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Sample records for beds national monument

  1. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C Neal; Kathren, Ronald L; Christensen, Craig

    2008-08-01

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  2. Radioactivity in fossils at the Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Farmer, C. [111 Broadway, Suite 133, Unit 251, Boise, ID 83702 (United States); Kathren, Ronald L. [Washington State University at Tri-Cities, 137 Spring Street, Richland, WA 99354 (United States)], E-mail: kathren@bmi.net; Christensen, Craig [1705 Charlott Avenue, Missoula, MT 59801 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Since 1996, higher than background levels of naturally occurring radioactivity have been documented in both fossil and mineral deposits at Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument in south-central Idaho. Radioactive fossil sites occur primarily within an elevation zone of 900-1000 m above sea level and are most commonly found associated with ancient river channels filled with sand. Fossils found in clay rich deposits do not exhibit discernable levels of radioactivity. Out of 300 randomly selected fossils, approximately three-fourths exhibit detectable levels of natural radioactivity ranging from 1 to 2 orders of magnitude above ambient background levels when surveyed with a portable hand held Geiger-Muller survey instrument. Mineral deposits in geologic strata also show above ambient background levels of radioactivity. Radiochemical lab analysis has documented the presence of numerous natural radioactive isotopes. It is postulated that ancient groundwater transported radioactive elements through sand bodies containing fossils which precipitated out of solution during the fossilization process. The elevated levels of natural radioactivity in fossils may require special precautions to ensure that exposures to personnel from stored or displayed items are kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

  3. Vertebrate paleontology, stratigraphy, and paleohydrology of Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument, Nevada (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kathleen; Pigati, Jeffery S.; Scott, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Tule Springs Fossil Beds National Monument (TUSK) preserves 22,650 acres of the upper Las Vegas Wash in the northern Las Vegas Valley (Nevada, USA). TUSK is home to extensive and stratigraphically complex groundwater discharge (GWD) deposits, called the Las Vegas Formation, which represent springs and desert wetlands that covered much of the valley during the late Quaternary. The GWD deposits record hydrologic changes that occurred here in a dynamic and temporally congruent response to abrupt climatic oscillations over the last ~300 ka (thousands of years). The deposits also entomb the Tule Springs Local Fauna (TSLF), one of the most significant late Pleistocene (Rancholabrean) vertebrate assemblages in the American Southwest. The TSLF is both prolific and diverse, and includes a large mammal assemblage dominated by Mammuthus columbi and Camelops hesternus. Two (and possibly three) distinct species of Equus, two species of Bison, Panthera atrox, Smilodon fatalis, Canis dirus, Megalonyx jeffersonii, and Nothrotheriops shastensis are also present, and newly recognized faunal components include micromammals, amphibians, snakes, and birds. Invertebrates, plant macrofossils, and pollen also occur in the deposits and provide important and complementary paleoenvironmental information. This field compendium highlights the faunal assemblage in the classic stratigraphic sequences of the Las Vegas Formation within TUSK, emphasizes the significant hydrologic changes that occurred in the area during the recent geologic past, and examines the subsequent and repeated effect of rapid climate change on the local desert wetland ecosystem.

  4. Geologic field-trip guide to Medicine Lake Volcano, northern California, including Lava Beds National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, Julie M.; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-08-17

    Medicine Lake volcano is among the very best places in the United States to see and walk on a variety of well-exposed young lava flows that range in composition from basalt to rhyolite. This field-trip guide to the volcano and to Lava Beds National Monument, which occupies part of the north flank, directs visitors to a wide range of lava flow compositions and volcanic phenomena, many of them well exposed and Holocene in age. The writing of the guide was prompted by a field trip to the California Cascades Arc organized in conjunction with the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) quadrennial meeting in Portland, Oregon, in August of 2017. This report is one of a group of three guides describing the three major volcanic centers of the southern Cascades Volcanic Arc. The guides describing the Mount Shasta and Lassen Volcanic Center parts of the trip share an introduction, written as an overview to the IAVCEI field trip. However, this guide to Medicine Lake volcano has descriptions of many more stops than are included in the 2017 field trip. The 23 stops described here feature a range of compositions and volcanic phenomena. Many other stops are possible and some have been previously described, but these 23 have been selected to highlight the variety of volcanic phenomena at this rear-arc center, the range of compositions, and for the practical reason that they are readily accessible. Open ground cracks, various vent features, tuffs, lava-tube caves, evidence for glaciation, and lava flows that contain inclusions and show visible evidence of compositional zonation are described and visited along the route.

  5. Rock paintings in Fern Cave, Lava Beds National Monument, California: Not the 1054 A.D. (Crab Nebula) Supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armitage, R.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M. W.

    1997-01-01

    On July 4, 1054 A.D. a supernova brighter than Venus appeared in the sky, remaining visible for approximately 23 days and 650 nights. It was chronicled in five independent historic accounts, four in China and one in Japan. For at least 40 years investigators have attributed certain distinctive rock paintings and carvings in the western United States as recordings of the 1054 A.D. supernova. More than twenty such depictions (circle or star-like symbols and a crescent) have been located. Two panels of rock paintings in Lava Beds National Monument, California, one at Fern Cave and one at Symbol Bridge, were listed as recording the 1054 A.D. supernova. The only direct means of assessing the likelihood that a 'supernova' representation records the 1054 A.D. event is to date the rock painting or carving. At Texas A and M University, was developed a plasma-chemical extraction technique that permits to analyze the 14 C in rock paintings, whether the pigments used were charcoal or inorganic Fe- and Mn- oxides and hydroxides with organic binder/vehicles. This paper presents direct 14 C age estimates on a rock painting suggested to represent the 1054 A.D. supernova. Charcoal pigment samples were collected from three figures in proximity at Fern Cave: a crescent pointing downward and two nearby circles, one above and one below the crescent. The AMS 14 C analysis on each sample using this technique show that these images do not represent the 1054 A.D. supernova

  6. 78 FR 72060 - Chimney Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Rock National Monument Management Plan; San Juan National Forest; Colorado AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... and resources within Chimney Rock National Monument, designated by Presidential Proclamation on... Action The Presidential Proclamation establishing Chimney Rock National Monument (the Monument) requires...

  7. Ethnicity, National Integrity and Monument in Argal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, social inclusion, ethnic identity, positive discrimination and proportional representation being burning issues now. Ethnic identity is a vital element of discussion for social inclusion, positive discrimination and proportional representation. Assertion on ethnic identity, seeks recognition from concerned institutions, practices traditions and advocates their ethnic right on socio-economic and political power. These issues are intrinsically linked to national integration. To be sure, very little attention is paid toward ancestral monuments of the past. Monuments vary by their size, pattern, investment, management, and range of dissemination. Local level monuments have little possibility to attract the attention of people of various places and interest, unless they have becomes extraordinary significance. In order to understand monumentality in wider social context, it is very important to look at the village level society. Monument building in Nepal has been linked to culture, history, religion, ethnic identity as well as social system. Argal VDC of Baglung district of Nepal represent with multi-ethnic/caste setting that has high influence over the nature of monument and the rituals performed. In multiethnic setting economic, social, and political activities co-exist, each nourishing the other.Key Words: Ethnicity, Argali Magars, Intra-ethnic relation, Magars, Monuments, National Integrity, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1359Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.101-120

  8. Exploring National Parks & Monuments: Students Can Discover National Monuments, National Parks & Natural Wonders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Cynthia Light Brown, author of "Discover National Monuments, National Parks: Natural Wonders," a book that introduces readers ages 8-12 to the history and science behind some of the amazing natural sites in the United States. In this interview, Cynthia Light Brown describes how she became interested in…

  9. 36 CFR 7.6 - Muir Woods National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Muir Woods National Monument. 7.6 Section 7.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.6 Muir Woods National Monument. (a...

  10. Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument : Acoustical Monitoring 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    During the summer of 2010 (July - August), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument (SUCR) at a site deployed for approximately 30 days. The baseline data collected during this period will help pa...

  11. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Chiricahua National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Halvorson, William L.; Anning, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive inventory of vascular plants and vertebrates at Chiricahua National Monument (NM) in Arizona. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks in Arizona and New Mexico. In 2002, 2003, and 2004 we surveyed for plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Chiricahua NM to document the presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field methods, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for the monument. This report is also the first summary of previous research from the monument and therefore it provides an important overview of survey efforts to date. We used data from our inventory and previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. We recorded a total of 424 species, including 37 not previously found at the monument (Table 1). We found 10 species of non-native plants and one non-native mammal. Most non-native plants were found along the western boundary of the monument. Based on a review of our inventory and past research at the monument, there have been a total of 1,137 species of plants and vertebrates found at the monument. We believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network. The mammal community at the monument had the highest species richness (69 species) and the amphibian and reptile community was among the lowest species richness (33 species) of any park in the Sonoran Desert Network. Species richness of the plant and bird communities was intermediate. Among the important determinants of species richness for all groups is the geographic location of the monument

  12. The Newest Monument: The Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Studies and the Young Learner, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article features the newest monument, the Martin Luther King, Jr. National Memorial. The memorial on the National Mall in Washington, D.C., honoring Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. will be an engaging landscape experience to convey four fundamental and recurring themes throughout Dr. King's life--democracy, justice, hope, and love. Natural…

  13. 36 CFR 7.73 - Buck Island Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Buck Island Reef National Monument. 7.73 Section 7.73 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... mammals, coastal migratory pelagic fish, baitfish, lobsters, conch, whelk, hermit crabs (soldier crabs...

  14. Observations of elk movement patterns on Fossil Butte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olexa, Edward M.; Soileau, Suzanna Carrithers.; Allen, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The elk herd that frequents Fossil Butte National Monument, a subset of the West Green River elk population, provides visitors with seasonal opportunities to view an iconic species of the western United States. Throughout the year, these elk range across a variety of private, State, and Federal lands within close proximity to the Monument. These lands are managed differently for various uses which can create challenging wildlife-management issues and influence the herd’s seasonal movements and distribution. Research lead by the USGS investigates some of the factors associated with these seasonal changes.

  15. Aztec Ruins National Monument. Teacher's Guide, Grades 4-7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Theresa, Comp.

    This teacher's guide is for educators in classrooms, outdoor education, youth groups, scouting, and after-school programs to teach about the Aztec Ruins National Monument (New Mexico). The teaching materials in the guide support the New Mexico educational standards in science, social studies, language arts, mathematics, and art. Since the guide's…

  16. Water resources of Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    Dinosaur National Monument, partly in the Rocky Mountain System and partly in the Colorado Plateaus physiographic province, covers an area of 322 square miles (834 square kilometres) in northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah. The climate is generally cool and pleasant in May, early June, September, and October; winters are cold. Normal annual precipitation ranges from less than 8 to more than 16 inches (203 to 406 millimetres).Geologic formations in the monument range in age from upper Precambrian to Holocene, but not all ages are represented. The monument is on the south limb of the east-trending regional fold representing the Uinta Mountains. Faults and subsidary folds on the south slope of the Uinta Mountains complicate the geology and hydrology of the area.None of the surface streams in the monument are diverted for public supply, but the Green and Yampa Rivers are a recreational resource for boaters. The flow of the Green River is regulated by Flaming Gorge Reservoir; however, flood potentials are estimated for the Yampa River and three smaller streams. Facilities in the monument are not endangered by probable mean annual floods, but may sustain some damage to facilities by the 25- or 50-year floods.Major aquifers in the monument are sandstone and limestone formations, but these formations are drained in the higher areas. Alluvium along the major stream channels yields small amounts of water to wells, but some of the water is not of suitable chemical quality for public supply. All public water supplies in 1971 were obtained from wells, and the use of water during 1970 was estimated to be 15 million gallons (46 acre-feet or 0.057 cubic hectometres). Most of the ground water obtained from sandstone and limestone is of suitable chemical quality for public supply.

  17. VA National Bed Control System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA National Bed Control System records the levels of operating, unavailable and authorized beds at each VAMC, and it tracks requests for changes in these levels....

  18. Natural Bridges National Monument photovoltaic power plant operations manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S. D.

    1982-02-01

    After a basic introduction and overview of the photovoltaic system at the Natural Bridges National Monument, a history of the project and a description of the installation, safety procedures essential for all operators and maintenance personnel are discussed. Locations and detailed descriptions of the equipment are provided to permit operators to identify the system controls and equipment. Step by step system operation procedures are described, including diesel generator start up and photovoltaic power system turn on. Information is provided about routine monitoring and maintenance of the system.

  19. Geology of Newberry National Volcanic Monument, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly-Nolan, J. M.; Jensen, R. A.; Robinson, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Volcanic geology is the dominant theme at Newberry National Volcanic Monument in central Oregon. Established almost 25 years ago, the NNVM (like the Mt. St. Helens National Volcanic Monument) is managed by the U.S. Forest Service. The monument encompasses some 90 square miles in Deschutes National Forest of the 1200-sq-mi Newberry Volcano, including the 4x5 mi scenic central caldera and the volcano's youngest lava flow, the 1300-yr-old Big Obsidian Flow. The seismically-monitored Newberry Volcano is considered by the USGS to be a very high threat volcano, with the potential to impact adjacent populations in Bend, Sunriver, and LaPine and damage infrastructure including highways, railroads, and power lines. Unspectacular from a distance, the broad shield shape of Newberry Volcano hides the abundance and youthfulness of volcanic activity. Included in NNVM are 7-ka basalt to andesite lavas of the Northwest Rift Zone (NWRZ) that erupted from spatter and cinder cones over a N-S distance of 20 miles and temporarily blocked the flow of the adjacent Deschutes River. These well-exposed lavas are post-Mazama in age, having erupted after a blanket of ash and pumice was deposited on the volcano when Mt. Mazama erupted at 7.7 ka to form Crater Lake. Images from lidar data obtained in 2011 clearly display the post-Mazama lavas, which not only are unmantled by the tephra, but also lack the thick forest that has grown in the tephra further obscuring many of the youthful volcanic features across this massive rear-arc Cascades volcano. NNVM features interpretive trails at the Big Obsidian Flow in the caldera and at Lava Cast Forest and Lava Butte flow along the NWRZ. Also within the monument are two of the premier drivable viewpoints in Oregon, on Lava Butte and at the 7984-ft top of Paulina Peak on the rim of the caldera. On a clear day, views from Paulina Peak encompass much of the High Cascades, extending from Mt. Shasta in California to Mt. Adams in Washington.

  20. 36 CFR 7.46 - Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument. 7.46 Section 7.46 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... boundaries of the Monument, including, but not limited to, harvest or collection of fish, coastal migratory...

  1. Hydrologic characteristics of the Agua Fria National Monument, central Arizona, determined from the reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, John B.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrologic conditions in the newly created Agua Fria National Monument were characterized on the basis of existing hydrologic and geologic information, and streamflow data collected in May 2002. The study results are intended to support the Bureau of Land Management's future water-resource management responsibilities, including quantification of a Federal reserved water right within the monument. This report presents the study results, identifies data deficiencies, and describes specific approaches for consideration in future studies. Within the Agua Fria National Monument, the Agua Fria River flows generally from north to south, traversing almost the entire 23-mile length of the monument. Streamflow has been measured continuously at a site near the northern boundary of the monument since 1940. Streamflow statistics for this site, and streamflow measurements from other sites along the Agua Fria River, indicate that the river is perennial in the northern part of the monument but generally is intermittent in downstream reaches. The principal controls on streamflow along the river within the monument appear to be geology, the occurrence and distribution of alluvium, inflow at the northern boundary and from tributary canyons, precipitation, and evapotranspiration. At present, (2004) there is no consistent surface-water quality monitoring program being implemented for the monument. Ground-water recharge within the monument likely results from surface-water losses and direct infiltration of precipitation. Wells are most numerous in the Cordes Junction and Black Canyon City areas. Only eight wells are within the monument. Ground-water quality data for wells in the monument area consist of specific-conductance values and fluoride concentrations. During the study, ground-water quality data were available for only one well within the monument. No ground-water monitoring program is currently in place for the monument or surrounding areas.

  2. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION 404(b... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics can...

  3. Investigation of the conservation-treatment methods of the Dutch National Monument : The role of microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The Dutch National Monument in Amsterdam, a World War-II memorial structure, was built with an outer face consisting of slabs of travertine. In 1995, the masonry structure forming the core of the monument showed severe deterioration. In order to determine the actual cause of deterioration and to

  4. Our National Monument of Art: Constructing and Debating the National Body at the Library of Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    It is not surprising that the Library of Congress would be defined as our national monument of art given the scale of the project, its federal sponsorship, and its posture as a public library with access to all Americans. Paralleling the assumption of the Library of Congress as not merely a building for housing books but a ritualistic center of…

  5. BLM Colorado National Monument and National Conservation Area Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — Shapefile Format –This data set consists of digital data describing BLM National Conservation Lands or National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) in the State of...

  6. 78 FR 18769 - Establishment of the First State National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... that remains of the State's first prison system. The New Castle Court House later provided the setting... monument fulfills the following purposes for the benefit of present and future generations: (1) to preserve...

  7. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Powell, Brian F.; Halvorson, William L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary We summarized inventory and monitoring efforts for plants and vertebrates at Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (NM) in Arizona. We used data from previous research to compile complete species lists for the monument and to assess inventory completeness. There have been 1,031 species of plants and vertebrates observed at the monument. Most of the species on the list are documented by voucher specimens. There are 59 non-native species established in the monument: one mammal, three birds, and 55 non-native plants. Most non-native plant species were first recorded along roads. In each taxon-specific chapter, we highlight areas that contribute disproportionately to species richness or that have unique species for the monument. Of particular importance are Quitobaquito Springs and Pond, which are responsible for the monument having one of the highest number of bird species in the Sonoran Desert Network of parks. Quitobaquito also contains the only fish in the monument, the endangered Quitobaquito pupfish (Cyprinodon eremus). Other important resources for the plants and vertebrates include the xeroriparian washes (e.g., Alamo Canyon) and the Ajo Mountains. Based on the review of past studies, we believe the inventories of vascular plants and vertebrates are nearly complete and that the monument has one of the most complete inventories of any unit in the Sonoran Desert Network.

  8. National Theatre historical monument of Brasilia. Case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Silva, E.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of an International Cooperation Agreement for the conservation of historical monuments made of reinforced concrete in Brasilia. This research is based on a routine inspection of the National Theatre of Brasilia, a city recognized by UNESCO in 1987 as world cultural heritage. The structure, entirely made of reinforced concrete, was conceived by architect Oscar Niemeyer, and has a total of 48 m of height and 42,000 m2 of constructed area. After examining the available documentation, the existing damage was then identified and mapped. The concrete shows a good state of conservation, with the exception of some regions of the structure: the damages found were exposed armature, oxidation of armature, infiltration, mold and efflorescence.

    Este trabajo es parte de un Acuerdo de Cooperación Internacional para la conservación de monumentos históricos de hormigón armado en Brasilia. Esta investigación es el resultado de una inspección rutinaria en el Teatro Nacional de Brasilia, ciudad reconocida por la UNESCO, en 1987, como patrimonio cultural de la humanidad. La estructura, toda en hormigón armado, fue concebida por el arquitecto Osear Niemeyer, con un total de 48 m de altura y 42.000 m2 de área construida. Tras investigar la documentación disponible, se procedió a la identificación y al estudio de los daños existentes. El hormigón presenta un buen estado de conservación, salvo en algunas regiones de la estructura: estructura armada expuesta, oxidación de la estructura armada, infiltración, moho y eflorescencia son algunos de los daños que se encontraron.

  9. EAARL Topography - George Washington Birthplace National Monument 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, John C.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan

    2009-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived bare earth (BE) and first surface (FS) topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of the George Washington Birthplace National Monument in Virginia, acquired on March 26, 2008. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL

  10. 75 FR 21034 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ....241A] Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Agua Fria National Monument and Bradshaw... availability of the Record of Decision (ROD)/Approved Resource Management Plan (RMP) for the Agua Fria National... of the planning area during prehistoric or historic times. The Agua Fria National Monument includes...

  11. Electrifying Pinnacles: FEMP technical assistance detailed case study fact sheet[Pinnacles National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, M.

    1998-10-27

    A hybrid photovoltaic system provides Pinnacles National Monument with electrical services in an environmentally sensitive area. This quite, unobtrusive system provides the Chapparral area with clean, reliable electricity. Installing renewable energy projects at Federal facilities provides Federal agencies an opportunity to fulfill their mandate for responsible stewardship of national resources with cost-effective environmentally benign technologies.

  12. 78 FR 39009 - Notice of Intent To Amend the Management Plan for the Craters of the Moon National Monument and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... of Intent To Amend the Management Plan for the Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve and... Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve (Craters of the Moon). This notice announces the... measures for sage-grouse in the Craters of the Moon may be submitted in writing until July 29, 2013. The...

  13. 77 FR 1082 - Call for Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... of FLPMA directs the Secretary to establish 10- to 15-member citizen-based advisory councils that... Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California AGENCY: Bureau of Land... councils are found at 43 CFR subpart 1784. As required by FACA, MAC membership must be balanced and...

  14. Air Quality at Devils Postpile National Monument, Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel D. Burley; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Monica Buhler; Barbara Zielinska; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Susan Schilling; Jennifer Chapman Varela; Mark McDaniel; Michelle Horn; Deanna Dulen

    2016-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of O3, PM2.5, NH3, NO, NO2, HNO3, SO2 and VOCs were measured at Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO) during the summer seasons of 2013 and 2014. The measurements were impacted by the Aspen and Rim Fires in...

  15. Vascular Plant and Vertebrate Inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Brian F.; Albrecht, Eric W.; Halvorson, William L.; Schmidt, Cecilia A.; Docherty, Kathleen; Anning, Pamela

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This report summarizes the results of the first comprehensive biological inventory of Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument (NM) in western New Mexico. This project was part of a larger effort to inventory plants and vertebrates in eight National Park Service units in Arizona and New Mexico. Our surveys address many of the objectives that were set forth in the monument's natural resource management plan almost 20 years ago, but until this effort, those goals were never accomplished. From 2001 to 2003 we surveyed for vascular plants and vertebrates (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM to document presence of species within the boundaries of the monument. For all taxonomic groups that we studied, we collected 'incidental' sightings on U.S. Forest Service lands adjacent to the monument, and in a few cases we did formal surveys on those lands. Because we used repeatable study designs and standardized field techniques, these inventories can serve as the first step in a biological monitoring program for Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and surrounding lands. We recorded 552 species at Gila Cliff Dwellings NM and the surrounding lands (Table 1). We found no non-native species of reptiles, birds, or mammals, one non-native amphibian (American bullfrog), and 33 non-native plants. Particularly on lands adjacent to the monument we found that the American bullfrog was very abundant, which is a cause for significant management concern. Species of non-native plants that are of management concern include red brome, bufflegrass, and cheatgrass. For a park unit of its size and geographic location, we found the plant and vertebrate communities to be fairly diverse; for each taxonomic group we found representative species from a wide range of taxonomic orders and/or families. The monument's geographic location, with influences from the Rocky Mountain, Chihuahuan Desert, and Madrean ecological provinces, plays an important role in determining

  16. Pecos National Monument, New Mexico: Its Geologic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ross Byron

    1969-01-01

    The ruins of the pueblos and missions of Pecos lie on the east bank of Glorieta Creek near its junction with the Pecos River at the south end of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in north-central New Mexico. Here the Pecos River and Glorieta Creek have formed a broad rolling valley in which the red adobe walls of the mission church stand as a striking monument to a historic past. This is beautiful country; the bright hues of red rocks are complemented by the varied greens of the junipers, pi?ons, and ponderosa pines. Northward the Sangre de Cristo Mountains stretch for miles in a blue mist toward the Truchas Peaks and forests of the Pecos Wilderness. A few miles south of the ruins the steep high escarpment of Glorieta Mesa marks, in a general way, the southern termination of the Rocky Mountain System, which here is represented by the Sangre de Cristos. The escarpment of Glorieta Mesa has been formed largely by the Pecos River and its tributaries eroding the soft sedimentary layers. The Pecos flows southward from the high mountains in the north, parallels the mesa escarpment for 15 miles, and breaches the mesa near San Jose. About 1-1/2 miles southwest of the Pecos ruins at Cerro de Escobas is the highest point on Glorieta Mesa. It is the most conspicuous feature of the local landscape and rises to an elevation of 8,212 feet - 1,270 feet above the ruins. The slope of the escarpment here is very steep, rising 6 feet in every 10 horizontal feet. Along the north side of the Glorieta Mesa escarpment is a 30-mile-long natural pass around the south end of the Sangre de Cristos that extends from Canoncito on the west to Starvation Peak on the east (fig. 1). The elevation of the pass is greater than 6,000 feet at all places, and it reaches its summit of 7,432 feet near the village of Glorieta near the west end of the pass. This pass has been used as a major travel route for more than 800 years by the Indians, Spanish, and Americans. The famous Santa Fe Trail passed through

  17. 76 FR 68625 - Establishment of the Fort Monroe National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... period of slavery in the colonies and, later, this Nation. Two hundred and forty-two years later, Fort... 1863. Thus, Old Point Comfort marks both the beginning and end of slavery in our Nation. The Fort... North Beach area lies the only undeveloped shoreline remaining on Old Point Comfort, providing modern...

  18. Black bears in Canyon de Chelly National Monument: Life in a changing environment

    OpenAIRE

    Tredick, Catherine Anne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how wildlife utilize habitat at varying scales is important for understanding and predicting potential impacts of landscape changes (e.g., habitat loss and fragmentation, restoration efforts, climate change, etc.) and in determining effective strategies for conservation and management. This research examines fine-scale and landscape-level habitat use of black bears in Canyon de Chelly National Monument (CACH), Arizona, USA in the context of large-scale landscape change. Currentl...

  19. Transformation of History textbooks from national monument to global agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Haue

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available It is my assumption that our way of understanding globalization in the last two decades has changed the subject matter of history. The focus has shifted from the regional and national to the global perspective. This is evident if we analyze German and Danish textbooks on history. This development and its consequences have only been vaguely reflected in the debates on history didactics. Perhaps we have accepted this development as unavoidable as it is often done in economic discourses? To my opinion it is an important matter to discuss in a context of history didactics: are we selling national history in order to accommodate to the new global standards? Or in a biblical sense: Selling our birthright for a mess of pottage - without reflections on the consequences? Or is focus on global development a didactical consequence of the-state-of-the-art of new modern historical consciousness? The question remains to be answered: have we gained or lost something?

  20. Transformation of History textbooks from national monument to global agent

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Haue

    2013-01-01

    It is my assumption that our way of understanding globalization in the last two decades has changed the subject matter of history. The focus has shifted from the regional and national to the global perspective. This is evident if we analyze German and Danish textbooks on history. This development and its consequences have only been vaguely reflected in the debates on history didactics. Perhaps we have accepted this development as unavoidable as it is often done in economic discourses? To my o...

  1. ADULT CADDISFLY (TRICHOPTERA) PHENOLOGY AT THE HANFORD REACH NATIONAL MONUMENT, WASHINGTON STATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zack, Richard S.; Ruiter, David E.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Landolt, Peter J.

    2006-01-05

    Adult caddisflies were sampled on the Wahluke Wildlife Area and Saddle Mountain National Wildlife Refuge subunits of the newly created (2000) Hanford Reach National Monument using 15-watt ''black lights'' from April 2002 through April 2003. A diverse fauna consisting of nine families, 21 genera, and 33 species were collected. Protoptila Coloma Ross, Agraylea multipunctata Curtis, Hydroptila xera Ross, Ceraclea alagma (Ross), Nectopsych Iahontanensis Haddock Oecetis cinerascens (Hagen), and Ylodes reuteri (MacLachlan) represent new records for Washington State. Species composition and phenology are presented in tabular form.

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 9. A new species of Givira Walker (Cossidae, Hypoptinae) dedicated to Delinda Mix, including a list of species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. National Park Service initiated a 10-year study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico in late 2006. Givira delindae sp. n., discovered in 2007 during the first year of study, is described here. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. The name is dedicated to Delinda Mix, mother of Steve Mix. The species of Cossidae recorded from the Monument during the study are listed. PMID:28331399

  3. A survey of macromycete diversity at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Bandelier National Monument, and Los Alamos County; A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J. [Mycology Associates, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The authors have completed a 5-year survey (1991--1995) of macromycetes found in Los Alamos County, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Bandelier National Monument. The authors have compiled a database of 1,048 collections, their characteristics, and identifications. The database represents 123 (98%) genera and 175 (73%) species reliably identified. Issues of habitat loss, species extinction, and ecological relationships are addressed, and comparisons with other surveys are made. With this baseline information and modeling of this baseline data, one can begin to understand more about the fungal flora of the area.

  4. An investigation of sulfur concentrations in soils and pine needles in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Jones, E.A.; Bell, M.G.; Morgan, J.D.; Stallings, E.A.; Nelson, L.A.; Lundstrom, C.; Bowker, R.G.

    1993-03-01

    Sulfur measurements in different age groups of pinon pine needles and adjacent soil samples from ten sampling sites at Bandelier National Monument were determined using combustion elemental analysis and chromatographic techniques. The primary goal was to establish base-line levels for elemental sulfur in the Monument. Sulfur levels in foliage and soils were evaluated using analysis of variance techniques. Foliage sulfur concentrations differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and among trees within sites; however, needles of different ages did not differ significantly in sulfur content. Average soil concentrations were very low, approximately 12% of the average needle concentrations. Soil sulfur concentrations also differed significantly among the 10 sampling sites and at different depths in the soil. No statistical differences were evident in soils sampled at the four compass points (N,S,E,W) around each tree. These differences imply that large numbers of samples are needed to identify small effects from anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into the system or that the effects must be large relative to the differences among sampling sites and individual trees in order to be detected

  5. An investigation of the impact of inorganic air pollutants on soils in Saguaro National Monument, Tucson, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladney, E.S.; Ferenbaugh, R.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Stolte, K.W. [USDA Forest Service, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Duriscoe, D.M. [USDI National Park Service, Three Rivers, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Environmental data related to the evaluation of inorganic air pollution input to the Saguaro National Monument ecosystem were collected over four years. The data specific to soils are presented in this document. The enrichment factor approach is employed to provide a framework for simplified interpretation of this large collection of data.

  6. Water quality study at the Congaree Swamp National monument of Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rikard, M.

    1991-11-01

    The Congaree Swamp National Monument is one of the last significant near virgin tracts of bottom land hardwood forests in the Southeast United States. The study documents a water quality monitoring program on Myers Creek, Reeves Creek and Toms Creek. Basic water quality parameters were analyzed. High levels of aluminum and iron were found, and recommendations were made for further monitoring

  7. Surface ozone at the Devils Postpile National Monument receptor site during low and high wildland fire years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Joel D. Burley; Ricardo Cisneros; Haiganoush K. Preisler; Susan Schilling; Donald Schweizer; John Ray; Deanna Dulen; Christopher Beck; Bianca Auble

    2013-01-01

    Surface ozone (O3) was measured at the Devils Postpile National Monument (DEPO), eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, during the 2007 (low-fire) and 2008 (high-fire) summer seasons. While mean and median values of O3 concentrations for the 2007 and 2008 summer seasons were similar, maximum O3...

  8. 76 FR 12714 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Marianas Trench Marine National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... promote monument-related scientific exploration and research, tourism, and recreational and economic... and research, tourism, and recreational and commercial activities do not degrade the monument's coral... CNMI households. III. Data OMB Control Number: None. Form Number: None. Type of Review: Regular...

  9. Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument,...

  10. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  11. Contaminants assessment in the coral reefs of Virgin Islands National Park and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargar, Timothy A.; Garrison, Virginia H.; Alvarez, David A.; Echols, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Coral, fish, plankton, and detritus samples were collected from coral reefs in Virgin Islands National Park (VIIS) and Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICR) to assess existing contamination levels. Passive water sampling using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semi-permeable membrane devices found a few emerging pollutants of concern (DEET and galaxolide) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Very little persistent organic chemical contamination was detected in the tissue or detritus samples. Detected contaminants were at concentrations below those reported to be harmful to aquatic organisms. Extracts from the POCIS were subjected to the yeast estrogen screen (YES) to assess potential estrogenicity of the contaminant mixture. Results of the YES (estrogen equivalency of 0.17–0.31 ng/L 17-β-estradiol) indicated a low estrogenicity likelihood for contaminants extracted from water. Findings point to low levels of polar and non-polar organic contaminants in the bays sampled within VICR and VIIS.

  12. Water-resources investigations in Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, fiscal year 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1971-01-01

    Water-resources data were acquired during fiscal year 1970 by the U.S. Geological Survey at Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, for the U.S. National Park Service as part of a continuing project. The data provide a basis for planning the development, management, and use of the available water resources to provide adequate water supplies. Thirty-one springs, 19 in relatively inaccessible areas, were evaluated as sources of water supplies. Seven potential well sites were evaluated for drilling depths in specific aquifers. A well drilled in Echo Park near the confluence of the Green and Yampa Rivers was tested. The pumping test showed the well to yield 130 gallons per minute with a drawdown of 1.96 feet; specific capacity of the well at 130 gallons per minute is 66 gallons per minute per foot. Water samples for chemical analysis were - collected from nine springs and one well; all except that from Disappointment Spring, were of good chemical quality.

  13. Occurrence and distribution of trace elements in snow, streams, and streambed sediments, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Cape Krusenstern National Monument is located in Northwest Alaska. In 1985, an exchange of lands and interests in lands between the Northwest Alaska Native Association and the United States resulted in a 100-year transportation system easement for 19,747 acres in the monument. A road was then constructed along the easement from the Red Dog Mine, a large zinc concentrate producer and located northeast of the monument, through the monument to the coast and a port facility. Each year approximately 1.3 million tonnes of zinc and lead concentrate are transported from the Red Dog Mine via this access road. Concern about the possible deposition of cadmium, lead, zinc and other trace elements in the monument was the basis of a cooperative project with the National Park Service. Concentrations of dissolved cadmium, dissolved lead, and dissolved zinc from 28 snow samples from a 28 mile by 16 mile grid were below drinking water standards. In the particulate phase, approximately 25 percent of the samples analyzed for these trace elements were higher than the typical range found in Alaska soils. Boxplots of concentrations of these trace elements, both in the dissolved and particulate phase, indicate higher concentrations north of the access road, most likely due to the prevailing southeast wind. The waters of four streams sampled in Cape Krusenstern National Monument are classified as calcium bicarbonate. Trace-element concentrations from these streams were below drinking water standards. Median concentrations of 39 trace elements from streambed sediments collected from 29 sites are similar to the median concentrations of trace elements from the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment database. Statistical differences were noted between trace-element concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc at sites along the access road and sites north and south of the access road; concentrations along the access road being higher than north or south of the road. When

  14. The national-dynastic monument in the Kingdom of Serbia the monument to Prince Miloš Obrenović in Požarevac as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borozan Igor B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The monument to Prince Miloš Obrenović unveiled in 1898 embodied the concept of national-dynastic monument in the Kingdom of Serbia at the end of the nine­teenth century. The statue in the manner of academic art by Djordje Jovanović, a prominent Serbian sculptor, may be seen as a creative transfer of European practices in designing majestic monuments to rulers. Set up in downtown Požarevac, the monument to Prince Miloš was intended to act as a place of collective remembrance and a means of legitimation of King Alexander Obrenović. Forming part of the process of constructing the cult of Prince Miloš, the monument may be seen as a visual testimony to the attempt of the shaken dynastic regime to define its own ideological model by using the image of its charismatic founder. The unveiling ceremony, pervaded with a military spirit, confirmed the place of the Požarevac visual topos on the map of patriotic geography, pointing to the power of the visual work in the system of the representative culture of the state and the nation in the late nineteenth century. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177001: Images of Identity in Art and Verbal-Visual Culture of the Modern Age

  15. Lipid residues preserved in sheltered bedrock features at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument, New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy Buonasera

    2016-10-01

    Bedrock features represent various economic, social, and symbolic aspects of past societies, but have historically received little study, particularly in North America. Fortunately, new techniques for analyzing spatial configurations, use-wear, and organic residues are beginning to unlock more of the interpretive potential of these features. Though preliminary in nature, the present study contributes to this trend by documenting an application of lipid analysis to bedrock features in a dry rockshelter. Results of this initial application indicate that bedrock features in dry rockshelters may provide especially favorable conditions for the preservation and interpretation of ancient organic residues. Abundant lipids, comparable to concentrations present in some pottery sherds, were extracted from a bedrock grinding surface at Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Though the lipids were highly oxidized, degradation products indicative of former unsaturated fatty acids were retained. Comparisons to experimentally aged residues, and absence of a known biomarker for maize, indicate that the bulk of the lipids preserved in the milling surface probably derive from processing an oily nut or seed resource, and not from processing maize. Substantially lower amounts of lipids were recovered from a small, blackened cupule. It is hypothesized that some portion of the lipids in the blackened cupule was deposited from condensed smoke of cooking and heating fires in the caves. Potential for the preservation of organic residues in similar sheltered bedrock contexts is discussed, and a practical method for sampling bedrock features in the field is described.

  16. Potential hazards from floodflows in Grapevine Canyon, Death Valley National Monument, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Grapevine Canyon is on the western slope of the Grapevine Mountains in the northern part of Death Valley National Monument , California and Nevada. Grapevine Canyon Road covers the entire width of the canyon floor in places and is a frequently traveled route to Scotty 's Castle in the canyon. The region is arid and subject to flash flooding because of infrequent but intense convective storms. When these storms occur, normally in the summer, the resulting floods may create a hazard to visitor safety and property. Historical data on rainfall and floodflow in Grapevine Canyon are sparse. Data from studies made for similar areas in the desert mountains of southern California provide the basis for estimating discharges and the corresponding frequency of floods in the study area. Results of this study indicate that high-velocity flows of water and debris , even at shallow depths, may scour and damage Grapevine Canyon Road. When discharge exceeds 4,900 cu ft/sec, expected at a recurrence interval of between 25 and 50 years, the Scotty 's Castle access road and bridge may be damaged and the parking lot partly inundated. A flood having a 100-year or greater recurrence interval probably would wash out the bridge and present a hazard to the stable and garage buildings but not to the castle buildings, whose foundations are higher than the predicted maximum flood level. (USGS)

  17. Ecology of juvenile hawksbills (Eretmochelys imbricata) at Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Sartain-Iverson, Autumn R.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy; Phillips, Brendalee; Mayor, Philippe A.; Roberson, Kimberly; Pemberton, Roy A.; Allen, Jason B.; Lundgren, Ian; Musick, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Surveys of juvenile hawksbills around Buck Island Reef National Monument, US Virgin Islands from 1994 to 1999 revealed distributional patterns and resulted in a total of 75 individual hawksbill captures from all years; turtles ranged from 23.2 to 77.7 cm curved carapace length (CCL; mean 42.1 ± 12.3 cm SD). Juveniles concentrated where Zoanthid cover was highest. Length of time between recaptures, or presumed minimum site residency, ranged from 59 to 1,396 days (mean 620.8 ± 402.4 days SD). Growth rates for 23 juveniles ranged from 0.0 to 9.5 cm year−1 (mean 4.1 ± 2.4 cm year−1SD). Annual mean growth rates were non-monotonic, with the largest mean growth rate occurring in the 30–39 cm CCL size class. Gastric lavages indicated that Zoanthids were the primary food source for hawksbills. These results contribute to our understanding of juvenile hawksbill ecology and serve as a baseline for future studies or inventories of hawksbills in the Caribbean.

  18. A brief geological history of Cockspur Island at Fort Pulaski National Monument, Chatham County, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Seefelt, Ellen L.; Parker, Mercer

    2018-03-09

    Fort Pulaski National Monument is located on Cockspur Island in Chatham County, Georgia, within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The island lies near the mouth of the Savannah River, and consists of small mounds (hummocks), salt marshes, and sediment dredged from the river. A 1,017-foot (ft) (310-meter [m])-deep core drilled at Cockspur Island in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey revealed several sedimentary units ranging in age from 43 million years old to present. Sand and mud are present at drilling depths from 0 to 182 ft (56 m), limestone is present at depths from 182 ft (56 m) to 965 ft (295 m), and glauconitic sand is present at depths from 965 ft (295 m) to 1,017 ft (310 m). The limestone and the water within the limestone are referred to collectively as the Floridan aquifer system, which is the primary source of drinking water for the City of Savannah and surrounding communities. In addition to details of the subsurface geology, this fact sheet identifies the following geologic materials used in the construction of Fort Pulaski: (1) granite, (2) bricks, (3) sandstone, and (4) lime mud with oyster shells.

  19. Controls on dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I.; Ersek, Vasile; Mix, Alan C.; Clark, Peter U.

    2018-02-01

    Cave dripwater chemistry of Oregon Caves National Monument (OCNM) was studied, where the parameters pH, total alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, strontium, sodium and barium were analyzed at quasi-monthly intervals from 2005 to 2007. Different statistical analyses have been used to investigate the variability of the chemical parameters in the different sites in the OCNM cave system. The dripwater varies in response to seasonal changes in rainfall. The drip rates range from zero in summer to continuous flow in winter, closely following the rainfall intensity. Spatial variations of dripwater chemistry, which is nonlinearly related to dripwater discharge likely, reflect the chemical composition of bedrock and overlying soil, and the residence time of the ground water within the aquifer. The residence time of infiltrated water in bedrock cracks control the dissolution carbonate bedrock, reprecipitation of calcium carbonate and the degree of saturation of dripwater with respect to calcium carbonate minerals. Spatiotemporal fluctuations of dripwater Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are controlled by dissolution of carbonate bedrock and the degree of calcite reprecipitation in bedrock cracks. This suggests that trace elements in speleothem deposits at the OCNM may serve as paleoclimatological proxies for precipitation, if interpreted within the context of understanding local bedrock chemistry.

