diet 3 and Diet 1 ( P<0.05 ). Milk composition, especially milk protein for Diet 4 and Diet 2 had a rise

  16. Economic Analysis of Pharmaceutical Technologies in Modern Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, John D.; Ibarburu, Maro A.

    2007-01-01

    Cattle production is the largest single agricultural sector in the U.S. with cash receipts of $49.2 billion in 2005. Like the rest of agriculture cattle producers have adopted efficiency and quality improving technology to meet consumer demands for a safe, wholesome, and affordable food supply. This research uses meta analysis to combine over 170 research trials evaluating pharmaceutical technologies in the cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot segments of beef production. These results were used to...

  17. Influence of pelvic suspension on beef meat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Lundesjö Ahnström, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of pelvic suspension on beef with different background and different genders. The response to pelvic suspension was studied in longissimus, semimembranosus, adductor, gluteus and psoas muscles from young bulls, bulls, heifers and cows. Prolonged ageing time until 14 days was evaluated for longissimus from heifers. It was concluded that pelvic suspension reduced shear force values for pelvic- compared to achilles-suspended sides in all muscl...

  18. Beef production in balance: considerations for life cycle analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sara E; Mitloehner, Frank M

    2012-11-01

    Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) are useful tools to analyze a product's "carbon footprint" (e.g., the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions expressed as standardized carbon dioxide equivalents per unit of product) considering all phases of the production chain. For beef, an LCA would include the GHG emissions from feed production, from the enteric fermentation of the cattle, from the cattle's waste, and from processing and transportation. Identifying the scope and scale of the LCA is critical and key to preventing inappropriate applications of the analysis (e.g., applying a global LCA for beef to the regional or national scale). Ideally, a LCA can integrate the complex biogeochemical processes responsible for GHG emissions and the disparate animal and agricultural management techniques used be different phases of the beef production chain (e.g., feedlot vs. cow-calf) and different production systems (e.g., conventional vs. organic). PMID:22551868

  19. Bagaço de mandioca (Manihot esculenta, Crantz na dieta de vacas leiteiras: consumo de nutrientes Cassava bagasse (Manihot esculenta, Crantz in the diet of lactating cows: intake of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.P. Lima

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de diferentes níveis (0, 5, 10 e 15% de bagaço de mandioca à dieta de 12 vacas mestiças leiteiras Holandês x Zebu (composição racial com variação de ¼ a ¾ de sangue H x Z com 478,5kg de peso corporal médio e com 100 a 150 dias de lactação, distribuídas em três Quadrados Latinos 4 x 4. Foi avaliado o consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, carboidratos totais (CHT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Forneceu-se silagem de capim-elefante como fonte de volumoso. As relações volumoso:concentrado utilizadas foram de 65,19:34,81; 61,59:38,41; 59,08:40,92 e 54,76:45,24. Formularam-se as dietas isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas. Houve aumento linear do consumo de MS, MO, PB, CHT, CNF e NDT, efeito quadrático do consumo de EE e redução do consumo de FDA com o aumento do BM, enquanto o consumo de FDN não diferiu entre os tratamentos.O bagaço de mandioca pode ser utilizado até o nível de 15% de inclusão na dieta total de vacas mestiças leiteiras sem trazer transtornos fisiológicos ou nutricionais aos animais.The effect of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, and 15% of cassava bagasse to the diet of 12 Holstein x Zebu crossbred dairy cows (breed composition varying from ¼ to ¾ H x Z blood, averaging 478.5kg body weight and 100 to 150 days in milk was evaluated. Cows were distributed in three 4 x 4 latin squares. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, total carbohydrates (TC, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN were evaluated. Elephant grass silage was provided as roughage source. The roughage:concentrate ratios were 65.19:34.81; 61.59:38.41; 59.08:40.92; and 54.76:45.24. Isonitogen and isoenergetic diets

  20. Atividade ovariana de vacas leiteiras em dietas com propilenoglicol ou monensina no período de transição Ovarian activity of dairy cows receiving diets with propylene glycol or monensin during the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.T. Artunduaga

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da adição de propilenoglicol ou de monensina na dieta de vacas leiteiras no período de transição sobre o retorno à atividade ovariana cíclica. Foram utilizadas 42 vacas pluríparas, da raça Holandesa, com produção de leite semelhante na lactação anterior (média de 8.000kg. Os animais, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, foram divididos em grupos que receberam dieta-controle e dietas acrescidas com 300ml de propilenoglicol ou 30ppm da matéria seca da dieta/dia de monensina. Avaliaram-se os ovários, por ultra-sonografia, entre os dias quatro e 46 pós-parto, e a concentração plasmática de progesterona, nos dias 10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 pós-parto. A adição de propilenoglicol mostrou-se eficiente em acelerar o retorno à ciclicidade após o parto. Os animais dos grupos que receberam propilenoglicol só no pré-parto, ou no pós-parto e no período de transição apresentaram intervalos parto-primeira ovulação de 29,0, 44,0 e 27,2 dias, respectivamente. Os intervalos parto-concepção para esses mesmos grupos foram de 98,3, 90,8, e 100,0 dias. A adição de monensina não se mostrou eficiente em acelerar o retorno à atividade ovariana cíclica após o parto. As vacas dos grupos que receberam monensina só no pré-parto, ou pós-parto, ou no período de transição apresentaram intervalos parto-primeira ovulação de 43,6, 39,3 e 42,8 dias, respectivamente. Os intervalos parto-concepção para os grupos pré e pós parto foram de 173,2, e 126,1 dias, respectivamente.The influence of the addition of propylene glycol or monensin to diets of dairy cows during the transition period on return to ovarian cyclicity was evaluated. Forty two multiparous Holstein cows with an average milk production of 8,000kg were distributed in a split-plot design and were divided into groups receiving either control diets or diets increased with 30ppm of monensin or 300ml of propylene glycol during the

  1. CARACTERÍSTICAS DA CARCAÇA DE VACAS DE DESCARTE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO RECEBENDO DIETAS COM OU SEM ADIÇÃO DE MONENSINA CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF CULL COWS FEEDLOT FINISHED RECEIVING DIET WITH OR WITHOUT MONENSINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelangelo Ziegler Arboitte

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram avaliadas as características da carcaça de vacas de descarte terminadas em confinamento recebendo dietas sem ou com monensina sódica (200 mg/animal/ dia. A dieta continha 12,5% de proteína bruta e 2,99 Mcal de energia digestível/kg de matéria seca, composta de 48% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 52% de concentrado. Vacas alimentadas com a dieta contendo monensina apresentaram menor peso de carcaça quente (262,3 vs 289,8 kg e fria (255,4 vs 282,6 kg,  rendimento de carcaça quente (52,5 vs 54,9% e fria (51,1 vs 53,5% e espessura de gordura subcutânea (4,5 vs 6,6 mm em relação às vacas sem monensina na dieta. Observaram-se carcaças de conformação inferior nos animais com monensina, atingindo pontuação de 8,9 (próximo a regular mais contra 10,1 (classificação acima de boa menos. Nas vacas alimentadas com monensina o valor absoluto do corte serrote  foi 9,9% inferior e a quantidade de gordura absoluta na carcaça apresentou redução de 20,9%. A adição de monensina sódica na dieta reduziu os pesos de carcaça, o rendimento de carcaça, o grau de acabamento, a conformação da carcaça e o peso absoluto do corte serrote de vacas de descarte.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Conformação, cortes comerciais, espessura de gordura subcutânea, gordura, peso e rendimento de carcaça.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: conformação, cortes comerciais, espessura de gordura subcutânea, gordura, peso e rendimento de carcaça

    The objective of the experiment was to avaluate the carcass characteristics of cull cows, feedlot finished receiving diets without or with sodic monensin (200 mg/animal/day. The diet contained 12.5% of crude protein and 2.99 Mcal of digestible energy/kg of dry matter

  2. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  3. Low protein silage associated with rumen impaction in suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-23

    Rumen impaction associated with low protein diets in a suckler cowCampylobacteriosis in suckler cowsPlant toxicity in ewesListerial encephalitis in ewes ITALIC! Chorioptes bovis-associated infertility in ramsThese are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). PMID:27103691

  4. Substituição do milho pela raspa de mandioca em dietas para vacas primíparas em lactação Replacement of corn with cassava scrapings in diets for primiparous lactating Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pimentel Ramalho

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de níveis de substituição do milho moído pela raspa de mandioca no desempenho dos animais, no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes de dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill e silagem de sorgo, cinco vacas primíparas da raça Holandesa (60±15 dias em lactação e 448 kg de PV inicial foram distribuídas em um único quadrado latino (5 x 5. A raspa de mandioca substituiu 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% do milho moído nas dietas. Os consumos e a digestibilidade de MS (em kg/dia, % do PV, g/kg0,75 do PV, MO, PB, EE, CNF, CHOT, FDA, FDN e NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de raspa de mandioca nas dietas. A produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e a produção de gordura decresceram linearmente em 20, 30 e 1,15 g/dia, respectivamente. A eficiência alimentar (kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura/kg de MS diminuiu linearmente em 0,001 para cada unidade de inclusão da raspa de mandioca, enquanto o teor de gordura não foi influenciado pelos níveis de substituição do milho moído nas dietas.This study was conducted to evaluate replacement of ground corn grain with cassava scrapings on nutrient intake, digestibility, and production of primiparous Holstein lactating dairy cows receivind diets containing forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica, Mill, sorghum silage and concentrate. Five cows averaging 60±15 of days in milk and initial body weight (BW of 448 kg were randomly assigned to a 5 × 5 Latin square with increasing levels of cassava scrapings in the diet: 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. Intakes of dry matter (DM (kg, %BW and g/BW kg0.75, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, nonfiber carbohidrates (NFC, total carbohydrates (TCHO, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN all were not affected by replacing ground corn with cassava scrapings in the diet. Similarly

  5. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver;

