WorldWideScience

Sample records for beef cattle production

  1. Labour in Swedish intensive beef cattle production

    OpenAIRE

    Bostad, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Red veal and young bull production are the two main intensive beef finishing systems in Sweden and utilise practically all male calves from the dairy and suckler cow herds. This thesis examined labour input and physical working conditions in the two systems in order to identify factors influencing these parameters. Data collection was mainly based on questionnaires, complemented by observations and interviews on farm visits, and related to the most common work tasks performed during diffe...

  2. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  3. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  4. Fertility management of bulls to improve beef cattle productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thundathil, Jacob C; Dance, Alysha L; Kastelic, John P

    2016-07-01

    Global demand for animal proteins is increasing, necessitating increased efficiency of global food production. Improving reproductive efficiency of beef cattle, especially bull fertility, is particularly critical, as one bull can breed thousands of females (by artificial insemination). Identifying the genetic basis of male reproductive traits that influence male and female fertility, and using this information for selection, would improve herd fertility. Early-life selection of elite bulls by genomic approaches and feeding them to optimize postpubertal reproductive potential are essential for maximizing profitability. Traditional bull breeding soundness evaluation, or systematic analysis of frozen semen, eliminates bulls or semen samples that are grossly abnormal. However, semen samples classified as satisfactory on the basis of traditional approaches differ in fertility. Advanced sperm function assays developed for assessing compensatory and noncompensatory (submicroscopic) sperm traits can predict such variations in bull fertility. New knowledge on epigenetic modulations of sperm DNA, messenger RNA, and proteins is fundamental to refine and expand sperm function assays. Sexed semen, plus advanced reproductive technologies (e.g., ovum pickup and in vitro production of embryos) can maximize the efficiency of beef cattle production. This review is focused on genetic considerations for bull selection, physiology of reproductive development, breeding soundness evaluation, recent advances in assessing frozen semen, and existing and emerging uses of sexed semen in beef cattle production. PMID:27173954

  5. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  6. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  7. Evaluation of mycotoxins contamination in intensive beef cattle production system

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ronchi; P. P. Danieli; U. Bernabucci; A. Sabatini

    2010-01-01

    Feed samples from 15 intensive beef cattle farms located in Northern Italy (provinces of Verona and Mantova) were checked for mycotoxin contamination [aflatoxins (AF), fumonisins (FB), ochratoxin A (OTA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenol (ZEN)]. Total mixed rations (TMR) resulted positive for AF and FB contamination. Among feedstuffs corn and corn gluten feed were the only responsible of TMR contamination. Level of contamination was positively related to corn moisture content.

  8. Prediction of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrabb, G.J.; Hunter, R.A. [CSIRO, Rockhampton, Qld. (Australia). Division of Tropical Agriculture

    1999-07-01

    The northern beef cattle herd accounts for more than half of Australia's beef cattle population, and is a major source of anthropogenic methane emissions for Australia. National Greenhouse Gas Inventory predictions of methane output from Australian beef cattle are based on a predictive equation developed for British breeds of sheep and cattle offered temperate forage-based diets. However, tropical forage diets offered to cattle in northern Australia differ markedly from temperate forage-based diets used in the United Kingdom to develop the predictive equations. The paper reviews recent respiration chamber measurements of daily methane production for Brahman cattle offered a tropical forage or high grain diet, and compares them with values predicted using methodologies of the Australian National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Committee and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. It is concluded that a reliable inventory of methane emissions for cattle in northern Australia can only be achieved after a wider range of tropical forage species has been investigated. Some opportunities for reducing methane emissions of beef cattle by dietary manipulation are discussed.

  9. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply. PMID:26952213

  10. Resistome diversity in cattle and the environment decreases during beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Dettenwanger, Adam; Cook, Shaun; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale E; Gow, Sheryl P; McAllister, Tim A; Yang, Hua; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant determinants (ARDs) can be transmitted from livestock systems through meat products or environmental effluents. The public health risk posed by these two routes is not well understood, particularly in non-pathogenic bacteria. We collected pooled samples from 8 groups of 1741 commercial cattle as they moved through the process of beef production from feedlot entry through slaughter. We recorded antimicrobial drug exposures and interrogated the resistome at points in production when management procedures could potentially influence ARD abundance and/or transmission. Over 300 unique ARDs were identified. Resistome diversity decreased while cattle were in the feedlot, indicating selective pressure. ARDs were not identified in beef products, suggesting that slaughter interventions may reduce the risk of transmission of ARDs to beef consumers. This report highlights the utility and limitations of metagenomics for assessing public health risks regarding antimicrobial resistance, and demonstrates that environmental pathways may represent a greater risk than the food supply.

  11. Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the southern great plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate variability and periodic drought is a defining characteristic of the Southern Great Plains. Beef cattle production, based on a variety of crop, pasture, and native rangeland forages, is the most important economic commodity in this region and dominates the agricultural landscape. Press cov...

  12. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef.

  13. Utilization of beef from different cattle phenotypes to produce a guaranteed tender beef product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, G G; Gentry, J G; Allen, D M; Miller, M F

    2004-04-01

    Cattle (n = 303) were visually selected from four feed yards to represent six phenotypes (English [EN; n = 50], 3/4 English-1/4 Brahman [ENB; n = 52], 1/2 English-1/2 Exotic [ENEX; n = 56], 1/2 English-1/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [ENEXB; n = 47], 3/4 Exotic-1/4 Brahman [EXB; n = 49], and 1/2 Exotic-1/4 English-1/4 Brahman [EXENB; n = 49]). Carcasses were processed at a commercial beef packing facility, and strip loins were collected after 48-h chilling. Strip loins were aged for 14 d at 2 degrees C and frozen at -20 degrees C for 3 to 5 d before three 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations and sensory evaluations. Phenotype EN had the highest (P yield grade, whereas carcasses originating from phenotype EXB had lower (P yield grades than all other phenotypes except ENEX. No differences (P > 0.05) were found among phenotypes for mean WBSF values or sensory panel ratings for initial and sustained tenderness, initial and sustained juiciness, beef flavor characteristics, and overall mouthfeel. More than 90% of steaks from carcasses of all phenotypes had WBSF values less than 3.6 kg when cooked to an internal cooked temperature of 70 degrees C. Results from this study indicated that all phenotypes represented in this study could be managed to produce tender beef. PMID:15080342

  14. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia. PMID:26055891

  15. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified.

  16. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  17. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  18. Unitary input DEA model to identify beef cattle production systems typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gonçalves Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cow-calf beef production sector in Brazil has a wide variety of operating systems. This suggests the identification and the characterization of homogeneous regions of production, with consequent implementation of actions to achieve its sustainability. In this paper we attempted to measure the performance of 21 livestock modal production systems, in their cow-calf phase. We measured the performance of these systems, considering husbandry and production variables. The proposed approach is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA. We used unitary input DEA model, with apparent input orientation, together with the efficiency measurements generated by the inverted DEA frontier. We identified five modal production systems typologies, using the isoefficiency layers approach. The results showed that the knowledge and the processes management are the most important factors for improving the efficiency of beef cattle production systems.

  19. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,

    2001-01-01

    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  20. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  1. Present situation and future challenges of beef cattle production in Italy and the role of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at describing the current features and the future challenges of the beef cattle production systems in Italy. The first part of the article analyzes the main domestic production systems of veal calves and more adult beef cattle in terms of farm size and location, housing structures, feeding plans and cattle genotypes. The second part is address towards the analysis of a set of issues related to the current systems of production which could become important critical points in the short future. Potential solutions to reduce the environmental impact of the beef farms, to improve the animal welfare and to limit the import of foreign young livestock to be finished in our fattening units are proposed and discussed in the light of the more recent advances of the scientific research.

  2. Effects of CSN3 and LGB gene polymorphisms on production traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII gene polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups, and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in these animals, which are submitted to an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 79 Nelore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu and 275 crossbred cattle originating from the crosses of Simmental (n = 30 and Angus (n = 245 sires with Nelore females. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the GLM procedure, and least square means of the genotypes were compared by the F test. The results showed that the CSN3/HinfI and LGB/HaeIII polymorphisms did not have any effect on growth or carcass traits (p > 0.05.

  3. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Ren; Bo Zhou; Fengshua Shi; Xiangxue Xie; Qingxaing Meng

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental) and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan) cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71) were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two...

  4. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  5. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of...

  6. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef.

  7. Cradle-to-farm gate environmental footprints of beef cattle production in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Asem-Hiablie, S; Dillon, J; Bonifacio, H

    2015-05-01

    A comprehensive national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted by the U.S. beef industry. The first of 7 regions to be analyzed is Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. A survey and visits conducted throughout the region provided data on common production practices. From these data, representative ranch and feedyard operations were defined and simulated for the varying climate and soil conditions throughout the region using the Integrated Farm System Model. These simulations predicted environmental impacts of each operation including cradle-to-farm gate footprints for greenhouse gas emissions, fossil-based energy use, nonprecipitation water use, and reactive N loss. Individual ranch and feedyard operations were linked to form 28 representative production systems. A weighted average of the production systems was used to determine the environmental footprints for the region where weighting factors were developed based on animal numbers reported in the survey and agricultural statistics data. Along with the traditional beef production systems, Holstein steer and cull cow production from the dairy industry in the region were also modeled and included. The carbon footprint of all beef produced was 18.3 ± 1.7 kg CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/kg carcass weight (CW) with the range in individual production systems being 13 to 25 kg CO2e/kg CW. Energy use, water use, and reactive N loss were 51 ± 4.8 MJ/kg CW, 2,470 ± 455 L/kg CW, and 138 ± 12 g N/kg CW, respectively. The major portion of each footprint except water use was associated with the cow-calf phase; most of the nonprecipitation water use was attributed to producing feed for the finishing phase. These data provide a baseline for comparison as new technologies and strategies are developed and implemented to improve the sustainability of cattle production. Production information also will be combined with processing, marketing, and consumer data to complete a comprehensive life cycle assessment of beef. PMID

  8. Repeatability and genotypic correlations of reproductive and productive traits of crossbred beef cattle dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L N; Gasparino, E; Torres Júnior, R A A; Euclides Filho, K; Silva, L O C; Alencar, M M; Souza Júnior, M D; Battistelli, J V F; Silva, S C C

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle production requires reproductive efficiency. However, measures of reproductive traits are not usually collected; consequently, correlated traits that could be used as indicators would be useful. We examined associations between measures of reproductive and productive efficiency that could be used as selection indicators. Data from 194 dams of the genetic groups Angus x Nelore, Caracu x Nelore, and Valdostana x Nelore collected over 4 years were used. The reproductive traits analyzed were days to heat (DH), calving interval (CI), days to calving (DC), and pregnancy rate (PR). The productive traits were dam weight (DW), body condition score (BCS), calf weight (CW), and weaning rate (WR). The effects on the model were: year, genetic group, reproductive status (RS), age, reproductive rest, and breed of bull (CW and WR). Multivariate analyses were performed, using the Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling. We conclude that the reproductive measures are ineffective as selection indicators, whereas using dam weight may be a good alternative.

  9. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  10. Inbreeding effects on postweaning production traits, conformation, and calving performance in Irish beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McParland, S; Kearney, J F; MacHugh, D E; Berry, D P

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of inbreeding on carcass quality, growth rate, live conformation measures, and calving performance in purebred populations of Charolais, Limousin, Simmental, Hereford, and Angus beef cattle using data from Irish commercial and pedigree herds. Variables analyzed are reflective of commercial farming practices. Inbreeding was included in a linear mixed model as either a class variable or a linear continuous variable. Nonlinear effects were nonsignificant across all traits. Inbred animals had decreased carcass weight and less carcass fat. The effects of inbreeding were more pronounced in the British beef breeds. Effects for carcass weight ranged from -0.87 kg (Charolais) to -1.90 kg (Hereford) per 1% increase in inbreeding. Inbred Charolais and Hereford animals were younger at slaughter by 3 and 5 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding, whereas the effect of inbreeding on age at slaughter differed significantly with animal sex in the Limousin and Angus breeds. Inbred Limousin and Angus heifers were younger at slaughter by 5 and 7 d, respectively, per percentage of increase in inbreeding. Continental animals were more affected by inbreeding for live muscling and skeletal conformational measurements than the British breeds; inbred animals were smaller and narrower with poorer developed muscle. Calf inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Charolais, Simmental, and Hereford animals. The effects were dependent upon dam parity and calf sex; however, where significant, the association was always unfavorable. Dam inbreeding significantly affected perinatal mortality in Limousin and Hereford animals. Effects differed by parity in Limousins. Inbred first-parity Angus dams had a greater incidence of dystocia. Although the effects of inbreeding were some-times significant, they were small and are unlikely to make a large financial effect on commercial beef production in Ireland. PMID

  11. Comparing Carbon and Water Footprints for Beef Cattle Production in Southern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley G. Ridoutt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stand-alone environmental indicators based on life cycle assessment (LCA, such as the carbon footprint and water footprint, are becoming increasingly popular as a means of directing sustainable production and consumption. However, individually, these metrics violate the principle of LCA known as comprehensiveness and do not necessarily provide an indication of overall environmental impact. In this study, the carbon footprints for six diverse beef cattle production systems in southern Australia were calculated and found to range from 10.1 to 12.7 kg CO2e kg−1 live weight (cradle to farm gate. This compared to water footprints, which ranged from 3.3 to 221 L H2Oe kg−1 live weight. For these systems, the life cycle impacts of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and water use were subsequently modelled using endpoint indicators and aggregated to enable comparison. In all cases, impacts from GHG emissions were most important, representing 93 to 99% of the combined scores. As such, the industry’s existing priority of GHG emissions reduction is affirmed. In an attempt to balance the demands of comprehensiveness and simplicity, to achieve reliable public reporting of the environmental impacts of a large number of products across the economy, a multi-indicator approach based on combined midpoint and endpoint life cycle impact assessment modelling is proposed. For agri-food products, impacts from land use should also be included as tradeoffs between GHG emissions, water use and land use are common.

  12. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. PMID:26560806

  13. Modelling the spread of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a beef cattle herd and its impact on herd productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Alix; Viet, Anne-France; Arnoux, Sandie; Guerrier-Chatellet, Marie-Claude; Petit, Etienne; Ezanno, Pauline

    2015-02-24

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a common pathogen of cattle herds that causes economic losses due to reproductive disorders in breeding cattle and increased morbidity and mortality amongst infected calves. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of BVDV spread on the productivity of a beef cow-calf herd using a stochastic model in discrete time that accounted for (1) the difference in transmission rates when animals are housed indoors versus grazing on pasture, (2) the external risk of disease introductions through fenceline contact with neighboring herds and the purchase of infected cattle, and (3) the risk of individual pregnant cattle generating persistently infected (PI) calves based on their stage in gestation. The model predicted the highest losses from BVDV during the first 3 years after disease was introduced into a naive herd. During the endemic phase, the impact of BVDV on the yearly herd productivity was much lower due to herd immunity. However, cumulative losses over 10 years in an endemic situation greatly surpassed the losses that occurred during the acute phase. A sensitivity analysis of key model parameters revealed that herd size, the duration of breeding, grazing, and selling periods, renewal rate of breeding females, and the level of numerical productivity expected by the farmer had a significant influence on the predicted losses. This model provides a valuable framework for evaluating the impact of BVDV and the efficacy of different control strategies in beef cow-calf herds.

  14. A single nucleotide polymorphism in NEUROD1 is associated with production traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, P S N; Tizioto, P C; Malago, W; do Nascimento, M L; Cesar, A S M; Diniz, W J S; de Souza, M M; Lanna, D P D; Tullio, R R; Mourão, G B; de A Mudadu, M; Coutinho, L L; de A Regitano, L C

    2016-01-01

    Feed efficiency and carcass characteristics are late-measured traits. The detection of molecular markers associated with them can help breeding programs to select animals early in life, and to predict breeding values with high accuracy. The objective of this study was to identify polymorphisms in the functional and positional candidate gene NEUROD1 (neurogenic differentiation 1), and investigate their associations with production traits in reference families of Nelore cattle. A total of 585 steers were used, from 34 sires chosen to represent the variability of this breed. By sequencing 14 animals with extreme residual feed intake (RFI) values, seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NEUROD1 were identified. The investigation of marker effects on the target traits RFI, backfat thickness (BFT), ribeye area (REA), average body weight (ABW), and metabolic body weight (MBW) was performed with a mixed model using the restricted maximum likelihood method. SNP1062, which changes cytosine for guanine, had no significant association with RFI or REA. However, we found an additive effect on ABW (P ≤ 0.05) and MBW (P ≤ 0.05), with an estimated allele substitution effect of -1.59 and -0.93 kg0.75, respectively. A dominant effect of this SNP for BFT was also found (P ≤ 0.010). Our results are the first that identify NEUROD1 as a candidate that affects BFT, ABW, and MBW. Once confirmed, the inclusion of this SNP in dense panels may improve the accuracy of genomic selection for these traits in Nelore beef cattle as this SNP is not currently represented on SNP chips. PMID:27420997

  15. Beef cattle on semi-natural grasslands - production of meat and nature conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Hessle, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Beef production is performed in varying systems, with or without grazing, but the common goal is to obtain high-quality carcasses. Semi-natural grasslands are characterized by specific flora and fauna and they are dependent on grazing management to be maintained. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate factors influencing nature conservation, animal performance and meat quality in beef production using semi-natural grasslands in summer. In a first study, effects of breed and season on foraging...

  16. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  17. Economic context of beef cattle herd

    OpenAIRE

    Svitáková, Miroslava

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the theses was to evaluate the costs and revenues of a particular beef cattle herd (KBTPM) and to estimate their changes when changing production indicators. Basic economic indicators (feed costs, depreciation of fixed assets, depreciation of cows, labor costs, sales, etc.) were evaluated in relation to changes in production parameters (reduction of the herd replacement by 5%, increase in body weight gain for calves 100g per day, an increase of price for kg body weight of calves...

  18. Beef cattle growing and backgrounding programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Derrell S

    2003-07-01

    The stocker industry is one of many diverse production and marketing activities that make up the United States beef industry. The stocker industry is probably the least understood industry sector and yet it plays a vital role in helping the industry exploit its competitive advantage of using forage resources and providing an economical means of adjusting the timing and volume of cattle and meat in a complex market environment.

  19. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  20. The Use Of Feed Technology Of Local Based Source To Support The Productivity Of Beef Cattle In West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buharman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of feed technology of local based sources to support beef cattle productivity is the key of the successful PSDS/K program in 2014. In 2009, the cattle population in West Sumatra was about 492,272 heads, and the population growth during 2005 – 2009 was about 6.1 percent per year are the growth of cattle slaughtered for local consumption was around 11.0 percent or about 86,028 heads/year. The rate of population growth is much lower than the target of PSDS/K 2014 which around 12.5 percent. The source of feedstuffs come from native grass and by product of agro-industry. These agro-industry by products such as rice, maize, cassava, palm oil, cacao, coffee by products have big potential for feed which account for supporting 1.75 to 2.1 million animal unit. These by-products mostly used for feed supplement by simple process technology. The role of institution like LM3 and SMD can be optimized to support local feed supply which available on location either for local cattle consumption or for commercial use.

  1. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis, JL; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S; Benchaar, C; Beauchemin, KA; Nkrumah, JD; France, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent volatile fatty acid (VFA) stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure, to see if prediction improvements could be made for beef cattle. The database used for independent evaluation of methane predictions consisted of 74 animal means from six stu...

  2. Perlemakan pada Sapi Bali dan Sapi Madura Meningkatkan Bobot Komponen Karkas dan Menurunkan Persentase Komponen Nonkarkas. (EFFECT OF BODY FATNESS TO CARCASS AND NON CARCASS PRODUCTIVITY OF SMALL FRAME SIZE BEEF CATTLE (BALI AND MADURA CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ismail

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian has a potentially local beef cattle population but it also has a high slaughtering level ofanimal which tends to increase each years. The main problem of the cattle industry is the diverse conditionof cattle fatness slaughtered in the processing plant. The differences in cattle fatness may influenceproductivity of the local beef cattle. The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of fatness score on carcassand non carcass productivities of small frame size beef cattle. This study used 48 male local beef cattleobtained from eight slaughterhouses from five provinces in Indonesia. The experiment used CompletelyRandomized Design with three level of body fatness that is lean, moderate, and fat. The collected datawere analyzed using analysis of variance and further between treatment differences were tested by DuncanMultiple Range Test. The results showed that fatness score of local beef cattle had significant influence(p<0.05 on slaughter weight, carcass weight, and carcass percentage. The effect of fatness score on weightsand percentages of non carcass components showed varying results. Nevertheless, it was suggested theincreased fatness score would be followed by increased weights and decreased percentages of non carcasscomponents.

  3. Effect of cattle breed on finishing performance, carcass characteristics and economic benefits under typical beef production system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Ren

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the finishing performance carcass characteristics and economic benefits of two imported (Limousin and Simmental and three local (Luxi, Jinnan and Qinchuan cattle breeds slaughtered at 18.5 months of age under thetypical Chinese beef production system. All cattle (n=71 were reared under the same production system and fed the same finishing diet for 105 days. Eight bulls from each breed were randomly selected for slaughtering. Compared with the three local breeds, the two imported breeds had higher average daily gain, dry matter intake and gain efficiency. Regarding carcass characteristics, the two imported breeds had higher carcass weight, bone weight, net meat weight, and ribeye area (P<0.001. However, the local breeds had higher (P<0.01 marbling scores than the imported breeds. The imported breeds showed higher economic benefits (P<0.001 than the local breeds. In conclusion, the imported cattle breeds had better growth performance, carcass traits and economic benefits compared with the local cattle breeds at 18.5 months old under the typical Chinese feeding conditions whereas, in this study, the local breeds may have some advantage in terms of meat quality.

  4. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  5. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  6. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle.

  7. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L

    2013-12-01

    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle. PMID

  8. Effects of supplementation frequency on the ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production of beef cattle grazing in tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of ruminal fermentation and enteric methane production in beef cattle subjected to different supplementation frequencies while grazing on Brachiaria brizanthacv. Marandu pastures. Nine cattle (325±65.7 kg BW fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in the ruminal fermentation study, and 12 cattle (399±32.6 kg BW were used in the enteric methane production study. The treatments included supplementation once daily, supplementation once daily except Saturdays and Sundays, or supplementation on alternate days. The supplementation was equivalent to 10 g kg−1 BW day−1 for all treatments. The design employed was completely randomized with three treatments and three replications. When all supplements were provided (day 1, no effects of supplementation frequency were observed on ruminal pH; concentration of NH3-N; concentration of acetic, propionic, or butyric acids; or total volatile fatty acids (VFA, but there were month effects. During the day on which only daily supplements were provided (day 2, significant differences were observed only on the molar concentration of acetic acid and total VFA; and month effects were noted on all variables. No significant differences were observed in ruminal fluid volume, dilution rate, N intake, bacterial N synthesis and enteric methane production among the studied supplementation frequencies. Differences were observed in the enteric methane production in the different months, with 85 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in September and 123 g kg−1 of gross energy intake observed in November. Lower supplementation frequency is a good option to lower labor costs with little or no consequences on ruminal fermentation characteristics and enteric methane production.

  9. The suitability for organic cattle beef production of mixed farming systems in the highlands of north east Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Jaime; Rodrigues, M. A.; Sousa, Fernando Ruivo de; Bernardo, Adelino; Pires, João; Cabanas, J.E.; Resendes, Hugo; Ferreira, Maria; Silva, Infância; Moreira, Nuno

    2005-01-01

    Two beef cattle farms (Farm 1 – “Barrosã” breed – Montalegre and Farm 2 – “Mirandesa” breed – Vinhais) were monitored for a year (autumn 2002-03) – Farm activities, inputs, outputs, yields components and flows were recorde

  10. Improving the prediction of methane production and representation of rumen fermentation for finishing beef cattle within a mechanistic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.; Kebreab, E.; Archibeque, S.; Benchaar, C.; Beauchemin, K.; Nkrumah, D.J.; France, J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prediction of methane emissions from finishing beef cattle using an extant mechanistic model with pH-independent or pH-dependent VFA stoichiometries, a recent stoichiometry adjustment for the use of monensin, and adaptation of the underlying model structure,

  11. Profitability analysis of beef cattle under extensive pasture in low-technology production system in the south of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the profitability of the beef cattle raising business of production systems with a complete production cycle (breeding, rearing and fattening under grazing regime of low technology in the region of Carrancas, south of the State of Minas Gerais. It was intended, to identify the components which exercised the greatest influence upon the final costs of the business, identify the break-even point and study the feasibility of the partnership in which the cattle raiser does posses any expenditure for pay of the worker who receives for the work of management of the animals in area to develop that livestock raising business. The data used was collected from the period of May of 2008 to September of 2009 (16 months. The profitability analysis was conducted by the software Custo Bovino Corte® (Beef Cattle Cost, taking into account the gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economic efficiency. The positive gross and net margins points out that the beef cattle business of complete cycle, under extensive grazing regime, developed in the studied production system, has conditions to survive on the short and long run; but on the long run, the stockman is decapitalizing, once the result was negative. The component items of the total cost which had most influence upon the costs of the business were, in a decreasing order: purchase of the animals, remuneration of the land, depreciation, remuneration on the invested capital, feeding and health.

  12. Enteric methane production from beef cattle that vary in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Brown-Brandl, T M

    2013-10-01

    We hypothesized that CH4 production will decrease with increased feed efficiency. Two experiments were conducted to determine CH4 production of cattle that differed in feed efficiency. Cattle in both studies were selected from larger contemporary groups. Animals furthest from the confidence ellipse that resulted from regressing BW gain on DMI were selected. In the first experiment, 113 crossbred steers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Steers were 355 ± 1 d of age and weighed 456 ± 10 kg when they began the study. Steers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 82.8% corn, 12.8% corn silage, and 4.5% supplement [contains 0.065% monensin, 32% CP (28% NPN), 7.5% Ca, 0.8% P, 4.8% NaCl, 1.8% K, and 55,116 IU/kg vitamin A]. Thirty-seven steers were selected to measure CH4 production. In the second experiment, 197 heifers were evaluated for feed efficiency for 64 d. Heifers were 286 ± 1 d of age and weighed 327 ± 2 kg when they began the study. Heifers were fed a ration that consisted of (DM basis) 60% corn silage, 30% alfalfa hay, and 10% wet distillers grains with solubles. Forty-seven heifers were selected to measure CH4 production. Methane production was measured with respiration calorimeters. In both experiments, cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and DMI consumed during the 24 h before CH4 production was measured. Methane production was collected for a 6-h period on untrained cattle. Consequently, methane production is not a quantitative measure of daily methane production; rather, it is an index value to rank cattle. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between either BW gain:DMI ratio or residual feed intake (RFI) on CH4 production after adjusting for the previous 24-h DMI. In the steers, BW gain:DMI ratio and previous 24-h feed intake accounted for little of the variance in CH4 production (R(2) = 0.009), and neither did RFI and previous 24-h feed intake (R(2) = 0.001). In the heifers, the BW gain:DMI ratio

  13. Opportunities and challenges from the use of genomic selection for beef cattle breeding in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beef cattle production in Latin America in very important on a worldwide scale and for several regional countries. The region accounts for 29% of the world cattle population and beef production. Genomic selection allows the estimation of breeding values in animals for young animals from DNA samp...

  14. Financial Impacts of Regional Differences in Beef Cattle Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Sartwelle, James D.; Outlaw, Joe L.; Richardson, James W.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of net cash farm income to changes in selected production variables, output prices, and input costs varies significantly across representative U.S. beef cattle operations. Larger changes in profitability result from changes in productivity and output prices than from changes in input costs.

  15. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  16. Life-cycle assessment of the beef cattle production system for the northern great plains, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupo, Christopher D; Clay, David E; Benning, Jennifer L; Stone, James J

    2013-09-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to estimate the environmental impacts associated with four different U.S. Northern Great Plains (NPG) beef production systems. The LCA model followed a "cradle-to-gate" approach and incorporated all major unit processes, including mineral supplement production. Four distinct operation scenarios were modeled based on production strategies common to the NGP, and a variety of impacts were determined. The scenarios include a normal operation, early weaning of the calf, fast-tack backgrounding, and grassfed. Enteric emissions and manure emissions and handling were consistently the largest contributors to the LCA impacts. There was little variability between production scenarios except for the grassfed, where the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 37% higher due to a longer finishing time and lower finishing weight. However, reductions to GHG emissions (15-24%) were realized when soil organic carbon accrual was considered and may be a more realistic estimate for the NGP. Manure emissions and handing were primary contributors to potential eutrophication and acidification impacts. Mitigation strategies to reduce LCA impacts, including diet manipulation and management strategies (i.e., treatment of manure), were considered from a whole-systems perspective. Model results can be used for guidance by NGP producers, environmental practitioners, and policymakers. PMID:24216416

  17. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  18. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Marie J. Haskell; John A Rooke; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body ...

  19. Characteristics, socioeconomic benefits and household livelihoods of beef buffalo and beef cattle farming in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Schlecht

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the Thai economy experiences rapid growth, agricultural systems, i.e. crop-livestock systems, are changing rapidly. On account of these changes, buffalo and cattle production has to be re-examined in terms of performance characteristics and roles of livestock for farm households in order to initiate suitable development programmes. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the present characteristics of beef buffalo and beef cattle farms in Northeast Thailand. Using a semi-structured questionnaire, 121 randomly selected beef buffalo and beef cattle farms were interviewed in Nakhon Ratchasima province between October 2007 and May 2008. Both buffaloes and cattle were mostly integrated in mixed crop-livestock systems with medium to large farm sizes (7.9 ha, whereof less than half of the area was used for livestock. Family members were mainly responsible for the different activities of livestock farming and salaried labourers were only found on large-scale farms. The dominant roles of livestock were income generation to build up wealth or savings, the coverage of expected and unexpected expenses and earning of regular and additional income. Another important issue was the improvement of the social status, which increased with herd size. In order to improve farmers’ livelihoods and develop sustainable farming systems in Northeast Thailand the changing economic circumstances of cattle and especially buffalo production should receive more attention of researchers, governmental institutions and stakeholders.

  20. A SUPPORTING AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT OF FARM HOUSEHOLD IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to analyze some factors influencing production, income, farmhousehold consumption and investment of farm household beef cattle in Central Java. Five districts werepurposively chosen for research location based on the number of beef cattle population, namelyRembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri. Forty respondents of each district were chosenrandomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Simultaneous Regression and estimated byTwo Stage Least Square (TSLS. The results showed that independent variables were simultaneouslysignificant to dependent variables (production, income, farm household consumption and investmentwith the Probability F test 0.0000 and adjusted R2 were 91%; 89%; 96%; 62%, respectively. Thesimulation’s analysis of agribusiness implementation consisted of 1 decreasing 15% of service perconception, 2 increasing of beef cattle breed and number of beef cattle 15% respectively, 3 raising ofprice of rice and number of household member 15% respectively and 4 increasing of income and priceof beef cattle 10% respectively influenced to farm household consumption and investment 0.446% and5.14%, respectively, meanwhile production and income did not change. The research can be concludedthat the independent variables simultaneously significant influenced to production, income, farmhousehold consumption and beef cattle investment. The simulation of changing usage of input factor andprice significantly influenced to farm household consumption and beef cattle investment.

  1. Sustained reduction in methane production from long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol to a beef cattle diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-04-01

    The objective was to evaluate whether long-term addition of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) to a beef cattle diet results in a sustained reduction in enteric CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated heifers (637 ± 16.2 kg BW) were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments: Control (0 g/d of NOP) and NOP (2 g/d of NOP). Treatments were mixed by hand into the total mixed ration (60% forage, DM basis) at feeding time. Feed offered was restricted to 65% of ad libitum DMI (slightly over maintenance energy intake) and provided once per day. The duration of the experiment was 146 d, including an initial 18-d covariate period without NOP use; a 112-d treatment period with NOP addition to the diet, divided into four 28-d time intervals (d 1 to 28, 29 to 56, 57 to 84, and 85 to 112); and a final 16-d recovery period without NOP use. During the covariate period and at the end of each interval and the end of the recovery period, CH4 was measured for 3 d using whole animal metabolic chambers. The concentration of VFA was measured in rumen fluid samples collected 0, 3, and 6 h after feeding, and the microbial population was evaluated using rumen samples collected 3 h after feeding on d 12 of the covariate period, d 22 of each interval within the treatment period, and d 8 of the recovery period. Average DMI for the experiment was 7.04 ± 0.27 kg. Methane emissions were reduced by 59.2% when NOP was used (9.16 vs. 22.46 g/kg DMI; P beef cattle caused a sustained decrease of methanogenesis, with no sign of adaptation, and that these effects were reversed once NOP addition was discontinued PMID:26020199

  2. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  3. Genetic effects on beef tenderness in Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, S F; Tatum, J D; Wulf, D M; Green, R D; Smith, G C

    1997-07-01

    Bos indicus composite and Bos taurus cattle, originating from diverse production environments, were used to quantify genetic variation in marbling, 24-h calpastatin activity, and beef tenderness and to identify strategies for prevention of beef tenderness problems in Bos indicus composite cattle. Comparisons among 3/8 Bos indicus breeds (Braford, Red Brangus, Simbrah) revealed significant differences in marbling and 24-h calpastatin activity, but not in tenderness. Compared with Bos taurus cattle, 3/ 8 Bos indicus cattle had similar marbling scores but higher 24-h calpastatin activities. Also, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus composites aged more slowly from 1 to 7 d and was less tender at 4, 7, 14, 21, and 35 d postmortem than beef from Bos taurus cattle. However, beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was relatively tender if it was aged for a sufficient period of time (21 d). The delayed response to aging and greater toughness of beef from 3/8 Bos indicus cattle was associated with Brahman breed effects and was not related to the Bos taurus germplasm source. Marbling was moderately heritable (.52 +/- .21) but exhibited positive genetic correlations with shear force at d 1 through 14 of aging, suggesting that, in these cattle, selection for increased marbling would have an unfavorable effect on beef tenderness. A low heritability estimate for 24-h calpastatin activity (.15 +/- .15), coupled with low genetic correlations between calpastatin activity and shear force at 7, 14, and 35 d, suggested that selection for low calpastatin activity would have little effect on aged beef tenderness. Panel tenderness and shear force at 7, 14, and 21 d were moderately heritable (.27 to .47), indicating that aged beef tenderness could be improved by direct selection (via progeny testing). Comparisons among Simbrah, Senegus x Simbrah, and Red Angus x Simmental steers showed that inclusion of a tropically adapted Bos taurus breed (Senepol) could be an effective strategy for preventing beef

  4. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    FCR and RFI) (P < 0.05) and greater CH4 emissions (P = 0.017). In conclusion, agitated temperament and higher stress responsiveness is detrimental to productivity. A greater stress response is associated with a reduction in feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  5. Repeated gentle handling in beef cattle: heart rate and behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze Westerath, Heike; Probst, Johanna; Gygox, Lorenz; Hillmann, Edna

    2010-01-01

    A good animal-human relationship is one important aspect concerning cattle welfare. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gentle handling at head and neck on behaviour and heart beat parameters in beef cattle.

  6. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P beef cattle. PMID:27379246

  7. Role of beef cattle breeding in landscape protection

    OpenAIRE

    Touš, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Cattle breeding hasn’t a long tradition in the Czech Republic as almost all of the beef cattle were imported to the foothills and mountain areas in 1990’s. The beef cattle aren‘t kept for milk and therefore their breeding can be realized as an extensive breeding in connection with permanent grassland – pastures – in less favourable or protected areas. The cattle are not only used for animal produce but also for maintaining the landscape and ecological stability. The advantage of beef cattl...

  8. Evaluation of bovine chemerin (RARRES2 gene variation on beef cattle production traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A previous study in cattle based on >48,000 markers identified markers on chromosome 4 near the chemerin gene associated with average daily feed intake (ADFI in steers (P<0.008. Chemerin is an adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans, representing a strong candidate gene potentially underlying the observed association. To evaluate whether the bovine chemerin gene is involved in feed intake, 16 markers within and around the gene were tested for association in the same resource population. Eleven were nominally significant for ADFI (P<0.05 and two were significant after Bonferroni correction. Two and five SNP in this region were nominally significant for the related traits of average daily gain (ADG and residual feed intake (RFI, respectively. All markers were evaluated for effects on meat quality and carcass phenotypes. Many of the markers associated with ADFI were associated with hot carcass weight (HCW, adjusted fat thickness (AFT, and marbling (P<0.05. Marker alleles that were associated with lower ADFI were also associated with lower HCW, AFT, and marbling. Markers associated with ADFI were genotyped in a validation population of steers representing 14 breeds to determine predictive merit across populations. No consistent relationships for ADFI were detected. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes might be related to chemerin transcript abundance, the expression of chemerin was evaluated in adipose of 114 heifers that were siblings of the steers in the discovery population. Relative chemerin transcript abundance was not correlated with ADFI, ADG, or RFI, but associations with body condition score and yearling weight were observed. We conclude that variation in the chemerin gene may underlie observed association in the resource population, but that additional research is required to determine if this variation is widespread among breeds and to develop robust markers with predictive merit across

  9. Impact of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina on the production of beef cattle in Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Solari; A. Nari; H. Cardozo

    1992-01-01

    Uruguay is situated in a marginal area for the development of Boophilus microplus (30- 35- South Lat.) with important areas of enzootic instability for Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. The livestock products represent 70% of our exports, for wich reason it is fundamental to evaluate the losses in the production that these haemoparasites cause as basic information to take future decisions. In the period 1988-1990, several works were carried out by our laboratory to know the incidence of babesios...

  10. Flexibility of Suckler Cattle Farms in the Face of Uncertainty within the Beef Industry: A Proposed Definition and an Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrand, Stephane; Bardey, Helene; Brossier, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out in association with beef cattle producers, was to explore the capacity of farms to adapt, from a techno-conomic point of view, to both structural changes in consumer demand for beef products and market disruptions (sudden drop in beef consumption due partly to media coverage of bovine spongiform encephalopathy…

  11. Impact of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina on the production of beef cattle in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, M A; Nari, A; Cardozo, H

    1992-01-01

    Uruguay is situated in a marginal area for the development of Boophilus microplus (30 degrees 35 degrees South Lat.) with important areas of enzootic instability for Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. The livestock products represent 70% of our exports, for which reason it is fundamental to evaluate the losses in the production that these haemoparasites cause as basic information to take future decisions. In the period 1988-1990, several works were carried out by our laboratory to know the incidence of babesiosis in the reduction of liveweight gains. The results are shown and discussed in the work. Experiment I: the weight increase of the control group (x = 0.248 kg/day), was 23% higher than that of the infected group with Babesia spp (from Uruguay), but significant statistical differences were not found (P pastures. The control group obtained x = 25.29 kg of liveweight gain and it was 45% higher than that of the infected group, significant statistical difference were found (P < 0.05). Experiments with attenuated strains III: four studies were carried out inoculating B. bovis and B. bigemina in bovines about one year old, in different growth systems, searching for the limit of application. Significant statistical differences between those groups were not found during the experiment (about 180 days) (P < 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1343684

  12. Impact of Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina on the production of beef cattle in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Solari

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Uruguay is situated in a marginal area for the development of Boophilus microplus (30- 35- South Lat. with important areas of enzootic instability for Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. The livestock products represent 70% of our exports, for wich reason it is fundamental to evaluate the losses in the production that these haemoparasites cause as basic information to take future decisions. In the period 1988-1990, several works were carried out by our laboratory to know the incidence of babesiosis in the reduction of liveweight gains. The results are shown and discussed in the work. Experiment I: the weight increase of the control group (x = 0,248kg/day, was 23% higher than that of the infected group with Babesia spp (from Uruguay, but significant statistical differences were not found (P < 0,05. These animals were kept in boxes and the food was controlled for 76 days. Experiment II: the incidence of Babesis spp (same strain was studied for 140 on Hereford heifers (n = 14 on natural pastures. The control group obtained x = 25,29kg of liveweight gain and it was 45% higher than that of the infected group, significant statistical difference were found (P < 0,05. Experiments with attenuated strains III: four studies were carried out inoculating B. bovis and B. bigemina in bovines about one year old, in different growth systems, searching for the limit of application. Significant statistical differences between those groups were found during the experiment (about 180 days (P < 0,05. Experiment combining and pathogenic strains IV: the liveweight gain, in immune and challanged group (n = 14 was the same than that of the unchallenged group and did not show significant statistical differences (P < 0,05. However the control challenged group had less weight gain and statistical differences were found (P < 0,05. Although this is a preliminary information, it shows that: (a the incidence of babesiosis on the reduction of weight gains is important; (b the

  13. FEED POTENTIAL OF AGRICULTURE WASTE FOR BEEF CATTLE DEVELOPMENT IN KUNINGAN REGENCY, WEST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Farda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of research were to identify and analyze potential agricultural waste used as feed, examines the characteristics of beef cattle ranchers and estimate the ability of the addition of beef cattle population in Kuningan Regency. The primary data were taken from interviews with 30 respondents beef cattle farmers selected by purposive sampling in three districts based on the largest beef cattle population as a recommendation by local government of Kuningan Regency Agricultural. Waste samples taken randomly three times to analyze of nutrient composition by proksimat analyze was the type of the most widely used for feed. Secondary data was obtained from Kuningan Regency Veterinary Office, Department of Food Crops and the Central Statistics Agency. The results showed that the type of agricultural waste used in Kuningan Regency from highest to lowest production is rice straw, hay sweet potatoes, peanuts and hay with traditional animal husbandry systems. Districts that can improve beef cattle population from the highest to lowest number was Luragung, Cibingbin, Ciwaru, Subang, Maleber, Cibeureum, Cilebak, Karangkancana and Cimahi. In conclusion, the highest agricultural waste production was rice straw and the highest potential for the development of beef cattle in the Kuningan Regency was Luragung District.

  14. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF THE LAW OF CATTLE AND BEEF TRACEABILITY IN MARKETING CHANNELS ON THE DOMESTIC HANWOO BEEF INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Sanggon; Lee, Jungmin; Chai, Sanghyen; Lee, Hyungwoo

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the economic impacts of the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability in marketing channels on the domestic Hanwoo beef industry. The Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability might affect the demand and supply of Hanwoo beef. After introducing the Law of Cattle and Beef Traceability into the marketing channels, the price of Hanwoo beef has increased a lot in the Korean beef market. Domestically produced Hanwoo beef has a price premium compared with the imported b...

  15. Ecosystems Potency of Small and Outer Islands of Indonesia for Beef Cattle Farming Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismeth Inounu

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian archipelago consists of five main islands and more than seventeen thousand of small islands. These small islands are very effective as natural barrier to the spread of contagious animal diseases. This situation is very advantageous to develop many programs such as beef cattle farming to support beef self sufficient program in 2010. However, there are some constraints in developing of these small islands, namely human resources, natural resources, infrastructure, mean of communications and transportations and lack of intra sector integrated coordination. In taking the advantageous of developing small islands as a screening base and quarantine area, animal production technologies and veterinary science are much needed. The development can be done in integration with transmigration development program so that the beef cattle development could become source of income and job opportunity for the transmigran and local inhabitant as well. Beef cattle farming scheme are recommended by doing cow-calf operation or fattening. Political support from government and legislative are needed in establishment of infrastructure in the area chosen as beef cattle farming location. Besides, it need facilitations in land procurement for beef cattle farming, legal aspect, supports of law enforcement, simple regulation in land used and zone management planning, regulation in controlling beef importation, and credit with minimum interest rate.

  16. Intensive (pasture) beef cattle operations: the perspective of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, S C

    1997-08-01

    Beef production in New Zealand has characteristics typical of a temperate climate and pasture-based animal husbandry. The specific pathogens which may contaminate fresh beef and which are empirically considered to be of public health importance are similar to those in other countries with temperate climates, i.e. Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. With the exception of T. gondii, it is likely that almost all transmission of these hazards through consumption of beef results from unseen microbial cross-contamination from gastrointestinal sources during slaughter, dressing and further processing. Gaining comprehensive information on carcass contamination levels is an essential first step in establishing food safety objectives for a particular beef production system, and in designing risk-based hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plans. It is likely that the lower mean and maximum numbers of indicator micro-organisms on New Zealand carcasses (when compared with other countries) are in part due to the pre-slaughter cleanliness status of cattle reared under temperate, pasture conditions. Similarly, the failure to detect specific pathogens of gastrointestinal origin in a comprehensive baseline survey most probably reflects the limited pathway for faecal contamination during slaughter and dressing under processing conditions in New Zealand. The New Zealand example provides strong evidence for the need to design HACCP plans according to the specific national (or regional) situation. Reducing all pathways for faecal contamination of products to the maximum extent practicable will be the most important factor in achieving desired food safety objectives for fresh beef. Variable densities of microbial pathogens in gastrointestinal contents are also likely to have a significant effect on subsequent contamination levels of beef carcasses: however, effective controls for limiting the presence of most

  17. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower FCR and RFI) (P feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef

  18. Technical Efficiency of Beef Cattle Breeding Business in East Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Kalangi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to compare technical efficiency of beef cattle business operating in lowland and upland areas of East Java and to identify and analyze factors affecting the technical efficiency as well as inefficiency of that business. A survey was conducted to 89 farmers in the lowland area of Probolinggo District and 97 farmers in the upland areas of Malang Districts during the period of February-March 2013. Results of stochastic frontier production function with MLE method showed that the average technical efficiency in lowland area was higher (80% compared to that in upland area (64%. The results indicated that beef cattle production was highly significant and positively influenced by total of grasses and forages, rice straw, feed supplements, stock of cattle, labor time allocation and service per conception. However, location of the business, whether in lowland and upland areas was a significant factor that could increase the efficiency. Some factors that could significantly reduce the technical inefficiency of beef cattle business were: labor force in family, education level, proportion of beef cattle income to total household income, age of cattle sold, cattle health examination, ownership status of the cattle, and gender. Therefore, (1 the existing farmers group should be improved their role to facilitate trading of cattle feed, and (2 the government should facilitate the farmers in the provision of funding tu buy beef cattle with a subsidized interest rate, so the farmers will be more enthusiast in taking care of their cattle, thus could improve their production efficiency.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  20. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE BEEF CATTLE PRODUCTION CHAIN IN THE STATE OF TOCANTINS, BRAZIL COMPETITIVIDADE DA CADEIA PRODUTIVA DA CARNE BOVINA NO ESTADO DO TOCANTINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Firmino Araújo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and analyze the beef cattle chain competitiveness in the State of Tocantins, Brazil, based on some indicators and using as parameters three Brazilian states, which present the largest slaughtering and beef cattle production volume numbers: Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo. The beef cattle chain, in Tocantins, depicts a formation process scenery and, as compared to the other three mentioned states, a still low competitive performance. The detailed examination of the present situation points out that, in all segments studied (livestock production, slaughtering/processing, distribution, and consumption, the indexes indicate a necessity of efforts to reach development factors that bring competitiveness and that will allow the Tocantins results to approach the national sector leaders.