  20. Disruption rates for one vulnerable soil in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Sturm, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Rates of soil disruption from hikers and vehicle traffic are poorly known, particularly for arid landscapes. We conducted an experiment in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument (ORPI) in western Arizona, USA, on an air-dry very fine sandy loam that is considered to be vulnerable to disruption. We created variable-pass tracks using hikers, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV), and a four-wheel drive vehicle (4WD) and measured changes in cross-track topography, penetration depth, and bulk density. Hikers (one pass = 5 hikers) increased bulk density and altered penetration depth but caused minimal surface disruption up to 100 passes; a minimum of 10 passes were required to overcome surface strength of this dry soil. Both ATV and 4WD traffic significantly disrupted the soil with one pass, creating deep ruts with increasing passes that rendered the 4WD trail impassable after 20 passes. Despite considerable soil loosening (dilation), bulk density increased in the vehicle trails, and lateral displacement created berms of loosened soil. This soil type, when dry, can sustain up to 10 passes of hikers but only one vehicle pass before significant soil disruption occurs; greater disruption is expected when soils are wet. Bulk density increased logarithmically with applied pressure from hikers, ATV, and 4WD.

  1. Understanding and Managing Experiential Aspects of Soundscapes at Muir Woods National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Ericka J.; Newman, Peter; Manning, Robert E.

    2009-03-01

    Research has found that human-caused noise can detract from the quality of the visitor experience in national parks and related areas. Moreover, impacts to the visitor experience can be managed by formulating indicators and standards of quality as suggested in park and outdoor recreation management frameworks, such as Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP), as developed by the U.S. National Park Service. The research reported in this article supports the formulation of indicators and standards of quality for human-caused noise at Muir Woods National Monument, California. Phase I identified potential indicators of quality for the soundscape of Muir Woods. A visitor “listening exercise” was conducted, where respondents identified natural and human-caused sounds heard in the park and rated the degree to which each sound was “pleasing” or “annoying.” Certain visitor-caused sounds such as groups talking were heard by most respondents and were rated as annoying, suggesting that these sounds may be a good indicator of quality. Loud groups were heard by few people but were rated as highly annoying, whereas wind and water were heard by most visitors and were rated as highly pleasing. Phase II measured standards of quality for visitor-caused noise. Visitors were presented with a series of 30-second audio clips representing increasing amounts of visitor-caused sound in the park. Respondents were asked to rate the acceptability of each audio clip on a survey. Findings suggest a threshold at which visitor-caused sound is judged to be unacceptable, and is therefore considered as noise. A parallel program of sound monitoring in the park found that current levels of visitor-caused sound sometimes violate this threshold. Study findings provide an empirical basis to help formulate noise-related indicators and standards of quality in parks and related areas.

  2. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 2. Rediscovery and description of Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883) (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Sparkia immacula (Grote, 1883), previously known only from historical specimens collected in Arizona and New Mexico, was discovered in the Monument in 2007 during the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated for the first time. PMID:22207799

  3. Examining patterns of bat activity in Bandelier National Monument, New Mexico, using walking point transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.E.; Everette, A.L.; Bogan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a preliminary study using small field crews, a single Anabat II detector coupled with a laptop computer, and point transects to examine patterns of bat activity at a scale of interest to local resource managers. The study was conducted during summers of 1996–1998 in Bandelier National Monument in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico, a landscape with distinct vegetation zones and high species richness of bats. We developed simple models that described general patterns of acoustic activity within 4 vegetation zones based primarily on nightly variation and a qualitative index of habitat complexity. Bat acoustic activity (number of bat passes&sol point) did not vary dramatically among a limited sample of transects within a vegetation zone during 1996. In 1997 and 1998, single transects within each vegetation zone were established, and bat activity did not vary annually within these zones. Acoustic activity differed among the 4 vegetation zones of interest, with the greatest activity occurring in riparian canyon bottomland, intermediate activity in coniferous forest and a 1977 burned zone, and lowest activity in piñon-juniper woodlands. We identified 68.5% of 2,529 bat passes recorded during point-transect surveys to species using an echolocation call reference library we established for the area and qualitative characteristics of bat calls. Bat species richness and composition differed among vegetation zones. Results of these efforts were consistent with general knowledge of where different bat species typically forage and with the natural history of bats of New Mexico, suggesting such a method might have value for drawing inferences about bat activity in different vegetation zones.

  4. A map of human impacts to a “pristine” coral reef ecosystem, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    OpenAIRE

    Selkoe, K. A.; Halpern, B. S.; Ebert, C. M.; Franklin, E. C.; Selig, E. R.; Casey, K. S.; Bruno, J.; Toonen, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Effective and comprehensive regional-scale marine conservation requires fine-grained data on the spatial patterns of threats and their overlap. To address this need for the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Monument) in Hawaii, USA, spatial data on 14 recent anthropogenic threats specific to this region were gathered or created, including alien species, bottom fishing, lobster trap fishing, ship-based pollution, ship strike risks, marine debris, research diving, research equipment i...

  5. 77 FR 14568 - Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed General Management Plan, Pinnacles National Monument...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Notice of Intent to prepare an EIS for the General Management Plan (GMP) was published in the Federal... parkwide cultural and natural resource protection, wilderness stewardship, administration and operations... quality of the human environment, nor any potential for impairment of monument resources and values. Most...

  6. Surveillance for White-Nose Syndrome in the bat community at El Malpais National Monument, New Mexico, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Ernest W.

    2012-01-01

    From late winter to summer 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey Arid Lands Field Station conducted mist-netting efforts at El Malpais National Monument and on adjacent lands belonging to Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service to detect the occurrence of white-nose syndrome or causal fungal agent (Geomyces destructans). During this assessment, 421 bats belonging to 8 species were documented at El Malpais National Monument and adjacent lands. None of these captures showed evidence for the presence of white-nose syndrome or G. destructans, but it is possible that the subtle signs of some infections may not have been observed. Throughout the field efforts, Laguna de Juan Garcia was the only water source located on El Malpais National Monument and was netted on June 20 and 27, July 25, and August 2, 2011. During these dates, a total of 155 bats were captured, belonging to eight species including: Corynorhinus townsendii (Townsend's Big-Eared Bat), Eptesicus fuscus (Big Brown Bat), Lasionycterics noctivagans (Silver-Haired Bat), Myotis ciliolabrum (Small-Footed Myotis), M. evotis (Long-eared myotis), M. thysanodes (Fringed Myotis), M. volans (Long-Legged Myotis), and Tadarida brasiliensis (Brazilian Free-Tailed Bat). Overall, Laguna de Juan Garcia had the greatest number of captures (79 bats) during one night compared to the other sites netted on adjacent lands and had the greatest species diversity of 8 species netted, not including Euderma maculatum (Spotted Bat) that was detected by its audible calls as it flew overhead. Laguna de Juan Garcia is an important site to bats because of its accessibility by all known occurring species, including the less-maneuverable T. brasiliensis that is known to form large colonies in the park. Laguna de Juan Garcia is also important as a more permanent water source during drought conditions in the earlier part of the spring and summer, as observed in 2011.

  7. Sedimentary differentiation of aeolian grains at the White Sands National Monument, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Bishop, Janice L.; King, Sara; Lafuente, Barbara; Horgan, Briony; Bustos, David; Sarrazin, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    Gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) has been identified as a major component of part of Olympia Undae in the northern polar region of Mars, along with the mafic minerals more typical of Martian dune fields. The source and age of the gypsum is disputed, with the proposed explanations having vastly different implications for Mars' geological history. Furthermore, the transport of low density gypsum grains relative to and concurrently with denser grains has yet to be investigated in an aeolian setting. To address this knowledge gap, we performed a field study at White Sands National Monument (WSNM) in New Mexico, USA. Although gypsum dominates the bulk of the dune field, a dolomite-rich [CaMg(CO3)2] transport pathway along the northern border of WSNM provides a suitable analog site to study the transport of gypsum grains relative to the somewhat harder and denser carbonate grains. We collected samples along the stoss slope of a dune and on two coarse-grained ripples at the upwind margin of the dune field where minerals other than gypsum were most common. For comparison, additional samples were taken along the stoss slope of a dune outside the dolomite transport pathway, in the center of the dune field. Visible and near-infrared (VNIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and Raman analyses of different sample size fractions reveal that dolomite is only prevalent in grains larger than ∼1 mm. Other minerals, most notably calcite, are also present in smaller quantities among the coarse grains. The abundance of these coarse grains, relative to gypsum grains of the same size, drops off sharply at the upwind margin of the dune field. In contrast, gypsum dominated the finer fraction (dune field formative friction velocity (0.39 m/s) proposed by Jerolmack et al. (2011): winds significantly weaker than this value would not lift the large grains into differentiation-inducing saltation, whereas the observed differentiated trend would be obliterated by significantly stronger winds. When applied

  8. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 3. A new species of Aleptina Dyar, 1902 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Amphipyrinae, Psaphidini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the US National Park Service initiated a long-term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Aleptina arenaria sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2008, the second year of the study. The adult moths and male and female genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207800

  9. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated.

  10. The Lepidoptera of White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico, USA 4. A new species of Schinia Hübner, 1818 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Heliothinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H.; Forbes, Gregory S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2006 the U.S. National Park Service initiated a long term study of the Lepidoptera at White Sands National Monument, Otero County, New Mexico. Schinia poguei sp. n., described here, was discovered in 2007, the second year of the study. The male and female adult moths and genitalia are illustrated. PMID:22207801

  11. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  12. Investigation of water quality in the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado, February 1999 through September 2000: Qualifying for outstanding waters designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sheryl A.

    2003-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve is located on the eastern side of the San Luis Valley in south-central Colorado. The monument covers 60.4 square miles in Saguache and Alamosa Counties and lies at the base of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains, where a unique combination of climate, topography, and hydrology has created and maintained the Nation?s tallest inland sand dunes. The Sangre de Cristo Mountains, which rise to more than 14,000 feet to the north and east of the dunes, are the source of several streams that flow around the dunes and eventually recharge the aquifer beneath the valley. Sand Creek and Medano Creeks are the largest of the streams in the monument that originate in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains; several ephemeral streams flow into Sand Creek and Medano Creek. Maintaining the high surface-water quality in the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and Preserve is identified as a critical issue by the National Park Service. Additionally, the National Park Service has indicated a desire to pursue an Outstanding Waters Designation, which offers the highest level of water-quality protection available under the Clean Water Act and Colorado regulations. This designation is designed to prevent any degradation from existing conditions (Chatman and others, 1997). Assessment is needed to evaluate whether the water quality of the streams in the monument meets the requirements for an Outstanding Waters Designation. Historically, prospecting and mining activities have occurred in the watersheds of Sand and Medano Creeks; currently, however, there is no mining activity in those watersheds. In addition, the camping and recreation that occur upstream from the monument on national preserve lands and water activities that occur in Medano Creek during the summer are a potential source of human-waste contamination. Figure 1. Location of study area, sampling sites, and indication of sites that meet or exceed instream standards. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS

  13. Power processing subsystems for the 100-kWp solar-photovoltaic-power system at the Natural Bridges National Monument in Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, F. J.; Coleman, S. D.

    1982-06-01

    The power processing subsystem for the Natural Bridges National Monument photovoltaic power system including inverters, battery chargers, battery, diesel generator, site transfer switch, transformer in-rush controller, furnace loads, and load control equipment are described. Components and subsystem testing are also discussed. Also included are the solution to operational problems.

  14. Unintentional Monuments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2015-01-01

    unleashed more than the sliding of earth and stone as it triggered a fierce dispute between Israeli and Palestinian/Muslim interests. The crux of this crisis is to be found in the temporary bridge. In this short text, I suggest to see the bridge as an 'unintentional monument' as a way to understand...... the presence of historical and political powers in the shaping of space...

  15. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  16. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  17. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  18. NOAA TIFF Image - 1 m Backscatter Mosaic of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 1 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument, south of St. John, US...

  19. CReefs Biodiversity Census at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Marine National Monument, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Personnel from the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED), Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  20. The remarkable endemism of moths at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico, USA, with special emphasis on Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H. Metzler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The white sands formation, a snow-white gypsum dunes system, is the world's largest gypsum dune field. White Sands National Monument protects about 40% of the dunes; the dunes formation as it is known today was formed ca. 8,000 years BP. Prior to 8,000 years BP, the area covered by the dunes was a wet cool forest of the last glacial maximum in North America. The dunes were formed as a result of the hypsithermal, a warming and drying period which followed the most recent glacial maximum. The white sands formation is located in south central New Mexico in the Tularosa Basin of southwestern United States. A 10-year study of moths at the dunes was commissioned by the U. S. National Park Service in 2006. Almost immediately species new to science were detected. In the period of 6 years, 30 new species were discovered in the dunes. Several of the new species are white or very pale in color, and are endemic to the dunes. The focus of the 10 year project was modified to emphasize naming the undescribed species which helps the National Park Service catalog and manage the habitats. The data should encourage other researchers to explore the interactions of the animals with the plants and the harsh desert environment, to study DNA and evolution, and to study the rapid adaptation which seems to be occurring.

  1. Bed and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Yuji; Ando, Chieko

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe bed (nest) and bed-site reuse by western lowland gorillas (Gorilla g. gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, south-eastern Gabon. During an eight-month study 44 bed sites and 506 beds were found. Among these, 38.6% of bed sites and 4.1% of beds were reused. We analyzed the monthly frequency of bed-site reuse in relation to rainfall, fruit abundance, and fruit consumption by the gorillas. The different frequency of bed-site reuse in the rainy and dry seasons was not significant. More bed-site reuse was observed during the fruiting season than during the non-fruiting season. Results from fecal analysis suggested that gorillas ate more fruit in the fruiting season than in the non-fruiting season. The frugivorous diet of western gorillas may possibly cause gorillas to stay in some areas and, consequently, reuse their bed sites. Reuse of bed sites by gorillas suggests their frequent return to an area where preferred fruit is readily available. A higher percentage of arboreal beds may also affect bed-site reuse, because of the shortage of bed material.

  2. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... National Landscape Conservation System (NLCS) strategic plan; updates on the Colorado Mesa University Visitor Experience Baseline Study and the Arizona State University Appreciative Inquiry Study on Tourism...

  3. Secondary Sulfate Mineralization and Basaltic Chemistry of Craters of the Moon National Monument, Idaho: Potential Martian Analog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Doc Richardson; Nancy W. Hinman; Lindsay J. McHenry; J. Michelle Kotler; Jill R. Scott

    2012-05-01

    Secondary deposits associated with the basaltic caves of Craters of the Moon National Monument (COM) in southern Idaho were examined using X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). The secondary mineral assemblages are dominated by Na-sulfate minerals (thenardite, mirabilite) with a small fraction of the deposits containing minor concentrations of Na-carbonate minerals. The assemblages are found as white, efflorescent deposits in small cavities along the cave walls and ceilings and as localized mounds on the cave floors. Formation of the deposits is likely due to direct and indirect physiochemical leaching of meteoritic water through the overlying basalts. Whole rock data from the overlying basaltic flows are characterized by their extremely high iron concentrations, making them good analogs for martian basalts. Understanding the physiochemical pathways leading to secondary mineralization at COM is also important because lava tubes and basaltic caves are present on Mars. The ability of FTICR-MS to consistently and accurately identify mineral species within these heterogeneous mineral assemblages proves its validity as a valuable technique for the direct fingerprinting of mineral species by deductive reasoning or by comparison with reference spectra.

  4. Benthic Habitat Maps for Rose Atoll Marine National Monument in American Samoa from 2004 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps for Rose Atoll, American Samoa were derived from high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery for 2004, 2006, and 2010. The benthic habitat...

  5. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands National Monument, New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  6. 78 FR 4872 - Minor Boundary Revision at Governors Island National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... revision and subsequent acquisition of Tract 01-106 will enable the National Park Service to manage and maintain a floating dock that has been installed to provide safe access to the island for ferry passengers...

  7. Distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, and prevalence of white-band disease at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Philippe A.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Hillis-Starr, Zandy M.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1970s and 1980s elkhorn coral, Acropora palmata, declined dramatically throughout the Caribbean primarily due to white-band disease (WBD). In 2005, elkhorn coral was proposed for listing as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. WBD was first documented at Buck Island Reef National Monument (BIRNM). Together with hurricanes WBD reduced live elkhorn coral coverage by probably over 90%. In the past decade some recovery has been observed at BIRNM. This study assessed the distribution and abundance of elkhorn coral and estimated the prevalence of WBD at the monument. Within an area of 795 ha, we estimated 97,232 134,371 (95% confidence limits) elkhorn coral colonies with any dimension of connected live tissue greater than one meter, about 3% of which were infected by WBD. Despite some recovery, the elkhorn coral density remains low and WBD may continue to present a threat to the elkhorn coral population.

  8. Biodiversity of seagrass bed in Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soedarti, T.; Hariyanto, S.; Wedayanti, A.; Rahmawati, A. D.; Safitri, D. P.; Alificia, R. I.; Suwono

    2017-09-01

    Seagrass beds are flowering plants that live on the seabed. Seagrass provides a habitat for diverse flora and fauna, spawning ground, nursery ground, raising ground, and feeding ground. Balanan Resort - Baluran National Park has many beaches, such as Kajang Beach, Si Banjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Serondo Beach. This study was aimed to determine species composition, seagrass dominated, and the diversity index of seagrass and substrate in Resort Balanan - Baluran National Park. This research was carried out in Kajang Beach, Sibanjir Beach, Kakapa Beach, and Sirondo Beach from August to September 2015 using belt transect method, each transect consists of 15 plots (19 transects = 285 plots) and using the frame of 1x1 m. This research found seven genera and ten species : Cymodoce (C rotundata and C. serrulata), Syringodium (S. isoelifolium), Thallassodendron (T. ciliatum), Enhalus (E. acoroides) , Halodule (H. univernis and H. pinifolia), Halophila (H. ovalis and H. decipiens), and Thalassia (T. hemprichii). The diversity index of seagrass bed was moderate [H'=1.90] in Balanan Resort. The substrate of seagrass bed was mud, gravel, sand, clay sand and rubble in Balanan Resort. The dominance index was near zero [C = 0.194], that means no dominant species.

  9. Diversity of macromycetes in Bandelier national monument 1991--1993, A survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1994-04-01

    Since the great La Mesa fire of 1977 in Bandelier, much attention has been given to the ensuing course of plant and animal life. This paper introduces the importance of fungi, the neglected third kingdom, and describes a field survey sponsored by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier. The survey sought macromycetes the fruits of large fungi, noting the position, habitat, type, host, date and other descriptive features. The emphasis was on diversity, as many species as we could find. The welfare of every species of vascular plants is intricately bound to an associated fungus, in a relationship which has evolved over time with the evolution of the plant species. The survey covered the three summer seasons of 1991--1993. We collected 836 specimens from a variety of habitats. These were identified, recorded in a computer database, dried, and stored, in an herbarium. We found members of 220 species in 111 genera. We were able to identify 97% of the specimens to genus, 83% to species. In Bandelier alone, we collected 145 specimens in 1991--1992 and 232 specimens in 1993. This involved 74 genera and 93 species in 1993. The three basic types were found: Parasitic Saprophytic, and Mycorrhizal. The latter type composes roughly three fourths of the collection. A variety of sites were studied, with special attention to sites at Bandelier that have, or will be, burned.

  10. The Ecology of Parasite-Host Interactions at Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona - Appreciating the Importance of Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Chris; van Riper, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Although parasites play important ecological roles through the direct interactions they have with their hosts, historically that fact has been underappreciated. Today, scientists have a growing appreciation of the scope of such impacts. Parasites have been reported to dominate food webs, alter predator-prey relationships, act as ecosystem engineers, and alter community structure. In spite of this growing awareness in the scientific community, parasites are still often neglected in the consideration of the management and conservation of resources and ecosystems. Given that at least half of the organisms on earth are probably parasitic, it should be evident that the ecological functions of parasites warrant greater attention. In this report, we explore different aspects of parasite-host relationships found at a desert spring pond within Montezuma Well National Monument, Arizona. In three separate but related chapters, we explore interactions between a novel amphipod host and two parasites. First, we identify how host behavior responds to this association and how this association affects interactions with both invertebrate non-host predators and a vertebrate host predator. Second, we look at the human dimension, investigating how human recreation can indirectly affect patterns of disease by altering patterns of vertebrate host space use. Finally - because parasites and diseases are of increasing importance in the management of wildlife species, especially those that are imperiled or of management concern - the third chapter argues that research would benefit from increased attention to the statistical analysis of wildlife disease studies. This report also explores issues of statistical parasitology, providing information that may better inform those designing research projects and analyzing data from studies of wildlife disease. In investigating the nature of parasite-host interactions, the role that relationships play in ecological communities, and how human

  11. Ground-Water Flow Direction, Water Quality, Recharge Sources, and Age, Great Sand Dunes National Monument, South-Central Colorado, 2000-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, Niel

    2004-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Monument is located in south-central Colorado along the eastern edge of the San Luis Valley. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument contains the tallest sand dunes in North America; some rise up to750 feet. Important ecological features of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument are palustrine wetlands associated with interdunal ponds and depressions along the western edge of the dune field. The existence and natural maintenance of the dune field and the interdunal ponds are dependent on maintaining ground-water levels at historic elevations. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a study, in collaboration with the National Park Service, of ground-water flow direction, water quality, recharge sources, and age at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. A shallow unconfined aquifer and a deeper confined aquifer are the two principal aquifers at the Great Sand Dunes National Monument. Ground water in the unconfined aquifer is recharged from Medano and Sand Creeks near the Sangre de Cristo Mountain front, flows underneath the main dune field, and discharges to Big and Little Spring Creeks. The percentage of calcium in ground water in the unconfined aquifer decreases and the percentage of sodium increases because of ionic exchange with clay minerals as the ground water flows underneath the dune field. It takes more than 60 years for the ground water to flow from Medano and Sand Creeks to Big and Little Spring Creeks. During this time, ground water in the upper part of the unconfined aquifer is recharged by numerous precipitation events. Evaporation of precipitation during recharge prior to reaching the water table causes enrichment in deuterium (2H) and oxygen-18 (18O) relative to waters that are not evaporated. This recharge from precipitation events causes the apparent ages determined using chlorofluorocarbons and tritium to become younger, because relatively young precipitation water is mixing with older waters

  12. A map of human impacts to a ``pristine'' coral reef ecosystem, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkoe, K. A.; Halpern, B. S.; Ebert, C. M.; Franklin, E. C.; Selig, E. R.; Casey, K. S.; Bruno, J.; Toonen, R. J.

    2009-09-01

    Effective and comprehensive regional-scale marine conservation requires fine-grained data on the spatial patterns of threats and their overlap. To address this need for the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Monument) in Hawaii, USA, spatial data on 14 recent anthropogenic threats specific to this region were gathered or created, including alien species, bottom fishing, lobster trap fishing, ship-based pollution, ship strike risks, marine debris, research diving, research equipment installation, research wildlife sacrifice, and several anthropogenic climate change threats i.e., increase in ultraviolet (UV) radiation, seawater acidification, the number of warm ocean temperature anomalies relevant to disease outbreaks and coral bleaching, and sea level rise. These data were combined with habitat maps and expert judgment on the vulnerability of different habitat types in the Monument to estimate spatial patterns of current cumulative impact at 1 ha (0.01 km2) resolution. Cumulative impact was greatest for shallow reef areas and peaked at Maro Reef, where 13 of the 14 threats overlapped in places. Ocean temperature variation associated with disease outbreaks was found to have the highest predicted impact overall, followed closely by other climate-related threats, none of which have easily tractable management solutions at the regional scale. High impact threats most tractable to regional management relate to ship traffic. Sensitivity analyses show that the results are robust to both data availability and quality. Managers can use these maps to (1) inform management and surveillance priorities based on the ranking of threats and their distributions, (2) guide permitting decisions based on cumulative impacts, and (3) choose areas to monitor for climate change effects. Furthermore, this regional analysis can serve as a case study for managers elsewhere interested in assessing and mapping region-specific cumulative human impacts.

  13. Utilizing remote sensing to supplement ground monitoring of Diorhabda elongata as a control agent for Tamarix ramosissima in Dinosaur National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archambault, V.; Auch, J.; Landy, J.; Rudy, G.; Seifert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    The plant Tamarix ramosissima has invaded significant riparian habitat along the Green River in Dinosaur National Monument. Commonly known as salt cedar or tamarisk, it was introduced from Eurasia to the Southwestern United States to prevent soil erosion along riverbanks and as an ornamental plant. It has since come to affect water resources, recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem services. Various methods used to control tamarisk's spread have had moderate success but have drained National Park Service of human and monetary resources. In June 2006, the salt cedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) was released as a biological control agent within the park to defoliate and ultimately eradicate the invasive species. This study examines the efficacy of using Landsat TM imagery to supplement ground monitoring of the beetle's spread and its effects on tamarisk in Dinosaur National Monument, and discusses the development of a GIS model to predict annual change in tamarisk cover and beetle populations. Through fieldwork, we determined four areas of interest with favorable attributes for satellite detection. A change detection model was created by layering 2005-2008 data and quantifying mean NDVI. Results show that intra-year NDVI trends may be more effective for accurate detection than single-image year-to-year comparisons largely because intra-year environmental variability is significantly smaller. Additionally, our GIS model predicted significant growth of beetle population, implying that defoliation will become more apparent in future years. However, challenges to detecting this defoliation include the year-to-year variability of environmental factors, low spatial resolution of Landsat TM data, low visibility into parts of the Green River canyon, and the spectral mixing of tamarisk and native vegetation.

  14. Multibeam Synthesis of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Supports Diverse Research in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.; Kelley, C. D.

    2010-12-01

    The Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) was established in 2006 and is both the single largest conservation area under U.S. jurisdiction (366,631 km2), and one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. The NWHI stretches over 2200 km to the northwest of the 775 km-long Main or Southeastern Hawaiian Islands and contains 47 individual islands, seamounts, atolls, ridges, and submerged banks. The PMNM boundary is 100 nm (185 km) wide centered on the emergent landforms and thus nearly the entire monument (98%) is in deepwater (>100 m) beyond the range of technical wet diving. Because of its remote location, dedicated multibeam mapping of the PMNM region began only ten years ago, although research in the NWHI has taken place for decades. In an effort to consolidate the more recent systematic surveys with older transit data swaths for this region, a synthesis of all existing multibeam data was undertaken between 2009 and 2010. This dataset was then merged with the much lower resolution global bathymetry dataset to generate a more complete picture and allow users to visualize the remainder of the as yet unmapped features within and adjacent to the PMNM boundaries. One of the primary benefits of the synthesis has been to provide researchers with base maps for study site selection including submersible and ROV dive locations. In addition, fusion with the global dataset permits calculation of statistics using geospatial software and may serve as input for physical oceanographic models. With a number of different entities carrying out mapping activities in the PMNM in recent years, this data compilation also provides a road map showing where existing multibeam data are located so as to avoid duplication of effort. The synthesis was prepared with a grid cell interval of 120 m in order to accommodate the large area and water depths to >5000 m, although some of the individual surveys are of much higher

  15. Characterising reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: A lesson in marine protected area design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Mark E.; Friedlander, A.M.; Caldow, Chris; Christensen, J.D.; Rogers, C.; Beets, J.; Miller, J.; Boulon, Rafe

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas are an important tool for management of marine ecosystems. Despite their utility, ecological design criteria are often not considered or feasible to implement when establishing protected areas. In 2001, the Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (VICRNM) in St John, US Virgin Islands was established by Executive Order. The VICRNM prohibits almost all extractive uses. Surveys of habitat and fishes inside and outside of the VICRNM were conducted in 2002-2004. Areas outside the VICRNM had significantly more hard corals, greater habitat complexity, and greater richness, abundance and biomass of reef fishes than areas within the VICRNM. The administrative process used to delineate the boundaries of the VICRNM did not include a robust ecological characterisation of the area. Because of reduced habitat complexity within the VICRNM, the enhancement of the marine ecosystem may not be fully realised or increases in economically important reef fishes may take longer to detect. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The afterlives of monuments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherry, D.

    2014-01-01

    South Asia is famous for its monuments, past and present. Monuments have been created, destroyed and rescued by competing communities and incoming empires in the making and re-making of history, identity and memory. This collection brings together an international cohort of senior scholars and

  17. Orientation of Hittite Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    The possible astronomical or topographical orientations of the Hittite monuments of the Bronze Age has remained unexplored until recently. This would provide an important insight into how temporality was imprinted by this culture in sacred spaces and in the landscape. The authors' analysis of a statistically significant sample of Hittite temples - and a few monumental gates - has demonstrated that ancient Hittite monuments were not randomly orientated as previously thought. On the contrary, there were well-defined patterns of orientation that can be interpreted within the context of Hittite culture and religion.

  18. New R/V Falkor Multibeam Data from the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.; Kelley, C.; Boston, B.; Dechnik, B.; Habel, S.; Harrison, L.; Leonard, J.; Lichowski, F.; Luers, D.; Miller, J. E.; Orange, R.; Patterson, M. A.; Shiro, B.; Taylor, J.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.; Tucker, J.; Wagner, D.; Webster, J.; Wright, N.

    2014-12-01

    From March to June 2014, the Schmidt Ocean Institute, along with National Marine Sanctuaries and the National Science Foundation, supported 72 days of mapping surveys on two cruises using R/V Falkor in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM) located within the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). PMNM is one of the largest marine protected areas in the world. Approximately 127,000 km2, 35% of the PMNM, were surveyed using dual multibeam systems from less than 30 to >5000 meters water depth, and thus covering the habitat depth ranges for shallow living corals, mesophotic corals, drowned reefs, to deep-sea corals and sponge communities. A total of 18 seamounts, guyots, banks, or atoll flanks (e.g., Midway and Kure) were mapped in the upper northwestern section of the monument, including the generically named Bank 9 Seamount, which appears to be a composite of a younger Hawaiian seamount and an older Cretaceous guyot. The middle segment of the PMNM consists mostly of large volcanic rift zone ridges and broad carbonate platforms. The rift zones located there are comparable in shape and size with those off Maui and the Island of Hawai'i in the main islands. Likewise, the magnitude of the largest carbonate platform of Gardner Pinnacles suggests its original high island may have met or exceeded the enormity of the Island of Hawai'i. Furthermore, the new mapping data have revealed the detail of numerous landslides and their deposits all along the chain, including an unusual rift zone flank failure creating a knife-edge ridge off Pioneer Bank. Dives with the Pisces V submersible were previously carried out on this feature, where extensive filter feeding biological communities were discovered. Not to be overlooked, the sidescan backscatter component of the multibeam data proved essential for identifying subtle reef features, numerous carbonate terraces, and debris channels that appear to transport sediment down the edifice flanks to the deep seafloor

  19. VT Geodetic Control Monuments

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The GeodeticBenchmark_GEOMON data layer consists of geodetic control monuments (points) that have a known position or spatial reference. The...

  20. Assessment of metal and trace element contamination in water, sediment, plants, macroinvertebrates, and fish in Tavasci Marsh, Tuzigoot National Monument, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Fuller, Christopher C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Tavasci Marsh is a large freshwater marsh within the Tuzigoot National Monument in central Arizona. It is the largest freshwater marsh in Arizona that is unconnected to the Colorado River and is designated as an Important Bird Area by the Audubon Society. The marsh has been altered significantly by previous land use and the monument’s managers are evaluating the restoration of the marsh. In light of historical mining activities located near the marsh from the first half of the 20th century, evaluations of water, sediment, plant, and aquatic biota in the marsh were conducted. The evaluations were focused on nine metals and trace elements commonly associated with mining and other anthropogenic activities (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, and Zn) together with isotopic analyses to understand the presence, sources and timing of water and sediment contaminants to the marsh and the occurrence in aquatic plants, dragonfly larvae, and fish. Results of water analyses indicate that there were two distinct sources of water contributing to the marsh during the study: one from older high elevation recharge entering the marsh at Shea Spring (as well as a number of unnamed seeps and springs on the northeastern edge of the marsh) and the other from younger low elevation recharge or from Pecks Lake. Water concentrations for arsenic exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking water standard of 10 μg/L at all sampling sites. Surface waters at Tavasci Marsh may contain conditions favorable for methylmercury production. All surficial and core sediment samples exceeded or were within sample concentration variability of at least one threshold sediment quality guideline for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Several sediment sites were also above or were within sample concentration variability of severe or probable effect sediment quality guidelines for As, Cd, and Cu. Three sediment cores collected in the marsh have greater metal and trace element concentrations

  1. Resident areas and migrations of female green turtles nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Kristen M.; Iverson, Autumn; Benscoter, Allison M.; Fujisaki, Ikuko; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Pollock, Clayton; Lundgren, Ian; Hillis-Starr, Zandy

    2017-01-01

    Satellite tracking in marine turtle studies can reveal much about their spatial use of breeding areas, migration zones, and foraging sites. We assessed spatial habitat-use patterns of 10 adult female green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting at Buck Island Reef National Monument, U.S. Virgin Islands (BIRNM) from 2011 – 2014. Turtles ranged in size from 89.0 – 115.9 cm CCL (mean + SD = 106.8 + 7.7 cm). The inter-nesting period across all turtles ranged from 31 July to 4 November, and sizes of the 50% core-use areas during inter-nesting ranged from 4.2 – 19.0 km2. Inter-nesting core-use areas were located up to1.4 km from shore and had bathymetry values ranging from -17.0 to -13.0 m. Seven of the ten turtles remained locally resident after the nesting season. Five turtles (50%) foraged around Buck Island, two foraged around the island of St. Croix, and the other three (30%) made longer-distance migrations to Antigua, St. Kitts & Nevis, and Venezuela. Further, five turtles had foraging centroids within protected areas. Delineating spatial areas and identifying temporal periods of nearshore habitat-use can be useful for natural resource managers with responsibility for overseeing vulnerable habitats and protected marine turtle populations.

  2. Marine Science Lesson Plans about the Pacific Marine National Monuments: Options for Enhancing Ocean Literacy in the 7th through 12th Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Laura K.

    The ocean is one of the Earth's defining features; it provides our world with variety of beneficial services like regulating climate, providing food, and is a source of wonder and inspiration. However, despite its size and powerful nature it is not immune to degradation. One of the greatest risks to our ocean is a general lack of understanding amongst the public of basic ocean processes and how an individual's actions contribute to environmental harm. In the United States, a low level of ocean-centered education in the K-12 classroom contributes to the lack of ocean literacy. This study presents a review of current levels of ocean literacy in the United States and highlights the benefits of increased levels of ocean science education. Barriers, challenges, and potential solutions for the increased implementation of ocean literacy in the classroom are identified. One of the barriers identified is lack of appropriate curricula available to teachers. In response, this study presents a newly developed suite of lesson plans that fit into a variety of scientific disciplines that draw upon the systems of the Pacific Marine National Monuments as examples. Several example lessons are discussed as well as the educational research that influenced their design and the lesson development methodology.

  3. Araneofauna of the Křéby National Nature Monument (Eastern Moravia, Czech Republic with some notes to conservation management of the locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes a faunistic contribution to knowledge of spider composition in the xerothermic habitats of the Křéby National Nature Monument which is located in Kroměříž district, eastern Moravia. Spiders were collected by four different methods during 25 April–28 October 2013: pitfall traps, sweeping of herb vegetation, individual collecting and beating the branches of shrubs and trees. In total, 1070 individuals (865 adult spiders were collected and identified as 114 species of 19 families. The species diversity in the Křéby area is rather high, representing approximately 13% of Czech araneofauna. Of the identified species, five are listed in the Red List of Threatened Species in the Czech Republic. These included critically endangered Dysdera hungarica Kulczynski 1897, endangered Alopecosa solitaria (Herman, 1879, Cheiracanthium montanum (C. L. Koch, 1877 and vulnerable Lathys stigmatisata (Menge, 1869 and Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866. The findings of Alopecosa solitaria and Dysdera hungarica belong to the northernmost occurrence of these rare species in the Czech Republic. In general, the great richness of spider fauna and the occurrence of rare and threatened species for Czech region confirm the high biotic value of the investigated area. In addition, the author discussed management methods of the locality and suggest management conservation system for slowing down the succession rate on overgrown places.

  4. 3 CFR 8335 - Proclamation 8335 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Marianas Trench Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... airspace of the Mariana Ridge are of particular importance to the national security of the United States... unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible... activities and exercises of the Armed Forces (including those carried out by the United States Coast Guard...

  5. Cultural Connections: Lion Funerary Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the Grecian "Lion Funerary Monument" dating back to about 350 BC. Significant historical, cultural, and artistic elements of the ancient monument are highlighted. Details about the artist based on the monument itself are also described and questions to consider are provided.

  6. Merchant Seamen Monument

    OpenAIRE

    1991-01-01

    Postcard. Colour photograph of Merchant Seamen Monument. Printed description on reverse "This memorial was erected in remembrance of the merchant seamen from Limerick and the Shannon Estuary Seamen who lost their lives in the course of duty". 1991 Limerick Treaty 300 logo.

  7. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  8. Migration to a distributed system architecture at the National Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoebelheinrich, R.

    1991-09-01

    This is a study to consider the mission of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization's National Test Bed (NTB) and the current directions of gigabit networking and distributed computing research and to produce a report describing a 5- to 10-year vision of an NTB computing architecture and migration path to that architecture. 97 refs., 20 figs.

  9. National SCADA Test Bed Substation Automation Evaluation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Barnes; Briam Johnson

    2009-10-01

    Increased awareness of the potential for cyber attack has recently resulted in improved cyber security practices associated with the electrical power grid. However, the level of practical understanding and deployment of cyber security practices has not been evenly applied across all business sectors. Much of the focus has been centered on information technology business centers and control rooms. This report explores the current level of substation automation, communication, and cyber security protection deployed in electrical substations throughout existing utilities in the United States. This report documents the evaluation of substation automation implementation and associated vulnerabilities. This evaluation used research conducted by Newton-Evans Research Company for some of its observations and results. The Newton Evans Report aided in the determination of what is the state of substation automation in North American electric utilities. Idaho National Laboratory cyber security experts aided in the determination of what cyber vulnerabilities may pose a threat to electrical substations. This report includes cyber vulnerabilities as well as recommended mitigations. It also describes specific cyber issues found in typical substation automation configurations within the electric utility industry. The evaluation report was performed over a 5-month period starting in October 2008

  10. Monument avalikule hetkele = Monument to a public moment / raumlaborberlin

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2013-01-01

    Saksamaa arhitektide projekt "Monument avalikule hetkele" tekitas Tallinnas asuva Välisministeeriumi ette massiivne monumendi aluse, mis mõne minuti suitsu välja ajas ja mis seejärel lammutati. Fotokujutist levitati postkaardil

  11. New Monumentalism in Contemporary Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolai, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    This essay offers an overview of different conceptions of monumentalism in twentieth- and twenty-first-century architecture. It demonstrates in how much a new radical "Bigness” has become one of the central features of the new globalized architecture over the last two decades. Examining prime examples of contemporary architectural monumentalism, such as Rem Koolhaas and Ole Scheeren's CCTV-Tower and the Burj Khalifa (former Burj Dubai), as well as exploring examples of the new, worldwide emer...

  12. IAR-93 military aircraft monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BISCA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this presentation, we will concentrate on the vertical support, which is free from all sides. A Finite Element Model (FEM of the IAR-93 aircraft monument has been developed in PATRAN/NASTRAN®, partly from a previous ANSYS® model FEM can be used to investigate potential structural modifications or changes in column monument with realistic component corrections. Model validation should be part of every modern engineering analysis and quality assurance procedure

  13. 50 CFR 404.4 - Access to Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INTERIOR AND NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... defects or deficiencies that restrict maneuverability or impair normal navigation. (11) Any pollution.... (4) Any pollution incident or goods lost overboard within the Monument, the reporting area, or the U...

  14. Three-Dimensional Recording of Bastion Middleburg Monument Using Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Z.; Lau, C. L.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the use of terrestrial laser scanning for the full three-dimensional (3D) recording of historical monument, known as the Bastion Middleburg. The monument is located in Melaka, Malaysia, and was built by the Dutch in 1660. This monument serves as a major hub for the community when conducting commercial activities in estuaries Malacca and the Dutch build this monument as a control tower or fortress. The monument is located on the banks of the Malacca River was built between Stadhuys or better known as the Red House and Mill Quayside. The breakthrough fort on 25 November 2006 was a result of the National Heritage Department through in-depth research on the old map. The recording process begins with the placement of measuring targets at strategic locations around the monument. Spherical target was used in the point cloud data registration. The scanning process is carried out using a laser scanning system known as a terrestrial scanner Leica C10. This monument was scanned at seven scanning stations located surrounding the monument with medium scanning resolution mode. Images of the monument have also been captured using a digital camera that is setup in the scanner. For the purposes of proper registration process, the entire spherical target was scanned separately using a high scanning resolution mode. The point cloud data was pre-processed using Leica Cyclone software. The pre-processing process starting with the registration of seven scan data set through overlapping spherical targets. The post-process involved in the generation of coloured point cloud model of the monument using third-party software. The orthophoto of the monument was also produced. This research shows that the method of laser scanning provides an excellent solution for recording historical monuments with true scale of and texture.