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  6. Rusitec the cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The rumen is an important part of the digestive tract of ruminant animals such as cattle, buffalo, sheep and goats. It contains large numbers of micro-organisms whose function is to break down fibrous feed materials such as grass and straw and convert them to products that can be used by the animal to produce meat, milk, wool or draught power. To study the microbial population of the rumen under controlled laboratory conditions, Dr. J.W. Czerkawski of the Hannah Research Institute, Scotland, U.K., developed an 'artificial cow'. The 'cow', named RUSITEC (from the acronym of 'Rumen Simulation Technique') is today being used as part of a project to analyse different feedstuffs being carried out by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at their joint Agricultural Laboratory at Seibersdorf near Vienna, Austria. In the artificial rumen micro-organisms can be indefinitely maintained by feeding a normal ruminant diet each day and providing the correct physiological conditions in terms of temperature, pH and flow of saliva. As RUSITEC chews its way through different feeds, scientists use radioactive tracing techniques to compare their digestibility. (The higher the digestibility of a foodstuff, the higher the nutritive value that can be derived from it.) By analysing the quality of different feeding materials in this way, scientists are seeking to propose improved diets for domestic animals in the developing world. Photos on this page show RUSITEC at work. Below, the vessels representing the rumen, where microbial fermentation of diets takes place; right, the rumen simulation technique in operation; below right, analysis of the end products of fermentative digestion

  7. Production performance of dairy cows after the dietary addition of clinoptilolite

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Casini; Davide Creston; Paolo Bosi

    2010-01-01

    Clays are frequently proposed for the addition to dairy cattle diets to reduce the transfer of mycotoxins in milk. This study  examined the effect of the addition of Clinoptilolite to the diet of lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk com-  position. Thirty-two lactating Holstein cows (average lactation length: 142 d) were blocked according to milk production,  parity, and days of lactation for assignment to one of two dietary treatments: control diet; control diet + ...

  8. Behaviors associated with cows more prone to produce milk with reduced stability to ethanol test due to feeding restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Tempel Stumpf; Vivian Fischer; Giovani Jacob Kolling; Alessandra Ventura da Silva; Maria Edi Rocha Ribeiro; Carolina da Silva dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The experiment was carried out to identify changes in the behaviorr of lactating cows induced by severe feeding restriction and further refeeding that could serve as facilitators for the visual identification of cows more prone to produce milk with reduced stability. Twelve cows were separated into two groups: Control: full diet supply; Restriction: 50% of the full diet. Feed restriction lasted seven days (Period 1), with posterior supply of full diet for seven days (Period 2) for a...

  9. Verificação e calibração do modelo de simulação do desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte baseado no escore de condição corporal avaliação interna Verification and calibration of a simulation model for reproductive performance of beef cows based on body condition score internal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Acélio Silveira da Fontoura Júnior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido com os objetivos de demonstrar e fazer a avaliação interna do modelo matemático desenvolvido para descrever o processo reprodutivo em sistemas de produção e simular o desempenho reprodutivo de vacas de corte a partir do escore de condição corporal ao parto (ECCPAR. O modelo é baseado na relação entre o ECCPAR e o intervalo parto-concepção (IPC para vacas com cria ao pé; para novilhas e vacas vazias à concepção, foi baseado na probabilidade de ocorrência. Para a avaliação interna do modelo, foi utilizada a metodologia de verificação e calibração. O uso da técnica de variação dos dados de entrada foi feito por meio da construção de cenários, variando ECCPAR, data de início da estação reprodutiva (IER, data média do parto (DPAR e ganho médio diário do nascimento ao desmame (GMDND. Esses cenários serviram também para demonstração do modelo. Por meio da calibração, foram escolhidos novos desvios-padrão para as variáveis: período de gestação, GMDND e data média do parto (DPAR. Os testes de degenerescência e independência de sementes geradoras de números aleatórios, após a calibração, comprovaram coerência do modelo na geração de aleatoriedade para as variáveis de interesse. A variação nos dados de entrada indicou eficácia do modelo para simular a dinâmica do processo reprodutivo, no entanto ajustes na taxa de concepção de primíparas são necessários para que o modelo simule valores compatíveis com a realidade.This work was carried out with the goal of demonstrating and performing internal evaluation of the mathematical model developed to describe the reproductive performance in production systems and to simulate reproductive performance of beef cows from the body condition score at calving (BCSAC. This model is based on the relationship between BCSAC and the interval between calving and conception (ICC for lactating cows; for heifers and empty cows at

  10. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  11. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM. PMID:16183219

  12. Emotional and deliberative reactions to a public crisis: Mad Cow disease in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaceur, Marwan; Heath, Chip; Cole, Steve

    2005-03-01

    Although most theories of choice are cognitive, recent research has emphasized the role of emotions. We used a novel context--the Mad Cow crisis in France--to investigate how emotions alter choice even when consequences are held constant. A field study showed that individuals reduced beef consumption in months after many newspaper articles featured the emotional label "Mad Cow," but beef consumption was unaffected after articles featured scientific labels for the same disease. The reverse pattern held for the disease-related actions of a government bureaucracy. A lab study showed that the Mad Cow label induces people to make choices based solely on emotional reactions, whereas scientific labels induce people to consider their own probability judgments. Although the Mad Cow label produces less rational behavior than scientific labels, it is two to four times more common in the environment. PMID:15733207

  13. Effect of conjugated linoleic acids from beef or industrial hydrogenation on growth and adipose tissue characteristics of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Mao L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The conjugated linoleic acid (CLA content of beef can be increased by supplementing appropriate beef cattle diets with vegetable oil or oil seed. Yet the effect of consumption of such beef on adipose tissue characteristics is unclear, thus the study was conducted to compare adipose tissue responses of rats to diets containing beef from steers either not provided or provided the oil supplements to alter CLA composition of the fat in muscle. Methods Effects of feeding synthetic (industrial hydrogenation CLA or CLA from beef on growth and adipose tissue responses of weanling, male, Wistar rats (n = 56; 14 per treatment diet were investigated in a completely randomized design experiment. Diets were: control (CON diet containing casein and soybean oil, synthetic CLA (SCLA diet; where 1.69% synthetic CLA replaced soybean oil, two beef-diets; CONM and CLAM, containing freeze dried beef from steers either not fed or fed 14% sunflower seeds to increase CLA content of beef. Diets were isonitrogenous (20% protein and isocaloric. Rat weights and ad libitum intakes were recorded every 2 wk. After 9 wk, rats were fasted for 24 h, blood sampled by heart puncture, sacrificed, tissue and organs were harvested and weights recorded. The adipose tissue responses with regard to cellularity and fatty acid compositions of retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissue were determined. Results Body weights and gains were comparable, but organ weights as percent of body weight were greater for rats fed SCLA than CONM. Fasting blood glucose concentration was lower (p 7 cells/g and 8.03 × 108 cells than those fed CONM (28.88 × 107 cells/g and 32.05 × 108 cells, respectively. Conclusion Study suggests that dietary CLA either as synthetic or high CLA-beef may alter adipose tissue characteristics by decreasing the number of adipocytes and by decreasing the size of the tissue.

  14. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  15. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumer perception of the healthiness of beef is an important determinant of beef consumption. However, little is known about how consumers perceive the healthiness of beef. The aim of this study is to shed light on the associations between beef and health. METHODS: Eight focus group...... correct judgements about how healthful their food is. However, the results of this study indicate that an accurate assessment of beef healthiness is not always straightforward. The presented results on consumer perceptions of beef healthiness provide insights into consumer decision making processes, which...

  16. Health promoting values of beef

    OpenAIRE

    Migdał W.; Živković B.; Migdał Ł.

    2009-01-01

    The beef meat is mainly used as culinary cuts. The culinary value of beef and veal meat is determined by tenderness and palatability. 23% of meat produced in Europe (about 7,5 mln ton) is beef, veal production is estimated about 800 000 ton per year. Biggest producers of beef and veal are France (30%), Netherlands (26%), Italy (18%) Belgium (7%) and Germany (6%). 70% of beef and veal produced in Europe is consumed by French and Germans. Beef contains proteins (18 -23%) which have high biologi...

  17. Drought effect on weaning weight and efficiency relative to cow size in semiarid rangeland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scasta, J D; Henderson, L; Smith, T

    2015-12-01

    Cow size has been suggested to be an important consideration for selecting cattle to match their production environment. Over the last several decades, the trend in genetic selection for maximum growth has led to gradual increases in beef cow size. An unrelated trend during this same period in the western United States has been an increase in temperature, drought frequency, and drought severity. Due to the potential influence of the increasing cow size trend on nutritional maintenance costs and production, we assessed the effect of cow size on weaning weight and efficiency in relation to drought on a semiarid high-elevation ranch in Wyoming. This study addresses a lack of empirical studies on the interaction between cow size and drought. We measured calf weaning weights of 80 Angus × Gelbvieh cows from 2011 to 2014 and assessed how drought affected weaning weights, efficiency (considered as calf weight relative to cow weight), intake requirements, and potential herd sizes relative to cow size. We stratified cows into 5 weight classes (453, 498, 544, 589, and 634 kg) as a proxy for cow size and adjusted weaning weights to a 210-d calf sex adjusted value. Cow size was a significant factor every year, with different cow sizes having advantages or disadvantages different years relative to weaning weight. However, efficiency for the smallest cows (453 kg) was always greater than efficiency for largest cows (634 kg; requirements in response to changes in the production environment but with optimal upside potential when conditions are favorable. These results indicate large cows (589 to 634 kg) do not maximize genetic potential in this production environment when conditions are optimum or provide any advantage over small or moderate size cows (453 to 544 kg) across the drought gradient. PMID:26641193

  18. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  19. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian Dairy and Beef Cattle Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, A.; Hörmansdorfer, S.; Messelhäusser, U.; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C.; Van Mansfeld, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fec...