    KEY-WORDS: Beef cattle chain; competitiveness; Tocantins.

    O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a competitividade do sistema agroindustrial da carne bovina do Tocantins, com base em alguns direcionadores, tendo como parâmetro as tr

  1. Peanut by-products fed to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary M

    2002-07-01

    Peanut by-products supply substantial quantities of feedstuffs to beef cattle grown in the same region where peanuts are produced. Included in the list of products fed to cattle are peanuts and peanut meal, peanut skins, peanut hulls, peanut hay, and silages. Residual peanut hay is by far the most widely used peanut by-product fed to beef cattle, and if it is properly harvested with minimal leaf shatter, it is comparable to good-quality grass hays in nutrient content. Peanut skins are often included in small quantities in cattle and pet foods, supplying both protein and energy. High tannin content of peanut skins can cause severe performance depressions in beef cattle if peanut skins are included at levels higher than 10% of the diet, unless diets contain relatively high CP (above 15% CP), or additional N sources are added such as ammonia or urea. Because dairy cattle diets are often above 16% CP in the total dietary DM, peanut skins may increase milk production when added at levels up to 16% of the dry matter. Peanut hulls are effectively used as a roughage source at levels up to 20% of beef finishing diets, for bedding in dairy cattle loafing sheds (if tested and found to contain low aflatoxin levels), and in a variety of manufactured products. Peanut hulls are economically priced because of their quantity, their inherent high fiber, and low CP content, and they should not be fed as a primary feedstuffs for beef cattle. Peanut by-products are generally priced below other by-products, and they can be incorporated into a variety of supplements and diets for cow herds, growing-finishing cattle, and dairy cattle. PMID:12235662

  2. Diets of differentially processed wheat alter ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Li, Z; Zhang, C Y; Liu, X M; Wan, F C

    2015-11-01

    The influences of differently processed wheat products on rumen fermentation, microbial populations, and serum biochemistry profiles in beef cattle were studied. Four ruminally cannulated Limousin × Luxi beef cattle (400 ± 10 kg) were used in the experiment with a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The experimental diets contained (on a DM basis) 60% corn silage as a forage source and 40% concentrate with 4 differently processed wheat products (extruded, pulverized, crushed, and rolled wheat). Concentrations of ruminal NH-N and microbial protein (MCP) in cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat were greater ( cattle fed pulverized and extruded wheat. Ruminal concentrations of total VFA and acetate and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased ( cattle fed extruded wheat had the lowest concentrations of total VFA and acetate among all treatments. The relative abundance of , , ciliated protozoa, and was lower in cattle fed the pulverized wheat diet than in the other 3 diets ( cattle fed extruded wheat compared with cattle fed crushed and rolled wheat ( 0.05). Our findings suggest that the method of wheat processing could have a significant effect on ruminal fermentation parameters and microbial populations in beef cattle and that crushed and rolled processing is better in terms of ruminal NH-N and MCP content, acetate-to-propionate ratio, and relative abundance of rumen microorganisms.

  3. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Practical developments in managing animal welfare in beef cattle: what does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, J L; Calvo-Lorenzo, M S

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the welfare of cattle in the beef industry has intensified over time because of ethical concerns and varying societal perceptions that exist about the treatment and living conditions of farm animals. The definition of welfare will vary according to an individual's philosophies (how one defines and prioritizes what is "good"), experiences (societal and cultural influences of animal roles and relationships), and involvement in the livestock industry (knowledge of how livestock operations work and why). Many welfare concerns in the beef industry could be mitigated by enhancing traditional husbandry practices that utilize practical improvements to alleviate or eliminate heat stress, pain from routine husbandry procedures, negative cattle handling, and the transitional effects of weaning, dry feeding, transportation, and comingling of calves. Recent concerns about the potential welfare effects of feeding technologies such as β-adrenergic agonists (BAA) have emerged and led to industry-wide effects, including the removal of a single BAA product from the market and the development of BAA-specific welfare audits. Altogether, the beef industry continues to be challenged by welfare issues that question a large range of practices, from traditional husbandry to newer technological advancements. As welfare awareness increases, efforts to improve livestock care and management must focus on scientific investigations, practical solutions, consumer perceptions, and educational tools that advance knowledge and training in livestock welfare. Furthermore, the future of beef cattle welfare must align welfare concerns with other aspects of sustainable beef production such as environmental quality, profitability, food safety, and nutritional quality. PMID:25253809

  4. Beef production in Romania (2010-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    eleonora nistor

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the statistics is to show changes in the size and value of total production of animals for slaughtering and meat analyzed by use. Due to the interest of breeders and specialists from our country in specialized breeds of cattle meat production is increasing, the purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of beef production over the last three years. The number of animals slaughtered decreased steadily from 2010 to 2012. Most slaughter, were done in the second half of the years in which research was made. The largest number of cattle were slaughtered in December 2010, and the fewest (with 62.32% less in January 2012. Total slaughter is declining, but a higher number of animals are slaughtered in official slaughterhouses, at a higher weight. As a consequence, beef production is forecast to remain relatively stagnant.

  5. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    J P.F. Arthur; Herd, R M

    2008-01-01

    Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge o...

  6. Reducing Methane Emissions from Cattle Production in Central Queensland

    OpenAIRE

    Rolfe, John

    2002-01-01

    Beef cattle contribute about 7% of national greenhouse gas emissions through the release of methane into the atmosphere. Cattle in northern Australia produce more methane per unit of beef produced because of tropical (C4) grasses and slower average growth rates. In this paper the level of emissions from different herds and some strategies to reduce emissions are modelled. The results indicate that few options exist to reduce methane emissions without reducing beef production. The opportunity ...

  7. Technology of production of beef of special quality

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovski Zlatica; Aleksić Stevica; Cmiljanić Ratimir; Škrbić Zdenka; Lukić Miloš; Stojanović Ljiljana

    2004-01-01

    By applying the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances with French fattening/meat breeds (Charolais and Limousine) young cattle is obtained with better fattening traits as well as traits of carcass and meat quality. Application of the method of industrial crossing of Domestic spotted cattle of lower production performances, beside significant increase of the quantity of high quality beef meat, would also have positive effect on the economical...

  8. Effect of composting on the fate of steroids in beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fate of steroid hormones in beef cattle manure composting is evaluated. The fate of 16 steroids and metabolites was evaluated in composted manure from beef cattle administered growth promotants and from beef cattle with no steroid hormone implants. The fate of estrogens (primary...

  9. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  10. Inclusion of crude glycerin with different roughages changes ruminal parameters and in vitro gas production from beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josimari Regina Paschoaloto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The increasing availability of crude glycerin from biodiesel production has generated great stock in the industries. To solve this problem, crude glycerin is being used as an energy source to replace corn in livestock diets. This study evaluated the effects of the association of crude glycerin (10% on DM of diets with different roughages in Nellore cattle diets on ruminal pH and ammonia, degradability, digestibility of dry matter and nutrients, and greenhouse gas production. Six ruminally cannulated Nellore steers were assigned to a 6×6 Latin square design. The following treatments were evaluated: Hydrolyzed Sugarcane associated or not with crude glycerin, Corn Silage associated or not with crude glycerin or Tifton-85 Hay associated or not with crude glycerin. Association of crude glycerin with roughages did not affect the rumen ammonia concentration and pH and dry matter intake, but reduced the intake of NDF for diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane and Corn Silage and reduced the digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, EE, CNF and starch and decreased the effective degradation at the rate of 8% h-1 for diets with Tifton-85 Hay. The association crude glycerin with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane reduced the production of CH4 and CO2 in mL g-1 of DM. The inclusion of crude glycerin affects differently nutrient utilization in diets with Corn Silage, Hydrolyzed Sugarcane or Tifton-85 hay. Moreover, promotes mitigation of greenhouse gases in diets with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane. Association of crude glycerin with Corn Silage in Nellore cattle diets showed better conditions of ruminal fermentation and utilization of nutrients.

  11. Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil Impacto do aquecimento global no custo de produção de carne bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is affecting agribusiness in its economic aspects. Therefore, the prediction of the evolution of Brazilian beef cattle production cost was made using the IPCC forecast scenario for global warming. The methodology consisted of two steps: (i the development of a fuzzy model that estimated the grazing land capacity (RP decrease risk as a function of the changes in the average total rain index, air temperature and increase in extension of the dry season; and (ii the design of an algorithm for predicting the decrease in production as function of the RPfuzzy model, that results in the impact in beef cattle productivity, and consequent increase in production costs. Historical environmental data from important producing counties in the Cerrado were organized and a set of fuzzy Gaussian functions were developed, and three possible settings (optimistic, medium and pessimistic were considered. The decrease in beef cattle productivity was estimated using the losses in production due to the increase in air temperature and vulnerability of pasture capacity. The boundary settings for the total increase of production cost scenario used the number of animals per area of grazing land, the adoption of grain supplement and its future scenario; and the result output function pointed to a threshold within a variation from an increase in production cost of 80% (optimistic to 160% (pessimistic. Under the optimistic scenario the total cost of Brazilian beef cattle production in the Cerrado became near to US$ 2.88 kg-1, while in the pessimistic scenario this cost reached US$ 4.16 kg-1, challenging the international competitiveness of this economic segment.O aquecimento global afeta o agronegócio em seus aspectos econômicos. Foi feita previsão daevolução do custo de produção de carne bovina brasileira usando a predição de aquecimento global do IPCC. A metodologia consistiu de duas etapas: (i o desenvolvimento de modelo fuzzy que estimou o risco de

  12. Sequencing and Characterization of Divergent Marbling Levels in the Beef Cattle (Longissimus dorsi Muscle) Transcriptome

    OpenAIRE

    Dong CHEN; Li, Wufeng; Du, Min; Wu, Meng; Cao, Binghai

    2015-01-01

    Marbling is an important trait regarding the quality of beef. Analysis of beef cattle transcriptome and its expression profile data are essential to extend the genetic information resources and would support further studies on beef cattle. RNA sequencing was performed in beef cattle using the Illumina High-Seq2000 platform. Approximately 251.58 million clean reads were generated from a high marbling (H) group and low marbling (L) group. Approximately 80.12% of the 19,994 bovine genes (protein...

  13. AN INTEGRATED APPROACH OF INTERPRETIVE STRUCTURAL MODELING (ISM AND ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP IN DEVELOPING INSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM OF THE BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimbun Sumarsono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABTRACT This study is aimed to knowing Structuring the sub element of Institutional System of Beef Cattle Industry, The methods used for data collection is by distributing questionnaires, interviews with experts and literature studies. Results of questionnaires and interviews with experts used to construct a hierarchy of election strategy Beef Cattle industry development. Preparation of hierarchy elections industrial development strategy Beef Cattle using AHP technique The formulation of a model institutional system Beef Cattle industry development with key elements in the element's goal is to realize a strong institutional element is the need for government support, elements of the perpetrator is a trader. While the key elements in the benchmarks is the increasing diversification of products Beef Cattle, element of constraint is the weak institutional system, lack of government support for industrial development Beef Cattle and the lack of guidance to the Breeders. For elements of the desired changes to the industrial development Beef Cattle is the formation of an independent group of cattle at the planting site Beef Cattle

  14. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  15. Measures of methane production and their phenotypic relationships with dry matter intake, growth, and body composition traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Arthur, P F; Donoghue, K A; Bird, S H; Bird-Gardiner, T; Hegarty, R S

    2014-11-01

    Ruminants contribute up to 80% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock, and enteric methane production by ruminants is the main source of these GHG emissions. Hence, reducing enteric methane production is essential in any GHG emissions reduction strategy in livestock. Data from 2 performance-recording research herds of Angus cattle were used to evaluate a number of methane measures that target methane production (MPR) independent of feed intake and to examine their phenotypic relationships with growth and body composition. The data comprised 777 young bulls and heifers that were fed a roughage diet (ME of 9 MJ/kg DM) at 1.2 times their maintenance energy requirements and measured for MP in open circuit respiration chambers for 48 h. Methane traits evaluated included DMI during the methane measurement period, MPR, and methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI), with means (± SD) of 6.2 ± 1.4 kg/d, 187 ± 38 L/d, and 30.4 ± 3.5 L/kg, respectively. Four forms of residual MPR (RMP), which is a measure of actual minus predicted MPR, were evaluated. For the first 3 forms, predicted MPR was calculated using published equations. For the fourth (RMPR), predicted MPR was obtained by regression of MPR on DMI. Growth traits evaluated were BW at birth, weaning (200 d of age), yearling age (400 d of age), and 600 d of age, with means (± SD) of 34 ± 4.6, 238 ± 37, 357 ± 45, and 471 ± 53 kg, respectively. Body composition traits included ultrasound measures (600 d of age) of rib fat, rump fat, and eye muscle area, with means (± SD) of 3.8 ± 2.6 mm, 5.4 ± 3.8 mm, and 61 ± 7.7 cm(2), respectively. Methane production was positively correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (0.65 ± 0.02), MY (0.72 ± 0.02), the RMP traits (r from 0.65 to 0.79), the growth traits (r from 0.19 to 0.57), and the body composition traits (r from 0.13 to 0.29). Methane yield was, however, not correlated (r ± SE) with DMI (-0.02 ± 0.04) as well as the growth (r from -0.03 to 0.11) and body composition (r from 0

  16. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  17. 甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价%Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.%利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。

  18. Concoction of Fine Feed From Sugarcane by-Product and Beef Cattle Feeding Evaluation%甘蔗副产物调配精饲料及肉牛饲养评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兆鹏; 蚁细苗; 农皓; 常国炜; 韦志坚; 谭文兴; 梁达奉

    2015-01-01

    利用甘蔗副产物废糖蜜、酵母废液粉全部或部分替代价格高且收购难的玉米粉等原料,木薯渣替代啤酒渣作糟渣类饲料,调配肉牛精饲料,同时添加甘蔗副产物甘蔗梢叶、蔗渣作粗饲料进行肉牛饲养试验。根据饲养期间各实验组牛的采食量、日增重情况以及饲料效益核算等方面评价所调配日粮精饲料配方的可行性。实验结果表明,酵母废液粉替代精料中50%的玉米粉时,喂养效果与原精料相当。%In this paper, beef cattle feed was concocted by using sugarcane by-product (molasses, yeast liquid and powder) to substitute all or part of flour mix feed which is expensive and hard to purchase, cassava dregs to substitute beer sludge on the other hand; sugarcane by-products (sugar cane tip leaves, bagasse) was also used to prepare roughage beef cattle feed. The feasibility of the fine feed formulation was evaluated by beef cattle breeding experiment and the cattle feed intake, daily gain and feed efficiency as the evaluating index. The results showed that the concocted feed can achieve commensurate feeding effect with the original fine feed when liquid yeast powder substitute 50% corn flour of fine feed.

  19. The relevance of methane emissions from beef production and the challenges of the Argentinean beef production platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rearte, D H; Pordomingo, A J

    2014-11-01

    The livestock sector faces the challenge to respond to the growing demand for animal protein from an expanding population while reducing environmental impact through GHG emissions. Globally about 2.836 million tons of CO2-eq were emitted by the beef production sector equivalent to 46,2 kg CO2-eq per kg carcass weight (CW). From the 1.485 million cattle head spread out over the world, 82% are on extensive grazing systems while only 18% are on high productive intensive systems. Among the top ten beef exporter countries, five are located in Latin America accounting a quarter of the global stock and two of them, Argentina and Uruguay, produce on temperate pastures under grazing systems. In Argentina, the livestock area was reduced in favor of increasing the grain cropping area, which took place in the last two decades. Production systems were intensified to maintain cattle stock. Cattle programs changed from 100% pasture to pasture supplemented with cereal grains and conserved forages, and confinement on grain feeding for fattening was incorporated. Due to land sharing competition with cash crops, no increment of cattle stock is expected therefore improving production efficiency appears as the only way to increase beef production while reducing methane emissions intensity. Beef produced on intensive grazing systems on supplemented pastures maintained organoleptic, nutritional and lipid profile than that of beef produced on pure grazing systems. PMID:25027797

  20. Molecular epidemiology of bovine Babesia spp. and Theileria orientalis parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Adjou Moumouni, Paul Franck; Cao, Shinuo; Iguchi, Aiko; Liu, Mingming; Wang, Guanbo; Zhou, Mo; Vudriko, Patrick; Changbunjong, Tanasak; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sedwisai, Poonyapat; Weluwanarak, Thekhawet; Wongsawang, Witsanu; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle production represents the largest cattle population in Thailand. Their productivity is constrained by tick-borne diseases such as babesiosis and theileriosis. In this study, we determined the prevalence of Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis and Theileria orientalis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genetic markers that were used for detection of the above parasites were sequenced to determine identities and similarity for Babesia spp. and genetic diversity of T. orientalis. Furthermore the risk factors for the occurrence of the above protozoan parasites in beef cattle from northern and northeastern parts of Thailand were assessed. A total of 329 blood samples were collected from beef cattle in 6 provinces. The study revealed that T. orientalis was the most prevalent (30.1%) parasite in beef cattle followed by B. bigemina (13.1%) and B. bovis (5.5%). Overall, 78.7% of the cattle screened were infected with at least one of the above parasites. Co-infection with Babesia spp. and T. orientalis was 30.1%. B. bigemina and T. orientalis were the most prevalent (15.1%) co-infection although triple infection with the three parasites was observed in 3.0% of the samples. Sequencing analysis revealed that B. bigemina RAP1 gene and B. bovis SBP2 gene were conserved among the parasites from different cattle samples. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the T. orientalis MPSP gene from parasites isolated from cattle in north and northeast Thailand was classified into types 5 and 7 as reported previously. Lack of tick control program was the universal risk factor of the occurrence of Babesia spp. and T. orientalis infection in beef cattle in northern and northeastern Thailand. We therefore recommend training of farmers on appropriate tick control strategies and further research on potential vectors for T. orientalis and elucidate the effect of co-infection with Babesia spp. on the pathogenicity of T. orientalis infection on beef in northern and northeastern Thailand.

  1. Alternative programs for synchronizing and resynchronizing ovulation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bó, Gabriel A; de la Mata, José Javier; Baruselli, Pietro S; Menchaca, Alejo

    2016-07-01

    Fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) has been regarded as the most useful method to increase the number of cows inseminated in a given herd. The main treatments for FTAI in beef cattle are based on the use of progesterone-releasing devices and GnRH or estradiol to synchronize follicle wave emergence, with a mean pregnancy per AI (P/AI) around 50%. However, more recent protocols based on GnRH (named 5-day Co-Synch) or estradiol (named J-Synch) that reduce the period of progesterone device insertion and extend the period from device removal to FTAI have been reported to improve P/AI in beef cattle. Furthermore, treatments to resynchronize ovulation for a second FTAI in nonpregnant cows have provided the opportunity to do sequential inseminations and achieve high P/AI in a breeding season, reducing or even eliminating the need for clean-up bulls. In summary, FTAI protocols have facilitated the widespread application of AI in beef cattle, primarily by eliminating the necessity of estrus detection in beef herds. PMID:27180326

  2. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  3. Genetic diversity and relationship of Yunnan native cattle breeds and introduced beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Lian, Lin-Sheng; Wen, Ji-Kun; Shi, Xian-Wei; Zhu, Fang-Xian; Nie, Long; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2004-02-01

    In this study, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to estimate genetic diversity and relationship in 134 samples belonging to two native cattle breeds from the Yunnan province of China (DeHong cattle and DiQing cattle) and four introduced beef cattle breeds (Brahman, Simmental, MurryGrey, and ShortHorn). Ten primers were used, and a total of 84 bands were scored, of which 63 bands (75.0%) were polymorphic. The genetic distance matrix was obtained by proportions of shared fragment. The results indicate that the Yunnnan DeHong cattle breed is closely related to the Brahman (Bos indicus), and the Yunnan DiQing cattle breed is closely related to the Simmental, ShortHorn, and MurryGrey (Bos taurus) breeds. Our results imply that Bos indicus and Bos taurus were the two main origins of Yunnan native cattle. The results also provide the basic genetic materials for conservation of cattle resources and crossbreeding of beef cattle breeds in South China. PMID:15068334

  4. Genomics and the global beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    After two decades of developing DNA-based tools for selection, we are at an interesting juncture. Genomic technology has essentially eliminated the potentially large negative impact of spontaneous single mutation genetic defects as the management of recent examples of beef defects has demonstrated....

  5. Study on Five Microsatellite Markers in Beef Cattle Population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Honghe; Wang Yachun; Chen Youchun; Y. Zhang; L. Ferretti

    2000-01-01

    Five microsatellites, IDVGA-2, IDVGA-27, IDVGA-46, IDVGA-55 and TGLA-44,were analyzed for polymorphisms in beef cattle. The number of alleles and polymorphism information content (PIC) values were 12/0. 82, 5/0. 58, 8/0. 70, 6/0. 57 and 11/0. 86 respectively. Each microstellite was typed on a half-sib family in order to verify the segregation of the alleles.

  6. Soybean silage in the diet for beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    João Paulo Sampaio Rigueira; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Karina Guimarães Ribeiro; Rasmo Garcia; Andreia Santos Cezário

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of molasses with or without microbial additive on soybean silage regarding the intake, digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with four treatments (diets with soybean silage (SS), SS with microbial inoculant, SS with molasses and SS with microbial inoculant and molasses) and seven replications. Animal were feedlot fed for 99 days. Diets contained forage: concentrate ratio of 70:30, the forage...

  7. The role of geographical labelling in inserting extensive cattle systems into beef marketing channels. Evidence from three Spanish case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Ramos, Almudena; Bardají Azcaráte, Isabel; Atance Muñiz, Ignacio

    2006-01-01

    The beef cattle sector is adapting to increasing demand-side requirements. Customers are looking for a differentiated product of constant quality in a market that is beginning to be dominated by major distribution companies. In this background, mechanisms to differentiate production are being implemented to co-ordinate both production and marketing processes and integrate livestock farmers into the commercial system. Extensive cattle systems carry an important weight in Spain because of their...

  8. Estimation of demand and supply relationships for beef cattle in Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available An increase in per capita income is followed by an increased demand in number and quality of meat . The purpose of the study was to identify and qualifying factors that influence the demand and supply of beef, and to determine the magnitude of response related to the increase in per capita income. In this study, the time series data from 1970 through 1993 was used and collected from the Directorate General for Livestock Services and Central Bureau of Statistics for the province ofLampung. The parameters observed were production and consumption of beef, retail price, population, per capita income and input price of beef production . A 2SLS method was used to perform the analysis . The results of this study showed that estimated demand and supply relationships using the simultaneous model of2SLS method is appropriate for beef cattle . The results indicated that retail price of beef is determined simultaneously by demand and supply linkages (P<0.01 . In addition, people in Lampung were responsive enough to anticipate changes on per capita income and lead to the potential for developing Lampung as a strategic beef industry area in Indonesia.

  9. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  10. SELECTIVE BREEDING, HERITABLE CHARACTERISTICS AND GENETIC-BASED TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN THE CANADIAN BEEF CATTLE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, William A.

    1984-01-01

    The paper presents an examination of genetic-based technological change in the Canadian beef cattle industry. A model of technological change is explicitly developed in characteristics space. Production functions with genetic characteristics as arguments are estimated and two forms of technological change identified. Shadow values for characteristics are then calculated and actual genetic improvements are compared to the improvements suggested by the shadow prices. It is concluded that market...

  11. Liver transcriptomic networks reveal main biological processes associated with feed efficiency in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre, Pamela A.; Kogelman, Lisette; Santana, Miguel H. A.; Passarelli, Danielle; Pulz, Lidia H.; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Silva, Paulo L.; Leme, Paulo R; Strefezzi, Ricardo F.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Ferraz, José B. S.; Eler, Joanie P.; Kadarmideen, Haja; Fukumasu, Heidge

    2015-01-01

    Background The selection of beef cattle for feed efficiency (FE) traits is very important not only for productive and economic efficiency but also for reduced environmental impact of livestock. Considering that FE is multifactorial and expensive to measure, the aim of this study was to identify biological functions and regulatory genes associated with this phenotype. Results Eight genes were differentially expressed between high and low feed efficient animals (HFE and LFE, respectively). Co-e...

  12. Methane emissions and estimates of ruminal fermentation parameters in beef cattle fed different dietary concentrate levels

    OpenAIRE

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira; Simone Gisele de Oliveira; Odo Primavesi; Magda Aparecida de Lima; Rosa Toyoko Shiraishi Frighetto; Telma Teresinha Berchielli

    2013-01-01

    Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet) were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum ...

  13. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Takahisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being associated with a high level of the BMS. Thus, the c.-312A>G SNP seems to be a candidate marker for marker-assisted selection. In this study, we investigated whether this association could be replicated in 3 other independent Japanese Black cattle populations and analyzed the effect of the SNP genotypes on the carcass traits other than the BMS. Findings Statistically significant differences in the BMS level were detected among the genotypes of the c.-312A>G SNP in the Japanese black beef cattle populations of Miyazaki (P = 0.0377 and Nagasaki (P = 0.0012 prefectures, and marginal difference was detected in the Kagoshima prefecture population (P = 0.0786. The G allele in the SNP was associated with an increase in the BMS level. The G allele also seemed to have a favorable influence, if any, on the carcass weight, rib eye area and rib thickness of the cattle populations. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association of the c.-312A>G SNP with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population was replicated in other beef cattle populations, and revealed favorable effects of the G allele on the beef productivity in the general Japanese Black beef cattle population. Thus, we concluded that the c.-312A>G SNP is useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the BMS level in Japanese Black beef cattle.

  14. Genetics and genomics of reproductive performance in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Wall, E; Pryce, J E

    2014-05-01

    Excellent reproductive performance in both males and females is fundamental to profitable dairy and beef production systems. In this review we undertook a meta-analysis of genetic parameters for female reproductive performance across 55 dairy studies or populations and 12 beef studies or populations as well as across 28 different studies or populations for male reproductive performance. A plethora of reproductive phenotypes exist in dairy and beef cattle and a meta-analysis of the literature suggests that most of the female reproductive traits in dairy and beef cattle tend to be lowly heritable (0.02 to 0.04). Reproductive-related phenotypes in male animals (e.g. semen quality) tend to be more heritable than female reproductive phenotypes with mean heritability estimates of between 0.05 and 0.22 for semen-related traits with the exception of scrotal circumference (0.42) and field non-return rate (0.001). The low heritability of reproductive traits, in females in particular, does not however imply that genetic selection cannot alter phenotypic performance as evidenced by the decline until recently in dairy cow reproductive performance attributable in part to aggressive selection for increased milk production. Moreover, the antagonistic genetic correlations among reproductive traits and both milk (dairy cattle) and meat (beef cattle) yield is not unity thereby implying that simultaneous genetic selection for both increased (milk and meat) yield and reproductive performance is indeed possible. The required emphasis on reproductive traits within a breeding goal to halt deterioration will vary based on the underlying assumptions and is discussed using examples for Ireland, the United Kingdom and Australia as well as quantifying the impact on genetic gain for milk production. Advancements in genomic technologies can aid in increasing the accuracy of selection for especially reproductive traits and thus genetic gain. Elucidation of the underlying genomic mechanisms for

  15. Apparent Prevalence of Beef Carcasses Contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Sampled from Danish Slaughter Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Okura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics such as age, breed, production type, and carcass classification were assessed. Cheek muscles from 501 carcasses were sampled cross-sectionally at a Danish abattoir and tested for presence of viable MAP and MAP DNA by bacterial culture and IS900 realtime PCR, respectively. Cheek muscle tissues from carcasses of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with ≥10 CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle.

  16. Growth of Brazilian beef production: effect of shocks of supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemiro Alcântara da Silva Neto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With the considerable growth of beef production in Brazil and the growth in beef exports as a backdrop, the main objective of this study is to identify the factors responsible for the excellent performance of this agribusiness sector. Conducting this study required the construction of a theoretical model that was capable of supporting the specification of the adjusted econometric model using vector autoregression with identification by the Bernanke process. The findings show that the main determinant of beef cattle growth and Brazilian beef exports is increased animal stock. Furthermore, productivity has a positive, albeit more modest, effect on beef production and exports. The results show that the increase of the number of cattle reduces costs to the farmer and retail beef prices.

  17. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  18. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D Ranga Niroshan; Strathe, A B; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C; Dijkstra, J; France, J; Kebreab, E

    2013-08-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity of the monensin effects were estimated using random effect models. Due to significant heterogeneity (>68%) in both dairy and beef studies, the random effect models were then extended to mixed effect models by including fixed effects of DMI, dietary nutrient contents, monensin dose, and length of monensin treatment period. Monensin reduced Ym from 5.97 to 5.43% and diets with greater neutral detergent fiber contents (g/kg of dry matter) tended to enhance the monensin effect on CH4 in beef steers. When adjusted for the neutral detergent fiber effect, monensin supplementation [average 32 mg/kg of dry matter intake (DMI)] reduced CH4 emissions from beef steers by 19±4 g/d. Dietary ether extract content and DMI had a positive and a negative effect on monensin in dairy cows, respectively. When adjusted for these 2 effects in the final mixed-effect model, monensin feeding (average 21 mg/kg of DMI) was associated with a 6±3 g/d reduction in CH4 emissions in dairy cows. When analyzed across dairy and beef cattle studies, DMI or monensin dose (mg/kg of DMI) tended to decrease or increase the effect of monensin in reducing methane emissions, respectively. Methane mitigation effects of monensin in dairy cows (-12±6 g/d) and beef steers (-14±6 g/d) became similar when adjusted for the monensin dose differences between dairy cow and beef steer studies. When adjusted for DMI differences, monensin reduced Ym in dairy cows (-0.23±0.14) and beef steers (-0.33±0.16). Monensin treatment

  19. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets

    OpenAIRE

    Carberry, CIara A.; Kenny, David A.; Kelly, Alan K.; Waters, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    Background Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) ...

  20. Neonatal diarrhea by bovine coronavirus (BCoV in beef cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Lorenzetti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine coronavirus (BCoV is the second most important viral agent involved in neonatal diarrhea in calves worldwide. The reports on the frequency of BCoV infection in beef cattle herds under extensive management are uncommon in Brazil. The present study analyzed 93 diarrheic fecal samples of calves up to 60 days of age from 13 commercial beef cattle herds located in the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Paraná, and Rondônia. The fecal samples were collected during 2009-2012 and were previously analyzed for the presence of bovine rotavirus group A (BoRVA, with negative results. The presence of BCoV in the fecal samples was evaluated by the partial amplification of the N gene by using the semi-nested PCR technique. The expected products of 251 bp length were amplified 33.3% (31/93 of the analyzed diarrheic fecal samples. The results revealed that coronaviruses has important participation in the neonatal diarrhea complex of beef cattle herds reared extensively from the different geographical regions of Brazil.

  1. Characteristics of fluid composition of left displaced abomasum in beef cattle fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichijo, Toshihiro; Satoh, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Yuki; Murayama, Isao; Kikuchi, Tomoko; Sato, Shigeru

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the pathophysiology of left displaced abomasum (LDA), beef cattle fed high-starch diets were examined. The abomasal pH in beef cattle with LDA was lower than that in non-LDA reference animals (data from beef cattle at an abattoir), suggesting that it facilitated acidity. Bacteriological examinations of the abomasal fluid in cattle with LDA revealed the presence of Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Candida spp., presumably reflecting the accelerated influx of ruminal fluid into the abomasum. Biochemical analyses of serum revealed that LDA cattle had higher lactic acid and lower vitamin A and E levels than non-LDA reference animals. These results indicate that beef cattle with LDA may suffer from vitamin A and E deficiencies due to maldigestion of starch and the high acidity of abomasal fluid.

  2. Synchronization and Artificial Insemination Strategies in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Graham Clifford; Mercadante, Vitor R G

    2016-07-01

    Utilization of estrus or ovulation synchronization and fixed-timed artificial insemination (TAI) has facilitated the widespread utilization of artificial insemination (AI) and can greatly impact the economic viability of cow-calf systems by enhancing weaning weights. Implementation of TAI programs by beef producers results in limited frequency of handling cattle and elimination of the need to detect estrus. Continued use of intensive reproductive management tools such as estrus synchronization and AI will result positive changes to calving distribution, pregnancy rates, and subsequent calf value. PMID:27140297

  3. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  4. Genetic variance and covariance components for feed intake, average daily gain, and postweaning gain in growing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed is the single most expensive cost related to a beef cattle production enterprise. Data collection to determine feed efficient animals is also costly. Currently a 70 d performance test is recommended for accurate calculation of efficiency. Previous research has suggested intake tests can be l...

  5. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  6. An environmental, economic, and social assessment of improving cattle finishing weight or average daily gain within U.S. beef production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R R; Capper, J L

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess environmental impact, economic viability, and social acceptability of 3 beef production systems with differing levels of efficiency. A deterministic model of U.S. beef production was used to predict the number of animals required to produce 1 × 10(9) kg HCW beef. Three production treatments were compared, 1 representing average U.S. production (control), 1 with a 15% increase in ADG, and 1 with a 15% increase in finishing weight (FW). For each treatment, various socioeconomic scenarios were compared to account for uncertainty in producer and consumer behavior. Environmental impact metrics included feed consumption, land use, water use, greenhouse gas emissions (GHGe), and N and P excretion. Feed cost, animal purchase cost, animal sales revenue, and income over costs (IOVC) were used as metrics of economic viability. Willingness to pay (WTP) was used to identify improvements or reductions in social acceptability. When ADG improved, feedstuff consumption, land use, and water use decreased by 6.4%, 3.2%, and 12.3%, respectively, compared with the control. Carbon footprint decreased 11.7% and N and P excretion were reduced by 4% and 13.8%, respectively. When FW improved, decreases were seen in feedstuff consumption (12.1%), water use (9.2%). and land use (15.5%); total GHGe decreased 14.7%; and N and P excretion decreased by 10.1% and 17.2%, compared with the control. Changes in IOVC were dependent on socioeconomic scenario. When the ADG scenario was compared with the control, changes in sector profitability ranged from 51 to 117% (cow-calf), -38 to 157% (stocker), and 37 to 134% (feedlot). When improved FW was compared, changes in cow-calf profit ranged from 67% to 143%, stocker profit ranged from -41% to 155% and feedlot profit ranged from 37% to 136%. When WTP was based on marketing beef being more efficiently produced, WTP improved by 10%; thus, social acceptability increased. When marketing was based on production

  7. Leptin as a predictor of carcass composition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; McFadin, E L; MacNeil, M D; Grings, E E; Short, R E; Funston, R N; Keisler, D H

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to determine if serum concentrations of leptin could be used to predict carcass composition and merit in feedlot finished cattle. Two different groups of crossbred Bos taurus steers and heifers were managed under feedlot conditions near Miles City, MT. The first group consisted of 88 1/2 Red Angus, 1/4 Charolais, and 1/4 Tarentaise composite gene combination steers (CGC) harvested at the ConAgra processing facility in Greeley, CO. The second group (Lean Beef Project; LB) consisted of 91 F2 steers and heifers born to Limousin, Hereford, or Piedmontese by CGC F1 cows crossed to F1 bulls of similar breed composition and harvested at a local processing facility in Miles City, MT. Blood samples were collected approximately 24 h before harvest (CGC) or approximately 3 d before and at harvest (LB). No differences in serum concentrations of leptin were detected (P > 0.10) between Hereford, Limousin, or Piedmontese F2 calves nor between LB steers and heifers. Positive correlations (P grade (r = 0.36 and 0.49) in CGC and LB cattle, respectively. Serum leptin was also positively correlated with calculated yield grade for CGC steers (r = 0. 19; P = 0. 10) and LB cattle (r = 0.52; P 0.10). However, a negative correlation existed between longissimus area and serum leptin in the LB cattle (r = -0.45; P grade in both groups of cattle studied and may provide an additional indicator of fat content in feedlot cattle. PMID:12597366

  8. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (PMethane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  9. 法国肉牛业发展经验%French Experience in Development of Beef Cattle Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄亚宇; 霍云龙[; Jean-François HOCQUETTE; 孟庆翔

    2015-01-01

    近年来我国牛肉生产和消费量增长巨大,肉牛产业发展迅速。如何适应各地生产条件、减少环境污染,并形成可持续发展的生产模式成为肉牛产业发展的关键。法国肉牛生产历史悠久,其肉牛存栏量和牛肉产量目前在欧洲排名第一,肉牛产业有许多经验值得借鉴。本文回顾了法国近几十年来肉牛产业的演变和现状,介绍了法国肉牛业的发展亮点,并结合中国肉牛业发展现状讨论了值得我们借鉴的法国经验。%In recent years, beef production and consumption in China has risen sharply and the beef cattle industry has developed rapidly. How to adapt to local production conditions, to reduce environmental pollution, and to construct a sustainable system has become a crucial point of the Chinese beef industry. France has a long history of beef production, its cattle herds and beef production is currently ranked first in Europe, and its beefindustry has alot of quotable experiences.This paper reviews theevolution of the French beef cattle industry in recent decadesand its current status, anddescribes the highlights ofdevelopment. TheFrench experiences that are useful for the development of the Chinese beef industryare discussed.

  10. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  11. Ractopamine Residues in Beef Cattle Hair During and After Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Fadi; Zhao, Qingyu; Tang, Chaohua; Meng, Qingshi

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the accumulation of ractopamine (RAC) residues in hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle following exposure to two doses of RAC for 28 days. Six male cattle were orally administered with RAC hydrochloride at a dose of 0.67 mg/kg body weight/day (low-dose group, n = 3) and 2.01 mg/kg body weight/day (high-dose group, n = 3). The results suggested that RAC was obviously accumulated in hair, with a concentration of 5.57 ± 0.66 ng/g (white hair) and 13.67 ± 2.73 ng/g (red hair) in the low-dose group on Day 1 of treatment, respectively. In red hair, the peak concentrations of RAC were 5619.38 ± 2156.84 ng/g (low-dose group) and 6908.3 ± 1177.62 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 14 of treatment, and then decreased slowly. In white hair, the highest concentrations of RAC were 3387.38 ± 1620.87 ng/g (low-dose group) on Day 14 of withdraw and 9621.72 ± 1497.65 ng/g (high-dose group) on Day 28 of treatment. The concentration of RAC in old hair was higher than that in new hair. No significant differences in RAC concentrations were obtained among dosage, hair color and old versus new hair (P > 0.05). The results indicated that ractopamine is significantly accumulated in red and white hair of Chinese Simmental beef cattle, which can be used as a matrix to assess the presence of RAC residues.

  12. Competitiveness of Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: Domestic Resources Cost Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Abdul Rouf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Beef demand in Indonesian people is supplied from the domestic and import production, including Australia and New Zealand. Domestic Resources Cost (DRC is one of the indicators in free trade that is defined as one of the competitiveness criteria. The competitiveness is determined by several factors, including resource, labor, technology and market demand. Based on the previous research results, it was obtained that: (1 The availability of abundant feed through the grazing system and crops livestock system can provide comparative advantage (DRC = 0.08-0.54; (2 The type of beef cattle kept had a good competitiveness (DRC = 0.08-0.94; (3 The labor’s wage can simultaneously create competitiveness (DRC<1; (4 The technological factor on farm level showed that the higher Average Daily Gain (ADG will make the competitiveness increased; and (5 The number of cattle had a positive causality on the competitiveness with a coefficient of 0.510. The smallholder farmer with the average farming scale of three heads per farmer had a lower competitiveness (DRC = 0.08 compared to the cattle fattening company (DRC = 0.01-0.02. The existing research showed that the beef cattle farming in several places in Indonesia had good competitiveness (DRC<1, but in some areas, its value was close to one (less competitive. Therefore, in order to improve the competitiveness, the formulation and implementation of the farm subsector policy should be regarded as a system including upstream to downstream subsystems so it is expected that the coordination and synergy policy among stakeholder and economic actor will be better.

  13. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  14. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, A. G.; Chen, Y. R.; Varel, V. H.

    1981-01-01

    The conversion of livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation is summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis are discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process is presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration to have significant effects on CH4 production rate. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter s by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost is presented.

  15. Economic results of finishing confined beef cattle at Sete Lagoas -MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Alves Demeu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research had as an objective to analyze the profitability of the activity of beef cattle finished in confinement. Specifically, it was also intended to evaluate the effect of scale of production and price variations throughout the year on profitability, and identify the components of the total and operational effective costs that exercised higher representativeness on the production of 15 kg and to estimate the equilibrium point. The data collection took place from January, 2008 to December, 2009, in a production system of beef cattle finished in confinement, located in the municipal district of Sete Lagoas-MG. The profitability analysis was carried out by the Custo Bovino Corte® software, considering the gross and the liquid margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economical efficiency. The gross and the liquid margins, and the result were positive in 2008, indicating that the production system has survival conditions over short, medium and long terms with consequent capitalization. In 2009, for presenting positive gross and liquid margins, the activity has survival conditions over short and medium terms; but, because of the negative results, this production system does not have survival conditions over long term because the farmer is decapitalizing itself. The components of total cost and total operational costs that exercised higher influence on the production of 15 kg were: animal acquisition, feeding and labor.

  16. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ranga Niroshan Appuhamy, JAD; Strathe, AB; Jayasundara, S; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summarize the effect of monensin on CH4 production (g/d) and the percentage of dietary gross energy lost as CH4 (Ym) in dairy cows and beef steers. Data from 22 controlled studies were used. Heterogeneity...

  17. Experiential learning in the animal sciences: effect of 13 years of a beef cattle management practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, T T; Hoover, T S; Reiling, B A; Downs, K M

    1998-11-01

    As the source of students shifts from rural to urban and suburban communities, students entering agricultural programs have less practical livestock experience. The career goals indicated by most of these students require knowledge of and experience with practical applications of their course work. The objective of this study was to examine the profile of students enrolled in an experiential beef cattle course 1) to describe the demographic and occupational characteristics of students enrolled and 2) to assess the perceived value of course activities to graduates completing the course as related to their skill attainment and career development. The questionnaire was sent to all 312 students who were enrolled in the course from 1983 to 1996. Over 61% of the respondents indicated they had enrolled in the course to gain experience working with beef cattle. Over 39% took the course to enhance their application to the College of Veterinary Medicine. When asked to rate the value of the course, as it related to skill development, they noted it was most helpful in teaching cattle handling skills, growth performance measurement, live animal evaluation, nutritional management, carcass and meat product value determination, and breed identification. PMID:9856406

  18. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Kenneth W Tate; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) vi...

  19. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Yoshioka, Sachiyo; Takahagi, Youichi; MORITA, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo; Miyake, Takeshi; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in m...

  20. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita Tatsuo; Morimatsu Fumiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Morita Mitsuo; Takahagi Youichi; Yoshioka Sachiyo; Sukegawa Shin; Sasaki Seiki; Yamada Takahisa; Miyake Takeshi; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN) gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression differe...

  1. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  2. Survey of Job Skills in the Beef Cattle Industry in the Uintah Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kirk J.

    A study was conducted to identify the skills and training needs of Uintah Basin (Utah) beef cattle producers. A questionnaire form was mailed to a random sample of 210 beef producers. The questionnaire consisted of a list of 106 skills to be rated by the respondents. Two basic questions were asked about each skill: (1) How important is the skill…

  3. [Polymorphisms of bGH, RORC, and DGAT1 genes in Russian beef cattle breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlov, I F; Fedunin, A A; Randelin, D A; Sulimova, G E

    2014-12-01

    We examined the allelic and genotypic polymorphisms of genes of the retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor C (RORC), diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1), and growth hormone (bGH) in Russian beef cattle breeds in two populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (of Kazakh and Russian selection) and in the Kalmyk cattle breed and Mongolian hogorogo breed, which is related to Kalmyk breed. The studied genes are associated with parameters of meat quality: marbleness (bGH and RORC) and tenderness (DGAT1). They are also associated with an increase in carcass weight (bGH). We found that Russian and Kazakh populations of the Kazakh white-headed.breed were characterized by a high content of the AA genotype of RORC (0.713 and 0.608, respectively) and of the AA genotype of DGAT1 (0.913 and 0.975), both of which are preferable for meat quality. The total frequencies for the combined genotypes for the bGH and RORC genes, which provide for superior meat quality and carcass weight, in the populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle (GG/AA and GC/AA-68.8% and 57% in the Russian and Kazakh populations, respectively) exceeded the frequencies in the two other studied breeds by two times. Overall, the obtained results point to the high genetic potential of both populations of Kazakh white-headed cattle breeds in beef production. Results of this study can be used to improve the selection of meat traits in industrial livestock.