  15. Buck Island National Monument Accuracy Assessment Point Data for Benthic Habitats of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  16. Bathymetry 2M Grid, of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Offshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  17. Atlas des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Julien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Le projet de « gestion du patrimoine de Tunisie » s’est déroulé de 1997 à 1998 sur l’ensemble du territoire tunisien. L’objectif était de réaliser un atlas exhaustif des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie. La réalisation s’est déroulée en deux phases : l’atlas des monuments historiques classés de Tunisie identifiant et localisant sur des cartes les monuments, réalisé sous l’autorité du directeur des sites et monuments de Tunisie de l’Institut du Patrimoine à Tunis et une seconde phase d’organisation d’un fichier d’investigation sur le territoire et de développement d’un système d’information géographique réalisé sous la direction du bureau d’études italien Memar.In Tunisia, the Executive for sites and monuments at the national Institute for heritage, took the initiative of preparing an atlas of 1 000 historical monuments recorded before the independence of the country in 1956. The atlas was produced between 1996 and 1998. To begin with, a notice on each site was drawn up, with a distinction made between archaeological sites and historical sites of modern times. After checking in the field, their location was recorded on mapping documents. The files were then integrated into a geographical information system, associating each site with written, photographic and other graphic documents. This work was realised under the technical and scientific direction of the Memar Italian research department.

  18. Social Media Use Before Bed and Sleep Disturbance Among Young Adults in the United States: A Nationally Representative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jessica C; Shensa, Ariel; Sidani, Jaime E; Colditz, Jason B; Primack, Brian A

    2017-09-01

    Social media (SM) use has been positively associated with disturbed sleep among young adults. However, previous studies have not elucidated the specific importance of SM use immediately before bed. We aimed to determine the independent association of SM use during the 30 minutes before bed and disturbed sleep while controlling for covariates including total SM use throughout the day. We assessed a nationally representative sample of 1763 US young adults aged 19-32. Participants estimated to what extent they used SM in the 30 minutes before bed. We assessed sleep disturbance using the brief Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) Sleep Disturbance measure. After testing the proportional odds assumption, we used ordered logistic regression to compute the independent association between SM use before bed and sleep disturbance controlling for covariates, including total SM use. Compared with those who rarely or very rarely check SM in the 30 minutes before bed, those who often or very often check SM at that time had an adjusted odds ratio of 1.62 (95% confidence interval = 1.31-2.34) for increased sleep disturbance. Additionally, we found a significant linear trend in the odds ratios between the frequency of checking SM in the 30 minutes before bed and increased sleep disturbance (p = .007). Results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. SM use in the 30 minutes before bed is independently associated with disturbed sleep among young adults. Future work should use qualitative and experimental methods to further elucidate the directionality of-and mechanisms underlying-this association. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020916-20020916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100923-20100924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080916-20080917 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040926-20040930 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030726-20030726 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060913-20060923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020913-20020914 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20021002-20021003 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Gardner Pinnacle, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040920-20040920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100914-20100916 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040924-20040924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060930-20061001 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030729-20030808 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030730-20030802 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  13. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100908-20100910 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  14. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080920-20080920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  15. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020917-20020920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  16. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060919-20060919 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  17. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HA1007, Data Date Range: 20100919-20100920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  18. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030804-20030805 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  19. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0501, Data Date Range: 20050410-20050410 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  20. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030716-20030719 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  1. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20080919-20080920 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  2. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060911-20060911 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  3. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040917-20040919 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  4. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041009-20041011 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  5. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20041006-20041007 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  6. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020922-20020924 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  7. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0401, Data Date Range: 20040921-20040923 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  8. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: TC0207, Data Date Range: 20020925-20020926 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  9. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Gardner Pinnacle, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: OES0306, Data Date Range: 20030719-20030720 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  10. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Maro Reef, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0611, Data Date Range: 20060907-20060909 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  11. CRED Shallow CTD Profiles; Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument); Cruise: HI0809, Data Date Range: 20081005-20081006 (NODC Accession 0039382).

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CRED shallow Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) casts are vertical profiles (max 30 meter depth, downcast only) of temperature, conductivity and pressure. Data are...

  12. Characterization of Near-Surface Geology and Possible Voids Using Resistivity and Electromagnetic Methods at the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument, Central New Mexico, June 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Land, Lewis A.; Teeple, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    At the Gran Quivira Unit of Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument in central New Mexico, a partially excavated pueblo known as Mound 7 has recently become architecturally unstable. Historical National Park Service records indicate both natural caves and artificial tunnels may be present in the area. Knowledge of the local near-surface geology and possible locations of voids would aid in preservation of the ruins. Time-domain and frequency-domain electromagnetic as well as direct-current resistivity methods were used to characterize the electrical structure of the near-surface geology and to identify discrete electrical features that may be associated with voids. Time-domain electromagnetic soundings indicate three major electrical layers; however, correlation of these layers to geologic units was difficult because of the variability of lithologic data from existing test holes. Although resistivity forward modeling was unable to conclusively determine the presence or absence of voids in most cases, the high-resistivity values (greater than 5,000 ohm-meters) in the direct-current resistivity data indicate that voids may exist in the upper 50 meters. Underneath Mound 7, there is a possibility of large voids below a depth of 20 meters, but there is no indication of substantial voids in the upper 20 meters. Gridded lines and profiled inversions of frequency-domain electromagnetic data showed excellent correlation to resistivity features in the upper 5 meters of the direct-current resistivity data. This technique showed potential as a reconnaissance tool for detecting voids in the very near surface.

  13. Classification and recognition of the heritage values of the monuments of Tlemcen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Hamma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first classification of historic monuments of Tlemcen dates from 1900 and the last from 2010. The 82 monuments date back to the Berber, Muslim and Roman eras. After the independence of Algeria, the French colonial heritage is not concerned by the rankings. They were removed from the list of monuments that was established by the French before 1962. The historic city of Tlemcen dates from the year 201 AD and features many old buildings. The latest ranking list does not reflect the architectural richness of this city. We then asked about the possibility of classifying the other historic buildings. From this questioning, we first identified all cultural goods which could be classified. Then we have evaluated these buildings following a grid of 20 heritage values. They are mentioned in the national and international legislation. It turns out that only 1.57 % of monuments of this city are classified.

  14. Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands and the Jewish Monument Community : commemoration and meaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faro, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2005, the Digital Monument to the Jewish Community in the Netherlands went online. This monument is an Internet monument dedicated to preserving the memory of more than 100,000 men, women and children, Dutch Jewish victims of the Shoah. As of September 2010, the interactive Jewish Monument

  15. Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Baudez, Claude-François

    2015-01-01

    Beauty and ugliness in Olmec monumental sculpture. Since our Western art tradition has put such a prize on naturalism, we tend to think that other civilizations valued it as much as we did and do. I contend that Olmec monumental art illustrates the opposite, and suggest that the Olmecs most appreciated the anthropomorphic statues that incorporated feline features, and disliked the very naturalistic style of the colossal heads. The latter represented the severed heads of opponents who probably...

  16. The Monumental Task of Warning Future Generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NA

    2005-01-01

    Describing preliminary concepts for permanent warning monuments or markers on the mountain's surface will be part of the US Department of Energy's license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NRC requires that the monuments or markers accurately identify the location of the repository, be designed to be as permanent as practicable and convey a warning against intrusion into the underground repository, because of risk to public health and safety from radioactive wastes. Current concepts include both monuments and markers, but the designs will not be final for some time because they will not be approved by the NRC until shortly before the repository is to be permanently sealed and closed. Closure of the repository would be at least 50 years, and possibly up to 300 years, after the first waste is emplaced deep underground. Design ideas for the monuments and markers have been drawn from a broad range of sources: Yucca Mountain's natural conditions, worldwide archeological studies, materials science, and verbal and symbolic linguistics. The monumental challenge is to address how warnings can be coherently conveyed for thousands of years into the future when human society and languages could change radically

  17. Effects of the updated national emission regulation in China on circulating fluidized bed boilers and the solutions to meet them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingji; Yang, Hairui; Wu, Yuxin; Lv, Junfu; Yue, Guangxi

    2013-06-18

    The advantage of circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers in China is their ability to utilize low rank coal with low cost emission control. However, the new National Emission Regulation (NER) issued in early 2012 brings much more stringent challenges on the CFB industries, which also causes much attention from other countries. Based on the principle of a CFB boiler and previous operating experience, it is possible for the CFB boilers to meet the new NER and maintain the advantage of low cost emission control, while, more influences should be considered in their design and operation. To meet the requirement of the new NER, the fly ash collector should adopt a bag house or combination of electrostatic precipitator and bag filter to ensure dust emissions of less than 30 mg · Nm(-3). For SO2 emission control, the bed temperature should be strictly lower than 900 °C to maintain high reactivity and pores. The limestone particle size distribution should be ranged within a special scope to optimize the residence time and gas-solid reaction. At the same time, the injecting point should be optimized to ensure fast contact of lime with oxygen. In such conditions, the desulfurization efficiency could be increased more than 90%. For lower sulfur content fuels (<1.5%, referred value based on the heating value of standard coal of China), increasing Ca/S enough could decrease SO2 emissions lower than that of the new NER, 100 mg · Nm(-3). For fuels with sulfur content higher than 1.5%, some simplified systems for flue gas desulfurization, such as flash dryer absorber (FDA), are needed. And the NOx emissions of a CFB can be controlled to less than 100 mg · Nm(-3) without any equipment at a bed temperature lower than 900 °C for fuels with low volatiles content (<12%), while for fuels with high volatiles, selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) should be considered. Due to the unique temperature in CFB as well as the circulating ash, the efficiency of SNCR could reach as high as

  18. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Quality assurance program for licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    A National Waste Terminal Storage Repository, in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. This volume presents a preliminary quality assurance program to guide the license applicant in developing a detailed program that will be compatible with anticipated National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTSR2) contracting arrangements and provide the documentation required by regulatory bodies. This QA program is designed to provide confidence that the quality-related activities pertaining to safety-related structures, systems, and components will be identified and controlled. Specific responsibilities for quality-related activities are documented and assigned to personnel and organizations for the major phases of facility design and construction. These responsibilities encompass a broad range of activities and are addressed in this preliminary program. The quality assurance program elements are organized and discussed herein as follows: (1) quality assurance during design and construction; (2) the applicant (DOE); (3) siting contractor; (4) architect/engineer; (5) project field management; and (6) operations contractor

  19. Monumentality and public space in Lourenço Marques in the 1930 and 1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerbert Verheij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lourenço Marques, actual Maputo (Mozambique, is subjected to a series of aesthetic interventions in its public space during the 1930s e 1940s. These seek to “monumentalize” and “portugalize” the city, responding to its recently acquired status as capital of the Colony. Two monuments appear as especially important and exemplary: the Padrão de Guerra, a lately built First War memorial (1935, and the monument to the hero of the “pacification campaigns” of the 1890s, Mouzinho de Albuquerque (1940. Around these monuments, a large number of commemorative and celebrative practices are developed. Such practices posit the monument as a “national allegory” and reproduce, in the context of a modern city, auratic and cult values. As such, they add an important dimension to the monument’s role in the authoritarian reformulation of the city’s public space as an “imperial” space, as well as in the putative hegemonization of the representations of the community imagined as a “Nation”. They allow, therefore, to approach the political-ideological use and utility of the monument within the organization of public space.

  20. Are Birds a Manace to Outdoor Monuments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Vasiliu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of laboratory tests on real samples have shown that the uric acid which is found in bird droppings has a negative influence on metals. Results of experiments have confirmed that the damage is significant when considering the cultural heritage, statues or monuments.

  1. Elav monument : [luuletused] / Johannes Vares-Barbarus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Barbarus, Johannes, pseud., 1890-1946

    1998-01-01

    Sisu: Elav monument ; Multiplitseerit hommik ; Hall reisikiri ; Põrsad ; Värssjutt surijast tütarlapsest ; Tulipunkt ; Ämblik koob võrku... ; Luule klassivõitlus ; Nurgakivi panek ; Maja tellingutes ; Vana tuulik ; Värss rajus ; Dionysos ; Klassika ; Pürgimus ; Leningrad kevadõites ; Jälle kodupinnal ; Ühe kaotuse puhul

  2. Ocatilla : del paisaje monumental al monumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Quesada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Resumen

    Este artículo aborda el campamento Ocatilla, construido en el  desierto de Arizona por Frank Lloyd Wright como una estación  experimental de arquitectura en 1929. Se propone este campamento como un prototipo que tendría dos vectores  temporales por lo que se refiere a una posible genealogía y a un posible desarrollo futuro. Hacía el pasado habría que  rastrearlo en la Casa para la Familia Cristiana propuesta por  Catherine Beecher en 1869, mientras que hacia el futuro podría establecerse un posible epígono en la Burbuja Ambiental de  Reyner Banham y François Dallegret de 1965. El texto explora  las posibilidades de un ideal de arquitectura para el paisaje monumental, perfectamente ejemplarizado en los tres casos, frente a la arquitectura como monumento ante el paisaje, que ejemplificaría Taliesin West, su monumental contrafigura.

    Palabras clave

    campamento, prototipo, paisaje, ambiental, monumental

    Abstract

    This article discusses the Ocatilla camp, built in the Arizona  desert by Frank Lloyd Wright as an experimental architecture in  1929. This camp is proposed as a prototype with two temporary vectors, one would be to a possible genealogy and the other a  possible future development. Going to the past should be traced in the House for the Christian Family by Catherine Beecher proposed in 1869, while that to the future could be made a epigone in the Environmental Bubble of Reyner Banham and of François Dallegret in 1965. The text explores the possibilities of an ideal architecture for the monumental landscape, perfectly  exemplified in the three cases, compared to architecture as a monument to the landscape, which exemplify Taliesin West, his monumental counterpart.

    Key words

    camp, prototype, landscape, environment, monumental

  3. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Volume I. Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), now the Department of Energy (DOE), established a National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. As a part of this program, two parallel conceptual design efforts were initiated in January 1977. One was for deep geologic storage, in domed salt, of high level waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel. The other was for deep geologic storage of unreprocessed spent fuel in bedded salt. These two concepts are identified as NWTS Repository 1 and Repository 2, respectively. Repository 2 (NWTSR2) is the concept which is covered by this Conceptual Design Report. Volume I of the conceptual design report contains the following information: physical description of the report; project purpose and justification; principal safety, fire, and health hazards; environmental impact considerations; quality assurance considerations; assessment of operational interfaces; assessment of research and development interfaces; project schedule; proposed method of accomplishment; summary cost estimate; and outline specifications. The conceptual design for Repository 2 was developed in sufficient detail to permit determination of scope, engineering feasibility, schedule, and cost estimates, all of which are necessary for planning and budgeting the project

  4. Environmental impact and natural hazards on Kharga Oasis monumental sites, Western Desert of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, A. B.; Howari, F. M.; El-Sankary, M. M.; Wali, A. M.; Saleh, M. M.

    2010-09-01

    Kharga Oasis monumental sites are important to the cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The studied sites include the Hibis, EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples as well as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The present study found that natural hazards have remarkable impacts on these sites. The impact of weathering processes, encroachment of sand dunes, stability of foundation beds and shallow groundwater seepage were documented. The present study found that humidity, temperature, sunlight and water content conditions seem to be favorable for biodegradation as evidenced by the presence of algae, bat blood and bird excretions. The radioactivity levels at the investigated sites are also measured via gamma-ray spectrometry. Sand dunes in the area pose a serious natural threat to the monumental sites. Active sand dunes are rapidly encroaching upon the components of these monuments, partially covering some monuments such as El-Ghueita Temple. These dunes load wind storms with fine sand particles. This causes wind erosion through sand blasting of these sites. Some monuments, such as EI-Nadura, EI-Ghueita and El-Zayyan temples were constructed on a suitable hard sandstone ground, whereas others, such as the Hibis Temple, were constructed on unsuitable soft shale ground in relatively topographically low area. The impact of the unstable foundation and shallow groundwater levels have caused severe structural damage as evidenced by tilted columns, cracked walls and salt-crystal growth in the porous building stones. These destructive elements threaten some other temples in Kharga Oasis and will eventually cause total physical collapse. Although rain is rare in this area, it can form a real threat to mud brick monuments such as El-Bagawat Cemetery. The natural radioactivity sources resulted in an annual effective dose equivalent values averaging 0.20, 0.13, 0.09 and 0.07 m

  5. Preserving and protecting monuments and historical sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, M.M.

    1989-03-01

    At the International Association of Engineering Geology symposium held recently in Greece, it was pointed out that the Parthenon has been damaged during the past 2500 years. After surveying natural and man-made damage, including explosions and partial demolition, researchers are suggesting that the monuments may be undergoing continuous damage due to environmental pollution. There is evidence that air pollution has caused substantial harm to monuments on the Acropolis. Air pollution has damaged the interior surfaces of two column capitals. The damage usually occurs as a black crust on carbonate stone surfaces. The damaged areas seem to receive little rain or rain runoff and seem to be formed by sulfur dioxide uptake, in the presence of moisture, on the stone surface. Subsequent conversion of the sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid results in the formation of a layer of gypsum on the marble surface. Acid precipitation also occurs in Athens, and this may aggravate the air pollution damage.

  6. High school start times after 8:30 am are associated with later wake times and longer time in bed among teens in a national urban cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmod, Nicole G; Lee, Soomi; Buxton, Orfeu M; Chang, Anne-Marie; Hale, Lauren

    2017-12-01

    High school start times are a key contributor to insufficient sleep. This study investigated associations of high school start times with bedtime, wake time, and time in bed among urban teenagers. Daily-diary study nested within the prospective Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. Twenty US cities. Four hundred thirteen teenagers who completed ≥1 daily diary report on a school day. Participating teens were asked to complete daily diaries for 7 consecutive days. School-day daily diaries (3.8±1.6 entries per person) were used in analyses (N=1555 school days). High school start time, the main predictor, was categorized as 7:00-7:29 am (15%), 7:30-7:59 am (22%), 8:00-8:29 am (35%), and 8:30 am or later (28%). Multilevel modeling examined the associations of school start times with bedtime, wake time, and time in bed. Models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, household income, caregiver's education, and school type. Teens with the earliest high school start times (7:00-7:29 am) obtained 46 minutes less time in bed on average compared with teens with high school start times at 8:30 am or later (Pstart times and shorter time in bed, primarily due to earlier wake times (PStart times after 8:30 am were associated with increased time in bed, extending morning sleep by 27-57 minutes (Pstart times. Later school start times are associated with later wake times in our large, diverse sample. Teens starting school at 8:30 am or later are the only group with an average time in bed permitting 8 hours of sleep, the minimum recommended by expert consensus for health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Christo Javacheff’s temporary monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Furegatti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the question of temporary configuration adopted by the Bulgarian artist Christo Javacheff in his artistic interventions in the contemporary landscape. Place emphasizes on analysis of his creative process guided by the idea of temporary monuments; attribution given by him to projects that has close relations between the architectural elements and the collective memory of the public participating of these interventions in different urban centers on the planet.

  8. Milleks monumenti = Why a monument? / Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Treier, Heie, 1963-

    2006-01-01

    2006. a. toimunud Jüri Lotmani mälestusmärgi konkursist, Mati Karmini ja Andres Lunge võidutööst. Monumentide positiivseid näiteid: Tubina plats Tartus (Aili Vahtrapuu, Veronika Valk, Louis Dandrel), ideekavandid: Estonia teatri juubelimonument Tallinnas (Tiiu Kirsipuu, Üla Koppel) ja Eesti iseseisvuse monument Pärnus Rüütli platsil (Mart Aas, Kaarel Eelma, Mikk Mutso). Bibl. lk. 73

  9. The Portuguese Lioz, a Monumental Limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Zenaide

    2017-04-01

    Lioz is a microcrystalline limestone which occurs in Portugal and outcrops in the Lisbon area and its neighboring counties Oeiras, Pero Pinheiro, Lameiras. The rock is whitish to light and dark pink and contains 120 million years old rudists fossils. This fossiliferous content imprints a decorative aspect to the rock contributing to its very wide use as construction material and its favorite use in churches and official monuments making it the Royal Stone in Portugal along the XVII and XVIII centuries. Lisbon has the best exposition of Lioz as a fundamental stone in several monuments, the best examples being the Jeronimos Monastery, the Belém Tower, the Cultural Center in Belém and many old churches spread in Lisbon area. Among the latter the Jesuit Church of São Roque is a special example. The fact that the rock stratigraphic sequence allows the different rock colors as white, light and dark pink and a yellow facies variety in a local occurrence (Negrais yellow) makes it a special source for decorative patterns that can be found in a few churches in Lisbon, Évora, Mafra exhibiting "embutidos" technique, of indian origin and inspired on contemporaneous Italian churches. Mafra is the place where a monumental architectural set, composed by three integrated constructions, was built in the XVIII century by king D.João V using Lioz limestone as the main rock material, in all available colors. Along the XVII and XVIII centuries, the rock was transported to some portuguese colonies, mainly as ballast to improve the navigability of the boats, and used at the destinations as construction material for monuments, official buildings and churches. Brazil and especially Salvador, in Bahia, is the best example of that, where Lioz is beautifully exposed in monuments and as true art in many churches where the Portuguese or Italian influences are very strong. All these facts make the Portuguese Lioz Limestone as very representative of the Heritage present in Portugal and its

  10. A Monument as a Document in its own History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cabrera Acevea

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between restoration and the history of a monument became clear as restoration work on the aqueduct of the city of Morelia in México progressed. Important questions were raised with regards to the history of the monument, previously considered have been built in the late 18th century. The careful observation of stonecutter´s signatures, the dimensions of the arches and the techniques used in stonecutting resulted in new vision of the aqueduct as a monument transformed over a period of 400 years, emphasising the importance of using different techniques to “read” the monument as a document.

  11. Remediation of acid mine drainage at the friendship hill national historic site with a pulsed limestone bed process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Watten, B.; Boone, T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A new process utilizing pulsed fluidized limestone beds was tested for the remediation of acid mine drainage at the Friendship Hill National Historic Site, in southwestern Pennsylvania. A 230 liter-per-minute treatment system was constructed and operated over a fourteen-month period from June 2000 through September 2001. Over this period of time, 50,000 metric tons of limestone were used to treat 50 million liters of water. The influent water pH was 2.5 and acidity was 1000 mg/L as CaCO3. Despite the high potential for armoring at the site, effluent pH during normal plant operation ranged from 5.7 to 7.8 and averaged 6.8. As a result of the high influent acidity, sufficient CO2 was generated and recycled to provide a net alkaline discharge with about 50 mg/L as CaCO3 alkalinity. Additions of commercial CO2 increased effluent alkalinity to as high as 300 mg/L, and could be a useful process management tool for transient high flows or acidities. Metal removal rates were 95% for aluminum (60 mg/L in influent), 50 to 90% for iron (Fe), depending on the ratio of ferrous to ferric iron, which varied seasonally (200 mg/L in influent), and treatment passive settling/oxidation pond. Metal hydroxide sludges were settled in settling tanks, and then hauled from the site for aesthetic purposes. Over 450 metric tons of sludge were removed from the water over the life of the project. The dried sludge was tested by the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Protocol (TCLP) and was found to be non-hazardous. Treatment costs were $43,000 per year and $1.08 per m 3, but could be decreased to $22,000 and $0.51 per m3 by decreasing labor use and by onsite sludge handling. These results confirm the utility of the new process in treatment of acid impaired waters that were previously not amenable to low cost limestone treatment.

  12. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 2m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Offshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 2 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an offshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  13. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  14. NOAA ESRI Geotiff- 1m Multibeam Bathymetry of NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument (Inshore), St. John, US Virgin Islands, Project NF-05-05, 2005, UTM 20 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131860)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of an inshore portion of the NPS's Virgin Islands Coral Reef National...

  15. Durability of monumental stones treated with siloxane-based water repellents

    OpenAIRE

    Simionescu, Ana Bogdana

    2009-01-01

    The thesis investigates the effect of siloxane-based water repellents on the durability of monumental stones. Laspra, a micritic limestone typical for the Spanish region of Asturias, and Repedea, an oolitic limestone from Moldavia, Romania were selected for the present study, due to their regional / national significance and level of usage. As for the siloxane-based water repellents, three worldwide used products, namely Lotexan-N, Silres® BS 290 and Tegosivin HL 100 and a newl...

  16. The factors influencing safety of archeology monuments in Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demir K. Tulush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Article characterizes situation in preserving the arche-ology monuments in region – the most numerous objects of a cultural heritage in the republic. Modern factors, making the greatest influence on barrows and sites of ancient settlement as the basic types of monu-ments of Tuva are considered.

  17. GEOLOGICAL ANDGEOMORPHOLOGICAL MAPPING ARCHAEOLOGICAL MONUMENTS OF MOUNTAIN ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Baryshnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the results of geological and geomorphological mapping of archaeological monument, mainly Paleolithic age, the location of which is confined to low-mountain spaces of the Mountain Altai. Using this mapping would greatly clarify the sequence of relief habitat of ancient people and more objectively determine the age characteristics of archaeological monument

  18. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project Mexican Hat, Utah -- Monument Valley, Arizona, sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    The final audit report for remedial action at the Mexican Hat, Utah, Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/audits, quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and QA remedial action close-out inspections performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC); on-site construction reviews (OSCR) performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); and a surveillance performed by the Navajo Nation. This report refers to remedial action activities performed at the Mexican Hat, Utah--Monument Valley, Arizona, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites

  19. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH - SENSOR collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2013-05-08 to 2013-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0156421)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID SE 13-03). XBT casts...

  20. WATER TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, and others collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, main Hawaiian Islands, and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0156000)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID: SE 10-08). During legs...

  1. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH - SENSOR collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, main Hawaiian Islands, and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2010-09-02 to 2010-10-26 (NCEI Accession 0155914)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID: SE 10-08). XBT casts...

  2. WATER TEMPERATURE and DEPTH - SENSOR collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, and Ladd Seamount from 2007-03-29 to 2007-04-04 (NCEI Accession 0155890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XBT data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID OES 07-02). A total of 6...

  3. WATER TEMPERATURE, DISSOLVED OXYGEN, and others collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ, Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, and Ladd Seamount from 2007-03-29 to 2007-04-04 (NCEI Accession 0155999)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD data were collected during a Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center's Cetacean Research Program's shipboard cetacean survey (Cruise ID OES 07-02). A total of...

  4. CHLOROPHYLL A CONCENTRATION collected from NOAA Ship OSCAR ELTON SETTE in Hawaii EEZ and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2013-05-08 to 2013-06-03 (NCEI Accession 0155964)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water samples were collected from the ocean surface using a bucket and from below the surface using bottles attached to the CTD during a Pacific Islands Fisheries...

  5. 76 FR 18775 - Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument; Monument Management Plan, Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ..., Kingman Reef, Palmyra Atoll, and Wake Atoll. When the draft MMP is complete, we will advertise its... during the planning process. An environmental assessment (EA) to evaluate the potential effects of... information needed to determine if the potential effects may be significant and warrant preparation of an...

  6. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  7. Commercial Function as a Treat to the Monument - 25 Years of Experience in the Commercialization of Monuments in Gdansk, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk – Piatkowska, Elzbieta

    2017-10-01

    The principles of the market economy adopted in Poland in the nineties have significantly touched the resources of immovable monuments. As a result, monuments have become a product of culture subject to the rules of the free market; and state ownership, patronage and decision-making practice has now been replaced by private interest. Practical monument use has also changed with the shift in ownership of objects after privatization and further advances in technology and the economy. Accordingly, the subject of this research addresses the issue of ensuring protection as well as the profitability of monumental objects of heritage under private investment in association with municipal and state ownership. The nineties of the twentieth century in Poland marked a period of rapid revival in trade based on market principles and openness to contemporary global trends in the design of commercial facilities. Thus, commercial function as a new use has been used for the commercialization of the monument. After 25 years of experience, it turns out that this new use may pose a threat to the conditions of monument preservation. The spatial and location specifics of the monument are poorly matched to the organizational form of trade and product range, despite the huge variety of these forms; the result is bankruptcy of the commercial operation and the consequent loss of use for the monument. Unused objects will eventually be destroyed. Studies have shown that functions supporting the creation of culture, especially museums, are optimal for the use of monuments. The museum function provides sufficiently high prestige and spatial stability, and allows for the maximum preservation of authentic elements, thus performing an additional role as museum piece.

  8. Restoring and structurally reinforcing historic monuments by glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oikonomopoulou, F.; Bristogianni, T; Karron, Kaisa; Groot, C.J.W.P.; Veer, F.A.; Nijsse, R.; Zingoni, Alphose

    In this paper a pioneering, transparent restoration methodology is presented, introducing structural glass elements to substitute missing components of damaged monuments and simultaneously reinforce the original structure. To prove the feasibility of the concept, a damaged medieval tower in Toolse,

  9. Geochemical characterization and dating of R tephra, a post-glacial marker bed in Mount Rainier National Park, Washington, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samolczyk, Mary; Vallance, James W.; Cubley, Joel; Osborn, Gerald; Clark, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    The oldest postglacial lapilli–ash tephra recognized in sedimentary records surrounding Mount Rainier (Washington State, USA) is R tephra, a very early Holocene deposit that acts as an important stratigraphic and geochronologic marker bed. This multidisciplinary study incorporates tephrostratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, petrography, and electron microprobe analysis to characterize R tephra. Tephra samples were collected from Tipsoo Lake and a stream-cut exposure in the Cowlitz Divide area of Mount Rainier National Park. Field evidence from 25 new sites suggests that R tephra locally contains internal bedding and has a wider distribution than previously reported. Herein, we provide the first robust suite of geochemical data that characterize the tephra. Glass compositions are heterogeneous, predominantly ranging from andesite to rhyolite in ash- to lapilli-sized clasts. The mineral assemblage consists of plagioclase, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and magnetite with trace apatite and ilmenite. Subaerial R tephra deposits appear more weathered in hand sample than subaqueous deposits, but weathering indices suggest negligible chemical weathering in both deposits. Statistical analysis of radiocarbon ages provides a median age for R tephra of ∼10 050 cal years BP, and a 2σ error range between 9960 and 10 130 cal years BP.

  10. Comprehensive aerodynamic and dynamic study of independence of ukraine monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lebedich

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive approach for solution the engineering problems o f creation the high-rise extended pillartype Monument in Kiyv is described. The results o f dynamic tests o f 1:25 scale model and aerodynamictests o f 1:8 scale model o f the Monument in TAD-2 wind tunnel are given. The procedures fordetermination o f actual dynamic characteristics and assurance the efficiency o f damping on the siteare described

  11. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  12. Sanitation of cultural monuments - Energy conervation. Energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments; Kulturdenkmale sanieren - Energie sparen. Energetische Verbesserung denkmalgeschuetzter Gebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-08-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on an energetic improvement of buildings listed as monuments. Substantial aspects are designated which absolutely have to be considered in the energetic sanitation. Depending upon plant (solar thermal power or photovoltaics), dimensions and other design (cell type, colour, reflection) solutions can be found which only insignificantly impair the appearance of the architectural monument. Partners for buildings listed as monument are monument protection authorities. The contribution under consideration also presents an overview of public funding programs.

  13. Radiation methods in research of ancient monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kubelik, M.; Musilek, L.; Pavlik, Milan

    2000-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Monument Research' is being built at the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be investigated. In the first phase, two radiation methods are being established, but it is set up in such a way, that various other methods can readily be added in its future development. The radiation methods chosen for the initial development of the laboratory are: thermoluminescence dating and X-ray fluorescence analysis. The design of the automated TL-reader, built in our laboratories, is adjusted for the purpose of dating of historic brick architecture (which, of course, does not exclude applications for ceramics and other materials). The investigation of renaissance architecture in southern Bohemia and Moravia is under preparation as the first large campaign of this kind in the Czech Republic. Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis has been chosen as the basic analytical method in the laboratory. The possibility of analyses of paintings and fired building materials (bricks, roof tiles) have been investigated. The first results in both the areas are very promising

  14. The Global Modeling Test Bed - Building a New National Capability for Advancing Operational Global Modeling in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepfer, F.; Cortinas, J. V., Jr.; Kuo, W.; Tallapragada, V.; Stajner, I.; Nance, L. B.; Kelleher, K. E.; Firl, G.; Bernardet, L.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA develops, operates, and maintains an operational global modeling capability for weather, sub seasonal and seasonal prediction for the protection of life and property and fostering the US economy. In order to substantially improve the overall performance and accelerate advancements of the operational modeling suite, NOAA is partnering with NCAR to design and build the Global Modeling Test Bed (GMTB). The GMTB has been established to provide a platform and a capability for researchers to contribute to the advancement primarily through the development of physical parameterizations needed to improve operational NWP. The strategy to achieve this goal relies on effectively leveraging global expertise through a modern collaborative software development framework. This framework consists of a repository of vetted and supported physical parameterizations known as the Common Community Physics Package (CCPP), a common well-documented interface known as the Interoperable Physics Driver (IPD) for combining schemes into suites and for their configuration and connection to dynamic cores, and an open evidence-based governance process for managing the development and evolution of CCPP. In addition, a physics test harness designed to work within this framework has been established in order to facilitate easier like-to-like comparison of physics advancements. This paper will present an overview of the design of the CCPP and test platform. Additionally, an overview of potential new opportunities of how physics developers can engage in the process, from implementing code for CCPP/IPD compliance to testing their development within an operational-like software environment, will be presented. In addition, insight will be given as to how development gets elevated to CPPP-supported status, the pre-cursor to broad availability and use within operational NWP. An overview of how the GMTB can be expanded to support other global or regional modeling capabilities will also be presented.

  15. Oceanographic data and ROV dive-related multimedia and information collected during the EX1504L4 Campaign to Address Pacific monument Science, Technology, and Ocean NEeds (CAPSTONE) Leg IV on NOAA Ship OKEANOS EXPLORER in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-07 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0131887)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains oceanographic data collected in the deep waters in and around Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM) in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  16. Geospatial modeling approach to monument construction using Michigan from A.D. 1000-1600 as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howey, M.C.L.; Palace, M.W.; McMichael, C.H.

    2016-01-01

    Building monuments was one way that past societies reconfigured their landscapes in response to shifting social and ecological factors. Understanding the connections between those factors and monument construction is critical, especially when multiple types of monuments were constructed across the

  17. The Development of Mobile Application to Introduce Historical Monuments in Manado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupilu, Moshe Markhasi; Suyoto; Santoso, Albertus Joko

    2018-02-01

    Learning the historical value of a monument is important because it preserves cultural and historical values, as well as expanding our personal insight. In Indonesia, particularly in Manado, North Sulawesi, there are many monuments. The monuments are erected for history, religion, culture and past war, however these aren't written in detail in the monuments. To get information on specific monument, manual search was required, i.e. asking related people or sources. Based on the problem, the development of an application which can utilize LBS (Location Based Service) method and some algorithmic methods specifically designed for mobile devices such as Smartphone, was required so that information on every monument in Manado can be displayed in detail using GPS coordinate. The application was developed by KNN method with K-means algorithm and collaborative filtering to recommend monument information to tourist. Tourists will get recommended options filtered by distance. Then, this method was also used to look for the closest monument from user. KNN algorithm determines the closest location by making comparisons according to calculation of longitude and latitude of several monuments tourist wants to visit. With this application, tourists who want to know and find information on monuments in Manado can do them easily and quickly because monument information is recommended directly to user without having to make selection. Moreover, tourist can see recommended monument information and search several monuments in Manado in real time.

  18. The Water Supply of El Morro National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel Wilson; Baldwin, Helene Louise

    1964-01-01

    In the land of enchantment, between Gallup and Grants, N. Mex., near the Zuni Mountains, a huge sandstone bluff rises abruptly 200 feet above the plain. The Spaniards called it 'El Morro,' which means 'the headland' or 'bluff.' Around it are other mesas and canyons and stands of pinon and ponderosa pine. Other great rocks are nearby, but none are as popular as El Morro, and none have been as important to the traveler. For at El Morro there is water. In that country, water is scarce and precious. In the old days, travelers from Santa Fe would tell each other about the pool of clear, refreshing water at the base of the huge rock. This is the story of the great bluff, its water supply, and the rocks around it. In the late summer of 1849, an American lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, James H. Simpson, accompanied infantry and artillery troops on a reconnaissance march from Santa Fe into the Navajo Country. On September 18, at the urging of one Mr. Lewis, an Indian trader, Lieutenant Simpson left the main party in order to see 'half an acre of inscriptions' upon a huge rock (fig. 1) . Although somewhat dubious, the Lieutenant had allowed himself to be persuaded by Lewis that the trip was worthwhile. Taking with him an artist named R. H. Kern, another man by the name of Bird, and Mr. Lewis as guide, he set off through miles of desert country, filled with huge red and white sandstone rocks, 'some of them looking like steamboats, and others presenting very much the appearance of facades of heavy Egyptian architecture'.

  19. 36 CFR 7.63 - Dinosaur National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permittee as of September 8, 1960, the grazing preference shall be recognized only for a period of twenty... file with the Superintendent a copy of his stock brand or other mark. (v) The permittee shall, upon... are considered as mature animals at 6 months of age and are so counted in determining animal unit...

  20. Participatory mapping in Browns Canyon National Monument, Colorado (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Harner; Lee Cerveny; Rebecca Gronewold

    2017-01-01

    Natural resource managers need up-to-date information about how people interact with public lands and the meanings these places hold for use in planning and decision-making. This case study explains the use of public participatory Geographic Information System (GIS) to generate and analyze spatial patterns of the uses and values people hold for the Browns Canyon...

  1. 77 FR 59275 - Establishment of the Chimney Rock National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... landscape characteristics, and geological and biological features, as well as objects of deep cultural and... migratory birds also live in the area among the Ponderosa Pine, pinon, and juniper. Several desert plants... outside the Sonoran Desert and is believed to be associated with deliberate cultivation by the Ancestral...

  2. 36 CFR 7.42 - Pipestone National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... during the calendar year in which it is issued. (b) An American Indian desiring to sell handicraft... grant the permit provided that (1) in his judgment the number of permittees selling handicraft products...

  3. 77 FR 24579 - Establishment of the Fort Ord National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... for recreation, scientific research, outdoor education, and historical significance. Originating in... owes its undeveloped state in large part to its role as a U.S. Army facility. From World War I through... a major Army installation by the beginning of World War II. During the Vietnam War, it served as a...

  4. 36 CFR 7.26 - Death Valley National Monument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conflict with the paramount general public need for such water; (2) such water systems shall include taps... water hole, or within one quarter of a mile thereof on unsurveyed public land. (iii) All land within any... any Federally owned buildings, water and sewer systems, road loops, and camp tables and fireplaces set...

  5. The National Plan for Research and Development In Support of Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    ..., Information Technology, Telecommunications, Energy, Transportation Systems, Banking and Finance, Chemical, Postal and Shipping, National Monuments and Icons, Dams, Government Facilities, Commercial Facilities...

  6. Pärnus avati monument süütusele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Andrus Joonase Pootsi paepäevade raames valminud monument süütusele avati Academia Non Grata teise aastapäeva puhul Lepa kaubamaja ja karja tänava vahelisel alal; autori arvates on hingeline süütus kunstnikule väga tähtis ja Academia Non Grata ainus õppeasutus, kus õpilased seda hoida saavad.

  7. Image based Monument Recognition using Graph based Visual Saliency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalliatakis, Grigorios; Triantafyllidis, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an image-based application aiming at simple image classification of well-known monuments in the area of Heraklion, Crete, Greece. This classification takes place by utilizing Graph Based Visual Saliency (GBVS) and employing Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) or Speeded...

  8. Monumental heritage exposure to urban black carbon pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrón, D.; Lyamani, H.; Titos, G.; Casquero-Vera, J. A.; Cardell, C.; Močnik, G.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Olmo, F. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, aerosol light-absorption measurements obtained at three sites during a winter campaign were used to analyse and identify the major sources of Black Carbon (BC) particles in and around the Alhambra monument, a UNESCO World Heritage Site that receives over 2 million visitors per year. The Conditional Bivariate Probability Function and the Aethalometer model were employed to identify the main sources of BC particles and to estimate the contributions of biomass burning and fossil fuel emissions to the total Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentrations over the monumental complex. Unexpected high levels of EBC were found at the Alhambra, comparable to those measured in relatively polluted European urban areas during winter. EBC concentrations above 3.0 μg/m3, which are associated with unacceptable levels of soiling and negative public reactions, were observed at Alhambra monument on 13 days from 12 October 2015 to 29 February 2016, which can pose a risk to its long-term conservation and may cause negative social and economic impacts. It was found that road traffic emissions from the nearby urban area and access road to the Alhambra were the main sources of BC particles over the monument. However, biomass burning emissions were found to have very small impact on EBC concentrations at the Alhambra. The highest EBC concentrations were observed during an extended stagnant episode associated with persistent high-pressure systems, reflecting the large impact that can have these synoptic conditions on BC over the Alhambra.

  9. Compositions of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actins, A.; Spricis, A.; Zekunde, A.; Nemerova, A.