  20. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  1. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryogi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  2. Desempenho leiteiro de vacas alimentadas com caroço de algodão em dieta à base de palma forrageira Dairy cows performance fed whole cottonseed in a forage of cactus-base diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airon Aparecido Silva de Melo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da inclusão do caroço de algodão em dietas à base de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill., sobre o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação. O experimento foi feito com cinco vacas, com média de 50 dias de lactação, distribuídas em quadrado latino 5x5. Os tratamentos experimentais foram constituídos da inclusão de caroço de algodão em 0, 6,25, 12,50, 18,75 e 25% da matéria seca da dieta. O caroço de algodão aumentou o consumo de matéria seca, extrato etéreo, nutrientes digestíveis totais, cálcio e fósforo; porém não afetou o consumo de proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro. O caroço de algodão aumentou a produção de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura (de 26,53 para 31,68 kg por dia, e a produção de gordura do leite (de 0,86 para 1,09 kg por dia; não afetou, porém, a produção de leite sem correção (31,19 kg por dia, a porcentagem de gordura do leite (3,18% e a eficiência alimentar (1,31 kg de leite corrigido por quilograma de matéria seca consumida. O caroço de algodão melhorou o desempenho animal, quando incluído em até 25% da matéria seca em dietas à base de palma forrageira.The effect of the whole cottonseed on dairy cows performance fed forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill. diet was evaluated. Experiment was made with five Holstein cows, in a 50-days lactation, which were placed into a 5x5 latin square design. The whole cottonseed was added as a partial replacement of sorghum silage and soybean meal, in a level of 0, 6.25, 12.50, 18.75, and 25.00% of dry matter. It was observed that addition of whole cottonseed increased the dry matter, ether extract, total digestible nutrients, calcium and phosphorus intake, but did not affect the crude protein and neutral detergent fiber intake. Also, it increased the fat corrected milk yield 3.5% (26.53 to 31.68 kg per day and the fat milk yield (0.86 to 1.09 kg per day, but did not

  3. Serum progesterone concentration and conception rate of beef cows supplemented with ground corn after a fixed-time artificial insemination protocol Concentração sérica de progesterona e taxa de concepção em vacas de corte suplementadas com milho moído após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B. Pescara

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of finely ground corn (FC supplementation to grazing beef cows after fixed-time AI (TAI on serum progesterone (P4 concentrations on day 7 and conception rates on day 28 after TAI were investigated. Three hundred and sixty-four lactating multiparous Brangus cows had follicular and luteal activity synchronized by treatment with estradiol benzoate (Estrogin; 2.0mg IM and insertion of intra-vaginal P4 releasing device (CIDR on day -11, followed by treatment with PGF2α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM on day -4, CIDR and calf removal on day -2, and treatment with GnRH (Fertagyl; 100µg IM TAI and calf return on day 0. On day 0, cows were randomly allotted in one of the following FC supplement treatments: G1 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 21; G2 - 2kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 6kg/day from day 8 to 21; G3 -6kg/day from day 0 to 7, and 2kg/day from day 8 to 21; and G4 -6kg/day from day 0 to 21. Blood samples were collected on day 7, and pregnancy was determined by ultrasonography indicating the presence of a fetus on day 28. Cows supplemented with 2kg/d of FC had higher serum concentration of P4 on day 7 than cows supplemented with 6kg/d (1.58 vs. 1.28ng/mL; PAvaliaram-se os efeitos de diferentes níveis de ingestão de suplemento com milho moído finamente (MF em vacas de corte, mantidas em pasto, após inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF, sobre a concentração sérica de progesterona (P4 no dia 7, e sobre a concepção no dia 28 pós IATF. Trezentas e sessenta e quatro vacas Brangus, multíparas lactantes, tiveram as atividades folicular e luteal sincronizadas por tratamento com benzoato de estradiol (Estrogin; 2,0mg IM e inserção de dispositivo intravaginal de P4 (CIDR no dia -11, seguido por tratamento com PGF2 α (Lutalyse; 25mg IM no dia - 4, retirada do CIDR e remoção temporária de bezerros no dia -2, e tratamento com GnRH (Fertagyl; 100 µ g IM, IATF e retorno dos bezerros no dia 0. No dia 0, as vacas foram

  4. Validation of an approach to predict total-tract fiber digestibility using a standardized in vitro technique for different diets fed to high-producing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, F; Ruh, K; Combs, D K

    2015-04-01

    The experimental objective was to validate an in vitro model to predict total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility in dairy cattle. Twenty-one diets from 7 studies conducted at University of Wisconsin-Madison were analyzed for in vitro fiber digestibility. Forages varied among diets (corn, alfalfa, tall and meadow fescue, and wheat straw silages) and nutrient composition (ranges: NDF = 22.5 to 33.8%; crude protein = 15.8 to 18.9%; nonfiber carbohydrates = 38.0 to 51.0%). Total-tract NDF digestibility (TTNDFD) observed in in vivo trials was determined using different markers as described in the individual studies. The in vitro TTNDFD model predicted total-tract fiber digestibility from the proportion of total NDF potentially digestible (pdNDF), rate of pdNDF degradation, and rate of passage of pdNDF. The model predicted TTNDFD similar to in vivo measurements. The relationship between TTNDFD measured in vivo and TTNDFD predicted by the in vitro assay was significant (R(2) = 0.68). The relationship between in vitro 30-h NDF digestibility values and in vivo total-tract NDF digestibility values was not significant, whereas in vitro 48-h NDF digestibility values were correlated (R(2) = 0.30) with in vivo TTNDFD measurements. Indigestible NDF (iNDF) showed a negative relationship (R(2) = 0.40) with TTNDFD in vivo. Each 1-percentage-unit increase of iNDF resulted in a decrease of 0.96 percentage units of total-tract NDF digestibility; however, iNDF by itself was not a good predictor of TTNDFD because of the difference among the means. This study showed that an in vitro TTNDFD model that uses iNDF, pdNDF, and rates of pdNDF digestion and passage can predict (R(2) = 0.68) total-tract NDF digestibility. Most importantly, we demonstrated the ability to predict total-tract fiber digestibility from a model based on in vitro NDF degradation, which could improve our ability to optimize forage utilization and milk production. PMID:25648802

  5. A proteomic-based characterization of liver metabolism in dairy cows and young pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sejersen, Henrik

    This thesis deals with studies on liver metabolism in cows and pigs. Proteome analysis was used to quantify a large number of proteins involved in metabolic pathways. In cows, the objective was to characterize differences in the liver proteome between early lactation dairy cows with low or high...... total bilirubin are potential biomarkers. In pigs, the objective was to investigate whether young pigs can be used to model the liver response in adolescents to a high-fat diet and to diet restriction-induced weight loss. Our results show that the liver response to a high-fat diet and to diet...

  6. Flavour perception of oxidation in beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, M M; Nute, G R; Hughes, S I; Enser, M; Wood, J D; Richardson, R I

    2006-02-01

    Lipid oxidation is a major factor in meat quality. In order to relate human perceptions of lipid oxidation, as determined by a trained taste panel, to a chemical measurement of oxidation, we studied meat from animals with a wide range of potential oxidation through differences in their PUFA composition and by displaying the meat in high oxygen modified atmosphere packs for varying lengths of time. Meat was obtained from 73 Angus- and Charolais-cross steers from different trials that had been raised on 10 different diets: grass silage (high in C18:3, n-3), cereal concentrate (high in C18:2, n-6), three diets with 3% added fat consisting of three levels of protected lipid supplement (high in C18:2, n-6 and C18:3, n-3, ratio 1:1), a control with Megalac(®) (relatively saturated), three diets with three levels of inclusion of protected fish oil (high in C20:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3) plus a constant amount of unprotected fish oil and a final diet with an unprotected fish oil control. The longissimus dorsi muscle was excised from the left carcass side, aged vacuum packaged for 10-13 days depending on the projects and frozen for less than eight months. TBARS and sensory analyses were performed on steaks displayed for 0, 4 or 9 days under simulated retail conditions, exposed to light in modified atmosphere packaging (CO(2):O(2); 25:75). Meat oxidation increased throughout display for each of the diets, as shown by a rise in TBARS values. This increase was not linear, differences between 0 and 4 days of display were smaller than between 4 and 9 days of display. The lowest TBARS and lowest increment occurred in the two control diets and the grass-fed animals, probably due to the more saturated fat of meat from animals fed the control diets and the higher content of vitamin E. Sensory attributes were also influenced by time of display. Positive attributes, such as beef flavour or overall liking, decreased throughout display, whereas negative attributes, such as abnormal and

  7. Holy Cows or Cash Cows?

    OpenAIRE

    Attanasio, Orazio; Augsburg, Britta

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Anagol, Etang and Karlan (2013) consider the income generated by these owning a cow or a buffalo in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India. The net profit generated ignoring labour costs, gives rise to a small positive rate of return. Once any reasonable estimate of labour costs is added to costs, the rate of return is a large negative number. The authors conclude that households holding this type of assets do not behave according to the tenets of capitalism. A variety of ex...