  4. 延边肉牛产业的比较优势与专业化生产分析%Comparative Advantages and Specialized Production of Beef Cattle Industry in Yanbian Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭有; 杨兴龙

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To provide theoretical guidance for development of Yanbian beef cattle industry. [ Method] Aggregated comparative advantage index and concentration were used to compare beef industry beef industry in Yanbian area and Jilin Province. [ Result] Yanbian beef cattle industry had aggregated comparative advantages, and its concentration trended to rise year by year. [Conclusion] Yanbian cattle industry has obvious comparative advantages and development potential.%[目的]为延边黄牛产业发展提供理论指导.[方法]主要运用综合比较优势指数和集中度对延边肉牛产业与吉林省肉牛产业进行比较分析.[结果]延边肉牛产业具有综合比较优势,集中度有逐年上升的趋势.[结论]延边肉牛产业具有明显的比较优势和发展潜力.

  5. Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile associated with beef cattle and commercially produced ground beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection has recently increased in North American and European countries. This pathogen has been isolated from retail pork, turkey, and beef products and reported associated with human illness. This increase in infections has been attributed to the emergence o...

  6. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  7. Dissipation of Three Veterinary Antimicrobials in Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure Stockpiled over Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sura, Srinivas; Degenhardt, Dani; Cessna, Allan J; Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; McAllister, Tim A

    2014-05-01

    Dissipation of veterinary antimicrobials is known to occur during aerated windrow composting of beef cattle manure. However, it is unclear if a similar dissipation occurs during stockpiling. Chlortetracycline, tylosin, and sulfamethazine are three of the most commonly used veterinary antimicrobials in beef cattle production in western Canada. Their dissipation in stockpiled manure was investigated over 140 d during winter in Alberta, Canada. Beef cattle housed in pens were administered 44 mg of chlortetracycline kg feed (dry weight), 44 mg of chlortetracycline + 44 mg sulfamethazine kg feed, 11 mg of tylosin kg feed, or feed without antimicrobials (control). Manure samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed for chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, and tylosin by LC-MS-MS. Dissipation of all three antimicrobials in the manure was explained by exponential decay kinetics. Times for 50% dissipation (DT) were 1.8 ± 0.1 d for chlortetracycline alone or 6.0 ± 0.8 d when mixed with sulfamethazine, 20.8 ± 3.8 d for sulfamethazine, and 4.7 ± 1.2 d for tylosin. After 77 d, manure did not inhibit microbial activity, as indicated by temperature and mass losses of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The C/N ratio in the manure decreased over the stockpiling period, indicating decomposition of manure to a more stable state. Dissipation of excreted residues with DT values 1.8 to 20.8 d showed that stockpiling can be as effective as windrow composting in mitigating the transfer of these three veterinary antimicrobials into the environment during land application of processed manure.

  8. Genetic polymorphisms at the leptin receptor gene in three beef cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina E.M. Almeida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the exon 20 (T945M of the leptin receptor gene (LEPR and of three short tandem repeats (STRs BM7225, BMS694, and BMS2145 linked to LEPR was investigated in three beef cattle herds (Brangus Ibagé, Charolais, and Aberdeen Angus. A cheap and effective new method to analyze the T945M polymorphism in cattle populations was developed and the possible role of these polymorphisms in reproduction and weight gain of postpartum cows was evaluated. High levels of genetic diversity were observed with the average heterozygosity of STRs ranging from 0.71 to 0.81. No significant association was detected between LEPR markers and reproductive parameters or daily weight gain. These negative results suggest that the LEPR gene polymorphisms, at least those herein described, do not influence postpartum cows production.

  9. The GENOTEND chip: a new tool to analyse gene expression in muscles of beef cattle for beef quality prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hocquette Jean-Francois

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research programmes have described muscle biochemical traits and gene expression levels associated with beef tenderness. One of our results concerning the DNAJA1 gene (an Hsp40 was patented. This study aims to confirm the relationships previously identified between two gene families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism and beef quality. Results We developed an Agilent chip with specific probes for bovine muscular genes. More than 3000 genes involved in muscle biology or meat quality were selected from genetic, proteomic or transcriptomic studies, or from scientific publications. As far as possible, several probes were used for each gene (e.g. 17 probes for DNAJA1. RNA from Longissimus thoracis muscle samples was hybridised on the chips. Muscles samples were from four groups of Charolais cattle: two groups of young bulls and two groups of steers slaughtered in two different years. Principal component analysis, simple correlation of gene expression levels with tenderness scores, and then multiple regression analysis provided the means to detect the genes within two families (heat shock proteins and energy metabolism which were the most associated with beef tenderness. For the 25 Charolais young bulls slaughtered in year 1, expression levels of DNAJA1 and other genes of the HSP family were related to the initial or overall beef tenderness. Similarly, expression levels of genes involved in fat or energy metabolism were related with the initial or overall beef tenderness but in the year 1 and year 2 groups of young bulls only. Generally, the genes individually correlated with tenderness are not consistent across genders and years indicating the strong influence of rearing conditions on muscle characteristics related to beef quality. However, a group of HSP genes, which explained about 40% of the variability in tenderness in the group of 25 young bulls slaughtered in year 1 (considered as the reference group, was

  10. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingbo; Li, Pei; Zhao, Xiaoping; Xu, Hailing; Wu, Wenxian; Wang, Yuanfei; Guo, Yaqiong; Wang, Lin; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-30

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are important protists in a wide range of vertebrate hosts, causing diarrheal diseases. Cattle are considered potential reservoirs of Cryptosporidium infection in humans, although their role in the transmission of E. bieneusi is not clear. In the present work, 793 fecal specimens from dairy cattle, native beef cattle, and water buffaloes on 11 farms in China were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi using nested PCR targeting the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium spp. and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of E. bieneusi. For Cryptosporidium, 144/446 (32.3%) dairy cattle, 44/166 (26.5%) beef cattle, and 43/181 (23.8%) water buffaloes were PCR-positive. Sequence analysis was successful for 213 of the 231 Cryptosporidium-positive isolates; among them 94 had Cryptosporidium andersoni, 61 had Cryptosporidium bovis, 54 had Cryptosporidium ryanae, 2 had a Cryptosporidium suis-like genotype, and 2 had mixed infections of C. bovis and C. ryanae. In dairy and beef cattle, C. andersoni and C. bovis were the most common species, whereas C. ryanae was the dominant species in water buffaloes. The latter species produced SSU rRNA sequences different between cattle and water buffaloes. For E. bieneusi, the infection rate of E. bieneusi in dairy cattle, beef cattle and water buffaloes was 4.9%, 5.4% and 2.2%, respectively. All 35 E. bieneusi-positive specimens were successfully sequenced, revealing the presence of four genotypes: three Group 2 genotypes previously reported in cattle as well as humans (I, J and BEB4) and one Group 1 genotype recently reported in yaks (CHN11). Genotypes I and J were the most common genotypes in dairy and beef cattle, while genotype CHN11 was the only genotype seen in water buffaloes. Thus, the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in water buffaloes might be different from in dairy and beef cattle in China. These findings indicate that some

  11. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population. PMID:17686891

  12. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; White, S N; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M; Bennett, G L; Smith, T P L

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 population sampled breeds that could be used as alternative germplasm sources in beef cattle production, including Wagyu, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Norwegian Red. The GPE7 population sampled 7 popular beef cattle breeds used in temperate climates of the United States: Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental. The GPE8 population sampled Bos indicus-influenced breeds used in subtropical regions of the country and subtropical and tropical regions of the world, including Beefmaster, Bonsmara, Brangus, and Romosinuano. Evaluation of 6 SNP in the thyroglobulin gene, including 5 newly described variations, showed no association (P > 0.10) with marbling score in these populations, except a tendency (P carcass trait for this marker in the 3 populations. Furthermore, none of the 5 newly described markers in the gene displayed an association with marbling score. The data indicate that markers at the thyroglobulin gene may be a useful predictor of marbling performance for producers raising Wagyu-based cattle. Although associations with marbling score in the remaining populations were not large or significant, the TT genotype had the numerically greatest marbling score in each population.

  13. Evaluating dispersion modeling options to estimate methane emissions from grazing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Sean M; Flesch, Thomas K; Coates, Trevor W; Charmley, Ed; Chen, Deli; Bai, Mei; Bishop-Hurley, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Enteric methane (CH) emission from cattle is a source of greenhouse gas and is an energy loss that contributes to production inefficiency for cattle. Direct measurements of enteric CH emissions are useful to quantify the magnitude and variation and to evaluate mitigation of this important greenhouse gas source. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of stocking density of cattle and source configuration (i.e., point source vs. area source and elevation of area source) on CH emissions from grazing beef cattle in Queensland, Australia. This was accomplished using nonintrusive atmospheric measurements and a gas dispersion model. The average measured CH emission for the point and area source was between 240 and 250 g animal d over the entire study. There was no difference ( > 0.05) in emission when using an elevated area source (0.5 m) or a ground area source (0 m). For the point-source configuration, there was a difference in CH emission due to stocking density; likewise, some differences existed for the area-source emissions. This study demonstrates the flexibility of the area-source configuration of the dispersion model to estimate CH emissions even at a low stocking density. PMID:25602324

  14. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  15. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  16. Beta-adrenergic agonists as additive in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vedovatto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The agonists receptor beta-adrenergic (β-AA are present in virtually all types of mammalian cells and are stimulated by catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine produced by the organism itself. The β-AA agonists are synthetic substances with similar structure to these amines. When provided in the diet they alter the body composition of animals, affecting the distribution of nutrients toward to protein deposition, and decreasing lipogenesis. Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, these may cause morphological and physiological changes such as increased blood flow decrease in plasma insulin, decreased lipogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy mainly in type II fibers. We also observed changes in motility and secretions grastointestinal tract, beyond the direct influence on the rumen bacteria, altering the digestibility of the diet. The β-AA agonists released in some countries for use in beef cattle are ractopamine hydrochloride and zilpaterol hydrochloride. According to literature data, the inclusion of these additives in the diet of feedlot cattle has been associated with an increase infeed efficiency with the increase in daily weight gain and with equal or lower feed intake. Carcass characteristics improvement was verified in carcass weight, and increased loin eye area, but with the possibility to decrease the subcutaneous fat thickness and marbling. Reviews in sensory panel of meat from animals consuming β-AA agonists showed decreased tenderness and juiciness. Thus β-AA improve performance and carcass characteristics, but more studies are needed to confirm whether they have negative influence on the organoleptic characteristics of the meat.

  17. Pass-Through in United States Beef Cattle Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Huan Zhao; Xiaodong Du; Hennessy, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Feeder cattle are fattened to become fed live cattle six months later. The U.S. feeder cattle industry is intensively competitive, so that market efficiency suggests feeder cattle prices should fully reflect feed prices and information on future fed cattle prices. Employing a long time series (1979-2004) of feeder cattle futures, live cattle futures, and local corn prices, we test whether complete pass-through occurs. The results indicate that an increase of a dollar per hundred pounds in the...

  18. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI.

  19. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI. PMID:10090564

  20. Effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of beef cattle in South East Brazil: Part 2-Tissue distribution and carcase composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, G A; de Felicio, P E

    1982-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series recording the effects of breed and nutrition on the productive traits of Nelore, Guzerá, Charolais and Canchim cattle in south-east Brazil. Significant treatment variations were recorded in carcase bone weights but differences in meat to bone ratios were not sufficiently marked to demonstrate that bone might grow at the expense of muscle when animals are maintained on particularly severe nutritional regimes. A simple carcase weight to length ratio was shown to be highly correlated with total bone proportion but not with yield of saleable meat. Recovery of total saleable meat was only marginally and not significantly affected by breed but was significantly affected by treatment. The increased levels of fatness in the carcases of the zebu and, in particular, all animals finished in feedlot, that affected the yield of saleable meat, was also thought to be responsible for the decreased recovery of first quality meat in these carcases. In general, tissue differences were more noticeable between treatments than between breeds and reflected the varying nutritional status of the animals pre-slaughter. PMID:22054702

  1. Animal-to-animal variation in fecal microbial diversity among beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Lisa M; Harhay, Gregory P; Smith, Timothy P L; Bono, James L; Desantis, Todd Z; Harhay, Dayna M; Andersen, Gary L; Keen, James E; Laegreid, William W; Clawson, Michael L

    2010-07-01

    The intestinal microbiota of beef cattle are important for animal health, food safety, and methane emissions. This full-length sequencing survey of 11,171 16S rRNA genes reveals animal-to-animal variation in communities that cannot be attributed to breed, gender, diet, age, or weather. Beef communities differ from those of dairy. Core bovine taxa are identified. PMID:20472731

  2. Apparent prevalence of beef carcasses contaminated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis sampled from Danish slaughter cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okura, Hisako; Toft, Nils; Pozzato, Nicola;

    2011-01-01

    Presence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in beef has been reported as a public health concern because asymptomatically infected cattle may contain MAP in tissues that are used for human consumption. Associations between MAP carcasses contamination and animal characteristics...... of two dairy cows were positive by culture whereas 4% of the animals were estimated with =10¿CFU/gram muscle based on realtime PCR. Age was found to be associated with carcass contamination with MAP. The observed viable MAP prevalence in beef carcasses was low. However, detection of MAP and MAP DNA...... in muscle tissues suggested that bacteremia occurred in slaughtered cattle....

  3. Feeding high-moisture corn instead of dry-rolled corn reduces odorous compound production in manure of finishing beef cattle without decreasing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibeque, S L; Miller, D N; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L

    2006-07-01

    We hypothesized that feeding steers ground high-moisture ensiled corn (HMC) in lieu of dry-rolled corn (DRC) would reduce the amount of starch being excreted in the manure and the associated odorous compound production. One hundred forty-eight crossbred steers (363 +/- 33 kg of BW) were fed a DRC-or HMC-based diet in a feeding trial, and 8 Charolais-sired steers (447 +/- 22 kg of BW) were used in a nutrient balance study. Steers fed HMC tended to have a slightly lower DMI (P = 0.09), ADG (P = 0.06), and yield grade, but G:F, final HCW, and quality grade did not differ (P > or = 0.23) between treatments. Compared with feeding DRC, feeding HMC decreased (P = 0.02) starch intake from 5,407 to 4,846 g/d, decreased (P or = 0.55). In manure slurries incubated for 35 d with soil and water, total VFA concentration was lower (P < 0.01) in manure from steers fed HMC (1,625 micromol/g of DM) compared with steers fed DRC (3,041 micromol/g of DM). Lower initial (d 0) starch concentrations and greater initial pH was also observed in the slurries from the HMC manure. By d 3 of slurry incubation, there was an increase (P < 0.01) in free glucose and l-lactic acid in the DRC slurries but not in the HMC slurries. During manure incubation, alcohol and VFA content increased (P < 0.01) and pH declined, but to a lesser extent (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries. However, branched-chain VFA increased more (P < 0.01) in the HMC slurries than in the DRC slurries. These data suggest that feeding HMC instead of DRC decreased fecal starch and production of some potentially odorous compounds in a finishing cattle system but had little impact on animal productivity. PMID:16775061

  4. The Effect of Urea Molasses Multi-Nutrient and Medicated Block for Beef Cattle, Beef and Dairy Cow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urea molasses multi-nutrient block (UMMB) is a feed supplement and one of the best formulas constructed by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement contains soya bean meal (SBM) and has been developed using different protein sources, such as Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Ec), soya bean waste sauce (SBWs), wheat pollard (WP) and WP bypass protein (WPBp). It has also been developed using medicated block (MB). The objective is to introduce the P-32 tracer for obtaining a new feed supplement, to apply UMMB-SBM on beef cattle for fattening, and to test UMMB-MB on cows in the field. Parameters measured include microbial protein synthesis (MPS) in rumen liquid, daily live weight gain (DLWG), milk production and total count of worm in feces. Statistical analysis used were Latin squares, Student’s t-test, and completely randomized design. The UMMB-SBM was better than UMMB-Ec, UMMB-SBWs, and UMMB-WP, because it was able to increase MPS by up to 205.67%, superior to the other feed supplements (51.01%, 34.04%, and 73.94% respectively). On the other hand, with UMMB-WPBp supplementation, MPS was enhanced by 425.27%. The UMMB-SBM was able to increase DLWG by 0.34, 0.30, 0.38 and 0.36 kg/head/d on Bali cattle, Ongole, Simmental, and Frisian Holstein cross breed respectively. The increase of cost benefit ratio was affected by increasing DLWG. These values were 1:1.89; 1: 1.34; 1:1.45 and 1:1.35 respectively. UMMB-MB-C. aeruginosa and albendazole increased milk production by 4.23% and 46.56%, respectively. In the first communal group, beef cows that received UMMB-MB albendazole were able to increase feed consumption, including dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and total digestible nutrient, at P<0.05. The second communal group, feed consumption significantly differed from control at P<0.05 on crude protein, and total digestible nutrient. UMMB-MB tends to be effective only for ten days on the total amount of egg worm in feces. (author)

  5. Occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the south of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Heriberto Fernández; Marianne Hitschfeld

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli and their biotypes in beef and dairy cattle from the South of Chile was established. Campylobacter were statistically more prevalent among beef cattle (35.9%) than among dairy cattle (21.3%), being C. jejuni the species most frequently isolated.Foi estabelecida a prevalência de Campylobacter jejuni e Campylobacter coli e seus biotipos, em bovinos de corte e de leite do sul do Chile. Campylobacter foi estatisticamente mais prevalent...

  6. Genetic selection strategies to improve longevity in Chianina beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piter Bijma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity in beef cattle is an important economic trait. Including this trait in a breeding scheme increases profit and has a positive impact on the well-being and welfare of the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conse- quences of alternative selection strategies to include longevity in different breeding schemes using deterministic simula- tion. Different schemes were compared and economic (EcW and empirical weights (EmW were used to evaluate the responses. The empirical weights of average daily gain (ADG and muscularity (MU were identical because both traits have an identical importance for the breeders. Economic weights have been derived from profit equations. Traits used in the Basescenarios were: average daily gain pre-performance test (ADG1, average daily gain during the performance test (ADG2 and muscularity (MU; longevity (L was included in the alternative schemes. When longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2, the total longevity response using EmW and EcW was +2.97 d/yr and +4.92 d/yr, respectively. The total economic response for scenario A-2 using EmW and EcW were 3.020 €/yr and 3.342 €/yr, respectively, and the total response in units of Bull Selection Index were +0.699 and +0.678, respectively. Longevity decreased when it was not included in either the breeding goal or in the breeding index (scenario Base, and economic response was the lowest found. The results of the current study indicate that the highest total response using either economic weights or empirical weights was found when information on longevity was included both in the breeding index and in the breeding goal (scenario A-2.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhiling, E-mail: zhilinggao@hotmail.com [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Lin, Zhi; Yang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Wenqi; Liao, Wenhua [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Li, Jianguo; Cao, Yufeng [College of Animal Science and Technology, Agricultural University of Hebei, 071000 Baoding (China); Roelcke, Marco [Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH{sub 4} EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH{sub 4} emissions dominated the CO{sub 2}-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH{sub 4} emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions but tended to grow.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from the enteric fermentation and manure storage of dairy and beef cattle in China during 1961–2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the expanding dairy and beef population in China and their contribution to global CH4 and N2O budgets, a framework considering changes in feed, manure management and herd structure was established to indicate the trends of CH4 and N2O emissions from the enteric formation and manure storage in China's beef and dairy production and the underlying driving forces during the period 1961–2010. From 1961 to 2010, annual CH4 and N2O emissions from beef cattle in China increased from 2.18 Mt to 5.86 Mt and from 7.93 kt–29.56 kt, respectively, while those from dairy cattle increased from 0.023 to 1.09 Mt and 0.12 to 7.90 kt, respectively. These increases were attributed to the combined changes in cattle population and management practices in feeds and manure storage. Improvement in cattle genetics during the period increased the bodyweight, required dry matter intake and gross energy and thus resulted in increased enteric CH4 EFs for each category of beef and dairy cattle as well as the overall enteric EFs (i.e., Tier 1 in IPCC). However, for beef cattle, such an impact on the overall enteric EFs was largely offset by the herd structure transition from draft animal-oriented to meat animal-oriented during 1961–2010. Although the CO2-eq of CH4 and N2O from manure storage was less than the enteric emissions during 1961–2010 in China, it tended to increase both in beef and dairy cattle, which was mainly driven by the changes in manure management practices. - Highlights: • CH4 emissions dominated the CO2-eq emissions from dairy and beef cattle in China. • Beef herd transition played an important role in CH4 emissions. • Changes of manure managements increased the manure EFs of CH4 and N2O. • Manure contributed very less to the total CO2-eq emissions but tended to grow

  9. Methane emissions and estimates of ruminal fermentation parameters in beef cattle fed different dietary concentrate levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio dos Santos Pedreira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using sorghum silage, the effect of roughage/concentrate ratios was evaluated on nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters and methane production by beef cattle. Three treatments (0, 30 and 60% of concentrate in DM of the diet were distributed in three Latin squares, with nine animals and three periods. Dry matter intake increased as the grain concentration in diet increased; pH showed opposite behavior. Methane emissions were lower for animals fed the diet exclusively with sorghum silage as compared with those fed 30% of concentrate, but was similar to that of animals receiving 60% of concentrate. Losses of ingested gross energy as methane were reduced by 33% when grain concentration was increased in the diet. Concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were greater in diets with grain concentrate; acetic acid concentration was not affected. Concentrate in diet increases available energy for the metabolism, measured by lower losses of ingested gross energy as ruminal methane.

  10. Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luís; Rosado, Maria; Marques, Fernando; Cachatra, António; Pais, José; Henriques, Nuno; Gomes, Patrícia; Agostinho, Fábio; Horta, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Economic and environmental indicators of Mertolenga beef cattle and Serpentina goat farms in Montado areas L Fernandes, M Rosado, F Marques, A Cachatra, J Pais, N Henriques, P Gomes, F Agostinho and P Horta The present study is based upon technical and economic data collected, in the years 2010-2011, in several farms joining the ACBM (Mertolengos Cattle Breeders) and APCRS (Serpentina Goats Breeders) associations. It considers data sets collected at four farms of each of the ab...

  11. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  12. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Rini; C. Sumantri; A. Anggraeni

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls), Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls), and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows); as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows), Limousin (14 cows), Brahman (5 cows), and Angus (5 cows). This study used PCR-...

  13. Performance of beef cattle bulls in feed lots and fed on diets containing enzymatic complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Guimarães de Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Current paper evaluates the performance of confined beef cattle supplemented with amylolytic enzyme complex produced by fungus Aspergillus awamori and a commercial product containing multienzyme complex, yeast and MOS. Treatments comprised control (basal diet composed of 16% Mombasa grass silage, 66% ground corn, 3% vitamin nuclear mineral and 15% cottonseed meal, amylase treatment (control diet with the addition of 48.7 saccharifying units kg-1 diet and compound treatment (control diet with the addition of enzymatic complex composed of 83.2 saccharifying units, 8.8 fibrolytic units, 0.05 g of mannan oligosaccharides and 0.2 g of inactivated yeast Kg-1 of the dry matter diet. The addition of products did not significantly increase daily weight gain, intake, feed conversion and carcass yield of cattle. There was no difference between in vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD in the diets. The percentage of residual fecal starch was not influenced by exogenous amylolytic enzymes of amylase and compound treatments. The tested products were not able to improve animal performance.

  14. Analysis of SNPs in the KIT gene of cattle with different coat colour patterns and perspectives to use these markers for breed traceability and authentication of beef and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Russo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the breed of origin of farm animals has recently assumed particular relevance as increasing interests in marketing mono-breed labelled lines of beef and dairy products have created the need to protect them from frauds. In order to develop DNA based breed traceability and authentication protocols, the first step is the identification of breed specific markers with high discriminatory power among breeds. We analysed two single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in exon 2 (g.72779776C>T and exon 3 (g.72783182A>G of the KIT gene (a candidate gene for the spotting locus in seven cattle breeds with different coat colour patterns (Italian Holstein-Friesian, no. = 61; Italian Brown, no. = 60; Italian Simmental, no. = 78; Jersey, no. = 60; Rendena, no. = 51; Reggiana, no. = 128; and Modenese, no. = 52. The two alleles of both SNPs were detected in all analysed breeds making their use unsuitable in breed traceabilty with a deterministic approach. Italian Simmental was almost fixed for the most common alleles (g.72779776C and g.72783182A. Haplotype analysis showed that spotted breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian and Italian Simmental had only two haplotypes with one of them ([C:A] with high frequency (~90% and ~99%, respectively. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA averaged over the two loci indicated that genetic variation between spotted and non-spotted groups of breeds amounted to 25.3% (P<0.05 supporting a possible involvement of the KIT gene in influencing the spotted phenotype, but probably not determining it, as we previously suggested. Pairwise Fst values indicated significant differences between almost all pair of investigated breeds. The high discriminatory power of the analysed SNPs is an important characteristic for the inclusion of these markers in SNP panels useful for breed allocation and traceability based on probabilistic approaches.

  15. Nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus infection among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenji; Kobayashi, Sota; Konishi, Misako; Kameyama, Ken-ichiro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki

    2013-01-01

    A nationwide survey of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection was conducted among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan from 2009-2011 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of a total of 20,835 cattle tested, 35.2% were seropositive for BLV and the animal type-level seroprevalences in dairy and beef breeding cattle were 40.9 and 28.7%, respectively. By the time animals were 1 year old, 21.0% of dairy and 13.7% of beef breeding cattle were considered infected. Our findings indicate that BLV is widespread among dairy and beef breeding cattle in Japan with the BLV seroprevalences approximately 10- and 4-fold higher, respectively, than previously reported for 1980-1982 in Japan.

  16. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Enteric methane (CH 4 is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep ( n = 288, beef cattle ( n = 71 and dairy cows ( n = 284 to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH 4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK and Australia, which measured enteric CH 4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level, whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME requirement (i.e., production level. A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH 4 yield (g CH 4 /kg dry matter intake from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH 4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD, ether extract (EE (both g/kg DM and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH 4 (g/kg DM intake = 0.046 (±0.001 × DOMD − 0.113 (±0.023 × EE − 2.47 (±0.29 × (feeding level − 1, with concordance correlation coefficient ( CCC = 0.655 and RMSPE = 14.0%. The predictive ability of the model developed was as reliable as other models assessed from the literature. These components can be used to predict effects of diet composition on enteric CH 4 yield from sheep, beef and dairy cattle from feed analysis information.

  17. Intestinal parasite infections in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hassan Ahmed Hassan Ahmed; Jeon, Hyung-Kyu; Yu, Yong-Man; Do, Changhee; Lee, Young-Ha

    2010-12-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the infection status of intestinal parasites in pigs and beef cattle in rural areas of Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. From November 2009 to April 2010, a total of 241 fecal samples of pigs and beef cattle (136 and 105, respectively) were examined by direct smear and centrifugal sedimentation methods. The overall positive rates of intestinal parasites among pigs and beef cattle were 73.5% and 4.8%, respectively, and the double-infection rate was 10.3% in pigs. Of 136 specimens from pigs, Balantidium coli, Ascaris suum, and Entamoeba spp. infections were found in 88 (64.7%), 24 (17.6%), and 5 cases (3.7%), respectively. Of 105 beef cattle, Entamoeba spp. infections were detected in 5 cases (4.8%). From these results, it is shown that pigs raised on rural farms in Chungcheongnam-do had a high B. coli infection rate and a moderate A. suum infection rate. These results demonstrate that environmentally resistant cysts or eggs could be widespread on the farms examined, and thus an effective hygienic management system is needed to prevent them from serving as the source of infection for human beings. PMID:21234241

  18. Soil nutrient dynamics in small beef cattle backgrounding feedlot on karst environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef cattle backgrounding feedlot systems that grow out weaned calves for feedlot finishing can become potential diffuse sources of manure derived soil nutrients. Better understanding of these nutrient concentrations and their distribution will aid in development of effective nutrient management gui...

  19. GHRH|HaeIII Gene Polymorphism in Dairy and Beef Cattle at National Livestock Breeding Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Rini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to identify polymorphism of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH gene in 89 heads of Holstein-Friesian (HF dairy cattle from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center/LAIC (17 bulls, Singosari Artificial Insemination Center/SAIC (32 bulls, and Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center/CLEC (40 cows; as well as in 4 breeds of female beef cattle from CLEC for comparison, providing Simmental (13 cows, Limousin (14 cows, Brahman (5 cows, and Angus (5 cows. This study used PCR-RFLP method by using HaeIII restriction enzyme. The enzyme cut the GHRH gene at nucleotides of GG|CC at the base positions of 118, 312, and 406 and produced 4 fragments of 118, 194, 94, and 45 bp respectively. Genotyping the GHRH gene produced two types of allele, namely A (312, 94, and 45 bp and B (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. These two alleles resulted in three types of genotype, namely AA (312, 94, and 45 bp, AB (312, 194, 118, 94, and 45 bp, and BB (194, 118, 94, and 45 bp. Frequency of the B allele was dominant to the A allele. Chi-Square analysis showed that all of HF dairy and beef cattle observed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (X2 < X2(0.05. The highest heterozygosity value was 0.471 for HF bulls in LAIC, while the lowest one was for HF bulls in SAIC. Heterozygosity values in Simmental and Limousin cattles were higher than that of in HF cattle. The GHRH gene in HF and beef cattle was polymorphic, the exception was for Brahman with the only B allele. This result will improve the understanding of the polymorphism of GHRH gene in dairy and beef cattle.

  20. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli on Bavarian Dairy and Beef Cattle Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, A.; Hörmansdorfer, S.; Messelhäusser, U.; Käsbohrer, A; Sauter-Louis, C.; Van Mansfeld, R.

    2013-01-01

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains are believed to be widely distributed among humans and animals; however, to date, there are only few studies that support this assumption on a regional or countrywide scale. Therefore, a study was designed to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing E. coli in dairy cows and beef cattle in the southern part of Bavaria, Germany. The study population included 30 mixed dairy and beef cattle farms and 15 beef cattle farms. Fec...

  1. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context.

  2. Preliminary Results for Ways to Increase Meat Production in Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Popa; Dorina Cotarlea; Doina Sprinjean

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve the quality and quantity of meat production in cattle in the ICDM Cristian institute and two private farms, Beef Technology and Artificial Insemination was applied. Artificial Insemination was performed with semen from bulls of meat breeds (Charolaise, Bleu Belge, Aberdeen Angus). The average daily gains obtained were between 0.40-1.30 kg / head / day, varying based on race, sex, technology applied, etc.

  3. Isolation of Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas from genital tracts of beef and dairy cattle in Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulira, Gershon L.; Saunders, J. Robert; Barth, Albert D.

    1992-01-01

    We report herein a survey in which cultures of bovine reproductive tracts for Ureaplasma diversum and mycoplasmas were carried out in order to better understand the role of these organisms in granular vulvitis (GV). Samples cultured were vulvar swabs from clinically normal cows or ones with GV, preputial swabs or raw semen from bulls, and abomasal contents of aborted fetuses. Ureaplasma diversum was isolated from 104 (43.3%) of 240 dairy cows, 32 (27.1%) of 118 beef cows, 43 (47.2%) of 91 beef heifers, 23 (67.6%) of 34 beef bulls, and three (60%) of five dairy bulls. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 18 (7.5%) dairy cows, two (1.6%) beef cows, three (8.8%) beef bulls, and one dairy bull. No isolation was made from 97 aborted fetuses. For 65 dairy cows and 30 beef heifers with vulvar lesions, the isolation rates for ureaplasmas of 62.5% and 69.7%, respectively, were significantly higher (X2) than those for normal animals (37.5% and 30.3%). On immunofluorescent serotyping of 137 of the 205 isolates, there were 66 in serogroup C (strain T44), 18 in serogroup B (strain D48), eight in serogroup A (strain A417 or strain 2312), 14 cross-reacting, and 31 that were not identified. It was concluded that U. diversum is commonly present in the lower reproductive tract of beef/dairy cattle in Saskatchewan and is associated with granular vulvitis. PMID:17423929

  4. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (Pcattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (Pcattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study.

  5. Modelling the Effect of Diet Composition on Enteric Methane Emissions across Sheep, Beef Cattle and Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matt; Eckard, Richard; Moate, Peter J.; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Enteric methane emissions produced by ruminant livestock has gained global interest due to methane being a potent greenhouse gas and ruminants being a significant source of emissions. In the absence of measurements, prediction models can facilitate the estimation of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock and aid investigation of mitigation options. This study developed a practical method using feed analysis information for predicting enteric methane emissions from sheep, beef cattle and dairy cows fed diets encompassing a wide range of nutrient concentrations. Abstract Enteric methane (CH4) is a by-product from fermentation of feed consumed by ruminants, which represents a nutritional loss and is also considered a contributor to climate change. The aim of this research was to use individual animal data from 17 published experiments that included sheep (n = 288), beef cattle (n = 71) and dairy cows (n = 284) to develop an empirical model to describe enteric CH4 emissions from both cattle and sheep, and then evaluate the model alongside equations from the literature. Data were obtained from studies in the United Kingdom (UK) and Australia, which measured enteric CH4 emissions from individual animals in calorimeters. Animals were either fed solely forage or a mixed ration of forage with a compound feed. The feed intake of sheep was restricted to a maintenance amount of 875 g of DM per day (maintenance level), whereas beef cattle and dairy cows were fed to meet their metabolizable energy (ME) requirement (i.e., production level). A linear mixed model approach was used to develop a multiple linear regression model to predict an individual animal’s CH4 yield (g CH4/kg dry matter intake) from the composition of its diet. The diet components that had significant effects on CH4 yield were digestible organic matter (DOMD), ether extract (EE) (both g/kg DM) and feeding level above maintenance intake: CH4 (g/kg DM intake) = 0.046 (±0.001) × DOMD

  6. DETERMINATION OF LEPTIN EXPRESSION IN BEEF CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USED BY RTQ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect the presence and concentration of leptin in different breeds of cattle by PCR and Real time PCR method. Blood of different breeds of bulls was used as biological material in our experiments: Slovak pied cattle (10 samples, Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed (10 samples and Holstein breed (10 samples. The presence of leptin was detected in all samples based on the results of molecular-genetic detection of leptin gene. The average concentration of leptinin 30 samples of beef cattle was 22.1477 μg.μl-1. Differences in leptin concentrations were statistically significant between Holstein breed and Slovak pied cattle and between Slovak pied cattle and Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed.

  7. Profiling of antimicrobial resistance and plasmid replicon types in β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Seung Won; Jung, Myunghwan; Shin, Min-Kyung; Yoo, Han Sang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 78 isolates of Escherichia coli isolated from Korean beef cattle farms were investigated for the production of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and/or AmpC β-lactamase. In the disc diffusion test with ampicillin, amoxicillin, cephalothin, ceftiofur, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and cefoxitin, 38.5% of the isolates showed resistance to all of ampicillin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin. The double disc synergy method revealed that none of the isolates produced ESBL or AmpC β-lactam...

  8. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  9. Productivity and technical efficiency of suckler beef production systems: trends for the period 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veysset, P; Lherm, M; Roulenc, M; Troquier, C; Bébin, D

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 23 years (1990 to 2012), French beef cattle farms have expanded in size and increased labour productivity by over 60%, chiefly, though not exclusively, through capital intensification (labour-capital substitution) and simplifying herd feeding practices (more concentrates used). The technical efficiency of beef sector production systems, as measured by the ratio of the volume value (in constant euros) of farm output excluding aids to volume of intermediate consumption, has fallen by nearly 20% while income per worker has held stable thanks to subsidies and the labour productivity gains made. This aggregate technical efficiency of beef cattle systems is positively correlated to feed self-sufficiency, which is in turn negatively correlated to farm and herd size. While volume of farm output per hectare of agricultural area has not changed, forage feed self-sufficiency decreased by 6 percentage points. The continual increase in farm size and labour productivity has come at a cost of lower production-system efficiency - a loss of technical efficiency that 20 years of genetic, technical, technological and knowledge-driven progress has barely managed to offset. PMID:26577645

  10. Effects of crossing of domestic breed with beef breeds on the quality of meat in PR China and Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksić S.; Fang Sun; Di Liu; Petrović M.M.; Pantelić V.; Stanišić N.; Ostojić-Andrić D.; Petričević M.; Nikšić D.; Delić N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of crossing Domestic Spotted breed with beef cattle breeds in the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Serbia. China is a big country of beef production and consumption. In 2012, beef production in China was 5,540,000 tons, which accounted for 9.7% of the global beef production, ranking the third in the world. The main sources of China’s beef are from crossbreeding cattle (native breed crossbred with foreign beef ca...

  11. Accuracies of genomically estimated breeding values from pure-breed and across-breed predictions in Australian beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Vinzent; Johnston, David J.; Tier, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    International audience; AbstractBackgroundThe major obstacles for the implementation of genomic selection in Australian beef cattle are the variety of breeds and in general, small numbers of genotyped and phenotyped individuals per breed. The Australian Beef Cooperative Research Center (Beef CRC) investigated these issues by deriving genomic prediction equations (PE) from a training set of animals that covers a range of breeds and crosses including Angus, Murray Grey, Shorthorn, Hereford, Bra...

  12. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis. PMID:27537842

  13. Association of MicroRNAs with Antibody Response to Mycoplasma bovis in Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Eduardo; Cai, Guohong; Kuehn, Larry A; Register, Karen B; McDaneld, Tara G; Neill, John D

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma bovis in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: in summer after calves were born, in fall at weaning, and in the following spring. All sera collected in the summer were ELISA-negative for anti-M. bovis. By the fall, eight animals were seropositive for IgG (positive group), while eight remained negative (negative group). By spring, all animals in both groups were seropositive. MicroRNAs were extracted from sera and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeq next-generation sequencer. A total of 1,374,697 sequences mapped to microRNAs in the bovine genome. Of these, 82% of the sequences corresponded to 27 microRNAs, each represented by a minimum of 10,000 sequences. There was a statistically significant interaction between ELISA response and season for bta-miR-24-3p (P = 0.0268). All sera collected at the initial summer had a similar number of copies of this microRNA (P = 0.773). In the fall, the positive group had an increased number of copies when compared to the negative group (P = 0.021), and this grew more significant by the following spring (P = 0.0001). There were 21 microRNAs associated (P< 0.05) with season. These microRNAs could be evaluated further as candidates to potentially improve productivity in cattle. The microRNAs bta-let-7b, bta-miR- 24-3p, bta-miR- 92a, and bta-miR-423-5p, were significatly associated with ELISA status (P< 0.05). These microRNAs have been recognized as playing a role in the host defense against bacteria in humans, mice, and dairy cattle. Further studies are needed to establish if these microRNAs could be used as diagnostic marker or indicator of exposure, or whether intervention strategies could be developed as an alternative to antibiotics for controlling disease due to M. bovis.

  14. Association of bta-miR-24-3p with serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to identify microRNAs associated with a serum antibody response to Mycoplasma spp. in beef cattle. Serum from sixteen beef calves was collected at three points: summer of 2013, after calves were born; fall of the same year at weaning; and spring, 2014. All sera collec...

  15. Current status and its epidemiological consideration of Fasciola and Eurytrema infections in beef cattle of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Jungo; Shibata, Kazuhiko; Takahashi, Eiichi; Nagafuchi, Tsuneyuki; Okajima, Kazue; Nonaka, Nariaki

    2016-06-01

    To elucidate current status of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle of Japan, inspection data of Tokyo Metropolitan Shibaura Slaughterhouse where beef cattle were shipped from all over Japan were analyzed, and questionnaire to farmers was conducted to assess the relationship between recognition of the disease occurrence in one's own farm and attention to the diseases. The occurrence of fasciolosis and eurytremosis in beef cattle gradually decreased from 18.6% to 0.06% and from 0.58% to 0.02% during the period of 1964 to 2010, respectively. When the current data from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed, the occurrence of fasciolosis was recognized in cattle produced and fattened all over Japan, indicating the disease was prevalent nationwide. While, 97.5% of Eurytrema infection were detected in cattle produced in Okinawa, Shimane and Kagoshima, indicating the disease was endemic in these regions. Higher occurrence (>0.7%) of fasciolosis was observed in minor breeds, such as Japanese Shorthorn. Japanese Black showed 0.09% and 0.05% of occurrence for fasciolosis and eurytremosis, respectively, but F1 crossbred with Japanese Black showed lower occurrence (0.007% and 0.002%, respectively). No tendency of occurrence in the age of cattle at slaughter was recognized, indicating the infections may have occurred at the growing and early fattening stage of cattle. The questionnaire survey revealed that farmers experiencing fasciolosis had more knowledge about the disease, however, factors, such as testing parasite infections and use of anti-Fasciola dewormers, were not affected by the recognition of occurrence. PMID:26822002

  16. Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

    2013-06-01

    The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve

  17. Potential airborne microbial hazards for workers on dairy and beef cattle farms in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr M.M. Abd-Elall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the concentration and frequency distribution of certain airborne micro-organisms on cattle farms and their potential health hazards to farm workers. The samples (60 air samples and 240 hand and nasal swabs from cattle farm workers were collected from ten cattle farms (five dairy barns and five beef sheds located in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt. Air samples were collected for microbiological examination in liquid media using an all-glass impinger whereas those for fungal examination were placed on agar plates using slit air samplers (aeroscopes. The results showed that the overall means of total culturable bacterial and fungal counts were lower in the air of dairy cattle barns than in beef cattle sheds. Identification of the isolated bacteria revealed the recovery of the following species (from dairy cattle barns versus beef cattle sheds: Staphylococcus epidermidis (26.7% vs 36.7%, S. saprophyticus (20% vs 33.3%, S. aureus (10% vs 16.7%, Enterococcus faecalis (23.3% vs 26.7%, Enterobacter agglomerans (23.3 vs 13.3%, Escherichia coli, (16.7% vs 26.7%, Klebsiella oxytoca, (10% vs 16.7%, K. pneumoniae (3.3% vs 0%, Proteus rettegri (6.7% vs 13.3%, P. mirabilis (10% vs 10%, P. vulgaris (3.3% vs 6.7%, Pseudomonas species (6.7% vs 16.7%, respectively. Mycological examination of air samples revealed the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus (46.7% vs 63.3%, A. niger (20% vs 36.7%, A. flavus (13.3% vs 26.7%, Penicillium citrinum (16.7% vs 23.3%, P. viridicatum (13.3% vs 6.7%, P. capsulatum (3.3% vs 0%, Cladosporium spp. (30% vs 56.7%, Alternaria spp. (13.3 vs 23.3%, Mucor spp. (6.7% vs 16.7%, Fusarium spp. (3.3% vs 10%, Absidia spp. (6.7% vs 10%, Curvilaria spp. (10% vs 3.3%, Rhizopus spp. (6.7% vs 13.3%, Scopulariopsis (3.3% vs 6.7%, Epicoccum spp. (0% vs 3.4% and yeast (13.3% vs 20%, respectively. In addition, microbiological examinations of farm workers revealed heavy contamination of their hands and noses with

  18. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  19. MLST subtypes and population genetic structure of Cryptosporidium andersoni from dairy cattle and beef cattle in northeastern China's Heilongjiang Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Cattle are the main reservoir host of C. andersoni, which shows a predominance in yearlings and adults of cattle. To understand the subtypes of C. andersoni and the population genetic structure in Heilongjiang Province, fecal specimens were collected from 420 dairy cattle and 405 beef cattle at the age of 12-14 months in eight cattle farms in five areas within this province and were screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts by microscopy after Sheather's sugar flotation technique. The average prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 19.15% (158/825 and all the Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. andersoni by the SSU rRNA gene nested PCR-RFLP using SspI, VspI and MboII restriction enzymes. A total of 50 C. andersoni isolates were randomly selected and sequenced to confirm the RFLP results before they were subtyped by multilocus sequence typing (MLST at the four microsatellite/minisatellite loci (MS1, MS2, MS3 and MS16. Four, one, two and one haplotypes were obtained at the four loci, respectively. The MLST subtype A4,A4,A4,A1 showed an absolute predominance and a wide distribution among the six MLST subtypes obtained in the investigated areas. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed the presence of a clonal population genetic structure of C. andersoni in cattle, suggesting the absence of recombination among lineages. The finding of a clonal population genetic structure indicated that the prevalence of C. andersoni in cattle in Heilongjiang Province is not attributed to the introduction of cattle. Thus, prevention and control strategies should be focused on making stricter measures to avoid the occurrence of cross-transmission and re-infection between cattle individuals. These molecular data will also be helpful to explore the source attribution of infection/contamination of C. andersoni and to elucidate its transmission dynamics in Heilongjiang Province, even in China.