    2004-01-01

    By means of x-ray analysis composition of stone and stone surface materials of historical monuments from Vidzeme and Zemgale was investigated. Corrosion products of tuffa materials were identified on surfaces of some investigated monuments. Similarity of composition of products of stone corrosion for monuments from Latvia and Poland was recognised. Content of heavy metals at stone materials of historical monuments and at the surface layers of these monuments was investigated by means of atomic absorption and potentiometric stripping methods. Reasons of formation of compounds and pollution of investigated samples were discussed. (full text)

  10. Atmospheric Weathering of Historic Monuments and Their Related Conservation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner-Saltık Emine N.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric environment affects the materials of historic monuments and their structure starting from the time of their construction. Daily and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, wind, snow and rainfall, soluble salts carried by water, biological agents, pollutant gases and particulate matter are some of the agents in atmospheric environment that introduce weathering by physical, chemical and biological processes in the materials of the monuments such as natural building stones, bricks, mortars and plasters, mud brick etc. The weathering processes need to be well diagnosed by identification of main mechanisms of decay and major responsible agents, degree and depth of deterioration expressed with measurable parameters of physical, physicomechanical properties, and micro structural changes together with their distribution on the monument. Success of conservation treatments strongly depend on those diagnostic studies and compatibility of the treatments with the deteriorated and relatively sound parts of the historic materials. Current approach to materials conservation is to be able to make minimum intervention to historic material by targeting the conservation treatment to the deteriorated area for the purpose of controlling the deterioration factors and achieving compatible and durable conservation of historical material. In this presentation, two examples of diagnostic research and conservation treatments based on and guided by the diagnostic results are summarized concerning historic stone monuments exposed to atmospheric environment since more than two thousand years. The first example is on the marble walls of Temple of Augustus in Ankara exposed to polluted urban atmosphere. The second example is on the limestone statues of Nemrut Mount Monument in Adıyaman-Turkey, exposed to rural atmosphere with harsh climatic conditions. Finally, a brief discussion on current research issues related to historic materials conservation in

  11. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. 25-year retrievability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    National Waste Terminal Storage Repository 2 (NWTSR2), in bedded salt, for spent unreprocessed fuel is the subject of a conceptual design project which began in January 1977. In the base conceptual design the spent fuel is to be stored in a retrievable mode for 5 years. This report presents the results of a separate study on 25-year retrievability with open storage rooms. Drawings prepared for 25-year retrievability are only those which differ from the companion 5-year retrievability drawings which comprise Volume II of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR). NWTSR2 capital facilities originally were to be constructed in phases. Phase I was to include those facilities required for the first 5 years of operation, which were hypothesized to be from 1985 through 1990; Phase II was to include facilities required from 1991 until the capacity of the 2000-acre mine was reached. These dates are used as the basis for conceptual design and for Special Study No. 1 but do not represent actual schedule dates for the repository. The terms Phase I and Phase II are used throughout the drawings and test, so they need to be understood. However, it is not now intended to phase the capital construction because of the relatively small effort represented by Phase II surface construction. An optional future expansion of the mine, Phase III, would add 1000 acres on the end of the mine opposite the shaft pillar. The optional Phase III expansion would commence operation upon completion of Phase II operations. The drawings and design comparisons for Phase III mine operations appear only in this report

  12. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  13. 78 FR 19523 - General Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... Management Plan, Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates... Management Plan, Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument, Texas... management alternatives for Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and three management alternatives for...

  14. State of Arts of Monumental Stones Diagnosis and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiano, P.; Riminesi, C.

    2017-08-01

    The conservation and maintenance of a monumental stone building is a complex aim where different disciplines are involved. First step is concerning the determination of the state of conservation of stone material present, than determine its modification on time, as such and after conservation treatments applied on: cleaning, protecting, strengthening. In order to fulfill such objectives suitable parameters must be selected and the most appropriate diagnostic techniques for their quantitative evaluation operated. In this context, the determination of the surface water absorption, moisture content, colour variation and mechanical properties are important parameters for the control, and the monitoring over time, of the state of conservation of the monumental stone surfaces. These parameters are strongly related not only to the stone characteristics but also to the evaluation of products's performance: efficiency and durability. Their rate of variation, determined in monitoring campaigns, is fundamental for elaborate by properly predictive model a schedule maintenance protocol.

  15. Monumentality vs. everyday life: architecture's public role

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Manoel Guedes Sobrinho

    2007-01-01

    Conference held in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on March 18, 2006. Thoughts about architecture and the nation." Architecture is everything dealing with construction." (ARGAN, c. 1992). An object's cultural and ethical value is measured by how well it addresses demand, which in turn is related to the planet Earth, to scarce resources, and to people's survival. Architecture, its craft, and its teaching are studied from the perspective of the act, which is the art of building, to meet social, p...

  16. Semiotics of verbal signs and observably literature monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сабрина Ханалиевна Шихалиева

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the case of agglutinative conjugation «Subject * object». Units of agglutinative conjugation identify fragment of substantivized participles in Turkish-Caucasian monument. During the analysis of the fragment it is substantivized dual participles of transitive and intransitive forms. It is possible to actualize the principle of derivation with dual units and additional arguments, mainly in favor of substantivized sacraments of the «New Testament» in the language of the Caspian region

  17. Monument for Inge Lehmann på Frue Plads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke

    2017-01-01

    En af Danmarks største, men oversete videnskabsfolk, geofysikeren Inge Lehmann, har nu fået sit monument på Frue Plads i København. Inge Lehmann er i dag kendt for opdagelsen af, at Jorden har en fast indrekerne, men i sin samtid havde hun svært ved at få anerkendelse for sin indsats, hvilket Køb...

  18. Gods Who Hear Prayers: Popular Piety or Kingship in Three Theban monuments of New Kingdom Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ausec, Cindy Lee

    2010-01-01

    For the past 50 years, Thutmose III's and Ramesses II's Eastern Temples at Karnak and the Eastern High Gate of Ramesses III's mortuary temple at Medinet Habu have been accepted as monuments that fulfilled the religious needs of the general populace of ancient Thebes based on Charles Nims' assessment of these monuments. Thutmose III's Eastern Temple was believed to have been built as "a perfect place of hearing" and the two Ramesside monuments both had representations of a god bearing the tit...

  19. Characterization of limestone reacted with acid-mine drainage in a pulsed limestone bed treatment system at the Friendship Hill National Historical Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Sibrell, P.L.; Belkin, H.E.

    2003-01-01

    Armoring of limestone is a common cause of failure in limestone-based acid-mine drainage (AMD) treatment systems. Limestone is the least expensive material available for acid neutralization, but is not typically recommended for highly acidic, Fe-rich waters due to armoring with Fe(III) oxyhydroxide coatings. A new AMD treatment technology that uses CO2 in a pulsed limestone bed reactor minimizes armor formation and enhances limestone reaction with AMD. Limestone was characterized before and after treatment with constant flow and with the new pulsed limestone bed process using AMD from an inactive coal mine in Pennsylvania (pH = 2.9, Fe = 150 mg/l, acidity = 1000 mg/l CaCO3). In constant flow experiments, limestone is completely armored with reddish-colored ochre within 48 h of contact in a fluidized bed reactor. Effluent pH initially increased from the inflow pH of 2.9 to over 7, but then decreased to 6 during operation. Limestone removed from a pulsed bed pilot plant is a mixture of unarmored, rounded and etched limestone grains and partially armored limestone and refractory mineral grains (dolomite, pyrite). The ???30% of the residual grains in the pulsed flow reactor that are armored have thicker (50- to 100-??m), more aluminous coatings and lack the gypsum rind that develops in the constant flow experiment. Aluminium-rich zones developed in the interior parts of armor rims in both the constant flow and pulsed limestone bed experiments in response to pH changes at the solid/solution interface. ?? 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Monumentality vs. everyday life: architecture's public role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Manoel Guedes Sobrinho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Conference held in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, on March 18, 2006. Thoughts about architecture and the nation." Architecture is everything dealing with construction." (ARGAN, c. 1992. An object's cultural and ethical value is measured by how well it addresses demand, which in turn is related to the planet Earth, to scarce resources, and to people's survival. Architecture, its craft, and its teaching are studied from the perspective of the act, which is the art of building, to meet social, public and private demands through historical processes of power games, at a given place and time. Architecture is reduced to its essence to unveil the roots of its emergence and understand the architect's responsibilities in the new mass society, when we enter this" new popular period in history" (SANTOS; SOUZA, c1998. We suggest the following sequence of procedures as a path of knowledge and to support the free development of invention: 1 Initially assess the prospective problem to choose and study the location and the tasks of the architect, the client, society, and government; 2 identify and understand building plans for that location; 3 study the activities, flows, quantity, quality and combination of spaces resulting from the conflicting yearnings of people, in line with social needs and translated into private and public building plans; 4 graphically analyze the sectorial subsystems of areas associated according to affinities, considering their arrangement and organization in the site; 5 work on the rigorous construction of architecture, which in final analysis is matter and form; It should be pointed out that it is necessary to: 6 expand the supply of information on specific architectural problems to be addressed, and to organize the actual and effective involvement of people in the discussion of projects and works of their interest, unlike assembly and participative meetings; 7 expand opportunities to allow a greater number of architects to take part

  1. 3D Modelling of Kizildag Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karauguz, Güngör; Kalayci, İbrahim; Öğütcü, Sermet

    2016-10-01

    The most important cultural property that the nations possess is their historical accumulation, and bringing these to light, taking measures to preserve them or at least maintain the continuity of transferring them to next generations by means of recent technic and technology, ought to be the business of present generations. Although, nowadays, intensive documentation and archiving studies are done by means of classical techniques, besides studies towards preserving historical objects, modelling one-to-one or scaled modelling were not possible until recently. Computing devices and the on-going reflection of this, which is acknowledged as digital technology, is widely used in many areas and makes it possible to document and archive historical works. Even virtual forms in quantitative environments can be transferred to next generations in a scaled and one-to-one modelled way. Within this scope, every single artefact categorization belonging to any era or civilization present in our country can be considered in separate study areas. Furthermore, any work or likewise can be evaluated in separate categories. Also, it is possible to construct travelable virtual 3D museums that make it possible to visit these artefacts. Under the auspices of these technologies, it is quite possible to construct single virtual indoor museums or also, at the final stage, a 3D travelable open-air museum, a platform or more precisely, to establish a data system that spreads all over the country on a broad spectrum. With a long-termed, significant and extensive study and a substantial organization, such a data system can be established, which also serves as a serious infrastructure for alternative tourism possibilities. Located beside a stepped altar and right above the Kizildag IV inscription, the offering pot is destructed and rolled away a few meters to the south slope of the mould. Every time visiting these artefacts with our undergraduate students, unfortunately, we observe more

  2. Monuments and Memorials: Geoscience and the Historic Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, E.; Smith, B. L.

    2009-05-01

    Many communities have a cemetery, war memorial, public sculpture or old historic buildings that are an important part of the historic record of that community. Such monuments celebrate achievements, commemorate people who died serving their country, or a prominent former member of the local community. Monuments and memorials can trace the histiry of settlement within a community. After a number of years researching cemeteries and memorials, primarily in western Canada my research partner, a historian, and I, a geoscience educator,have documented many monuments and memorials that are succumbing to basic weathering processes. Original design choices can be dictated by cost, material availability, access to transportation and emotions. Climate, type of material, construction methods, technology used and long-term maintenance can all have significant impacts on the sustainability of that material record. Over the last five years we have given many lectures and workshops on the nature of cemeteries to family historians, historical societies and classroom educators. These workshops and lectures focus on developing a better ommunity understanding of the fragility of the record. Field trips by students of all ages can contextualize both geology and history. Seeing local monumanets can facilitate the development of a sense of time and place as well as an appreciation of the environmental impacts and the longevity of the record. For the earth science student documentation of the installation enable comparisons of weathering rates of different materials, the effects of local climate or impacts of pollution. Being able to go to a local memorial or cemetery to compare diffrent structures brings a powerful local context to the learning. However we both have concerns that modern techniques that enable the creation of more elaborate memorials are actually setting the stage for more rapid deterioration. I will illustrate a cross section of our reseacrh and the impact it has had on

  3. Gypsum-induced decay in granite monuments in Northwestern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common forms of decay in granite monuments is the detachment of the superficial layer of the stone (plaques, plaquettes and scales. Previous studies of granite monuments in the northwest Iberian Peninsula revealed a direct relation between this type of weathering and the presence of calcium sulphate, and a mechanism whereby the salt causes this type of decay was suggested. In the present study, various hypotheses as regards the origin of the gypsum found in granite monuments are proposed. The study involved analysis of the contents of ions soluble in water, the results of X-ray diffraction analyses and the ratios of CaO/SO3 in samples of stone, mortar and deposits collected from different monuments. It was concluded that in most cases the gypsum originated from old paintworks or/and from the joint mortars, although inputs from other sources cannot be discounted, as discussed

    Una de las formas de deterioro más frecuente en los monumentos graníticos es la separación de la capa superficial de la piedra (placas, plaquetas y escamas. En trabajos anteriores centrados en monumentos del noroeste de la Península Ibérica, se constató la relación directa entre esta forma de alteración y la presencia de sulfato de calcio y se propuso el mecanismo a través del cual esta sal provoca este tipo de deterioro. En este trabajo se plantean varias hipótesis acerca del origen del yeso encontrado en monumentos graníticos. Para ello se comparan los contenidos de iones solubilizados en agua, los resultados de difracción de rayos X y las relaciones OCa/SO3 de muestras de piedra, morteros y depósitos recogidas en diferentes monumentos. Se llega a la conclusión de que en la mayor parte de los casos el yeso procede de antiguas pinturas o de revestimientos superficiales y de los morteros de juntas entre sillares, pero no se puede descartar la contribución de otros aportes, los cuales se discuten también en este artículo.

  4. The Anthropocene monument:on relating geological and human time

    OpenAIRE

    Szerszynski, Bronislaw

    2017-01-01

    In the Parthenon frieze, the time of mortals and the time of gods seem to merge. Dipesh Chakrabarty has argued that with the advent of the Anthropocene the times of human history and of the Earth are similarly coming together. Are humans entering the ‘monumental time’ of the Earth, to stand alongside the Olympian gods of the other geological forces? In this paper I first look at the cultural shifts leading to the modern idea of separate human and Earth histories. I examine the changing use of...

  5. Exploring the Early Structure of a Rapidly Decompressed Particle Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Heather; Adrian, R. J.; Clarke, Amanda; Johnson, Blair; Arizona State University Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Rapid expansion of dense, pressurized beds of fine particles subjected to rapid reduction of the external pressure is studied in a vertical shock tube. A near-sonic expansion wave impinges on the particle bed-gas interface and rapidly unloads the particle bed. A high-speed video camera captures events occurring during bed expansion. The particle bed does not expand homogeneously, but breaks down into horizontal slabs and then transforms into a cellular-type structure. There are several key parameters that affect the particle bed evolution, including particle size and initial bed height. Analyses of this bed structure evolution from experiments with varying particle sizes and initial bed heights is presented. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science and Academic Alliance Program, under Contract No. DE-NA0002378.

  6. Changing the interpretation of monuments for the purpose of influencing the Czechoslovak collective identity through Rudé Právo and presidential speeches (1948-1957)

    OpenAIRE

    Hobl, Elisabeth Anna

    2015-01-01

    CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Institute of International Studies Elisabeth Anna Hobl Changing the interpretation of monuments for the purpose of influencing the Czechoslovak collective identity through Rudé Právo and presidential speeches (1948-1957) Masters thesis Prague 2015 Abstract The Communist Party of Czechoslovak (KSČ) tried self-servingly to shape the interpretation of Czechoslovak history. National identity can theoretically change over time by adapting amo...

  7. The Megalithic Monuments of Ireland and Their Folklore: A Photodocumentary Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbaum, Howard

    A photojournalism project is described in this paper that integrated the disciplines of photography, archaeology, and ethnology in an examination of prehistoric megalithic monuments in Ireland and their folklore. Following an introduction tracing the history of the monuments and pointing to the maintenance in Ireland of a body of oral tradition…

  8. 76 FR 15970 - Central Ferry to Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt Transmission Line Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... entry of the Central Ferry-Lower Monumental transmission line into the substation. Fiber optic cable...-kilovolt Transmission Line Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE... availability of the ROD to implement the Central Ferry--Lower Monumental 500-kilovolt (kV) Transmission Line...

  9. Pansharpening Techniques to Detect Mass Monument Damaging in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocchi, V.; Bianchi, A.; Maddaluno, C.; Vidale, M.

    2017-05-01

    The recent mass destructions of monuments in Iraq cannot be monitored with the terrestrial survey methodologies, for obvious reasons of safety. For the same reasons, it's not advisable the use of classical aerial photogrammetry, so it was obvious to think to the use of multispectral Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite imagery. Nowadays VHR satellite images resolutions are very near airborne photogrammetrical images and usually they are acquired in multispectral mode. The combination of the various bands of the images is called pan-sharpening and it can be carried on using different algorithms and strategies. The correct pansharpening methodology, for a specific image, must be chosen considering the specific multispectral characteristics of the satellite used and the particular application. In this paper a first definition of guidelines for the use of VHR multispectral imagery to detect monument destruction in unsafe area, is reported. The proposed methodology, agreed with UNESCO and soon to be used in Libya for the coastal area, has produced a first report delivered to the Iraqi authorities. Some of the most evident examples are reported to show the possible capabilities of identification of damages using VHR images.

  10. [Holy Trinity monument in the city of Osijek].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalić, Bruno

    2017-12-01

    Plague was one of the most deadly epidemic diseases of the Baroque period. Responses to it were not only medical, but religious as well. A good example of the latter is the Most Holy Trinity monument in the city of Osijek, which was in the 18th century the biggest town of the Kingdom of Slavonia and today is the regional centre in the Republic of Croatia. The monument was erected between 1729 and 1730 on the main square of the Osijek military fortress Tvrđa by the widow of the General Maksimilijan Petraš who died during the 1728 plague epidemic. Inscription on it implores the mercy of God as a protection against plague. Its foundation could be also interpreted as a part of the Catholic Revival, which was implemented by the Habsburgs in Osijek and Slavonia after their liberation from the Ottomans. But although, on the one hand, it could be interpreted as a symbol of the successful implementation of the Habsburg unifying religious policies due to its strong resemblance with the similar columns throughout the Habsburg Monarchy, on the other hand, it represented a continuation of the theurgic understanding of medicine, which could be interpreted as the failure of the Habsburg enlightened medical policies. Thus the archival documents from the Osijek State Archive together with the Osijek plague column itself were analysed with the aim of explaining the above mentioned ambiguities.

  11. The Cultural Functions and Social Potential of Queer Monuments: A Preliminary Inventory and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orangias, Joseph; Simms, Jeannie; French, Sloane

    2017-08-04

    Public monuments function as cultural agents, reifying dominant public narratives or fostering change. Either way, their representation of people and events intervene in public discourse and contribute to cultural, economic, political, and social environments. Queer monuments, defined here as heritage sites that honor gender and sexual minorities, represent communities that have often been excised in dominant public narratives. This article provides a preliminary global inventory of queer monuments and describes three of their major functions: (1) to provide visibility and reduce stigma; (2) to educate the public on the abuse and attempted extermination of gender and sexual minorities; and (3) to stimulate public debate and discourse about gender and sexual minority rights. This still rare type of monument is growing more common and prompting more active and equitable representations in public space. Queer monuments have the potential of lessening stigma and improving the lives of sexual and gender minorities.

  12. Dynometer test bed (fact sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dell, K.

    2000-04-24

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) Dynamometer Test Bed is one of a kind. It offers wind industry engineers a unique opportunity to conduct lifetime endurance tests on a wide range of wind turbine drivetrains and gearboxes at various speeds, using low or high torque. By testing full-scale wind turbines, engineers from NREL and industry hope to understand the impact of various wind conditions with the goal of improving hardware design.

  13. The «discorso per immagini» of Superstudio: from Continuous Monument to Supersurface, 1968-1971

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Lampariello

    2016-06-01

    With a Christmas card from 1968 in the form of a poster, Superstudio inaugurated the production of photomontages which were to bring fame to the group. It is, however, for the competition dedicated to the theme of Architecture and Freedom, launched in 1969 by the Tri-National Biennial of Graz, that photomontage became the preferred graphical tool for the construction of a «discorso per immagini» for Superstudio, a narrative in which project descriptions and traditional forms of architectural representation are replaced by images representing enigmatic volumes, seemingly devoid of function and open to multiple interpretations. Compared to similar and contemporary images produced, amonst others, by Archigram and Yona Friedman, the photomontages of Superstudio do not intend to give veracity to futuristic urban and territorial visions. The impenetrable volumes, designed beyond any program or structural logic, are an expression of absolute rationality and order which Superstudio has been searching for its founding to ward off the crisis and to ward for uncertainty of contemporary era. Graphic techniques used by the group for their representations evolved over the years, and were adapted to achieve different effects, all still oriented to building a strong environmental realism, as far away as possible from comic and surprising effects. Through the «discorso per immagini» the theory of the group became eloquent: after having imagined a new form of land occupation designed as a monumental infinite linear structure that crosses cities and virgin landscapes – the Continuous Monument – Superstudio staged the dissolution of conventional boundaries of architecture, to move towards its «non-physical» re-foundation. After all, the «happy death of architecture should not frighten anybody: we have been preparing for long, increasingly distancing ourselves from the physicality of the construction», as revealed by one of the members of the group in 1971. Key words

  14. 77 FR 36573 - DRAFT General Management Plan and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Fort Matanzas National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... request a copy, contact Fort Matanzas National Monument Superintendent Gordie Wilson, One South Castillo... Castillo Drive, St. Augustine, FL, 32804. Finally, you may hand-deliver comments to the monument. Before..., One South Castillo Drive, St. Augustine, FL 32804 or telephone at (904) 829-6506, ext. 221. The...

  15. 36 CFR 401.6 - Approval by National Commission of Fine Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission of Fine Arts. 401.6 Section 401.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION MONUMENTS AND MEMORIALS § 401.6 Approval by National Commission of Fine Arts. A design for a... Commission of Fine Arts before the Commission can accept it. ...

  16. Automatic reconstruction of heritage monuments from old architecture documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabia, Hedi; Riedinger, Christophe; Jordan, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Generating automatically three-dimensional (3-D) models of heritage monuments such as medieval buildings is a very challenging task, particularly when only archival documents of that buildings remain. This paper presents a set of algorithms dedicated to the 3-D modeling of historical buildings from a collection of old architecture plans, including floor plans, elevations, and cutoffs. Image processing algorithms help to detect and localize main structures of the building from the floor plans (thick and thin walls, openings). The extrusion of the walls allow us to build a first 3-D model. We compute height informations and add textures to the model by analyzing the elevation images from the same collection of documents. We applied this pipeline to 18th century plans of the Château de Versailles and show results for two different parts of the Château.

  17. X-ray fluorescence in research on Czech cultural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cechak, T.; Gerndt, J.; Kopecka, I.; Musilek, L.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclide X-ray fluorescence analysis (RXRFA), as a non-destructive method, relatively simple and allowing measurements to be carried out in situ, is an excellent tool in research on various objects of art. A range of artefacts have been investigated by our laboratory, in part for the purposes of history of art and in part as a basis for restoration works - medieval frescoes in some Czech castles and churches, metal sculptures and objects of applied art, paints and inks of old manuscripts, paintings. Some of these are among the most valuable monuments in the Czech cultural heritage. The contribution of the results of the tests to the investigation of their 'life story' and, in some cases, to their conservation, is not negligible. Later additions and repairs can be recognised, and materials and technologies that are close to their historic counterparts can be used in restoration work

  18. Uranium storage bed accident hazards evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Shmayda, W.T.

    1989-10-01

    To properly assess hazards and risks associated with the use of uranium beds as tritium storage devices in fusion reactor systems, it is necessary to understand the consequences occurring in the event of an accident. Accidents involving uranium beds are postulated, and the possible results are considered. A research program to more fully and accurately understand those results has been initiated involving the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and Ontario Hydro. The plan and objectives of that program are presented. 11 refs., 1 tab

  19. Fluid-bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G.; Schoebotham, N.

    1981-02-01

    In Energy Equipment Company's two-stage fluidized bed system, partial combustion in a fluidized bed is followed by burn-off of the generated gases above the bed. The system can be retrofitted to existing boilers, and can burn small, high ash coal efficiently. It has advantages when used as a hot gas generator for process drying. Tests on a boiler at a Cadbury Schweppes plant are reported.

  20. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. National waste terminal storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Special study No. 1. Twenty-five-year retrievability, decommissioning cost estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    This estimate covers decommissioning costs of facilities for the receipt, handling, and storage in bedded salt of canistered spent fuel assemblies from both BWR and PWR commercial power plants. The estimate includes all decommissioning costs for a repository, based on 25-year retrievability, constructed in accordance with the design shown in Conceptual Design Report (CDR), as modified by Special Study No. 1 (KE Report No. 78-60-RE) and decommissioned in accordance with the program outlined in the Conceptual Design Description Report, KE Report No. 78-58-R. Costs for Operating Contractor personnel on the site at this time are included in this report and not in the Operating Cost Estimate (KE Report 78-63-RE). The operating cost estimates end with the completion of storage room backfilling. The three major elements of decommissioning are: demolition of surface facilities, backfilling of main entries and airways, and shaft liner removal and shaft plugging. EDIT, ECON, and DELOX computer programs and a chart of accounts were furnished by UCC-ND under direction of the Government and the line item-capital-cost estimate was prepared according to the prescribed format. The decommissioning cost estimate referenced herein is in the same format as its companion line item-capital-cost estimate KE Report 78-62-RE

  2. Archeomagnetic studies of ceramics from the archeological monument in Ubeda, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachasova, I. E.; Burakov, K. S.

    2011-12-01

    The archaeomagnetic study of the ceramics from the multilayered archeological monument Ubeda in Spain provided the data on the geomagnetic field strength in the period of accumulation of cultural deposits. According to the results obtained for the Ubeda monument of the Bronze Age and the La Motilla Del Azuer multilayer archaeological monument dated to the second millennium BC, the time interval of accumulation of the Ubeda cultural deposits likely spans from the last quarter of the 19th to 18th centuries BC. The sharp decrease in the geomagnetic field strength in the 19th century BC. established against the obtained data is consistent with the archaeomagnetic results for other Eurasian regions and can be used for correlating the ages of various archeological monuments and stages of culture.

  3. Evaluation of the Gateway Monument Demonstration Program: Safety, Economic and Social Impact Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Gateway Monument Demonstration Program (GMDP) facilitated the construction of freestanding structures or signage along roadways to communicate the name of a city, county or township to motorists. The GMDP spanned a four-year period, commencing on...

  4. DEGRADATION WORKS OF MONUMENTAL ART CAST BRONZE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia NICA-BADEA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Intensive pollution, combined with the lack of conservation of monuments exposed to these environments make the main cause of deterioration of cultural objects to atmospheric corrosion metal. This paper proposes a study of the main factors leading to degradation Bronze alloy, cast bronze monuments exposed to open atmosphere: corrosive environmental factors, stability and products of corrosion of bronze. In general, all corrosion products present on a metal surface are indicated as 'skate', can be composed of single-layer or multilayer products. The paper also includes a case study on the influence of environmental factors on degradation Matthias monument statue in Cluj-Napoca, Romania. Visual inspection of the monument informs us that have white spots, gray, reddish not consistent with the base color green patina, surfaces showing depigmentation, the rain washed areas, crystallization, deposition of air-borne particles.

  5. Temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using CTD, bottle and other instruments from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 1985-03-30 to 1985-04-30 (NCEI Accession 0143395)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0143395 includes discrete sample and profile data collected from THOMAS G. THOMPSON in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National...

  6. Fluidized bed incinerator development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, D.L.; Johnson, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A fluidized bed incinerator is being developed for burning rad contaminated solid and liquid waste materials. In situ neutralization of acid gases by the bed material, catalytic afterburning, and gas filtration are used to produce a clean flue gas without the use of aqueous scrubbing

  7. 75 FR 61415 - Admiralty National Monument: Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Expansion of Tailings Disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... project reserves, plus provide volume for waste rock co-disposal and an expanded resource base as..., Department of Natural Resources Reclamation Plan Approval. State water rights permits for water withdrawals... Greens Creek Mining Company (HGCMC) operates an underground polymetallic mine located approximately 18...

  8. As tendências de intervenção de caráter monumental: a experiência brasileira (1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Viceconti Nahas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article “The tendencies of character monumental intervention: Brazilian experience (1980-2010”, is based on the reflection about the current dialogues between the old and the new, permanence and innovation, which are part of the scene of contemporary architectural production where it has been observed, more and more, that old buildings are becoming part of a new history of the city. In order to discuss that phenomenon in Brazil, the study has defined as geographical and temporal bias the Brazilian architectural production in monumental intervention programs in the period between the 1980’s and 2000’s, based on the conclusion that most of such production does not comply with the criteria established by the disciplinary field of restoration, where practice is replaced by discretion and experimentation without so much severity and critical judgment based on the meaning of the preexisting work. Aiming to understand Brazilian scene as for valuing its heritage and materialization of which values, which criteria and how intervention and preservation of monuments are carried out in practice, from significant examples, we identify eight representative intervention tendencies: Autonomy, Differentiation, Reinterpretation, Ripristino, Appropriation, Completion, Preservation and Reintegration, thus originating groups with similar features, not totally severe and closed, but which, somehow, could make reading works easier and characterize the interventions overview in national scene concerning restoration disciplinary field.

  9. Biofilms on exposed monumental stones: mechanism of formation and development of new control methods

    OpenAIRE

    Cuzman, Oana Adriana

    2009-01-01

    Within the stone monumental artefacts artistic fountains are extremely favorable to formation of biofilms, giving rise to biodegradation processes related with physical-chemical and visual aspect alterations, because of their particular exposure conditions. Microbial diversity of five fountains (two from Spain and three from Italy) was investigated. It was observed an ample similarity between the biodiversity of monumental stones reported in literature and that one found in studied fountains....

  10. Channel bed particle size distribution procedure used to evaluate watershed cumulative effects for range permit re-issuance on the Santa Fe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Sims; Jim Piatt; Lee Johnson; Carol Purchase; John Phillips

    1996-01-01

    Personnel on the Santa Fe National Forest used methodologies adapted from Bevenger and King (1995) to collect base line particle size data on streams within grazing allotments currently scheduled for permit reissuance. This information was used to determine the relative current health of the watersheds as well as being used in the development of potential alternatives...

  11. Astrogeodetic study of the orientation of ancient and Byzantine monuments: methodology and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, George; Sinachopoulos, Dimitris; Lambrou, Evangelia; Korakitis, Romylos

    2004-12-01

    This work presents a method for the thorough research of the orientation of monuments, based on state-of-the-art geodetic and astronomical measurements. These measurements permit the production of an astronomically-oriented, digital plan of the monument, a digital diagram of the perceptible horizon around the monument, and a digital reconstruction of the apparent path of the Sun, as it rises above the horizon at characteristic dates. The data reduction procedures are rigorous and lead to an accurate determination of the orientation of the monument. The orientation is then interpreted in terms of other, mostly cultural, information about the scope of the monument and its time of construction. In retrospect, therefore, the method provides an independent determination of the time of construction of the monument within a narrow chronological range. The effectiveness and accuracy of the method is demonstrated by its application to the late Byzantine church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in the Greek town of Kalabaka. The orientation of the main axis of the church is geometrically determined to an accuracy of 0.6 arcminutes. Combining all geometric data with cultural and historical information, we determine the time of construction of the church (AD 1000 ± 13 years).

  12. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis G. Asteris

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  13. Seismic and Restoration Assessment of Monumental Masonry Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asteris, Panagiotis G; Douvika, Maria G; Apostolopoulou, Maria; Moropoulou, Antonia

    2017-08-02

    Masonry structures are complex systems that require detailed knowledge and information regarding their response under seismic excitations. Appropriate modelling of a masonry structure is a prerequisite for a reliable earthquake-resistant design and/or assessment. However, modelling a real structure with a robust quantitative (mathematical) representation is a very difficult, complex and computationally-demanding task. The paper herein presents a new stochastic computational framework for earthquake-resistant design of masonry structural systems. The proposed framework is based on the probabilistic behavior of crucial parameters, such as material strength and seismic characteristics, and utilizes fragility analysis based on different failure criteria for the masonry material. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a historical and monumental masonry structure, namely the assessment of the seismic vulnerability of the Kaisariani Monastery, a byzantine church that was built in Athens, Greece, at the end of the 11th to the beginning of the 12th century. Useful conclusions are drawn regarding the effectiveness of the intervention techniques used for the reduction of the vulnerability of the case-study structure, by means of comparison of the results obtained.

  14. Microchemical identification of macael white marble in some spanish monuments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bello, M. A.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available The white marble from Macael quarries (Almería, Spain has been identified in some monuments of the Southern of Spain; the use of other white marble types has also been confirmed. The microchemical identification has been carried out by means a previously described graphical method (Bello and Martín,1991. Fourteen trace elements have been analyzed from both quarry and building material samples by using atomic absorption and flame emission spectrometry in order to apply the enrichment diagrams for trace elements (EDTE for identification purposes.

    Ha sido confirmado el empleo del mármol blanco procedente de las canteras de Macael (Almería en varios monumentos del Sur de España; también se ha constatado el empleo de otros tipos de mármol blanco. La identificación del mármol de Macael mediante técnicas microquícas ha sido realizada mediante un método gráfico propuesto por los autores (1. Han sido analizados catorce elementos traza en las muestras de cantera y de los edificios mediante espectrofotometría de absorción atómica y de emisión de llama, al objeto de construir los diagramas de enriquecimiento de elementos traza (EDTE, con fines de identificación.

  15. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ORKHON INSCRIPTIONS IN TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN TERMS OF VALUE TRANSFER I: TUNYUQUQ MONUMENT - ORHUN ABİDELERİNİN TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE DEĞER AKTARIMI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMİ I: TONYUKUK ABİDESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri KARDAŞ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Orkhon Inscriptions is one of the largest cultural heritages of the Turkish nation. These cultural assets are the property of being the memory of the nation they were born through. Indeed since these monuments transfer the values they contain to the future, they have a characteristic that is the masterpiece of the Turkish nation which plays a significant role. What a nation keeps alive is its values. In this sense, for the Turkish nation, it is important that these monuments is examined in terms of the transfer value and is used in educational activities. The aim of this study is to identify the values in Tunyuquq Monument which is the first of Orkhon Inscriptions and to determine the importance of these values in Turkish value transfer. In the study, the descriptive analysis, one of the qualitative research techniques, has been used. By the researcher, values form was prepared in consultation with experts and the value elements in Tunyuquq Monument were determined and then with the problem of the study, the following conclusions were reached: ?\tIn Tunyuquq Monument, about 179 value elements have been identified, directly or indirectly, including 25 different values of the Turkish nation. These values and their handling frequencies in the Monument are given as follows: Bravery - bravery value (f = 24, Leadership value (f = 21, Nation-family unity value (f = 15, Homeland - the nation benefit (f = 15, Taking responsibility value (f = 12, Freedom and independence value (f = 11, Diligence value (f = 9; Farsightedness value (f = 9, belief in God value (f = 9; Sacrifice value (f = 7, Integrity value (f = 5, Sensitivity-kindness value (f = 5, Respect value (f = 5, Solidarity value (f = 4, Loyalty value (f = 4, Tradition-customs value (f = 4, Wisdom value (f = 4, Peace value (f = 3, comply with laws-law of value (f = 3, Protect the language value (f = 3, Patriotism value (f = 2, Esteeming Elder’s sayings value (f= 2, faithfulness value (f=1

  16. Phase II, Title I engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    An engineering assessment was made of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile. Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000

  17. A Review of Monumental Past: The Life-histories of Megalithic Monuments in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Fagan

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The megalithic monuments of the Mecklenburg-Vorpommern region of northern Germany are relatively well known from a conventional archaeological perspective, having attracted scientific attention for well over a century. Cornelius Holtorf approaches them from an entirely different viewpoint, in a search for answers to three questions: How were the megaliths of the area socially and culturally meaningful, and how are they meaningful today? Are there cultural memories which helped the megaliths acquire cultural values in later prehistory? Did later prehistoric people in the area connect the megaliths with their ancestors by endowing them with particular interests, concepts, and ideas? The results of his labours appear not in printed form, but as a hypermedia document presented both on a CD-Rom and on the Web. He presented his doctoral dissertation in this format as well (see Internet Archaeology 6, on the grounds that this was an effective way of presenting what he describes as an open-ended inquiry. The author tells us that he will continue to add to the research at intervals and when the urge moves him. One is somewhat at a loss as to how to describe this multimedia presentation, but clearly the author considers it an invitation to explore, a database with freeflowing links to all manner of topics.

  18. Bed rest during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Belizán JM, Bergel E. Bed rest in singleton pregnancies for preventing preterm birth. Cochrane Database ... and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for Fertility, ...

  19. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Symptoms of enuresis Enuresis is when an older child (age 7 or older) wets the bed at night ... feel guilt and embarrassment. It’s true that your child should take responsibility for bedwetting. He or she could do this ...

  20. Particle fuel bed tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H 2 for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss

  1. Innovative rock bed construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.

    1983-06-01

    A general discussion of the use of rock beds for heating and cooling thermal storage is particularized for design and construction in Phoenix, Arizona. The rock bed parameters for three two-story condominium apartments constructed in 1982 are discussed, including sizing criteria and original construction details. A revised construction method using gabions that are self-supporting chain link cylinders provided a much more economical construction method as well as other advantages of speed and structural flexibility.

  2. Reconnaissance Report of Damage to Historic Monuments in Cairo, Egypt Following the October 12, 1992 Dahshur Earthquake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sykora, D

    1993-01-01

    .... Damage to historic monuments can be generally described as having resulted from the continuous degradation of foundation and structural masonry from environmental effects, especially groundwater...

  3. Water depth and acoustic backscatter data collected from NOAA Ship Nancy Foster in Caribbean Sea, Buck Island Reef and Virgin Islands National Coral Reef Monuments, U.S. Virgin Islands from 2006-03-21 to 2006-04-02 (NCEI Accession 0131851)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment (CCMA) conducted the third year of an ongoing scientific research mission on board NOAA Ship NANCY FOSTER. The...

  4. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from the KA'IMIKAI-O-KANALOA, KILO MOANA and ROGER REVELLE in the North Pacific Ocean and Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from 2002-07-01 to 2003-08-21 (NODC Accession 0108077)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0108077 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from KA'IMIKAI-O-KANALOA, KILO MOANA and ROGER REVELLE in the North...

  5. Coal bed sequestration of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Flores, Romeo M.; Warwick, Peter D.; Gluskoter, Harold J.; Stricker, Gary D.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic sequestration of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion may be an environmentally attractive method to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. Of the geologic options, sequestering CO2 in coal beds has several advantages. For example, CO2 injection can enhance methane production from coal beds; coal can trap CO2 for long periods of time; and potential major coal basins that contain ideal beds for sequestration are near many emitting sources of CO2.One mission of the Energy Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey is to maintain assessment information of the Nation’s resources of coal, oil, and gas. The National Coal Resources Assessment Project is currently completing a periodic assessment of 5 major coal-producing regions of the US. These regions include the Powder River and Williston and other Northern Rocky Mountain basins (Fort Union Coal Assessment Team, 1999), Colorado Plateau area (Kirschbaum and others, 2000), Gulf Coast Region, Appalachian Basin, and Illinois Basin. The major objective of this assessment is to estimate available coal resources and quality for the major producing coal beds of the next 25 years and produce digital databases and maps. Although the focus of this work has been on coal beds with the greatest potential for mining, it serves as a basis for future assessments of the coal beds for other uses such as coal bed methane resources, in situ gasification, and sites for sequestration of CO2. Coal bed methane production combined with CO2 injection and storage expands the use of a coal resource and can provide multiple benefits including increased methane recovery, methane drainage of a resource area, and the long-term storage of CO2.

  6. National Waste Terminal Storage repository in a bedded salt formation for spent unreprocessed fuel. Occupational exposure and health physics studies. KE report No. 78-21-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    This report includes the Occupational Exposure and Health Physics studies of the National Waste Terminal Storage Repository Number 2 (NWTSR2). Section 1 deals with occupational radiation exposures. The results of dose equivalent and dose commitment calculations are summarized. The man-rem total is a summation of all doses to all personnel throughout a year. It would have to be divided by the number of total personnel involved, to obtain an average annual dose per person. Section 2 presents the occupational exposures due to nonradiological pollutants. The activities of workers and the equipment used during the construction, storage/retrieval and decommissioning of the facility are outlined. Tabulations are presented of the substances (dusts, fumes, gases and vapors) and physical agents (heat, vibration, and nonionizing radiation) to which personnel will be exposed in various surface and underground work areas during construction and decommissioning, and during storage and retrieval operations. Some significant nonradiological occupational exposures are summarized. Section 3 outlines the health physics program for the NWTSR2 facility. It is important to initiate the health physics program one or two years before the facility is placed in operation to establish the radiation background levels at the site and its surrounding area, and to collect environmental samples, both on-site and off-site, prior to waste storage and retrieval operations. The health physics organization consists of 15 persons, including five health physicists

  7. A Monument as a Text, or The Message of the Brothers Dostoevsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Zakharov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the circumstances of the creation of a monument to the writer's mother Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya. Mikhail Andreevich, father of the brothers Dostoevsky, asked Mikhail and Fyodor to compose the text for the monument. In March and April of 1837 the brothers worked out the idea and conception of the monument, wrote the text of the first and fourth epigraphs, chose evangelic verses and an epitaph of N.M. Karamzin. This was their first collective act of creative work embodied in stone. The monument is not only a symbol of love and sorrow for their mother’s death but also hope for her salvation and future resurrection. The brothers’ words and those chosen from the Gospel as well as the Karamzin’s ones have one more meaning. These convey a sense of beingness and an Easter idea of individual creative work. It is necessary to renew the tomb of Maria Fyodorovna Dostoevskaya and bring the monument back to Lazarevskoye cemetery in Moscow.

  8. THE ROLE OF PLANTS ON THE IMPACT OF CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galev Emil

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual impact of cultural and historical monuments determined by surrounding plants is the focus of discussion in the paper. Their influence on passengers and onlookers sidelong roadways and trails is described in detail. A great number of practical examples have been examined with the purpose of drawing some general conclusions from this problem to the advantage of landscape design practice. The result of the analysis shows a considerable role of vegetation in visual impact of monuments over the observers. Using color photographs and observations from a number of different positions for a lot of monuments and memorials the survey concludes that from the standpoint of aesthetic value or attractiveness the vegetation often plays a leading role. It is not a detailed study of compositional principles for the formation of spaces around the monuments, but demonstrates the complexity of the problem and gave some results in addition to the theoretical foundations in this respect. Although the scenic beauty metrics are quite debatable and controversial case it is hoped that the conclusions of this paper will facilitate needed discussion on vegetation appropriateness and usefulness in monument's landscape design.