  8. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  9. Produtividade e eficiência biológica de sistemas pecuários de cria diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto e na taxa de natalidade do rebanho no Rio Grande de Sul Productivity and biological efficiency of beef cow-calf systems differing in age at first calving and herd calving rate in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Beretta

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada por intermédio da simulação a produtividade e eficiência de sistemas de criação de bovinos de corte no Rio Grande do Sul diferindo na idade das novilhas ao primeiro parto (IP, anos e na taxa de natalidade (TN: "Sistema Tradicional" (ST IP=4; "Sistema Melhorado" (SM IP=3; e o "Sistema Um Ano" (SU IP=2. Em cada sistema foi avaliado o efeito da TN variando entre 50 e 90%. Foi usado um modelo estático determinístico. A resposta em produtividade e eficiência à redução na IP foi dependente da TN. No SM e SU foi determinada resposta curvilinear a aumentos na TN, atingindo uma produção máxima de 83,9 e 77,9 quilos de bezerro desmamado (BD/ha com TN de 82,5 e 92,3%, respectivamente. No ST a resposta foi linear, com aumentos de 6,1 kg BD/ha a cada 10% de aumento na TN. O custo energético por quilo BD produzido diminuiu linearmente, na medida em que a TN aumentou.A simulation model was used to evaluate productivity and efficiency of beef cow-calf systems in Rio Grande do Sul State with different heifers first calving age (CA, years and calving rates (CR: "Traditional System" (TS CA=4; "Improved System (IS" CA=3; "One Year System (OYS" CA=2. In each system it was studied the effect of CR varying from 50 to 90%. A statistic deterministic model was used. The effect of reducing CA on productivity and efficiency was dependent of CR. IS and OYS showed a quadratic response curve, with maximum production of 83,9 and 77,9 kg of weaned calf (WC/ ha for CR of 82,5 and 92,3%, respectively. TS response was linear, with increments of 6,1 kg WC/ha for each 10% increase in CR. Energetic cost per quilogram of WC was reduced linearly with increments in CR.

  10. Fatty acid composition of milk from cows fed low purity glycerin

    OpenAIRE

    Murilo de Almeida Meneses; Fabiano Ferreira da Silva; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Alex Resende Schio; Gonçalo Mesquita da Silva; Eli Santana de Oliveira Rodrigues; Antonio Ferraz Porto Junior; Dicastro Dias de Souza; Wagner Patrick Sá Teles Silva Ponde; Julinessa Silva Oliveira de Oliveira; Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of inclusion of low purity glycerin in the diet on the fatty acid composition of milk of crossbred cows. We used 15 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows distributed in three Latin squares 5 x 5, the following treatments: control (no addition of glycerin in the diet); inclusion of 5% glycerin in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 10% glycerol in the diet dry matter; inclusion of 15% glycerol in the diet dry matter, and the inclusion of 20% glycerol in the diet ...

  11. Mad Cow Disease (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Mad Cow Disease KidsHealth > For Parents > Mad Cow Disease Print A ... Contagious? What Is Being Done About It About Mad Cow Disease Mad cow disease has been in the headlines ...

  12. Substantial differences between organ and muscle specific tracer incorporation rates in a lactating dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burd, N.A.; Hamer, H.M.; Pennings, B.; Pellikaan, W.F.; Senden, J.M.G.; Gijsen, A.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to produce intrinsically L-[1-13C]phenylalanine labeled milk and beef for subsequent use in human nutrition research. The collection of the various organ tissues after slaughter allowed for us to gain insight into the dynamics of tissue protein turnover in vivo in a lactating dairy cow. One

  13. AN ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO MEET BEEF SELF-SUFFICIENCY IN WEST PAPUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hartono

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to present an alternative approach to meet beef self-sufficiency in West Papua, Indonesia. It mainly focuses on calculating the needed number of productive cows to enhance beef production in the province. Out of the total farmer households in Manokwari, Indonesia, 189 farmer-respondents were selected as samples of the study. Selection of the sample was based on the number of cattle kept in every age group (less than one (2 years old and the number of productive cows. Secondary data came from the time series data of the number of slaughtered cattle vis-à-vis the population of all districts in West Papua Province from 1980-2008. Data were analyzed using the Partial Adjustment Model (PAM and Ordinary Least Square (OLS method. Results of the study showed that beef self-sufficiency in West Papua depend on the availability of the number of productive cows to produce ready-slaughtered-bull in the previous year. Particularly for West Papua, to produce one unit of bull in the tth –year, with the assumption that cattle mortality is 4.92%, a number of 2.38 animal units AU of productive cows must be provided in the previous two (2 years.

  14. Comparisons between nulliparous heifers and cows as oocyte donors for embryo production in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizos, Dimitrios; Burke, Lisa; Duffy, Patrick; Wade, Mary; Mee, John F; O'Farrell, Kevin J; Macsiurtain, Mairtin; Boland, Maurice P; Lonergan, Patrick

    2005-02-01

    The aims of the present study were to compare (1) Holstein-Friesian heifers versus early postpartum lactating cows, and (2) different age categories of crossbred beef heifers versus cows, in terms of oocyte yield, morphological quality and developmental competence. Four experiments were designed to test the associated hypotheses. In Experiment 1, ovum pick up was carried out twice weekly for a period of 5 weeks on Holstein-Friesian heifers (n = 8) and early postpartum cows (n = 8). Oocytes were submitted to in vitro maturation (IVM), fertilization and culture. Significantly more follicles were punctured on the ovaries of heifers than cows (10.4 versus 7.8, P ovaries of slaughtered crossbred beef heifers (under 30 months, n = 1241) and cows (over 4 years old, n = 1125), and processed in vitro as above. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the number of aspirated follicles or oocytes recovered. A significantly higher proportion (P ovaries were separated according to age of heifer into three groups: (1) 12-18 months, (2) 19-24 months and (3) 25-30 months, and compared with cow oocytes. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst yield between the different age groups of heifers. Irrespective of heifer age, the blastocyst yield on Day 8 was significantly lower than that from cow oocytes (35.0, 35.2, 36.5 and 48.3%, respectively, P development. PMID:15629810

  15. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

  16. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  17. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  18. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas em lactação e de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo palma forrageira Ingestive behavior of lactating cows and sheep fed diets with spineless cactus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safira Valença Bispo

    2010-09-01

    cows, respectively. In experiment 1, five mixed-breed non castrated male sheep with 25.8 kg average weight were distributed in a 5 x 5 latin square. In experiment 2, it was used eight lactating cows 14 kg milk/day average initial production distributed in two 4 x 4 latin squares. The observation of the behavioral data was visually performed for a period of 24 hours in both experiments. In experiment 1, the intake of dry matter, feeding time and rumination efficiency increased linearly with the inclusion of the spineless cactus, whereas rumination time decreased linearly; the consumption of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and feeding efficiency exhibited quadratic behavior. In experiment 2, the inclusion of cactus and urea had no influence on dry matter and NDF intake, neither on time (kgDM/h and efficiency of feeding and rumination; however, rumination efficiency (kgNDF/h exhibited quadratic behavior. Total mastication time and idle time were not influenced by the inclusion of cactus in the diet in both experiments. The inclusion of a source of physically effective fiber is recommended for ruminant rations with a high proportion of spineless cactus.

  19. Fontes de amido e proteína para vacas leiteiras em dietas à base de capim elefante Starch and protein sources in elephantgrass-based diets for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laísse Garcia de Lima

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available A correta associação de fontes concentradas de energia e/ou proteína ao volumoso da ração de bovinos, poderá maximizar o desempenho dos animais, como efeito da complementariedade das taxas de degradação de nutrientes. Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes formas de processamento de milho, níveis de inclusão na dieta e fontes de proteína sobre a digestibilidade dos nutrientes na dieta, parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, bem como o desempenho de vacas leiteiras. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, distribuídas ao acaso em um delineamento experimental do tipo quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: silagem de milho, farelo de soja e milho moído (quirera fino em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível alto; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho moído em nível baixo; capim elefante, farelo de soja, milho floculado (360 g L-1 em nível alto; capim elefante, farinha de peixe, milho floculado em nível alto. A dieta contendo capim elefante, milho floculado e farelo de soja em alto nível foi a que mais se aproximou da dieta de silagem de milho nos diversos parâmetros avaliados. A fonte de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR não apresentou vantagens em relação à fonte convencional de proteína. O fornecimento de baixo nível de concentrado não supriu as deficiências energéticas do capim elefante. A maior eficiência de produção de vacas leiteiras que receberam rações com base em capim elefante simulando pastejo foi observada quando a energia estava disponível no rúmen, seja através do processamento, ou seja da maior inclusão de concentrado na dieta.Ruminant performance may be improved due to association of specific energy and protein supplemental sources by matching nutrient degradation rates on diets. This work aimed to analyze the effects of corn grain processing, concentrate levels and protein sources on nutrient digestibilities, ruminal

  20. Preliminary results on the use of radioimmunoassay to monitor the reproductive performance of dairy and beef cattle on Cheju Island, Republic of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted with the aim of improving the breeding efficiency of dairy and beef cows on Cheju Island through the use of radioimmunoassay techniques. Milk progesterone profiles were characterized in dairy cows throughout an oestrus cycle, at the onset of oestrus and during the gestation period. Plasma progesterone measurements were made in pregnant and non-pregnant beef cows. Progesterone concentrations in milk were very low during oestrus, with a mean value of 2.4 nmol/L at the onset of oestrus, gradually declining to 1 nmol/L4 to 9 h later. In the cycling cow, milk progesterone concentrations in the early part of the cycle ranged from 3 to 5 nmol/L and increased to 6-11.6 nmol/L between days 13 and 21 of the cycle. Milk progesterone concentrations of pregnant cows ranged from 8.0 to 40 nmol/L during gestation; non-pregnant cows had values of <3.5 nmol/L. Plasma progesterone concentrations of beef cows during pregnancy ranged from 3.0 to 33 nmol/L, whereas non-pregnant animals exhibited values of <2.5 nmol/L. (author). 17 refs, 4 figs

  1. Trends in cow numbers and culling rate in the Irish cattle population, 2003 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher P

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cows are the main economic production units of Ireland's cattle industry. Therefore, demographic information, including overall numbers and survival rates, are relevant to the Irish agricultural industry. However, few data are available on the demographics of cows within a national population, either in Ireland or elsewhere, despite the recent development of comprehensive national cattle databases in many EU Member States. This study has sought: to determine the rate of cow culling from the national herd; to determine the rate of culling by type (dairy, beef, age, method of exit, date of exit and interval between last calving and exit; to calculate the national cow on-farm mortality rate; and to compare the Irish rates with published data from other countries. This work was conducted using data recorded in the national Cattle Movement Monitoring System (CMMS. Culling refers to the exit of cows from the national herd, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of cow exits (as defined above each year divided by the number of calf births in the same year. Culling rate was determined by type (dairy or beef, date of birth, method of exit (slaughter or on-farm death, month of exit and interval between last calving and exit. The average cow-culling rate during 2003 to 2006 was 19.6% (21.3% for dairy, 18% for beef. While comparisons must be treated with caution, it concluded that the overall rates of culling in Ireland fell within published internationally accepted norms. The on-farm mortality rate of 3.2-4.1% was similar to that reported in comparable studies.