  20. The Impact of Crossbreeding in The Artificial Insemination Program on Reproductive Performance of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Insemination (AI in beef cattle in Indonesia is widely practised. Nowadays, the goal of AI program is not clear; whether to produce: composite breed; terminal cross or as a commercial animal. In fact, farmer assisted by inseminator do the grading up toward Simmental or Limousine. In this paper, crossbreeding impact on reproductive performance of beef cattle in Indonesia is discussed. Farmers prefer the crossbred cattle resulted from AI because its male offspring has higher price than that of local breed. However, 50% of the offspring are female and are used as replacement stock. This AI practice resulted bigger cattle that need more feed. In the scarce feed condition, this bigger cattle become skinny and in bad shape. This leads to bad reproductive performance such as high ‘service per conception’ (S/C, 'long calving interval' and 'low calf crop'. Moreover, it produces less milk and results in high mortality rate of the offspring. In good management condition, crossbred cattle shows good performance, but often ‘day open’ is longer, since weaning time is postponed. That is why long calving interval still exists eventhough the S/C is low. Local cattle are very adaptive, resistant to tropical diseases and have high reproductive rate, high quality of leather and good quality of carcass. In scarce feed condition, local cattle are skinny but still can show estrous and get pregnant. In bad condition, they produce very small offsprings that die because of lack of milk from the cow. The availability of feed supply both in quantity and quality is the key factor in AI practices to maintain good body condition of crossbred and to produce good quality of offspring.

  1. Classifying of Nellore cattle beef on Normal and DFD applying a non conventional technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nubiato, Keni Eduardo Zanoni; Mazon, Madeline Rezende; Antonelo, Daniel Silva; da Luz e Silva, Saulo

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy in the Normal and DFD classification in Nellore beef using a bench-top hyperspectral imaging system. A hyperspectral imaging system (λ = 928-2524 nm) was used to collect hyperspectral images of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (n = 78) of Nellore cattle. The images were processed, being selected region of interest and extracted spectra image and were selected the wavelengths considered most important for the treats evaluated. Six linear discriminant models were developed to classify beef samples on Normal and DFD. The model using all wavelengths associated with the reflectance and absorbance spectrum transformed with the pretreatment 2nd derivative resulted in an overall accuracy of 93.6% for both pretreatments. In this configuration, the model was able to classify correctly 73 samples from a total of 78 samples. The results demonstrate that the hyperspectral imaging system may be considered a viable technology for beef classification on Normal and DFD.

  2. Investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease in a beef cattle herd in southwestern Saskatchewan.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, L F; Van Donkersgoed, J; Radostits, O. M.; Booker, C W; Dubovi, E J; van den Hurk, J V; Janzen, E D

    1994-01-01

    This study describes the epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of mucosal disease that occurred on a ranch in southwestern Saskatchewan. Over a six-month period during the fall and winter of 1991-1992, in a herd of 515 beef cattle and 96 bison, 20 yearling cattle from a group of 105 housed in one feedlot pen died from mucosal disease. A further eight yearlings were slaughtered for salvage because they were at risk of dying from mucosal disease. Mucosal disease mortalities were the firs...

  3. Utility of acute phase proteins as biomarkers of transport stress in ewes and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fazio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of transport on serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, Fibrinogen and white blood cells (WBC was evaluated in 10 ewes and 10 beef cattle. All animals were transported by road for 6 h over a distance of about 490 km with an average speed of 80 km/h. Blood samples, collected via jugular venepuncture, were obtained before and after transport as well as after 12, 24 and 48 h rest time. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed a statistically significant effect of sampling time on SAA, Hp, and WBC in ewes and beef cattle. Based on these results, Hp and SAA levels, together with WBC, may be useful indicators of animal health and welfare and in predicting the risk assessment in meat inspection.

  4. Rumen protected choline supplementation in beef cattle: effect on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Dell’Orto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of rumen-protected choline administration on growth performance in beef cattle. Thirty-two newly received Charolais steers (420 kg ± 8 kg initial BW, were assigned randomly to one of the two experimental groups: control (CTR, no choline supplementation; choline (RPC, supplemented with 5 g/day choline chloride in rumenprotected form. Experimental period was 122 d long. DMI at different times did not differ between treatments. Supplementation of 5 g of choline increased body weight, and average daily gain on day 89 of the experiment,but not later on. Feed conversion rate and killing out percentage were not affected by the treatment. Therefore ruminally protected choline can improve growth performance of newly received beef cattle, and its inclusion in receiving diet can be useful.

  5. Methane emissions from beef and dairy cattle: quantifying the effect of physiological stage and diet characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, P; Rooke, J A; Nevison, I; Waterhouse, A

    2013-11-01

    The prediction of methane outputs from ruminant livestock data at farm, national, and global scales is a vital part of greenhouse gas calculations. The objectives of this work were to quantify the effect of physiological stage (lactating or nonlactating) on predicting methane (CH4) outputs and to illustrate the potential improvement for a beef farming system of using more specific mathematical models to predict CH4 from cattle at different physiological stages and fed different diet types. A meta-analysis was performed on 211 treatment means from 38 studies where CH4, intake, animal, and feed characteristics had been recorded. Additional information such as type of enterprise, diet type, physiological stage, CH4 measurement technique, intake restriction, and CH4 reduction treatment application from these studies were used as classificatory factors. A series of equations for different physiological stages and diet types based on DMI or GE intake explained 96% of the variation in observed CH4 outputs (Pbeef systems. Observed BW and BW change data from cows with calves at side grazing either hill or lowland grassland, cows and overwintering calves and finishing steers fed contrasting diets were used to predict energy requirements, intake, and CH4 outputs. Compared with using this IPCC equation, NewEqs predicted up to 26% lower CH4 on average from individual lactating grazing cows. At the herd level, differences between equation estimates from 10 to 17% were observed in total annual accumulated CH4 when applied to the 4 diverse beef production systems. Overall, despite the small number of animals used it was demonstrated that there is a biological impact of using more specific CH4 prediction equations. Based on this approach, farm and national carbon budgets will be more accurate, contributing to reduced uncertainty in assessing mitigation options at farm and national level. PMID:24174549

  6. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Ian A; Moser, Gerhard; Burrell, Daniel L; Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Hetzel, D Jay S

    2006-01-01

    A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5) and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with each gro...

  7. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Mengersen Kerrie L; Burrell Daniel L; Moser Gerhard; Wood Ian A; Hetzel D Jay S

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5) and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with...

  8. The Pancreatic lipase Gene is Associated with Marbling in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Tanomura, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takuji; Muramatsu, Youji; Ohta, Takeshi; Kose, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takahisa

    2011-01-01

    Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat so-called Shimofuri is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The Pancreatic lipase (Pnlip) gene involved in energy income and fat regulation has been previously shown to be regarded as possible candidate for a rat Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) responsible for intramuscular fat content. It is located within the genomic region of a bovine QTL for marbling and thus was considered as a positional functional c...

  9. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in titin gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Tatsuo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We have recently reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1 gene were associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. As well as EDG1, the titin (TTN gene, involved in myofibrillogenesis, has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus TTN was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored SNP in TTN and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the promoter region of TTN, referred to as g.231054C>T, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 101 sires (P = 0.004, 848 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 5 sires heterozygous for the g.231054C>T (P = 0.046, and 820 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for C allele at the g.231054C>T (P = 0.051, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that in addition to the EDG1 SNPs, the TTN SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle. Further replicate studies will be needed to confirm the allelic association observed here, and to expand the results to evaluate all possible genotypic combinations of alleles.

  10. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattle farming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri were purposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted using quota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling. Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystem agribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were given for up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution, respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952; RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were: up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness; down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness and Supporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion of research indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index and give positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  12. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  13. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  14. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  15. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  16. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding. PMID:27139254

  17. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P < 0.05). Feeding SBU and SBUC to cattle resulted in higher propionic acid and lower acetic acid, acetic to propionic ratio, and methane production (P < 0.05). Moreover, the number of fungi was increased in SBU- and SBUC-fed groups while protozoa population was unchanged. This study concluded that the nutritive value of SB was improved by urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  18. Prevalence of abortion and stillbirth in a beef cattle system in Southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Correa, José C; Segura-Correa, Victor M

    2009-12-01

    Prenatal mortality is an important cause of production losses in the livestock industry. This study estimates the prevalences of abortion and stillbirth in a beef cattle system and determines the significance of some risk factors, in the tropics of Mexico. Data were obtained from a Zebu cattle herd and their crosses with Bos taurus breeds, in Yucatan, Mexico. The logit of the probability of an abortion or stillbirth was modeled using binary logistic regression. The risk factors tested were: year of abortion (or calving), season of abortion (or calving), parity number and dam breed group. The effect of twins on stillbirth was tested using Fisher exact test. Of the 4175 calvings studied 49 were abortions (1.17%). Significant factors in the logistic regression analysis for abortions were season of abortion and parity number. The risk of abortion was lower in the dry seasons compared to the rainy and windy seasons (P = 0.009). The risk of abortion was higher in second parity cows followed by the third and first parity cows, as compared to older cows (P = 0.015). Of the 4126 births, 87 were stillbirths (2.11%). Significant factors in the logistic regression analysis for stillbirth were year of calving (P = 0.0001) and parity number (P < 0.001). The risk of stillbirth in first parity cows was 2.6 times that of old cows. Of the total births, 15 were twins (0.36%) of which 7 were born dead calves. Herd owners must focus on the significant risk factors under their control to reduce the prevalence of prenatal mortality. PMID:19449114

  19. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira; Juliano José de Resende Fernandes; João Teodoro Pádua; Ubirajara Oliveira Bilego; Marcos Antônio Sales Lima; Aldi Fernandes de Souza França; Elis Aparecido Bento; Leonardo Guimarães Oliveira; Danilo Grandini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM) in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE); 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100) + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV) + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow®) VM / animal / day. The variables analyz...

  20. The effect of feeding high fat diet to beef cattle on manure composition and gaseous emission from a feedlot pen surface

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad; Rahman, Shafiqur; Borhan, Md Saidul; Engel, Chanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Dietary manipulation is a common practice to mitigate gaseous emission from livestock production facilities, and the variation of fat level in the diet has shown great influence on ruminal volatile fatty acids (VFA) and enteric methane generation. The changes in dietary fat levels influence rumen chemistry that could modify manure nutrient composition along with odor and gaseous emissions from manure management facilities. Methods A field experiment was carried out on beef cattle f...

  1. The chemical composition of carcasses can be predicted from proxy traits in finishing male beef cattle: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jammas, M; Agabriel, J; Vernet, J; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2016-09-01

    Management practices can contribute to improving carcass quality if carcass quality could be simply evaluated under a wide range of conditions. The objective of this study was to derive quantitative relationships between the most accurate (but laborious) measurements of carcass chemical composition and proxy traits easily obtainable at slaughter (yield grade, subcutaneous fat thickness, marbling, ribeye area and hot carcass weight) by meta-analysis. Data from 34 publications using male beef cattle were used to develop and validate the models. The breeds were characterized according to origin, rate of maturity, production purpose and frame size. The results indicated that the changes in carcass fat and protein can be predicted from the yield grade or subcutaneous fat thickness, and hot carcass weight, with prediction errors ranging between 9 and 12%. Including the breed characteristics in the models did not improve the fit. The relationships are applicable to group values of male beef cattle having light and fatty carcasses from early-maturing British breeds. PMID:27206053

  2. Farm-scale anaerobic digestion of beef and dairy cattle manure for energy cogeneration at two farms in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patni, N.; Monreal, C. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Li, X. [Highmark Renewables Research, Calgary, AB (Canada); Crolla, A.; Kinsley, C. [Guelph Univ., Alfred Campus, Alfred, ON (Canada); Barclay, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emerging Fuel Issues Div.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted in 2003 to 2005 at beef and diary cattle farms in Canada, where cattle manure was anaerobically digested for biogas production. The biogas was used for electrical and thermal energy cogeneration. Manure from about 7500 beef cattle at a feedlot was digested at a thermophilic temperature of 55 degrees C in two 1800 m{sup 3} above-ground digesters with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. The biogas had an average 58 per cent methane content and was combusted in a General Electric Jenbacher 999 kW cogeneration system. At the second farm, manure from about 165 lactating cows, 110 heifers and 40 calves was digested at a mesophilic temperature of 40 degrees C in a 500 m{sup 3} below-ground digester with a HRT of 28 days. The unique feature of this digester was that it was retrofitted in a pre-existing larger slurry storage tank. The biogas had an average 65 per cent methane content and was combusted in a 75 kW Perkins dual fuel diesel engine connected to a 65 kW Schnell generator. In 2007, when fats, oils and grease (FOG) from restaurant waste residue was added to the manure, biogas production increased by about 300 per cent and electrical energy generation increased by 180 per cent. Both systems have operated year-round from December to February at average ambient temperatures that ranged from -9 to -12 degrees Celsius. This paper addressed the long-term sustainability options for animal farm operations in terms of biogas production for electricity and thermal energy cogeneration.

  3. Production Factors in Beef Cattle Finishing

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gary L.

    1984-01-01

    A feeding trial was conducted comparing four finishing diets, typically fed in this area, two hormone implants zeranol (Ralgro) and estradiol 17-beta (compudose), and a feed additive. thirty-two Hereford steers were fed in individual pens to maintain accurate intake records. The four diets compared were: 1) a whole corn diet with a small amount of corn silage as roughage; 2) a high energy ground barley diet using corn silage and chopped alfalfa as roughage; 3) a total diet consisting of rolle...

  4. 湿态发酵蛋白饲料肉牛育肥试验%Fattening Experiment of Beef Cattle for Wet Fermented Protein Feeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张光勤; 孙志伟; 职承平; 董发明; 王建平; 李元晓; 高可卫

    2012-01-01

    湿态发酵蛋白饲料是玉米经酵母发酵、提取酒精后,又经益生菌发酵、密封包装的产物,其可溶性好、易消化、易吸收、蛋白质含量高。通过对肉牛进行饲喂试验可知,肉牛食用8kg该饲料,平均每头牛日增重1.81kg,比对照组高0.26kg;平均屠宰率为57.1%,比对照组高3.8%;平均售价为21.35元/kg,比对照组高1.52元/kg;平均每日比对照组多收益6.1元。试验结果表明,肉牛饲喂湿态发酵蛋白饲料增重效果好、屠宰率高,经济效益显著提高。%Wet fermented protein feeds are the products of maize which are treated by yeast fermentation, alcohol extraction, probiotics fermentation and sealing packaging. Through fattening experiment of beef cattle, results showed that after one beef cattle was fed with 8 kg wet fermented protein feed, beef cattle growth reached 1.81 kg per beef cattle which was 0.26 kg more than control; the average dressing percentage was 57.1% which was 3.8% more than control; the average selling price was 21.35 yuardkg which was 1.52 yuardkg more than control; there was 6.1 yuardd of income more than control. It was concluded that after beef cattle were fed with wet fermented protein feeds, there were good beef cattle growth and high dressing percentage, and economic benefit was improved significantly.

  5. Association of GH and IGF-1 polymorphisms with growth traits in a synthetic beef cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pozzi Pereira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim beef cattle (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu has been selected for meat production in Brazil since late 1950. In the present work the effects of growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 polymorphisms were investigated in 688 animals born between 1998 and 2000. These animals belonged to two genetic groups, i.e., traditional and new lineages. Genotype effects on expected breeding values for birth weight (BW, weaning weight (WW and yearling weight (YW were investigated by the least square method. Significant effects were found for GH genotype on YW (p < 0.05, with positive effects associated with the LV (leucine/valine genotype. For IGF-1 genotypes, significant effects were found on BW (p < 0.01 and YW (p < 0.01. Average substitution effects for IGF-1 alleles estimated by regression analysis suggested a positive effect of the IGF-1 225 bp allele on BW and of the 229 bp allele on YW.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ruminally-dosed sodium chlorate in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recently recognized potential of sodium chlorate as a possible pre-harvest food safety tool in meat animals has spurred interest in the pharmacokinetics of intraruminally-dosed chlorate. Six Loala cattle were assigned (one heifer and one steer per treatment) to one of three intraruminal doses of...

  7. Studies on the value of incorporating the effect of dominance in genetic evaluations of dairy cattle, beef cattle and swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Tassel CP.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonadditive genetic effects are currently ignored in national genetic evaluations of farm animals because of ignorance of thelevel of dominance variance for traits of interest and the difficult computational problems involved. Potential gains fromincluding the effects of dominance in genetic evaluations include “purification” of additive values and availability ofpredictions of specific combining abilities for each pair of prospective parents. This study focused on making evaluation withdominance effects feasible computationally and on ascertaining benefits of such an evaluation for dairy cattle, beef cattle,and swine. Using iteration on data, computing costs for evaluation with dominance effects included costs could be less thantwice expensive as with only an additive model. With Method Â, variance components could be estimated for problemsinvolving up to 10 millions equations. Dominance effects accounted for up to 10% of phenotypic variance; estimates werelarger for growth traits. As a percentage of additive variance, the estimate of dominance variance reached 78% for 21-d litterweight of swine and 47% for post weaning weight of beef cattle. When dominance effects are ignored, additive evaluationsare “contaminated”; effects are greatest for evaluations of dams in a single large family. These changes in ranking wereimportant for dairy cattle, especially for dams of full-sibs, but were less important for swine. Specific combining abilitiescannot be included in sire evaluations and need to be computed separately for each set of parents. The predictions of specificcombining abilities could be used in computerized mating programs via the Internet. Gains from including the dominanceeffect in genetic evaluations would be moderate but would outweigh expenditures to produce those evaluations.

  8. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  9. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  10. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  11. A simulation-based approach for evaluating and comparing the environmental footprints of beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C A; Isenberg, B J; Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Pollak, E J

    2013-11-01

    A methodology was developed and used to determine environmental footprints of beef cattle produced at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) in Clay Center, NE, with the goal of quantifying improvements achieved over the past 40 yr. Information for MARC operations was gathered and used to establish parameters representing their production system with the Integrated Farm System Model. The MARC farm, cow-calf, and feedlot operations were each simulated over recent historical weather to evaluate performance, environmental impact, and economics. The current farm operation included 841 ha of alfalfa and 1,160 ha of corn to produce feed predominately for the beef herd of 5,500 cows, 1,180 replacement cattle, and 3,724 cattle finished per year. Spring and fall cow-calf herds were fed on 9,713 ha of pastureland supplemented through the winter with hay and silage produced by the farm operation. Feedlot cattle were backgrounded for 3 mo on hay and silage with some grain and finished over 7 mo on a diet high in corn and wet distillers grain. For weather year 2011, simulated feed production and use, energy use, and production costs were within 1% of actual records. A 25-yr simulation of their current production system gave an average annual carbon footprint of 10.9±0.6 kg of CO2 equivalent units per kg BW sold, and the energy required to produce that beef (energy footprint) was 26.5±4.5 MJ/kg BW. The annual water required (water footprint) was 21,300±5,600 L/kg BW sold, and the water footprint excluding precipitation was 2,790±910 L/kg BW. The simulated annual cost of producing their beef was US$2.11±0.05/kg BW. Simulation of the production practices of 2005 indicated that the inclusion of distillers grain in animal diets has had a relatively small effect on environmental footprints except that reactive nitrogen loss has increased 10%. Compared to 1970, the carbon footprint of the beef produced has decreased 6% with no change in the energy footprint, a 3% reduction

  12. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: Harvest-floor assessments of targeted characteristics that affect quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2011(NBQA-2011) was conducted to assess targeted characteristics on the harvest floor that affect the quality and value of cattle, carcasses, and byproducts. Survey teams evaluated approximately 18,000 cattle/carcasses between May and November 2011 in 8 beef processin...

  13. Objetivos de seleção para sistemas de produção de gado de corte em pasto: ponderadores econômicos Economic values for breeding goal traits for Brazilian beef cattle production

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    T.C.C. Bittencourt

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram desenvolvidos objetivos de seleção para gado de corte criado nas condições de produção típicas do Brasil Central. As características consideradas foram: número de bezerros desmamados por vaca/ano (NBD, peso da carcaça (PC, peso à desmama (PD e consumo de alimento. Foram adotados dois sistemas de produção, um que considerava somente a cria e outro, o ciclo completo (cria, recria e engorda. No primeiro, as receitas foram a venda de bezerros à desmama, novilhas excedentes e vacas de descarte. No segundo, a receita foi a venda das novilhas excedentes, vacas de descarte e novilhos para o abate. Em ambas as situações, o lucro (USD/vaca/ano foi estimado pela diferença entre receita e despesa. Os valores econômicos estimados foram expressos em dólar por unidade de mudança na característica, calculados na base vaca/ano. O valor econômico foi calculado avaliando-se a alteração ocorrida no lucro quando a característica era incrementada de uma unidade, permanecendo as demais inalteradas. A característica que apresentou maior valor bruto do ponderador econômico foi o NBD, seguida pelo consumo, PC e PD. Quando se considerou o valor econômico, em unidades de desvio-padrão genético-aditivo, a ordem de importância foi consumo, PC, NBD e PD.Breeding objectives were developed for beef cattle production under typical economic and environmental conditions of central Brazil. The traits considered were: calves weaned per cow/year (NCW, weaning weight (WW, carcass weight (CW and food intake. In the study, two systems were examined, a cow-calf system (surplus calves sold after weaning and a cow-calf enterprise (in which surplus calves are raised for slaughter. In the first, income is from the sale of male calves and surplus heifers after weaning and of culled cows. In the second, the income is from the sale of steers, surplus heifers and culled cows. For both situations, the profit (US$/cow/year was estimated by the difference

  14. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

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    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattlefarming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri werepurposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted usingquota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling.Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystemagribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were givenfor up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution,respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952;RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were:up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness;down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness andSupporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion ofresearch indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index andgive positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  15. Tracking the sources of salmonella in ground beef produced from nonfed cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohmaraie, Mohammad; Scanga, John A; De La Zerda, Michael J; Koohmaraie, Bijan; Tapay, Lourdes; Beskhlebnaya, Vika; Mai, Tam; Greeson, Kay; Samadpour, Mansour

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the source(s) of Salmonella contamination in ground beef. One hundred dairy cows were harvested in a U.S. commercial beef processing plant. Samples of hides, carcasses after hide removal and before exposure to antimicrobial intervention, carcasses after all antimicrobial interventions, superficial cervical lymph nodes from the chuck, trim, ground beef, and air were obtained. Ninety-six percent of the hide samples, 47% of the carcasses before intervention, 18% of the lymph nodes, 7.14% of the trim, and 1.67% of the ground beef samples were positive for Salmonella. None of the samples obtained from the carcasses after the full complement of interventions and none of the air samples were positive for Salmonella. All Salmonella-positive samples were subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and eight DNA Xba I restriction patterns were identified. The majority of isolates had one of two restriction digest patterns. The strain isolated from ground beef had the same pattern as the strains isolated from hides and from carcasses immediately after hide removal. The Salmonella isolates from trim samples and lymph nodes also had the same restriction digest pattern. These results indicate that hide and lymph nodes are the most likely sources of Salmonella in ground beef. Dressing practices that effectively reduce or eliminate the transfer of bacteria from hide to carcass and elimination of lymph nodes as a component of raw ground beef should be considered as measures to reduce Salmonella contamination of ground beef. Because total elimination of lymph nodes from ground beef is not possible, other approaches should be explored. Easily accessible lymph nodes could be screened for Salmonella very early in the slaughter process. When the results are positive for Salmonella, the corresponding carcasses should be fabricated separately at the end of the production run, and the trim from these carcasses should be subjected to a

  16. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sukegawa, Shin; Miyake, Takeshi; Takahagi, Youichi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Background: Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being associate...

  17. Replicated association of the single nucleotide polymorphism in EDG1 with marbling in three general populations of Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada Takahisa; Morimatsu Fumiki; Murakami Hiroshi; Takahagi Yoichi; Miyake Takeshi; Sukegawa Shin; Sasaki Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling, defined by the amount and the distribution of intramuscular fat and measured as beef marbling score (BMS), is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. We recently reported that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), namely, c.-312A>G, in the endothelial differentiation, sphingolipid G-protein-coupled receptor, 1 (EDG1) gene was associated with the BMS level in the Japanese Black beef cattle population of Oita prefecture, with the G allele being a...

  18. Association of polymorphisms in the leptin and thyroglobulin genes with meat quality and carcass traits in beef cattle

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    Thiago Dutra de Carvalho

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of the polymorphisms E2FB (AY138588.1: c.305C> T, located in the leptin gene (LEP, and TG5 (X05380.1:g.-422C>T, located in the thyroglobulin gene (TG, and evaluate the association of these polymorphisms in crossbred cattle of seven distinct genetic groups with the following traits: slaughter weight (SW, hot carcass weight (HCW, hot carcass yield (HCY, carcass fat thickness (CFT, ribeye area (REA, marbling (MARM and shear force (SF. The animals were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP (Polymorphism Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism technique, using 201 products obtained from F1 Caracu × Nellore, Angus × Nellore and Valdostana × Nellore cows, mated to Canchim, Caracu and Red Angus bulls (only Caracu × Nellore cows were used with Red Angus bulls. The allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared using the Chi-squared test. Associations between the genotype of each polymorphism and the traits were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM of statistical software SAS. The least squares means of genotypes of the polymorphisms were compared using Student's t test. The E2FB polymorphism in the LEP gene was associated with CFT, showing the potential for use in national programs for genetic improvement of beef cattle, through the inclusion of SNP in genotyping commercial tests. The TG5 polymorphism in the TG gene was not associated with any of the evaluated traits and was considered ineffective for selection of beef cattle in Brazilian herds.

  19. Influence of wet distillers grains diets on beef cattle fecal bacterial community structure

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    Rice William C

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high demand for ethanol in the U.S. has generated large stocks of wet distillers grains (DG, a byproduct from the manufacture of ethanol from corn and sorghum grains. Little is known, however, about the potential influence of dietary DG on fecal microbial community structure. A better understanding of the microbial population in beef cattle feces could be an important monitoring tool to facilitate goals of improving nutrient management, increasing animal growth performance and decreasing odors and/or shedding of pathogens. Five diets consisting of a traditional diet fed to finishing beef cattle in the Southern High Plains of Texas-CON (steam-flaked corn control with 0% DG, and four concentrations of DG in the dietary dry matter; 10 C (10% corn-based DG, 5S (5% sorghum-based DG, 10S (10% sorghum DG, and 15S (15% sorghum DG were fed to steers at the Texas Tech University Burnett Animal Center. Diets were essentially isonitrogenous with a formulated crude protein value of 13.5%. Results Fecal grab samples were obtained from 20 steers (n = 4 per diet and the barcoded DNA pyrosequencing method was used to generate 127,530 16S operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 24 phyla were observed, distributed amongst all beef cattle on all diets, revealing considerable animal to animal variation, however only six phyla (core set were observed in all animals regardless of dietary treatment. The average abundance and range of abundance, respectively of the core phyla were as follows: Firmicutes (61%, 19 to 83%, Bacteroidetes (28%, 11 to 63%, Proteobacteria (3%, 0.34 to 17.5%, Tenericutes (0.15%, 0.0 to 0.35%, Nitrospirae (0.11%, 0.03 to 0.22%, and Fusobacteria (0.086%, 0.017 to 0.38%. Feeding DG-based diets resulted in significant shifts in the fecal microbial community structure compared with the traditional CON. Four low abundance phyla significantly responded to dietary treatments: Synergistetes (p = 0.01, WS3 (p = 0

  20. A potential association between the BM 1500 microsatellite and fat deposition in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, C J; Schmutz, S M; Bergen, R D; McKinnon, J J

    1998-06-01

    The obese gene was hypothesized as a candidate gene for fat characteristics in beef cattle. The BM 1500 microsatellite, near the obese gene, was characterized in 158 purebred beef bulls for which carcass trait information was available. Four breeds were included in the analyses-Angus, Charolais, Hereford, and Simmental. Four alleles were found. Lengths were approximately 138, 147, 149, and 140 bp with genotypic frequencies of 0.47, 0.44, 0.09, and 0.003 respectively. The carcass traits %rib fat, %rib lean, average fat, and grade fat were found to be significantly associated with the different alleles. The presence of the 138-bp allele in the genotype of an animal is correlated with higher levels of fat, whereas the 147-bp allele has the opposite effect. The 149-bp allele was found in low numbers, and a homozygote was never identified. Hereford and Angus bulls had the greatest frequencies of 138-bp alleles (Hereford = 0.57, Angus = 0.59), while Charolais and Simmental had a greater proportion of 147-bp alleles (Charolais = 0.54, Simmental = 0.58). This information may aid cattle producers in selecting cattle for markets that differ in the amount of fat required. PMID:9585429

  1. Nutrient digestibility and beef cattle performance fed by lerak (Sapindus rarak meal in concentrate ration

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    S. Suharti

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the use of Lerak fruit meal to improve performance and feed digestibility of beef cattle. The research consisted of two trials (in vitro and in vivo studies. The in vitro trial was screening of bioactive compounds (saponin, tanin, dan diosgenin in Lerak fruit (including seed and continued to evaluate the effectivity of these compounds against ruminal protozoa. The in vivo study was done using 12 Ongole Crossbreed cattle which received 1of 3 different treatments: 1 concentrate without Lerak as control, 2 concentrate containing 2.5% Lerak, and 3 concentrate containing 5% Lerak. Anti protozoal activity, daily gain, and nutrient digestibility of beef cattle were measured. Results showed that saponin concentration in Lerak extracted by methanol was higher than that in Lerak extracted by water and Lerak meal, 81.5%; 8.2% and 3.85% respectively. Lerak extracted by methanol have higher antiprotozoal activity in vitro than Lerak extracted by water. In vivo experiment showed that there were no significant differences (P>0.05 of nutrient intake and digestibility in all treatments, that means the ration had good palatability and quality. Average daily gain of PO fed 2.5% Lerak was 20% higher than that of control diet (0.9 kg/day.

  2. A TARGET CONSUMER PROFILE AND POSITIONING FOR PROMOTION OF A NEW LOCALLY BRANDED BEEF PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Marianne McGarry; Thulin, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This research examines the consumer profile and positioning for a new locally branded beef product. The research involves 413 beef consumers in California. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are approximately one-third of beef consumers in the local area. They are older, married, and from higher dual-income households. The target consumers for the new locally branded beef product are likely to have purchased other branded beef products. Approximately one-half of the...

  3. Methane emissions from beef cattle: Effects of monensin, sunflower oil, enzymes, yeast, and fumaric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; Colombatto, D

    2004-11-01

    Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Understanding the effects of diet on enteric methane production can help refine GHG emission inventories and identify viable GHG reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane and carbon dioxide emissions, total-tract digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives or ingredients. Two experiments, each designed as a 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods, were conducted using 16 Holstein steers (initial BW 311.6 +/- 12.3 kg). In Exp. 1, treatments were control (no additive), monensin (Rumensin, Elanco Animal Health, Indianapolis, IN; 33 mg/kg DM), sunflower oil (400 g/d, approximately 5% of DMI), and proteolytic enzyme (Protex 6-L, Genencor Int., Inc., CA; 1 mL/kg DM). In Exp. 2, treatments were control (no additive), Procreatin-7 yeast (Prince Agri Products, Inc., Quincy, IL; 4 g/d), Levucell SC yeast (Lallemand, Inc., Rexdale, Ontario, Canada; 1 g/d), and fumaric acid (Bartek Ingredients Inc., Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada; 80 g/d). The basal diet consisted of 75% barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley grain, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (two animals per chamber) were equipped with lasers and infrared gas analyzers to measure methane and carbon dioxide, respectively, for 3 d each period. Total-tract digestibility was determined using chromic oxide. Approximately 6.5% of the GE consumed was lost in the form of methane emissions from animals fed the control diet. In Exp. 1, sunflower oil decreased methane emissions by 22% (P = 0.001) compared with the control, whereas monensin (P = 0.44) and enzyme had no effect (P = 0.82). However, oil decreased (P = 0.03) the total-tract digestibility of NDF by 20%. When CH(4) emissions were corrected for differences in energy intake, the loss of GE to methane was decreased by 21% (P = 0.002) using oil and by 9% (P = 0.09) using monensin. In Exp. 2

  4. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC-Cr DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE IN TRANSPORT-STRESSED BEEF CATTLE

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    U. H. Tanuwiria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation over long distances resulted in stress at animal. Under these circumstances, animal usually manifest depression and the impact on physiological condition changes and loss of body weight. The objectives of the research were to examine effect supplementation of organic-Cr type into diets in transport-stress beef cattle on physiological condition, haematochemical (included were haematological condition and blood chemical and body weight changes. The experiment was conducted using 16 beef cattle those were transported by truck for a distance of 400 km from Malangbong to Tangerang. The experiment was arranged by Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications. The dietary treatments consisted of R0 (basal diet without Cr supplemented, R1 (R0+3ppm organic-Cr resulted of alkali hydrolysis, R2 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioprocess, R3 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioremediation. The result indicated that type of organic-Cr supplementation at 3 ppm in diet did not influence physiological condition, haematochemical and body weight at beef cattle transported for seven hours. There was indication that beef cattle fed on control diet (without Cr showed a stress symptom, their loss of body weight were higher (5.41% compared to beef given diet contains organic-Cr (3.72%, 5.04% and 4.83%, respectively for R1, R2 and R3.

  5. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  6. Investigation into Possible Differences in Salmonella Prevalence in the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle Derived from Distinct Production Systems and of Different Breed Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T R; Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Hanson, D L; Malin, K; Ison, J J; Nisbet, D J

    2015-11-01

    Previous research demonstrated significant variation in the prevalence of Salmonella in peripheral lymph nodes (LNs) of feedlot cattle and cull cows, with greater prevalence in feedlot cattle. Therefore, we performed experiments to investigate whether these differences in Salmonella prevalence in subiliac LNs are due to, or influenced by, breed, which in many respects is a proxy for the production system in which the animal is derived. Holstein steers are a by-product of dairy systems, and beef steers are an intended product of commercial beef operations. For the first experiment, Holstein and beef steers originating from the same feedlot and harvested on the same day were sampled. Of the 467 Holstein and 462 beef cattle LNs collected, 62.1% of Holstein and 59.7% of beef cattle samples harbored Salmonella (P = 0.46; qualitative culture), with 51.2 and 48.9% of samples containing quantifiable concentrations (P = 0.49), respectively. The concentration of Salmonella within the LN followed a decreasing trend over the collection period (May to October), averaging 1.4 log CFU/g of LN for both Holstein and beef cattle samples (P = 0.78). In a second experiment, we compared 100% Brahman cattle to their beef cattle counterparts, as we hypothesized that the resistance of Brahman cattle to insects may reduce Salmonella transmission via biting insects. Of the 42 Brahman and 31 beef cattle LNs collected, the concentration of Salmonella within the LN averaged 3.0 log CFU/g for Brahman cattle and 2.9 log CFU/g for beef cattle samples (P = 0.30). Using qualitative culture, we recovered Salmonella from 100% of LNs from Brahman cattle and 97% of beef cattle samples (P = 0.25). Results of this research indicate that the differences observed are not due to breed and are likely a function of age, immune function, or other factors yet to be identified. Understanding which cattle are more likely to harbor Salmonella within LNs will aid in targeting both pre- and postharvest intervention

  7. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  8. Possible Association of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Titin Gene with Growth-Related Trait in Japanese Black Beef Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Takahisa; Sasaki, Seiki; Sukegawa, Shin; Takahagi, Youichi; MORITA, Mitsuo; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Fujita, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Growth performance as well as marbling is the main breeding objectives in Japanese Black cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The researchers have recently reported that a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP), referred to as g.231054C>T in promoter region of the Titin (TTN) gene was associated with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle with the T allele being associated with a high level of marbling. The TTN is known to be involved in myofibrillogenesis and has been previously shown to be ...

  9. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  10. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan’s effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect (P 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH4 production increased quadratically (P < 0.01) as chitosan inclusion increased. A digestibility marker × diet interaction occurred (P < 0.05) for DM, OM, CP, NDF, and ADF digestibility. Diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) occurred for DM, OM, NDF, and ADF digestibility when Cr2O3 was used. When TiO2 was used, diet × chitosan interactions (P < 0.05) were observed for NDF and ADF. However, using indigestible NDF as an internal marker, DM and OM digestibility were improved (P < 0.05) by 21 and 19%, respectively, when chitosan was included in LC diets. In conclusion, feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet. PMID:26440023

  11. Effects of plant herb combination supplementation on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, M; Kang, S; Khejornsart, P; Wanapat, S

    2013-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated crossbred beef cattle (Brahman native) were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design experiment to be fed plant herb supplements in their concentrate mixture. The treatments were: without herb supplementation (Control), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d (L), lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d (LP), and lemongrass meal supplementation at 100 g/d plus peppermint powder at 10 g/d with garlic powder 40 g/d (LPG), respectively. Based on the present study, the DMI and apparent digestibility of DM, OM, aNDF and ADF were not affected by dietary herb supplementation while CP digestibility tended to be decreased by herb supplement. Moreover, NH3-N and BUN were decreased in all herb supplemented treatments and there was a tendency to an increase in ruminal pH in all herb supplemented groups. While there was no change in TVFA and C4 among lemongrass treatments, C2 was decreased in all herb supplemented treatments while C3 was increased. Methane production by calculation was the lowest in the LP and LPG groups. Population sizes of bacteria and protozoa were decreased in all herb supplemented groups, but not fungal zoospores. In all supplemented groups, total viable and proteolytic bacteria were decreased, while amylolytic and cellulolytic bacteria were similar. More importantly, in all herb supplemented groups, there were higher N balances, while there was no difference among treatments on purine derivative (PD) excretion or microbial N. Based on the results above, it could be concluded that there was no negative effect on ruminal fermentation characteristics and nutrient utilization by plant herb supplement, but protozoal population and CH4 production were reduced. Thus, lemongrass alone or in combination with peppermint and garlic powder could be used as feed additives to improve rumen fermentation efficiency. PMID:25049893

  12. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  13. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Granberg Malin; Andersson Ann-Christin; Englund Stina; Knutsson Rickard; Ehrs Sara; Norström Agneta; Hartzell Lisbeth; Westermark Therese; Elvander Marianne; Lewerin Susanna; Bäckman Stina; Wikström Per; Sandstedt Karin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The c...

  14. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    [Background]Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleoti...

  15. Effects of single nucleotide polymorphism marker density on degree of genetic variance explained and genomic evaluation for carcass traits in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Yukio; Watanabe, Toshio; Nishimura, Shota; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu; Iwaisaki, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese Black cattle are a beef breed whose meat is well known to excel in meat quality, especially in marbling, and whose effective population size is relatively low in Japan. Unlike dairy cattle, the accuracy of genomic evaluation (GE) for carcass traits in beef cattle, including this breed, has been poorly studied. For carcass weight and marbling score in the breed, as well as the extent of whole genome linkage disequilibrium (LD), the effects of equally-spaced single nucleotid...

  16. Impacts of reproductive technologies on beef production in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl; Larson, Jamie; Lamb, G Cliff

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of world population growth indicate that by the year 2050 we will reach nine billion habitants on earth. These estimates impose a tremendous challenge in the current agricultural systems as food supply will need to increase by 100 % in the next 40 years (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2009). Beef will be a primary protein source that will assist in meeting the requirements for a portion of the protein in diets of this expanding global populace. Beef is a high-quality protein that contains all essential amino acids for the human body and also contains additional essential nutrients such as iron, zinc, B vitamins, riboflavin, selenium, choline, and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Adopting reproductive technologies at greater rates than currently used is a viable method to dramatically enhance production efficiency of beef cattle enterprises.Artificial insemination (AI), estrous synchronization and fixed-time AI (TAI), semen and embryo cryopreservation, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET), in vitro fertilization, sex determination of sperm or embryos, and nuclear transfer are technologies that are used to enhance the production efficiency of beef operations. In many cases, the development of these technologies is responsible for significant changes to traditional livestock production practices. However, adoption of these technologies appears to has not grown at the same rate in the United States as other formidable beef producing nations. For example, sales of beef semen for AI increased from 3.3 to 11.9 million units between 1993 and 2011 in Brazil, whereas that in the United States has increased from 2.9 to 3.8 million units during the same period. The significant increases in adoption of reproductive technologies in developing countries is likely as a result of the development of practical estrous synchronization and TAI systems that have allowed beef producers the opportunity to eliminate detection of estrus in their

  17. Environmental consequences of different beef production systems in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2010-01-01

    , the contributions from the production of 1 kg beef meat (slaughter weight) to global warming, acidification, eutrophication, land use and non-renewable energy use were lower for beef from dairy calves than from suckler herds (16.0-19.9 versus 27.3 kg CO2e, 101-173 versus 210 g SO2e, 622-1140 versus 1651 g NO3e, 16...... to preliminarily estimate GHG emissions from beef production systems if land opportunity cost and land use change related to grazing and feed crop production for beef were taken into account. If so, the contribution from the production of 1 kg beef to global warming would increase by a factor of 3.1-3.9, based...

  18. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH4 and N2O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO2eq per kg lwg−1). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO2eq kg lwg−1 or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions from beef production systems

  19. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro, E-mail: cinirojr@hotmail.com [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos E.P., E-mail: cepcerri@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Pires, Alexandre V., E-mail: pires.1@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos C., E-mail: cerri@cena.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO{sub 2}eq per kg lwg{sup −1}). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO{sub 2}eq kg lwg{sup −1} or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions

  20. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA. PMID:17263304

  1. Fatty acid composition of muscle fat and enzymes of storage lipid synthesis in whole muscle from beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazala, E Chris; Lozeman, Fred J; Mir, Priya S; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Schmutz, Sheila M; Weselake, Randall J

    2006-11-01

    Enhanced intramuscular fat content (i.e., marbling) in beef is a desirable trait, which can result in increased product value. This study was undertaken with the aim of revealing biochemical factors associated with the marbling trait in beef cattle. Samples of longissimus lumborum (LL) and pars costalis diaphragmatis (PCD) were taken from a group of intact crossbred males and females at slaughter, lipids extracted, and the resulting FAME examined for relationships with marbling fat deposition. For LL, significant associations were found between degree of marbling and myristic (14:0, r = 0.55, P muscle were assayed for diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT), lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT), and phosphatidic acid phosphatase-1 (PAP-1) activity, and the results examined for relationships with degree of intramuscular fat deposition. None of the enzyme activities from PCD displayed an association with marbling fat content, but DGAT specific activity showed significant positive associations with LPAAT (r = 0.54, P muscle tissues provide insight into possible enzyme action associated with the production of specific FA. The increased proportion of oleic acid associated with enhanced lipid content of whole muscle is noteworthy given the known health benefits of this FA.

  2. Improving smallholder food security through investigations of carcass composition and beef marketing of buffalo and cattle in northern Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampanya, Sonevilay; Khounsy, Syseng; Phonvisay, Aloun; Bush, Russell David; Windsor, Peter Andrew

    2015-04-01

    This study determined the carcass composition of Lao indigenous buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and cattle (Bos indicus), then examined trends in bovine meat marketing following review of records of beef production and prices in the two major cities of Luang Prabang (LPB) and Xieng Khoung (XK) provinces in northern Laos. Samples from 41 buffalo and 81 cattle (n = 122) were collected from animals slaughtered in May-June 2014, with live weights, carcass weights and other carcass-related variables collected. The animals were classified into four age cohort groups (6 years) with quantitative and dichotomous qualitative traits determined. There were significant differences in buffalo and cattle predicted mean carcass weights between age classification categories (p = 0.003 and 0.001) but not in dressing percentages (p = 0.1 and 0.1). The carcass weight of buffalo was 104 (±23.1)-176 (±12.0) kg compared to 65 (±8.7)-84 (±6.5) kg of cattle, with dressing percentages of 37-40 and 39-42 %, respectively. Despite an average bovine meat price increase of 42-48 % between 2011 and 2013, there was a reduction in the numbers of large ruminants slaughtered in the surveyed cities of LPB (11 %) and XK (7 %), with bovine meat availability per person of 5.2-6.6 kg (LPB) and 3.0-3.8 kg (XK). Improving the sustainability of the bovine meat supply in Laos requires a systems approach involving improvements to animal health and production, livestock marketing, plus the critical development of improved slaughterhouse facilities enabling a meat-processing sector to emerge. This development pathway is of particular importance for building the capacity of Laos to reduce food insecurity and alleviate the poverty of its largely rural smallholder community.

  3. Prevalence of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in Persistently Infected Cattle and BVDV Subtypes in Affected Cattle in Beef Herds in South Central U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) persistently infected (PI) cattle in beef breeding herds was determined in 30 herds with 4530 calves. The samples collected by ear notches were tested for BVDV antigen using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and antigen capture ELISA (ACE). Animals wit...

  4. Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Mpakama, T.; Chulayo, A. Y.; V. Muchenje

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes...