  9. The Return of the Siegesburg - 3D-RECONSTRUCTION of a Disappeared and Forgotten Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deggim, S.; Kersten, T. P.; Lindstaedt, M.; Hinrichsen, N.

    2017-02-01

    Many Cultural Heritage (CH) monuments are destroyed in the past and they are often lost forever. If there is no contemporary metric documentation of the historic objects available, the monument and the information about this monument could be disappeared and forgotten forever. The Siegesburg (also known as Segeberg castle) located on the "Kalkberg" (Chalk Mountain) in Bad Segeberg in Northern Germany, is a typical example for such a monument, which was destroyed by Swedish troops at the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1644. This important monument was only documented by a few historic isometric maps, but the castle and even the later castle ruin were totally destructed and demolished over the last centuries and disappeared forever. Furthermore, this significant memorial is even forgotten in many people's mind. This contribution describes the physical and virtual return of the Siegesburg by 3D reconstruction using historic sources. The laboratory for Photogrammetry & Laser Scanning of the HafenCity University Hamburg conducted this project in co-operation with the museum Alt-Segeberger Bürgerhaus (Old-Segeberg town house). The process of the 3D reconstruction and visualisation of both the Kalkberg and the castle is presented in this paper.

  10. Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    Energy; 4) Public Health and Healthcare ; 5) National Monuments and Icons; 6) Banking and Finance; 7) Drinking Water and Water Treatment Systems; 8...national security” unless the metals are reprocessed , reused, or produced in the United States, except under a number of conditions, including the

  11. In-situ diagnosis of stone monuments; the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    Székesfehérvár is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. In the Middle Ages (11th and 12th centuries), the city was a Royal residence and until the Turkish occupation in 1543, one of the most important cities of Hungary. The Ruin Garden of Székesfehérvár is a unique assemblage of monuments belonging to the cultural heritage of Hungary due to its important role in the Middle Ages as the coronation church for the kings of the Hungarian Christian Kingdom and the burial place for fifteen kings and other members of the royal families and the high nobility. It was also the home of the royal treasury and relics. It is comprised of a provostal church dedicated to Virgin Mary, so called today "Royal Basilica", royal tombs and related ecclesial and lay buildings. Since it has been nominated for "National Memorial Place", its present and future protection is required. Its several reconstructions and expansions throughout Hungarian history introduce another aspect of the importance of the historical site. By a quick overview of the current state of the monument, the presence of several lithotypes could be found among the remained building and decorative stones. Therefore, the research related to the materials in order to understand their composition, structure, origin and behavior was crucial not only for the conservation of that specific monument but also for a series of other historic structures in the Hungarian territory. In order to help the study of the Ruin Garden in Székesfehérvár, a series of maps was created based on in-situ investigations. Five wall sections were selected for the sake of the different lithotypes distribution and the different construction periods were the ruins belong to. The total mapped area covers about 30 m2 of the existing walls surfaces. Three different kinds of maps were designed for each wall section. The first series of maps depicts the different construction periods of the selected section of the

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-06 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  13. Monumental Masonry Buildings Pre-Assessment Method Based on Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem VATAN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the construction period, geometrical typology, construction and organization of the structure, element size and construction material of historic monumental structures; constructed with bricks, stones, adobe and mortar, are diverse and very complicated. Structural safety is guaranteed by the codes, guidelines, and specifications for recently constructed concrete and steel buildings, but there is no specific criterion for evaluating the historic monumental buildings. This study presents a scoring system method for classifying the risk level of the historic monumental structures based on visual information. This method is based on the acquisition of visual data of the building by using the developed building inspection form, storage of the acquired data on the web database and evaluation of the risk score of the inspected building automatically by the computer database system.

  14. Dead bodies matter: gift giving and the unveiling of body donor monuments in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sophie

    2012-12-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body donation is a practice in which the medical and scientific value of the donor bodies has always been praised. Increasingly the fact that the bodies represent real human beings who have mourning relatives has also been acknowledged. This change in attitude has resulted in a desire on the part of anatomical professionals to give back a monument, not only for the donors themselves but also, in particular, for the donors' relatives. The great public interest in the monuments has revealed that many of the bereaved, in the absence of having the physical body of the donor, need a symbolic final resting place for their loved ones. © 2012 by the American Anthropological Association.

  15. Oblique photography of measured channel cross-sections from left and right bank monuments from 2007-08-15 to 2009-10-07 (NCEI Accession 0152489)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are collecting stream channel geometry and bed sediment grain size distribution data at Sedgeunkedunk stream to evaluate physical habitat changes associated with...

  16. The role of monumental trees for the preservation of saproxylic biodiversity: re-thinking their management in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Zapponi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ancient trees present structural and functional characteristics fundamental for sustaining complex and unique assemblages of species. They are a resource globally threatened by both intensive land uses and lack of recruitment. Their disappearance would involve not only the loss of majestic organisms with high intrinsic value, but may also result in the disappearance of rare and endangered species. Italy is currently implementing a new list of noteworthy ancient trees (i.e. monumental trees and the preliminary results of this new inventory have been analysed as a case study of a national initiative. The provisional list included 950 complete records, corresponding to 65 genera and 118 species. The most abundant species was Quercus pubescens Willd while the most common genera were Quercus, Larix, Cedrus, Fagus and Platanus. Age and size were the most used criteria for inclusion of trees in the census. The fundamental novelty of the new inventory is that it is based on a set of well-defined criteria of monumentality and that it clearly recognised the ecological value of ancient trees. Preserving a tree for its ecological role requires a profound cultural shift. The value of microhabitats, structures that have historically been considered defects, should be recognised and managed accordingly. Ancient trees are often part of disappearing cultural landscapes: to preserve the richness and diversity of these habitats, new policies and regulations are needed. The preservation of landscapes, where there is still a high density of ancient trees, should be a priority for all European countries in order to conserve their unique associated fauna and for their irreplaceable functional value for biodiversity conservation.

  17. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Soil and Groundwater at the Monument Valley, Arizona, DOE Legacy Waste Site—10281

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, W.J. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Miller, D.E. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Morris, S.A. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Sheader, L.R. [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, CO; Glenn, E.P. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Moore, D. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Carroll, K.C. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ; Benally, L. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Roanhorse, M. [Navajo Nation, Window Rock, AZ; Bush, R.P. [U.S. Department of Energy, Grand Junction, CO; none,

    2010-03-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Navajo Nation, and the University of Arizona are exploring natural and enhanced attenuation remedies for groundwater contamination at a former uranium-ore processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. DOE removed radioactive tailings from the Monument Valley site in 1994. Nitrate and ammonium, waste products of the milling process, remain in an alluvial groundwater plume spreading from the soil source where tailings were removed. Planting and irrigating two native shrubs, fourwing saltbush and black greasewood, markedly reduced both nitrate and ammonium in the source area over an 8-year period. Total nitrogen dropped from 350 mg/kg in 2000 to less than 200 mg/kg in 2008. Most of the reduction is attributable to irrigation-enhanced microbial denitrification rather than plant uptake. However, soil moisture and percolation flux monitoring show that the plantings control the soil water balance in the source area, preventing additional leaching of nitrogen compounds. Enhanced denitrification and phytoremediation also look promising for plume remediation. Microcosm experiments, nitrogen isotopic fractionation analysis, and solute transport modeling results suggest that (1) up to 70 percent of nitrate in the plume has been lost through natural denitrification since the mill was closed in 1968, and (2) injection of ethanol may accelerate microbial denitrification in plume hot spots. A field-scale ethanol injection pilot study is underway. Landscape-scale remote sensing methods developed for the project suggest that transpiration from restored native phreatophyte populations rooted in the aquifer could limit further expansion of the plume. An evaluation of landfarm phytoremediation, the irrigation of native shrub plantings with high nitrate water pumped from the alluvial aquifer, is also underway.

  18. Low-altitude photographic transects of the Arctic network of national park units and Selawik National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, July 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; M. Torre Jorgenson; Anthony R. DeGange

    2014-01-01

    During July 16–18, 2013, low-level photography flights were conducted (with a Cessna 185 with floats and a Cessna 206 with tundra tires) over the five administrative units of the National Park Service Arctic Network (Bering Land Bridge National Preserve, Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, Kobuk Valley National Park, and...

  19. Bed bug deterrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haynes Kenneth F

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent study in BMC Biology has determined that the immature stage of the bed bug (the nymph signals its reproductive status to adult males using pheromones and thus avoids the trauma associated with copulation in this species. The success of this nymphal strategy of deterrence is instructive. Against the background of increasing problems with bed bugs, this research raises the question whether pheromones might be used to control them. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/121

  20. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A hybrid electric aircraft simulation system and test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of hybrid...

  1. Interaction of Ice Stream Flow with Heterogeneous Beds, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of outputs of several numerical models simulating ice stream flow over undulated bed, interaction of ice stream flow, and subglacial and...

  2. Modular Electric Propulsion Test Bed Aircraft, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An all electric aircraft test bed is proposed to provide a dedicated development environment for the rigorous study and advancement of electrically powered aircraft....

  3. The Safety of Hospital Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K.; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients’ ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients’ use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated. PMID:28462302

  4. SYNROC production using a fluid bed calciner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, F.J.; Grens, J.Z.; Ryerson, F.J.; Hoenig, C.L.; Bazan, F.; Campbell, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    SYNROC is a titanate-based ceramic developed for immobilization of high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Fluid-bed SYNROC production permits slurry drying, calcining and redox to be carried out in a single unit. We present results of studies from two fluid beds; the Idaho Exxon internally-heated unit and the externally-heated unit constructed at Lawrence Livermore National laboratory. Bed operation over a range of temperature, feed rate, fluidizing rate and redox conditions indicate that high density, uniform particle-size SYNROC powders are produced which facilitate the densification step and give HUP parts with dense, well-developed phases and good leaching characteristics. 3 figures, 3 tables

  5. A place of memory – monument – counter-monument. Artistic strategies of commemoration in Krakow's district of Podgórze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Krakow's district of Podgórze has witnessed the erection of several works in public space that are concerned with the memory of the place. A monumental piece erected by Witold Cęckiewicz in the 1960s in the former Płaszów Concentration Camp has been joined by contemporary works. It is especially the Ghetto Heroes Square and its direct vicinity that have been addressed by artists and designers who, through their works, i.e. Mateusz Okoński's Purification, Łukasz Skąpski's 10 cubic metres of Krakow's wintertime air, and a structure in the form of multiple chairs by Lewicki and Łatak's studio entered into a dialogue with the paradigm of counter-monumentality and postmemory. For common viewers and casual passers-by, as well as for residents of the district, these works are hardly evocative of recent history, or the events they are meant to commemorate. Do these works, with their consciously taken position on the verge of the visible, that is, on the verge of what can be considered art, fulfil their commemorative role? Can the excess of the invisible change at some point into the visible? These questions offer a starting point not only for the discussion of the above-mentioned works in the context of analogous creations in contemporary art of the last two decades, but also for a wider discussion of monumental and counter-monumental art after the Shoah.

  6. Los monumentos funerarios hispanorromanos y su epigrafía en el Museo Nacional de Arte Romano de Mérida. Una propuesta didáctica para alumnos de Cultura Clásica y Latín de ESO y del Bachillerato / The funerary monuments in the Roman Hispania and their epigraphy in the National Museum of Roman Art of Merida. A didactic proposal addressed to students of Classical Culture and Latin in ESO and Bachillerato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Morcillo León

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El mundo funerario en la Hispania romana presenta una gran variedad en sus tipos monumentales. Del estudio de los monumentos y la tipología funeraria se extrae información no sólo cultural y religiosa, sino también referente a aspectos sociológicos, demográficos, epigráficos, artísticos e iconográficos. La antigua capital de la Lusitania romana, Augusta Emerita, albergaba en su solar una nutrida, variada e interesante muestra del mejor arte funerario hispanorromano. Presentamos, por ello, un recorrido por una selección de piezas del Museo Nacional de Arte Romano de Mérida, acompañado de una propuesta de actividades didácticas, destinado a alumnos de Cultura Clásica y Latín de E.S.O. y del Bachillerato.Summary: The funerary world in the Roman Hispania showed a great deal of monumental models. Through the study of its monuments and their typology, not only can we gather religious and cultural information but we can also draw conclusions regarding sociological, demographic, epigraphic, artistic and iconographic features. Emerita Augusta, the old capital of the Roman Lusitania, housed a wide range of the best Hispano-Roman funerary artistic manifestations. That is why we are presenting a tour around several pieces from the Roman Art Museum in Mérida, together with a series of didactic activities addressed to students of Classical Culture and Latin in E. S. O. (Secondary Compulsory Education and Bachillerato (Non Compulsory Secondary Education.

  7. Bed Prism Spectacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2018-01-01

    We only became aware of the existence of bed prism spectacles when a student brought them to the classroom and asked us about how they work. The device proved to be a fertile source of curiosity among the students, and, to be properly understood, it required us to develop a comparison between reflection in a typical mirror and total internal…

  8. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the mattress end Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information "Hospital beds are found in nearly all patient care settings or environments," says Joan Ferlo Todd, RN, a senior nurse-consultant at the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). " ...

  9. A political cultural map to future wilderness, monument and park designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. A. Nie

    2000-01-01

    This research examines western American political (sub)culture as it pertains to past and future wilderness, monument and park designation. It thus provides a sort of rough map, or cultural compass, in determining the most likely political obstacles (other than political institutions) and detours in the creation of new nonmultiple use areas. It explores landmarks such...

  10. Where to Draw the Line: Scheduled Ancient Monuments and Historic Landscape Characterisation in Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Davis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers some of the ways that monuments and sites that receive statutory protection (Scheduled Ancient Monuments are recorded in Wales and in particular examines some of the limitations of the current UK legislation designed to protect monuments and sites. It explores the concept of the type-site and considers the implications of using monument or site typologies to classify and characterise the past. The purpose of scheduling is to prevent unwarranted development at defined locations. This makes sense at a site level, but is a nonsense for large areas. It is suggested that in order to protect the historic environment in the 21st century we require an approach that looks beyond the rigid boundaries of defined sites and considers inhabitation of whole landscapes. In particular, this article considers the rolling out of a uniform landscape characterisation process in Wales as a first step for protecting landscapes. Principally the examples used in this article will be drawn from Wales, but the same concerns are likely to be paralleled in England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

  11. Dead Bodies Matter: Gift Giving and the Unveiling of Body Donor Monuments in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, S.H.

    2012-01-01

    Body donors are people who voluntarily donate their entire body, after death, to anatomical science. Based on anthropological fieldwork in the Netherlands this article explores the construction of body donor monuments since 2007. These developments are analyzed by means of gift-giving theories. Body

  12. Pages of the phytomorphology history in the monuments of material culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Yu. Barshteyn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available It was reviewed Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome sources of plants morphology, plant morphology knowledge in Renaissance age – scientific works of Andrea Cesalpino, Joachim Jungius, Marcello Malpighi and plant morphology formation as the separate branch of science due to Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific works and its reflection in the monuments of material culture.

  13. Le monument des Martyrs de l'Indépendance à Mbandaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1960-07-04

    In 1963, a monument was erected in Mbandaka (then, 'Coquilhatville', RD du Congo) in memory of the victims of the riots which had broken out in that city on July 4, 1960. Independently of this, at some moment during the Mobutu regime January 4 was proclaimed day of 'the commemoration of the martyrs of the ...

  14. Landscape of Memory. Commemorative monuments, memorials and public statuary in post-apartheid South-Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschall, S.

    2010-01-01

    Under the aegis of post-apartheid government, much emphasis has been placed on the transformation and democratisation of the heritage sector in South Africa. The emergent new landscape of memory comprises a host of commemorative monuments, memorials and statues installed since 1994 to create a

  15. Gravity-induced stress as a factor reducing decay of sandstone monuments in Petra, Jordan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řihošek, J.; Bruthans, J.; Mašín, D.; Filippi, Michal; Carling, G. T.; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 19, 1 May (2016), s. 415-425 ISSN 1296-2074 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-28040S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 ; RVO:67985891 Keywords : Decay * Petra * sandstone monument * stability * stress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2016

  16. Historical floods in central Europe and their documentation by means of floodmarks and other epigraphical monuments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Munzar, Jan; Deutsch, M.; Elleder, L.; Ondráček, Stanislav; Kallabová, Eva; Hrádek, Mojmír

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 3 (2006), s. 26-44 ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3086601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : historical floods * floodmarks * epigraphical monuments * Central Europe Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  17. Heritage stones and their deterioration in rock-cut monuments in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vinod K.

    2017-04-01

    India is dotted with thousands of rock- cut monuments of considerable antiquity having artwork of global importance. It is evident from the location of many of these monuments that knowledge of viable selection of site, geotechnical considerations and amenability to sculptures' chisel was vital for construction of rock-cut monuments and sculptures. These rock-cut structures also represent significant achievements of geotechnical and structural engineering and craftsmanship of contemporary period. The paper deals with some of the sites where natural rock-mass exposures were used to hew the monuments and highlight the deterioration owing to geological and climatic conditions. The Kailash temple in Ellora and Ajanta rock-cut caves are among the greatest architectural feats which owe their grandeur to amenability and consistency of basalt of Deccan Volcanic Province from which it is hewn. The Kailash Temple was created through a single, huge top-down excavation 100 feet deep down into the volcanic basaltic cliff rock. These ancient rock cut structures are amazing achievements of structural engineering and craftsmanship. The lava flows are nearly horizontal, competent rock medium facilitated the chiseling for the sculptures. The deterioration of these basalts are seen where the amygdule, vesicles and opening in rock discontinuity had the medium of construction or excavation. The monolithic rock- cut monuments of Mahabalipuram temples are constructed in the form of rathas or chriot and adjoining caves by excavating solid charnockite/granites. The large rock exposures are excavated and cut to perfection with wall decorations and sculptured art. The charnockites are the strongest and the most durable rock, yet quite amenable to fine dressing. These monolithic monuments in charnockite and are cut out of the hillock. The 7th Century monuments now exhibit somewhat rough surface probably due to weathering effect of salt laden winds from the sea side and alteration of feldspars

  18. Nail bed onychomatricoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang

    2014-10-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare tumor originating from the nail matrix, and, in rare conditions, from the ventral aspect of the proximal nailfold. Here we report a rare case of a 51-year-old man presenting with melanonychia mainly involving the distal nail plate. Histopathologic examination showed typical findings of onychomatricoma mainly involving the nail bed, while the nail matrix was largely uninvolved. We also identified fungal infection in a focal area of the distal nail plate. Our findings indicate that onychomatricoma can develop in the surrounding epithelial tissue of the nail unit, including the nail bed, and suggest that fungal infection may represent a secondary phenomenon of onychomatricoma. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  20. The Places of Memory in a Square of Monuments: Conceptions of Past, Freedom and History at Szabadság Tér

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Thorstensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to approach contemporary Hungarian political culture through an analysis of the history of changing monuments at Szabadság Tér in Budapest. The paper has as its point of origin a protest/irredentist monument facing the present Soviet liberation monument. In order to understand this irredentist monument, I look into the meaning of the earlier irredentist monuments under Horthy and try to see what monuments were torn down under Communism and which ones remained. I further argue that changes in the other monuments also affect the meaning of the others. From this background I enter into a brief interpretation of changes in memory culture in relation to changes in political culture. The conclusions point toward the fact that Hungary is actively pursuing a cleansing of its past in public spaces, and that this process is reflected in an increased acceptance of political authoritarianism.

  1. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... establish the Fort Monroe National Monument, forever enshrining a site of profound historical and cultural... decades since his historic journey, millions have worked to build on his enduring mission. When the fate... to create jobs, boost rural economies, and increase tourism by enhancing public lands that draw...

  2. TITLE: VISION OF THE RECONSTRUCTION OF DESTRUCTED MONUMENTS OF PALMYRA (3D AS A STEP TO REHABILIATE AND PRESERVE THE WHOLESITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arkawi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Syria is one of the world’s most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba’al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  3. Title: Vision of the Reconstruction of Destructed Monuments of Palmyra (3D) as a Step to Rehabiliate and Preserve the Wholesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkawi, A.

    2017-08-01

    Syria is one of the world's most impressive Cultural Heritages in terms of the number and historical significance of its monuments. Palmyra lies in the heart of Syria, an oasis in the midst of the arid desert.it could be considered as a part of this human heritage. In1980 was registered on the world and national heritage list for its huge historical importance. In addition, it was the focus of many studies and researches in the fields of restoration. Then the disaster happened, many monuments were demolished, temple of Ba'al, temple of Bael-shameen, Arch of triumph and the Castle. Lately the Tetrapylon and the Stag. Every Syrian was hurt, the whole world was hurt. The destruction of the city caused its people to become homeless and Palmyra was no longer the oasis we know. We felt pain, so we wanted to make a move, a step forward, to present a work that expresses our love for Palmyra, we organized Palmyra workshop to provide a vision for the reconstruction and revival of the historic site importance. Visions with using new idea & new technology. Palmyra historical areas are considered a large open museum for heritage through history, which is the reason to treat these area as a historical protection precinct and give a vision, ideas, suggestions to the future of Palmary as a first step to preserve the historical buildings& the archeological park.

  4. Understanding and predicting bed humidity in fluidized bed granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinhui; Cunningham, John; Winstead, Denita

    2008-04-01

    Bed humidity is a critical parameter that needs to be controlled in a fluidized bed granulation to ensure reliability. To predict and control the bed humidity during the fluidized bed granulation process, a simple model based on the mass conservation of moisture was developed. The moisture mass balance model quantitatively simulates the effects of spray rate, binder solution concentration, airflow rate, inlet air temperature, and dew point on the bed humidity. The model was validated by a series of granulations performed in different scale granulators including Glatt GPCG-1, GPCG-15, and GPCG-60. Good agreement was observed between the theoretical prediction and the measured loss on drying (LOD). The model developed in the current work enables us to choose the appropriate parameters for the fluidized bed granulation and can be used as a valuable tool in process scaling-up. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  5. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of

  6. Bed Rest Muscular Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    2000-01-01

    A major debilitating response from prolonged bed rest (BR) is muscle atrophy, defined as a "decrease in size of a part of tissue after full development has been attained: a wasting away of tissue as from disuse, old age, injury or disease". Part of the complicated mechanism for the dizziness, increased body instability, and exaggerated gait in patients who arise immediately after BR may be a result of not only foot pain, but also of muscular atrophy and associated reduction in lower limb strength. Also, there seems to be a close association between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. A discussion of many facets of the total BR homeostatic syndrome has been published. The old adage that use determines form which promotes function of bone (Wolff's law) also applies to those people exposed to prolonged BR (without exercise training) in whom muscle atrophy is a consistent finding. An extreme case involved a 16-year-old boy who was ordered to bed by his mother in 1932: after 50 years in bed he had "a lily-white frame with limbs as thin as the legs of a ladder-back chair". These findings emphasize the close relationship between muscle atrophy and bone atrophy. In addition to loss of muscle mass during deconditioning, there is a significant loss of muscle strength and a decrease in protein synthesis. Because the decreases in force (strength) are proportionately greater than those in fiber size or muscle cross-sectional area, other contributory factors must be involved; muscle fiber dehydration may be important.

  7. Particle bed reactor modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapyta, Joe; Reid, Hank; Walton, Lew

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: particle bed reactor (PBR) core cross section; PBR bleed cycle; fuel and moderator flow paths; PBR modeling requirements; characteristics of PBR and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) modeling; challenges for PBR and NTP modeling; thermal hydraulic computer codes; capabilities for PBR/reactor application; thermal/hydralic codes; limitations; physical correlations; comparison of predicted friction factor and experimental data; frit pressure drop testing; cold frit mask factor; decay heat flow rate; startup transient simulation; and philosophy of systems modeling.

  8. Beyond the chalice: monuments manifesting utraquist religious identity in the Bohemian urban context in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horníčková, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2013), s. 137-152 ISSN 1350-7486 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : utraquism * Bohemia * religious history * religious symbolism * denominational culture * denominational monuments Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  9. The Washington National Cathedral: A Place to Gather Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groce, Eric; Groce, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Washington, D.C. is a city widely recognized for its monuments, memorials, and landmarks. Visitors are routinely drawn to the great sites that mark the nation's history such as the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Arlington National Cemetery, the Lincoln Memorial, and the Washington Memorial, among others. One site that is often overlooked is the…

  10. Tenement House "Under The Golden Crown" In Wrocław - Renovation Of The Peculiar Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschke, Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Among the many historic buildings in Wroclaw, there is a property address Rynek 29 - Oławska 2, that in 1970 entered in the register of monuments as "a department store, earlier tenement house called "Under the Golden Crown". In the fact it was built in 1961 and it is neither a historical building nor department store. It is, spectacular example of creative retrospective, in the post-war reconstruction of Wroclaw. It has relict of medieval and Renaissance architecture, but the aboveground parts have a skeleton structure of commercial buildings from the early 20th century. In recent years, there is a problem with renovating such buildings. Recognition of these monuments has become a requirement now. Because only in this way in the future, in the course of modernization works, you will be able to avoid bad decisions and unforeseen situations.

  11. Cultural monuments from exceptional importance in Serbia as anthropogenic tourist values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković Sanja

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cultural monuments mark historical past. They are included in anthropogenic tourist values. They present rare copies of creativity and they have exceptional artistic and esthetic values. The most numerous group are sacral objects. The largest attention deserve objects assigned in World cultural inheritance - monastery Studenica and monastery Sopoćani with old town Ras. It is necessary to build caterer capacities, parking lots and sanitary devices in encirclement. Manifestations and presentations on domestic and foreign market contribute to cultural affirmation. Tourist valorization is impeded with that there are no evidence about number of visitors. In separating priorities we must consider uniqueness, rarity and fame. That’s the reason why Čele kula has tourist importance. Cultural monuments increase stay and serve as complementary tourist values. That’s why is necessary synthesis access in their learn and tourist presentation.

  12. Christian interpretation of the Ancient monuments in Rome Sixtus V (1585-1590

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Verdugo Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The view of the counter reformation on the ancient monuments was very different from the thought of Renaissance men. The pagan world was conquered by Christianity, and therefore had the remains of one reason only be based on the exaltation of the glory of Christ and his Church. According to this belief Sixtus V acts on the columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius; statues on the Capitol or Coliseum, transforming them into monuments to the victory of Christianity. Other operations will be moving the Vatican obelisk located on the spina of the circus of Caligula. A challenge for the technology of the time, which was used in propagandize by the pope. The obelisk had an archaeological and symbolic value, for tradition stated that circus as the place where early Christians were martyred.

  13. Creating/Curating Cultural Capital: Monuments and Museums for Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Rankin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the first democratic elections in 1994, South Africa has faced the challenge of creating new cultural capital to replace old racist paradigms, and monuments and museums have been deployed as part of this agenda of transformation. Monuments have been inscribed with new meanings, and acquisition and collecting policies have changed at existing museums to embrace a wider definition of culture. In addition, a series of new museums, often with a memorial purpose, has provided opportunities to acknowledge previously marginalized histories, and honor those who opposed apartheid, many of whom died in the Struggle. Lacking extensive collections, these museums have relied on innovative concepts, not only the use of audio-visual materials, but also the metaphoric deployment of sites and the architecture itself, to create affective audience experiences and recount South Africa’s tragic history under apartheid.

  14. COMPARING MULTI-SOURCE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATA DURING THE EXAMINATION OF VERTICALITY IN A MONUMENTAL TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Markiewicz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of source photogrammetric data in relation to the examination of verticality in a monumental tower. In the proposed data processing methodology, the geometric quality of the point clouds relating to the monumental tower of the castle in Iłżawas established by using terrestrial laser scanning (Z+F 5006h, Leica C10, terrestrial photographs and digital images sourced via unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV (Leica Aibot X6 Hexacopter. Tests were performed using the original software, developed by the authors, which allows for the automation of 3D point cloud processing. The software also facilitates the verification of the verticality of the tower and the assessment of the quality of utilized data.

  15. The Catholic of Stilo. Survey and analysis of a Byzantine monument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Arena

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Cattolica di Stilo, one of the greatest monu-ments of Calabria, is the most important example of the secular Byzantine influence on this region. The Greek cross inscribed in a square, with its five domes, denounces his connection with an archi-tectural style of oriental origin. Although built in a remote province of the Empire, the Catho-lic is not the expression of a poor art; all poetics typical of Byzantine architecture are manifested with originality. The first paragraph, written by Domenico Mediati, analyzes the geometries and correlates with contemporary buildings (X-XI cen-tury and similar in size and shape. The second paragraph, written by Marinella Arena, highlights the differences of construction compared to the theoretical form. The third paragraph, written by Daniele Colistra, reviews some representations of the monument trying to identify those who most influenced the collective imagination.

  16. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Benthic Data from Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0000881)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  17. Hawaii Institute for Marine Biology and NOAA National Ocean Service, Marine Sanctuary Program Partnership, in affiliation with the Coral Reef Assessment and Monitoring Program, 2007 Survey of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve: Digital Still Images (NODC Accession 0052882)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Rapid Assessment Transects were conducted in 2007 in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument of the Northwest Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve....

  18. 78 FR 18763 - Establishment of the Harriet TubmanUnderground Railroad National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... married John Tubman, a free black man, around 1844. Harriet Tubman lived and worked enslaved in this area... safe houses along the Underground Railroad. Jackson was a free black man to whom Tubman appealed for... a slave overseer hit the 13-year-old Tubman with a heavy iron as she attempted to protect a young...

  19. 76 FR 18773 - Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... advertise its availability and again seek public comment. We furnish this notice to advise the public and... the potential effects of various management alternatives will also be prepared. The EA will provide resource managers with the information needed to determine if the potential effects may be significant and...

  20. 75 FR 25877 - Notice of Intent To Solicit Nominations, Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... their education, training, and experience and their knowledge of the geographical resource. The Obama..., [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and...

  1. 77 FR 75654 - Nomination Period Extension for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... BLM will evaluate nominees based on their education, training, experience, and their knowledge of the..., [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and advice to...

  2. 77 FR 54609 - Call for Nominations for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory Council, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... jurisdiction. The BLM will evaluate nominees based on their education, training, experience, and their... MAC provides representative citizen counsel and advice to the Secretary of the Interior through the...

  3. 78 FR 18777 - Establishment of the Charles Young Buffalo Soldiers National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... the United States Army from 1894 until his death in 1922. He also served as the first African-American... parents, Gabriel and Arminta Young, moved to Ripley, Ohio, in 1866 with their two-year-old son Charles to...

  4. 78 FR 18783 - Establishment of the R[iacute]o Grande del Norte National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... are found near the hot springs that bubble up in the deep heart of the gorge, with some dating back to... mark the passage of settlers and Hispanic explorers dating back to the early 18th century. Ongoing... shall be deemed to enlarge or diminish the jurisdiction of the State of New Mexico with respect to fish...

  5. 77 FR 42758 - Notice of Availability of the Prehistoric Trackways National Monument Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Environmental Impact Statement, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... available at the Las Cruces District Office at the above address or online at: http://www.blm.gov/nm/st/en... and that is located 10 miles northwest of Las Cruces, New Mexico. The BLM subsequently included the...

  6. 78 FR 19291 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Billings and Pompeys Pillar National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... falcon nesting habitat, and managed for the natural hazards of the cliffs. Proposed use limitation(s... exercising pets off leash, and special management/priority would be given to protecting falcon eyries by... allowed, use of explosives for geophysical exploration for oil and gas not allowed, no heavy equipment/no...

  7. 78 FR 18789 - Establishment of the San Juan Islands National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... woodlands, some of which are several hundred years old, include a majestic assemblage of trees, such as... proper care and management of the objects to be protected; WHEREAS it is in the public interest to... smallest area compatible with the proper care and management of the objects to be protected. All Federal...

  8. 77 FR 62413 - Establishment of the Cesar E. Chavez National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... shops, and supporting infrastructure from its former use as a tuberculosis sanatorium, the property... watched his children grow up, marry, and begin to raise children of their own. The home of C[eacute]sar...

  9. The research of contamination regularities of historical buildings and architectural monuments by methods of computer modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmichev Andrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the active step of urbanization and rapid development of industry the external appearance of buildings and architectural monuments of urban environment from visual ecology position requires special attention. Dust deposition by polluted atmospheric air is one of the key aspects of degradation of the facades of buildings. With the help of modern computer modeling methods it is possible to evaluate the impact of polluted atmospheric air on the external facades of the buildings in order to save them.

  10. METRIC SURVEY OF THE MONUMENT OF QUEEN ELISENDA'S TOMB IN THE MONASTERY OF PEDRALBES, BARCELONA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Núñez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available When an urban development is planned the cartography of this territory is necessary, in the same way before starting a project to rehabilitate a monument the graphic information about it has to be available. At present, different techniques are available which allow to obtain three-dimensional models with a different accuracy level and runtimes.This paper shows the work carried out to obtain the graphic information and three-dimensional models that are necessary for the rehabilitation project of the tomb of Queen Elisenda in the Monastery of Pedralbes, Barcelona (Spain. This monument has the peculiarity of being symmetrical about the wall separating monastery church and the cloister. To do this, different techniques have been used that allow us to obtain an accurate model and as complete as possible, for the analysis of the construction process of the monument. In order to achieve the complete architectural survey the integration of laser scanning and photogrammetric data, and CAD models has been necessary. Due to the detail of the sculptures and the Queen’s sarcophagus two sensors, with different resolution, range and accuracy, have been used to obtain the laser scanning data. Stereo pairs have been taken to obtain the 3D model of these elements to complete the model and obtain an ortophotography.In this way, a comparative analysis of both techniques has been carried out, in order to decide which one is the suitable for certain application. This investigation has been restricted to the tomb, in the two symmetrical parts of the monument.

  11. Enhancing the Durability of Calcareous Stone Monuments of Ancient Egypt Using CaCO3 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Aldoasri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The unwanted changes in valuable historic calcareous stone monuments due to exposure to many physical and chemical effects may lead to its deterioration. The growing interest in the field of conservation of stone monuments encourages the development of consolidation and water-repellent materials. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of CaCO3 nanoparticles as a consolidation and protection material for calcareous stone monuments, when those nanoparticles used are dispersed in acrylic copolymer; polyethylmethacrylate (EMA/methylacrylate (MA (70/30, respectively. Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. The synthesis process of CaCO3 nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by in situ emulsion polymerization system. The prepared nanocomposites with 0.15 g CaCO3 nanoparticles showed obvious transparency features and represent nanocomposites coating technology with hydrophobic, consolidating and good protection properties. Some tests were performed in order to estimate the superficial consolidating and protective effect of the treatment. The obtained nanocomposites have been characterized by TEM, while the surface morphology before and after treatment and homogeneous distribution of used consolidation materials on stone surface were examined by SEM. Improvement of stone mechanical properties was evaluated by compressive strength tests. Change in water-interaction properties was evaluated by water absorption capillarity measurements, and colorimetric measurements were used to evaluate the optical appearance. Taken together, the results indicate that CaCO3/polymer nanocomposite is a completely compatible, efficient material for the consolidation of artistic and architectural limestone monuments capable of enhancing the

  12. MONITORING OF NATURAL MONUMENTS IN THE PARK ZAMKOWY IN ŻYWIEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Elżbieta Salachna

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of monitoring of trees monumenst of Park Zamkowy in Żywiec, which is a one of most valuable dendrological collection in the Silesia region. It was found that among the 27 studied monuments of nature, most (76% is in a satisfactory state of health and requires only care intervention. Of the remaining group 13% presented of good condition and for 11% it is necessary to take immediate treatments.

  13. Neutron-activation analysis of wall soils of ancient architectural monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatamov, Sh.; Zhumamuratov, A.; Ibragimov, T.; Tillyaev, T.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Rakhmanova, T.P.; Pulatov, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The simplified, relatively inexpensive, and productive multielemental neutron activation techniques for analysis of solid of the architectural monuments of Karakalpakstan have been elaborated. A comparison of the elemental composition of the wall soils of the ancient buildings, constructed at different historical periods, with the composition of the agricultural soils allows us to estimate the present ecological and agrogeochemical states of the agricultural soils and to trace changing the dynamics of about 30 chemical elements. (author)

  14. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  15. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE's goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology

  16. Facade renovation - replacement and restoration of the panels in a monument protected object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotný, Michal

    2017-12-01

    The article deals with problems of reconstruction of the facade and the associated problem of replacement or repair of the panels. In conventional buildings it is a smooth operation, but it is problematic in monument-protected objects. In the case of a common building, it is possible to choose any modern panels and simply replace them, but for historical objects we have to follow the claims and the rules of monument protection. In practice, it usually means the impossibility of use of modern panels, but at least a combination of old and modern technologies. Another possible solution to the problem is renovation, or repairs to the original state of the existing panels, of course with respect to the functionality of such panels. The implementation of such repairs must always be based on the technical and historical survey of the condition of the object and the repairs must be professionally designed. Subsequently, corrections are made, during which it is necessary to pay particular attention to observance of the technological procedures, rules and instructions particularly in terms of monument protection. However, the functionality of the works or elements made with regard to the quality of the environment within the building is not negligible. A common problem is the lack of control of technical requirements and functional requirements. Underestimation of the problems then leads to difficult repairs. The article points to the mistakes and problems of one such construction project on a historically protected chateau building.

  17. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action(UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1996). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will be evaluated in the site-specific environmental assessment to determine potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholders a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  18. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA Project site at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The site observational work plan (SOWP) for the Monument Valley, Arizona, US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is one of the first site-specific documents developed to achieve ground water compliance at the site. This SOWP applies information about the Monument Valley site to a regulatory compliance framework that identifies strategies that could be used to meet ground water compliance. The compliance framework was developed in the UMTRA Ground Water programmatic environmental impact statement (DOE, 1995). The DOE`s goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. The compliance strategy that emerges in the final version of the SOWP will assess potential environmental impacts and provide stakeholder a forum for review and comment. When the compliance strategy is acceptable, it will be detailed in a remedial action plan that will be subject to review by the state and/or tribe and concurrence by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Information available for the preparation of this SOWP indicates active remediation is the most likely compliance strategy for the Monument Valley site. Additional data are needed to determine the most effective remediation technology.

  19. Technical Limitations in Merging Secular and Sacred Functions in Monumental Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatkowska, Ksenia

    2017-10-01

    The abandonment of churches and their adaptation for secular purposes is a current subject in Europe and worldwide. Most cases involve objects that were desacralized and then rebuilt as a whole object for alternative functions. Thus far, the merging of secular and sacred functions in one monumental Catholic church has not raised any issues. The paper describes the case of St. Catherine’s Church in Gdansk, Poland, where sacred function exists parallel to the new secular function being implemented. The study is based on the authentic, professional experience of the author. It describes the technical limitations arising from the need to ensure destinies for the optimal conditions of both sacred and secular function, while avoiding undesirable interference between them. The author further identifies architectural solutions most relevant to current requirements for protection of sacred zones in the church, for preservation of the monument, and for optimal function of a modern science museum. Significant design issues include: the inviolability of the sacred zone, preservation of the historical value of the monument, proper operation of new secular zones in compliance with contemporary standards of safety, performance of the assumed mission and profitability. The research indicates specific areas where the highest probability of collision exists between the sacred and profane and where technical problems are likely to occur.

  20. Time-frequency analysis of GPR data to investigate the damage of monumental buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; Masini, Nicola; Persico, Raffaele

    2012-08-01

    The presence of particular microclimatic conditions inside monumental buildings is responsible for bio-deterioration processes. In many cases, efflorescence and moulds are visible on the facades of several monuments of historical importance. In many other cases, the effects of decay processes are not visible, thus making difficult the diagnosis and the consequent setup of effective rehabilitation and preservation interventions, especially in the presence of a complex geometry and/or a large variability of construction materials. In such cases, a valuable contribution could be provided by geophysical methods (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), etc), which have been proved to be successful tools for sub-surface investigation and characterization of historical buildings. In old monumental buildings, the masonry structures frequently exhibit cracks, voids, detachments and high moisture contrasts that can give rise to reflection events in radar signals. However, the complexity of the geometry and the structural heterogeneity that characterize these old structures often make the GPR results difficult to analyse and interpret. In particular, the spatial variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information about the electrical properties of the investigated materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical parameters associated with damage. In this paper, we propose an approach that analyses the data in the form of ‘frequency maps’ to evidence absorption losses probably linked to higher moisture content. Two real case histories back up the proposed method.

  1. Time–frequency analysis of GPR data to investigate the damage of monumental buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leucci, Giovanni; Persico, Raffaele; Masini, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    The presence of particular microclimatic conditions inside monumental buildings is responsible for bio-deterioration processes. In many cases, efflorescence and moulds are visible on the facades of several monuments of historical importance. In many other cases, the effects of decay processes are not visible, thus making difficult the diagnosis and the consequent setup of effective rehabilitation and preservation interventions, especially in the presence of a complex geometry and/or a large variability of construction materials. In such cases, a valuable contribution could be provided by geophysical methods (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), etc), which have been proved to be successful tools for sub-surface investigation and characterization of historical buildings. In old monumental buildings, the masonry structures frequently exhibit cracks, voids, detachments and high moisture contrasts that can give rise to reflection events in radar signals. However, the complexity of the geometry and the structural heterogeneity that characterize these old structures often make the GPR results difficult to analyse and interpret. In particular, the spatial variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information about the electrical properties of the investigated materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical parameters associated with damage. In this paper, we propose an approach that analyses the data in the form of ‘frequency maps’ to evidence absorption losses probably linked to higher moisture content. Two real case histories back up the proposed method. (paper)

  2. Summary of Technical Meeting To Compare US/French Approaches for Physical Protection Test Beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Thomas Kimball [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Ruben [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Thomas, Gerald [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Palut, Jean-Michel [French Alternative and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), Fontenay Aux Roses (France)

    2016-01-01

    In September 2015, representatives of the US Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration, including test bed professionals from Sandia National Laboratories, and representatives of the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission participated in a one-week workshop to share best practices in design, organization, operations, utilization, improvement, and performance testing of physical protection test beds. The intended workshop outcomes were to (1) share methods of improving respective test bed methodologies and programs and (2) prepare recommendations for standards regarding creating and operating testing facilities for nations new to nuclear operations. At the workshop, the French and American subject matter experts compared best practices as developed at their respective test bed sites; discussed access delay test bed considerations; and presented the limitations/ constraints of physical protection test beds.

