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Sample records for bedbug cimex lectularius

  1. Insecticides susceptibility status of the bedbugs (Cimex lectularius in a rural area of Magugu, Northern Tanzania

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    Eliningaya J Kweka

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent spread of bedbugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Heteroptera: Cimicidae, has received attention of the public health sector for designing of effective plan of action for control. Several studies have focused on determining the distribution and abundance of bedbug populations in tropical areas. This study establishes baseline information on deltamethrin, permethrin, alphacypermethrin, lambdacypermethrin and K-O tab susceptibility status in a bedbug population collected from Magugu area in northern Tanzania. The evolution of insecticide resistance could be a primary factor in explaining this resurgence of bedbugs in many areas, both rural and urban. Evaluation of the bedbug population from houses in Magugu indicates that the population of bedbugs is susceptible to pyrethroid insecticides, which are commonly used. Without the development of new tactics for bedbug resistance management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected when resistant gene spreads within the population. These results suggest that although all concentrations kill bedbugs, more evaluations should be done using WHO kits and mechanisms involved in pyrethroid resistance should be evaluated, such as metabolic and knockdown resistance gene, to have a broad picture for better design of control methodologies.

  2. Sensitivity to bites by the bedbug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Reinhardt, K; Kempke, D; Naylor, R A; Siva-Jothy, M T

    2009-06-01

    Bedbugs are a public health problem and can cause significant economic losses, but little is known about the effects of bites on humans. We reviewed case reports and published papers on bedbug bites to assess the empirical basis of the commonly cited figure that only approximately 80% of the population are sensitive to bedbug bites. We found the sensitivity estimate to be based on only one study carried out 80 years ago. However, this study did not account for the now well-established fact that only repeated exposure to external allergens leads to skin reactions. In our sample, 18 of 19 persons showed a skin reaction after bedbug exposure, but in most cases only after repeated controlled exposure. With repeated exposure, the latency between bite and skin reactions decreased from approximately 10 days to a few seconds. Our results are relevant for the hospitality industry, where apparently increasing infestation rates are likely to lead to an increase in the number of tourists and hotel employees exposed to bedbugs. Medical and public health professionals may expect to see an increase in the prevalence of people with bedbug bite sensitivity. The significance of the delayed reaction time of skin to bites may also have implications in litigation cases where people seek compensation. PMID:19292820

  3. Teste de susceptibilidade do percevejo, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae ao DDT em Belo Horizonte, MG (Brasil Susceptibility tests of the bed-bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera, Cimicidae to DDT in Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil

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    Ronaldo L. Nagem

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available O nível de susceptibilidade de percevejos adultos, Cimex lectularius, ao DDT, em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brasil, foi determinado durante o período de 1985 a 1986. Os resultados indicaram, para os insetos testados, que uma dose de 4,0% do inseticida não foi suficiente para matar 55% dos insetos. Os dados permitem concluir que existem colonias de percevejos resistentes ao DDT em Belo Horizonte.Susceptibility levels for the adult bed-bug, Cimex lectularius, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais - Brazil, to DDT, were determined during the period 1985 to 1986. The test results showed that a 4% dosage of DDT is not enough to kill 55% of the insects. The data are sufficient to show that there exists bed-bug resistance to DDT in Belo Horizonte.

  4. A QSAR Study of the Repellency of some Terpenoids to the Bedbug Cimex lectularius L.%萜类臭虫(Cimex lectularius L.)驱避化合物的定量构效关系研究

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    宋杰; 王宗德; 韩招久; 陈金珠; 姜志宽; 郑卫青; 商士斌