  5. Association of CAPN1 and CAST gene polymorphisms with meat tenderness in Bos taurus beef cattle from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Corva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of the calpains/calpastatin proteolytic system is closely related to the postmortem tenderization of meat. We investigated the association between beef tenderness and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers on the CAPN1 gene (SNP316, alleles C/G; SNP530 alleles A/G and the CAST gene 3' untranslated region (SNP2870, alleles A/G. We sampled nine slaughter groups comprising 313 steers which had been reared in beef production systems in Argentina between 2002 and 2004 from crosses between Angus, Hereford and Limousin cattle. Minor allele frequencies for the markers were 0.27 to 0.46 (C, 0.02 to 0.18 (A, and 0.24 to 0.53 (A, respectively. The presence of CAPN1 markers had significant effects on meat shear force but no detectable effects were demonstrated for the CAST marker. The shear force of meat from steers with the SNP316 CC genotype was 11% lower than for the SNP316 CG genotype and 17% lower than for the SNP316 GG genotype. There were very few steers with the SNP530 AA genotype and, contrary to previous studies, meat from steers with the SNP530 GG genotype showed an 11.5% higher shear force than that from steers with the SNP530 GA genotype. Final body weight, carcass weight and rib eye area were not affected by any of the markers. These results support the concept that CAPN1 variants are associated with tenderness across a wide range of beef production systems.

  6. The promising and potential role of IVF in cattle and beef industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasmita Debnath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective : IVF is one of the Assisted Reproductive technology . The study was conducted to reveal the importance of IVF in cattle and beef industries . It was revealed that IVF has a dynamic advantage. In addition , it is not necessary to superovulate the cattles and on the other hand a cattle can be aspirated every 20 days. As cattle can be harvested at a very young age , it reduces the generation interval with desirable trait. This technology is tremendously used in reproductive management strategies for improving pregnancy with low fertility. Method : In this present work oocytes were collected and were fertilized with sperm under laboratory procedure following the transfer of fertilized egg to the uterus of surrogate mother. Oocytes were collected by punction of 2-4 nm follicles by aspiration method. Stimulated with hormone FSH-P follicular fluid and few cumulous cells. Further , oocytes were washed repeatedly in the washing media and then transferred in fertilization media and inseminated with sperm , which gives rise to the embryo. Result :The work was performed by taking a total of 46 oocytes ; out of which 19 were matured and among them 7 were developed in embryos. The result of the study witnessed that the success rate of such In-vitro- produced embryos is 15%. Conclusion : The In-vitro produced embryos play a major role in genetic selection scheme based on allelic variance of specific gene. The method might suggests that further research is required to improve the aspects of IVF.

  7. Intramuscular fatty acid composition in beef from Aosta cattle breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Barge

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to compare fat quality of three categories of the Aosta cattle breeds by fatty acid composition. Samples of longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 12 calves, 11 young bulls and 11 cows of Aosta Red Pied and Black Pied were bought at retail. Fatty acids content showed in most cases, except for C18:1, significant differences between the three categories. Veal calves had the lowest proportion of SFA and highest of PUFA, therefore they had the best PUFA/SFA ratio but the worst n-6/n-3 ratio due to the highest proportion of C18:2n-6. Besides veal calves was healthier by having best atherogenicity and thrombogenicity indices. Black Pied young bulls, in comparison to Red Pied young bulls, showed a significant lower proportion of C10:0, C18:1, and a significant higher proportion of C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3 and C20:4n-6. Consequently they had a significant lower MUFA content but a higher PUFA content therefore a significant better PUFA/SFA ratio.

  8. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  9. The potential of 3-nitrooxypropanol to lower enteric methane emissions from beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Perez, A; Okine, E K; McGinn, S M; Guan, L L; Oba, M; Duval, S M; Kindermann, M; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated if 3-nitrooxypropanol reduces enteric methane (CH4) emissions when added to the diet of beef cattle. The effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol on related variables including diet digestibility, ruminal fermentation, and ruminal microorganisms were also investigated. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (549 ± 64.3 kg [mean BW ± SD]) were fed a high forage diet (backgrounding diet) supplemented with 4 levels of 3-nitrooxypropanol (0, 0.75, 2.25 and 4.50 mg/kg BW). The experiment was designed as a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 2 groups of heifers and four 28-d periods. Methane emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using metabolic chambers. Up to a 5.8% reduction in ad libitum DMI was observed when 2.5 mg/kg BW of 3-nitrooxypropanol was fed (P = 0.03). Increasing level of 3-nitrooxypropanol linearly (P beef cattle consuming a backgrounding diet was effective in reducing enteric CH4 emissions without negatively affecting diet digestibility. PMID:25184838

  10. Genetic variation of the weaning weight of beef cattle as a function of accumulated heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Bignardi, A B; Eler, J P; Ferraz, J B S

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the genetic variation in the weaning weight (WW) of beef cattle as a function of heat stress. The WWs were recorded at approximately 205 days of age in three Brazilian beef cattle populations: Nelore (93,616), Brangus (18,906) and Tropical Composite (62,679). In view of the cumulative nature of WW, the effect of heat stress was considered as the accumulation of temperature and humidity index units (ACTHI) from the animal's birth to weaning. A reaction norm model was used to estimate the (co)variance components of WW across the ACTHI scale. The accumulation of THI units from birth to weaning negatively affected the WW. The definition of accumulated THI units as an environmental descriptor permitted to identify important genetic variation in the WW as a function of heat stress. As evidence of genotype by environment interaction, substantial heterogeneity was observed in the (co)variance components for WW across the environmental gradient. In this respect, the best animals in less stressful environments are not necessarily the best animals in more stressful environments. Furthermore, the response to selection for WW is expected to be lower in more stressful environments. PMID:26061790

  11. Feasibility of the grandprogeny design for quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection in purebred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, D E; Pomp, D; Buchanan, D S

    1997-04-01

    The grandprogeny design (GPD) was developed for dairy cattle to use existing pedigreed populations for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. Marker genotypes of grandsires and sons are determined, and trait phenotypic data from grandprogeny are analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of GPD in purebred beef cattle populations. Pedigree structures of Angus (n = 123,319), Hereford (n = 107,778), Brangus (n = 14,449), and Gelbvieh (n = 8,114) sire evaluation reports were analyzed to identify potentially useful families. Power of QTL detection was calculated for a range of QTL effects (.1 to .5 SD) and two Type I error rates (.01 and .001). Reasonable power (> .75) could be achieved using GPD in Angus and Hereford for QTL having moderate effects (.3 SD) on weaning weight and large effects (.4 to .5 SD) on birth, yearling, and maternal weaning weights by genotyping 500 animals. Existing Gelbvieh and Brangus families useful for GPD were limited, and reasonable power could be expected only for QTL having large effects on weaning or birth weights. Although family structures suitable for GPD exist in purebred beef populations, large amounts of genotyping would be required to achieve reasonable power, and only QTL having moderate to large effects could be expected to be identified. PMID:9110205

  12. Organic Beef Production - Sire Breed Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Richard; Leavy, Elaine

    2008-01-01

    The results to date, from this sire breed comparison study indicate that with the contrasting Aberdeen Angus and Charolais sire breeds that is possible to achieve animal performance data comparable to well managed conventional suckler calf to beef systems (300 kg carcass for heifers in Nov and 400 kg carcass for steers in March). Similarly the responses to sire breed type, sex and date of slaughter for the organic beef animals are biologically compatible. Organic beef is produced under organi...

  13. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  14. Effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling development and retail product quality of beef steers

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jason Kaleb

    2015-01-01

    Beef cattle producers continuously search for nutritional management options that provide flexibility to production scenarios. Due to its positive effects on maternal productivity, early weaning is one such alternative strategy that has received considerable interest. To better understand the effects of early weaning on calf productivity, an extensive literature review and three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of early weaning on finishing feed efficiency, marbling develo...

  15. Assessing the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms at the thyroglobulin gene with carcass traits in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thyroglobulin gene, including a previously reported marker in current industry use, with marbling score in beef cattle. Three populations, designated GPE6, GPE7, and GPE8, were studied. The GPE6 pop...

  16. Urease inhibitor for reducing ammonia emissions from an open-lot beef cattle feedyard in the Texas High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal feeding operations is important from the perspective of environmental policy and its impact on agriculture. In laboratory studies, urease inhibitors have been effective in reducing NH3 emissions from beef cattle manure, however there has been little t...

  17. Process-based Modeling of Ammonia Emission from Beef Cattle Feedyards with the Integrated Farm Systems Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrip, Heidi M; Rotz, C Alan; Hafner, Sasha D; Todd, Richard W; Cole, N Andy

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) volatilization from manure in beef cattle feedyards results in loss of agronomically important nitrogen (N) and potentially leads to overfertilization and acidification of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In addition, NH is involved in the formation of atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM), which can affect human health. Process-based models have been developed to estimate NH emissions from various livestock production systems; however, little work has been conducted to assess their accuracy for large, open-lot beef cattle feedyards. This work describes the extension of an existing process-based model, the Integrated Farm Systems Model (IFSM), to include simulation of N dynamics in this type of system. To evaluate the model, IFSM-simulated daily per capita NH emission rates were compared with emissions data collected from two commercial feedyards in the Texas High Plains from 2007 to 2009. Model predictions were in good agreement with observations and were sensitive to variations in air temperature and dietary crude protein concentration. Predicted mean daily NH emission rates for the two feedyards had 71 to 81% agreement with observations. In addition, IFSM estimates of annual feedyard emissions were within 11 to 24% of observations, whereas a constant emission factor currently in use by the USEPA underestimated feedyard emissions by as much as 79%. The results from this study indicate that IFSM can quantify average feedyard NH emissions, assist with emissions reporting, provide accurate information for legislators and policymakers, investigate methods to mitigate NH losses, and evaluate the effects of specific management practices on farm nutrient balances. PMID:25603064

  18. Methane production potential (B0) of swine and cattle manures--a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbout, S; Verma, M; Larouche, J P; Potvin, L; Chapman, A M; Lemay, S P; Pelletier, F; Brar, S K

    2010-11-01

    Canada's agricultural emissions accounted for 60 Mt or 8% of national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2007. The estimation of CH4 emission factor (B0) from manure management systems in Canada is prone to uncertainty owing to lack of B0 values for Canadian conditions. Therefore, in this study, manure samples from six Canadian animal farms, two each of swine, beef and dairy cattle, were investigated in order to estimate their methane production potential (B0). The ultimate anaerobic biodegradability was measured with ISO standard batch fermentation. The extent of biodegradation of the manure samples with or without sodium benzoate was always greater than 60% and hence showed no inhibitory effect on methane production by the manure. The impact of use of antibiotics in the animal feed on methane production was also considered; however, no inhibitory effect on methane production could be observed. The plateau of methane production in all cases was achieved by 63 d of anaerobic digestion process and the final pH was within 6-8. The calculated B0 were in the range of 0.47-0.42, 0.21-0.19 and 0.35-0.30 for swine, beef cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The uncertainties associated with B0 values were +/- 9% for swine, +/- 3% for beef cattle and, +/- 6 and +/- 2% for dairy cows.

  19. Pathological changes of suspected tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxins/tetrachloro dibenzofurans toxication in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of tetrachlorodibenzo-r-dioxins (TCDDs and tetra chlorinated dibenzofurans (TCDFs may affect human or animal health such as cancer, reproductive failure, dermaltoxicities and neurologic effects. The present study describes the effects of TCDD/TCDFs contamination in feed to various tissues of beef cattle to which TCDD/TCDFs were detected byGC MS/MS. The results revealed that POPs (DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, dieldrin and endrin as a precursor for dioxins were detected in all samples except drinking water. The total concentration of OC in soils was Nd – 42.73 mg/kg, grasses (3.30 – 27.66 mg/kg, well water (0.82 – 1.00 mg/kg, feed mill (3.90 mg/kg, sera (Nd – 13.08 mg/kg and meats (Nd – 100.72 mg/kg. Futhermore, the TEQ residues of TCDDs/TCDFs in beef were 4496.66 - 20642.40 pg/g from Yogyakarta, and 717.13pg/g (beef and 0.037 pg/g (brain tissues from Solo (Central Java. The concentration of TCDD/TCDFs residues in beef was above the maximum residue limit (MRL at 2 pg/g. Animal feeds is regarded as the main source of dioxins contamination in meats. Macroscopic changes were general anaemia, cachexia, fibrotic liver, athropic heart, ruminal impaction, constipated intestinal, haemorrhagic kidney, and ptechiae in the brain. Microscopically were depleted spleen vacuolation of interseptum, haemorrhages and accumulation of hemosiderin. Heart shows degeneration, fragmentation and pale cardiac muscle and swollen nuclei. Liver was pale, degeneration of epithelial cells and congestion. Lungs were pneumonia, oedema pulmonum and mild haemorrhage. Intestines showed haemorrhage and infiltration of mononuclear cells, neutrophyls and eosinophyls. Brain was haemorrhage, perivascular cuffs and intranuclear inclusion bodies. The animal was suffering from haemorrhagic enteritis, encephalitis, and hepatic degeneration.

  20. Effect of dietary treatment with olive oil by-product (olive cake) on physico-chemical, sensory and microbial characteristics of beef during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaella Branciari; David Ranucci; Dino Miraglia; Stefania Urbani; Sonia Esposto; Maurizio Servili

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a...

  1. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  2. Improving rumen ecology and microbial population by dried rumen digesta in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha; Saenkamsorn, Anuthida; Supapong, Chanadol; Anantasook, Nirawan; Gunun, Pongsatorn

    2015-06-01

    Four Thai native beef cattle with initial body weight (BW) of 91.8 ± 4.75 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to receive four concentrates replacement levels of soybean meal (SBM) by dried rumen digesta (DRD) at 0, 33, 67, and 100 % on dry matter (DM) basis. All cattle were fed rice straw ad libitum while additional concentrate was fed at 0.5 % BW daily. The experiment was conducted for four periods of 21 days. Rumen fluid was analyzed for predominant cellulolytic bacterial population by using real-time PCR technique. Increasing levels of DRD did not alter total feed intake, ruminal pH and temperature, and plasma urea nitrogen (P > 0.05). Protozoa and fungal population were not differed by DRD supplementation while population of bacteria at 4 h post feeding was increased when SBM was replaced with DRD at 66 and 100 % DM. Population of total bacteria and R. flavefaciens at 4 h post feeding were significantly highest with inclusion of 100 % of DRD in the ration. The experimental diets has no effect on excretion and absorption of purine derivatives (P > 0.05), while microbial crude protein and efficiency of microbial N synthesis were significantly increased with DRD inclusion in the diet and highest with 100 % DRD replacement (P > 0.05). Replacement of SBM by DRD at 100 % DM improved the rumen ecology and microbial population in beef cattle fed on rice straw. PMID:25851930

  3. Maximizing Use of Extension Beef Cattle Benchmarks Data Derived from Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jennifer M.; Hanna, Lauren L. Hulsman; Ringwall, Kris A.

    2016-01-01

    One goal of Extension is to provide practical information that makes a difference to producers. Cow Herd Appraisal Performance Software (CHAPS) has provided beef producers with production benchmarks for 30 years, creating a large historical data set. Many such large data sets contain useful information but are underutilized. Our goal was to create…

  4. Valuing Fed Cattle Using Objective Tenderness Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beef tenderness is critical in consumer satisfaction with beef steak products. Current fed cattle valuation systems do not differentiate carcasses based upon tenderness variation. However, considerable research indicates consumers are willing to pay more for tender relative to tough beef steak. T...

  5. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids.

  6. Production and quality of beef from young bulls fed diets supplemented with peanut cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, B R; Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Pires, A J V; Ribeiro, O L; Silva, R R; Leão, A G; Simionato, J I; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-08-01

    Peanut cake is a biodiesel byproduct that has been tested as an alternative feed additive for use in cattle production. This study aimed to assess the importance of dietary peanut cake inclusion for young bull growth rate, beef production, and beef quality. In total, 32 Nellore young bulls individually housed in stalls with a mean initial body weight of 390±43.5kg were distributed in a completely randomized design for the experiment. The animals were fed Tifton 85 hay and one of four concentrate mixtures with 0, 33, 66 or 100% peanut cake instead of soybean meal. There was a linear reduction (Pcake at levels up to 100% in the diet of feedlot-finished young bulls promotes a beneficial increase in the levels of PUFAs and the following nutraceutical compounds: conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids. PMID:27050756

  7. Assessment of welfare of finishing beef cattle kept on different types of floor after short- or long-term housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brscic, M; Gottardo, F; Tessitore, E; Guzzo, L; Ricci, R; Cozzi, G

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed at evaluating short- and long-term effects of housing beef cattle on deep litter (DL) or concrete fully slatted floor (FS) on their welfare. Animal-based measures of the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle were used to assess health status and behaviour of bulls. The assessment was carried out in a large commercial farm on 15 batches of bulls (4 DL and 11 FS) 1 month after their receiving day (short-term) and on 12 batches (three DL and nine FS) the week before slaughter (long-term). Signs of better comfort on deep litter in terms of shorter lying down durations (5.1 ± 0.5 v. 6.5 ± 0.4 s; Pwelfare of beef cattle finished at a heavy weight, deep litter systems are a promising alternative to fully slatted floors. However, proper management of deep litter is necessary to maintain satisfactory cleanliness of the bulls.

  8. Anaerobic fermentation of beef cattle manure. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, A.G.; Chen, Y.R.; Varel, V.H.

    1981-01-01

    The research to convert livestock manure and crop residues into methane and a high protein feed ingredient by thermophilic anaerobic fermentation are summarized. The major biological and operational factors involved in methanogenesis were discussed, and a kinetic model that describes the fermentation process was presented. Substrate biodegradability, fermentation temperature, and influent substrate concentration were shown to have significant effects on CH/sub 4/ production rate. The kinetic model predicted methane production rates of existing pilot and full-scale fermentation systems to within 15%. The highest methane production rate achieved by the fermenter was 4.7 L CH/sub 4//L fermenter day. This is the highest rate reported in the literature and about 4 times higher than other pilot or full-scale systems fermenting livestock manures. Assessment of the energy requirements for anaerobic fermentation systems showed that the major energy requirement for a thermophilic system was for maintaining the fermenter temperature. The next major energy consumption was due to the mixing of the influent slurry and fermenter liquor. An approach to optimizing anaerobic fermenter designs by selecting design criteria that maximize the net energy production per unit cost was presented. Based on the results, we believe that the economics of anaerobic fermentation is sufficiently favorable for farm-scale demonstration of this technology.

  9. Effect of polymorphisms linked to LEP gene on its expression on adipose tissues in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, D T; Hepp, D; Moraes, J C F; Weimer, T A

    2007-06-01

    In cattle, genetic markers at the leptin (LEP) gene and at those linked to the gene have been described as affecting calving interval (markers LEPSau3AI and IDVGA51), or daily weight gain (BMS1074 and BM1500). This work investigated the effect of these alleles on LEP mRNA levels in cattle subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues. A sample of 137 females of a Brangus-Ibage beef cattle herd was analysed to evaluate the distribution of the polymorphisms; then, animals having at least one of the IDVGA51*181 (allele 181 at marker IDVGA51; six animals), LEPSau3AI*2 (four), BMS1074*151 (13), BM1500*135 (six) alleles and a control group composed of animals without any of these alleles (four animals) were submitted to surgery to obtain omental and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Leptin mRNA expression was quantified by TaqMan RT-PCR, using 18S rRNA as internal control and adjusted for the effect of body condition score, through regression analysis. Omental fat had LEP gene expression 33% lower than the subcutaneous tissue. Carriers of IDVGA*181 and BMS1074*151 showed subcutaneous fat leptin mRNA levels higher than the controls. Leptin controls feed intake and coordinates reproduction; therefore, animals with higher LEP gene expression will probably have lower daily weight gain than others with similar forage offer and nutritional condition and probably will also have longer calving interval. PMID:17550358

  10. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART II: BEEF COW/CALF REPRODUCTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. Data for Part II: Nutritional & Reproductive Management Practices, were collected by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) from beef pr...

  11. Implicit Value of Retail Beef Brands and Retail Meat Product Attributes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Jennifer M.; Ward, Clement E.; Lusk, Jayson L

    2007-01-01

    Consumers reveal preferences for fresh beef attributes through their retail beef purchases. Hedonic pricing methods were used to estimate the value consumers place on observable characteristics of fresh beef products, especially on retail beef brands. Primary data were collected from 65 randomly generated grocery stores located in three metropolitan areas, Oklahoma City and Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Denver, Colorado. Retail beef package data were collected on 462 ground products, 175 roast product...

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  14. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Raies A; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Elzo, Mauricio; Ahn, Soohyoun; Driver, J Danny; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey

    2016-01-01

    Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260) from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  15. Colonization of Beef Cattle by Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli during the First Year of Life: A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raies A Mir

    Full Text Available Each year Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC are responsible for 2.8 million acute illnesses around the world and > 250,000 cases in the US. Lowering the prevalence of this pathogen in animal reservoirs has the potential to reduce STEC outbreaks in humans by controlling its entrance into the food chain. However, factors that modulate the colonization and persistence of STEC in beef cattle remain largely unidentified. This study evaluated if animal physiological factors such as age, breed, sex, and weight gain influenced the shedding of STEC in beef cattle. A cohort of beef calves (n = 260 from a multi-breed beef calf population was sampled every three months after birth to measure prevalence and concentration of STEC during the first year of life. Metagenomic analysis was also used to understand the association between the STEC colonization and the composition of gut microflora. This study identified that beef calves were more likely to shed STEC during the first 6 months and that STEC shedding decreased as the animal matured. Animal breed group, sex of the calf, and average weight gain were not significantly associated with STEC colonization. The metagenomic analysis revealed for the first time that STEC colonization was correlated with a lower diversity of gut microflora, which increases as the cattle matured. Given these findings, intervention strategies that segregate younger animals, more likely to be colonized by STEC from older animals that are ready to be harvested, could be investigated as a method to reduce zoonotic transmission of STEC from cattle to humans.

  16. Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescriptions Enhance Growth Performance of Heat Stressed Beef Cattle by Relieving Heat Stress Responses and Increasing Apparent Nutrient Digestibility

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Xiaozhen; Luo, Junrong; Fu, Daibo; Zhao, Xianghui; Bunlue, Kornmatitsuk; Xu, Zhensong; Qu, Mingren

    2014-01-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions (TCM) on body temperature, blood physiological parameters, nutrient apparent digestibility and growth performance of beef cattle under heat stress conditions. Twenty-seven beef cattle were randomly divided into three groups as following; i) high temperature control (HTC), ii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions I+high temperature (TCM I) and iii) traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions II+hi...

  17. DEMAND FOR BEEF FROM CATTLE ADMINISTERED GROWTH HORMONES OR FED GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN: A COMPARISON OF CONSUMERS IN FRANCE, GERMANY, THE UNITED KINGDOM, AND THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L Lusk; Roosen, Jutta; Fox, John A.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares consumer valuations of beef steaks from cattle produced without growth hormones or genetically modified corn in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In general, European consumers place a higher value on beef from cattle that have not been administered growth hormones and/or fed genetically modified corn than United States consumers. There is a larger divergence between the two cultures with regard to the issue of biotechnology and genetic engineerin...

  18. Towards a representative assessment of methane and nitrous oxide emissions and mitigation options from manure management of beef cattle feedlots in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, C; Cerri, C. E. P.,; Dorich, C. D.; Maia, S. M. F.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; Cerri, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted an inventory to estimate methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil for the year of 2010. The aim was to determine (CH4) and (N2O) emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure in Brazil using the IPCC United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change approach and present a framework that structures priority research for decreasing uncertainties and assessing mitigation scenarios. The analysis consisted of the use of specific farm...

  19. Whole genome sequences of the USMARC beef cattle diversity panel v2.9 aligned to the bovine reference genome assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    A searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes from 96 beef sires from 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle was created. These sires with minimal pedigree relationships, represent >99% of the germplasm used in the US beef industry circa 2000. The group is estimated to contain more than 187 u...

  20. A meta-analytic assessment of a Thyroglobulin marker for marbling in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengersen Kerrie L

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A meta-analysis was undertaken reporting on the association between a polymorphism in the Thyroglobulin gene (TG5 and marbling in beef cattle. A Bayesian hierarchical model was adopted, with alternative representations assessed through sensitivity analysis. Based on the overall posterior means and posterior probabilities, there is substantial support for an additive association between the TG5 marker and marbling. The marker effect was also assessed across various breed groups, with each group displaying a high probability of positive association between the T allele and marbling. The WinBUGS program code used to simulate the model is included as an Appendix available online at http://www.edpsciences.org/gse.

  1. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle. PMID:22444040

  2. Real-time PCR genotyping and frequency of the myostatin F94L mutation in beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, D M; Waine, D R; Fortes, M R S

    2010-04-01

    This research developed two real-time PCR assays, employing high-resolution melt and allele-specific analysis to accurately genotype the F94L mutation in cattle. This mutation (g.433C > A) in the growth differentiation factor 8 or myostatin gene has recently been shown to be functionally associated with increased muscle mass and carcass yield in cattle. The F94L mutation is not, like other myostatin mutations, associated with reduced fertility and dystocia. It is therefore a candidate for introgression into other breeds to improve retail beef yield and the development of a simple and accurate test to genotype this specific mutation is warranted. Variations in the efficiency of enzyme cleavage compromised the accuracy of genotyping by published methods, potentially resulting in an overestimation of the frequency of the mutant allele. The frequency of the F94L mutation was determined by real-time PCR in 1140 animals from 15 breeds of cattle in Australia. The mutation was present in Simmental (0.8%), Piedmontese (2%), Droughtmaster (4%) and Limousin (94.2%) but not found in Salers, Angus, Poll Hereford, Hereford, Gelbvieh, Charolais, Jersey, Brahman, Holstein, Shorthorn or Maine Anjou. The low prevalence of F94L in all beef breeds except Limousin indicates the significant potential for this mutation to improve retail yield in Australian beef cattle.

  3. Particulate emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Henry F; Maghirang, Ronaldo G; Trabue, Steven L; McConnell, Laura L; Prueger, John H; Razote, Edna B

    2014-07-01

    Data on air emissions from open-lot beef cattle () feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine fluxes of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm (PM) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas using the flux-gradient technique, a widely used micrometeorological method for air emissions from open sources. Vertical PM concentration profiles and micrometeorological parameters were measured at the feedlot using tapered element oscillating microbalance PM samplers and eddy covariance instrumentations (i.e., sonic anemometer and infrared hygrometer), respectively, from May 2010 through September 2011, representing feedlot conditions with air temperatures ranging from -24 to 39°C. Calculated hourly PM fluxes varied diurnally and seasonally, ranging up to 272 mg m h, with an overall median of 36 mg m h. For warm conditions (air temperature of 21 ± 10°C), the highest hourly PM fluxes (range 116-146 mg m h) were observed during the early evening period, from 2000 to 2100 h. For cold conditions (air temperature of -2 ± 8°C), the highest PM fluxes (range 14-27 mg m h) were observed in the afternoon, from 1100 to 1500 h. Changes in the hourly trend of PM fluxes coincided with changes in friction velocity, air temperature, sensible heat flux, and surface roughness. The PM emission was also affected by the pen surface water content, where a water content of at least 20% (wet basis) would be sufficient to effectively reduce PM emissions from pens by as much as 60%.

  4. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, nested PCR probe was performed on blood samples. Association between potential risk factors and seroprevalence was estimated. Results. Overall seroprevalence was 23% (35/149 samples, while the prevalence of parasite DNA in blood was 28% (42/149 samples. Of the 149 animals examined 28 (19% were positive to both tests (25 cows and 3 bulls. Concordance between tests was k = 0.63. All herds had seropositive animals with positive parasite DNA detection in blood. The only risk factor identified was the presence of dogs (OR= 2.65. Conclusions. This study showed that bovine neospososis should be considered as an important infectious disease in north-central Mexico herds. Therefore, an epidemiological control should be taken into consideration to avoid the negative effect of this disease on mexican beef industry.

  5. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; de Souza, Marcela Maria

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDR<0.05) found between the two groups, 18 were up-regulated and 31 down-regulated for the animals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  6. Iron Content Affects Lipogenic Gene Expression in the Muscle of Nelore Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Wellison Jarles da Silva; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann; Tizioto, Polyana Cristine; Cesar, Aline Silva Mello; Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Nogueira, Ana Rita Araújo; de Oliveira, Priscila Silva Neubern; Souza, Marcela Maria de; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential mineral for metabolism and plays a central role in a range of biochemical processes. Therefore, this study aimed to identify differentially expressed (DE) genes and metabolic pathways in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle from cattle with divergent iron content, as well as to investigate the likely role of these DE genes in biological processes underlying beef quality parameters. Samples for RNA extraction for sequencing and iron, copper, manganese, and zinc determination were collected from LD muscles at slaughter. Eight Nelore steers, with extreme genomic estimated breeding values for iron content (Fe-GEBV), were selected from a reference population of 373 animals. From the 49 annotated DE genes (FDRanimals in the low Fe-GEBV group. The functional enrichment analyses identified several biological processes, such as lipid transport and metabolism, and cell growth. Lipid metabolism was the main pathway observed in the analysis of metabolic and canonical signaling pathways for the genes identified as DE, including the genes FASN, FABP4, and THRSP, which are functional candidates for beef quality, suggesting reduced lipogenic activities with lower iron content. Our results indicate metabolic pathways that are partially influenced by iron, contributing to a better understanding of its participation in skeletal muscle physiology. PMID:27532424

  7. Evaluation of organic, conventional and intensive beef farm systems: health, management and animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Penedo, I; López-Alonso, M; Shore, R F; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Benedito, J L

    2012-09-01

    The overall aim of the present study was to analyse and compare organic beef cattle farming in Spain with intensive and conventional systems. An on-farm study comparing farm management practices and animal health was carried out. The study also focussed on a slaughterhouse analysis by comparing impacts on the safety and quality of the cattle products. Twenty-four organic and 26 conventional farms were inspected, and farmers responded to a questionnaire that covered all basic data on their husbandry practices, farm management, veterinary treatments and reproductive performance during 2007. Furthermore, data on the hygiene and quality of 244, 2596 and 3021 carcasses of calves from organic, intensive and conventional farms, respectively, were retrieved from the official yearbook (2007) of a slaughterhouse. Differences found between organic and conventional farms across the farm analysis did not substantially reflect differences between both farm types in the predominant diseases that usually occur on beef cattle farms. However, calves reared organically presented fewer condemnations at slaughter compared with intensive and to a lesser extent with conventionally reared calves. Carcass performance also reflected differences between farm type and breed and was not necessarily better in organic farms.

  8. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15 Section 319.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Raw Meat Products §...

  9. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  10. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot.

  11. Evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40 days after arrival at a feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, Edouard; Workentine, Matthew; Schryvers, Anthony B; Holman, Devin B; van der Meer, Frank; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-05-01

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in beef cattle. There is recent evidence suggesting that the nasopharyngeal microbiota has a key role in respiratory health and disease susceptibility in cattle. However, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota when cattle are most likely to develop BRDc (i.e., from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot). The objective was to describe the evolution of the nasopharyngeal microbiota of beef cattle from weaning to 40days after arrival at a feedlot. Deep nasal swabs (DNS) from 30 Angus-cross steers were collected at weaning, on arrival at a feedlot, and at day 40 after arrival. The DNA was extracted from DNS and the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced (Illumina MiSeq platform). Nasopharyngeal microbiota underwent a profound evolution from weaning to arrival at the feedlot and from arrival to day 40, with the abundance of 92 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) significantly changing over time. Mycoplasma (M. dispar and M. bovirhinis) was the most abundant genus in the nasopharynx, accounting for 53% of the total bacterial population. Because an evolving bacterial community may be less capable of resisting colonization by pathogenic bacteria, the instability of the nasopharyngeal microbiota documented in this study might explain why cattle are most likely to be affected with BRDc during the first weeks after weaning and arrival at a feedlot. PMID:27066712

  12. Carbon footprint and ammonia emissions of California beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse-Lawson, K R; Rotz, C A; Oltjen, J W; Mitloehner, F M

    2012-12-01

    Beef production is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH(3)) emissions; however, little information exists on the net emissions from beef production systems. A partial life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted using the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to estimate GHG and NH(3) emissions from representative beef production systems in California. The IFSM is a process-level farm model that simulates crop growth, feed production and use, animal growth, and the return of manure nutrients back to the land to predict the environmental impacts and economics of production systems. Ammonia emissions are determined by summing the emissions from animal housing facilities, manure storage, field applied manure, and direct deposits of manure on pasture and rangeland. All important sources and sinks of methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide are predicted from primary and secondary emission sources. Primary sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and fuel combustion. Secondary emissions occur during the production of resources used on the farm, which include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, and purchased animals. The carbon footprint is the net exchange of all GHG in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) units per kg of HCW produced. Simulated beef production systems included cow-calf, stocker, and feedlot phases for the traditional British beef breeds and calf ranch and feedlot phases for Holstein steers. An evaluation of differing production management strategies resulted in ammonia emissions ranging from 98 ± 13 to 141 ± 27 g/kg HCW and carbon footprints of 10.7 ± 1.4 to 22.6 ± 2.0 kg CO(2)e/kg HCW. Within the British beef production cycle, the cow-calf phase was responsible for 69 to 72% of total GHG emissions with 17 to 27% from feedlot sources. Holstein steers that entered the beef production system as a by-product of dairy production had the lowest carbon footprint because the emissions

  13. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  14. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  15. Measuring and modeling nitrous oxide and methane emissions from beef cattle feedlot manure management: First assessments under Brazilian condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ciniro; Li, Changsheng; Cerri, Carlos E P; Cerri, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Intensive beef production has increased during recent decades in Brazil and may substantially increase both methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from manure management. However, the quantification of these gases and methods for extrapolating them are scarce in Brazil. A case study examines CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from one typical beef cattle feedlot manure management continuum in Brazil and the applicability of Manure-DNDC model in predicting these emissions for better understand fluxes and mitigation options. Measurements track CH(4) and N(2)O emissions from manure excreted in one housing floor holding 21 animals for 78 days, stockpiled for 73 days and field spread (360 kg N ha(-1)). We found total emissions (CH(4) + N(2)O) of 0.19 ± 0.10 kg CO(2)eq per kg of animal live weight gain; mostly coming from field application (73%), followed housing (25%) and storage (2%). The Manure-DNDC simulations were generally within the statistical deviation ranges of the field data, differing in -28% in total emission. Large uncertainties in measurements showed the model was more accurate estimating the magnitude of gases emissions than replicate results at daily basis. Modeled results suggested increasing the frequency of manure removal from housing, splitting the field application and adopting no-tillage system is the most efficient management for reducing emissions from manure (up to about 75%). Since this work consists in the first assessment under Brazilian conditions, more and continuous field measurements are required for decreasing uncertainties and improving model validations. However, this paper reports promising results and scientific perceptions for the design of further integrated work on farm-scale measurements and Manure-DNDC model development for Brazilian conditions. PMID:25035919

  16. Detecting loci under recent positive selection in dairy and beef cattle by combining different genome-wide scan methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Tani Utsunomiya

    Full Text Available As the methodologies available for the detection of positive selection from genomic data vary in terms of assumptions and execution, weak correlations are expected among them. However, if there is any given signal that is consistently supported across different methodologies, it is strong evidence that the locus has been under past selection. In this paper, a straightforward frequentist approach based on the Stouffer Method to combine P-values across different tests for evidence of recent positive selection in common variations, as well as strategies for extracting biological information from the detected signals, were described and applied to high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP data generated from dairy and beef cattle (taurine and indicine. The ancestral Bovinae allele state of over 440,000 SNP is also reported. Using this combination of methods, highly significant (P<3.17×10(-7 population-specific sweeps pointing out to candidate genes and pathways that may be involved in beef and dairy production were identified. The most significant signal was found in the Cornichon homolog 3 gene (CNIH3 in Brown Swiss (P = 3.82×10(-12, and may be involved in the regulation of pre-ovulatory luteinizing hormone surge. Other putative pathways under selection are the glucolysis/gluconeogenesis, transcription machinery and chemokine/cytokine activity in Angus; calpain-calpastatin system and ribosome biogenesis in Brown Swiss; and gangliosides deposition in milk fat globules in Gyr. The composite method, combined with the strategies applied to retrieve functional information, may be a useful tool for surveying genome-wide selective sweeps and providing insights in to the source of selection.

  17. The effect of sex and DGAT1 gene polymorphism on fat deposition traits in simmental beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Karolyi D.; Čubrić-Čurik Vlatka; Salajpal K.; Đikić Marija

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene K232A mutation in Simmental cattle and its effects on fat deposition traits. The sample (n=26) consisted of yearling bulls and beef heifers from an intensive rearing system in Croatia. Carcass fatness was assessed by total dissection method, whereas intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi) content was determined using Soxhlet extraction with hydrolysis. Intramuscular fatty acid composit...

  18. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    OpenAIRE

    K. Maghfiroh; H. Latif; K. Santoso

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11) in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses we...

  19. Reconciling industry policy and comparative advantage: the regional distribution of China’s cattle and beef industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Scott A.; Brown, Colin G.

    2000-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years on ‘local state corporatism’, centre-region relations, government and enterprise reform and on sustainable rural and agricultural development in China. Based on some of the theoretical underpinnings of this literature, and on extensive fieldwork in the full range of administrative levels, this paper presents an institutional approach to one Chinese rural industry. For a number of reasons, the Chinese cattle and beef industry serves as a highly revealing c...

  20. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Deobald Heather M; Buchanan Fiona C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield) and quality (degree of marbling) in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) has pre...

  1. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ATTRIBUTES OF BEEF CATTLE RAISED USING ULTRASOUND TECHNOLOGY AND PRICES RECEIVED AT THE PACKERS: A HEDONIC PRICE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Perkins, Tommy; Paschal, Joe C.

    2003-01-01

    Sluggish growth in per capita consumption and a downward pressure on beef price at the farm level has required producers to raise cattle that precisely target the meat attributes desired by consumers. Ultrasound technology can help farmers to produce a carcass with an optimal mix of marbling and muscling, and external fat. The results of this study show a high level of accuracy of ultrasound technology in predicting carcass attributes. An estimated hedonic regression model shows that the carc...

  2. Material Cycle of Agriculture on Miyakojima Island: Material Flow Analysis for Sugar Cane, Pasturage and Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Tamura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture on Miyakojima Island is highly dependent on imported fertilizer and feed. To reduce this dependence, the present research examines the biomass resources on the island by conducting a material flow analysis of stockbreeding and other related systems. To accurately quantify the amount of available biomass resources, loss ratios of the storage and composting processes are established. Then, a material flow analysis of a composting facility is made. Finally, current material flows between beef cattle, sugar cane and pasturage are shown. Based on this research, two proposals are made: the first is to use urine as liquid fertilizer, which is currently being done in Saga prefecture. The precedent of using urine as fertilizer is now widely accepted in the Saga area; is considered to be readily adoptable in other areas and could be substituted for the imported fertilizers on Miyakojima Island. The second is to use more residues of sugar cane for the beef cattle feed when the pasturage growth is slow in the winter. The present research suggests that the silage feeds for beef cattle.

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF 5-C FACTORS ON RATE OF CREDIT RETURN IN BEEF CATTLE FARMING IN CENTRAL JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Prasetyo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aims of study were to analyze (i income of beef cattle farming, (ii ability of farmers to meettheir obligation for returning credit, (iii role of character, capacity, capital, collateral and conditions(5C and its effect on credit return. The study was conducted using survey methods on farmers (fatteningand cow-calf operation, who use credit. Sample location was determined using two stage clusterrandom sampling based on beef cattle population, namely region of Grobogan, Blora, Rembang,Wonogiri and Boyolali. Number of respondents was 50 for fattening and 50 for cow-calf operation. Datawere analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistic, which consisted of scoring, income and multiplelinear regression. Results showed that income per-year of beef cattle fattening was greater than cow-calfoperation (IDR 8,954,208.00>1,606,786.00, as well as its contribution to the household farmers’income (49.45>14.91%. Credit return ability was 61.35% based on amount of credit IDR 22,482,510.Five-C analysis resulted that character and capacity of farmers were in adequate category, while capital,collateral and condition were IDR 14,932,500.00, IDR 58,740,000.00 and IDR 14,440,600.00. Capitaland collateral had significant effects, while character, capacity and condition had no significant effectson credit return.

  4. Prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in feces of black beef cattle reared in three geographically distant areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Megumi; Iwabuchi, Eriko; Yamamoto, Shiori; Muramatsu, Masatake; Takashima, Ikuo; Hirai, Katsuya

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Listeria monocytogenes in the feces of black beef cattle reared in geographically distant areas in Japan. We surveyed 130 farms in the following three areas: northern (Hokkaido prefecture), central (Gifu and Mie prefectures), and southern (Oita, Miyazaki, and Kagoshima prefectures) areas and collected 1738 fecal samples. Our data showed the following isolation rate for each area: northern, 11.4% of 651; central, 2.8% of 572; and southern, 2.9% of 515, indicating that the isolation rate in the northern area was significantly higher than that in the central or southern areas (pcattle. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) characterization of 239 isolates detected 48 different PFGE types. We found that isolates from northern farms were genetically diverse compared to those from central and southern farms. Five isolates from human clinical cases and three isolates from animal clinical cases were identical to isolates from black beef cattle. Furthermore, the isolates from northern and central farms were characterized to possess epidemic clone II or III markers. We next showed that the isolates were susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, erythromycin, vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Taken together, our survey provides crucial data regarding the prevalence and characteristics of L. monocytogenes in black beef cattle farms throughout Japan. PMID:24180587

  5. Agro-industrial by-products as roughage source for beef cattle: Chemical composition, nutrient digestibility and energy values of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil – Ipil leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Sruamsiri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products and nutrient digestibility of ensiled sweet corn cob and husk with different levels of Ipil - Ipil leaves (Leucaena leucocephala. Four native cattle were assigned by Latin Square Design to receive all dietary treatments in four experimental periods i.e. ensiled sweet corn cob and husk (ESCH, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 10 % Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 10% IL, ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 20% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 20% IL and ensiled sweet corn cob and husk + 30% Ipil - Ipil leaves (ESCH + 30% IL, respectively. Total collection method was used to determine the digestibility coefficients. Results showed that digestibility coefficients in ESCH were low (P>0.05 in all the nutrients. Supplementation of Ipil - Ipil leaves in ESCH increased digestibility coefficients. Total digestible nutrients (TDN and digestible energy were higher in the silages supplemented with Ipil - Ipil leaves. Average TDN contents of ESCH, ESCH + 10% IL, 20% IL and 30% IL were 62.78 + 6.14, 70.41 + 4.04, 72.73 + 2.78 and 63.07 + 4.06 %DM, respectively.

  6. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Da-jeong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular fat deposition on highly divergent marbling phenotypes in adult Hanwoo cattle. Results Bovine genome array analysis was conducted to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs in m. longissimus with divergent marbling phenotype (marbling score 2 to 7. Three data-processing methods (MAS5.0, GCRMA and RMA were used to test for differential expression (DE. Statistical analysis identified 21 significant transcripts from at least two data-processing methods (P . All 21 differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time PCR. Results showed a high concordance in the gene expression fold change between the microarrays and the real time PCR data. Gene Ontology (GO and pathway analysis demonstrated that some genes (ADAMTS4, CYP51A and SQLE over expressed in high marbled animals are involved in a protein catabolic process and a cholesterol biosynthesis process. In addition, pathway analysis also revealed that ADAMTS4 is activated by three regulators (IL-17A, TNFα and TGFβ1. QRT-PCR was used to investigate gene expression of these regulators in muscle with divergent intramuscular fat contents. The results demonstrate that ADAMTS4 and TGFβ1 are associated with increasing marbling fat. An ADAMTS4/TGFβ1 pathway seems to be associated with the phenotypic differences between high and low marbled groups. Conclusions Marbling differences are possibly a function of complex signaling pathway interactions between muscle and fat. These results suggest that ADAMTS4

  7. Factors associated with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Wasdin, J G; Dixon, W P; Jones, J L

    2006-01-01

    Cow and calf genetic and environmental factors were evaluated for their association with ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed population of beef cattle. The ELISA scores are a measure of the presence or absence of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in bovine serum. The linear mixed-model analysis used 352 ELISA scores from 238 cows: 51 Angus (A); 34 Brahman (B); 41 (3/4 A 1/4 B); 45 (1/2 A 1/2 B); 34 (1/4 A 3/4 B); and 33 Brangus (5/8 A 3/8 B). Cows were assumed to be unrelated. Year affected (P < 0.001) ELISA scores, but age of cow did not, which was expected to be significant because of the chronic progressive nature of this disease. Important regressions on fixed effects associated with cows were 1) a positive estimate of cow B breed effect (0.59 +/- 0.24; P < 0.017), indicating an upward trend of ELISA scores toward 100% B cows; 2) a negative estimate for weight change from before calving (late November) to the date of the blood sample in May (-0.0062 +/- 0.0019 score/kg; P < 0.002), indicating that poorer maintenance of cow weights was associated with higher ELISA scores; and 3) a positive estimate for days in lactation of cow on the date of the blood sample (0.0086 +/- 0.0034 score/d; P < 0.021), indicating the production of larger amounts of antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis as lactation progressed. Relevant regressions on fixed effects associated with calves were 1) calf birth weight (-0.022 +/- 0.010 score/kg; P < 0.035), and 2) calf gain from birth to the date of the cow blood sample (-0.0092 +/- 0.0027 score/kg; P < 0.001). These estimates indicate that cows that produced lighter calves at birth and/or calves with slower preweaning growth tended to have greater ELISA scores. Although the sensitivity (percentage of infected animals detected) of ELISA was only 50%, these results suggest that subclinical paratuberculosis may be negatively affecting cows and their offspring. Factors

  8. Genetic diversity and divergence among Spanish beef cattle breeds assessed by a bovine high-density SNP chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañas-Álvarez, J J; González-Rodríguez, A; Munilla, S; Varona, L; Díaz, C; Baro, J A; Altarriba, J; Molina, A; Piedrafita, J

    2015-11-01

    The availability of SNP chips for massive genotyping has proven to be useful to genetically characterize populations of domestic cattle and to assess their degree of divergence. In this study, the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip genotyping array was used to describe the genetic variability and divergence among 7 important autochthonous Spanish beef cattle breeds. The within-breed genetic diversity, measured as the marker expected heterozygosity, was around 0.30, similar to other European cattle breeds. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that 94.22% of the total variance was explained by differences within individuals whereas only 4.46% was the result of differences among populations. The degree of genetic differentiation was small to moderate as the pairwise fixation index of genetic differentiation among breeds (F) estimates ranged from 0.026 to 0.068 and the Nei's D genetic distances ranged from 0.009 to 0.016. A neighbor joining (N-J) phylogenetic tree showed 2 main groups of breeds: Pirenaica, Bruna dels Pirineus, and Rubia Gallega on the one hand and Avileña-Negra Ibérica, Morucha, and Retinta on the other. In turn, Asturiana de los Valles occupied an independent and intermediate position. A principal component analysis (PCA) applied to a distance matrix based on marker identity by state, in which the first 2 axes explained up to 17.3% of the variance, showed a grouping of animals that was similar to the one observed in the N-J tree. Finally, a cluster analysis for ancestries allowed assigning all the individuals to the breed they belong to, although it revealed some degree of admixture among breeds. Our results indicate large within-breed diversity and a low degree of divergence among the autochthonous Spanish beef cattle breeds studied. Both N-J and PCA groupings fit quite well to the ancestral trunks from which the Spanish beef cattle breeds were supposed to derive.