  3. Variability of Bed Drag on Cohesive Beds under Wave Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilgar Safak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law, a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 - 4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  4. Prediction of bed level variations in nonuniform sediment bed channel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B R Andharia

    2018-04-12

    Apr 12, 2018 ... have been undertaken for measurements of bed and water levels in an aggrading channel due to overloading of nonuniform sediments ..... 2.4 Thickness of active bed layer. The mixing zone of sediment remaining in contact with the flow is referred as active layer (ABL). The thickness and particle size ...

  5. Variability of bed drag on cohesive beds under wave action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safak, Ilgar

    2016-01-01

    Drag force at the bed acting on water flow is a major control on water circulation and sediment transport. Bed drag has been thoroughly studied in sandy waters, but less so in muddy coastal waters. The variation of bed drag on a muddy shelf is investigated here using field observations of currents, waves, and sediment concentration collected during moderate wind and wave events. To estimate bottom shear stress and the bed drag coefficient, an indirect empirical method of logarithmic fitting to current velocity profiles (log-law), a bottom boundary layer model for combined wave-current flow, and a direct method that uses turbulent fluctuations of velocity are used. The overestimation by the log-law is significantly reduced by taking turbulence suppression due to sediment-induced stratification into account. The best agreement between the model and the direct estimates is obtained by using a hydraulic roughness of 10 -4">−4 m in the model. Direct estimate of bed drag on the muddy bed is found to have a decreasing trend with increasing current speed, and is estimated to be around 0.0025 in conditions where wave-induced flow is relatively weak. Bed drag shows an increase (up to fourfold) with increasing wave energy. These findings can be used to test the bed drag parameterizations in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models and the skills of these models in predicting flows in muddy environments.

  6. Structure, variation, and assembly of the deterioration-associated microbiome of stone monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Bingjian; Yang, Xiaoru; Ge, Qinya

    2018-01-26

    Research on the microbial communities that colonize stone monuments may provide a new understanding of stone biodeterioration and microbe-induced carbonate precipitation. This work investigates the seasonal variation of microbial communities in 2016 and 2017, as well as its effects on stone monuments. We determined the bacterial and fungal composition of 12 samples from 4 well-separated geographic locations using 16S rRNA and ITS gene amplicon sequencing. Cyanobacteria and Ascomycota were the predominant bacterial and fungal phyla respectively, and differences in species abundance among our 12 samples and two years showed no consistent temporal or spatial trends. Alpha diversity, estimated by Shannon and Simpson indices, revealed that an increase or decrease in bacterial diversity corresponded to a decrease or increase in the fungal community from 2016 to 2017. Large-scale association analysis identified potential bacteria and fungi correlated with stone deterioration. Functional prediction revealed specific pathways and microbiota associated with stone deterioration. Moreover, a culture-dependent technique was used to identify microbial isolates involved in biodeterioration and carbonatogenesis; among 85 bacterial isolates, 64% caused precipitation of carbonates in biomineralization assays. Imaging techniques, including a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an Energy-Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) probe, X-ray diffraction, and fluorescence imaging identified CaCO 3 crystal as calcite and vaterite. Although CaCO 3 precipitation induced by bacteria often aesthetically deleterious impacts on stone monuments, this process may potentially serve as a novel, environmentally friendly and bacterial self-inoculation approach for the conservation of stone. IMPORTANCE Comprehensive analyses of the microbiomes associated with deterioration of stone monuments may contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of deterioration, as well as to the identification of potentially

  7. Effectiveness of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Before EPA allows a bed bug claim on a label, the product must be supported by data showing it will kill bed bugs when applied according to the label. Also consider factors such as extent of infestation, site preparation, and insect life stages.

  8. Turning patients over in bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000426.htm Turning patients over in bed To use the sharing features on this page, ... Patient The following steps should be followed when turning a patient: If you can, raise the bed to a level that reduces back strain for ...

  9. Loodusmonumendid kui rahvuse monumendid : Eesti rändrahnude tähendusest = Monuments of Nature as Monuments of Nation / Robert W Smurr ; tõlk. Heie Treier

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Smurr, Robert W

    2001-01-01

    Rahvaluule- ja loodusteadlastele viidates analüüsib autor eesti rahvusliku identiteedi konstrueerimist loodusmonumendi mõiste abil. Artikkel on lühendatud versioon uurimistööst "Loodustaju ja selle rahvuslik avaldumine : Eesti keskkondlik ajalugu"

  10. Remedial Action Plan for the codisposal and stabilization of the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat uranium mill tailings at Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    This document is a revision of the original Mexiacan Hat Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and RAP Modification submitted in July 1988 and January 1989, respectively, along with updated design documents. This RAP has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. It presents the activities proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials (RRM) from Monument Valley, Arizona, and Mexican Hat, Utah, at the Mexican Hat disposal site. It also serves to document the concurrence of both the Navajo Nation and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by DOE and the Navajo Nation and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement. This document has been structured to provide a comprehensive understanding of the remedial action proposed for the Monument Valley and Mexican Hat sites. It includes specific design and construction requirements for the remedial action. Pertinent information and data are included with reference given to the supporting documents. Section 2.0 presents the EPA standards, including a discussion of their objectives. Section 3. 0 summarizes the present site characteristics and provides a definition of site-specific problems. Section 4.0 is the site design for the proposed action. Section 5.0 presents the water resources protection strategy. Section 6.0 summarizes the plan for ensuring health and safety protection for the surrounding community and the on- site workers. Section 7.0 lists the responsibilities of the project participants. Section 8.0 describes the features of the long-term surveillance and maintenance plan

  11. Mars Ecopoiesis Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ecopoiesis is the concept of initiating life in a new place; more precisely, the creation of an ecosystem capable of supporting life. It is the concept of initiating...

  12. Monuments in the Structure of an Urban Environment: The Source of Social Memory and the Marker of the Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, N.; Grunt, E.; Merenkov, A.

    2017-10-01

    The major research objective was to analyze the role of monuments in the formation of local residents’ and guests’ representations about the city, its history and traditions. The authors consider the system of monuments’ location in the urban space as a way of its social construction, as the system of influence on citizens’ aesthetic feelings, as the formation of their attitudes towards maintaining of continuity in the activities of different generations for the improvement of the territory of their permanent residence. Methodology. An urban monument is considered in two ways: as a transfer of historical memory and as a social memory transfer, which includes the experience of previous generations. One of the main provisions of the study is the idea that monuments can lose their former social value, transforming into “simple” objects of a public place. The study was conducted in the city of Yekaterinburg, one of the largest, cultural, scientific and industrial Russian megalopolises in 2015. The primary data was collected using standardized interviews. Four hundred and twenty respondents at the age of and above 18 were questioned on the basis of quota sampling. Interviews with respondents were conducted in order to identify key problems involved and reasons for shaping respondents’ representations of monuments in the urban environment typical for the population of Russian megalopolises. The standardized interview guide included 15 questions. Findings and discussion. Our investigation has revealed that different monuments fulfil various functions in an urban environment (ideological, aesthetic, transferring, valuable, etc.). The study has unequivocally confirmed that objects in the urban space have a different emotional colour background: people paint them in accordance with the feelings that arise in their perception. Hence, some monuments effectively fulfil the functions of social memory transfer: they are remembered, they tell us about the events to

  13. A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.

  14. Torsion testing of bed joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klavs Feilberg; Pedersen, Carsten Mørk

    2008-01-01

    be carried out directly in a normal testing machine. The torsion strength is believed to be the most important parameter in out-of-plane resistance of masonry walls subjected to bending about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints. The paper also contains a few test results from bending of small walls about...... an axis perpendicular to the bed joints, which indicate the close connection between these results and results from torsion tests. These characteristics make the torsion strength well suited to act as substitute parameter for the bending strength of masonry about an axis perpendicular to the bed joints....

  15. MONUMENTO JEROGLÍFICO MAYA DE XKOMBEC, CAMPECHE: UNA REVISIÓN (Maya Hieroglyphic Monument from Xkombec, Campeche: A Revision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Galeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available El reanálisis del Monumento 1 de Xkombec (Campeche, México, basado sobre su nueva documentación realizada en 2014 por los colaboradores del Proyecto Atlas Epigráfico de Yucatán, permite descartar la datación de esta inscripción en 866 d. C. y ubicarla a mediados del siglo VIII d. C., contemporánea de los monumentos de Xcalumkín y otros sitios cercanos del Puuc campechano. De acuerdo con el texto, la organización política de Xkombec era parecida a otros centros de Puuc. La ciudad contaba con su propia casa noble, cuyos miembros Xok Tun y B’ahlam eran de rango secundario y llevaban el título de b’ahkab y, probablemente, estaban relacionados con Xcalumkín. ENGLISH: Recent analysis of the epigraphy on Monument 1 from Xkombec indicates that the monument can be dated to A.D. 866, not to the mid-8th century as was previously argued. This new date marks Monument 1 as contemporary to the monuments at Xcalumkin and other neighboring Puuc sites. According to the text contained on Monument 1, political organization of Xkombec was similar to that of other Puuc centers. The association between these two centers may indicate that members of the noble house at Xkombec (Xok Tun and his son B’ahlam may have been related to the nobility of Xcalumkin.

  16. MAIN FEATURES OF A 3D GIS FOR A MONUMENTAL COMPLEX WITH AN HISTORICAL-CULTURAL RELEVANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Scianna

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH. The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: – for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; – for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; – for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.

  17. Main Features of a 3d GIS for a Monumental Complex with AN Historical-Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scianna, A.; La Guardia, M.

    2017-05-01

    The last achievements of technologies in geomatics especially in survey and restitution of 3D models (UAV/drones and laser scanner technologies) generated new procedures and higher standards of quality in representation of archaeological sites. Together with Geomatics, the recent development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) strongly contribute to document and the Cultural Heritage (CH). The representation and documentation of CH using these new technologies has became necessary in order to satisfy different needs: - for restorers in order to acquire a deep knowledge of the cultural good and to define possible strategies of restoration; - for the conservation of information, allowing to preserve the 3D geometry of the monumental complex with the integration of descriptions about architectural elements; - for touristic aims, giving the opportunity of sharing CH information on web, allowing users to visit and explore, in a virtual way, monumental complexes, acquiring information details about architectural elements or the history of monumental complex. Looking through these new scenarios, the development of a 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) applied to a cultural good could be, today, an added value of fundamental importance for full description and data management of monumental complexes. In this work, the main features necessary for the correct construction of a 3D GIS of a monumental complex will be analyzed, with a particular focus on the possibilities for creating a standardized procedure to follow.

  18. The Role of Stone in Neolithic Monumental Art: case studies and methods of representation in Ireland and Brittany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Robin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, there has been a great deal of interest in the stone used as building material in megalithic monuments. Several studies have been carried out on the location of quarries and on the monumental and symbolic role of stones in various types of architecture (O'Sullivan 1996; 2006; Cooney 2000, 135-8. However, very few works exist on the relationship between the parietal art of these monuments and the materials that carry them (Shee 1973, 164; O'Sullivan 1997, 28. This is in contrast to work on the Upper Palaeolithic, where there have been several studies exploring the links between paintings and the relief of caves (Clottes 1996. In the case of Neolithic monumental art there are many questions left unanswered; is the stone only a support for the carved motifs? Is its role only practical, without significance? Or did it have a more developed function related to the symbolism of the carvings? In this article, we would like to show through different examples in Ireland and Brittany that the stone did have a role in Neolithic monumental art. Different case studies show that there are relationships between carvings and stone texture, stone colour and stone relief. After the presentation of these case studies we would like to show how three-dimensional modelling can be a relevant tool for this kind of archaeological question.

  19. Les temples protestants « monuments historiques » en Poitou-Charentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Montagne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La faible représentativité des temples protestants dans la liste des monuments historiques a conduit la conservation régionale des monuments historiques de Poitou-Charentes à proposer la protection des temples les plus représentatifs parmi les 130 que compte la région : 58 en Charente-Maritime, 40 en Deux-Sèvres, 24 en Charente et 8 dans la Vienne. La qualité architecturale, leur place dans l’histoire, l’affectation au culte, l’intégration dans le paysage urbain, la présence de mobilier et la place de l’édifice en tant que lieu de mémoire ont servi de critères d’analyse. L’histoire et l’architecture des temples protégés des XIXe et XXe siècles s’inscrivent dans le contexte particulier et mouvementé de l’implantation du culte protestant dans la région.The examination of the lists of protected historic monuments in the Poitou-Charentes region underlined the poor representation in these lists of Protestant temples. This fact incited the historic monuments service of the region to put forward a more representative selection of the 130 Protestant temples to be found in the region, 58 in the Charente-Maritime department, 40 in the Deux-Sèvres, 24 in Charente and 8 in the Vienne. The criteria adopted to analyse these temples included their architectural qualities, their place in history, their use by the Protestant faiths, their integration into their urban environment, the presence of interesting church furnishings and the possible role of the temple as a place of memory. The history and the architecture of these temples during the 19th and 20th centuries are to be understood in the particular and animated context of the arrival of Protestantism in the region.

  20. Biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi on two historic monuments in Belgrade, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofilm on the sandstone substrata of the bridge 'Brankov most' and on the granite substrata of the 'Monument of the Unknown Hero' contains a complex consortia of cyanobacteria, algae, and fungi. Coccoid and filamentous cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms make up the photosynthetic part of the biofilm while hyphal fragments, chlamydospores, fruiting bodies and spores take part as fungal components. These structures make a dense layer by intertwining and overlapping the stone surface. Five cyanobacterial, 11 algal and 23 fungal taxa were found. The interaction of the biofilm's constituents results in the bioweathering of the stone substrata through mechanical penetration, acid corrosion and the production of secondary mycogenic biominerals. .

  1. The laboratory of quantitative methods in historic monument research at the CTU Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Cechak, T.; Kubelik, M.; Pavelka, K.; Pavlik, M.

    2001-01-01

    A 'Laboratory of Quantitative Methods in Historic Monument Research' has been established at the Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation of the CTU Prague. Its primary orientation is the investigation of historic architecture, although other objects of art can also be, investigated. In the first phase, one investigative method was established for each of the above groups: X-ray fluorescence as the analytic method, thermoluminescence for dating and photogrammetry for surveying. The first results demonstrate the need and usefulness of these methods for investigations in the rich architectural heritage of the Czech Republic.

  2. Tracing correlations of corrosion products and microclimate data on outdoor bronze monuments by Principal Component Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polikreti, Kyriaki; Argyropoulos, Vassilike; Charalambous, Demetres; Vossou, Aggelina; Perdikatsis, Vassilis; Apostolaki, Chryssa

    2009-01-01

    Although the corrosion of outdoor bronzes has been extensively studied for the last decades, there is no quantitative correlation of corrosion products to microclimatic factors. The present work aims to demonstrate how Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can serve this purpose. Thirty corrosion product samples were collected from the bronze monument of Theodoros Kolokotronis (Nafplio, Greece) and analysed using X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD). The quantitative XRD data together with data on surface orientation and exposure to rain or wind were treated by PCA and three distinct groups were found. Each group includes samples of similar composition and microclimate characteristics showing that PCA may give useful information on corrosion mechanisms.

  3. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... control is very important whether you are considering hiring a professional or planning to do it yourself. Controlling bed ... control methods, as others may cause serious harm. Hiring a pest management professional is a good option in many cases, but ...

  4. Sea bed mapping and inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 24 presentations on the topics: Sea bed mapping, inspection, positioning, hydrography, marine archaeology, remote operation vehicles and computerized simulation technologies, oil field activities and plans, technological experiences and problems. (tk)

  5. Operating characteristics of rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyvani, M.; Gardner, N.C.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor-liquid contacting in high gravitational fields offers prospects for significant reductions in the physical size, capital, and operating costs of packed towers. Pressure drops, power requirements, mass transfer coefficients and liquid residence time distributions are reported for a rotating bed separator. The beds studied were rigid, foamed aluminum, with specific surface areas ranging from 650 to 3000 m{sup 2}/m{sup 2}. Gravitational fields were varied from 50 to 300g.

  6. Peyzaj Mimarlığında Heykel Kullanımı: Trabzon Kenti Örneği / Monument Usage in Landscape Architecture: Example of Trabzon City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Düzenli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Monuments play a key role in the formation of a common memory and community consciousness by symbolizing important events or situations in the lives of people and societies and establish diverse dialogues with their surroundings in this context. The monument-art works to be placed in open spaces are important in terms of shaping social life and fulfill functions such as warning and activating society. For this reason, the use of monuments in open spaces is a matter for landscape architects to explore. The aim of the study is to determine the purposes and functions of monuments in urban open spaces. In this context, monuments in the city center of Trabzon are photographed and their usage types are classified. As a result, the monuments in urban open spaces in Trabzon are mostly composed of Atatürk and the persons in the history of the city (Kanuni Sultan Süleyman, Yavuz Sultan Selim, Mimar Sinan Etc. And secondly the figures and events reflecting the culture of the city (horon/dancing figures, kamancha playing figures, anchovy, Trabzonspor etc. Finally, it is seen that the expressions (military, martyr, etc. reflect the national spirit. So in the monuments; it has been determined that the historical, cultural and social characteristics of the city are gaining more importance.   Öz Toplum ve bireylerin yaşamında yer alan önemli olayları simgeleyen, ortak toplumsal bilinç ve hafıza oluşturan heykeller çevreleriyle ilişki kurarlar. Açık mekanlarda yeralan heykeller, toplumun yaşantısında, sanatsal, estetik, kültürel öneme sahiptir. Bu nedenle heykellerin açık alanlardaki kullanım amaçları peyzaj mimarları için araştırılması gereken bir konudur. Çalışmada amaç kentsel açık mekanlardaki heykellerin kullanım amaçlarını belirlemektir. Bu bağlamda Trabzon kent merkezideki heykeller fotoğraflanarak kullanım türleri sınıflandırılmıştır. Sonuçta Trabzon’da kentsel açık mekanlardaki

  7. Larkin Mill Dam Oblique photography of measured channel cross-sections from left and right bank monuments from 2008-06-09 to 2010-036-16 (NCEI Accession 0152485)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are collecting stream channel geometry and bed sediment grain size distribution data at the Parker River to evaluate physical habitat changes associated with the...

  8. Conservarea şi restaurarea monumentelor istorice: unele obiective şi principii (probleme inginereşti la monumente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian-Constantin Diaconu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Even when large parts of the original substance were lost throughout its existence, the monument should be regarded as a spatial structure, participating to the reality around them. Precepts governing the conservation and rehabilitation of historical monuments have to be applied individually to each monument, according to his personality, his past or future function, conservation status, in the way that the rehabilitation concept results from obligations balance to not harm the monument - Primum non Nocera (Carta de la Veneţia even to act for the future generation’s heritage. Monument to be seen through all the three attributes: FIRMITAS (solid, technical achievement, UTILITAS (functionality, the purpose for which it was made, PULCHRITAS (beauty, aesthetic expression. The historical monument’s components are: the land – cadastral lot, constructions, exterior arrangements, other elements, cultural mobile goods. The actions of historical monuments should consider the following objectives and principles: maintenance, rehabilitation, consolidation, security, social, economic and cultural lifeof the local community. The principles underlying these goals:building’s state expertise from all points of view, the building’sconsolidation solution must not affect the architectural appearance, to maintain authenticity, the level of response and earthquake insurance, as a matter of urgency execution of building works, reversible methods applied in conservation and / or rehabilitation, compatible materials used in conservation and / or rehabilitation, the loads resulting from new building elements should not exceed the capable strength of materials of (blocks of masonry, mortar, etc.., the resulting structure after consolidation should lead to good seismic behavior of the assemble "old structure - new structural elements," reintegration cultural and social, etc.

  9. Views of Carnac: applications of visibility analysis and dynamic visualisation for understanding the Neolithic monuments of southern Brittany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Roughley

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Neolithic monuments of the Carnac area of southern Brittany are of international importance. However, archaeologists have tended to study the monuments as individual sites, rather than investigating their landscape settings. This is in part because the landscape is difficult to explore in the field. Modern houses and conifer plantations obscure views; earthen structures have been significantly reduced in size, indeed some have been entirely levelled. As it is difficult to conduct fieldwork in this landscape, digital techniques are particularly informative. The landscape is a subtle one, and environmentally deterministic interpretations are implausible. However, this does not mean that topography was unimportant to the choices of monument location. The visual characteristics of locales can vary greatly even in relatively slight topography. Small rises can obscure features near by, or give considerable prominence over longer distances. This article explores the potential of visibility analysis and dynamic visualisation for investigating the visual context of two of the monument types, the earthen long mounds and angled passage graves. Traditional viewshed maps allow direct quantitative comparisons to be made between sites. The effect of monument dimensions is explored. However, as has been discussed in earlier articles in Internet Archaeology (e.g. Gillings and Goodrick 1996, viewshed analysis does not represent the whole of human visual experience. Therefore, visualisations have been used to explore the landscape further. A dynamic visualisation of a journey up the Crac'h estuary provides a more subjective view of the landscape settings of the monuments. The VRML version of the landscape model provides the opportunity for readers to explore the landscape themselves, and expand on the interpretations offered. However, the visualisations are limited in their resolution, and thus it is important to refer back to the viewshed maps for specific

  10. The tercentennial of 'Don Quijote' in 1905 and Spanish nationalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1998-01-01

    Analysing the commemorations which were held in Spain, and the monuments and representative buildings that were constructed in Madrid in the years before 1900, it seems clear that, in contrast with most of the other European countries, no consistent cultural policy was developed by the national

  11. Theatre Review: Shakespeare at the National Arts Festival 2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is today the National Arts Festival began, in 1974, with a Shakespeare Festival organised by Professor Guy Butler and colleagues to inaugurate the Monument complex on Signal Hill overlooking Grahamstown. Though no longer the main offering, Shakespeare is still on the festival menu; there are no fewer than five ...

  12. SURVEY, HBIM AND CONSERVATION PLAN OF A MONUMENTAL BUILDING DAMAGED BY EARTHQUAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Oreni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building’ knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 – 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates, which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027, financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica

  13. Survey, Hbim and Conservation Plan of a Monumental Building Damaged by Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreni, D.; Brumana, R.; Della Torre, S.; Banfi, F.

    2017-05-01

    Surveying a monumental building damaged by the earthquake means to analyse its geometries, the structural elements, the connection still exist between the different parts, in order to define its state of conservation, to make structural analysis and to plan a proper project of restoration, consolidation, seismic improvement or addition of new elements. The survey of structural geometry represents the first necessary moment of building' knowledge investigation, to be performed after the securing of the building by the Firefighters or Civil Protection. How and by which instruments the geometric analysis are conducted depends on many factors, not always exclusively on the will of the experts involved in the restoration project, but more often dictated by political, technical, social or economic needs. The accurate geometrical survey is referred as fundamental operation even by national Directive for evaluation and earthquake risk reduction of cultural heritage (GU n. 24 - 29/01/2008 and 2011 updates), which defines guidelines for preventive interventions on built heritage in order to make the structures less vulnerable in case of earthquake. Nowadays, the wide use of tools and accurate surveying techniques makes it possible to achieve an adequate level of accuracy of information related to the buildings, overcoming the difficulties due to accessibility of the damaged structures. The geometrical survey of the Basilica of Santa Maria di Collemaggio in L'Aquila, was made by Politecnico di Milano starting from 2013, within the project "Ripartire da Collemaggio" (http://www.ungiornoacollemaggio.it/content/2027), financed by Eniservizi. The basilica, an important symbol for the community of L'Aquila, was gravely damaged by the earthquake of 6th April 2009. The objective of Eni was to turn the restoration of the building in a re-birth moment for all the community. The knowledge step was aimed to plan a restoration project able of returning the basilica to a safe and full use

  14. Assessment of the radiological impact of the inactive uranium-mill tailings at Monument Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haywood, F.F.; Goldsmith, W.A.; Hubbard, H.M. Jr.; Fox, W.F.; Shinpaugh, W.H.

    1979-12-01

    Results of a radiological survey that was conducted at the inactive uranium-mill site at Monument Valley, Arizona, in March 1976, in cooperation with a team from Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc., are presented. Consideration of these data and of previously published information on radiological conditions at the site lead to the conclusion that potential health effects from exposure to radionuclides in the mill tailings are relatively small. The occupants of three residences within 0.8 km (0.5 mile) of the tailings constitute the principal population at risk, but direct gamma-exposure rate measurements near the two residences closest to the tailings and calculations of radon dispersion indicate that the tailings do not raise either pathway of radiation exposure significantly above the background level. Data are not available to evaluate fully other possible exposure pathways, but the available information indicates that it is unlikely that doses through these pathways will add significantly to the total population dose. The low estimates of potential health effects from exposure to direct radiation and to exposure to radionuclides in the Monument Valley tailings piles are ascribed to the low /sup 226/Ra inventory, to almost complete absence of small particles that are readily moved by wind and water, and to a small population in the vicinity of the tailings.

  15. Finite element prediction of seismic response modification of monumental structures utilizing base isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, Konstantinos; Anifantis, Nikolaos; Kakavas, Panayiotis

    2015-05-01

    The analysis of the mechanical behavior of ancient structures is an essential engineering task concerning the preservation of architectural heritage. As many monuments of classical antiquity are located in regions of earthquake activity, the safety assessment of these structures, as well as the selection of possible restoration interventions, requires numerical models capable of correctly representing their seismic response. The work presented herein was part of a research project in which a better understanding of the dynamics of classical column-architrave structures was sought by means of numerical techniques. In this paper, the seismic behavior of ancient monumental structures with multi-drum classical columns is investigated. In particular, the column-architrave classical structure under strong ground excitations was represented by a finite element method. This approach simulates the individual rock blocks as distinct rigid blocks interconnected with slidelines and incorporates seismic isolation dampers under the basement of the structure. Sliding and rocking motions of individual stone blocks and drums are modeled utilizing non-linear frictional contact conditions. The seismic isolation is modeled through the application of pad bearings under the basement of the structure. These pads are interpreted by appropriate rubber and steel layers. Time domain analyses were performed, considering the geometric and material non-linear behavior at the joints and the characteristics of pad bearings. The deformation and failure modes of drum columns subject to seismic excitations of various types and intensities were analyzed. The adverse influence of drum imperfections on structural safety was also examined.

  16. XPS characterization of (copper-based) coloured stains formed on limestone surfaces of outdoor Roman monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Limestone basements holding bronzes or other copper alloys artefacts such as sculptures, decorations and dedicatory inscriptions are frequently met both in modern and ancient monuments. In outdoor conditions, such a combination implies the corrosion products of the copper based alloy, directly exposed to rainwater, will be drained off and migrate through the porous surfaces, forming stains of different colours and intensities, finally causing the limestone structures to deteriorate. In this work we have analysed samples from two modern limestone monuments in Rome, the Botticino surfaces of the ‘Vittoriano’ (by G.Sacconi, 1885-1911- Piazza Venezia) and the travertine basement of the ‘Statua dello Studente’ (by A.Cataldi, 1920- University city, La Sapienza), and focussed our investigation on the chemical composition of the copper-stained zones using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as a surface-specific technique. Based on observations reporting on the structure and bonding at the calcite surfaces we have identified copper complexes and mixed calcium/copper carbonates associated with the stains, as well as the chemical state of other elements therein included, and related the compositional changes with differences in chromatic characteristics and sampling locations. PMID:22594435

  17. CONTESTED HERITAGE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICAL TRANSFORMATION OF DERRY/LONDONDERRY’S SIEGE MONUMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Selim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of Derry/Londonderry’s medieval city walls during the twentieth century have shaped an urbanism of segregated settlements within a city of religious confrontation. The heritage of military blockades, peace lines and watchtowers imposed upon the city’s Walls has influenced the disintegration of public space and created areas of no man’s land around the peripheries of the monument. The aim of this paper is to examine physical transformation and trace the consequences of urban planning regarding the historic city Walls. This change includes the shifting of residential settlements in the Bogside/Fountain areas and the movement of Protestant settlements towards the Waterside of Derry/Londonderry. The history and heritage of the Walls are analysed by focusing on four periods: 1600, when the first medieval walls were constructed; the housing crisis of 1948; the 1968 urban area plan and the beginning of the ‘Troubles’; and the present day. This analysis offers an understanding of the spatial relationships between enclaves and the monument over key moments of conflict and political change. The paper reveals that the manifestations of the Walls have aided in the further division of religiously segregated communities in Derry/Londonderry.

  18. Kala-tau Hill as a Medieval Monument of Archaeology and Epigraphy in the Western Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdrafikov I.M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a description of Starokalmashevo hillfort and the Starokalmashevo gravestone with an Arabic epitaph found in the mid-20th century in close proximity to the site of ancient settlement. They are here described not only as monuments of the Middle Ages, but also as objects of historical heritage testifying to the continuous process of ethno-culturogenesis in the Western Cis-Urals up to modern times. Research materials: The author considers the issues of medieval history, ethno- and cultural genesis of the Western Cis-Urals in light of the example of the Starokalmashevo hillfort, located on the hill of Kala-tau (Chekmagushevsky district of the Republic of Bashkortostan, as well as the Starokalmashevo gravestone. The author provides a complex description of these archaeological and cultural monuments and points out the importance of preserving these objects as an integral part of the local population and the entire Volga-Ural region’s collective historical memory. Research novelty: The author presents new materials, including the stories of community elders about the origin of the above-mentioned archaeological sites. He analyzes the inscriptions on the tombstone, including its new reading, and draws a conclusion about the continuity of the population of this territory for a sustained period.

  19. Visualizing a monumental past: Archeology, Nasser's Egypt, and the early Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, William

    2017-09-01

    This article examines geographies of decolonization and the Cold War through a case study in the making of archeological knowledge. The article focuses on an archeological dig that took place in Egypt in the period between the July 1952 Free Officers' coup and the 1956 Suez crisis. Making use of the notion of the 'boundary object', this article demonstrates how the excavation of ancient Egyptian remains at the site of Mit Rahina helped to constitute Nasserist revolutionary modernity and its relationship to wider, post-Second World War political geographies. The dig took place as a result of an Egyptian-American collaboration designed to institute the possibility of archeology taking place along the lines of the Point Four modernization program promoted by the United States. The article discusses how this situation not only engendered contention surrounding the role of the international 'experts' appointed to run this excavation work, but also - and as a result - helped to constitute the monumental visual and material shape that archeological evidence relating to the Egyptian past could now take. Egypt's revolution sat within wider Cold War political struggles, yet the 'ground-up' realities of this relationship helped to constitute the sort of past (and future) monumentality proposed by Nasser's government.

  20. Monumentalizing Landscape: from present perceptions to the original meanings of Galician Megalithism (NW Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Criado Boado, Felipe

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of Landscape as social construction implies considering its economic and territorial dimensions, as much as its symbolic ones. A major topic in such kind of studies is to reconstruct the ways as natural and social space was perceived by past societies. We ought approach the project of building an Archaeology of Perception. One of the aims of such research programme would be to evaluate the effect of natural and artificial landscape features on past human observers. This paper will argue that a possible strategy for studying these dimensions of past landscapes could be based on the systematic analysis of visual features of the prehistoric monuments and in the characterization of the escenic effects and vistas related to them. A detailed analysis of the pattern of location of megalithic monuments, of their visibility and visibilization conditions, allow us to recognize certain regularities what display an intentional will to remark on the existence of the monument and provoke dramatic artificial effects. In such way we could approach a phenomenology of prehistoric perception without falling in mere subjetive solutions. This study is based in a systematic review of the megalithic monuments from Sierra de Barbanza (NW Iberia. Its final scope is proposing theoretical and methodological standpoints to approach these phenomena, but as well producing a case-study to reconstruct monumental strategies to shape cultural landscapes in Neolithic Europe and observe the diacrony (ie, continuities and changes of these traditions.

    El estudio del paisaje como construcción social implica considerar sus dimensiones económicas, territoriales y simbólicas. Sería importante reconstruir cómo fue percibido el espacio natural y social, para lo que se debería construir una Arqueología de la Percepción que tendría entre sus objetivos evaluar el efecto de los rasgos naturales y artificiales del paisaje sobre sus observadores pretéritos. Aquí se

  1. Particle motion in fluidised beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, M.G.

    1999-07-01

    Gas fluidised beds are important components in many process industries, e.g. coal combustors and granulators, but not much is known about the movement of the solids. Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) enables the movement of a single, radioactive tracer particle to be followed rapidly and faithfully. Experiments were carried out in columns sized between 70 and 240mm. diameter, operating in the bubbling regime at ambient process conditions using particles of group B and D (Geldart Classification). Particle motion was tracked and the data applied to models for particle movement at the gas distributor as well as close to other surfaces and to models for particle circulation in beds of cohesive particles. In the light of these data, models for particle and bubble interaction, particle circulation, segregation, attrition, erosion, heat transfer and fluidised bed scale-up rules were reassessed. Particle motion is directly caused by bubble motion, and their velocities were found to be equal for particles travelling in a bubble. PEPT enables particle circulation to be measured, giving a more accurate correlation for future predictions. Particle motion follows the scale-up rules based on similarities of the bubble motion in the bed. A new group of parameters was identified controlling the amount of attrition in fluidised beds and a new model to predict attrition is proposed. (author)

  2. Clinical physiology of bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Maintenance of optimal health in humans requires the proper balance between exercise, rest, and sleep as well as time in the upright position. About one-third of a lifetime is spent sleeping; and it is no coincidence that sleeping is performed in the horizontal position, the position in which gravitational influence on the body is minimal. Although enforced bed rest is necessary for the treatment of some ailments, in some cases it has probably been used unwisely. In addition to the lower hydrostatic pressure with the normally dependent regions of the cardiovascular system, body fuid compartments during bed rest in the horizontal body position, and virtual elimination of compression on the long bones of the skeletal system during bed rest (hypogravia), there is often reduction in energy metabolism due to the relative confinement (hypodynamia) and alteration of ambulatory circadian variations in metabolism, body temperature, and many hormonal systems. If patients are also moved to unfamiliar surroundings, they probably experience some feelings of anxiety and some sociopsychological problems. Adaptive physiological responses during bed rest are normal for that environment. They are attempts by the body to reduce unnecessary energy expenditure, to optimize its function, and to enhance its survival potential. Many of the deconditioning responses begin within the first day or two of bed rest; these early responses have prompted physicians to insist upon early resumption of the upright posture and ambulation of bedridden patients.

  3. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and others from 1998-01-31 to 2003-02-12 (NODC Accession 0080986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080986 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  4. Surface water data at Los Alamos National Laboratory: 2008 water year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, David; Cata, Betsy; Kuyumjian, Gregory

    2009-09-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 69 stream-gage stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs— two that flow into Cañon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon.

  5. Surface Water Data at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2006 Water Year

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Romero, D. Ortiz, G. Kuyumjian

    2007-08-01

    The principal investigators collected and computed surface water discharge data from 44 stream-gaging stations that cover most of Los Alamos National Laboratory and one at Bandelier National Monument. Also included are discharge data from three springs--two that flow into Canon de Valle and one that flows into Water Canyon--and peak flow data for 44 stations.

  6. Combustion of peanut shells in a cone-shaped bubbling fluidized-bed combustor using alumina as the bed material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arromdee, Porametr; Kuprianov, Vladimir I.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We propose burning of peanut shells in a conical fluidized bed using alumina sand. ► We examine hydrodynamic, combustion and emission characteristics of the reactor. ► High, over 99%, combustion efficiency is achievable. ► Emissions of CO and NO from the combustor meet the national emission limits. ► Composition of the bed material undergoes significant changes during the combustion. -- Abstract: This paper reports experimental studies on burning peanut shells in the conical fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as the fluidizing agent. Prior to combustion tests, hydrodynamic regimes and characteristics of a conical alumina–biomass bed were investigated under cold-state conditions for variable percentage of peanut shells in the mixture and static bed height. With selected particle sizes (300–500 μm) and static bed height (30 cm), alumina ensured bubbling fluidization regime of the bed at operating conditions specified for firing biomass. Combustion tests were performed at 60 kg/h and 45 kg/h fuel feed rates, while ranging excess air from 20% to 80% at a fixed combustor load. Temperature and gas concentrations (O 2 , CO, C x H y as CH 4 , and NO) were measured along radial and axial directions inside the reactor as well as at stack in order to characterize combustion and emission performance of the combustor for the ranges of operating conditions. For firing 60 kg/h peanut shells, excess air of 40% can be selected as an appropriate value ensuring high, about 99%, combustion efficiency and rather low emissions of CO and NO: 520 ppm and 125 ppm, respectively (both on a dry basis and at 6% O 2 ). With reducing combustor load, the combustion efficiency and emission characteristics were improved to a little extent. No evidence of bed agglomeration was found during 30-h combustion tests on this conical fluidized-bed combustor using alumina sand as the bed material. However, the timescale effect on the composition of the bed material was

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Monument Valley site, Monument Valley, Arizona. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at the Monument Valley millsite in Arizona. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and other radium-contaminated materials, the evaluation of resulting radiation exposures of individuals residing nearby, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the tailings on the site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The sparse population and relatively low radiation levels yield minimal immediate environmental impact; hence, the two alternative actions presented are directed towards restricting access to the site (Options I and II), and returning the windblown tailings to the pile and stabilizing the pile with 2 ft of cover material (Option II). Both options include remedial action costs for offsite locations where tailings have been placed. Cost estimates for the two options are $585,000 and $1,165,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium is not economically feasible

  8. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  9. Fluidized-bed nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimmett, E.S.; Kunze, J.F.

    1975-01-01

    A reactor vessel containing a fluidized-bed region of particulate material including both a neutron-moderating and a fertile substance is described. A gas flow including fissile material passes through the vessel at a sufficient rate to fluidize the particulate material and at a sufficient density to support a thermal fission reaction within the fluidized-bed region. The high-temperature portion of a heat transfer system is located within the fluidized-bed region of the reactor vessel in direct contact with the fluidized particles. Heat released by fission is thereby transferred at an enhanced rate to a coolant circulating within the heat transfer system. Fission products are continuously removed from the gas flow and supplemental fissile material added during the reactor operation. (U.S.)

  10. Displacement Patterns of Cemetery Monuments in Ferndale, CA, During the MW 6.5 Offshore Northern California Earthquake of January 10, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. S.; Cashman, S. M.; Structural Geology Class Spring 2010

    2010-12-01

    Displaced and toppled monuments in a cemetery are an effective means of assessing local ground motion during an earthquake. The MW 6.5 Offshore Northern California earthquake of January 10, 2010, was felt throughout northwestern California and caused moderate damage in coastal communities between Petrolia and Eureka. The earthquake was generated by left-lateral strike slip on a NE-trending fault within the subducting Gorda plate. Peak horizontal ground accelerations of -0.440g (E) and 0.279g (N) and vertical ground acceleration of -0.122g (up) were recorded in Ferndale, CA, on the North American plate 37km east southeast of the epicenter. We measured displaced and toppled monuments in the Ferndale cemetery as a means of assessing ground motion during the January 10, 2010 Offshore Northern California earthquake. The cemetery occupies a hillside that slopes gently to the northwest, and a dormant landslide underlies the cemetery. Approximately 30% of the monuments were displaced during the earthquake. Affects included toppled columns and urns; headstones, columns and large tomb covers that slid and rotated and relative to monument bases; tilted retaining walls and headstones; and liquefaction-related settling (or, less commonly, uplift) of monuments. We measured translation and rotation of 79 monuments displaced from their bases during the earthquake. Toppled monuments do not display a preferred orientation. Seven of the 18 toppled monuments fell to the southeast, but toppling occurred in all directions. For monuments that were displaced but not toppled, 1-10 cm of northwestward translation and 3-8° of clockwise rotation were most common; however, virtually all directions of translation and both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations and were recorded. Damage was not evenly distributed geographically. In general, damage was concentrated in the northern, topographically lower, part of the cemetery. Counterclockwise rotation of monuments occurred mainly along the

  11. De lo inmaterial literario al monumento arquitectónico: la casa museo de Ricardo Rojas / From the literary immateriality to the architectural monument: the House Museum of Ricardo Rojas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Salvioni

    2015-02-01

    The House Museum of Ricardo Rojas, built in 1927 by the architect Angel Guido in Buenos Aires, is an ideal starting point for a reflection on the social uses of cultural heritage in Twentieth Century Argentina. The House reflects an aesthetic program that intended to reinvent the national tradition as a fusion between indigenous and Hispanic elements. Nonetheless, the national tradition codified by Rojas and Guido was the result of an arbitrary selection of heterogeneous elements that excluded immigrants and did not guarantee access to cultural heritage of all sectors of society. The project of the House was directly related to the emergence of cultural and politic nationalism that took place in Argentina from the Centenary of Independence in 1910 to the beginning of Second World War. This essay focuses on the contradictions of monumentalization of intangible cultural heritage in a multicultural society.

  12. The Wooden Church “Saint Hierarch Nicholas” – a historical monument and a symbol of spiritual culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Arnăut

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study is dedicated to the research of the wooden churches built in the XVIII-th century in Bessarabia. The authors refer, in particular, to the church „Saint Hierarch Nicholas” from Musteaţa village, Făleşti district. This is one of the few monuments from Republic of Moldova of such historical importance and it is a relevant spiritual symbol of Romanian culture. The church „Saint Hierarch Nicholas” is distinguished by its complex rustic architecture with a reach symbolism load. It is a typical monument according to the “peasant house” category, with no cupola. It is built of wood on a stone foundation. According to archival documents, it was set in 1757, when the village was called Oişeni. Currently, the building is in a damaged condition. It is necessary emergency restoration and conservation of the monument. Our goal is to capitalize on historical and spiritual importance of this monument for the Romanian’s culture from everywhere.