    2012-01-01

    测定了一系列六元环萜类化合物对臭虫(Cimex lectularius L.)的驱避活性,利用Codessa Pro程序计算了这些化合物的结构描述符,再利用Codessa Pro程序中的最优线性回归方法计算了驱避活性与这些化合物结构描述符之间的定量构效关系.所得到的最优定量构效关系计算模型的R2为0.924,模型所包含的4个参数分别是:FNSA3 fractional PNSA、Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C、YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle、Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C.通过对模型的分析讨论了臭虫化学感受器与驱避剂之间可能存在的相互作用.%The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) between the repellency against bedbug,Cimex lectularius L.(Hemiptera:Cimicidae) and the molecular structural descriptors of a series of terpenoid compounds with six-member-ring was correlated by best multilinear regression (BMLR) method.The descriptors and the multilinear regression were all calculated by Codessa Pro.The optimum multilinear model with R2 value of 0.924 and 4 descriptors,i.e.the fractional atomic charge weighted partial megative surface area (FNSA3) fractional the atomic charge weighted partial negative charge molecular surface area (PNSA),Min n-n repulsion for bond H-C,YZ Shadow/YZ rectangle and Max electrophilic reactivity index for atom C was validated and presented.The probable interaction between the chemoreceptor of bedbug and the repellent was also discussed according to the optimum model and its descriptors.

  5. Male mating rate is constrained by seminal fluid availability in bedbugs, Cimex lectularius.

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    Klaus Reinhardt

    Full Text Available Sexual selection, differences in reproductive success between individuals, continues beyond acquiring a mating partner and affects ejaculate size and composition (sperm competition. Sperm and seminal fluid have very different roles in sperm competition but both components encompass production costs for the male. Theoretical models predict that males should spend ejaculate components prudently and differently for sperm and seminal fluid but empirical evidence for independent variation of sperm number and seminal fluid volume is scarce. It is also largely unknown how sperm and seminal fluid variation affect future mating rate. In bedbugs we developed a protocol to examine the role of seminal fluids in ejaculate allocation and its effect on future male mating rate. Using age-related changes in sperm and seminal fluid volume we estimated the lowest capacity at which mating activity started. We then showed that sexually active males allocate 12% of their sperm and 19% of their seminal fluid volume per mating and predicted that males would be depleted of seminal fluid but not of sperm. We tested (and confirmed this prediction empirically. Finally, the slightly faster replenishment of seminal fluid compared to sperm did not outweigh the faster decrease during mating. Our results suggest that male mating rate can be constrained by the availability of seminal fluids. Our protocol might be applicable to a range of other organisms. We discuss the idea that economic considerations in sexual conflict research might benefit from distinguishing between costs and benefits that are ejaculate dose-dependent and those that are frequency-dependent on the mating rate per se.

  6. Transcriptomics of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are blood-feeding insects poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Resistance of C. lectularius to insecticides/pesticides is one factor thought to be involved in its sudden resurgence. Despite its high-impact status, scant knowledge exists at the genomic level for C. lectularius. Hence, we subjected the C. lectularius transcriptome to 454 pyrosequencing in order to identify potential genes involved in pesticide resistance. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained a total of 216,419 reads with 79,596,412 bp, which were assembled into 35,646 expressed sequence tags (3902 contigs and 31744 singletons. Nearly 85.9% of the C. lectularius sequences showed similarity to insect sequences, but 44.8% of the deduced proteins of C. lectularius did not show similarity with sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis revealed putative members of several detoxification pathways involved in pesticide resistance. Lamprin domains, Protein Kinase domains, Protein Tyrosine Kinase domains and cytochrome P450 domains were among the top Pfam domains predicted for the C. lectularius sequences. An initial assessment of putative defense genes, including a cytochrome P450 and a glutathione-S-transferase (GST, revealed high transcript levels for the cytochrome P450 (CYP9 in pesticide-exposed versus pesticide-susceptible C. lectularius populations. A significant number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (296 and microsatellite loci (370 were predicted in the C. lectularius sequences. Furthermore, 59 putative sequences of Wolbachia were retrieved from the database. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first study to elucidate the genetic makeup of C. lectularius. This pyrosequencing effort provides clues to the identification of potential detoxification genes involved in pesticide resistance of C. lectularius and lays the foundation for

  7. Survivorship During Starvation for Cimex lectularius L.

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    Carlyle C. Brewster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four bed bug strains (Cimex lectularius with different levels of pyrethroid resistance were evaluated to determine their ability to survive extended periods of starvation. First instar bed bugs of all strains were the most vulnerable to starvation (13.8–36.3 days mean survival time. Fifth instars and adults survived the longest during starvation (41.5–142.6 days. Significant differences in survivorship during starvation were observed between resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. Overall, all immature and adult stages of the resistant bed bug strains had significantly shorter survival times than those of the susceptible strains (P < 0.05.