  9. Effects of supplementing rare earth element cerium on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S X; Wei, C; Zhao, G Y; Zhang, T T; Yang, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of the trial were to investigate the effects of supplementing rare earth element (REE) cerium (Ce) on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, methane (CH4 ) production, nitrogen (N) balance and plasma biochemical parameters in beef cattle. Four Simmental male cattle, aged at 14 months, with initial liveweight of 355 ± 8 kg and fitted with permanent rumen cannulas, were used as experimental animals. The cattle were fed with a total mixed ration (TMR) composed of concentrate mixture and corn silage. Four levels of cerium chloride (CeCl3 ·7H2 O, purity 99.9%), that is 0, 80, 160 and 240 mg CeCl3 /kg DM, were added to basal ration in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 15 days, of which the first 12 days were for pre-treatment and the last 3 days were for sampling. The results showed that supplementing CeCl3 at 160 or 240 mg/kg DM increased neutral detergent fibre (NDF) digestibility (p cattle increased the digestibility of NDF, decreased the molar ratio of rumen acetate to propionate, increased N retention and microbial N flow and decreased CH4 /kg DMI.

  10. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management. PMID:26484575

  11. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  12. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

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    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  13. Comparing environmental impacts of beef production systems: A review of life cycle assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production, and especially beef production, has a major impact on the environment. Environmental impacts, however, vary largely among beef systems. Understanding these differences is crucial to mitigate impacts of future global beef production. The objective of this research, therefore, wa

  14. 76 FR 72331 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ...-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA... for controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef... Escherichia coli in raw, intact and non-intact beef products and product components on or before December...

  15. Performance and ruminal metabolism in beef cattle in grazing system in the dry period of year receiving virginiamycin in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Fernandes Ferreira

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including virginiamycin (VM in two levels, the proteinenergy supplement for growing beef cattle diet with the tropical grass base in the dry season. Three treatments were evaluated: control treatment, only Mineral Supplement ME - Production - F.10 proteinenergy (SPE; 100 virginiamycin treatment (VM 100 + SPE 108 mg (Phigrow® VM / animal / day and treatment virginiamycin 200 (200 MV + SPE 216 mg (Phigrow® VM / animal / day. The variables analyzed were the supplement intake (SI, average daily gain (ADG, biometric measurements and body condition score (BCS in experiment 1 and the average daily supplement intake (ADSI, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen, in situ ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM, acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in experiment 2. There was no statistical difference for ADG, SI and biometric measurements (P>0.05, ADG for VM 200 of 0,431; VM 100 of 0.391 and control 0.398 kg/animal/day. There was no significant difference (P>0.05 for ruminal pH, the ammonia concentration and the variables at the in situ degradability of DM, NDF and ADF. The virginiamycin conveyed in SPE for beef cattle grazing can promote changes in consumption did not cause significant effects on the values of ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen and do not show significant effects on the degradability of DM, NDF and ADF.

  16. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of geneticim

  17. Prevalence and Characterization of Salmonella enterica and Salmonella Bacteriophages Recovered from Beef Cattle Feedlots in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yicheng; Savell, Jeffrey W; Arnold, Ashley N; Gehring, Kerri B; Gill, Jason J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Asymptomatic Salmonella carriage in beef cattle is a food safety concern, and the beef feedlot environment may function as a reservoir of this pathogen. The goal of this study was to identify and isolate Salmonella and Salmonella bacteriophages from beef cattle feedlot environments in order to better understand the microbial ecology of Salmonella and identify phages that might be useful as anti-Salmonella beef safety interventions. Three feedlots in south Texas were visited, and 27 distinct samples from each source were collected from dropped feces, feed from feed bunks, drinking water from troughs, and soil in cattle pens (n = 108 samples). Preenrichment, selective enrichment, and selective/differential isolation of Salmonella were performed on each sample. A representative subset of presumptive Salmonella isolates was prepared for biochemical identification and serotyping. Samples were pooled by feedlot and sample type to create 36 samples and enriched to recover phages. Recovered phages were tested for host range against two panels of Salmonella hosts. Salmonella bacteria were identified in 20 (18.5%) of 108 samples by biochemical and/or serological testing. The serovars recovered included Salmonella enterica serovars Anatum, Muenchen, Altona, Kralingen, Kentucky, and Montevideo; Salmonella Anatum was the most frequently recovered serotype. Phage-positive samples were distributed evenly over the three feedlots, suggesting that phage prevalence is not strongly correlated with the presence of culturable Salmonella. Phages were found more frequently in soil and feces than in feed and water samples. The recovery of bacteriophages in the Salmonella-free feedlot suggests that phages might play a role in suppressing the Salmonella population in a feedlot environment.

  18. Clinical biochemistry and pathology of mature beef cattle following ante-mortem intravenous administration of a commercial papain preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, R; O'Toole, D T; Wells, D E; Anderson, P H; Hartley, P; Berrett, S; Morris, J E; Insch, C G; Hayward, E A

    1987-01-01

    Ten healthy beef cattle in a commercial abbatoir were treated intravenously before slaughter with a commercial papain-based tenderising injection (Pro Ten). Animals were observed for behavioural and clinical abnormalities following treatment. Serum enzyme activities were measured pre-treatment and post-treatment immediately pre-slaughter < 6 min later to detect liver and muscle damage. Carcases were examined grossly post mortem. Histological examination of liver, kidney and muscle followed. Nine contemporary, age-matched controls were similarly examined. It was concluded that ProTen treatment did not cause any detectable hepatocellular or renal damage and there was no significant difference in the parameters examined between treated and untreated cattle. A decision to ban the use of ProTen in cattle could not therefore be based on the premise that it interfered with the animal's welfare in the period following injection under the conditions pertaining in this experiment. PMID:22055787

  19. Benchmarking beef production systems across the world for improved production and resource use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der A.; Ven, van de G.W.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The projected increase in global demand for animal-source food raises the question to what extent livestock production can be increased from the current levels. The aim of this research is to benchmark actual beef production against potential (i.e. the theoretical maximum) and feed-limited beef prod

  20. Genome-wide association study for behavior, type traits, and muscular development in Charolais beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, A; Daures, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Behavior, type traits, and muscular development are of interest for beef cattle breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable the identification of candidate genes, which enables gene-based selection and provides insight in the genetic architecture of these traits. The objective of the current study was to perform a GWAS for 3 behavior traits, 12 type traits, and muscular development in Charolais cattle. Behavior traits, including aggressiveness at parturition, aggressiveness during gestation period, and maternal care, were scored by farmers. Type traits, including udder conformation, teat, feet and legs, and locomotion, were scored by trained classifiers. Data used in the GWAS consisted of 3,274 cows with phenotypic records and genotyping information for 44,930 SNP. When SNP had a false discovery rate (FDR) smaller than 0.05, they were referred to as significant. When SNP had a FDR between 0.05 and 0.20, they were referred to as suggestive. Four significant and 12 suggestive regions were detected for aggressiveness during gestation, maternal care, udder balance, teat thinness, teat length, foot angle, foot depth, and locomotion. These 4 significant and 12 suggestive regions were not supported by other significant SNP in close proximity. No SNP with major effects were detected for behavior and type traits, and SNP associations for these traits were spread across the genome, suggesting that behavior and type traits were influenced by many genes, each explaining a small part of genetic variance. The GWAS identified 1 region on chromosome 2 significantly associated with muscular development, which included the myostatin gene (), which is known to affect muscularity. No other regions associated with muscular development were found. Results showed that the myostatin region associated with muscular development had pleiotropic effects on udder volume, teat thinness, rear leg, and leg angle. PMID:27285908

  1. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Parker, David B. [USDA Meat Animal Research Center, Clay Center, NE (United States); Snow, Daniel D. [Water Sciences Laboratory, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States); Zhou, Zhi [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Li, Xu, E-mail: xuli@unl.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3 × 10{sup −1} copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. - Highlights: • Partitioning of antimicrobials between water and sludge is compound specific. • Antimicrobial resistance genes occurred in both water and sludge. • The ARG abundance varied more substantially in swine lagoons than in cattle ponds. • Correlations between ARGs and antimicrobials are system dependent.

  2. Methane Emissions from a Beef Cattle Feedyard during Winter and Summer on the Southern High Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Richard W; Altman, Miriam B; Cole, N Andy; Waldrip, Heidi M

    2014-07-01

    Methane (CH) emissions from enteric fermentation by livestock account for about 2.1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions, with beef and dairy cattle being the most significant sources. A better understanding of CH emissions from beef cattle feedyards can help build more accurate emission inventories, improve predictive models, and meet potential regulatory requirements. Our objective was to quantify CH emissions during winter and summer at a typical beef cattle feedyard on the southern High Plains in Texas. Methane emissions were quantified over 32 d in winter and 44 d in summer using open-path lasers and inverse dispersion analysis. Methane per capita emission rate (PCER) ranged from 71 to 118 g animal d in winter and from 70 to 130 g animal d in summer. Mean CH PCER was similar in January, February, and May (average, 85.0 ± 0.95 g animal d) and increased to 93.4 g animal d during the June-July period. This increase coincided with increased dietary fiber. Methane loss ranged from 9.2 to 11.4 g CH kg dry matter intake, with lower values during winter. Gross energy intake (GEI) ranged from 135.2 to 164.5 MJ animal d, and CH energy loss ranged from 4.5 to 4.9 MJ animal d. Fraction of GEI lost as CH (Y) averaged 2.8% in winter, 3.2% in summer, and 3.0% overall. These values confirm the Y value currently recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change for Tier 2 estimates of enteric CH from feedlot fed cattle. PMID:25603061

  3. Occurrence of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in beef cattle storage ponds and swine treatment lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Chiqian; Parker, David B; Snow, Daniel D; Zhou, Zhi; Li, Xu

    2013-10-01

    Livestock manure treatment and storage structures are potential environmental sources of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). In this study, the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs was investigated in the water and the sludge compartments of beef cattle storage ponds and swine lagoons. Analysis was focused on two families of antimicrobials (sulfonamide and tetracycline) and the corresponding ARGs (sul1, sul2, tetO, tetQ and tetX). Results showed that the pseudo-partitioning coefficients of tetracyclines were higher than those of sulfonamides, suggesting different distributions of these two classes of antimicrobials between water and sludge. The ARGs tested were detected in nearly all ponds and lagoons, with the highest relative abundance in sul2 at 6.3×10(-1) copies per 16S rRNA gene. A positive correlation was observed between total sul genes and total sulfonamides in water while the correlation was negative in sludge. No significant correlation was found between total tet genes and total tetracyclines in either water or sludge, but significant correlations were observed for certain individual tet genes. Ammonia concentrations strongly correlated with all ARGs except tetX. This study provided quantitative information on the occurrence of antimicrobials and ARGs in the liquid and solid compartments of typical manure treatment and storage structures. PMID:23838056

  4. Effect of beef cattle manure application rate on CH4 and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Nhu-Thuc; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Parker, David; Jeon, Eui-Chan; Sa, Jae-Hwan; Cho, Chang-Sang

    2012-12-01

    In a series of field experiments, emissions of two major greenhouse gases (GHGs), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured using a closed chamber technique in summer 2010 to evaluate the effects of solid beef cattle manure land application techniques. The treatments included a control (C: no manure), two manure application rates (40 and 80 T ha-1), and two injection layers (surface vs. subsurface (5 cm)): (1) 40 T ha-1 on surface (S40), (2) 80 T ha-1 on surface (S80), (3) 40 T ha-1 at subsurface (D40), and (4) 80 T ha-1 at subsurface (D80)). The exchange patterns of CH4 and CO2 in the control were variable and showed both emission and deposition. However, only emissions were seen in the manure treatments. Emissions of CH4 were seen systematically on the ascending order of 5.35 (C), 59.3 (S40), 68.7 (D40), 188 (S80), and 208 μg m-2 h-1 (D80), while those of CO2 also showed a similar trend: 12.9 (C), 37.6 (S40), 55.8 (D40), 82.4 (S80), and 95.4 mg m-2 h-1 (D80). The overall results of our study suggest that the emissions of CH4 and CO2 are affected most noticeably by the differences in the amount of manure application.

  5. Thai indigenous cattle production provide a sustainable alternative for the benefit of smallscale farmers, healthy food, and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, there are 5.66 million Thai indigenous cattle and their crossbred derivatives (1.76 million cows). The Department of Livestock Development (DLD) has a policy to conserve and use Thai indigenous cattle as the genetic base for establishing and developing new breeds of beef cattle. The objectives of this study were to study the production performance, carcass quality, healthy food production, economic potential, and environmental impacts of four breeds of Thai indigenous cattle (Kow-Lamphun, Kho-Esarn, Kho-Lan, and Kho-Chon cattle). Data were collected from two studies: i) 1 220 cattle from an experimental trial in DLD part, and ii) 390 cattle kept by smallholders in Northern, Northeastern, Central, and Southern parts of Thailand between October 2004 and September 2008. Data were adjusted by group, location, month, and year to analyse for the above parameters. Kho-Lan and Kho-Esarn cattle had the highest weaning weight and preweaning daily weight gains while Kow-Lamphun cattle had the highest Omega 3 (8.98%) and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) levels in their meat (0.02%), and produced the highest net incomes (306 915.80 Baht/y). Through the conservation and use policies of the DLD, Thai indigenous cattle provided various advantages for farmers, consumers, and environment. (author)

  6. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations for growth traits in both sexes of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1991-08-01

    Heterosis effects for birth weight, ADG from birth to weaning, 200-d weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, 368-d weight, 368-d height, 368-d condition score, and 368-d muscling score (males only) were evaluated separately for each sex in F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations in three composite beef cattle populations. Breed effects were evaluated for the nine parental breeds (i.e., Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 C, 1/4 B, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed effects were significant for all traits evaluated. The large differences among breeds for growth and size traits in combined additive direct and additive maternal genetic effects (Gi + Gm) provide an opportunity to use genetic differences among breeds to achieve and maintain optimum additive genetic (breed) composition for growth and size traits to match cattle genetic resources to a wide range of production and marketing situations. Combined individual and maternal heterosis was significant in the F1, F2, and combined F3 and F4 generations for each composite population and for the mean of the three composite populations in both sexes for most of the traits evaluated. In both sexes, heterosis retained in combined F3 and F4 generations was greater (P less than .05) than expected based on retained heterozygosity for birth weight, ADG from weaning to 368 d, and for 368-d weight and did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation for other traits. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis in cattle for traits related to growth and size is due to dominance effects of genes.

  7. THE EFFECT OF ORGANIC-Cr DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION ON STRESS RESPONSE IN TRANSPORT-STRESSED BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.H. Tanuwiria

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transportation over long distances resulted in stress at animal. Under these circumstances, animalusually manifest depression and the impact on physiological condition changes and loss of body weight.The objectives of the research were to examine effect supplementation of organic-Cr type into diets intransport-stress beef cattle on physiological condition, haematochemical (included were haematologicalcondition and blood chemical and body weight changes. The experiment was conducted using 16 beefcattle those were transported by truck for a distance of 400 km from Malangbong to Tangerang. Theexperiment was arranged by Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications.The dietary treatments consisted of R0 (basal diet without Cr supplemented, R1 (R0+3ppm organic-Crresulted of alkali hydrolysis, R2 (R0+3 ppm organic-Cr resulted from bioprocess, R3 (R0+3 ppmorganic-Cr resulted from bioremediation. The result indicated that type of organic-Cr supplementationat 3 ppm in diet did not influence physiological condition, haematochemical and body weight at beefcattle transported for seven hours. There was indication that beef cattle fed on control diet (without Crshowed a stress symptom, their loss of body weight were higher (5.41% compared to beef given dietcontains organic-Cr (3.72%, 5.04% and 4.83%, respectively for R1, R2 and R3.

  8. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  9. A meta-analysis of lasalocid effects on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Lean, I J

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lasalocid on rumen measures, beef and dairy performance, and carcass traits were evaluated using meta-analysis. Meta-regression was used to investigate sources of heterogeneity. Ten studies (20 comparisons) were used in the meta-analysis on rumen measures. Lasalocid increased total VFA and ammonia concentrations by 6.46 and 1.44 m, respectively. Lasalocid increased propionate and decreased acetate and butyrate molar percentage (M%) by 4.62, 3.18, and 0.83%, respectively. Valerate M% and pH were not affected. Meta-regression found butyrate M% linearly increased with duration of lasalocid supplementation (DUR; = 0.017). When >200 mg/d was fed, propionate and valerate M% were higher and acetate M% was lower ( = 0.042, = 0.017, and = 0.005, respectively). Beef performance was assessed using 31 studies (67 comparisons). Lasalocid increased ADG by 40 g/d, improved feed-to-gain ratio (F:G) by 410 g/kg, and improved feed efficiency (FE; combined measure of G:F and the inverse of F:G). Lasalocid did not affect DMI, but heterogeneity in DMI was influenced by DUR ( = 0.004) and the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.011). The combination of ≤100 vs. >100 d DUR and entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg showed that cattle ≤275 kg at entry fed lasalocid for >100 d had the lowest DMI. Heterogeneity of ADG was influenced by the linear effect of entry BW ( = 0.028) but not DUR. Combining entry BW ≤275 vs. >275 kg and DUR showed that cattle entering at >275 kg fed ≤100 d had the highest ADG. The FE ( = 0.025) and F:G ( = 0.015) linearly improved with dose, and entry BW >275 kg improved F:G ( = 0.038). Fourteen studies (25 comparisons) were used to assess carcass traits. Lasalocid increased HCW by 4.73 kg but not dressing percentage, mean fat cover, or marbling score. Heterogeneity of carcass traits was low and not affected by DUR or dose. Seven studies (11 comparisons) were used to assess dairy performance but the study power was relatively low and the evidence base is

  10. Use of a bovine genome array to identify new biological pathways for beef marbling in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Da-jeong; Kim Nam-Kuk; Werf Julius; Gondro Cedric; Lee Seung-Hwan; Park Eung-Woo; Oh Sung-Jong; Gibson John P; Thompson John M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Marbling (intramuscular fat) is a valuable trait that impacts on meat quality and an important factor determining price of beef in the Korean beef market. Animals that are destined for this high marbling market are fed a high concentrate ration for approximately 30 months in the Korean finishing farms. However, this feeding strategy leads to inefficiencies and excessive fat production. This study aimed to identify candidate genes and pathways associated with intramuscular ...

  11. Treatments to Optimize the Use of Artificial Insemination and Reproductive Efficiency in Beef Cattle under Tropical Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocilon Gomes de Sá Filho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bos indicus cattle, the preferred genetic group in tropical climates, are characterized by having a lower reproductive efficiency than Bos taurus. The reasons for the poorer reproductive efficiency of the Bos indicus cows include longer lengths of gestation and postpartum anestrus, a short length of estrous behavior with a high incidence of estrus occurring during the dark hours, and puberty at older age and at a higher percentage of body weight relative to mature body weight. Moreover, geography, environment, economics, and social traditions are factors contributing for a lower use of reproductive biotechnologies in tropical environments. Hormonal protocols have been developed to resolve some of the reproductive challenges of the Bos indicus cattle and allow artificial insemination, which is the main strategy to hasten genetic improvement in commercial beef ranches. Most of these treatments use exogenous sources of progesterone associated with strategies to improve the final maturation of the dominant follicle, such as temporary weaning and exogenous gonadotropins. These treatments have caused large impacts on reproductive performance of beef cattle reared under tropical areas.

  12. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of gallic acid on nitrogen balance, nitrogen excretion pattern and urinary nitrogenous constituents in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen; Yang, Kai; Zhao, Guangyong; Lin, Shixin; Xu, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the trial was to study the effects of dietary supplementation of gallic acid (GA) on nitrogen (N) balance, N excretion pattern and urinary N constituents in beef cattle. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four male 30-month-old Simmental cattle (443 ± 22 kg live weight) received four levels of GA (purity ≥ 98.5%), i.e. 0, 5.3, 10.5, 21.1 g/kg DM, added to a basal ration. Each experimental period lasted 17 d, consisting of 12 d adaptation and 5 d sampling. The results showed that supplementation of GA at 5.3, 10.5 or 21.1 g/kg DM did not affect the N balance but regulated the N excretion pattern by increasing the ratio of faecal N/urinary N and decreasing the ratio of urinary urea N/total urinary N in beef cattle fed at maintenance level. PMID:27494638

  14. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  15. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavesi Odo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  16. Water quality of the Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  17. Growth potential of Clostridium perfringens from spores in acidified beef, pork and poultry products during chilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of C. perfringens to germinate and grow in acidified ground beef as well as in ten commercially prepared acidified beef, pork and poultry products was assessed. The pH of ground beef was adjusted using organic vinegar to achieve various pH values between 5.0 and 5.6; the pH of the commer...

  18. Growth and carcass traits associated with GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I gene polymorphisms in Zebu and crossbred beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério A. Curi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of the GH1/Alu I and POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphisms in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine the effects of these polymorphisms on growth and carcass traits in cattle submitted to feedlot management, an intensive production model. Genotyping was performed on 384 animals, including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu, 30 Simmental x Nellore crossbred and 245 Angus x Nellore crossbred cattle. Body weight, weight gain, dressing percentage, Longissimus dorsi area and backfat thickness were fitted using the General Linear Model (GLM procedure of the SAS program and the least square means of the genotypes were compared using the F test. The results showed significant associations between the LL genotype of the GH1/Alu I polymorphism and higher weight gain and body weight at slaughter (p < 0.05. The POU1F1/Hinf I polymorphism did not have any effect on the growth and carcass traits analyzed.

  19. 纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响%Effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on production performance and economic benefit in beef cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高月平; 张贵花; 王聪; 刘强; 白元生; 师周戈; 刘晓妮

    2013-01-01

    研究玉米秸秆经纤维素分解酶(纤维素酶和木聚糖酶)处理后的化学成分变化以及对肉牛生产性能和经济效益的影响.选用12月龄左右的西门塔尔牛36头,对照组饲喂基础日粮(混合精料十玉米秸秆,精粗比45∶55),试验组分别以0.5%、1.0%和1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆替代基础饲粮中的玉米秸秆进行为期70 d的试验.结果表明:采用纤维素分解酶处理玉米秸秆后化学成分发生变化,粗蛋白质含量增加显著,中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维降低显著,1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组中性洗涤纤维和酸性洗涤纤维显著低于1.0%的纤维素分解酶处理组.1.0%、1.5%的纤维素分解酶处理组西门塔尔牛干物质采食量、平均日增重和经济效益提高显著(P<0.05).适宜的纤维素分解酶添加水平为1.0%.%The objective was to evaluate the effects of corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme on nutrition of corn stover,production performance of beef cattles and economic benefit.Thirty-six Simmenta beef cattles (12-month-old) were randomly divided into 4 groups.The control group was fed the basal diet (mixed concentrate and corn stover,concentrate to roughage as 45 to 55).Treatments lasted for 70 days were fed corn stover fermented by cellulolytic enzyme at 0.5%,1.0% and 1.5 %,respectively.The results showed that chemical composition of corn stover changed with the addition of cellulolytic enzymes.The crude protein content increased significantly,neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber decreased significantly.neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of 1.5 % cellulolytic enzyme treatment were significantly lower than that of 1% cellulolytic enzyme treatment.The dry matter intake,average daily gain and economic benefit of 1.0%,1.5% cellulolytic enzyme treatment increased significantly (P<0.05).The cellulolytic enzyme addition level as 1% was good.

  20. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahagi Youichi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2 gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence was considered as a positional functional candidate for the gene responsible for marbling. In this study, we explored single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the AKIRIN2 and analyzed association of the SNP with marbling. Findings A SNP in the 3' untranslated region of the AKIRIN2, referred to as c.*188G>A, was the only difference detected between high- and low-marbled steer groups. The SNP was associated with marbling in 3 experiments using 100 sires (P = 0.041, 753 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 4 sires heterozygous for the c.*188G>A (P = 0.005, and 730 paternal half-sib progeny steers from 3 sires homozygous for the A allele at the c.*188G>A (P = 0.047, in Japanese Black beef cattle. The effect of genotypes of the SNP on subcutaneous fat thickness was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion These findings suggest that the AKIRIN2 SNP polymorphism is associated with marbling and may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase the levels of marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle.

  1. Strategies to predict and improve eating quality of cooked beef using carcass and meat composition traits in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateescu, R G; Oltenacu, P A; Garmyn, A J; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L

    2016-05-01

    Product quality is a high priority for the beef industry because of its importance as a major driver of consumer demand for beef and the ability of the industry to improve it. A 2-prong approach based on implementation of a genetic program to improve eating quality and a system to communicate eating quality and increase the probability that consumers' eating quality expectations are met is outlined. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the best carcass and meat composition traits to be used in a selection program to improve eating quality and 2) to develop a relatively small number of classes that reflect real and perceptible differences in eating quality that can be communicated to consumers and identify a subset of carcass and meat composition traits with the highest predictive accuracy across all eating quality classes. Carcass traits, meat composition, including Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), intramuscular fat content (IMFC), trained sensory panel scores, and mineral composition traits of 1,666 Angus cattle were used in this study. Three eating quality indexes, EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, were generated by using different weights for the sensory traits (emphasis on tenderness, flavor, and juiciness, respectively). The best model for predicting eating quality explained 37%, 9%, and 19% of the variability of EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3, and 2 traits, WBSF and IMFC, accounted for most of the variability explained by the best models. EATQ1 combines tenderness, juiciness, and flavor assessed by trained panels with 0.60, 0.15, and 0.25 weights, best describes North American consumers, and has a moderate heritability (0.18 ± 0.06). A selection index (I= -0.5[WBSF] + 0.3[IMFC]) based on phenotypic and genetic variances and covariances can be used to improve eating quality as a correlated trait. The 3 indexes (EATQ1, EATQ2, and EATQ3) were used to generate 3 equal (33.3%) low, medium, and high eating quality classes, and linear combinations of traits that

  2. Accuracy of genomic predictions for feed efficiency traits of beef cattle using 50K and imputed HD genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Akanno, E C; Crowley, J J; Schenkel, F; Li, H; De Pauw, M; Moore, S S; Wang, Z; Li, C; Stothard, P; Plastow, G; Miller, S P; Basarab, J A

    2016-04-01

    The accuracy of genomic predictions can be used to assess the utility of dense marker genotypes for genetic improvement of beef efficiency traits. This study was designed to test the impact of genomic distance between training and validation populations, training population size, statistical methods, and density of genetic markers on prediction accuracy for feed efficiency traits in multibreed and crossbred beef cattle. A total of 6,794 beef cattle data collated from various projects and research herds across Canada were used. Illumina BovineSNP50 (50K) and imputed Axiom Genome-Wide BOS 1 Array (HD) genotypes were available for all animals. The traits studied were DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI). Four validation groups of 150 animals each, including Angus (AN), Charolais (CH), Angus-Hereford crosses (ANHH), and a Charolais-based composite (TX) were created by considering the genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the validation groups. Each validation group had 7 corresponding training groups of increasing sizes ( = 1,000, 1,999, 2,999, 3,999, 4,999, 5,998, and 6,644), which also represent increasing average genomic distance between pairs of individuals in the training and validations groups. Prediction of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) was performed using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian method C (BayesC). The accuracy of genomic predictions was defined as the Pearson's correlation between adjusted phenotype and GEBV (), unless otherwise stated. Using 50K genotypes, the highest average achieved in purebreds (AN, CH) was 0.41 for DMI, 0.34 for ADG, and 0.35 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.21 for ADG, and 0.25 for RFI. Similarly, when imputed HD genotypes were applied in purebreds (AN, CH), the highest average was 0.14 for DMI, 0.15 for ADG, and 0.14 for RFI, whereas in crossbreds (ANHH, TX) it was 0.38 for DMI, 0.22 for ADG, and 0.24 for RFI. The of GBLUP predictions were

  3. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in akirin 2 gene with marbling in Japanese Black beef cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Seiki; Yamada, Takahisa; Sukegawa, Shin; Miyake, Takeshi; Fujita, Tatsuo; MORITA, Mitsuo; Ohta, Takeshi; Takahagi, Youichi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Background: Marbling defined by the amount and distribution of intramuscular fat, so-called Shimofuri, is an economically important trait of beef cattle in Japan. The c17-25 expressed sequence tag (EST) has been previously shown to possess expression difference in musculus longissimus muscle between low-marbled and high-marbled steer groups, and to be located within genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for marbling. Thus, the akirin 2 (AKIRIN2) gene containing the c17-25 EST sequence ...

  4. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; de Carvalho, Osmar Abílio; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, “traditional” cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates. PMID:26814797

  5. Dynamics of Cattle Production in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Concepta; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim; Formenton, Bruna Krummenauer; Hermuche, Potira Meirelles; Carvalho, Osmar Abílio de; Guimarães, RenatoFontes; Gianezini, Miguelangelo; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; Lampert, Vinícius do Nascimento; Zago, Daniele; Neto, José Braccini

    2016-01-01

    Movement of livestock production within a country or region has implications for genetics, adaptation, well-being, nutrition, and production logistics, particularly in continental-sized countries, such as Brazil. Cattle production in Brazil from 1977 to 2011 was spatialized, and the annual midpoint of production was calculated. Changes in the relative production and acceleration of production were calculated and spatialized using ARCGIS®. Cluster and canonical discriminant analyses were performed to further highlight differences between regions in terms of cattle production. The mean production point has moved from the Center of Minas Gerais State (in the southeast region) to the North of Goiás State (in the Midwest region). This reflects changes in environmental factors, such as pasture type, temperature and humidity. Acceleration in production in the northern region of Brazil has remained strong over the years. More recently, "traditional" cattle-rearing regions, such as the south and southeast, showed a reduction in growth rates as well as a reduction in herd size or internal migration over the period studied. These maps showed that this movement tends to be gradual, with few regions showing high acceleration or deceleration rates.

  6. Genetic analysis of carcass traits in beef cattle using random regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englishby, T M; Banos, G; Moore, K L; Coffey, M P; Evans, R D; Berry, D P

    2016-04-01

    Livestock mature at different rates depending, in part, on their genetic merit; therefore, the optimal age at slaughter for progeny of certain sires may differ. The objective of the present study was to examine sire-level genetic profiles for carcass weight, carcass conformation, and carcass fat in cattle of multiple beef and dairy breeds, including crossbreeds. Slaughter records from 126,214 heifers and 124,641 steers aged between 360 and 1,200 d and from 86,089 young bulls aged between 360 and 720 d were used in the analysis; animals were from 15,127 sires. Variance components for each trait across age at slaughter were generated using sire random regression models that included quadratic polynomials for fixed and random effects; heterogeneous residual variances were assumed across ages. Heritability estimates across genders ranged from 0.08 (±0.02) to 0.34 (±0.02) for carcass weight, from 0.24 (±0.02) to 0.42 (±0.01) for conformation, and from 0.16 (±0.03) to 0.40 (±0.02) for fat score. Genetic correlations within each trait across ages weakened as the interval between ages compared lengthened but were all >0.64, suggesting a similar genetic background for each trait across different ages. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed genetic variability among animals in their growth profiles for carcass traits, although most of the genetic variability was associated with the height of the growth profile. At the same age, a positive genetic correlation (0.60 to 0.78; SE ranged from 0.01 to 0.04) existed between carcass weight and conformation, whereas negative genetic correlations existed between fatness and both conformation (-0.46 to 0.08; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.09) and carcass weight (-0.48 to -0.16; SE ranged from 0.02 to 0.14) at the same age. The estimated genetic parameters in the present study indicate genetic variability in the growth trajectory in cattle, which can be exploited through breeding programs and

  7. Performance of intact and castrated beef cattle in an intensive croppasture rotation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tercilio Turini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research had as objective to evaluate the performance of intact or castrated beef cattle in a croppasture rotation system. The experiment was conducted during 2004 and 2005, and carried out at the Cooperativa Agropecuária Mourãoense (COAMO Experimental Farm, in Campo Mourão city, Paraná state. It was used a completely randomized design, with two treatments, intact or castrated. Forty ½Angus+½Nelore crossbred animals, with average age of nine months, were used. Half of the animals were castrated at weaning, and the other half was kept intact. Pasture was composed of two areas. The winter field, established after soybean crop, was composed by a mixture of black oat (Avena strigosa and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiforum. The summer field was composed by stargrass (Cynodon nlemfuensis and Mombaça grass (Panicum maximum. During the winter time it was used a continues grazing system, with regulator animals (put and take, and during the summer an intensive rotational system, with regulator animals and fixed grazing period. Intact animals presented higher average daily weight gain (0.907 vs 0.698 kg, slaughter weight (490.9 vs 442.2 kg, and hot carcass weight (250.2 vs 232.6 kg. Slaughter age was influenced by sexual condition, being lesser in the intact animals. Carcass dressing percentage was similar for the groups. Castrated animals showed better finishing fat cover and backfat thickness (3.45 vs 2.70 mm compared to intact ones. Therefore, it can be concluded that intact animals presents better performance than castrated ones when finished in an intensive crop-pasture rotation system, however, they may not present the minimum required fat cover, when slaughter at young ages.

  8. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  9. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd - 1st case in 27 years: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granberg Malin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative

  10. Anthrax outbreak in a Swedish beef cattle herd--1st case in 27 years: Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewerin, Susanna Sternberg; Elvander, Marianne; Westermark, Therese; Hartzell, Lisbeth Nisu; Norström, Agneta Karlsson; Ehrs, Sara; Knutsson, Rickard; Englund, Stina; Andersson, Ann-Christin; Granberg, Malin; Bäckman, Stina; Wikström, Per; Sandstedt, Karin

    2010-01-01

    After 27 years with no detected cases, an outbreak of anthrax occurred in a beef cattle herd in the south of Sweden. The outbreak was unusual as it occurred in winter, in animals not exposed to meat-and-bone meal, in a non-endemic country. The affected herd consisted of 90 animals, including calves and young stock. The animals were kept in a barn on deep straw bedding and fed only roughage. Seven animals died during 10 days, with no typical previous clinical signs except fever. The carcasses were reportedly normal in appearance, particularly as regards rigor mortis, bleeding and coagulation of the blood. Subsequently, three more animals died and anthrax was suspected at necropsy and confirmed by culture and PCR on blood samples. The isolated strain was susceptible to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Subtyping by MLVA showed the strain to cluster with isolates in the A lineage of Bacillus anthracis. Environmental samples from the holding were all negative except for two soil samples taken from a spot where infected carcasses had been kept until they were picked up for transport. The most likely source of the infection was concluded to be contaminated roughage, although this could not be substantiated by laboratory analysis. The suspected feed was mixed with soil and dust and originated from fields where flooding occurred the previous year, followed by a dry summer with a very low water level in the river allowing for the harvesting on soil usually not exposed. In the early 1900s, animal carcasses are said to have been dumped in this river during anthrax outbreaks and it is most likely that some anthrax spores could remain in the area. The case indicates that untypical cases in non-endemic areas may be missed to a larger extent than previously thought. Field tests allowing a preliminary risk assessment of animal carcasses would be helpful for increased sensitivity of detection and prevention of further exposure to the causative agent. PMID:20122147

  11. Genetic differences based on a beef terminal index are reflected in future phenotypic performance differences in commercial beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, S M; Cromie, A R; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    The increased demand for animal-derived protein and energy for human consumption will have to be achieved through a combination of improved animal genetic merit and better management strategies. The objective of the present study was to quantify whether differences in genetic merit among animals materialised into phenotypic differences in commercial herds. Carcass phenotypes on 156 864 animals from 7301 finishing herds were used, which included carcass weight (kg), carcass conformation score (scale 1 to 15), carcass fat score (scale 1 to 15) at slaughter as well as carcass price. The price per kilogram and the total carcass value that the producer received for the animal at slaughter was also used. A terminal index, calculated in the national genetic evaluations, was obtained for each animal. The index was based on pedigree index for calving performance, feed intake and carcass traits from the national genetic evaluations. Animals were categorised into four terminal index groups on the basis of genetic merit estimates that were derived before the expression of the phenotypic information by the validation animals. The association between terminal index and phenotypic performance at slaughter was undertaken using mixed models; whether the association differed by gender (i.e. young bulls, steers and heifers) or by early life experiences (animals born in a dairy herd or beef herd) was also investigated. The regression coefficient of phenotypic carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat on their respective estimated breeding values (EBVs) was 0.92 kg, 1.08 units and 0.79 units, respectively, which is close to the expectation of one. Relative to animals in the lowest genetic merit group, animals in the highest genetic merit group had, on average, a 38.7 kg heavier carcass, with 2.21 units greater carcass conformation, and 0.82 units less fat. The superior genetic merit animals were, on average, slaughtered 6 days younger than their inferior genetic merit

  12. Animal Health and Productivity Status of Cattle After The Eruption of Mount Merapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulvian Sani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The eruption of Merapi from October 26th to November 6th, 2010 has affected social life and environment around the Merapi. The eruption has caused destruction of land and water resources, plants, death of animals and human casualities. The lava, dust and stones released from the eruption of Merapi had caused residential destruction, casualities, agricultural land and plants destruction, and contamination of water. The eruption has directly affected 4 districts including Sleman (Yogyakarta, Magelang, Boyolali and Klaten (Central Java categorized as Disaster Risk Area (DRA. The purpose of this assessment is to analyse the impacts of Merapi eruption in animal health and productivity in particular for dairy and beef cattle. A total of 2.828 heads of cattle was reported died during the eruption of Merapi, and 1.962 heads died at the time of eruption and 36 heads at the arrival on evacuation areas. Animal that found died including 423 heads of beef cattle (0.13% and 2.405 heads of dairy cattle (3.2%. Clinical sains noted after the eruption were reduction of milk production, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, respiratory disturbances, mastitis and collapse. The main problems for livestock were reduction of milk production, collapse of dairy milk corporation activities and contamination of water resources. Other than dairy cattle mortality, the reduction of milk production may be caused by subclinical mastitis and environmental distress due to temperature and noise of eruption for few days. The subclinical mastitis should be further investigated to establish rehabilitation programme for dairy milk agribussiness activity in particular around the DRA of Merapi.

  13. Evaluation of crossbred Brahman and continental European beef cattle in a subtropical environment for birth and weaning traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W D; Humes, P E

    1985-11-01

    A total of 528 birth and 475 weaning records collected over a 3-yr period were analyzed to evaluate the productivity of several beef cattle breed crosses. The calves were produced by artificial insemination using 17 Brahman, 15 Chianina, 15 Maine Anjou and 16 Simmental sires bred to Angus and Hereford dams varying in age from 3 to 11 yr. Breed-of-sire effects were important (P less than .05 to P less than .001) for gestation length, birth weight, conformation score and condition score, but were not observed for birth weight adjusted for gestation length, percentage calving assistance, survival rate or weaning weight. Brahman crosses had the longest gestation lengths, being 4.7 d longer than Simmental crosses, which were the shortest in length. Chianina crosses were the heaviest at birth and experienced the most calving difficulty. Simmental crosses had the highest survival rate. Although breed-of-sire differences were observed in conformation score, the difference was less than one-third of a grade between the highest-scoring Simmental crosses and the lowest-scoring Brahman and Chianina crosses. Brahman crosses had the highest condition scores, being approximately one-third of a grade higher than the lowest-ranking Chianina crosses. Differences among the sire breeds for weaning weight were surprisingly small, varying only 3 kg from the heaviest to lightest breed-of-sire groups. Angus dams had shorter gestation lengths (P less than .001) and produced calves that weighed more at weaning (P less than .001) and scored higher for conformation (P less than .001) and condition (P less than .001) score than Hereford dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4077759

  14. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  15. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  16. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was reduced 0.72, 0.68, and 0.71 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count. Our results indicate that horn fly infestations reduce milk yield and quality of spring-calving beef cows depending on sire breed and month of lactation. Development of sustainable beef production systems may include selecting breed types whose milk yield and quality is less influenced by horn flies, allowing for better expression of genetic potential for milk yield in nutritionally challenging environments. PMID:24492544

  17. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  18. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Linda; Carstensen, Michelle; Shaw, Sheryl; Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Wunschmann, Arno; Grear, Dan; Stuber, Tod; Thomsen, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak. PMID:26785113

  19. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  20. Changes in the Microbiological Characteristics of Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo) Beef Exposed to Ultraviolet (UV) Irradiation Prior to Refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Yong-Jae; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2014-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation were investigated with regards to the microbial growth inhibitory effect on the shelf life of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) beef prior to refrigerated storage. The Hanwoo samples were exposed to UV radiation (4.5 mW/cm(2)) for 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min. The UV-irradiated beef that was exposed for 20 min showed significantly reduced mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacterial populations to the extent of approximately 3 log cycles, as compared to that of non-irradiated beef. About 2.5 Log CFU/g of mesophilic bacteria were different compared with UV-irradiated and nonirradiated meat. UV irradiation showed the most significant growth inhibition effects on mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. Coliform and Gram-negative bacteria were also reduced by 1 log cycle. The population of L. monocytogenes, S. Typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 decreased significantly to 53.33, 39.68, and 45.76% after 10 min of UV irradiation. They decreased significantly to 84.64, 80.76, and 84.12%, respectively, after 20 min of UV irradiation. The results show that UV irradiation time and the inhibitory effect were proportional. These results verified that UV radiation prior to refrigeration can effectively reduce the number of pathogenic bacteria on the surface of meat and improve the meat's microbial safety. PMID:26761679

  1. Bruising in slaughter cattle and its relationship with creatine kinase levels and beef quality as affected by animal related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpakama, T; Chulayo, A Y; Muchenje, V

    2014-05-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour (L*, a*, and b*) and ultimate pH (pHu) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (pquality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK (705.3±80.57 U/L) and pHu (6.3±0.05) values while the Bonsmara had the highest L* (24.8±0.78) a* (17.5±0.53) and b* (12.8±0.53) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* a*, and b*) and CK levels. PMID:25050007

  2. Accuracy of genomic selection for age at puberty in a multi-breed population of tropically adapted beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, M M; Swan, A A; Fortes, M R S; Fonseca, R; Moore, S S; Kelly, M J

    2016-02-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a standard tool in livestock breeding programs, particularly for traits that are hard to measure. Accuracy of genomic selection can be improved by increasing the quantity and quality of data and potentially by improving analytical methods. Adding genotypes and phenotypes from additional breeds or crosses often improves the accuracy of genomic predictions but requires specific methodology. A model was developed to incorporate breed composition estimated from genotypes into genomic selection models. This method was applied to age at puberty data in female beef cattle (as estimated from age at first observation of a corpus luteum) from a mix of Brahman and Tropical Composite beef cattle. In this dataset, the new model incorporating breed composition did not increase the accuracy of genomic selection. However, the breeding values exhibited slightly less bias (as assessed by deviation of regression of phenotype on genomic breeding values from the expected value of 1). Adding additional Brahman animals to the Tropical Composite analysis increased the accuracy of genomic predictions and did not affect the accuracy of the Brahman predictions. PMID:26490440

  3. SNP在肉牛育种中的应用进展%SNP and Its Application in Beef Cattle Breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡明成; 杨魁; 王玲; 左福元

    2012-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), as a third generation molecular marker, has many characteristics, such as rich sites, strong representation and genetic stability, it had became the focus of molecular markers related fields. This paper reviewed the characteristics and detection methods of SNP and its application in beef cattle' s growth traits, reproductive traits, carcass and meat quality traits, as the candidate gene for molecular marker assisted selection, to accelerate the speed of beef cattle breeding.%单核苷酸多态性(Single nucleotide polymorphism,SNP)作为第三代分子标记,具有位点丰富、代表性强和遗传稳定等特点,已成为分子标记研究领域的焦点.本研究综述了SNP特点、检测方法及其在肉牛生长发育性状、繁殖性状、胴体与肉质性状的应用,作为分子标记辅助选择的候选基因,加快了肉牛育种进程.