  2. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  3. Dietary aspects of cow's milk allergy in young children

    OpenAIRE

    Tuokkola, Jetta

    2011-01-01

    Cow s milk allergy (CMA) affects about 2-6% of infants and young children. Environmental factors during early life are suggested to play a role in the development of allergic diseases. One of these factors is likely to be maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation. The association between maternal diet and development of CMA in offspring is not well known, but diet could contain factors that facilitate development of tolerance. After an established food allergy, another issue is gaining tol...

  4. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease. PMID:27156223

  5. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  6. Texture Softening of Beef and Chicken by Enzyme Injection Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Chun, Yong-Gi; Kim, Bum-Keun; Park, Dong-June

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on a new softening technology for use with chicken breast and eye of round beef in order to assist elderly individuals who have difficulty with eating due to changes in their ability to chew (masticatory function) or swallow. We investigated the hardness of chicken breast and eye of round beef through use of a texture analyzer after injection of a commercial enzyme. Among 7 commercial enzymes, bromelain and collupulin exhibited a marked softening effect on the tested chicken breast and eye of round beef given a 1.00% enzyme concentration. The hardness of bromelain-treated chicken breast reached 1.4×10(4) N/m(2), of collupulin-treated chicken breast reached 3.0×10(4) N/m(2), and of bromelain-treated eye of round beef reached 3.2×10(4) N/m(2), respectively, while their original shapes did not change. To find the level of tissue degradation with specific enzyme concentrations, enzyme injections at 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.50%, and 1.00% concentration of bromelain and papain were also evaluated. The results of this research could be useful for softening chicken breast and eye of round beef and will contribute to the development of foods that can be more easily eaten as part of a balanced diet for elderly adults. PMID:26761870

  7. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results indica...

  8. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  9. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  10. Fanning in open-topped cowshed and chromium added to diet improving growth performance of heat-stressed beef cattle%敞篷牛舍接力送风及饲粮添加铬改善肉牛生产性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡景义; 冯堂超; 师筑俊; 廖阔遥; 易宗容

    2015-01-01

    of the barn, fanning, and spraying cooling, additive in diet etc, were used to relief the hot stress of livestock. To improving the production properties of cattle, fanning in open-topped cowshed combining with chromium added to diet were investigation. A 2×2 factorial trial was conducted to determine the effects of fanning and chromium added to diet on thermal environment, physiological indexes and growth performance of beef cattle in summer in the Southern China. Thirty-six Simmental crossbred beef cattle ( average body weight 392.8 kg ) were chosen and randomly divided into 4 groups, and were raised in open feedlot barn for 30 days. In treatment 1 (T1), fans were installed and chromium nicotinate was added to beef cattle diet; In treatment 2 (T2), fans were only assembled; In treatment 3 (T3), chromium nicotinate was added to diet; In the control treatment (T4), the beef cattle were raised in feedlot barn without fans and without chromium nicotinate in diet. The dosage of chromium was 800µg/kg. The indexes such as environmental factors, temperature-humidity index, rectal temperature, respiration rate, average daily gain and economic benefits were collected. The results showed as following: 1) Compared with the control barn without fan, average room temperature was lower by 1.9℃ (P < 0.01), wind speed was increased by 5.6 times (P < 0.01), THI reduce by 5.65% (P < 0.01) in 14:00 in treatment barn with fan. 2) For the cattle suffered from the heat stress, the respiration rate was reduced by 2.37 times (P< 0.01), and rectal temperature were reduced by 0.18℃ (P<0.01) by chromium supplementation, and the respiration rate was reduced by 6.97 times (P < 0.01) by fanning. No interaction effects on respiration rate and rectal temperature was obtained between chromium supplementation and fanning. 2) The average daily gain of beef cattle in T1 were increased by 44.16% (P< 0.05), 35.37% (P < 0.05) and 79.03% (P < 0.05) than that in T2, T3, and T4, respectively. Gross

  11. Methane emissions and estimates of ruminal fermentation parameters in beef cattle fed different dietary concentrate levels

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Odo Primavesi; Magda Aparecida de Lima; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi Frighetto; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2013-01-01

    Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet) were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum ...

  12. Relationships of survival time, productivity and cause of death with telomere lengths of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Kazuyuki; Yonai, Miharu; Kaneyama, Kanako; Ito, Satoshi; Matsuda, Hideo; Yoshioka, Hajime; Nagai, Takashi; Imai, Kei

    2011-10-01

    The reproductive ability, milk-producing capacity, survival time and relationships of these parameters with telomere length were investigated in 4 groups of cows produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Each group was produced using the same donor cells (6 Holstein (1H), 3 Holstein (2H), 4 Jersey (1J) and 5 Japanese Black (1B) cows). As controls, 47 Holstein cows produced by artificial insemination were used. The SCNT cows were artificially inseminated, and multiple deliveries were performed after successive rounds of breeding and conception. No correlation was observed between the telomere length and survival time in the SCNT cows. Causes of death of SCNT cows included accidents, accident-associated infections, inappropriate management, acute mastitis and hypocalcemia. The lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was superior to those of the controls and cell donor cows. All SCNT beef cows with a relatively light burden of lactation remained alive and showed significantly prolonged survival time compared with the cows in the SCNT dairy breeds. These results suggest that the lifetime productivity of SCNT cows was favorable, and their survival time was more strongly influenced by environmental burdens, such as pregnancy, delivery, lactation and feeding management, than by the telomere length. PMID:21666348

  13. Neonatal segmental enteritis due to cow's milk allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam, Pavai; Mathai, John

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) typically presents with persistent diarrhea or dysentery, vomiting and bleeding per rectum in young infants. CMPA is reported to mimic Hirschsprung's disease and malrotation. We report, a neonate who presented with recurrent attacks of segmental enteritis due to CMPA and the last episode presented with signs of peritonitis. He improved dramatically after elimination of cow's milk from his diet. CMPA should be considered in artificially fed babies with surgica...

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy among Children with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Farahmand, Fatemeh; Najafi, Mehri; Ataee, Pedram; Modarresi, Vajiheh; Shahraki, Turan; Rezaei, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and cow's milk allergy (CMA) are two common conditions that occur in infancy. This study was performed to investigate the frequency of CMA in a group of patients with GERD. Methods Eighty-one children with signs and symptoms of GERD were enrolled in this study. All subjects received omeprazole for 4 weeks after the initial evaluation. Empirical elimination of cow's milk from the diet was started for the patients who did not respond to the...

  15. Common Manifestations of Cow s Milk Allergy in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Altıntaş, Derya Ufuk; Kendirli, Seval Güneşer; Evliyaoğlu, Nurdan; Atıcı, Aytuğ; Yüksel, Bilgin; Evrüke, Cüneyt

    1996-01-01

    Fifty patients with cow s milk allergy symptoms such as wheezing recurrent bronchitis rhinitis colic dermatitis were investigated Feeding history symptoms and familial atopy were recorded Complete blood count IgE phadiatop milk specific IgE were measured Skin prick test wag performed with cow s milk protein egg and common inhalant allergens A milk free diet was instituted for at least 3 weeks before milk challenge The open controlled challenge procedure was applied to the asymptomatic patient...

  16. Jointly achieving profitability and environmental outcomes: methane abatement from genetic improvement in the Australian beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Alford, Andrew R.; Cacho, Oscar J.; Griffith, Garry R.; Hegarty, Roger S.

    2006-01-01

    Selection of cattle with greater feed efficiency is known to be profitable. Savings in southern Australian beef production systems of $6.55 per breeding cow per year have been estimated for selection for lower residual feed intake (RFI), and an additional saving of $4.34 per breeding cow per year may be achieved in feedlots. Greater feed efficiency is also expected to reduce methane emissions. A gene flow model was developed to simulate the spread of improved RFI genes through both a single h...

  17. Efeito do estradiol, dietas e duração do período seco sobre o consumo de matéria seca de vacas holandesas Effect of estradiol, diets and lenght of the dry period on feed intake of holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia De Fátima Andrade Correia Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de dietas aniônicas (DA e catiônicas (DC, associadas ou não ao uso de estradiol em dois períodos secos: período seco curto (30 dias (PSC e período seco regular (60 dias (PSR sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS de 40 vacas Holandesas, nos períodos pré-parto (PREP e pós-parto (PP, distribuídas aleatoriamente em esquema fatorial 2x2+2. As dietas foram fornecidas por 21 dias no período pré-parto, após o qual, as vacas passaram a receber uma dieta de lactação. As DA não tiveram efeito sobre o consumo de MS no PREP; entretanto, resultaram em maior consumo quando comparadas à DC no pós-parto. Os contrastes entre tratamentos mostraram que DA fornecidas no PREP produziram aumento no consumo PP, PSR e no PSC associadas ao estradiol (P0,05. Quando se comparam dietas com estradiol associado ao PSC com as demais, as primeiras apresentaram menores consumos, o que significa que a utilização de estrógenos exógenos pode reduzir o consumo no pós-parto. Não foram observadas diferenças entre consumo no PSC sem estradiol quando comparado ao PSR. O número de dias que antecederam o parto produziram efeito cúbico sobre o consumo (PThe effects of anionic and cationic diets, associated or not with estradiol injection, and two dry periods (30 days and 60 days, were evaluated in dry matter intake in prepartum and postpartum. The trial was undertaken at Dairy Research Unit of Florida University, in Gainesville, USA. Forty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to the treatments in a factorial design: 1. anionic diet, 30 days dry period (AD30 2. cationic diet, 30 days dry period (CD30, 3. anionic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (AD30E 4. cationic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (CD30E; 5.anionic diet, 60 days dry period (AD60; 6. cationic diet, 60 days dry period (CD60. After calving, a standard early lactation diet was fed to all cows for 21 days. The cows were under two different range of temperatures: up

  18. Cows’ diet and milk composition

    OpenAIRE

    Harstad, Odd Magne; Steinshamn, Håvard

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cows' diets on milk composition is discussed, focusing on those components of particular interest for human health. First dietary sources of fatty acids and their digestion and metabolism are reviewed. Then feeding factors affecting milk fat content and fatty acid composition are discussed, with emphasis on those factors related to forage and fat supplements. The effects of diet on protein content and composition and milk content of minerals and vitamins are reviewed. Feeding st...