  13. Conservation and Management of Archaeological Monuments and Sites in Greece and Turkey: A Value-Based Approach to Anastylosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliopi Vacharopoulou

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Heritage management and monument conservation play a significant role in the preservation of archaeological heritage. Anastylosis, a process with a long history in the Mediterranean region, is discussed with relevance to current debates concentrating on concepts of value-based approaches. Examination of the diverse values that may be attributed to monuments provides an insight into the evolution of ideas in heritage management, conservation and restoration practices. In the current theoretical framework the concept of values, as attributed by all stakeholders, and its application when preserving archaeological heritage, are constantly debated. The participation of stakeholders in the process of value identification is considered fundamental by heritage management experts. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted to collect the opinions of anastylosis and restoration professionals, with reference to case studies on a number of monuments subjected to anastylosis in Greece and Turkey, highlighting the importance of assessing values in order to establish the appropriate type and extent of intervention. The paper concludes that a value-based approach to decision-making and planning for anastylosis, or any other form of architectural conservation, is crucial for preserving monuments in a way that satisfies those who want to experience and benefit from heritage.

  14. Göbekli Tepe - nejstarší monumentální objekty na světě

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 94, 7-8 (2015), s. 396-398 ISSN 0042-4544 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic * Pre-pottery Neolithic * monumental features Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  15. Better backs by better beds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholdt, Kim; Fabricius, Rasmus N; Bendix, Tom

    2008-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: A "randomized"/stratified, single-blinded, parallel-group study. OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate 3 structurally different mattresses relative influence on patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In several advertisements, it is proclaimed that certain...... using the probably most relevant "worst case" data. There were no relevant difference between the effects of the water bed and the foam bed. CONCLUSION: The Waterbed and foam mattress' did influence back symptoms, function and sleep more positively as apposed to the hard mattress, but the differences...

  16. April 2009 Abruzzo earthquake. Multisensor approach for the seismic rehabilitation of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, Nicola; Cifani, Giandomenico; Gabellone, Francesco; Geraldi, Edoardo; Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Lapenna, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Domenico; Piscitelli, Sabatino; Pignatti, Stefano; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The widespread presence of movable and immoveable high cultural value assets make crucial the necessity of their protection, especially in order to mitigate the vulnerability to extreme environmental events, such as the seismic one. The latter represents the environmental risk factor which affect more than other environmental events the cultural heritage because of the big concentration of monuments and archaeological resources in several seismogenetic areas of the Mediterranean Basin, Middle East, South and Central America. Protecting monumental heritage, historical centres and archaeological sites from the effects of devastating earthquakes has been the focus of scientific and engineering endeavour for more than 50 years. Each earthquake not only provides additional information from the seismological point of view but it also stimulates effort to develop new and more advanced operative intervention strategies for the ready protection and restoration of damaged artefacts and structures of cultural value. Focusing our attention of Italian earthquakes, if the 1993 Umbria and Marche earthquake favoured a re-thinking of some repairing and rehabilitation techniques based on the use of reinforced concrete, the last earthquake occurred in Abruzzo on april 2009 allowed to improve the techniques for ready intervention and the procedures of evaluation of the seismic damage of churches and palaces. In such context, a significant effort has been undertaken in the experiencing of integrated approaches based on the use of different sensors and methods for the imaging of subsurface geological structures, the characterization of the mechanical behaviour of structures and the analysis of the state of decay of stone materials and frescoes. This papers deals with the results obtained by means of a multisensor approach performed to support effective and compatible interventions of restoration on a medieval architectural complex near L'Aquila. In particular, the following diagnostic

  17. NURE and the National Park Service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, T.A.

    1979-01-01

    Under the National Resource Evaluation (NURE), massive amounts of geological, geochemical, and geophysical data, covering the entire conterminous 48 states and Alaska, are being collected and made public. In addition to NURE goals, these data are applicable to various other researches on and in the vicinity of lands controlled by the National Park Service. Airborne geophysical and hydrogeochemical survey NURE data have been made public for the majority of the area in the combined Mt. McKinley National Park and Denali National Monument. Besides indicating potential raw material deposits, these data are also useful for geologic mapping, water quality, pollution and othe geological, biological, and environmental studies in the park

  18. Full Scale Drinking Water System Decontamination at the Water Security Test Bed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA’s Water Security Test Bed (WSTB) facility is a full-scale representation of a drinking water distribution system. In collaboration with the Idaho National...

  19. 76 FR 7232 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ...The U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Dinosaur National Monument, Dinosaur, CO, has completed an inventory of human remains and associated funerary objects, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the remains and any present-day tribe. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact Dinosaur National Monument. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary objects to the tribes stated below may occur if no additional requestors come forward.

  20. Design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation test bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, J.M.; Valentich, D.J.

    1994-05-01

    This report describes the design requirements for the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) test bed that will be located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The test bed will process a maximum of 50 gph of waste plus the required volume of cooling water. The test bed will evaluate the performance of a number of SCWO reactor designs. The goal of the project is to select a reactor that can be scaled up for use in a full-size waste treatment facility to process US Department of Energy mixed wastes. EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc. will design and construct the SCWO test bed at the Water Reactor Research Test Facility (WRRTF), located in the northern region of the INEL. Private industry partners will develop and provide SCWO reactors to interface with the test bed. A number of reactor designs will be tested, including a transpiring wall, tube, and vessel-type reactor. The initial SCWO reactor evaluated will be a transpiring wall design. This design requirements report identifies parameters needed to proceed with preliminary and final design work for the SCWO test bed. A flow sheet and Process and Instrumentation Diagrams define the overall process and conditions of service and delineate equipment, piping, and instrumentation sizes and configuration Codes and standards that govern the safe engineering and design of systems and guidance that locates and interfaces test bed hardware are provided. Detailed technical requirements are addressed for design of piping, valves, instrumentation and control, vessels, tanks, pumps, electrical systems, and structural steel. The approach for conducting the preliminary and final designs and environmental and quality issues influencing the design are provided

  1. Investigation of spiders (Araneae of the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic records of spiders (Araneae in the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic are presented. Spiders were collected by pitfall trapping in 2009 and by sweeping of the herb vegetation in 2011. During the both periods a total of 847 specimens were collected, from which 617 adult spiders were determined. We found 88 species belonging to 20 families. Seven species listed on the Red List of Invertebrates of the Czech Republic were recorded: Titanoeca schineri L. Koch, 1872, Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841, Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866, Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875, Ozyptila simplex (O.P-Cambridge, 1862 and Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846. To the most significant finding belongs a very rare and endangered (EN Micaria guttulata (C. L. Koch, 1839. A significant and rich finding of bioindicators of the well preserved steppe habitats Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776, Eresus kollari Rossi, 1846 and Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873 are to be mentioned.

  2. Enumeration of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on deteriorating stone of the angkor monuments, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianshu; Arai, Hideo; Shimoda, Ichita; Kuraishi, Hiroshi; Katayama, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Annual change in the density of sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on sandstone was enumerated to know the effects on the deterioration of stone materials of the Angkor monuments in Cambodia. Samples were obtained from total 12 stations at the Angkor Wat, Bayon, and Phnom Krom temples between 1998 and 2007. Sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms enumerated in a mineral salts medium supplemented with elemental sulfur as the sole energy source had a density of 10(1)-10(5) MPN (g sample)(-1). The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms of the samples collected at Angkor Wat have tended to decrease in density since 2002; on the other hand, relatively constant values have been recorded in the samples of Bayon and Phnom Krom. These results suggest that the sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms on the stone play an important role in the decay of the building blocks by excreting sulfuric acid.

  3. Baseline risk assessment for groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from groundwater contamination at the former uranium mill processing site near Monument Valley, Arizona. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site are being relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah, through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The tailings removal is planned for completion by spring 1994. After the tailings are removed, groundwater contamination at the site will continue to be evaluated. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Groundwater Project. It will be used to assist in determining what remedial action is needed for contaminated groundwater at the site

  4. Rethinking the Criminology of Crimes of States: Monumental, Mundane, Mislabeled and Miscalculated Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Friedrichs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a reflexive account on criminological engagement with crimes of states, with special attention to the case of Nazi Germany and the Holocaust, and Berlin and Germany today. The emergence of a criminology of crimes of states is reviewed, along with arguments for and against criminological engagement with such crime. In particular, a response to Carrier and Park’s (2013 critique of ‘entrepreneurial criminology’ is provided in this context. Distinctions are drawn between monumental and mundane crimes of states, and mislabeled and miscalculated crimes of states, with special attention to mundane and miscalculated crimes. A brief concluding section identifies some issues that might be included in an agenda for a criminology of crimes of states, going forward.

  5. Apparatus and process for controlling fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1985-10-01

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  6. Monuments devoted to artists in public spaces around museums: A nineteenth-century strategy to enhance the urban space of art districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente, J. Pedro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Monuments to kings or military heroes have always been positioned in main squares and avenues, whilst those erected to famous cultural figures were a novelty introduced in the Enlightenment and Romanticism, placing busts or sitting monuments to writers or musicians in secluded gardens and in the surroundings of libraries, theatres, etc. During the nineteenth century, monuments to artists became also a common feature in many cities, where a most likely emplacement for them was in front of some art museum. In a way, they were a complement to the ornaments of such building, usually decorated with portraits and inscriptions glorifying great artists; but the monument to Murillo erected in 1863 by public subscription in Seville's Plaza del Museo was also an urban milestone, catching the attention of promenading public passing along a lateral street. Later, the monuments erected in the piazzas around the Prado Museum in Madrid, or in gardens outside the Louvre, became a popular prototype, emulated in many other cities up to the early 20th century. Their role as interfaces between public spaces and museum sites would thereafter be taken over by other kinds of artistic landmarks: not monuments to artists, but monumental artworks, often owned by the museum itself, thus bringing part of its collection outside, as a welcome starter to prospective cultural consumers.

  7. Physiology Of Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes physiological effects of prolonged bed rest. Rest for periods of 24 hours or longer deconditions body to some extent; healing proceeds simultaneously with deconditioning. Report provides details on shifts in fluid electrolytes and loss of lean body mass, which comprises everything in body besides fat - that is, water, muscle, and bone. Based on published research.

  8. NIPGAT: new tool for investigating the deterioration of monuments and historic buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaafar Abdullah; Lahasen Norman Shah Dahing; Susan Maria Sipaun; Md Fakaruddin Abdul Rahman; Ismail Mustapha

    2004-01-01

    The degradation of some building materials such as brick and mortar is a major problem for the preservation of monuments or historic structures, especially where it is desirable to preserve the original fabric of the building. Such degradation often arises from the presence of contaminants in the constituent materials. Knowledge of the presence and distribution of contaminants is needed for effective treatment and preservation. In building materials, water and soluble salt are considered two unwanted contaminants. Their concentrations and distribution in these materials are very important factor in estimating the degree of building deterioration. Water is a major course of deterioration, both by acting as a solvent for various building materials components and by exerting stresses on the structure during thermal cycle. The soluble salts, notably chlorides, damage the structure either by periodically dissolving and recrystallising within the pores or by promoting corrosion. Neutrons are useful as probes for non-destructive examination of extended media because neutrons can travel relatively long distances before interacting with the nuclei of the media. Depending on the type of material, neutrons can have a mean free path of tens of centimeters to meters. It is for this reason that neutrons in conjunction with gamma-ray spectroscopy have been used extensively in oil-well logging and mineral exploration. For the same reason, a new method, called neutron-induced prompt gamma-ray technique, NIPGAT is being developed at MINT for preservation of monuments and historic buildings. NIPGAT can be used for in-situ quantitative determination and location of contaminants, particularly water and soluble salt in building materials. This paper presents a brief overview and gives preliminary results of NIPGAT research activities at MINT. It is hoped that it may raise awareness and promote further opportunities for the collaboration of the nuclear research scientists with the museum

  9. Detect, map, and preserve Bronze & Iron Age monuments along the pre-historic Silk Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Timo; Caspari, Gino; Fu, Bihong

    2017-02-01

    Central Asia is rich in cultural heritage generated by thousands of years of human occupation. Aiming for a better understanding of Central Asia’s archaeology and how this unique heritage can be protected, the region should be studied as a whole with regard to its cultural ties with China and combined efforts should be undertaken in shielding the archaeological monuments from destruction. So far, international research campaigns have focused predominantly on single-sites or small-scale surveys, mainly due to the bureaucratic and security related issues involved in cross-border research. This is why we created the Dzungaria Landscape Project. Since 2013, we have worked on collecting remote sensing data of Xinjiang including IKONOS, WorldView-2, and TerraSAR-X data. We have developed a method for the automatic detection of larger grave mound structures in optical and SAR data. Gravemounds are typically spatially clustered and the detection of larger mound structures is a sufficient hint towards areas of high archaeological interest in a region. A meticulous remote sensing survey is the best planning tool for subsequent ground surveys and excavation. In summer 2015, we undertook a survey in the Chinese Altai in order to establish ground-truth in the Hailiutan valley. We categorized over 1000 monuments in just three weeks thanks to the previous detection and classification work using remote sensing data. Creating accurate maps of the cemeteries in northern Xinjiang is a crucial step to preserving the cultural heritage of the region since graves in remote areas are especially prone to looting. We will continue our efforts with the ultimate aim to map and monitor all large gravemounds in Dzungaria and potentially neighbouring eastern Kazakhstan.

  10. Protecting Your Home from Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your home: Inspect the luggage rack in your hotel room for bed bugs. Check secondhand furniture, beds, ... Grants January 19, 2017 Web Snapshot No FEAR Act Data Privacy Privacy and Security Notice Connect. Data. ...

  11. Videos, Webinars, Blogs Related to Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    These tools provide practical insight on issues such as integrated pest management (IPM) for schools, bed bug bites, how carpet beetles can help, bed bugs as hitchhikers, and preventing and controlling infestations.

  12. EPA-Registered Bed Bug Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat your bed bug infestation. Foggers and bug bombs should not be used as the only method ... effective but take some time to kill the population); or Bed bugs’ becoming resistant to a specific ...

  13. Does Botanical Diversity in Sewage Treatment Reed-Bed Sites Enhance Invertebrate Biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Feest

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 This study examines the effect of increasing botanical diversity, through reed-bed planting and maintenance regimes, on sewage treatment reed-bed invertebrate biodiversity and the possible enrichment of overall catchment biodiversity. (2 Reed-bed invertebrates were identified as a good indicator group of overall site biodiversity quality and were sampled at a range of sewage treatment reed-bed sites in the same geographical area between May and August 2006 (plus one natural reed-bed control site. Standardised water trapping and pitfall trapping techniques were employed throughout this sampling period. (3 Statistical analysis of the sampling results revealed that the number of plant species recorded was inversely related to terrestrial invertebrate species richness, species conservation value index and biomass within the study sites. For example, the natural reed-bed sampled had the highest botanical diversity but the lowest terrestrial invertebrate species richness. (4 This study has demonstrated that sewage treatment reed-beds support a diverse range of invertebrate species, some of them being of national conservation value. This suggests that sewage treatment reed-beds may be at least as biodiverse as naturally occurring reed-beds and will add to the overall biodiversity and ecohydrology of a catchment whilst saving energy.

  14. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  15. Designing a CR Test bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattoni, Andrea Fabio; Buthler, Jakob Lindbjerg; Tonelli, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    with their own set up, since the potential costs and efforts could not pay back in term of expected research results. Software Defined Radio solutions offer an easy way to communication researchers for the development of customized research test beds. While several hardware products are commercially available......Research on intelligent and reconfigurable wireless systems is in continuous evolution. Nevertheless, in order to fix some keystones, more and more researchers are entering the idea of research-oriented test beds. Unfortunately, it is very difficult for a wide number of research groups to start......, the software is most of the times open source and ready to use for third party users. Even though the software solution developers claim complete easiness in the development of custom applications, in reality there are a number of practical hardware and software issues that research groups need to face, before...

  16. Review of acute cancer beds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Evans, D S

    2012-01-01

    A review of admissions to cancer services at University Hospital Galway (UHG) was undertaken to assess the appropriateness of hospital usage. All cancer specialty patients admitted from 26-28 May 2009 were reviewed (n = 82). Chi square tests, Exact tests, and One-way ANOVA were utilised to analyse key issues emerging from the data. Fifty (61%) were classified as emergencies. Twenty three (67%) occupied a designated cancer bed with 24 (30%) in outlying non-oncology wards. The mean length of stay was 29.3 days. Possible alternatives to admission were identified for 15 (19%) patients. There was no evidence of discharge planning for 50 (60%) admissions. There is considerable potential to make more appropriate utilisation of UHG for cancer patients, particularly in terms of reducing bed days and length of stay and the proportion of emergency cancer admissions, and further developing integrated systems of discharge planning.

  17. Device for measuring bed pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulin, B.M.; Chubar, V.G.

    1979-03-05

    The invention refers to studies in wells and is designed for piezomeasurements for the processes of undergrond leaching out associated with the movement of fluids of variable density to the productive beds. The purpose of he invention is to increase the accuracy of measurements of bed pressure by reducing the influence of changes of fluid density in the well. The goal is achieved because the device is equipped with a piezometric pipe arranged in the well and filled with liquid whose density is less than the density of the solution, and the transformer of the level is installed in the pipe. The pipe can have a throttle. A drawing and description of the proposed device are presented.

  18. THE BAUXITES AND JELAR - BEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Sakač

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Minor bauxite deposits and occurrences were formed in technically disturbed environments in the middle part of the Adriatic geotectonic unit in Dinarides, contemporary with the clastic Jelar-beds in the Late Lutetian time. Uneven chemical composition of these Eocene bauxites, their sporadic occurrences in developed paleorelief as well as characteristic petrographic composition of the immediate overlying rocks point out at different genetical conditions (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Advances in fluidized bed technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutanen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) has advanced into industrial cogeneration and utility-scale electric generation. During the 1980's AFBC became the dominant technology in the United States for power generation systems fired with solid fuels. Development of pressurized fluidized bed combustion/gasification (PFB/G) has grown rapidly from small bench-scale rigs to large pilot and demonstration plants. AFBC as large as 160 MWe in capacity are now in operation, while pressurized combustion systems generating 80 MWe have started up two years ago. The major driving forces behind development of fluidized bed technologies are all the time strictening emission control regulations, need for fuel flexibility, repowering of older power plants and need for higher efficiency in electricity generation. Independent power producers (IPP) and cogenerators were the first ones in the United States who accepted AFBC for wide commercial use. Their role will be dominant in the markets of the 1990's also. Developers of AFBC systems are working on designs that reduce investment costs, decrease emissions and offer even higher reliability and availability in utility-scale applications while developers of PFBC/G work on designs that increase plant efficiencies, allow modular construction, decrease emissions further and reduce the cost of generating power. This paper presents technological background, commercial status, boiler performance, emissions and future developments for both AFBC and PFBC/G systems

  20. Natural gas in coal beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravtsov, A.I.; Voytov, G.I.

    1983-01-01

    The special importance is noted of the problem of computing and careful use of the energy raw material, coal, oil and natural gases. An examination is made of the mechanism for the formation of carboniferous gases in the beds with the use of the model of coal macromolecule. A schematic section is presented for the coal field and plan for vertical gas zonality. The change in chemical composition of the natural gases with depth is governed by the countermovement of the natural gases: from top to bottom the gases of the earth's atmosphere move, mainly oxygenand nitrogen, from bottom to top, the gases of metamorphic and deep origin. Constant isotope composition of the carbon in the fossil coals is noted. The distribution of the quanitity deltaC/sup 13/ of carbon in the fossil coals of the Donets basin is illustrated. The gas content of the coal beds and gas reserves are discussed. The flowsheet is shown for the unit for degasification of the coal bed before the cleaning face.

  1. Effect of the acid rain in the constituent material of the Mayan Mexican monuments; Efecto de la lluvia acida en el material constituyente de los monuments mayas mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo Alvarez, H; Soto Ayala, R; Sosa Echeverria, R; Sanchez Alvarez, P [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-10-15

    Actually, acid rain is considered as a potential problem that affects materials and ecosystems. The effect on monuments, made mainly from limestone, has been studied for long time. In this work, a sample of limestone from Tulum, Qintana Roo, was studied. The following parameters were measured: density, porosity and percentage of water adsorption. Also, the sample was irrigated with acid rain prepared in the laboratory (pH = 4.6), based in the chemical composition of 56 rain samples from Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo, in 1994 and 1995. The results obtained show that acid rain is neutralized by calcium carbonate from the limestone. The high calcium concentrations in the effluent, show that limestone is dissolved by acid rain. Superficial recession was 4.4 {mu}m/year under experimental conditions used. [Spanish] Actualmente la lluvia acida se ha convertido en un problema potencial que afecta en mayor o menor grado a materiales y a los ecosistemas. El efecto que causa la lluvia acida en monumentos construidos fundamentalmente de roca caliza, ha sido objeto de muchas investigaciones realizadas, prioritariamente, por paises que poseen estructuras, cuyo material de construccion es caliza. En este trabajo de investigacion se estudio una muestra de roca caliza proveniente de los monumentos mayas de Tulum, Quintana Roo. Se determinaron los parametros de densidad, porosidad y porcentaje de adsorcion de agua. Asimismo, se efectuo la irrigacion de la muestra con lluvia acida (pH aprox.4.6), preparada en el laboratorio con base en la composicion quimica que se determino en 56 muestras de agua de lluvia provenientes de Puerto Morelos, punto cercano a los monumentos de Tulum, Quintana Roo, durante los anos 1994 y 1995. Los resultados permiten concluir que la lluvia acida sufre un proceso de naturalizacion con el carbonato de calcio de la roca caliza. Las altas concentraciones de calcio en el efluente, mostraron que la roca caliza sufrio una disolucion con la lluvia acida. La

  2. The characteristics of bed agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Tia, Suvit

    2015-01-01

    The bed agglomeration behaviors were investigated experimentally when eucalyptus bark was burning tested in a laboratory scale fluidized bed reactor. The focuses of this work were the influences of operating conditions and bed materials on the bed agglomeration tendency and the elucidation in the behaviors of fuel inorganic elements and the governing mode of the agglomeration. It was found that the defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was clearly detectable from the decrease in measured bed pressure. The growth of bed particle and accumulation of agglomerates during combustion provided the partial to complete defluidization. The defluidization was promoted by the increase of bed temperature and bed particle size, and the decrease of fluidizing air velocity. The SEM-EDS analyses revealed that the bed agglomeration was mainly attributed to the formation of potassium silicate compounds as liquid phase during the combustion. This was initiated by the chemical reaction between the bed particle and the released ash constituents. In this study, the inorganic migration from fuel particle to bed particle was likely dominated by the condensation/reaction. The thermodynamic examination by ternary phase diagram analysis corroborated that the liquid phase formation of the ash derived materials controlled the agglomeration. The alumina sand prevented the bed agglomeration since it was inactive in the formation of viscous molten substances during combustion at the observed temperatures. - Highlights: • The behaviors of bed agglomeration were studied during the fluidized bed combustion of eucalyptus bark. • The increase in bed temperature and sand size, and the decrease of air velocity promoted bed defluidization. • The formation of molten potassium silicate compounds conduced to the bed agglomeration. • Condensation/reaction was the dominant inorganic migration mechanism from fuel particle to bed particle. • The alumina sand prevented effectively the bed

  3. Bed agglomeration characteristics of palm shell and corncob combustion in fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaivatamaset, Pawin; Sricharoon, Panchan; Tia, Suvit

    2011-01-01

    Bed particle agglomeration was studied experimentally in an atmospheric laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor using quartz sand as bed material. Palm shell and corncob were tested. The objectives of the study were (i) to describe the contributions of the biomass ash properties and the operating conditions on the bed agglomeration tendency in term of the bed defluidization time (t def ) and the extent of potassium accumulation in the bed (K/Bed) and (ii) to further elucidate the ash inorganic behaviors and the governing bed agglomeration mechanisms. Defluidization caused by the bed agglomeration was experienced in all experiments during combustion of these biomasses, as a consequence of the presence of potassium in biomass. The experimental results indicated that biomass ash characteristics were the significant influence on the bed agglomeration. The increasing bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decreasing fluidizing air velocity enhanced the bed agglomeration tendency. The SEM/EDS analyses on the agglomerates confirmed that the agglomeration was attributed to the formation of potassium silicate liquid enriched on the surface of quartz sand particles in conjunction with the high surface temperature of the burning biomass char particles. Thermodynamic examination based on the phase diagram analysis confirmed that the molten phase formation was responsible for the agglomeration. In this study, the high molten ash fraction resulting from the high potassium content in biomass promoted the agglomeration and thus defluidization. - Highlights: → Palm shell and corncob of Thailand are tested their bed agglomeration behaviors during fluidized bed combustion. → The increase of bed temperature, bed particle size and static bed height and the decrease of air velocity enhance bed agglomeration. → The formation of ash derived potassium silicate melts enriched on sand surface is the key process. → The collision between char and sand

  4. Measuring change over time: the use of geotagged photographs to evaluate the weathering of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehne, E.

    2012-04-01

    Evaluating the condition of weathered stone surfaces on a monument, building or sculpture requires information on how those surfaces have evolved. In a number of cases, the documentation related to a site or object is either not readily available or has been lost (due to war, fire, etc.). Exploring the use of geotagged photographs to supplement the evaluation of surface changes to monuments was tested using two sites: the Mausoleum at the Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California and the Duomo in Florence, Italy. Increasingly, photographs are being geo-located or geotagged, either automatically via GPS/WiFi or manually. Geolocation tags increase the value of a photograph to researchers by providing the geographic location where the image was taken, often along with the date and time the photograph was acquired. Estimates of the number of geolocated photographs posted to the Internet include 148 million on Flickr.com (as of June 3, 2011) increasing to 172 million as of January 15, 2012. On Panarimo.com five million geolocated images were archived as of October 2007. Tools such as auto-geotag and PhotoOverlay are making it easier for users to locate and exactly position existing photographs and historic photographs on sites such as Google Earth (PhotoOverlays are images that are directly embedded in the Google Earth's landscape). 42 photo sharing websites are listed currently on Wikipedia, with seven having Alexa rankings of less than 200, indicating the popularity of photo sharing and the vast nature of this resource. Preliminary results from the Huntington and the Duomo indicate that geolocated images are indeed a useful tool for aiding in understanding stone weathering patterns and changes over time. However, greater software support and new tools are needed to enable researchers to search, organize and analyze groups of photographs from a single geolocation. Such software would have obvious uses beyond the conservation

  5. Mammal inventories for eight National Parks in the Southern Colorado Plateau Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Michael A.; Geluso, Keith; Haymond, Shauna; Valdez, Ernest W.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, the Colorado Plateau has been the subject of many geological and biological explorations. J. W. Powell explored and mapped the canyon country of the Colorado River in 1869 (Powell 1961). C. H. Merriam, V. Bailey, M. Cary, and other employees of the Bureau of Biological Survey conducted biological explorations of the area in the late 1800s. In recent times, researchers such as S. D. Durrant (1952), Durrant and Robinson (1962), D. M. Armstrong (1972), J. S. Findley et al. (1975), D. F. Hoff meister (1986), and J. Fitzgerald et al. (1994) have made considerable contributions to our understanding of the fauna of the Colorado Plateau. Despite earlier efforts, biological details on many regions of the plateau have remained insufficiently explored. In an effort to gather valuable biological information, the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a nationwide program to inventory vascular plants and vertebrates on NPS lands (Stuart 2000). The U.S. Geological Survey, Fort Collins Science Center, Arid Lands Field Station became a cooperator on this effort in 2001, when we began mammalian inventories on five parks within the NPS Southern Colorado Plateau Network (SCPN): Aztec Ruins National Monument (AZRU), El Morro National Monument (ELMO), Petroglyph National Monument (PETR), Salinas Pueblo Missions National Monument (SAPU), and Yucca House National Monument (YUHO). Existing baseline data on mammalian occurrences in these parks varied from very sparse to moderate, with little information available for most parks. In most cases, information was insufficient to assess the status of species of local concern. A final report on inventory efforts on these five parks was submitted in February 2004 (Bogan et al. 2004). In 2003, biologists from the Arid Lands Field Station began work on three additional parks in the SCPN: Bandelier National Monument (BAND), Chaco Culture National Historical Park (CHCU), and El Malpaís National Monument (ELMA). The primary emphasis at

  6. Clinical evaluation of an automated turning bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, H I; Langemo, D; Hanson, D; Olson, B; Hunter, S

    1999-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess client comfort and sleep quality, client physiologic response (skin and respiratory status), the effect on the need for caregiver assistance, and cost when using an automated turning bed. Nonexperimental, evaluative study. Twenty-four adult home or long-term care resident subjects who had a degenerative disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, or back surgery. Each subject agreed to use the automated turning bed for four weeks. Researchers completed a demographic survey and skin assessment, and assessed each subject for pressure ulcer risk and for the need of assistance of a care giver for turning before and after the four weeks of using the turning bed. Subjects rated the turning bed in terms of comfort and sleep quality. Subjects rated the turning bed as more comfortable than their own bed and expressed satisfaction at the pain relief attained when on the turning bed. While using the turning bed, there was a significant improvement in sleep quality. No skin breakdown or deterioration in respiratory status occurred. Fewer subjects required the assistance of a caregiver for turning when on the turning bed. This automated turning bed shows great promise in meeting a need for patients with limited mobility whether they are homebound or in a residential community. Future studies that further investigate use of the turning bed for postoperative back patients while still in the acute care setting are indicated. Replicative studies with a larger sample size are also indicated.

  7. Tenement House “Under The Golden Crown” In Wrocław - Renovation Of The Peculiar Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschke Krystyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the many historic buildings in Wroclaw, there is a property address Rynek 29 - Oławska 2, that in 1970 entered in the register of monuments as “a department store, earlier tenement house called “Under the Golden Crown”. In the fact it was built in 1961 and it is neither a historical building nor department store. It is, spectacular example of creative retrospective, in the post-war reconstruction of Wroclaw. It has relict of medieval and Renaissance architecture, but the aboveground parts have a skeleton structure of commercial buildings from the early 20th century. In recent years, there is a problem with renovating such buildings. Recognition of these monuments has become a requirement now. Because only in this way in the future, in the course of modernization works, you will be able to avoid bad decisions and unforeseen situations.

  8. Data Validation Package, December 2015, Groundwater and Surface Water Sampling at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site March 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyrrell, Evan [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, NV (United States); Denny, Angelita [USDOE Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Fifty-two groundwater samples and one surface water sample were collected at the Monument Valley, Arizona, Processing Site to monitor groundwater contaminants for evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed compliance strategy as specified in the 1999 Final Site Observational Work Plan for the UMTRA Project Site at Monument Valley, Arizona. Sampling and analyses were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated, http://energy.gov/lm/downloads/sampling-and-analysis-plan-us-department- energy-office-legacy-management-sites). Samples were collected for metals, anions, nitrate + nitrite as N, and ammonia as N analyses at all locations.

  9. Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

  10. Recommendations and Strategies for the Establishment of a Guideline for Monument Documentation Harmonized with the Existing European Standards and Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kioussi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on current state of immovable cultural heritage is important for specifying measures necessary to preserve the heritage in an appropriate condition and ensure that the maintenance required to keep it at this level is well defined. In this framework, EU-CHIC project aims to set-up a system introducing a concept of the “Cultural Heritage Identity Card”, which will develop into a systematic collection and storage of data on immovable heritage objects across European and neighboring countries. This work supports sustainable maintenance, preservation and revitalization of historic sites and monuments. This is achieved through the development of a guideline for the assessment of efficient documentation systems that identify the parameters needed for the characterisation of the preservation state of a monument and its possible alterations during its entire lifetime. In order to develop and test the recommendations for efficient compilation of the data pertinent to each monument under observation, the development of criteria, indicators and protocols as part of a common methodology that encourages the exchange of document between European countries is initiated. The criteria encompass all potential factors affecting the building structure, the non-structural elements, the architectural value and any other aspects ranging from the functionality of the monument/building, to its historic value. This has been achieved through an integrated survey of existing documentation protocols in the field of cultural heritage protection, and through implementation of recommendations about criteria for harmonizing these protocols, both which provide a new documentation methodology. This new methodology is an upgrade of current documentation methodologies, and responds to criteria and indicators for risk assessment and the technology state of diagnostics and data management. A guideline will provide the essential document for further development of

  11. Megaliths as land-marks. Chronicle of the territorial role of the megalithic monuments through written sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinón-Torres, Marcos

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Megalithic monuments have played dijferent roles throughout History. One of them has a spatial function, i.e. as landmarks. The aim of this paper has been to collect and analyse every written reference concerning Galician megaliths operating as landmarks between the 6th and 19th centuries AD. On this basis, the evolution of this social-territorial function of the monuments through time is reconstructed, and an interpretative hypothesis for this phenomenon is proposed. Finally, the importance of reviewing written sources as a methodology for archaeological survey and for studies of the topographic settings of monuments is emphasised.

    A lo largo de la Historia, los monumentos megalíticos han desempeñado, entre otras, una función espacial, como marcos de territorio. Para este artículo se recogen y analizan las referencias escritas a megalitos gallegos funcionando como marcadores o identificadores espaciales, entre los siglos VI y XIX d.C. A partir de este registro de fuentes se reconstruye la evolución de este papel social-territorial de los monumentos en las distintas épocas. Se plantea un modelo interpretativo para este fenómeno, y se valora la revisión de fuentes escritas como metodología para la prospección arqueológica y para los estudios de emplazamiento de megalitos.

  12. Sarmatian Monuments in the Forest-Steppe Interfluve Area Between the Don and the Volga Rivers (Zoning Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berestnev Roman Sergeevich

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the zoning of Sarmatian antiquities in the forest-steppe interfluve area between the Don and the Volga rivers. On the basis of the analysis, the authors allocate four areas of burial monuments in the Northern periphery of the Asian Sarmatia (the river in Voronezh, the Middle Don, the Upper Don, the area between the Khoper and the Volga rivers. The stages of the forest-steppe area development by the Sarmatians in the Don River, the Khoper river and the right bank of the Volga river were also studied. The first stage is characterized by the general description of Sarmatian monuments located in the forest-steppe area between the Volga and the Khoper. The authors carry out the detailed review of the distinctive features of the funeral rites and some peculiar details: stratigraphy, structures beneath barrows, forms of burial pits, postures of the deceased, orientation, use of fire, imported and domestic utensils, weapons and ornaments. Archaeological materials are compared with the data of ancient sources (Claudius Ptolemy. The result of the study consists in the comparative analysis of the binding of specific ethnic groups in the allocated areas. The authors attribute the Sarmatians on the Voronezh river with the Gippofagi ancient authors; the Aseyes and the Sakata – with the area of monuments in the forest between the Volga and the Khoper.

  13. Multiscale Analysis of Pebble Bed Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar; Woo Yoon; Abderrafi Ougouag

    2010-10-01

    – The PEBBED code was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory for design and analysis of pebble-bed high temperature reactors. The diffusion-depletion-pebble-mixing algorithm of the original PEBBED code was enhanced through coupling with the THERMIX-KONVEK code for thermal fluid analysis and by the COMBINE code for online cross section generation. The COMBINE code solves the B-1 or B-3 approximations to the transport equation for neutron slowing down and resonance interactions in a homogeneous medium with simple corrections for shadowing and thermal self-shielding. The number densities of materials within specified regions of the core are averaged and transferred to COMBINE from PEBBED for updating during the burnup iteration. The simple treatment of self-shielding in previous versions of COMBINE led to inaccurate results for cross sections and unsatisfactory core performance calculations. A new version of COMBINE has been developed that treats all levels of heterogeneity using the 1D transport code ANISN. In a 3-stage calculation, slowing down is performed in 167 groups for each homogeneous subregion (kernel, particle layers, graphite shell, control rod absorber annulus, etc.) Particles in a local average pebble are homogenized using ANISN then passed to the next (pebble) stage. A 1D transport solution is again performed over the pebble geometry and the homogenized pebble cross sections are passed to a 1-d radial model of a wedge of the pebble bed core. This wedge may also include homogeneous reflector regions and a control rod region composed of annuli of different absorbing regions. Radial leakage effects are therefore captured with discrete ordinates transport while axial and azimuthal effects are captured with a transverse buckling term. In this paper, results of various PBR models will be compared with comparable models from literature. Performance of the code will be assessed.

  14. The Safety of Hospital Beds: Ingress, Egress, and In-Bed Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Janice M; Gervais, Pierre; Pooler, Charlotte; Merryweather, Andrew; Doig, Alexa K; Bloswick, Donald

    2015-01-01

    To explore the safety of the standard and the low hospital bed, we report on a microanalysis of 15 patients' ability to ingress, move about the bed, and egress. The 15 participants were purposefully selected with various disabilities. Bed conditions were randomized with side rails up or down and one low bed with side rails down. We explored the patients' use of the side rails, bed height, ability to lift their legs onto the mattress, and ability to turn, egress, and walk back to the chair. The standard bed was too high for some participants, both for ingress and egress. Side rails were used by most participants when entering, turning in bed, and exiting. We recommend that side rails be reconsidered as a means to facilitate in-bed movement, ingress, and egress. Furthermore, single deck height settings for all patients are not optimal. Low beds as a safety measure must be re-evaluated.

  15. MONUMENTS OR FUNCTIONING BUILDINGS: LEGAL PROTECTION OVER FIVE CASE-STUDY HISTORIC HAMMAMS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa el Habashi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Historic hammams a used to be. They are falling into an advanced state of disrepair and are located in dilapidated historic zones. In some cases, they are associated with bad reputations and socially unacceptable behaviours. Many historic hammams’ are therefore, being demolished to make use of their land plots. The few ones that have managed to still survive and operate, witness heavy modifications that not only diminish their historic values but also their operational efficiency. They are becoming rare, and therefore require legal protection either as a heritage building or as a historic monument. This relatively new protection is usually more concerned to preserve the physical existence of the building rather than to maintain its original function and social role. This paper is based on five case study hamm.ms’ in five different countries, investigated as part of the EU funded HAMMAM project. It presents a comparison of the various protection frameworks of the fi ve hammams, and explores the effects of such protection on their current status. It recommends establishing a coherent protection system that respects ethics of heritage conservation and emphasizes on the revitalization of the hammams’social, financial and health roles in the society.

  16. GPR identification of an early monument at Los Morteros in the Peruvian coastal desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Kelley, Alice R.; Belknap, Daniel F.; Kelley, Joseph T.; Rademaker, Kurt; Reid, David A.

    2010-05-01

    Los Morteros (8˚39'54″S, 78˚42 '00″W) is located in coastal, northern Peru, one of the six original centers of world civilization. The site consists of a large, sand-covered, isolated prominence situated on a Mid-Holocene shoreline, ˜ 5 km from the present coast. Preceramic archaeological deposits (4040 ± 75 to 4656 ± 60 14C yr BP or ˜ 3600-5500 cal yr BP) cap this feature, which has been identified by prior researchers as a sand-draped, bedrock-cored landform or a relict dune deposit. Because neither explanation is geomorphologically probable, we used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and high-resolution mapping to assess the mound's interior structure. Our results indicate an anthropogenic origin for Los Morteros, potentially placing it among the earliest monumental structures in prehistoric South America. The extremely arid setting raises new questions about the purpose and the logistics of early mound construction in this region. This work demonstrates the value of an integrated Quaternary sciences approach to assess long-term landscape change and to understand the interaction between humans and the environment.

  17. Intrasite motions and monument instabilities at Medicina ITRF co-location site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, Pierguido; Abbondanza, Claudio; Legrand, Juliette; Bruyninx, Carine; Vittuari, Luca; Ray, Jim

    2013-03-01

    We process the total-station surveys performed at the ITRF co-location site Medicina (Northern Italy) over the decade (2001-2010) with the purpose of determining the extent of local intrasite motions and relating them to local geophysical processes, the geological setting and the design of the ground pillars. In addition, continuous observations acquired by two co-located GPS stations (MEDI and MSEL separated by ≈27 m) are analysed and their relative motion is cross-checked with the total-station results. The local ground control network extends over a small area (<100 × 100 m) but the results demonstrate significant anisotropic deformations with rates up to 1.6 mm a-1, primarily horizontal, a value comparable to intraplate tectonic deformations. The results derived from GPS and total-station observations are consistent and point to the presence of horizontal intrasite motions over very short distances possibly associated with varying environmental conditions in a very unfavourable local geological setting and unsuitable monument design, these latter being crucial aspects of the realization and maintenance of global permanent geodetic networks and the global terrestrial reference frame.

  18. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestiadou, Katerina; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Hagidimitriou, Marianna; Katsiotis, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible) and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm.

  19. Formas arquitectónicas funerarias de carácter monumental en Colonia Patricia Corduba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquerizo Gil, Desiderio

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a full study of the first funerary monuments documented in Colonia Patricia (Corduba, act. Córdoba. It deals not only with the architectural shapes and forms which, in spite of having been made mainly of native materials and in local workshops, reveal a clear Italic influence on burial types and morphology, but also with their topographic layout, especially in relation with the higways around the city. This phenomenon begins around the change of the Era.Análisis en profundidad de las primeras manifestaciones funerarias monumentales documentadas en Colonia Patricia Corduba, valorando tanto las formas arquitectónicas —que, aun cuando realizadas mayoritariamente con materiales autóctonos y sin duda por parte de talleres locales, denotan una clara componente itálica en lo que se refiere a los modelos y la morfología de los enterramientos—, como su distribución topográfica, particularmente en relación con las vías, que comienzan a monumentalizarse en torno al cambio de Era.