  4. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P < .01) for all carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P < .05) most traits evaluated. The effects of retained heterosis were not consistent among composites. For the mean of the three composites, retained heterosis was significant only for percentage of 9-10-11th rib fat and for percentage of retail product. Phenotypic correlations indicated that marbling score was a poor predictor of palatability attributes of individual carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus

  5. Investigating Outbreaks of Disease or Impaired Productivity in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R

    2015-11-01

    Most cattle move through cattle feeding and finishing systems without health problems or impairment of productivity, but some cattle do become ill or unproductive. When cattle get sick, understanding what has gone wrong and how to remedy the situation is important. An orderly, systematic approach to investigating disease outbreaks is more likely to lead to a solution. The solution may come from identifying and modifying human decisions or behaviors that may be far removed in time or place from the immediate problem. Veterinarians can help cattle feeders recognize and correct the system dynamics factors affecting cattle health and performance.

  6. Unique cultural values of Madura cattle: is cross-breeding a threat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tri Satya Mastuti Widi, Tri; Udo, H.M.J.; Oldenbroek, J.K.; Budisatria, I.G.S.; Baliarti, E.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In Indonesia, cross-breeding local cattle with European beef breeds is widely promoted to stimulate beef production. This cross-breeding is threatening local breeds that have often different functions, including cultural roles. This study analysed the cultural values of Madura cattle and the effects

  7. Characterization of two Pro-opiomelanocortin gene variants and their effects on carcass traits in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deobald Heather M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carcass quantity (lean meat yield and quality (degree of marbling in beef cattle determines much of their economic value. Consequently, it is important to study genes that are part of the appetite pathway and that may ultimately affect carcass composition. Pro-opiomelanocortin is a prohormone that codes for many different peptides, several of which are involved in the appetite pathway. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.288C>T in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC has previously been associated with hot carcass weight (HCW and shipping weight (Ship wt in beef cattle. Results While developing a commercial real time PCR test for POMC c.288C>T a 12 bp deletion (POMC c.293_304delTTGGGGGCGCGG was identified. The deletion results in the removal of four amino acids (a valine, two glycines, and an alanine. Both the POMC c.288C>T and the deletion were genotyped in 386 crossbred steers and evaluated for associations with carcass traits. The animals with one copy of the deletion had a significantly smaller carcass rib-eye area (7.91 cm2; P = 0.02 in comparison to homozygous normal animals. Significant associations were observed between POMC c.288C>T with start-of-finishing weight (SOF WT; P = 0.04, hot carcass weight (HCW; P = 0.02, average fat and grade fat (both P = 0.05, carcass rib-eye area (REA; P = 0.03 and marbling (P = 0.02. Conclusions These results suggest that it could be beneficial for beef producers to know both the deletion and POMC c.288C>T genotypes when making marketing and culling decisions.

  8. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle...

  9. Current knowledge on the environmental fate, potential impact, and management of growth-promoting steroids used in the US beef cattle industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth promoting steroids and steroid-like compounds (GPSC) used by the US beef cattle industry are potential contaminants to water resources. Manure generated in concentrated animal feeding operations contains GPSCs that may enter the environment. Several studies have focused on off-site impacts of...

  10. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with high-altitude pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS) data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, bovine WGS databases comprised of related influential sires from relatively few breeds tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in U.S. beef cattle. Thus, our ...

  11. Influence of production and postmortem technologies on composition and palatability of USDA Select grade beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, A Y; Gomide, L A; Mills, E W; Lemenager, R P; Judge, M D

    1994-05-01

    Improvement of USDA Select grade beef is essential for consumer acceptance of leaner beef. Seventy-two large- and medium-framed steer calves of mixed breeding were used in two experiments to evaluate feedlot performance, carcass composition, and beef palatability. Interactions of dietary energy level (corn concentrate or corn silage), breed type (Angus or Simmental), carcass electrical stimulation (ES) voltage (low or high), and chilling rate (normal or delayed) were determined. Grain-fed cattle had similar initial and slaughter weights, heavier carcasses, more marbling, higher quality grades, and higher dressing percentages (Exp. 2) compared with silage-fed cattle, even though all cattle were visually selected for a constant grade end point. Simmental cattle had heavier initial slaughter and warm carcass weights, larger loin eye area, less fat depth, and lower yield grade than Angus cattle. Percentage of lean in the 9-10-11th rib was lower and percentage of fat was higher for grain-fed and Angus steers than for silage-fed and Simmental steers, respectively. Neither diet nor breed influenced chemical composition of the edible portion, except that separable lean in Angus steers was higher in ether extract. No differences in palatability existed between Angus and Simmental steaks. High ES voltage compared with low voltage improved some tenderness characteristics and reduced some juiciness scores. The USDA Select grade beef of accepted palatability can be produced on either corn-grain or corn-silage diets, and only minor differences in beef palatability in such cattle are caused by ES voltage. PMID:8056667

  12. Breed effects, retained heterosis, and estimates of genetic and phenotypic parameters for carcass and meat traits of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M; Dikeman, M E; Koohmaraie, M

    1994-05-01

    Retained heterosis for meat traits was estimated in F3 generation castrate males in three composite populations of beef cattle finished on two levels of dietary energy density (2.82 Mcal of ME and 3.07 Mcal of ME and 11.50% CP) and serially slaughtered at four end points at intervals of 20 to 22 d. Breed effects were evaluated in nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, and 1/4 A). Breed effects were important (P carcass and meat traits evaluated. Dietary energy density and slaughter group affected (P carcasses. Estimates of heritability were intermediate to high for measures of fatness but were generally low for palatability attributes. The high negative genetic correlation (-.56) between percentage of retail product and marbling score and the relatively low genetic correlations between percentage of retail product and palatability attributes suggests the need for simultaneous attention to percentage of retail product and palatability attributes rather than to marbling score. Correlations among breed group means were generally high for measures of fatness with palatability attributes and were high and negative for percentage of retail product with marbling score and with other measures of fatness. Limited opportunity exists for selecting among breeds to achieve high levels of marbling in the longissimus muscle simultaneously with a high percentage of retail product. These results suggest that the most logical approach to resolution of the genetic antagonism between favorable carcass composition and less favorable palatability attributes is to form composite breeds with breed contributions organized to achieve an optimum balance between favorable carcass composition and desirable

  13. OBSERVING OF RADIOACTIVE CAESIUM 137Cs VALUE IN BEEF MEAT (CZECH PIED CATTLE IN LESS-FAVOURED AREAS OF THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Holko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Value of radiocaesium 137Cs as one of Risk Factors in beef meat is very important for human health. Beef meat (m. longissimus lumborum et thoracis from Czech Pied cattle in two less-favoured areas located more then 500 meters above sea level (Bohemian Forest Bohemian and Moravian Highland was dependent on Sex (decrease by female, increase by male, P<1.10-6 and on area (P<1.10-6. Value of radiocaesium 137Cs in beef meat ( = 0,42 Bq.kg-1; sx = 0,28 was less then food standard (600 Bq.kg-1. This observed result are responding to finding another authors and could be used for next more detailed research in optimal utilization of Czech Pied cattle in less-favoured areas.

  14. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  15. Relationship between Marketing Strategies and Governance Mechanisms: A Study in Exploration Chain Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Quevedo-Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between actors has been unspoilt by marketing through the bias of Transaction Costs Economics. Some authors suggest that a marketing strategy can directly impact the transactional characteristics and hence the governance mechanisms chosen to coordinate transactions. Studies suggest that future work in the field of marketing include, among other factors, aspects related to the relationship between the actors. In this context, this article aims to analyze how marketing strategies can affect the choice of governance mechanisms. The study object is the chain of beef, view their representation to the national economy. To this end, we conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews with various actors in the chain. It was possible to verify the existence of the relationship between marketing strategy and governance structure. In one of the cases, product differentiation, translated into more specific assets, led the producer to perform a relational contract with the fridge and to distribute your product, make an integration with retailers, through the opening of a boutique of meat. Factor that was not observed in transactions involving producers on products without distinction, for which the transactions via spot market are prevalent.  

  16. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  17. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi

    2016-08-01

    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. PMID:26998946

  18. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  19. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Maghfiroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.

  20. Hydrogen and methane emissions from beef cattle and their rumen microbial community vary with diet, time after feeding and genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, John A; Wallace, R John; Duthie, Carol-Anne; McKain, Nest; de Souza, Shirley Motta; Hyslop, Jimmy J; Ross, David W; Waterhouse, Tony; Roehe, Rainer

    2014-08-14

    The aims of the present study were to quantify hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) emissions from beef cattle under different dietary conditions and to assess how cattle genotype and rumen microbial community affected these emissions. A total of thirty-six Aberdeen Angus-sired (AAx) and thirty-six Limousin-sired (LIMx) steers were fed two diets with forage:concentrate ratios (DM basis) of either 8:92 (concentrate) or 52:48 (mixed). Each diet was fed to eighteen animals of each genotype. Methane (CH4) and H2 emissions were measured individually in indirect respiration chambers. H2 emissions (mmol/min) varied greatly throughout the day, being highest after feed consumption, and averaged about 0·10 mol H2/mol CH4. Higher H2 emissions (mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet. Higher CH4 emissions (mol/d and mol/kg DM intake) were recorded in steers fed the mixed diet (Pbeef cattle. PMID:24780126

  1. Cattle Candidate Genes for Meat Production Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Bláhová, Alice

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile a summary of the most important candidate genes for meat production. The studied genes were: GH, GHR, MSTN, MyoD family, leptin, IGF, TG5, SCD, DGAT and STAT5A. Growth hormone (GH) is involved in physiological processes of growth and metabolism. Growth hormone receptor (GHR) has been proposed as a candidate gene for meat production in cattle. Myostatin is a significant marker. It affects the amount of muscle, reduces marbling and elevate meat tendern...

  2. Genomic Footprints in Selected and Unselected Beef Cattle Breeds in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Dajeong; Strucken, Eva M; Choi, Bong Hwan; Chai, Han Ha; Cho, Yong Min; Jang, Gul Won; Kim, Tae-Hun; Gondro, Cedric; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Korean Hanwoo cattle have been subjected to intensive artificial selection over the past four decades to improve meat production traits. Another three cattle varieties very closely related to Hanwoo reside in Korea (Jeju Black and Brindle) and in China (Yanbian). These breeds have not been part of a breeding scheme to improve production traits. Here, we compare the selected Hanwoo against these similar but presumed to be unselected populations to identify genomic regions that have been under recent selection pressure due to the breeding program. Rsb statistics were used to contrast the genomes of Hanwoo versus a pooled sample of the three unselected population (UN). We identified 37 significant SNPs (FDR corrected) in the HW/UN comparison and 21 known protein coding genes were within 1 MB to the identified SNPs. These genes were previously reported to affect traits important for meat production (14 genes), reproduction including mammary gland development (3 genes), coat color (2 genes), and genes affecting behavioral traits in a broader sense (2 genes). We subsequently sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform) 10 individuals of the brown Hanwoo and the Chinese Yanbian to identify SNPs within the candidate genomic regions. Based on allele frequency differences, haplotype structures, and literature research, we singled out one non-synonymous SNP in the APP gene (APP: c.569C>T, Ala199Val) and predicted the mutational effect on the protein structure. We found that protein-protein interactions might be impaired due to increased exposed hydrophobic surfaces of the mutated protein. The APP gene has also been reported to affect meat tenderness in pigs and obesity in humans. Meat tenderness has been linked to intramuscular fat content, which is one of the main breeding goals for brown Hanwoo, potentially supporting a causal influence of the herein described nsSNP in the APP gene.

  3. Synthetic rubber surface as an alternative to concrete to improve welfare and performance of finishing beef cattle reared on fully slatted flooring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brscic, M; Ricci, R; Prevedello, P; Lonardi, C; De Nardi, R; Contiero, B; Gottardo, F; Cozzi, G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare a fully slatted concrete floor (concrete slatted (CS)) with the same floor on which synthetic rubber slats were placed on the concrete slats (rubber slatted (RS)) as housing solution for finishing beef cattle. The present study involved five commercial beef cattle farms in which the floor of at least three pens was kept as fully slatted, and in an equal number of pens a rubber cover was placed on the floor, tightly matching the gap profile of the concrete slats to allow the drainage of manure. A total of 326 finishing beef bulls were used (153 on CS and 173 on RS), and regardless of the floor treatment animals were housed in groups of 6 to 12 bulls/pen with a space allowance of 3.1 ± 0.2 m2/bull. Bulls had similar initial live weights (422.3 kg on CS and 425.0 kg on RS), but bulls on RS were heavier at the end of the finishing period with a higher average daily gain than bulls kept on CS (1.53 v. 1.46 kg/day; Pfloor on growth performance and welfare of finishing beef cattle, although compromising cleanliness and hoof overgrowth.

  4. Characterization of biological types of cattle: indicator traits offertility in beef cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Cushman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity among breeds of cattle allows producers to select animals for specific environments or market conditions. Reproductive efficiency is a multi-component trait that is largely influenced by environmental influences such as health and nutritional status; however, there are clearly genetic components to reproductive efficiency, and breed differences in a number of indicator traits associated with fertility and cow productivity have been identified. Historical indicators of fertility include scrotal circumference, age at puberty, and postpartum interval. Both age at puberty and postpartum interval are laborious traits to collect in heifers and cows because they require many days of detection of behavioral estrus. In recent years, the addition of ultrasonography to management practices has allowed for the collection of female traits such as follicle diameter, antral follicle counts, and fetal age that are not as labor intensive. These additional diagnostic traits provide novel phenotypes for the identification of genetic markers of fertility and cow productivity, which would be the ultimate goal. Genetic markers of the number of follicles in the bovine ovary have the potential to identify heifers that will be highly productive cows. Furthermore, identifying and understanding the genes that control various reproductive traits and the response to stressors, such as temperature and nutrient availability, could improve production efficiency by improving management and breeding decisions in a wide range of production environments.

  5. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-08-16

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.

  6. Perceptions of Farmers against Liquid Fertilizer Benefits of Beef Cattle Urine

    OpenAIRE

    Sirajuddin, sitti nurani; kasim, kasim; moh saleh, ikrar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to know the perception of livestock farmers on the use of liquid organic fertilizer from urine of cattle at Sinjai Regency, South Sulawesi Province. The choice of location for a farmer group manufactures and markets liquid organic fertilizer from cattle urine. This research was conducted in May to July 2013.The population were all livestock farmers who use organic liquid fertilizer from cattle urine samples while livestock farmers who are directly involved in the ma...

  7. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed when methane was expressed per kilogram of carcass gain. Advancing maize maturity did not result in significant linear or quadratic responses in methane output proportional to GE intake. The ALC diet

  8. Whole-genome association study of fatty acid composition in a diverse range of beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M J; Tume, R K; Fortes, M; Thompson, J M

    2014-05-01

    Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue associated with meat is an important factor for the beef industry because of its implications for human health, processing, meat quality, and palatability. Individual fatty acid composition is a trait under genetic control, so improvement via selective breeding of cattle is possible. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of fatty acid composition and identify genes associated with this trait in 3 breed types: Bos indicus (Brahman), Bos taurus (4 breeds), and tropically adapted composites (2 breeds). Using high-density data, regions on chromosomes 1, 9, 14, 16, 19, 23, 26, 29, and X were associated with fat composition and quantity traits. Known candidate genes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN; chromosome 19) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD; chromosome 26), were confirmed in our results. Other candidate genes and regions represent novel association results, requiring further validation. PMID:24782392

  9. Productivity and carcass characteristics of pure and crossbred Chinese Yellow Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Liu, L; Xiu, X L; Jian, H M; Wang, L Z; Sun, B Z; Tong, B S

    2001-08-01

    The carcass characteristics of 334 Chinese Yellow Cattle, and their Simmental and Limousin crosses, were investigated in abattoirs in Hebei and Sandong provinces of China. The overall slaughter age was 4.8±2.2 years at a mean liveweight of 527.28±77.0 kg. Mean ages and liveweights for Yellow Cattle and its crosses were, respectively, 5.29±2.03 and 2.85±1.71 years and 519.43±78.7 and 563.13±56.8 kg. Carcass weights varied considerably and, consequently, so did subcutaneous fat depths and dressing percentages. Overall, mean carcass weights, subcutaneous fat depths and, dressing percentages and eyemuscle areas were 283.9±64.1 kg, 14.0±8.0 mm, 54.0±4.0%, and 62.7 ±13.3 cm(2), respectively. Compared with pure Yellow Cattle, the crosses were slaughtered at younger age, and had larger live and carcass weights, higher dressing percentages, less subcutaneous fat depth and bigger eyemuscle areas. It is concluded that crossbreeding can significantly improve Yellow Cattle' meat productivity, however feeding systems need to be improved and an appropriate grading system developed to improve beef production and quality in China. PMID:22062425

  10. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  11. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  12. Produção de leite e comportamento de amamentação em cinco sistemas de produção de gado de corte Milk yield and suckling behavior in five beef cattle production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Espasandin

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados a produção de leite de vacas Nelore e o comportamento de amamentação em diferentes sistemas de produção: NR-Nelore Referência, sob manejo extensivo (manejo tradicional; NI-Nelore, sob manejo intensivo; e três cruzamentos CN-Canchim x Nelore, AN-Angus x Nelore e SN-Simental x Nelore, sob manejo intensivo. Em três momentos da lactação (60, 120 e 180 dias após o parto, foram medidos, nos bezerros, o número e a duração das mamadas, o ganho diário de peso (kg/dia e o peso à desmama. O momento da lactação e a interação sistema de produção x momento da lactação apresentaram efeito significativo sobre a produção de leite. A produção de leite não apresentou corrrelação com o comportamento de amamentação nem com o ganho de peso dos bezerros dos diferentes sistemas de produção. Condições deficientes de alimentação não resultaram em menores produções de leite de vacas Nelore, mas sim em acentuadas perdas de peso (80 kg durante a estação de monta no sistema NR. O tempo diário de amamentação apresentou diminuições significativas no sistema extensivo com o decorrer da lactação, enquanto os sistemas intensivos não mudaram ou aumentaram os minutos de amamentação por dia. Para as condições nas quais o experimento foi desenvolvido, os bezerros cruzados apresentaram os melhores desempenhos durante a fase pré-desmama, em comparação com os bezerros Nelore.Milk yield in Nellore cows and suckling behavior of their calves of different production systems: NR- Extensive Nellore, NI- Intensive Nellore; and three crossbreeding systems (CN- Canchim-Nellore, AN-Angus-Nellore and SN-Simmental-Nellore in intensive management, were studied. Milk production of cows and number and length of suckles, and daily gain (kg/day of calves were obtained in three moments of lactation (60, 120 and 180 days after calving. Moment of lactation and production system by lactation moment interaction had a significant

  13. Technical note: Prediction of chemical rib section composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in Zebu beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, L F; Zanetti, D; Amaral, P M; Mariz, L D S; Sathler, D F T; Filho, S C Valadares; Silva, F F; Silva, B C; Pacheco, M C; Alhadas, H M; Chizzotti, M L

    2016-06-01

    It is expensive and laborious to evaluate carcass composition in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate a method to predict the 9th to 11th rib section (rib) composition through empirical equations using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry is a validated method used to describe tissue composition in humans and other animals, but few studies have evaluated this technique in beef cattle, and especially in the Zebu genotype. A total of 116 rib were used to evaluate published prediction equations for rib composition and to develop new regression models using a cross-validation procedure. For the proposed models, 93 ribs were randomly selected to calculate the new regression equations, and 23 different ribs were randomly selected to validate the regressions. The rib from left carcasses were taken from Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls from 3 different studies and scanned using DXA equipment (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) in the Health Division at Universidade Federal de Viçosa (Viçosa, Brazil). The outputs of the DXA report were DXA lean (g), DXA fat free mass (g), DXA fat mass (g), and DXA bone mineral content (BMC; g). After being scanned, the rib were dissected, ground, and chemically analyzed for total ether extract (EE), CP, water, and ash content. The predictions of rib fat and protein from previous published equations were different ( 0.05), respectively, then the equation correctly estimated the rib composition. Comparing observed and predicted values using the new equations, Mayer's test was not significant for lean mass ( = 0.26), fat free mass ( = 0.67), EE mass ( = 0.054), and ash mass ( = 0.14). We concluded that the rib composition of Nellore and Nellore × Angus bulls can be estimated from DXA using the proposed equations. PMID:27285924

  14. The effect of sex and DGAT1 gene polymorphism on fat deposition traits in simmental beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolyi D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1 gene K232A mutation in Simmental cattle and its effects on fat deposition traits. The sample (n=26 consisted of yearling bulls and beef heifers from an intensive rearing system in Croatia. Carcass fatness was assessed by total dissection method, whereas intramuscular fat (m. longissimus dorsi content was determined using Soxhlet extraction with hydrolysis. Intramuscular fatty acid composition was determined by gas liquid chromatography using in situ transesterification. The muscle DNA was extracted and Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCRRFLP analysis of the 411 bp fragment of DGAT1 gene was applied. The DGAT1 K allele was less frequent in heifers than in bulls, with the overall allelic frequency of 17% K allele. Only KA and AA genotypes were obtained, without deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Heifers showed a higher degree of carcass and muscle fattening with more unsaturated intramuscular fat than bulls; however, there was no interaction between sex and DGAT1 gene. Generally, no significant difference between DGAT1 AA and KA animals was observed for any of the examined traits, except the slightly higher carcass share of the fattest beef category and higher intramuscular C14:0 desaturation index in KA heterozygous.

  15. Beef Fat Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Altering Dyslipidemia in Insulin Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Mapiye, Cletos; Vahmani, Payam; David, Rolland C; Vine, Donna F; Dugan, Michael E R; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6 weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats.

  16. Beef Fat Enriched with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biohydrogenation Products Improves Insulin Sensitivity Without Altering Dyslipidemia in Insulin Resistant JCR:LA-cp Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane, Abdoulaye; Borthwick, Faye; Mapiye, Cletos; Vahmani, Payam; David, Rolland C; Vine, Donna F; Dugan, Michael E R; Proctor, Spencer D

    2016-07-01

    The main dietary sources of trans fatty acids are partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVO), and products derived from polyunsaturated fatty acid biohydrogenation (PUFA-BHP) in ruminants. Trans fatty acid intake has historically been associated with negative effects on health, generating an anti-trans fat campaign to reduce their consumption. The profiles and effects on health of PHVO and PUFA-BHP can, however, be quite different. Dairy products naturally enriched with vaccenic and rumenic acids have many purported health benefits, but the putative benefits of beef fat naturally enriched with PUFA-BHP have not been investigated. The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of beef peri-renal fat (PRF) with differing enrichments of PUFA-BHP on lipid and insulin metabolism in a rodent model of dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (JCR:LA-cp rat). The results showed that 6 weeks of diet supplementation with beef PRF naturally enriched due to flaxseed (FS-PRF) or sunflower-seed (SS-PRF) feeding to cattle significantly improved plasma fasting insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, postprandial insulin levels (only in the FS-PRF) without altering dyslipidemia. Moreover, FS-PRF but not SS-PRF attenuated adipose tissue accumulation. Therefore, enhancing levels of PUFA-BHP in beef PRF with FS feeding may be a useful approach to maximize the health-conferring value of beef-derived fats. PMID:27072368

  17. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni,C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica,E. coli, and C. botulinumwere greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  18. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R.; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N.; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica, E. coli, and C. botulinum were greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  19. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni,C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica,E. coli, and C. botulinumwere greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes.

  20. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle.

  1. Adipose tissue partitioning of limit-fed beef cattle and beef cattle with ad libitum access to feed differing in adaptation to heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Ferrell, C L; Holloway, J W; Warrington, B G; Greene, L W; Wu, G; Stuth, J W

    1998-03-01

    We compared fat distribution and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity in steers differing in adaptability to the subtropics. Steers were fed a grain diet (3.13 Mcal ME/kg DM) at limited (150 kcal ME x kg[-.75] x d[-1]; .23 kg ADG) or ad libitum levels for 140 d, then slaughtered. Sixteen British- (8 Angus, 8 Hereford; S), 16 Boran- (R), 16 Brahman- (B), and 16 Tuli- (T) cross steers from MARC III composite cows were used. Adipose tissue samples from perirenal, omental, and subcutaneous depots were analyzed for LPL activity. Carcass measurements including omental, external, and seam fat trim from 1/ 2 of the carcass were measured. Subcutaneous fat had greater (P .05) in fat distribution for steers fed at limited levels. Means for ADG, slaughter weights, carcass weights, yield grades, and carcass lipid weights for S and B fed for ad libitum intake were greater (P .05) for the other breeds with ad libitum intake. Factor analysis of fat depots for animals with ad libitum intake indicated that Bos taurus cattle differing in adaptation to heat deposited fat differently; S deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of carcass fat and T deposited greater (P < .05) proportions of internal fat. It seems that accumulation of internal fat is detrimental for ADG for Bos taurus cattle. PMID:9535321

  2. Using diverse U.S. beef cattle genomes to identify missense mutations in EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Heaton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The availability of whole genome sequence (WGS data has made it possible to discover protein variants in silico. However, existing bovine WGS databases do not show data in a form conducive to protein variant analysis, and tend to under represent the breadth of genetic diversity in global beef cattle. Thus, our first aim was to use 96 beef sires, sharing minimal pedigree relationships, to create a searchable and publicly viewable set of mapped genomes relevant for 19 popular breeds of U.S. cattle. Our second aim was to identify protein variants encoded by the bovine endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 gene (EPAS1, a gene associated with pulmonary hypertension in Angus cattle. The identity and quality of genomic sequences were verified by comparing WGS genotypes to those derived from other methods. The average read depth, genotype scoring rate, and genotype accuracy exceeded 14, 99%, and 99%, respectively. The 96 genomes were used to discover four amino acid variants encoded by EPAS1 (E270Q, P362L, A671G, and L701F and confirm two variants previously associated with disease (A606T and G610S. The six EPAS1 missense mutations were verified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry assays, and their frequencies were estimated in a separate collection of 1154 U.S. cattle representing 46 breeds. A rooted phylogenetic tree of eight polypeptide sequences provided a framework for evaluating the likely order of mutations and potential impact of EPAS1 alleles on the adaptive response to chronic hypoxia in U.S. cattle. This public, whole genome resource facilitates in silico identification of protein variants in diverse types of U.S. beef cattle, and provides a means of translating WGS data into a practical biological and evolutionary context for generating and testing hypotheses.

  3. Wasting and mortality in beef cattle parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilha, M R S; Loretti, A P; Reis, A C F

    2005-10-10

    A sporadic wasting syndrome affecting beef cattle herds parasitized by Eurytrema coelomaticum is described in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. The disease was characterized by progressive weight loss, poor body condition despite plenty of good quality forage available, and death. Annual losses ranged from 1 to 3%. The clinical course of the disease varied from 2 to 10 months after the onset of the first clinical signs. At necropsy, one of the three distinct following patterns of lesions were observed: the pancreas was of normal size and color; small, shrunken, white and markedly and diffusely firm (fibrosis); or slightly enlarged and dark with a shriveled capsular surface. Myriads of leaf-shaped trematodes of the genus Eurytrema were packed inside multiple dilated ducts with thickened, whitish fibrous walls, or the flukes were embedded in the remaining pancreatic parenchyma. Microscopic findings included extensive loss of the pancreatic parenchyma with replacement fibrosis, intralesional flukes and eggs, and ductal hyperplasia. Inflammatory reaction varied from absent to severe with the presence of a granulomatous reaction around the trematode eggs. One affected animal had high plasma amylase concentration (1580U/L) suggesting exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Glucose blood levels were not significantly increased. We suggest that diffuse and marked fibrosis of the pancreas induced by the presence of large amounts of pancreatic flukes is the cause of the sporadic cases of chronic wasting and death of cattle in this geographic area. PMID:16046069

  4. Utilization of organic chromium from tannery waste on reducing transportation stress and shortening recovery period at beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Santosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transportation increases stress that subtantially decreases body weight and feed comsumption even weight gain loss after arriving at the location of fattening. A research has been conducted to study the effects of organic chromium from tannery wastes on the level of transportation stress and recovery period in beef cattle fattening. Twenty Ongole crossbreed cattles were transported from the Wirasaba Feedlot at Purbalingga in Central Java to the Agro Citra Buana Semesta Feedlot in Malangbong-Garut in West Java for about 18 hours. Completely Randomized Design (CRD was applied, wih four repetitions. The Cr-organic was given seven days before and after transportation. Dose of Cr-organic used was: R0 = control diet without Cr-organic, R1 = R0 + 1.5 ppm, R2 = R0 + 3.0 ppm, R3 = R0 + 4.5 ppm, R4 = R0 + 6.0 ppm. Results showed that 3.0 ppm organic chromium of the dry matter of ration tended to affect physiology and haematological conditions, as well as decreased weight loss, shortened recovery time, improved weight gain. It is concluded that organic chromium supplementation was able to lowered stress levels, shortened recovery time, and increased daily gain for one week recovery process, especially at dose of 3.0 ppm.

  5. Manure ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle fed condensed tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of three levels of condensed tannins fed to 27 beef feed yard steers on ammonia and GHG emissions from manure. Condensed tannins were fed at rates of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 percent on a dry matter basis. Manure and urine were collected from two periods over 6 d...

  6. Effects of change in body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of change of body composition on gene expression in the uterine endometrium of beef cows. Mature, non-lactating Angus cows (body condition score [BCS] = 5.07 ± 0.1) were fed a similar diet for 30 d prior to the initiation of the study. Follow...

  7. 77 FR 31975 - Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Service 9 CFR Parts 416, 417, and 430 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Certain Raw Beef Products... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), in addition to E. coli O157:H7, in raw beef manufacturing... toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145 are adulterated within...

  8. Polymorphisms in positional candidate genes on BTA14 and BTA26 affect carcass quality in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, E; Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Moore, S S

    2009-08-01

    Several studies have reported the presence of carcass quality QTL on BTA14 and BTA26, with no specific genes being conclusively linked as their cause. The aim of this study was to identify polymorphisms in genes known to affect lipid metabolism in other species and to assess their association with carcass quality traits. Two genes located on BTA14, 2,4 dienoyl CoA reductase 1 (DECR1) and core binding factor, runt domain, alpha subunit 2, translocated to 1 gene (CBFA2T1), have been previously evaluated in other species and found to contain polymorphisms influencing lipid metabolism. A gene on BTA26, fibroblast growth factor 8 (FGF8), has in recent studies been linked to several QTL affecting obesity in mice, indicating its potential for regulating adiposity in other species. Sequencing analysis identified 9 polymorphisms in DECR1, 4 in CBFA2T1, and 4 in FGF8. Multiple sequence alignment of DECR1 among cattle, humans, and mice showed that 4 of these mutations lie in conserved regions across these species. Using 464 Angus, Charolais, and crossbred animals produced associations with ultrasound marbling score (CBFA2T1, P = 0.019), ultrasound backfat (DECR1, P = 0.012), carcass backfat (FGF8, P = 0.004), and lean meat yield (FGF8, P = 0.005). Quantitative trait loci analysis including a set of previously genotyped markers on BTA14, and 1 DECR1 polymorphism resulted in several significant QTL peaks: ultrasound backfat (UBF) at 91 cM, lean meat yield at 86 cM, carcass gradefat at 15 cM, and yield grade at 87 cM, all at the P yield at 2 cM and for yield grade at 25 cM, both at P < 0.01, and for carcass backfat at 25 cM (P < 0.05). Removal of FGF8 SNP in further analysis resulted in the disappearance of the carcass backfat QTL. These results suggest that polymorphisms discovered in DECR1, CBFA2T1, and FGF8 may play a role in the lipid metabolism pathway affecting carcass quality traits in beef cattle. However, further studies are needed to confirm that these polymorphisms

  9. Expression of genes controlling fat deposition in two genetically diverse beef cattle breeds fed high or low silage diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Both genetic background and finishing system can alter fat deposition, thus indicating their influence on adipogenic and lipogenic factors. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fat deposition and fatty acid composition in beef cattle are not fully understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of breed and dietary silage level on the expression patterns of key genes controlling lipid metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle of cattle. To that purpose, forty bulls from two genetically diverse Portuguese bovine breeds with distinct maturity rates, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected and fed either low (30% maize silage/70% concentrate) or high silage (70% maize silage/30% concentrate) diets. Results The results suggested that enhanced deposition of fatty acids in the SAT from Barrosã bulls, when compared to Alentejana, could be due to higher expression levels of lipogenesis (SCD and LPL) and β-oxidation (CRAT) related genes. Our results also indicated that SREBF1 expression in the SAT is increased by feeding the low silage diet. Together, these results point out to a higher lipid turnover in the SAT of Barrosã bulls when compared to Alentejana. In turn, lipid deposition in the LL muscle is related to the expression of adipogenic (PPARG and FABP4) and lipogenic (ACACA and SCD) genes. The positive correlation between ACACA expression levels and total lipids, as well trans fatty acids, points to ACACA as a major player in intramuscular deposition in ruminants. Moreover, results reinforce the role of FABP4 in intramuscular fat development and the SAT as the major site for lipid metabolism in ruminants. Conclusions Overall, the results showed that SAT and LL muscle fatty acid composition are mostly dependent on the genetic background. In addition, dietary silage level impacted on muscle lipid metabolism to a greater extent than on that of SAT, as evaluated by gene expression levels of adipogenic and

  10. Effect of dried distillers grains plus solubles on enteric methane emissions and nitrogen excretion from growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünerberg, M; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Okine, E K; Harstad, O M; McAllister, T A

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the impact of corn- or wheat-based dried distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS or WDDGS) on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from growing beef cattle and determine if the oil in CDDGS was responsible for any response observed. Effects of CDDGS or WDDGS on total N excretion and partitioning between urine and fecal N were also examined in this replicated 4 × 4 Latin square using 16 ruminally cannulated crossbreed heifers (388.5 ± 34.9 kg of initial BW). The control diet contained (DM basis) 55% whole crop barley silage, 35% barley grain, 5% canola meal, and 5% vitamin and mineral supplement. Three dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) diets were formulated by replacing barley grain and canola meal (40% of dietary DM) with CDDGS, WDDGS, or WDDGS plus corn oil (WDDGS+oil). For WDDGS+oil, corn oil was added to WDDGS (4.11% fat DM basis) to achieve the same fat level as in CDDGS (9.95% fat DM basis). All total mixed diets were fed once daily ad libitum. Total collection of urine and feces was conducted between d 11 and 14. Enteric CH4 was measured between d 18 and 21 using 4 environmental chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber). Methane emissions per kilogram of DM intake (DMI) and as percent of GE intake (GEI) among heifers fed WDDGS (23.9 g/kg DMI and 7.3% of GEI) and the control (25.3 g/kg DMI and 7.8% of GEI) were similar (P = 0.21 and P = 0.19) whereas heifers fed CDDGS (21.5 g/kg DMI and 6.6% of GEI) and WDDGS+oil (21.1 g/kg DMI and 6.3% of GEI) produced less (P beef cattle. However, to completely assess the impact of DDGS on greenhouse gas emissions of growing feedlot cattle, the potential contribution of increased N excretion to heightened NH3 and nitrous oxide emissions requires consideration. PMID:23508022

  11. ESTIMATES OF BREED DIRECT, MATERNAL AND HETEROSIS EFFECTS FOR WEANING AND YEARLING WEIGHTS OF BEEF CATTLE IN THE HUMID TROPICS OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Mario M. Osorio-Arce; Segura-Correa, José C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the breed-direct, breed-maternal and heterosis effects for weaning and yearling weights of Brahman cattle and its crosses with Charolais, Simmental and Brown Swiss breeds in a beef cattle system in Tabasco, Mexico. The climate of the region is tropical humid. Data were obtained on 1217 calves born from 1995 to 2007; among the 16 breed-group combinations one was purebred mating (Brahman), 3 two-breed static crosses, 7 three-breed static crosses and ...

  12. Progress on Nutrition and Feed in Beef Cattle abroad in 2011%2011年国外肉牛营养与饲料研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高玉红; 于海川; 顾宪蕊; 李秋风; 卢春莲; 徐敏云; 曹玉凤

    2012-01-01

    The published researches on nutrition of beef cattle abroad in 2011 were collected and analyzed. The review was to discuss the progress on nutrition and feed in beef cattle from five aspects=requirement of protein and energy, exploitation of feed resource, roughage nutrition, nutrition of concentrated feed and regulation of methane emission.%本文总结了国外2011年关于肉牛营养领域的研究成果,主要从肉牛蛋白和能量需要量、饲料资源开发、粗饲料营养、精饲料营养和肉牛甲烷排放调控研究五个方面论述了肉牛营养与饲料的研究进展。

  13. Effects of stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass and meat traits in bulls from three continental beef cattle breeds at different ageing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, F; Avilés, C; Domenech, V; González, A; Martínez, A; Molina, A

    2014-12-01

    One-hundred-and-twenty-four young bulls of three Continental beef cattle breeds were used to study the effect of pre-slaughter stress by unfamiliar sounds on carcass traits and quality characteristics of beef aged for three different periods. Stress due to unfamiliar noises had a moderately negative effect on carcass and meat quality. Carcasses from group Stressed had higher (Ppressure losses than from Unstressed animals. There were significant differences (Ppressure losses. The ageing time had a significant effect on chromatic variables, WBSF and pressure losses. The cooking losses were not significantly affected by any of the three factors discussed. These results emphasize the importance of implementing appropriate management practices during pre-slaughter handling of cattle in order to reduce any possible risk factor for stress, as well as the different sensitivity of the breeds to similar stimuli. PMID:25105491

  14. Sequence Variations in the Bovine IGF-I and IGFBP3 Genes and Their Association with Growth and Development Traits in Chinese Beef Cattle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xue; SHI Ming-yan; XU Xiu-rong; LI Jun-ya; REN Hong-yan; XU Shang-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the genotype effects of the bovine insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and its binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) genes on growth and development traits in beef cows,including 130 Chinese Simmental,42 Nanyang,and 47 Luxi Yellow cattle.Sequence variations in the bovine IGF-I and IGFBP3 genes were investigated by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).SSCPs were detected in 6 fragments,which is the 5'-flanking region,the 2nd exon,the 5th exon,and the 5th intron of the IGF-I gene,and the 2nd exon,the 3rd exon of the IGFBP3 gene.Two polymorphisms,an A-to-G transition in the 2nd exon of the IGF-I gene and a T-to-C transition in the 2nd exon of IGFBP3 gene were detected in 3 breeds.The allele frequencies of 2 polymorphisms were 0.0411 (A),0.9589 (B),and 0.7237 (A),0.2763 (B),respectively.These 2 loci were analyzed to associate with body weight,height at withers,body length,heart girth,rump width,and beef production index (BPI) at 0,6,12,24,and 36-month old.The 1GFBP3 locus was shown to be associated with rump width,heart girth at 24-month and 36-month.Animals with BB genotype had higher rump width (24.86±0.47) cm at 24-month and (27.50±0.63) cm at 36-month.The heart girth was highest for the individuals with BB genotype (171.33±1.84) cm and higher than those with AB genotype (166.68±1.13) cm (P<0.05) at 36-month.

  15. Relationship of polymorphisms within metabolic genes and carcass traits in crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempel, L A; Casas, E; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L

    2012-04-01

    Feed intake has been shown to alter neurological signaling related to feeding behavior and subsequent activation of adipogenic mechanisms. Fat characteristics are pivotal for carcass and meat quality, including marbling score, flavor, and tenderness. The objective of this study was to establish the association of SNP, from genes functionally related to fat metabolism and obesity, with growth, fat, and carcass traits in steers. A total of 33 informative SNP from candidate genes [cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), DNA-protein kinase (DNA-PK), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and fat mass and obesity associated (FTO)] were used to genotype crossbred steers (n = 620), and associations with growth and carcass traits were assessed. Five markers within the DNA-PK gene were associated (P grade, and retail product yield. Additionally, 2 unique DNA-PK SNP were associated (P < 0.05) with marbling score. Three haplotypes were observed using these SNP and were significantly (P = 0.0014) associated with marbling score. Slaughter weight, ADG, and HCW were associated (P < 0.05) with SNP from CART, FTO, and FASN. Data from this study indicate that polymorphisms within candidate genes have an indirect relationship with lipogenesis. Replication of these results within other populations will be necessary to establish if these markers will be successful as predictors of fatness components and carcass traits in cattle. PMID:22100592

  16. BOARD-INVITED REVIEW: Efficiency of converting digestible energy to metabolizable energy and reevaluation of the California Net Energy System maintenance requirements and equations for predicting dietary net energy values for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Cole, N A; Tedeschi, L O; Branine, M E

    2016-04-01

    For the past several decades, nutrient requirement systems for beef cattle in North America have recommended that dietary ME can be calculated as dietary DE × 0.82, but considerable published data suggest a variable relationship between DE and ME. We reviewed the literature and tabulated the results of 23 respiration calorimetry studies (87 treatment mean data points), in which measurements of fecal, urinary, and gaseous energy were determined with beef cattle (bulls, steers, and heifers) and growing dairy cattle. Mixed-model regression analyses to adjust for the effects of the citation from which the data were obtained suggested a strong linear relationship between ME and DE (Mcal/kg of DM; ME = 0.9611 × DE - 0.2999; = 0.986, root mean square error [RMSE] = 0.048, linear regression equation indicated high correlations of residuals with other dietary components, and a slight increase in precision was obtained when dietary CP, ether extract, and starch (% of DM) concentrations were included in a multiple linear regression equation (citation-adjusted = 0.992, RMSE = 0.039). Using the simple linear relationship, we reevaluated the original data used to develop the California Net Energy System (CNES) for beef cattle by recalculating ME intake and heat production and regressing the logarithm of heat production on ME intake (both per BW, kg daily). The resulting intercept and slope of the recalculated data did not differ ( ≥ 0.34) from those reported for the original analyses of the CNES data, suggesting that use of the linear equation for calculating ME concentration was consistent with NEm and NEg values as derived in the CNES. Nonetheless, because the cubic equations recommended by the NRC to calculate dietary NEm and NEg from ME were based on conversion of DE to ME using 0.82, these equations were mathematically recalculated to account for the linear relationship between DE and ME. Overall, our review and analyses suggested that there is a strong linear

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  19. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  20. Soil-extractable phosphorus and phosphorus saturation threshold in beef cattle pastures as affected by grazing management and forage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C; Albano, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfer, and could increase the amount of extractable phosphorus (P) cycle from soils to plants. The effects of grazing management and/or forage type that control P cycling and distribution in pasture's resources have not been sufficiently evaluated. Our ability to estimate the levels and changes of soil-extractable P and other crop nutrients in subtropical beef cattle pastures has the potential to improve our understanding of P dynamics and nutrient cycling at the landscape level. To date, very little attention has been paid to evaluating transfers of extractable P in pasture with varying grazing management and different forage type. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing management (rotational versus "zero" grazing) and forage types (FT; bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum, Flugge versus rhizoma peanuts, Arachis glabrata, Benth) on the levels of extractable soil P and degree of P saturation in beef cattle pastures. This study (2004-2007) was conducted at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service located 7 miles north of Brooksville, FL. Soil (Candler fine sand) at this location was described as well-drained hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. A split plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design was used and each treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was represented by grazing management (grazing vs. no grazing) while forage types (bahiagrass vs. perennial peanut) as the sub-plot treatment. Eight steel exclosures (10 × 10 m) were used in the study. Four exclosures were placed and established in four pastures with bahiagrass and four exclosures were established in four pastures with rhizoma

  1. Determinant of Funding Accessibility and its Impacts to The Performance of Beef-Cow Breeding Enterprises in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Asnawi, Aslina

    2013-01-01

    1. Introduction One of the cattle breeding undertakings or enterprises actively performed by rural communities and has its business development motivated by the government at present is the beef-cow breeding enterprise, because during the last few years, particularly before 2010, the total production of beef was relatively low compared to the demand and consumption of beef. This is also strengthened by the Program of Minister of Agriculture on Self Fulfillment in Buffalo Meat and Beef for ...