  19. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... or through the anus. Adults and children with pork tapeworm can infect themselves if they have poor ...

  20. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  1. The water footprint of English beef and lamb production

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterton, Julia C.; Hess, Tim M.; Williams, Adrian G

    2011-01-01

    Recent reports highlighting large quantities of water required to produce a kilo of meat have attracted media attention, leading to debates over the role of meat in a sustainable diet. Such reports frequently quote figures based on global averages and therefore conceal significant regional variation, ignoring the source of the water required and local climatic conditions. This report attempts to quantify the water footprint of English beef and lamb production, combining the water simulation m...

  2. Seroprevalences of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus, Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and Neospora caninum in beef and dairy cattle in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Vanleeuwen, John A.; Tiwari, Ashwani; Plaizier, Jan C; Whiting, Terry L.

    2006-01-01

    Of 1204 dairy cows and 1425 beef cows sampled, 60.8% and 10.3% were seropositive for Bovine leukemia virus, 4.5% and 1.7% were seropositive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and 8.3% and 9.1% were seropositive for Neospora caninum, respectively, while 28.1% of dairy herds had unvaccinated animals with titres ≥ 1:64 for Bovine viral diarrhea virus.

  3. Effect of cooking on protein oxidation in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched beef. Implication on nutritional quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gatellier, Philippe; Kondjoyan, Alain; Portanguen, Stéphane; Sante-Lhoutellier, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    The effect of cooking on protein oxidation was investigated in M. Longissimus thoracis of eight Normand cows fed during a 100 days finishing period with two different diets: a conventional diet (concentrate/straw based diet) and a diet rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), obtained by addition to the conventional diet of a mixture of extruded linseed and extruded rapeseed. After 11 days storage, at 4 degrees C under vacuum, meat was cooked by applying jets of steam. Three experimen...

  4. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran; Oscar Balocchi; Fernando Wittwer; Rubén Pulido

    2016-01-01

    Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA) offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, an...

  5. A survey on clinical presentation and nutritional status of infants with suspected cow' milk allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo Gabriela TB; Nudelman Victor; Cardoso Ary L; Toporovski Mauro S; Spolidoro José VN; Morais Mauro B.; Vieira Mário C; Fonseca Marcelo CM

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cow's milk is the most common food allergen in infants and the diagnosis of cow's milk allergy is difficult, even with the use of several diagnostic tests. Therefore, elimination diets and challenge tests are essential for the diagnosis and treatment of this disorder. The aim of this study is to report the clinical presentation and nutritional status of children evaluated by pediatric gastroenterologists for the assessment of symptoms suggestive of cow's milk allergy. Meth...

  6. Effect of an artificial sweetener and yeast product combination on immune function measurements, growth performance, and carcass characteristics of beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred ninety-nine crossbred beef heifer calves (205 ± 7.9 kg initial BW) were used in a 44-d receiving trial with 2 dietary treatments (9 pens/treatment) in a completely random design. Diets were a steam-flaked corn and alfalfa hay-based control (CON) diet or the same diet (ADD) with added art...

  7. AN ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF PASTURE-RAISED BEEF SYSTEMS IN APPALACHIA

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Jason R.; D'Souza, Gerard E.; Sperow, Mark; Rayburn, Edward B.

    2004-01-01

    Cow-calf operations are important enterprises for family farmers in Appalachia and provide significant opportunity for supplemental income. This analysis constitutes a thorough economic assessment of pasture-raised beef production, an alternative to traditional production that could benefit the region's producers in terms of profitability and mitigated risk. Stochastic budgeting was utilized for profitability and risk comparison between traditional and pasture-raised operations and accounted ...

  8. Exigência de energia de mantença e composição corporal e do ganho de vacas de corte adultas de três grupos genéticos confinadas Maintenance energy requirements and body and gain composition of adults beef cows from three genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gomes de Siqueira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram estimadas as exigências de mantença de energia líquida (ELm e metabolizável (EMm e as mudanças na composição corporal e no ganho de vacas adultas não-gestantes e não-lactantes confinadas. Foram utilizadas 36 vacas, 12 Nelore (NEL, 12 F1 Pardo-Suíço-Nelore (PSN e 12 F1 Red Angus-Nelore (RAN. As alterações na composição corporal dos animais durante o período experimental foram estimadas utilizando-se a técnica do abate comparativo: quatro animais de cada grupo genético foram alocados, aleatoriamente, nos tratamentos abate inicial (AI, alimentação restrita (AR e alimentação ad libitum (AL. Os animais AR receberam, no período experimental, níveis de proteína e energia 15% acima da mantença e os AL, ração ad libitum, para ganho de 1,1 kg/dia. Os animais AI foram abatidos no início do experimento e os AR e AL 120 dias depois. Em todos os animais abatidos, foram estimadas as proporções corporais dos tecidos muscular, adiposo e ósseo, além dos conteúdos corporais de proteína, gordura e energia. Na estimação da ELm e da EMm, foram empregados modelos linear e não-linear. Os grupos genéticos não diferiram quanto às exigências de ELm e EMm, expressas em peso vivo em jejum (kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ. Quando utilizados os modelos linear e não-linear, os valores de ELm encontrados foram de 80,7 e 83,6 kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ e os de EMm, 109,9 e 128,0 kcal/kg0,75/dia PVJ, respectivamente. Os conteúdos de proteína por unidade de peso corpo vazio (PCVZ e do ganho (GPCVZ não diferiram entre os grupos genéticos, porém, os animais NEL apresentaram maior concentração de gordura e energia por kg PCVZ e GPVCZ para mesmo peso vivo.This research aimed to estimate the maintenance requirements of net energy (NEm and metabolizable energy (MEm, and the changes in body and gain composition of confined adults non-pregnant and non-lactant beef cows. Thirty six cows were used, 12 were Nellore (NEL, 12 F1 Brown Swiss

  9. Metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate to lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    Three lactating Holstein cows implanted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in major splanchnic blood vessels were used to investigate alcohol metabolism and metabolic effects of feeding high doses of propanol and propylacetate. Cows were fed three diets control (basal ration...

  10. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake) on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Branciari; David Ranucci; Dino Miraglia; Stefania Urbani; Sonia Esposto; Maurizio Servili

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a...

  11. Response of lactating cows to supplemental rumen protected methionine and Niacin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanxia GAO; Jianguo LI; Wenbin JIA; Qiufeng LI; Yufeng CAO

    2008-01-01

    Eight Chinese Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design to determine the effects of rumen protected methionine (RPMet) and Niacin on milk yield and milk composition of lactating cows with 14 d adaptation and 6-d sampling periods. The cows were fed the control diet or the control diet plus RPMet tion in the diet increased 4% fat corrected milk (FCM) yield (P 0.05) and lactose percentage (P>0.05). Dietary niacin supplementation increased milk yield (P 0.05) and SNF (P>0.05). RPMet supplementation in the diet of lactating cows significantly decreased serum urea nitrogen (P0.05). Niacin supplementation influ-enced the contents of glucose and NEFA in serum, but had no effects on the urea nitrogen, total cholesterol and triglyceride (P>0.05).

  12. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  13. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to hire a Federal Grader to certify the quality of its product. Beef grades are USDA Prime, Choice, Select, Standard, Commercial, Utility, ... beef within 2 days after purchase for maximum quality. What is the safe food ... (not ready-to-eat) meat and poultry packages. The label tells the consumer ...

  14. Effect of dietary vegetable oils on the fatty acid profile of plasma lipoproteins in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Íñiguez-González, Gonzalo; Cancino-Padilla, Nathaly; Loor, Juan J; Garnsworthy, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of dietary supplementation of soybean oil (SO) and hydrogenated palm oil (HPO) on the transport of fatty acids (FA) within plasma lipoproteins in lactating and non-lactating cows. Three lactating and three non-lactating Holstein cows were used in two different 3 × 3 Latin square experiments that included three periods of 21 d. Dietary treatments for lactating cows consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (500 g/d per cow) or HPO (500 g/d per cow). For non-lactating cows, dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet (control; no fat supplement) and fat-supplemented diets containing SO (170 g/d per cow) or HPO (170 g/d per cow). Compared with the control and SO diet, HPO addition increased (p < 0.05) the concentration of C16:0, C18:0, C18:2cis-9,12, C18:3cis-9,12,15 and total saturated and polyunsaturated FA in the plasma of lactating cows. In non-lactating cows, the SO addition increased the plasma concentration of C18:1trans-11. In lactating cows, concentrations of C16:0, C18:0 and total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO addition in the high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Total saturated FA were increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL). In non-lactating cows, the concentration of C18:0 was increased (p < 0.05) by HPO in HDL, whereas C18:1trans-11 was increased (p < 0.05) by SO in the low-density lipoprotein. Overall, it was found that distribution and transport of FA within the bovine plasma lipoproteins may be influenced by chain length and degree of unsaturation of dietary lipids. Also, the distribution of individual FA isomers such as C18:1trans-11 and C18:2cis-9,trans-11 may vary depending on the physiological state of the cow (lactating or non-lactating), and are increased in plasma (lactating cows) and the HDL (non-lactating cows) when cows are fed SO. PMID:27216557

  15. Estimation of Beef Marbling Standard Number Using a Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Osamu; Nabeoka, Natsuko; Hashimoto, Daisuke; Okushi, Masaaki

    Up to the present time, estimation of Beef Marbling Standard (BMS) number based on ultrasound echo imaging of live beef cattle has been studied. However, it is difficult to establish the objective and high accurate estimation method. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel modeling technique based on a neural network to estimate the BMS number. The proposed method consists of three process steps: the extraction of texture features, principal component analysis, and the estimation of BMS number by the neural network. The neural network can be expected to model the non-linear mapping between the texture features and the BMS numbers. In the verification test with 27 live beef cows, the proposed method achieved high estimation performance. The correlation coefficient between estimated and actual BMS numbers was r=0.88 (P<0.01) by leave-one-out method. On the other hand, the correlation coefficient by conventional multple regression analysis was r=0.51(P<0.01). These results showed that the proposed method was effective in non-linear modeling between the texture features and the BMS numbers.