  20. SHM experiences of monuments in different structural use and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modena, C.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades the need for an effective seismic protection and vulnerability reduction of strategic structures and particularly the architectural heritage determined a growing interest in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) as measure of passive mitigation of earthquake effects. The object of monitoring is to identify, locate and classify type and severity of damage induced by external actions or degradation phenomena and to assess their effects on the structural performance. In this way it is possible to take appropriate measures to reduce the danger of collapse and, when necessary, perform straightening interventions to improve the structural and seismic capacity. Motivated by the above reasons, the paper provide a contribution to the application of integrated methodologies and techniques, based on SHM, for the assessment and protection of Cultural Heritage (CH) buildings and monuments. Selected case studies, equipped with distributed sensors and acquisition systems. allowed the definition and successive validation of SHM as a knowledge-based assessment tool, implemented to evaluate intervention needs, following an incremental approach during their execution, and to control the damage states of buildings in a post-seismic scenario. In order to maximize the benefits of SHM and optimize the entire process, dedicated software for static monitoring and automated algorithms for modal parameters identification have been developed, able to provide almost real time information on the health state of the monitored structure. Finally integrated procedures based on robust statistical and numerical models have been implemented to interpret and exploit SHM outputs to assess the structural conditions of the investigated CH buildings.

  1. The research on the buried public monumental complexes of Lupiae (Lecce) by geophysical prospecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucci, Giovanni; De Giorgi, Lara; Di Giacomo, Giacomo; Ditaranto, Imma; Miccoli, Ilaria; Scardozzi, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    Ongoing and extensive urbanisation may threaten important archaeological structures that are still buried in urban areas. The ground penetrating radar (GPR) method is the most promising alternative for resolving buried archaeological structures in urban territories. This paper presents a case study that involves a geophysical survey employing the surface three-dimensional (3D) GPR techniques, in order to archaeologically characterise the investigated areas. The site is located in the south-western sector of the historical centre of Lecce (Apulia, Italy), where the modern city overlaps the main public monuments of the Roman municipium of Lupiae, only partially preserved or excavated: the amphitheatre, the theatre, the baths and maybe also the Forum. GPR measurements, integrated with the results of archaeological excavations and the topographical surveys of the preserved remains, were carried out in several areas regarding sectors of the ancient roman city. The GPR data were collected along a dense network of parallel profiles. The GPR sections were processed applying specific filters to the data in order to enhance their information content. The GPR images significantly contributed in reconstructing the complex subsurface properties in these modern urban areas. Strong GPR reflections features were correlated with possible ancient structures and they were integrated in the digital archaeological map of the city.

  2. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Anestiadou

    Full Text Available Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm.

  3. Monitoring Mechanism in Preservation of Monuments in Hot and Wet Climate Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. C.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lin, M. L.; Hang, L. W.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-08-01

    Historic monuments and buildings are critical cultural assets which cannot be presented by again by human beings. Longer affected by natural climate, environment and biological behavior (including human), resulting in damage and the need for repair. Therefore, UNESCO proposed periodic reporting and reactive monitoring in 2007, in order to achieve "early detection, early repair". This study discusses about suitable preservation monitoring methods for Taiwan. To shed light on damage and impact factors of historical buildings and cultural relics, the study is based on impact and sensor, monitoring method, monitoring period and maintenance personnel in order to propose standard operating procedures of monitoring method. To reduce the rate of the human and sensor monitoring, with the long-term monitoring data analysis, it is calculated that 30 minutes is the best period of data collecting. Besides, the study is adopted regression analysis to select temperature variable only then calculate humidity variable function. This study provides a reference monitoring method for monitoring personnel and maintenance personnel, and establishes a long-term monitoring data based information for damage and destroy in the future. Monitoring period and maintenance personnel can follow the data based to find out the damage points and problems, to keep the value of cultural assets.

  4. Building the Monumental Source Alameda Afonso Henriques (1938-1948 through journals and administrative process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Elias

    2010-02-01

    The research was based primarily on data collected in the process of work, existing file. The journals have been the prime source to describe the construction of the Monumental Fountain. However, given the political context of the time, the journals say little about the logic that led to the belated realization of the work, since their concern is, above all, credibility and consolidate the political image of the regime. In this study, the consultation of journals made by the need to contextualize the motivations of political and ideological order that accompanied the launching of the construction. In the absence of justification on the grounds that caused the delay in the work, we used to see the file's administrative order. This made it possible to obtain unpublished data on the construction of commemorative works such as launching an international tender for electrical installation and plumbing of water games or contingencies that led to the tardy commencement of the works and the replacement of material originally intended for artistic commissions.

  5. Study of the mechanical behavior of the fronts of exterior monuments in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, E.; Martinez, W.; Avalos, M.; Castano, V.; Martinez, L.

    2005-01-01

    There are 1,130 architectural ancient monuments in the historic center in Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico built with ignimbrites from the surrounding quarry stones. In some facades is acute the damage. The walls are between 0.50 and 1.50 meters wide, it helps the structure under seismic or accidental loads. The main winds come from the S-SW and their ratio speed (4-20 m/s) does not allow mechanical corrosion (corrosion) but it is able to carry anthropogenic particles (2-25 m), form the burnt of fossil fuels, and they lay on the facades. The damage is observed specially on the facades on the dominant winds and also on the facades located on streets less than 6.0 m wide. The capillary humidity is visible until highs of 2.0 meters on the streets, and it is appreciate the efflorescence crystals and biologic patinas. We performance non destructive tests in situ with the Schmidt hammer to quantify the mechanical resistance on the ignimbrite blocks forming the buildings, in the lowest part of them we took the data because the damage is acute in that wet zone and because in this part could occur the collapse in an extraordinary earthquake. The collected data were compared with the data obtained in ignimbrites blocks taken from the 'healthy' quarry stones. (Author)

  6. Monumental olive trees of Cyprus contributed to the establishment of the contemporary olive germplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagidimitriou, Marianna

    2017-01-01

    Even though Cyprus was an important crossing point for the westward spread of olive, and one of the primary regions of domestication, its genetic recourses remain uncharted at a great extent. Throughout the centuries, a number of ancient olive trees remain in the same orchards, contributing to Cypriot oleiculture and society. In an attempt to explore this monumental genetic pool, a survey was conducted to identify centennial olive trees in rural provinces of Cyprus. Microsatellites were employed in order to study their genetic composition (including rootstocks when feasible) and to establish possible associations among genotypes. High numbers of specific alleles, suggestive of the distinctiveness of this germplasm, were detected, and both grafting and rootstock propagation was verified. Moreover, it was determined by Bayesian structural and network reticulate analysis that centennial olives can be divided in two discrete genetic clusters having intermediate admixed accessions. Furthermore, it was determined that all contemporary Cypriot cultivars, that were included in the present study, were highly affiliated exclusively to one genetic group, a strong evidence of selection among elite clones. The information acquired from the current study reveals the genetic rareness of this material and its contribution to the current olive germplasm. PMID:29112969

  7. Mechanical vs. manual cleaning of hospital beds: a prospective intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopman, J; Nillesen, M; de Both, E; Witte, J; Teerenstra, S; Hulscher, M; Voss, A

    2015-06-01

    Cleaning regimens for hospital beds were evaluated in the context of a rising prevalence of highly resistant micro-organisms and increasing financial pressure on healthcare systems. Dutch hospitals have to choose between standardized, mechanical bed-washers advised in national guidance and manual cleaning. To evaluate the quality of mechanical and manual bed-cleaning regimens. The multi-faceted analysis of bed-cleaning regimens consisted of three steps. In Step 1, the training of the domestic service team was evaluated. In Step 2, the cleaning quality of manual and mechanical regimens was assessed. Soiled beds, obtained at random, from different departments were evaluated using microbiological analysis (N = 40) and ATP (N = 20). ATP and microbiological contamination were measured in five predetermined locations on all beds. In Step 3, manual cleaning was introduced over a two-month pilot study at the surgical short-stay unit, and beds from other departments were processed according to the 'gold standard' mechanical cleaning. ATP levels were evaluated in three locations on 300 beds after cleaning. Training was found to improve the quality of cleaning significantly. Mechanical cleaning resulted in significantly lower ATP levels than manual cleaning. Mechanical cleaning shows less variation and results in consistently lower ATP levels than manual cleaning. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  9. Smart Home Test Bed: Examining How Smart Homes Interact with the Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-11-01

    This fact sheet highlights the Smart Home Test Bed capability at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working on one of the new frontiers of smart home research: finding ways for smart home technologies and systems to enhance grid operations in the presence of distributed, clean energy technologies such as photovoltaics (PV). To help advance this research, NREL has developed a controllable, flexible, and fully integrated Smart Home Test Bed.

  10. On partial fluidization in rotating fluidized beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, J.; Pfeffer, R.; Tardos, G.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a rotating fluidized bed, unlike in a conventional fluidized bed, the granules are fluidized layer by layer from the (inner) free surface outward at increasing radius as the gas velocity is increased. This is a very significant and interesting phenomenon and is extremely important in the design of these fluidized beds. The phenomenon was first suggested in a theoretical analysis and recently verified experimentally in the authors' laboratory. However, in the first paper, the equations presented are too cumbersome and the influence of bed thickness is not clearly stated. In this note the authors present simplified equations, based on that paper, for the pressure drop and the minimum fluidizing velocities in a rotating fluidized bed. Experimental data are also shown and compared with the theoretical model, and the effect of bed thickness is shown. Furthermore, an explanation for the observation of a maximum in the pressure drop vs. velocity curve instead of the plateau derived by Chen is proposed

  11. Gruppebaseret behandling af BED - et faseopdelt behandlingstilbud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laust, Jakob; Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Titel: Afrapportering vedr. SATS-puljemidler til behandling og erfaringsopsamling vedr. BED for perioden 1. marts 2013 – 1. maj 2015. Baggrund: Binge Eating Disorder (BED), på dansk tvangsoverspisning, er en udbredt, men overset spiseforstyrrelse med alvorlige psykiske, fysiske og sociale...... konsekvenser. BED blev i 2013 optaget i DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) som en selvstændig diagnose og BED forventes medtaget i den forestående revision af det internationale diagnose system, ICD-11. Sundhedsstyrelsen gav på denne baggrund satspuljemidler til erfaringsopsamling...... vedr. BED. I den forbindelse ansøgte Ambulatorium for Spiseforstyrrelser på Psykoterapeutisk Center Stolpegård ovenstående midler til at udvikle en ambulant, primært psykoterapeutisk gruppebehandling til patienter med moderat til svær BED med fokus på såvel spiseforstyrrelse såvel som overvægt. Metode...

  12. Gas distributor for fluidized bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Arthur C.; Zboray, James A.

    1980-01-01

    A gas distributor for distributing high temperature reaction gases to a fluidized bed of coal particles in a coal gasification process. The distributor includes a pipe with a refractory reinforced lining and a plurality of openings in the lining through which gas is fed into the bed. These feed openings have an expanding tapered shape in the downstream or exhaust direction which aids in reducing the velocity of the gas jets as they enter the bed.

  13. Gas filtration in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rincon, J. (Univ. de Castilla-La Mancha, Ciudad Real (Spain)); Guardiola, J.; Romero, A. (Univ. de Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-12-01

    A systematic experimental study of aerosol filtration in a binary fluidized bed of dielectric material is carried out. Measurements of the collection efficiency when such parameters as gas velocity, bed height, collecting mixture, and column diameter are varied over a wide range have been made. Experimental evidence is given to show that charges generated naturally by triboelectrification of the bed dielectric particles can considerably increase the efficiency of such beds. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a proper choice of the fluidized mixture can significantly improve the performance of such filters.

  14. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-06-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  15. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-01-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  16. Sedgeunkedunk stream bed sediment particle diameter from 2007-08-15 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0152487)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are collecting stream channel geometry and bed sediment grain size distribution data at Sedgeunkedunk stream to evaluate physical habitat changes associated with...

  17. Larkin Mill Dam bed sediment particle diameter from 2008-06-09 to 2016-03-30 (NCEI Accession 0152462)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are collecting stream channel geometry and bed sediment grain size distribution data at the Parker River to evaluate physical habitat changes associated with the...

  18. Geographic Information System (GIS) characterization of historical extent of seagrass beds in Tampa Bay, Florida (NODC Accession 0000613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The coverage is the historical extent of seagrass beds in Tampa Bay. Vector coverage was rasterized using ELAS software. The project was completed by US Fish and...

  19. Coral-based Proxy Records of Ocean Acidification: A Pilot Study at the Puerto Rico Test-bed Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral cores collected nearby the Atlantic Ocean Acidification Test-bed (AOAT) at La Parguera, Puerto Rico were used to characterize the relationship between...

  20. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM. This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL that supports higher level of details (LoD while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we’ll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  1. Integration of Jeddah Historical BIM and 3D GIS for Documentation and Restoration of Historical Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Yaagoubi, R.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    This work outlines a new approach for the integration of 3D Building Information Modelling and the 3D Geographic Information System (GIS) to provide semantically rich models, and to get the benefits from both systems to help document and analyse cultural heritage sites. Our proposed framework is based on the Jeddah Historical Building Information Modelling process (JHBIM). This JHBIM consists of a Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) that supports higher level of details (LoD) while decreasing the time of modelling. The Hijazi Architectural Objects Library has been modelled based on the Islamic historical manuscripts and Hijazi architectural pattern books. Moreover, the HAOL is implemented using BIM software called Autodesk Revit. However, it is known that this BIM environment still has some limitations with the non-standard architectural objects. Hence, we propose to integrate the developed 3D JHBIM with 3D GIS for more advanced analysis. To do so, the JHBIM database is exported and semantically enriched with non-architectural information that is necessary for restoration and preservation of historical monuments. After that, this database is integrated with the 3D Model in the 3D GIS solution. At the end of this paper, we'll illustrate our proposed framework by applying it to a Historical Building called Nasif Historical House in Jeddah. First of all, this building is scanned by the use of a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and Close Range Photogrammetry. Then, the 3D JHBIM based on the HOAL is designed on Revit Platform. Finally, this model is integrated to a 3D GIS solution through Autodesk InfraWorks. The shown analysis presented in this research highlights the importance of such integration especially for operational decisions and sharing the historical knowledge about Jeddah Historical City. Furthermore, one of the historical buildings in Old Jeddah, Nasif Historical House, was chosen as a test case for the project.

  2. "El guggenheim y mucho más" urbanismo monumental y arquitectura de grife en Bilbao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fialho Bonates

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Inseridas em modelo de planejamento estratégico, muitas cidades vêm buscando a receita da transformação urbana, por meio de grandes projetos de desenvolvimento urbano que expressem um urbanismo monumental e contenha arquiteturas de grife. Dentre as diversas cidades que já experimentaram esse tipo de planejamento urbano, destaca-se Bilbao, a qual, com a construção do Museu Guggenheim, projetado pelo arquiteto Frank Gehry, passou por uma transformação em sua estrutura urbana e por uma nova construção imagética da cidade no mundo contemporâneo dos negócios e dirigida pelo capital financeiro, bem como por uma economia cada vez mais dependente da obtenção de rendas de monopólio. Assim sendo, o modelo adotado nessa cidade provocou o chamado" efeito Bilbao", sendo o museu, em grande medida, o principal responsável por essa implicação, tornando-se também o principal ícone da capital basca. No entanto, a cidade vem buscando auto-afirmar-se à custa de outras intervenções e, principalmente, de outras arquiteturas de grife, com a agregação de mais valor simbólico às novas construções, muitas das quais seguindo a receita de sucesso do Guggenheim. Diante de tal fato, entender os grandes projetos urbanos, isto é, o" urbanismo monumentalista patriótico" de Bilbao e, por conseguinte, sua arquitetura de grife, é o objetivo deste trabalho.

  3. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  4. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology. 4 refs

  5. Particle Bed Reactor engine technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S.; Feddersen, R.

    1992-03-01

    This paper discusses the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) based propulsion system being developed under the Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) program. A PBR engine is a light weight, compact propulsion system which offers significant improvement over current technology systems. Current performance goals are a system thrust of 75,000 pounds at an Isp of 1000 sec. A target thrust to weight ratio (T/W) of 30 has been established for an unshielded engine. The functionality of the PBR, its pertinent technology issues and the systems required to make up a propulsion system are described herein. Accomplishments to date which include hardware development and tests for the PBR engine are also discussed. This paper is intended to provide information on and describe the current state-of-the-art of PBR technology.

  6. Building Controls Virtual Test Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-04-01

    The Building Controls Virtual Test Bed (BCVTB) is a modular software environment that is based on the Ptolemy II software environment. The BCVTB can be used for design and analysis of heterogenous systems, such as building energy and controls systems. Our additions to Ptolemy II allow users to Couple to Ptolemy II simulation software such as EnergyPlus, MATLAB/Simulink or Dymola for data exchange during run-time. Future versions of the BCVTS will also contain an interface to BACnet which is a communication protocol for building Control systems, and interfaces to digital/analog converters that allow communication with controls hardware. Through Ptolemy II, the BCVTB provides a graphical model building environment, synchronizes the exchanged data and visualizes the system evolution during run- time.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  8. Manual for computing bed load transport using BAGS (Bedload Assessment for Gravel-bed Streams) Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Pitlick; Yantao Cui; Peter Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    This manual provides background information and instructions on the use of a spreadsheet-based program for Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bed Streams (BAGS). The program implements six bed load transport equations developed specifically for gravel-bed rivers. Transport capacities are calculated on the basis of field measurements of channel geometry, reach-average slope,...

  9. Characteristics of residents living in residential care communities, by community bed size: United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffrey, Christine; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren; Rome, Vincent; Sengupta, Manisha

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, there was a higher percentage of older, female residents in communities with more than 25 beds compared with communities with 4–25 beds. Residents in communities with 4–25 beds were more racially diverse than residents in larger communities. The percentage of Medicaid beneficiaries was higher in communities with 4–25 beds than it was in communities with 26–50 and more than 50 beds. A higher percentage of residents living in communities with 4–25 beds had a diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease or other dementias compared with residents in larger communities. Need for assistance with each of the activities of daily living (ADLs) examined (except walking or locomotion) was substantially higher among residents in communities with 4–25 beds, compared with residents in larger communities. Emergency department visits and discharges from an overnight hospital stay in a 90-day period did not vary across residents by community bed size. This report presents national estimates of residents living in residential care, using data from the first wave of NSLTCP. This brief profile of residential care residents provides useful information to policymakers, providers, researchers, and consumer advocates as they plan to meet the needs of an aging population. The findings also highlight the diversity of residents across the different sizes of residential care communities. Corresponding state estimates and their standard errors for the national figures in this data brief can be found on the NSLTCP website, available from: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsltcp/nsltcp_products.htm. These national and state estimates establish a baseline for monitoring trends among residents living in residential care. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  10. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-11-01

    In order to verify the technical feasibility of the MTCI Pulsed Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor technology, a laboratory-scale system was designed, built and tested. Important aspects of the operational and performance parameters of the system were established experimentally. A considerable amount of the effort was invested in the initial task of constructing an AFBC that would represent a reasonable baseline against which the performance of the PAFBC could be compared. A summary comparison of the performance and emissions data from the MTCI 2 ft {times} 2 ft facility (AFBC and PAFBC modes) with those from conventional BFBC (taller freeboard and recycle operation) and circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) units is given in Table ES-1. The comparison is for typical high-volatile bituminous coals and sorbents of average reactivity. The values indicated for BFBC and CFBC were based on published information. The AFBC unit that was designed to act as a baseline for the comparison was indeed representative of the larger units even at the smaller scale for which it was designed. The PAFBC mode exhibited superior performance in relation to the AFBC mode. The higher combustion efficiency translates into reduced coal consumption and lower system operating cost; the improvement in sulfur capture implies less sorbent requirement and waste generation and in turn lower operating cost; lower NO{sub x} and CO emissions mean ease of site permitting; and greater steam-generation rate translates into less heat exchange surface area and reduced capital cost. Also, the PAFBC performance generally surpasses those of conventional BFBC, is comparable to CFBC in combustion and NO{sub x} emissions, and is better than CFBC in sulfur capture and CO emissions even at the scaled-down size used for the experimental feasibility tests.

  11. Predicted sex ratio of juvenile Hawksbill Seaturtles inhabiting Buck Island Reef national monument, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, A.; Wibbels, T.; Phillips, B.; Hillis-Starr, Z.; Meylan, A.; Meylan, P.; Diez, C.; Van Dam, R.

    2003-01-01

    Hawksbill Seaturtles have temperature-dependent sex determination. As such, the resulting sex ratios are of conservational and ecological significance. Buck Island Reef is an interesting location for sex ratio studies since it represents a natural and unexploited foraging ground for hawksbills in the Caribbean. To examine sex ratios, blood samples were obtained from juvenile Hawksbill Seaturtles captured on Buck Island Reef over a four-year period. We used a radioimmunoassay to determine testosterone levels in those samples and compared those values to testosterone levels of juvenile hawksbills from the Caribbean whose sex has been verified by laparoscopy. The results of this study reveal a significantly female-biased sex ratio (approximately 80% female) occurs in this juvenile aggregation inhabiting Buck Island Reef.

  12. 78 FR 64973 - Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's Carrizo Plain National Monument Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... their education, training, and experience and their knowledge of the geographical resource. The... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The MAC provides representative citizen counsel and...

  13. An Alluvial Surface Chronology Based on Cosmogenic 36Cl Dating, Ajo Mountains (Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument), Southern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Beiling; Phillips, Fred M.; Pohl, Molly M.; Sharma, Pankaj

    1996-01-01

    A chronology of alluvial surfaces on piedmont slopes below the western Ajo Mountains, southern Arizona, has been obtained using cosmogenic 36Cl accumulation and AMS radiocarbon dating. The apparent 36Cl ages of individual boulders range from 520,000 to 13,000 yr, and the 14C ages of organic material in the two young terraces are 2750-2350 and 17,800 cal yr B.P. The sequence of 36Cl ages is consistent with the apparent stratigraphic order, but groupings of similar ages for different surfaces appear to result from repeated reworking of older surfaces associated with the deposition of younger ones. The youngest surface gave a distribution of 36Cl ages about 30,000 yr older than the 14C and soil ages; however, this distribution had 36Cl ages that overlapped with 36Cl ages from active channels and hillslopes. We attribute the older-than-expected exposure ages of sampled boulders to inheritance of 36Cl while residing near the surface during very slow erosion on the mountain front. Our results show that although cosmogenic nuclide accumulation can help establish chronologies for surfaces in piedmont settings, care must be used in evaluating the effects of complex exposure histories.

  14. 78 FR 18624 - Call for Nominations for the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument Advisory Committee, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    .... DATES: A completed nomination form and accompanying nomination/ recommendation letters must be received... above). To make a nomination, submit a letter of nomination, a completed nomination form, letters of..., will be appointed for the following categories: An educator, to represent the educational community; A...

  15. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the seabird and turtle species of the Central Pacific. Threatened Pisonia atoll forest trees are also... the proper care and management of the objects to be protected; WHEREAS it is in the public interest to... for the care and management of the historic and scientific objects therein: NOW, THEREFORE, I, GEORGE...

  16. 75 FR 18547 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Carrizo Plain National Monument Resource...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... RMP provides for the protection of the significant natural and cultural resources identified in the..., protection of sensitive natural and cultural resources, livestock grazing, energy and mineral development...., hang gliding, skydiving, hobby aircraft), provide for guided tours at Painted Rock, and define the...

  17. Status of the pebble bed modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholls, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    Eskom is the South African state electricity utility, with an installed capacity of 38397 MW at the end of 1996 (some 98% of all national generating assets). It is largely coal-based with a small proportion (5%) nuclear. As part of Eskom's long-term planning process, investigations have been made into new power generation options. On reconsidering the nuclear option, Eskom identified two key issues: cost and public acceptance. It was considered that both of these were driven by the safety issues related to potential accidents and the only way to obtain competitive costs with nuclear power was to remove the potential (however remote) for accidents with significant off-site consequences. The only reactor type that was seen to meet this safety standard was the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). This paper discusses the PBMR project history, plant performance and design, its benefits, safety features, and current status. It concludes that the PBMR will provide South Africa with a competitive option for coastal generation and, internationally, it will be highly competitive with virtually all other generation options. (author)

  18. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  19. Print a Bed Bug Card - (Single Cards)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sets of business-card-sized lists of tips for recognizing bed bugs and the signs of an infestation, including a photo of bed bugs to assist identification. One card is for general use around home or office, the other for travelers.

  20. Determination of true bed thickness using folded bed model and borehole data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.S.; Velasquillo-Martinez, L.G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J.M.; Murillo-Muneton, G. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico); Garcia-Hernandez, J. [Petroleos Mexicanos Exploracion y Produccion, Tamaulipas (Mexico); Nieto-Samaniego, A.F. [Nacional Autonoma de Mexico Univ., Veracruz (Mexico). Centro de Geociencias

    2007-11-15

    The actual thickness of a given formation perpendicular to the bedding plane is known as the true bed thickness. Petroleum engineers rely on information regarding true bed thickness, particularly in dipping beds and in deviated holes because reservoir volume and isochore maps depend on these properties and not on the measured thickness. True bed thickness can be estimated from information gathered from well logs such as the dipmeter and borehole images. However, when deviations and dips exceed 10 degrees, corrections are needed. In this paper, a folded bed model was proposed to calculate the true bed thickness in the subsurface utilizing well log data. The value of true bed thickness (t) was shown to depend on the angle and the direction of the dip of the measured formation, as well as the drift angle and azimuth of the borehole. A case study from the Cantarell oil field in the southern Gulf of Mexico, offshore Campeche, was used to test the folded bed method. The model was shown to yield more uniform spatial change of the values of t, compared to the monoclinal bed model that often overestimates the average value of t. The maximum relative deviation of t from the monoclinal bed model reached 22.3 per cent and the maximum absolute deviation of t reached 34.5 m. The key factors that influence the values of t were found to be the bed dip, the dip difference between the top and base of the bed and the deviated angle of the well. The folded bed model yielded fewer changed values of the true bed thickness. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 9 figs.

  1. Hybrid Molten Bed Gasifier for High Hydrogen Syngas Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue, David [Gas Technology Institute, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2017-05-23

    The techno-economic analyses of the hybrid molten bed gasification technology and laboratory testing of the HMB process were carried out in this project by the Gas Technology Institute and partner Nexant, Inc. under contract with the US Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes the results of two complete IGCC and Fischer-Tropsch TEA analyses comparing HMB gasification with the Shell slagging gasification process as a base case. Also included are the results of the laboratory simulation tests of the HMB process using Illinois #6 coal fed along with natural gas, two different syngases, and steam. Work in this 18-month project was carried out in three main Tasks. Task 2 was completed first and involved modeling, mass and energy balances, and gasification process design. The results of this work were provided to Nexant as input to the TEA IGCC and FT configurations studied in detail in Task 3. The results of Task 2 were also used to guide the design of the laboratory-scale testing of the HMB concept in the submerged combustion melting test facility in GTI’s industrial combustion laboratory. All project work was completed on time and budget. A project close-out meeting reviewing project results was conducted on April 1, 2015 at GTI in Des Plaines, IL. The hybrid molten bed gasification process techno-economic analyses found that the HMB process is both technically and economically attractive compared with the Shell entrained flow gasification process. In IGCC configuration, HMB gasification provides both efficiency and cost benefits. In Fischer-Tropsch configuration, HMB shows small benefits, primarily because even at current low natural gas prices, natural gas is more expensive than coal on an energy cost basis. HMB gasification was found in the TEA to improve the overall IGCC economics as compared to the coal only Shell gasification process. Operationally, the HMB process proved to be robust and easy to operate. The burner

  2. Educational use of 3D models and photogrammetry content: the Europeana space project for Cypriot UNESCO monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, M.; Chatzigrigoriou, P.; Bokolas, V.; Nikolakopoulou, V.; Athanasiou, V.

    2016-08-01

    Digital heritage data are now more accessible through crowdsourcing platforms, social media and blogs. At the same time, evolving technology on 3D modelling, laser scanning and 3D reconstruction is constantly upgrading and multiplying the information that we can use from heritage digitalisation. The question of reusing the information in different aspects rises. Educators and students are potential users of the digital content; developing for them an adaptable environment for applications and services is our challenge. One of the main objective of the EU Europeana Space project is the development of a holistic approach for educating people (grown ups and kids) on Monuments that are listed at UNESCO world heritage list, in Cyprus. The challenge was the use of Europeana Data (Pictures and the 3D objects) in a way that the information on the platform would be comprehensible by the users. Most of the data have little metadata information and they lack history and cultural value description (semantics). The proposed model ction is based on the cross cultural approach which responds to the multicultural features of present era but at the same time to the contemporary pedagogical and methodological directions. The system uses all innovative digital heritage resources, in order to help the user, in a UX friendly way, to learn about the different phases of the monument, the history, the pathology state, the architectural value and the conservation stage. The result is a responsive platform, accessible through smart devices and desktop computers, (in the frame of "Bring Your Own Device" a.k.a. BYOD) where every Monument is a different course and every course is addressed to different age groups (from elementary level to adults' vocational training).

  3. Does Bedding Affect the Airway and Allergy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW Siebers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have suggested that synthetic bedding is associated with asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema while feather bedding seems to be protective. Synthetic bedding items have higher house dust mite allergen levels than feather bedding items. This is possibly the mechanism involved although fungal and bacterial proinflammatory compounds and volatile organic compounds may play a role. In this review we present and discuss the epidemiological evidence and suggest possible mechanisms. Primary intervention studies are required to show whether feather bedding is protective for the development of childhood asthma and allergic diseases while secondary intervention studies are required to potentially reduce symptoms and medication use in subjects with established disease.

  4. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  5. Investigation of Fossil Insect Systematics of Specimens Collected at the Clare Quarry Site in the Florissant Fossil Beds, Florissant, Colorado from 1996 to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancellare, J. A.; Villalobos, J. I.; Lemone, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Clare Quarry is located in the town of Florissant, Teller County, Colorado, approximately 30 miles west of Colorado Springs on State Highway 27. The elevation at the quarry face is 2500 meters ASL. Ar40/Ar39 dating of the upper beds of the Florissant Formation indicates an age of 34.07 +/- 0.10 Ma.An Oreodont fossil jaw and other mammalian fossils place the formation in the Chadronian Age.The basin in which the formation lies is undergirded by Wall Mountain Tuff dated at 37Ma, which sits on Pike's Peak Granite, which is dated at1080 Ma. In the Late Eocene the Florissant region was lacustrine in nature due to the damning of the river valley which runs north into Florissant. The ash and lahars from volcanic eruptions from the Thirty-nine Mile Volcano Field formed impoundments that produced shallow lakes for what is thought to been a period for 5000 years. Repeated ash falls placed plant matter and insect material in the lakes and streams that were formed intermittently during the period. The ash layers in the Florissant Formation are very fine grained, and contain diatomaceous mats that formed on the lake deposited ash layers aiding in the preservation of plant and insects material. Previous work on Florissant Fossils has been done by Lesquereaux (plants) 1878, Scudder (insects) 1890, and Mc Ginitie (plants) 1953. This project began 17 years ago and has consisted of collection trips ranging from one to eight days in the summers at a proprietary quarry owned land adjacent to The Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument. The collection consists of 2700 catalogued plants, insects, and fish fossils. Of this number, 513 are insect fossils (19% of the total collection). Quality of preservation ranges from very poor to very good with the average qualitative evaluation between poor to fair. The largest series identied to family are Tipulids (Craneflies) with 23 specimens in the series. In this series wing venation is often incomplete and smaller characters including

  6. On a Marginal Use of the Imperative in East Slavic Monuments of the 11th–15th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Yana A. Pen’kova

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the marginal construction that appears to be a kind of hybrid of an imperative and the future perfect: the auxiliary verb has the form of the imperative mood and is used with an l-participle. The construction is semantically and structurally similar to the Slavic perfect and the Slavic future perfect, however it is attested only in some archaic translated Church Slavonic monuments represented by East Slavic copies from the 11th through the 15th centuries of South Slavi...

  7. 78 FR 76855 - Record of Decision for the General Management Plan/Wilderness Study, Fort Pulaski National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... and development of the national monument in the GMP/WS/ FEIS, Alternative A--no action Alternative... current and environmentally friendly and sustainable. In addition to having telecommunications network... lands within 100 feet of the edge of the right-of-way of U.S. Highway 80. If finalized and approved by...

  8. Bed care for patients in palliative settings: considering risks to caregivers and bed surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala, Guy

    2015-02-01

    Ensuring patients are comfortable in bed is key to effective palliative care, but when moving and positioning patients in bed, health professionals face an occupational risk of injury. The turning and positioning (TAP) system is a new method of moving patients in bed, that evidence has shown to reduce the risk of injury to caregivers. Providing the correct bed surface is another aspect of bed care essential to the comfort of the palliative patient, and to aid wound prevention and treatment. It is important to take a patient-centred approach when considering the most appropriate bed surface patients. This article provides an overview and discussion of these two aspects of bed care for palliative patients.

  9. Silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles as antibacterial/antifungal coatings for monumental stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflori, Magdalena [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Simionescu, Bogdana [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); “Costin D. Nenitescu” Centre of Organic Chemistry, 202B Splaiul Independentei, 7114 Bucharest (Romania); Bordianu, Irina-Elena; Sacarescu, Liviu; Varganici, Cristian-Dragos; Doroftei, Florica; Nicolescu, Alina [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Olaru, Mihaela, E-mail: olaruma@icmpp.ro [“Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41A Grigore Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania)

    2013-11-20

    Highlights: • Synthesis of nanocomposites with noble metals having high antibacterial efficiency. • Silver nanoparticles antibacterial activity for monumental stone conservation. • A high antibacterial activity while assuring good stone protection. -- Abstract: The present paper reports on the evaluation of two silsesquioxane-based hybrid nanocomposites with methacrylate units containing titania and/or silver nanoparticles aimed as antibacterial coatings for monumental stones. Sol–gel reaction of titanium isopropoxide and/or 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate, in the presence of silver nitrate and a primary amine surfactant, yielded new types of hybrid nanocomposites with high antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. Different polymer behaviours regarding a frequently used monumental stone originating from Romania were evidenced through Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) technique. Conclusions regarding the stones acid-resistant character and lower influence of salt weathering on its durability, as well as a better protective coating containing titania units were revealed.

  10. Gas Distribution in Shallow Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Ian Miles

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Packed beds have many industrial applications and are increasingly used in the process industries due to their low pressure drop. Obtaining uniform gas distribution in such beds is of crucial importance in minimising operating costs and optimising plant performance. Since to some extent a packed bed acts as its own distributor the importance of obtaining uniform gas distribution has increased as aspect ratios (bed height to diameter) decrease. There is no rigorous design method for distributors due to a limited understanding of the fluid flow phenomena and in particular of the effect of the bed base/free fluid interface. This study is based on a combined theoretical and modelling approach. The Ergun Equation is used to determine the pressure drop over a bed where the flow is uni-directional. This equation has been used in a vectorial form so that it can be applied to maldistributed and multi -directional flows and has been realised in the Computational Fluid Dynamics code PHOENICS. The use of this equation and its application has been verified by modelling experimental measurements of maldistributed gas flows, where there is no free fluid/bed base interface. A novel, two-dimensional experiment has been designed to investigate the fluid mechanics of maldistributed gas flows in shallow packed beds. The results from this apparatus provide useful insights into the fluid mechanics of flow in and around a shallow packed bed and show the critical effect of the bed base. The PHOENICS/vectorial Ergun Equation model has been adapted to model this situation. The model has been improved by the inclusion of spatial voidage variations in the bed and the prescription of a novel bed base boundary condition. The flow in a curved bed section, which is three -dimensional in nature, is examined experimentally. The effect of the walls and the changes in gas direction on the gas flow are shown to be particularly significant

  11. Use of microorganisms to improve the cementation of granular structures. Applications in the restoration of monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Isabel; Mayoral, Eduardo; Ortiz, Pilar; Segura, Dolores; Vazquez, Auxiliadora; Barba, Cinta; Ortiz, Rocio; Romero, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    focuses on finding out the best conditions to cultivate populations of bacterias Bacillus pasteurii and Myxococcus xanthus and the suitable proportions of the mixing of urea, with building material, calcium chloride; to come out with structural components interesting for the civil engineering. Trials with some stone materials with alteration problems (granular disintegration) have been carried out to assess their application to the restoration of monuments. Porosity and petrographical characterization has been analyzed before and after the process.

  12. Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.

    horizontal continental shelf. Measurements of bed shear stress, surface elevation and flow velocities were carried out. Periodic waves were also generated and the bed shear stresses measured over a horizontal bed were found to be comparable with the earlier...

  13. Microwave fluidized-bed detoxification of hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varma, R.

    1991-11-01

    Our ongoing research and development (R D) work focuses on demonstrating the technical feasibility of total detoxification of C1HC'' hazardous waste by using microwave energy. In addition, we investigated the capability of nahacolite for in-bed scavenging of HC1 and found it to be very effective. So far, detoxification of halocarbon vapor and liquid waste forms has been achieved. Microwave energy heats and activates the particulates of silicon carbide (SiC) and promotes chemical interactions, facilitating total detoxification of chlorinated hydrocarbons (TCEs) in an air-stream over SiC-fluidized beds under mild (<600{degrees}) conditions. The SiC promotes surface-enhanced reactions and also is a heating transfer medium. These microwave-assisted processes appear to be extremely energy efficient. The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) team can demonstrate the microwave fluidized bed (MFB) technology for total detoxification of halocarbon waste streams. The technology is applicable for treatment of hazardous waste at DOE sites. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Heat and mass transfer enforcement of vibrating fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zhide; Yang, Junhong; Li, Xuhui; Song, Yang

    1994-12-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of vibrating fluidized bed at home and abroad, elaborates the vibration properties of vibrating fluidized bed, the fluidizing velocity and pressure drop of the bed layer. It also deduces the non-steady state drying dynamic equations of vibrating fluidized bed, analyzes main factors which influence the drying rate and inquires into drying rules of fixed bed and vibrating fluidized bed.

  15. Caracterización petrográfica y petrofísica de la piedra monumental en la Provincia de Segovia

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrazuela González, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    La piedra monumental es un material que se ha venido utilizando en todas las épocas históricas que nos han precedido, además de la contemporánea. Es necesario conocer la piedra monumental tanto para su uso en las nuevas edificaciones y obra civil, como para poder mantener y restaurar el magnífico patrimonio en piedra que nos ha sido legado. Esta tesis se circunscribe al ámbito geográfico actual de la provincia de Segovia, la cual cuenta con una gran variedad litológica; beneficiándose gr...

  16. Short-Term and Long-Term Variability of Antenna Position Due to Thermal Bending of Pillar Monument at Permanent GNSS Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhatova Lubomira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The variability of daily site coordinates at permanent GNSS station is a sum of many disturbing factors influencing the actual satellite observations, data processing, and bias modelling. In the paper are analysed possibilities of monitoring the instability of GNSS antenna pillar monument by the independent observations using the precise inclination sensor. Long-term series from three different types of pillars show specific features in amplitude and temporal evolution of monument bending. Correlations with daily temperature and/or solar radiation changes were proved.

  17. Atmospheric composition and micro-climate in the Alhambra monument, Granada (Spain), in the context of preventive conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, B.; Schalm, O.; De Wael, K.; Cardell, C.; Van Grieken, R.

    2012-07-01

    The world famous Alhambra monument in Granada, Southern Spain, listed as UNESCO world cultural heritage since 1984, represents probably the most beautiful example of Islamic art and architecture from the Middle Ages in Europe. It is visited by ca. 2 million people annually. Granada is situated in a natural basin, surrounded by mountains with altitudes up to 3500 m. Due to this topography and the prevailing low wind speeds, pollution-derived and especially traffic-derived particulate matter often accumulates in the urban air. In order to evaluate the potential conservation risks from the surrounding air, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra monument was evaluated. Indoor temperature and relative humidity fluctuations were evaluated for their potential degenerative effects. Furthermore, the atmospheric composition in the Alhambra was analyzed in terms of inorganic gases (NO2, SO2, O3, and NH3) and black carbon. It was found that the open architecture protected the indoor environments from developing a potentially harmful microclimate, such as the build-up of humidity resulting from the huge number of daily tourists. On the downside, the strong ventilation made the indoor air hardly different from outdoor air, as characterized by strong diurnal temperature and relative humidity gradients and high traffic-derived pollutant levels.

  18. Fluidized bed adsorption of cephalosporin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicketier, M; Buchholz, K

    2002-02-28

    Fluidized bed adsorption can substantially simplify the recovery of products from fermentation. There are, however, several critical parameters, which have a significant influence on the performance of such systems. This paper presents experimental results on the adsorption of an antibiotic, Cephalosporin C, on macroporous adsorbents of the polystyrene type and on an ion exchanger. Internals (static mixers) were used to control bed expansion and mixing, the range of flow rates could thus be extended significantly. An integrated mathematical model was developed comprising bed expansion, residence time distribution and mixing, adsorption kinetics and equilibria.

  19. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  20. Fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpela, T.; Kudjoi, A.; Hippinen, I.; Heinolainen, A.; Suominen, M.; Lu Yong [Helsinki Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab of Energy Economics and Power Plant Engineering

    1996-12-01

    Partial gasification processes have been presented as possibilities for future power production. In the processes, the solid materials removed from a gasifier (i.e. fly ash and bed material) contain unburnt fuel and the fuel conversion is increased by burning this gasification residue either in an atmospheric or a pressurised fluidised-bed. In this project, which is a part of European JOULE 2 EXTENSION research programme, the main research objectives are the behaviour of calcium and sulphur compounds in solids and the emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x} and N{sub 2}O) in pressurised fluidised-bed combustion of gasification residues. (author)