  2. Avaliação sistêmica da introdução de tecnologias na pecuária de gado de corte do Pantanal por meio de modelos de análise envoltória de dados (DEA A systemic evaluation of introduction of technology in beef cattle production system in Pantanal wetlands by data envelopment analysis (DEA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Gomes Pinto de Abreu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar, por meio de diferentes modelos de Análise Envoltória de Dados (DEA, a eficiência da introdução e adaptação de tecnologias no sistema de produção de cria extensiva do Pantanal. Utilizaram-se dados econômicos registrados durante oito anos (1995 a 2002. Duas metodologias de escolha das variáveis foram utilizadas para a realização da análise DEA: a primeira é uma variante do método multicritério de seleção de variáveis, que combina os objetivos conflitantes de melhor ordenação das unidades de decisão e maior eficiência média, e a segunda inclui técnicas de estatística multivariada. Nos dois modelos resultantes (com seis inputs e um output; e com três inputs e um output, respectivamente, foram analisados os resultados de eficiência em relação às fronteiras DEA clássica e invertida, além do valor do índice composto que agrega ambos os resultados. O melhor modelo, avaliado pela análise de tendência linear, foi o obtido com a variante proposta do método multicritério de seleção de variáveis, cujo índice composto resultou em estimativas significativas dos coeficientes de regressão (0,0455 e de determinação (0,70.This study was aimed at applying Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA models to evaluate the efficiency of introducing and adapting different technologies in beef cattle production system in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil. The economic data used in the analysis were recorded from 1995 to 2002. Two methods were used to select the DEA variables set. The first one is based on the multicriteria approach of variables selection, which combines the conflicting objectives of better ranking of decision making unit (DMU and higher average efficiency. The second method makes use of statistic multivariate techniques (principal component analysis. The measures of efficiency with respect to the classic and to the inverted DEA frontiers, and the value of the composed

  3. Characterization of the resistome in manure, soil and wastewater from dairy and beef production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Noelle R; Yang, Xiang; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Cook, Shaun R; Zaheer, Rahat; Yang, Hua; Woerner, Dale R; Geornaras, Ifigenia; McArt, Jessica A; Gow, Sheryl P; Ruiz, Jaime; Jones, Kenneth L; Boucher, Christina A; McAllister, Tim A; Belk, Keith E; Morley, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that livestock production effluents such as wastewater, airborne dust and manure increase the density of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and genes in the environment. The public health risk posed by this proposed outcome has been difficult to quantify using traditional microbiological approaches. We utilized shotgun metagenomics to provide a first description of the resistome of North American dairy and beef production effluents, and identify factors that significantly impact this resistome. We identified 34 mechanisms of antimicrobial drug resistance within 34 soil, manure and wastewater samples from feedlot, ranch and dairy operations. The majority of resistance-associated sequences found in all samples belonged to tetracycline resistance mechanisms. We found that the ranch samples contained significantly fewer resistance mechanisms than dairy and feedlot samples, and that the resistome of dairy operations differed significantly from that of feedlots. The resistome in soil, manure and wastewater differed, suggesting that management of these effluents should be tailored appropriately. By providing a baseline of the cattle production waste resistome, this study represents a solid foundation for future efforts to characterize and quantify the public health risk posed by livestock effluents. PMID:27095377

  4. Cattle vocalizations are associated with handling and equipment problems at beef slaughter plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandin, T

    2001-03-01

    Vocalization of cattle in commercial slaughter plants is associated with observable aversive events such as prodding with electric prods, slipping in the stunning box, missed stuns, sharp edges on equipment or excessive pressure form a restraint device. A total of 5806 cattle were observed during handling and stunning in 48 commercial slaughter plants in the United States, Canada and Australia during the calendar year of 1999. Each animal was scored as either a vocalizer or a non-vocalizer. In 20 plants (42%), 0-1% of the cattle vocalized, in 12 plants (25%) 2-3% vocalized, in 12 plants (25%) 4-10% vocalized and in four plants (8%) more than 10% vocalized. In three plants repeated use of an electric prod on 95% or more of the cattle that balked and refused to move was associated with vocalization percentages of 17, 16 and 12%. In five plants, the percentage of cattle that vocalized was reduced by making modifications to plant equipment. Reducing the voltage on a rheostat controlled electric prod reduced the vocalization percentage from 7 to 2% in the first plant. In three other plants, the incidence of cattle backing up and balking was reduced by illuminating a dark entrance or adding a false floor to a conveyor restrainer. A false floor eliminates the visual cliff effect. The percentage of cattle that vocalized was reduced from 8 to 0%, 9 to 0% and 17 to 2%. Since balking was reduced, electric prod use was also reduced. In the fifth plant, reduction of the pressure exerted by a neck restraint reduced the percentage of cattle that vocalized from 23 to 0%. In the five plants where modifications were made, a total of 379 cattle were observed prior to equipment modifications and 342 after modification. The mean percentage of cattle that vocalized was 12.8% before the modifications and 0.8% after the modifications (P<0.001). Vocalization scoring can be used to identify handling and equipment problems that may compromise animal welfare. PMID:11230900

  5. Nitrogen excretion in dairy cow, beef and veal cattle, pig, and rabbit farms in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bittante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reference values for N excretion of different livestock production systems are required for the application of the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EC. A survey aimed to estimate N excretion from on-farm measurements of feed consumption and performance of dairy cows (104 herds, 9,984 cows, growing cattle (40 farms, 40,157 young bulls, veal calves (34 farms, 49,206 calves, growing pigs (39 farms, 161,278 pigs and rabbits (54 farms, 65,664 reproducing does was conducted in Veneto from 2002 to 2003. N excretion was computed as the difference between N consumption and N retained in animal products. Dairy cow yielded 8,366 ± 1,646 kg/year of milk, consumed 6,600 ± 928 kg/year of DM, containing 2.45 ± 0.2 % DM of N, and excreted 116 ± 25 kg of N/year. No significant correlation was found between milk yield and N excretion, but the correlation between dietary N concentration and N excretion was significant (r=0.66. For growing cattle, the following mean values were achieved: daily gain 1.25 ± 0.19 kg/d; feed conversion ratio 6.9 ± 0.9 kg of DM/kg, rounds/year 1.66 ± 0.38. Nitrogen consumed, retained and excreted were, respectively, 68.7 ± 5.4, 11.4 ± 1.9 and 57.3 ± 4.9 kg/place/year. For veal calves, N consumed was 24.1 ± 1.9 kg/place/year, 12.1 ± 0.8 kg of which were retained in the body and 12.0 ± 1.5 kg were excreted. For heavy pig production, N consumed, per place and per year, averaged 19.0 ± 1.9 kg, N retained was 5.2 ± 0.5 kg and N excreted was 13.8 ± 0.4 kg. In the close-cycle rabbit farms, the doe and the relative growing rabbits (43 sold per year consumed 11.2 ± 2.2 kg, retained 3.8 ± 0.7 kg and excreted 7.4 ± 1.5 kg N/doe/year. Nitrogen excretion estimated in this work can be considered as representative of some of the main animal production systems of the North-East of Italy. These values should not be considered as fixed, otherwise the implementation of the various strategies to reduce N excretion would not be possible. They

  6. Genetic Parameter Estimates of Carcass Traits under National Scale Breeding Scheme for Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, ChangHee; Park, ByungHo; Kim, SiDong; Choi, TaeJung; Yang, BohSuk; Park, SuBong; Song, HyungJun

    2016-08-01

    Carcass and price traits of 72,969 Hanwoo cows, bulls and steers aged 16 to 80 months at slaughter collected from 2002 to 2013 at 75 beef packing plants in Korea were analyzed to determine heritability, correlation and breeding value using the Multi-Trait restricted maximum likelihood (REML) animal model procedure. The traits included carcass measurements, scores and grades at 24 h postmortem and bid prices at auction. Relatively high heritability was found for maturity (0.41±0.031), while moderate heritability estimates were obtained for backfat thickness (0.20±0.018), longissimus muscle (LM) area (0.23±0.020), carcass weight (0.28±0.019), yield index (0.20±0.018), yield grade (0.16±0.017), marbling (0.28±0.021), texture (0.14±0.016), quality grade (0.26±0.016) and price/kg (0.24±0.025). Relatively low heritability estimates were observed for meat color (0.06±0.013) and fat color (0.06±0.012). Heritability estimates for most traits were lower than those in the literature. Genetic correlations of carcass measurements with characteristic scores or quality grade of carcass ranged from -0.27 to +0.21. Genetic correlations of yield grade with backfat thickness, LM area and carcass weight were 0.91, -0.43, and -0.09, respectively. Genetic correlations of quality grade with scores of marbling, meat color, fat color and texture were -0.99, 0.48, 0.47, and 0.98, respectively. Genetic correlations of price/kg with LM area, carcass weight, marbling, meat color, texture and maturity were 0.57, 0.64, 0.76, -0.41, -0.79, and -0.42, respectively. Genetic correlations of carcass price with LM area, carcass weight, marbling and texture were 0.61, 0.57, 0.64, and -0.73, respectively, with standard errors ranging from ±0.047 to ±0.058. The mean carcass weight breeding values increased by more than 8 kg, whereas the mean marbling scores decreased by approximately 0.2 from 2000 through 2009. Overall, the results suggest that genetic improvement of productivity and

  7. Control Points on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Beef Cattle CAFO and the Cropland that Supports it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.

    2011-12-01

    Although spatially separated in the U.S. agricultural landscape, CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations) and Illinois grain agriculture are interdependent. Therefore, we need to consider both systems to identify methods for reducing inefficiency, GHG losses, and N pollution from them. We construct a budget for an average 30,000 animal beef cattle CAFO. Assuming cattle stay on the CAFO 5 months, we estimate total grain demand at 1.8 M bu yr-1 of corn (21 M kg C) and 0.3 M bu yr-1 of soybean (3.7 M kg C). To grow this feed requires 19,000 acres of cropland (2/3 in corn and 1/3 in soybean). We visualize C and N fluxes for a 4,000 acre farm growing corn and soybeans. Corn and soybeans on this farm fix ˜15 M and 4.5 M kg C yr-1 respectively. Plant and soil respiration return ˜50% of GPP to the atmosphere from the cornfield, and˜70% from the soybean field. Emissions from on-farm equipment are ˜60,000 kg C yr-1. About 5.1 M kg C yr-1 move from this farm to CAFO (4.3 M kg C in corn and 0.8 M kg C in soybean). To meet cattle demand requires 4.75 such farms. Transporting grain from all 19,000 ac releases ˜3 M kg C yr-1. Once at the CAFO, ˜20% of C in grain is converted to steer biomass. Of the remaining grain C (˜20 M kg C), about half leaves the steers as CO2, ˜6.6 M kg C exits the steers as manure, and ˜7% is converted to methane in the rumen. Of the ˜100 M kg C pulled from the atmosphere on the farms, about 2 M kg C exit the CAFO as methane, which increases GWP of the carbon stream by 50%. At typical application rates, a grower adds ˜216,000 kg N yr-1 to the corn field. On the soybean field, we estimate fixation of 64,000 kg N yr-1 and assume no other N additions. Corn and soybeans acquire ˜135,000 and 106,000 kg N respectively. Nitrate leaching from the corn field is ˜43,000 kg N (equivalent to ~20% of fertilizer N) and losses from the soybean field are ˜11,000 kg N. A fraction of N inputs to the fields (˜0.5%) exits as N2O, totaling cultivation, and

  8. Control Points on Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in a Beef Cattle CAFO and the Cropland that Supports it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwick, N. P.; Tonitto, C.

    2011-12-01

    Although spatially separated in the U.S. agricultural landscape, CAFOs (confined animal feeding operations) and Illinois grain agriculture are interdependent. Therefore, we need to consider both systems to identify methods for reducing inefficiency, GHG losses, and N pollution from them. We construct a budget for an average 30,000 animal beef cattle CAFO. Assuming cattle stay on the CAFO 5 months, we estimate total grain demand at 1.8 M bu yr-1 of corn (21 M kg C) and 0.3 M bu yr-1 of soybean (3.7 M kg C). To grow this feed requires 19,000 acres of cropland (2/3 in corn and 1/3 in soybean). We visualize C and N fluxes for a 4,000 acre farm growing corn and soybeans. Corn and soybeans on this farm fix ˜15 M and 4.5 M kg C yr-1 respectively. Plant and soil respiration return ˜50% of GPP to the atmosphere from the cornfield, and˜70% from the soybean field. Emissions from on-farm equipment are ˜60,000 kg C yr-1. About 5.1 M kg C yr-1 move from this farm to CAFO (4.3 M kg C in corn and 0.8 M kg C in soybean). To meet cattle demand requires 4.75 such farms. Transporting grain from all 19,000 ac releases ˜3 M kg C yr-1. Once at the CAFO, ˜20% of C in grain is converted to steer biomass. Of the remaining grain C (˜20 M kg C), about half leaves the steers as CO2, ˜6.6 M kg C exits the steers as manure, and ˜7% is converted to methane in the rumen. Of the ˜100 M kg C pulled from the atmosphere on the farms, about 2 M kg C exit the CAFO as methane, which increases GWP of the carbon stream by 50%. At typical application rates, a grower adds ˜216,000 kg N yr-1 to the corn field. On the soybean field, we estimate fixation of 64,000 kg N yr-1 and assume no other N additions. Corn and soybeans acquire ˜135,000 and 106,000 kg N respectively. Nitrate leaching from the corn field is ˜43,000 kg N (equivalent to ~20% of fertilizer N) and losses from the soybean field are ˜11,000 kg N. A fraction of N inputs to the fields (˜0.5%) exits as N2O, totaling machinery used for

  9. How product trial changes quality perception of four new processed beef products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Faiza; Grunert, Klaus G; Therkildsen, Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the quantitative analysis of the change in quality perception of four new processed beef products from pre to post trial phases. Based on the Total Food Quality Model, differences in pre and post-trial phases were measured using repeated measures technique for cue...

  10. CHAPA, BEEF COW/CALF HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY AUDIT, PART V: QUALITY ASSURANCE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Dargatz, David

    1994-01-01

    As part of the National Animal Health Monitoring System (NAHMS ), USDA:APHIS:Veterinary Services conducted a national study of beef production, the Beef Cow/Calf Health and Productivity Audit (CHAPA). This study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on cow/calf health, productivity, and management practices. The National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) collaborated with USDA:APHIS:VS to select a producer sample that was statistically designed to pr...

  11. Cattle temperament influences metabolism: metabolic response to glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick Sanchez, N C; Carroll, J A; Broadway, P R; Hughes, H D; Roberts, S L; Richeson, J T; Schmidt, T B; Vann, R C

    2016-07-01

    Cattle temperament, defined as the reactivity of cattle to humans or novel environments, can greatly influence several physiological systems in the body, including immunity, stress, and most recently discovered, metabolism. Greater circulating concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) found in temperamental cattle suggest that temperamental cattle are metabolically different than calm cattle. Further, elevated NEFA concentrations have been reported to influence insulin sensitivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether cattle temperament would influence the metabolic response to a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and insulin sensitivity test (IST). Angus-cross steers (16 calm and 15 temperamental; 216 ± 6 kg BW) were selected based on temperament score measured at weaning. On day 1, steers were moved into indoor stanchions to allow measurement of individual ad libitum feed intake. On day 6, steers were fitted with indwelling rectal temperature probes and jugular catheters. At 9 AM on day 7, steers received the GTT (0.5-mL/kg BW of a 50% dextrose solution), and at 2 PM on day 7, steers received the IST (2.5 IU bovine insulin/kg BW). Blood samples were collected and serum isolated at -60, -45, -30, -15, 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min relative to each challenge. Serum was stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol, glucose, NEFA, and blood urea nitrogen concentrations. All variables changed over time (P < 0.01). For the duration of the study, temperamental steers maintained greater (P < 0.01) serum NEFA and less (P ≤ 0.01) serum blood urea nitrogen and insulin sensitivity (calculated using Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index) compared with calm steers. During the GTT, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum glucose, yet decreased (P = 0.03) serum insulin and (P < 0.01) serum insulin: serum glucose compared to calm cattle. During the IST, temperamental steers had greater (P < 0.01) serum

  12. Contribution of Leptospira, Neospora caninum and bovine viral diarrhea virus to fetal loss of beef cattle in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; West, D

    2013-10-01

    The profitability of beef breeding farms in New Zealand depends principally on optimal reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to estimate the impact of four major pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Neospora caninum (N. caninum), Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo (Hardjo), and Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), on rates of fetal loss in commercial beef breeding herds. Farms reporting fetal loss were recruited, and a blood sample from aborting cows (cases) was collected. Controls were normally calving cows from the same farm. At least four controls were selected from each farm contributing cases. Samples were tested using ELISA for detection of antibodies against BVDV and N. caninum, and microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for detection of antibody against Hardjo and Pomona. A selection of titer cut-offs was conducted to evaluate the relationship between fetal loss and seropositivity to each pathogen using conditional logistic regression. The cut-off titer with the strongest association with fetal loss was included in the multivariate model. A significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals seropositive to N. caninum (odds ratio (OR)=3.36; 95% confidence interval (95% CI)=1.27-8.89), Hardjo (OR=1.84; 95% CI=1.01-3.33), and Pomona in non-vaccinated cows (OR=14.91, 95% CI=1.73-128.84) at the ELISA titer ≥ 30, and MAT titers of ≥ 1:384 and ≥ 1:768 for a positive sample, respectively. A marginally non-significant increased risk of fetal loss was found for animals exposed to BVDV (OR=2.01; 95% CI=0.99-4.11) at the ELISA titer of ≤ 1. Vaccination did not affect ORs for Hardjo or BVDV and no herd vaccinated against N. caninum. Approximately 14.0% of all fetal loss in the beef breeding cattle population in New Zealand may be attributable to BVDV (3.5%), N. caninum (3.0%), Hardjo (4.7%), and Pomona (3.6%).

  13. Welfare and meat quality of beef cattle housed on two types of floors with the same space allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth performance, behaviour, cleanliness, carcass traits and meat quality of 48 Simmental young bulls housed on slattedfloor or on straw bedding with the same space allowance were compared in the study, which lasted 250 days. Theanimals (initial body weight = 321.2 ± 34.1 kg were assigned to 8 balanced groups, according to their initial bodyweight. All the groups were reared in separate pens with a space allowance of 3 m2/head. Four pens had a concrete floorcovered with a straw bedding while the other pens had a fully slatted floor made of concrete slats. All the animals receivedthe same diet provided ad libitum.Type of floor did not affect the bulls’ daily gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. Health status of the animals was satisfactorythroughout the trial and several blood indicators of chronic stress were not modified by the treatment. Behaviouralobservations carried out at d 10, 80, 180 and 240 showed differences only on some behaviours due to the type of floor.In particular, the straw bedding increased eating behaviour and it encouraged the simultaneous presence of more bullsat the manger. Regardless of the type of floor, the progress of the trial showed a linear increase of animals’ inactivity(Presults can be referred to the growth of the animal body frame, which made the space allowance progressively limiting.In the straw bedded pens, clean straw was added weekly and fully renewed every 3 weeks, but this bedding managementdid not allow a satisfactory cleanliness of the animals in comparison with the slatted floor. However, the worsecleanliness of the bulls on the straw did not promote their grooming activity. Young bulls were slaughtered at a finalweight of 614.6 ± 14.7 kg and their carcass traits and meat quality were not affected by the treatment.The straw bedded system cannot always be considered the cleanest solution for the housing of beef cattle and its frequentrenewal must be carried out, particularly when animals are

  14. Hepatic and duodenal expression of β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase in beef cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In Mexico most bovines are finished on pasture: the adipose tissue of those animals shows a yellow pigmentation which results in an important economic loss for the producer, because pg downgrading or even rejection of resulting carcasses. Yellowness of fat is caused by excessive carotenoids in the diet, of which β-carotene is predominant. β, β-carotene 15, 15' oxygenase (β-ox) is the enzyme that cleaves it into two molecules of vitamin A. In cattle not all the absorbed β-carotene is transformed into vitamin A; the excess is transported to the liver where it might be cleaved by the enzyme and stored or packaged with other lipid compounds and carried to different tissues, including the adipose. The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of β-ox in duodenal mucosae and hepatic tissue of grass-fed compared with grain-fed cattle. Biological samples were taken at Queretaro's Municipal abattoir from bovines at slaughter. For tRNA assays, intestinal mucosae was taken in Trizol reagent (Gibco BRL cat. 15595- 026), homogenized and transported on ice to the laboratory. For in situ hybridization duodenal and hepatic tissue samples were taken and fixed on 3.5% paraformaldehyde. A partial cDNA for β-ox of 744 nt was obtained by RT-PCR amplification, this product was inserted into TOPO vector 4.0 (Invitrogen cat. K457501) and cloned into E. coli bacteria. Then two sense and antisense digoxygenin labeled probes were synthesized and used for the hybridization of duodenal and hepatic cryosections of 15 μm from four pigmented and four non-pigmented carcasses. The hybridization conditions were a four-hour pre-hybridization at 65 deg. C and a overnight hybridization at the same temperature. The slides were washed and incubated overnight at 4 deg. C with digoxygenin/alkaline phosphatase antibody. The slides were washed and incubated with alkaline phosphatase-nitro blue tetrazolim/5-bromo-4-cloro-3- indoly-phosphate in darkness overnight at room

  15. Effects of polymorphic microsatellites in the regulatory region of IGF1 and GHR on growth and carcass traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curi, R A; Oliveira, H N; Silveira, A C; Lopes, C R

    2005-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2) and their associated binding proteins and transmembrane receptors (GHR, IGF1R and IGF2R) play an important role in the physiology of mammalian growth. The objectives of the present study were to estimate the allele and genotype frequencies of microsatellite markers located in the 5'-regulatory region of the IGF1 and GHR genes in beef cattle belonging to different genetic groups and to determine effects of these markers on growth and carcass traits in these animals under an intensive production system. For this purpose, genotyping was performed on 384 bulls including 79 Nellore, 30 Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) and 275 crossbred animals originating from crosses of Simmental (1/2 Simmental, n = 30) and Angus (1/2 Angus, n = 245) sires with Nellore females. The effects of substituting L allele for S allele of GHR microsatellite across Nellore, Canchim and 1/2 Angus were significant for weight gain and body weight (P < 0.05). The IGF1 microsatellite allele substitutions of 229 for 225 within Nellore group and of 225 for 229 within 1/2 Angus were not significant for any of the traits. PMID:15670132

  16. QTL mapping for production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejickova, J; Stipkova, M; Sahana, Goutam;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find QTL for milk production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, and 23 where QTL were previously identified in other dairy cattle populations. Sixteen grandsire families were genotyped for 38 microsatellite markers on the selected...... of milk production in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle....... associated with milk production traits appeared on other studied chromosomes (BTA6, BTA7, BTA11, and BTA23). This first QTL search on five chromosomes in Czech Fleckvieh population showed several suggestive QTL that can be promising for further studies and contribute to better understanding of genetics...

  17. MODEL SYSTEM EVALUATIONS OF MEAT EMULSIONS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT EDIBLE BEEF BY PRODUCTS AND FATS AND OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa KARAKAYA

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available Emulsion parameters of different meat by-products (beef head-meat, beef heart and liver and animal fats and oil (beef fat, mutton fat, sheep tail-fat and corn oil were studied in a model system. The results of the study showed that the highest emulsion capacity (EC was with the heart meat and beef fat emulsion while the lowest EC was measured in the beef head-meat and sheep tail-fat combination. Corn oil gave the best emulsification with beef head-meat and liver, and beef fat resulted the second best results. Beef head-meat gave the most stable emulsion with all fats, but the emulsions prepared with heart and liver were generally unstable.

  18. Escherichia coli O157:H7, diet, and fecal microbiome in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  19. Anti-methanogenic effects of monensin in dairy and beef cattle: A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appuhamy, J.A.D.R.N.; Strathe, A.B.; Jayasundara, S.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Kebreab, E.

    2013-01-01

    Monensin is a widely used feed additive with the potential to minimize methane (CH4) emissions from cattle. Several studies have investigated the effects of monensin on CH4, but findings have been inconsistent. The objective of the present study was to conduct meta-analyses to quantitatively summari

  20. Increased conception rates in beef cattle inseminated with nanopurified bull semen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive performance is of paramount importance to the cattle industry. Since recent progress has been achieved by optimizing estrus and ovulation synchronization protocols in cows, improvements are desired to increase the fertility of bulls enrolled in artificial insemination (AI) programs. Thi...

  1. Diet, fecal microbiome and Escherichia coli O157:H7 shedding in beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, such as E. coli O157:H7, are foodborne zoonotic pathogens that can cause severe illness and death in humans. The gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals has been identified as a primary habitat for E. coli O157:H7, and in cattle the terminal gastrointestinal tra...

  2. Effect of forage energy intake and supplementation on marbling deposition in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucose is the primary carbon source for fatty acid synthesis in intramuscular fat, whereas, acetate is primarily utilized by subcutaneous fat. Our objective was to examine the effect of forage energy intake and type of fermentation on marbling deposition by stocker cattle grazing dormant native ra...

  3. Intrinsic movement patterns of grazing Rocky Mountains elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) and beef cattle (Bos taurus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain elk and cattle are important components of mountainous ecosystems in the western United States and exist contemporaneously on many landscapes. These animals utilize similar resources yet the evolutionary lines that produced them have been distinct for approximately 30 million years. ...

  4. Random regression models in the evaluation of the growth curve of Simbrasil beef cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mota, M.; Marques, F.A.; Lopes, P.S.; Hidalgo, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Random regression models were used to estimate the types and orders of random effects of (co)variance functions in the description of the growth trajectory of the Simbrasil cattle breed. Records for 7049 animals totaling 18,677 individual weighings were submitted to 15 models from the third to the f

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  6. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ramos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG (sensitivity of 50 EPG. These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernanda; Portella, Luiza Pires; Rodrigues, Fernando de Souza; Reginato, Caroline Zamperete; Pötter, Luciana; Cezar, Alfredo Skrebsky; Sangioni, Luís Antônio; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flores

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes resistant to anthelmintics have been reported in several regions of Brazil, and they may be associated with economic losses for the cattle industry. This study aimed to evaluate the resistance status of gastrointestinal nematodes from naturally infected beef cattle to several commercially available anthelmintics, as well as to test the efficacy of combinations of anthelmintics against multi-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. Ten farms located in Rio Grande do Sul state were selected by: farmers' consent; extensive raising system; availability of calves aged from 7 to 9 months naturally infected by gastrointestinal nematodes; absence of anthelmintic treatment for 60 days before the study; and presence of 70–100 calves or more of both genders with ≥200 eggs per gram of feces (EPG) (sensitivity of 50 EPG). These calves were distributed into 10 groups (of 7–10 animals) per farm and treated with ivermectin, doramectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, closantel, nitroxynil, disophenol, levamisole, albendazole, or moxidectin. Feces were collected 2 days before treatment and 14 days after treatment. Additional groups of 7–10 calves were used to test six different two-drug combinations at four of the studied farms. In general terms, fenbendazole was the most effective drug, followed by levamisole, disophenol, and moxidectin. However, parasite resistance to multiple drugs was found in all herds, especially in the genera Cooperia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., and Haemonchus spp.. Some of the two-drug combinations were effective against nematode populations identified as resistant to the same compounds when used as single drugs. The most effective combinations were moxidectin + levamisole, doramectin + fenbendazole, and levamisole + closantel. In this study, parasites resistant to the main commercially available anthelmintics were found in all herds, and some combinations of two active components belonging to different chemical groups

  8. Characterization of fungi from ruminal fluid of beef cattle with different ages and raised in tropical lignified pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrão, Flávia Oliveira; Duarte, Eduardo Robson; Freitas, Cláudio Eduardo Silva; Vieira, Edvaldo Alves; Geraseev, Luciana Castro; da Silva-Hughes, Alice Ferreira; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Rodrigues, Norberto Mario

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic rumen mycobiota from three age groups of Nelore beef cattle reared extensively on lignified pasture. The experiment was randomized and sampled 50 steers, 50 cows, and 50 calves grazed on Brachiaria spp. pasture during the dry season. Rumen fluid in all animals was aromatic, slightly viscous, and greenish-brown in color. Microscopic examination revealed monocentric and polycentric anaerobic fungi in similar proportions (P > 0.05) in the rumen fluid of cows and steers. However, these microorganisms were not identified in any of the samples from calves. In culture exams, aerobic filamentous population was significantly higher for rumen fluid of cows compared to the other two groups. Microculture and rDNA sequence analyses showed Aspergillus spp. as the most frequent aerobic fungus among the isolates from the three bovine groups evaluated. Biochemical profiles were determined by the growth level of yeast isolates with 44 nutrient sources. Ten different yeast profiles were obtained, and yeast isolates from cow ruminal fluid showed ability to catabolize greater diversity of carbon and nitrogen sources. The differences in the fungal populations observed in this study could be explained by microbial and physiological interactions existing in the ruminal ecosystem of each age bovine group. The present study showed the fungal population of the rumen related with differences among age of cattle raised in lignified pastures. Metabolic capabilities of mycelial fungi or yeast identified in this study may be employed in new probiotics or microbial additives for different bovine categories. PMID:24962597

  9. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing.

  10. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  11. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  12. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology and Whole Genome Sequencing Analysis for an Outbreak of Bovine Tuberculosis in Beef Cattle and White-Tailed Deer in Northwestern Minnesota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Glaser

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB was discovered in a Minnesota cow through routine slaughter surveillance in 2005 and the resulting epidemiological investigation led to the discovery of infection in both cattle and white-tailed deer in the state. From 2005 through 2009, a total of 12 beef cattle herds and 27 free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus were found infected in a small geographic region of northwestern Minnesota. Genotyping of isolates determined both cattle and deer shared the same strain of bTB, and it was similar to types found in cattle in the southwestern United States and Mexico. Whole genomic sequencing confirmed the introduction of this infection into Minnesota was recent, with little genetic divergence. Aggressive surveillance and management efforts in both cattle and deer continued from 2010-2012; no additional infections were discovered. Over 10,000 deer were tested and 705 whole herd cattle tests performed in the investigation of this outbreak.

  14. CATTLE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION CONFINED SUBMITTED IMMUNOCASTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Maluf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the performance and carcass characteristics of cattle cross breeds ½ Aberdeen Angus x ½Nelore and Nelore confined submitted to immunocastration 218 male animals were used, feedlot, averaging 342 kg, divided into three experimental groups, T1: 117 steers ½ Angus x ½ Nelore no castrated (ANC, T2: 51 Nelore steers uncastrated (NNC and T3: 50 Nellore steers immunocastrated (NIC. The experiment lasted 144 days of confinement. The selection of animals for group formation was according to the individual weight, breed, sex condition and age. For immunocastration it wasused Bopriva® vaccine. The rating was finished according to the parameter used by the meatpacking industry ranging from 1 to 5. The experimental design was completely randomized in three groups. For the analyzes the variables studied statistics were submitted to analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey test both at the 5% level of significance. The results showed differences (p <0.01 at various features of productive performance and carcass between treatments. For slaughter weight, the ANC animals were higher (with 582.1 kg to Nelore, regardless of sexual condition, and the NNC were in turn heavier than the NIC, 527.4 and 503.7 respectively. Finally, it observed that the use of immunocastration in Nellore animals provided a decrease in productive performance of confined animals, but provided better finish carcass similar to crossbred (ANC.

  15. Is hepatic lipid metabolism of beef cattle influenced by breed and dietary silage level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In ruminants, unsaturated dietary fatty acids are biohydrogenated in the rumen and are further metabolised in various tissues, including liver, which has an important role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Therefore, manipulation of muscle fatty acid composition should take into account liver metabolism. In the present study, the influence of breed and diet on liver lipid composition and gene expression was investigated in order to clarify the role of this organ in the lipid metabolism of ruminants. Forty purebred young bulls from two phylogenetically distant autochthonous cattle breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were assigned to two different diets (low vs. high silage) and slaughtered at 18 months of age. Liver fatty acid composition, mRNA levels of enzymes and transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, as well as the plasma lipid profile, were assessed. Results In spite of similar plasma non-esterified fatty acids levels, liver triacylglycerols content was higher in Barrosã than in Alentejana bulls. Moreover, the fatty acid composition of liver was clearly distinct from the remaining tissues involved in fatty acid metabolism of ruminants, as shown by Principal Components Analysis. The hepatic tissue is particularly rich in α-linolenic acid and their products of desaturation and elongation. Results indicate that DGAT1, ELOVL2, FADS1 and FADS2 genes influence the fatty acid composition of the liver the most. Moreover, genes such as DGAT1 and ELOVL2 appear to be more sensitive to genetic background than to dietary manipulation, whereas genes encoding for desaturases, such as FADS1, appear to be modulated by dietary silage level. Conclusions Our results indicate that liver plays an important role in the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. It is also suggested that dietary silage level influences the hepatic fatty acid metabolism in a breed-dependent manner, through changes in the expression of genes encoding for enzymes associated with the

  16. Effect of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms on growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits in Chinese beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lupei; Ren, Hongyan; Yang, Jiuguang; Gan, Qianfu; Zhao, Fuping; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-09-01

    The thyroglobulin (TG) gene has been studied as an important gene related to fat deposition, since not only does TG gene locate in a quantitative trait locus with an effect on fat deposition, but also it encodes the precursor of thyroid hormones which have crucial biological functions in energy metabolism. In the present study, we identified four novel SNPs at the 5' flanking region of the bovine TG gene. Association analysis indicated that the G275A, G277C, G280A and C281G SNPs were significantly associated with average daily gain (ADG, P meat quality traits were evaluated. The results showed no significant effect of haplotype on ADG. Meanwhile, no significant association was found between 4 SNPs and other growth, carcass composition and meat quality traits including intramuscular fat. Bioinformatics analysis showed that 4 SNPs may results in potential transcription factor binding site changes. Results of this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNPs may be a useful marker for growth traits in marker assisted selection programs in beef cattle.

  17. Effect of diet on animal performance, lipid composition of subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, N; McDowell, L R; Johnson, D D

    1987-01-01

    Two trials were carried out with Brahman beef cattle to study animal performance and carcass characteristics as well as fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose and hepatic tissue, as influence by length of grain feeding period or a pasturing regimen. In trial 1, steers were allotted to three feedlot finishing periods (76, 104 and 146 days) after being backgrounded on pasture. Steers fed 76 days had greater average daily gains (P Carcasses of steers slaughtered after 146 days on feed had higher (P 0.·05) in these individual subclasses of liver lipids or in triglycerides were observed between the feedlot groups. Liver polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher (P < 0·001) at 104 than 76 days. In trial 2, steers fed a concentrate diet gained faster (P < 0·05) than the pasture group after 138 days. Marbling scores, yield grade, quality grade, fat over ribeye and per cent KPH were higher (P < 0·01) for the concentrate group while fat color scores were higher (P < 0·01) for the pasture group. Liver fatty acid analysis of summed ω6 PUFAs of triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine were higher for the feedlot than the pasture group. Linoleic acid was higher (P < 0·05) in the TG and PC liver subclass of the feedlot animals while higher (P < 0·05) linolenic acid occurred in the pasture group.

  18. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small. PMID:3372376

  19. Effect of diet on animal performance, lipid composition of subcutaneous adipose and liver tissue of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidiroglou, N; McDowell, L R; Johnson, D D

    1987-01-01

    Two trials were carried out with Brahman beef cattle to study animal performance and carcass characteristics as well as fatty acid composition of subcutaneous adipose and hepatic tissue, as influence by length of grain feeding period or a pasturing regimen. In trial 1, steers were allotted to three feedlot finishing periods (76, 104 and 146 days) after being backgrounded on pasture. Steers fed 76 days had greater average daily gains (P 0.·05) in these individual subclasses of liver lipids or in triglycerides were observed between the feedlot groups. Liver polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were higher (P < 0·001) at 104 than 76 days. In trial 2, steers fed a concentrate diet gained faster (P < 0·05) than the pasture group after 138 days. Marbling scores, yield grade, quality grade, fat over ribeye and per cent KPH were higher (P < 0·01) for the concentrate group while fat color scores were higher (P < 0·01) for the pasture group. Liver fatty acid analysis of summed ω6 PUFAs of triglyceride, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine were higher for the feedlot than the pasture group. Linoleic acid was higher (P < 0·05) in the TG and PC liver subclass of the feedlot animals while higher (P < 0·05) linolenic acid occurred in the pasture group.

  20. Evaluation of performance characteristics in a diallel among Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle. II. Carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comerford, J W; Benyshek, L L; Bertrand, J K; Johnson, M H

    1988-02-01

    Evaluations of steer and heifer progeny from a diallel mating design of Simmental, Limousin, Polled Hereford and Brahman beef cattle over 5 yr are presented. Traits evaluated included final weight, hot carcass weight, ribeye area, 12th rib fat thickness, marbling score, yield grade, dressing percentage and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat. Progeny of Simmental sires were heavier at slaughter than those with Brahman sires (P less than .05), but no differences were found for carcass weight. Dressing percentage was higher for Limousin crosses compared with progeny of other sire breeds (P less than .05). Similar results were found for dam breeds, except that progeny of Limousin dams had heavier carcasses with a higher dressing percentage (P less than .05) than Brahman crosses. Crosses of Limousin and Simmental had larger ribeye areas (P less than .05) compared with calves of the other breeds. Progeny of Polled Hereford dams had higher marbling scores and were fatter than progeny of dams of other breeds (P less than .05). Heterosis estimates were significant for all Brahman crosses for final weight, carcass weight and ribeye area, but these contrasts were negligible for other traits. Estimates of general combining ability were positive and significant for Simmental for final weight, carcass weight, ribeye area and marbling score and were significant and negative for Limousin for final weight, fat thickness and yield grade. Maternal values were generally small.

  1. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Hye-Sun; Kim, Woonsu; Yoon, Duhak; Seo, Seongwon

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carcass weight of 430.2 ± 40.66 kg) immediately after slaughter. The total mRNA from muscle, IMA, and subcutaneous adipose and omental adipose tissues were isolated and sequenced. The reads that passed quality control were mapped onto the bovine reference genome (build bosTau6), and differentially expressed genes across tissues were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment tests revealed the opposite direction of metabolic regulation between muscle and IMA. Metabolic gene network analysis clearly indicated that oxidative metabolism was upregulated in muscle and downregulated in IMA. Interestingly, pathways for regulating cell adhesion, structure, and integrity and chemokine signaling pathway were upregulated in IMA and downregulated in muscle. It is thus inferred that IMA may play an important role in the regulation of development and structure of the LD tissues and muscle/adipose communication.

  2. Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible. PMID:20676763

  3. Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible.

  4. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product) with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, M. Mansoor; Salahuddin, Mir; Mantoo, Imtiyaz A.; Adil, Sheikh; Jalal, Henna; Pal, M. Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan), the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating) and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level. PMID:27057103

  5. Species-specific identification of adulteration in cooked mutton Rista (a Kashmiri Wazwan cuisine product with beef and buffalo meat through multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansoor Bhat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Meat adulteration is a serious problem in the meat industry and needs to be tackled to ensure the authenticity of meat products and protect the consumers from being the victims. In view of such likely problem in indigenous meat products of Kashmiri cuisine (Wazwan, the present work was performed to study the detection of beef and buffalo meat in cooked mutton Rista by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR method under laboratory conditions. Materials and Methods: Three experimental trials were conducted wherein the products were prepared from pure mutton, beef and buffalo meat, and their admixtures in the ratios of 60:20:20, 80:10:10, 90:05:05 and 98:01:01, respectively. Results: The primers used in the study amplified the cyt b gene fragments of sizes 124 bp, 472 bp and 585 bp for buffalo, cattle and sheep, respectively. It was possible to detect cattle and buffalo meat at the level of 1% in the mixed meat cooked Rista. The multiplex PCR successfully amplified cyt b gene fragments of mtDNA of the target species and thus produced characteristic band pattern for each species. The band intensities of cattle and buffalo in the mixed meat Rista progressively decreased corresponding to their decreasing level from 20% to 1%. Processing, cooking (moist heating and non-meat formulation ingredients had no effect on detection of meat species adulteration. Conclusion: The multiplex PCR procedure standardized and developed in this study is simple, efficient, sensitive, reliable and highly specific for detecting falsification of cooked mutton product with beef and buffalo meat up to 1% level.

  6. The Use of Local Mineral Formulas as a Feed Block Supplement for Beef Cattle Fed on Wild Forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present research was carried out to study the diversity of mineral contents of wild forages and to evaluate the beneficial effect of mineral feed supplement formulated by using locally available materials on the performances of beef cattle. The present research was initiated by analyzing mineral contents of wild forages grown around Limau Manis campus areas. Forage samples were collected at 9 sampling areas scattered at plantation, conservation and idle lands. Samples were then analyzed for macro minerals of Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, and S and micro minerals of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn. Feeding trial was then conducted to evaluate the beneficial effect of supplementation of local mineral formulas (LMF produced by using locally available materials on the performances of cattle. Feeding trial was conducted for 6 weeks by using 9 Simmentals cross bred heifers. The trial consisted of 3 treatments, i.e., P1: only grass without supplementation, P2: grass + LMF and P3: grass + mineral premix enriched LMF. Variables measured were: body weight, feed intake, FCR, feed cost and net return. Results showed that the highest macro mineral content of wild forages was Na of about 13.05±2.22 g/kg, varied from 4.1 to 23.8 g/kg, followed by K (11.09±1.43 g/kg and Ca (6.10±1.09 g/kg DM. Three minerals of Mg, P, and S were found in relatively small concentrations of 1.34±0.30, 0.83±0.23, and 0.17±0.01 g/kg, respectively. Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn were found in relatively high concentrations. The highest concentration of micro minerals was Fe of about 613.8±128.9 mg/kg, followed by Mn of 143.9±23.3 mg/kg, while Zn and Cu were found in relatively small amount of about 31.3±5.5 and 13.2±2.5 mg/kg, respectively. Heifers supplemented with LMF (P2 and mineral premix enriched LMF (P3 showed higher body weight gain, lower FCR and net return than those cattle fed only grass (P1. The most profitable feeding strategy was by supplementation of heifers with mineral premix

  7. Studies on the reproductive performance of indigenous beef cattle breeds raised on-farm in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken to investigate the reproductive performance of a mixture of N'dama and West African Shorthorn (N'dama/WASH) and Sanga cattle raised under traditional management conditions on four privately owned small-holder farms. The first study involved an analysis of reproductive records and the measurement of plasma progesterone concentration to delineate the onset of various reproductive phenomena, including age at puberty and first calving, post-partum resumption of ovarian activity and other abnormal events like abortions. The second study investigated the influence of dry-season feed supplementation on reproductive performance. In study 1 the ages at first plasma progesterone rise (puberty), first mating and first calving for N'dama/WASH cattle on three farms averaged 981, 1016 and 1296 days respectively. The calving interval, calving-to-progesterone rise and calving-to-mating averaged 412, 129 and 114 days respectively. Significant differences existed among farms with Farms 1 and 2 out-performing Farm 3. The respective mean ages at first progesterone elevation, first mating and first calving for Sanga cattle (Farm 4) were 964, 990 and 1271 days while calving-to-progesterone rise, calving-to-mating and calving intervals averaged 107, 150 and 431 days. In study 2, dry-season feed supplementation generally reduced ages at puberty and first calving as well as the interval of post-partum acyclicity. (author). 18 refs, 3 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Development of a Beef Flavor Lexicon and Its Application to Compare Flavor Profiles and Consumer Acceptance of Grain- and Pasture-Finished Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Curtis A

    2011-01-01

    Flavor lexicons are used in sensory evaluation to determine the flavor profile of a food product. The objective of this study was to develop a flavor lexicon for cooked beef, which can then be used in various projects relating to beef quality such as studies investigating animal diet, marinating, ageing, or other enhancements. A descriptive panel of 10 people was used to develop a flavor lexicon of 18 attributes, including astringent, barny, bloody, brothy, browned, gamey, grassy, juicy, fa...

  9. Beef Cattle Farms’ Conversion to the Organic System. Recommendations for Success in the Face of Future Changes in a Global Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Escribano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dehesa is a remarkable agroforestry system, which needs the implementation of sustainable production systems in order to reduce its deterioration. Moreover, its livestock farms need to adapt to a new global market context. As a response, the organic livestock sector has expanded not only globally but also in the region in search for increased overall sustainability. However, conversions to the organic system have been commonly carried out without analyzing farms’ feasibility to do so. This analysis is necessary before implementing any new production system in order to reduce both the diversity of externalities that the variety of contexts leads to and the vulnerability of the DDehesa ecosystem to small management changes. Within this context and in the face of this gap in knowledge, the present paper analyzes the ease of such conversions and the farms’ chances of success after conversion in the face of global changes (market and politics. Different aspects (“areas of action” were studied and integrated within the Global Conversion Index (GCI, and the legal requirement for European organic farming, organic principles, future challenges for ruminants’ production systems, as well as the lines of action for the post-2013 CAP (Common Agricultural Policy and their impacts on the beef cattle sector were taken into account. Results revealed that farms must introduce significant changes before initiating the conversion process, since they had very low scores on the GCI (42.74%, especially with regard to health and agro-ecosystem management (principle of Ecology. Regarding rearing and animal welfare (principle of justice/fairness, farms were close to the organic system. From the social point of view, active participation in manufacturing and marketing of products should be increased.

  10. Finding horse meat in beef products--a global problem.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, P J

    2013-06-01

    The Food Safety Authority of Ireland (FSAI) oversees the implementation of food safety controls in Ireland which are set out in EU and Irish law. The FSAI, a science-based consumer protection organization, has nurtured a close relationship with the scientific community allowing it to utilize the best scientific advice available to underpin risk assessments. In early 2013, a 2-month long investigation in to the authenticity of beef products culminated in the publication of results that demonstrated the presence of horse meat in a frozen burger produced in Ireland. The events that followed revealed a pan-European food fraud which will likely result in significant changes in the way this small section of the meat industry will be regulated in the future in the EU. Although revelations of implicated products and food businesses have relented, the EU-wide investigation is continuing in an effort to determine how a food fraud of this scale could have occurred in such a highly regulated industry and who was involved. The FSAI initially received some criticism after publication of the results, but was also commended for its scientific approach as well as its openness and transparency. The end result of this incident is likely to be that the complexity of the food chain will be addressed again and DNA-based or similar methods will become a regular feature in verifying the authenticity of meat-based foods.