  16. Interactions of corn meal or molasses with a soybean-sunflower meal mix or flaxseed meal on production, milk fatty acids composition, and nutrient utilization in dairy cows fed grass hay-based diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the interactions of molasses or corn meal [nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources] with flaxseed meal or a soybean-sunflower meal protein mix [rumen-degradable protein (RDP) sources] on animal production, milk fatty acids profile, and nutrient utilization in organic Jersey cows fed...

  17. Dietas com nitrogênio não-proteico para fêmeas bovinas superovuladas sem prévia adaptação durante curto tempo e em diferentes fases do ciclo estral Effect of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding for superovulated beef cows without previous adaptation and at different periods of the oestrus cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rocha Alves

    2010-09-01

    effects of short term non-protein nitrogen feeding at different periods of the oestrus cycle in superovulated cows, without previous adaptation, on yield, quality and development degree of recovered embryos. A total of sixty-eight Nelore cows were distributed in three groups: the control group (C and two groups with urea supply before (UB; urea supply from day -5 to day 0 and after (UA; supply from day 0 to day 5 artificial insemination. Animals were kept grazing and received 3.0 kg/animal/day of concentrate during 16 days. Two concentrates were formulated and the total diets (concentrate and estimate forage intake showed 12.0% (control diet and 14.6% (non-protein diet of crude protein. Animals were synchronized, superovulated and inseminated. The embryos were collected and analysed seven days (day 7 after insemination (day 0. Blood samples were collected on days -5, 0 and 5 to determine concentration of plasmatic urea nitrogen, glucose, insulin and progesterone. The time of urea supply affected average plasmatic urea nitrogen concentration on days -5, 0 5 but it did not affect concetrations of glucose, insulin and progesterone. The moment of urea inclusion had effect on compact morula percentage in relation to the total number of structures (UB = 51.4 vs. UA = 15.3%, to the total number of fertilized oocytes (UB = 62.5 vs. UA = 30.6% and to the total number of viable embryos (UB = 68.8 vs. UA = 38.6%. In the after insemination group of urea supply there was 70.2% of reduction on compact morula proportion over the total structures in relation to the group that received urea before insemination. Non-protein nitrogen feeding immediately after insemination promotes faster rates of embryo development.

  18. Conceptual Links between Two Mad Cow Crises: The Absence of Paradigmatic Change and Policymaking Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Labrecque, Joanne; Charlebois, Sylvain

    2006-01-01

    On March 20, 1996, a day known as Black Wednesday to the British beef industry, the British Secretary of State of Health announced that a possible link existed between BSE and the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), the human variant of mad cow. Seven years later, a somewhat comparable fate struck the Canadian beef industry. In May 2003, the discovery of the first native North American case of BSE in Canada deflated the prospects of the industry across the country, consequently creating environ...

  19. Monitoring of qualitative parameters of milk from dairy cows fed algae

    OpenAIRE

    Dědinová, Lenka

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this research was to determine the possible influence of adding green algae Chlorella sp. to the diet of dairy cows and evaluate the subsequent effects on milk quality. Algae contain high levels of protein, essential fatty acids, and a number of important vitamins and minerals, to improve and enrich the diet of dairy cows with subsequent benefits to the quality of milk. Continuing cost increases of feedstuffs directly affects the selling price of the milk produced, which is ...

  20. 饲粮中添加禾王草对泌乳奶牛瘤胃发酵和生产性能的影响%Effects of Pennisetum sp. Supplied in Diet on Ruminal Fermentation and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马健; 刘艳芳; 王雅晶; 曹志军; 李胜利; 余雄; 杨基; 雷小英; 马亚宾

    2015-01-01

    为提高牧场养殖经济效益,本文研究了饲粮中添加禾王草青贮或干草对泌乳奶牛瘤胃发酵、营养物质消化率和生产性能的影响. 选取45头健康荷斯坦奶牛,按产奶量、胎次和泌乳天数等相近原则随机分成3组. 对照组饲粮粗饲料由全株玉米青贮、羊草和苜蓿干草构成,试验Ⅰ组粗饲料由禾王草青贮、全株玉米青贮、羊草和苜蓿干草构成,试验Ⅱ组粗饲料由禾王草干草、全株玉米青贮和苜蓿干草构成,3组饲粮营养水平相近. 预试期10 d,正试期60 d. 结果表明:1)与对照组相比,试验Ⅰ组能显著提高瘤胃液氨态氮含量和乙酸含量、乳蛋白率( P0.05),每头牛每天多盈利1.19元. 2)与对照组相比,试验Ⅱ组能显著降低瘤胃液氨态氮含量( P0.05) ,能提高奶牛的DMI和产奶量,差异不显著( P>0.05) ,每头牛每天多盈利2.07元. 由此可知,用禾王草青贮代替适量全株玉米青贮或用禾王草干草代替部分苜蓿干草不会影响奶牛的生产性能,同时会提高牧场奶牛养殖经济效益.%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Pennisetum sp. silage and Pennisetum sp. hay on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of dairy cows. Forty-five healthy Chinese Holstein lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned into 3 groups with 15 cows in each group by milk yield, parity and days in milk. Roughages in control group ( CG) were whole corn silage, Chinese wildrye and alfalfa hay, those in trial groupⅠwere Pennisetum sp. silage, whole corn silage, Chinese wildrye and alfalfa hay, and those in trial group Ⅱ were Pennisetum sp. hay, whole corn silage and alfalfa hay. Nutrient levels of the three diets were close. The pre-trial lasted for 10 days, and the trial lasted for 60 d. The results showed as follows:1) compared with CG, the content of ammonia nitrogen of acetate in ru-men fluid, and milk protein percentage

  1. Dissecting the COW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed

  2. Dissecting the COW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linstadt, E.

    1985-04-01

    The COW, or Console On Wheels, is the primary operator interface to the SLC accelerator control system. A hardware and software description of the COW, a microcomputer based system with a color graphics display output and touch-panel and knob inputs, is given. The ease of development and expandability, due to both the modular nature of the hardware and the multitasking, interrupt driven software running in the COW, are described. Integration of the COW into the SLCNET communications network and SLC Control system is detailed.

  3. Effect of beef tallow on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, and lipid profile of growing lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahana Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of diets with inclusion of beef tallow on growth, and carcass characteristics, meat quality, and lipid profile in growing lambs. The experiment was conducted with 15 lambs for 63 days. The lambs were randomly allotted into three dietary treatments (T0, T1, and T2 with five animals in each group; T0 (control diet without beef tallow, T1 (diet with 2% beef tallow, and T2 (diet with 4% beef tallow. The body weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR were significantly (P0.05 on meat quality and chemical composition among the three dietary groups. Group T1 showed the highest increase of cholesterol concentration (11.5% at the end of experiment, but serum triglyceride concentration was not significantly (P>0.05 correlated with any of the three dietary groups. To sum up, the use of beef tallow at 2% level in lamb diet can increase their performance without having any deleterious effect on carcass, meat quality and lipid profile. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 346-352

  4. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC-Cr DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE IN TRANSPORT-STRESSED BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Tanuwiria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation over long distances resulted in stress at animal. Under these circumstances, animal usually manifest depression and the impact on physiological condition changes and loss of body weight. The objectives of the research were to examine effect supplementation of organic-Cr type into diets in transport-stress beef cattle on physiological condition, haematochemical (included were haematological condition and blood chemical and body weight changes. The experiment was conducted using 16 beef cattle those were transported by truck for a distance of 400 km from Malangbong to Tangerang. The experiment was arranged by Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications. The dietary treatments consisted of R0 (basal diet without Cr supplemented, R1 (R0+3ppm organic-Cr resulted of alkali hydrolysis, R2 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioprocess, R3 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioremediation. The result indicated that type of organic-Cr supplementation at 3 ppm in diet did not influence physiological condition, haematochemical and body weight at beef cattle transported for seven hours. There was indication that beef cattle fed on control diet (without Cr showed a stress symptom, their loss of body weight were higher (5.41% compared to beef given diet contains organic-Cr (3.72%, 5.04% and 4.83%, respectively for R1, R2 and R3.

  5. Cows in Space

    OpenAIRE

    George, Mel

    2003-01-01

    A great deal has been learned about foraging behavior and livestock distribution in the last several decades. We hope to apply and fine tune this knowledge to reduce the impacts of beef cattle on riparian areas, surface water and wildlife habitat. Likewise, to use cattle as a tool to manage weeds we need to be able to attract cattle into patches of undesirable species. Beef cattle and other grazers focus on water sites and sites that provide thermal comfort, foraging away from thes...

  6. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  7. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with the risk of nonpregnancy in cow-calf herds in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, C L; García Guerra, A

    2013-04-15

    To identify herd management and cow characteristics associated with the reproductive success of cow-calf herds in Western Canada, 33,391 beef cows were followed from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through pregnancy testing in 2002. Breeding management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score (BCS), and previous reproductive history, were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was measured in 205 herds in the fall of 2001 and again in 200 herds in the fall of 2002. Cows least likely to be pregnant in the fall of the year were 10 years old or older, exposed to a bull less than 84 days, had a BCS ≤5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, breeding season, or had a prebreeding BCS breeding and pregnancy testing. Other factors identified that decreased the likelihood of pregnancy in at least one of the 2 years included being a heifer or being a cow exposed to breeding after her first calf, and using a single bull on breeding pasture. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were more likely to be pregnant than cows that were not vaccinated and bred on community pastures. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also less likely to be pregnant than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Calving-associated events such as twin birth, Cesarean section or malpresentation, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour after birth, or calving late after the start of the breeding season, were also associated with fewer pregnancies after accounting for all other factors. PMID:23473871

  8. Efecto de una dieta con bajo aporte de selenio sobre la respuesta inmune a la vacuna Brucella abortus Cepa RB51 en vacas lecheras Effect of a low selenium diet on the immune response to Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Leyán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de una dieta con bajo aporte de selenio (Se sobre la respuesta inmune a la vacuna Brucella abortus Cepa RB51 y la concentración de inmunoglobulinas séricas en vacas. Se utilizaron 12 vacas Friesian, estabuladas desde aproximadamente dos meses preparto y hasta el cuarto mes de lactancia mantenidas con una dieta basada en heno de pradera con bajo contenido de Se (0,02 ppm de MS y balanceada según requerimientos para el resto de nutrientes. Seis vacas conformaron el grupo de animales con bajo aporte de Se (Se-D y otras seis el grupo de animales suplementados (Se-S con selenato de bario (1 mg de Se/kg , 45 días previos al parto. Los animales fueron inmunizados con la vacuna RB51 al cuarto mes del experimento. Muestras de sangre fueron obtenidas previo a la suplementación con Se y cada 15 días hasta el término del experimento. El balance de Se fue medido mediante la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px. Las concentraciones séricas de IgG, IgM e IgA se determinaron por inmunodifusión y los anticuerpos específicos contra Brucella abortus mediante ELISA y la respuesta inmune celular mediante pruebas de intradermorreacción a antígenos de Brucella abortus y estudio histológico de la reacción. La dieta con bajo contenido de Se provocó una disminución lenta y progresiva de la actividad de GSH-Px (The effect of a diet with a low selenium (Se content on the immune response to Brucella abortus Strain RB51 vaccine in dairy cows and in their serum inmunoglobulin concentrations was studied. Twelve pregnant Friesian cows (7 to 8 months were randomly allocated into two homogeneous groups of six animals each. Animals were maintained during 6 months in individual cubicles with water ad libitum and a diet based on grass hay with a low Se content (0.02 ppm base on dry matter and nutritionally balanced for other nutrients. One group was maintained only with the low Se diet (Se-D and the other group (Se-S was treated with barium selenate

  9. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (d) Fabricated steak. Fabricated beef steaks, veal steaks, beef and veal steaks, or veal and beef..., Formed, Wafer Sliced, Frozen,” “Veal Steaks, Beef Added, Chopped—Molded—Cubed—Frozen, Hydrolyzed...

  10. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. PMID:22226014

  11. Discrimination of the geographical origin of beef by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngae; Lee, Jueun; Kwon, Joseph; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Ryu, Do Hyun; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2010-10-13

    The geographical origin of beef is of increasing interest to consumers and producers due to "mad cow" disease and the implementation of the Free Trade Agreement (FTA). In this study, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analyses was used to differentiate the geographical origin of beef samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed significant separation between extracts of beef originating from four countries: Australia, Korea, New Zealand, and the United States. The major metabolites responsible for differentiation in OPLS-DA loading plots were succinate and various amino acids including isoleucine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine, and valine. A one-way ANOVA was performed to statistically certify the difference in metabolite levels. The data suggest that NMR-based metabolomics is an efficient method to distinguish fingerprinting difference between raw beef samples, and several metabolites including various amino acids and succinate can be possible biomarkers for discriminating the geographical origin of beef. PMID:20831251

  12. Propileno-glicol ou monensina na dieta de vacas leiteiras no período de transição: saúde do úbere, produção e composição do leite Propylene glycol or monensin on diets of dairy cows during the transition period: udder health, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Sá Fortes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do propileno-glicol e da monensina na dieta de vacas leiteiras no período de transição sobre a produção e composição do leite. Foram utilizadas 42 vacas da raça Holandesa com média de produção na lactação anterior de 8.000kg. Os animais, distribuídos em sete tratamentos segundo um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, receberam dietas basais pré e pós-parto ou dietas basais acrescidas com 300ml de propileno-glicol ou 30ppm de monensina sódica na matéria seca da dieta. Nos dias 10 e 20 pós-parto, avaliou-se a produção de leite seguida de coleta de amostras para estudo dos constituintes do leite - gordura, proteína, lactose e extrato seco e de uréia e contagem de células somáticas. A inclusão de propileno-glicol apenas no período pós-parto resultou em diminuição da produção de leite e da quantidade total de gordura e proteína nos tempos de coleta estudados (PThe influence of the addition of propylene glycol or monensin to diets of dairy cows during the transition period on milk production and milk composition was studied. Forty-two multiparous Holstein cows with an average milk production of 8,000 kg in the previous lactation were distributed in a complete randomized design and were divided into seven groups receiving either control diets or diets with 30ppm of monensin or 300ml of propylene glycol during the transition period. Milk production was recorded on days 10th and 20th post-partum and milk samples were taken on the same days to analyse milk components such as fat, protein, lactose, urea and somatic cells (10¹/ml. The addition of propylene glycol in the post-partum diet decreased milk production as well as total the fat and protein production on the sampling times (days 10th and 20th post-partum (P<0.05. The adition of propylene glycol during pre- partum increased fat and lactose percentage on the sampling times (P<0.05. The use of monensin during pre and post-partum periods decreased the

  13. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  14. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirm...

  15. Cow Disease in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹国如

    2004-01-01

    Last Wednesday,Agriculture Secretary Ann Veneman announced the first case of mad cow disease in the United States.A test seemed to show bovine spongiform encephalopathy,or B-S-E.in a cow from Washington state.The next day,a laboratory in Waybridge,England,Confirmed(证实) the case。

  16. Regional Differences of Proteins Expressing in Adipose Depots Isolated from Cows, Steers and Bulls as Identified by a Proteomic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin Hyoung; Jeong, Jin Young; Lee, Ra Ham; Park, Mi Na; Kim, Seok-Ho; Park, Seon-Min; Shin, Jae-Cheon; Jeon, Young-Joo; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Nag-Jin; Seo, Kang Seok; Cho, Young Sik; Kim, MinSeok S; Ko, Sungho; Seo, Jae-Min; Lee, Seung-Youp; Chae, Jung-Il; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue in the loin muscle area of beef cattle as a marbling factor is directly associated with beef quality. To elucidate whether properties of proteins involved in depot specific adipose tissue were sex-dependent, we analyzed protein expression of intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and omental adipose tissue (OMAT) from Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls of Korean native beef cattle by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Two different adipose depots (i.e. intramuscular and omental) were collected from cows (n = 7), steers (n = 7), or bulls (n = 7). LC-MS/MS revealed a total of 55 and 35 proteins in IMAT and OMAT, respectively. Of the 55 proteins identified, 44, 40, and 42 proteins were confirmed to be differentially expressed in IMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, respectively. In OMAT of cows, steers, and bulls, 33, 33, and 22 were confirmed to be differentially expressed, respectively. Tropomyosin (TPM) 1, TPM 2, and TPM3 were subjected to verification by quantitative PCR and western blot analysis in IMAT and OMAT of Hanwoo cows, steers, and bulls as key factors closely associated with muscle development. Both mRNA levels and protein levels of TPM1, TPM2, and TPM3 in IMAT were lower in bulls compared to in cows or steers suggesting that they were positively correlated with marbling score and quality grade. Our results may aid the regulation of marbling development and improvement of meat quality grades in beef cattle. PMID:27165017

  17. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasant, J C; McDowell-Boyer, L M; Killough, G G

    1982-06-01

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME.

  18. RAGBEEF: a FORTRAN IV implementation of a time-dependent model for radionuclide contamination of beef

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAGBEEF is a FORTRAN IV program that calculates radionuclide concentrations in beef as a result of ingestion of contaminated feeds, pasture, and pasture soil by beef cattle. The model implemented by RAGBEEF is dynamic in nature, allowing the user to consider age- and season-dependent aspects of beef cattle management in estimating concentrations in beef. It serves as an auxiliary code to RAGTIME, previously documented by the authors, which calculates radionuclide concentrations in agricultural crops in a dynamic manner, but evaluates concentrations in beef for steady-state conditions only. The time-dependent concentrations in feeds, pasture, and pasture soil generated by RAGTIME are used as input to the RAGBEEF code. RAGBEEF, as presently implemented, calculates radionuclide concentrations in the muscle of age-based cohorts in a beef cattle herd. Concentrations in the milk of lactating cows are also calculated, but are assumed age-dependent as in RAGTIME. Radionuclide concentrations in beef and milk are described in RAGBEEF by a system of ordinary linear differential equations in which the transfer rate of radioactivity between compartments is proportional to the inventory of radioactivity in the source compartment. This system is solved by use of the GEAR package for solution of systems of ordinary differential equations. The accuracy of this solution is monitored at various check points by comparison with explicit solutions of Bateman-type equations. This report describes the age- and season-dependent considerations making up the RAGBEEF model, as well as presenting the equations which describe the model and a documentation of the associated computer code. Listings of the RAGBEEF and updated RAGTIME codes are provided in appendices, as are the results of a sample run of RAGBEEF and a description of recent modifications to RAGTIME

  19. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  20. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    OpenAIRE

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in