  8. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

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    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919

  9. Bedbugs

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    ... Getting bedbugs has nothing to do with good hygiene and housekeeping. How do you get bedbugs? People ... for the following signs near places where you sleep. Signs of bedbugs : This step is important. If ...

  10. Colonization of Cimex lectularius with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Barbarin, Alexis M; Hu, Baofeng; Nachamkin, Irving; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-05-01

    A recent paper published by Lowe and Romney in Emerging Infectious Diseases titled, Bed bugs as Vectors for Drug-Resistant Bacteria has sparked a renewed interest in bed bug vector potential. We followed a pyrethroid resistant strain of the human bed bug (Cimex lectularius, L.) fed either human blood or human blood with added methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for 9 days post-feeding. Results indicated that while the bed bug midgut is a hospitable environment for MRSA, the bacteria does not survive longer than 9 days within the midgut. Additionally, MRSA is not amplified within the midgut of the bug as the infection was cleared within 9 days. Due to the weekly feeding behaviours of bed bugs, these results suggest that bed bug transmission of MRSA is highly unlikely. PMID:24589308

  11. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  12. Cases of bed bug (Cimex lectularius infestations in Northwest Italy

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    Federica Giorda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius have been a common problem for humans for at least 3,500 years and in Europe their presence was endemic until the end of World War II, when infestations began to decrease. However, since the beginning of the 21st century new cases of infestations have been reported in developed countries. Many theories have been put forward to explain this change of direction, but none has been scientifically proven. The aim of this study is to provide some reports of bed bug infestations in Northern Italy (Liguria, Piedmont and Aosta valley regions and a brief summary about their identification, clinical significance, bioecology and control. From 2008 to date, 17 bed bug infestations were identified in Northwest Italy. Knowledge about the presence and distribution of bed bugs in Italy is scanty, prior to this work only 2 studies reported the comeback of these arthropods in the Italian territory; further investigations would be necessary to better understand the current situation.

  13. Human Odorant Reception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Liu, Feng; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    The common bed bug Cimex lectularius is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and currently resurgent in many developed countries. The ability of bed bugs to detect human odorants in the environment is critical for their host-seeking behavior. This study deciphered the chemical basis of host detection by investigating the neuronal response of olfactory sensilla to 104 human odorants using single sensillum recording and characterized the electro-physiological responses of bed bug odorant receptors to human odorants with the Xenopus expression system. The results showed that the D type of olfactory sensilla play a predominant role in detecting the human odorants tested. Different human odorants elicited different neuronal responses with different firing frequencies and temporal dynamics. Particularly, aldehydes and alcohols are the most effective stimuli in triggering strong response while none of the carboxylic acids showed a strong stimulation. Functional characterization of two bed bug odorant receptors and co-receptors in response to human odorants revealed their specific responses to the aldehyde human odorants. Taken together, the findings of this study not only provide exciting new insights into the human odorant detection of bed bugs, but also offer valuable information for developing new reagents (attractants or repellents) for the bed bug control. PMID:26522967

  14. Outbreeding effects in an inbreeding insect, Cimex lectularius.

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    Fountain, Toby; Butlin, Roger K; Reinhardt, Klaus; Otti, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    In some species, populations with few founding individuals can be resilient to extreme inbreeding. Inbreeding seems to be the norm in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a flightless insect that, nevertheless, can reach large deme sizes and persist successfully. However, bed bugs can also be dispersed passively by humans, exposing inbred populations to gene flow from genetically distant populations. The introduction of genetic variation through this outbreeding could lead to increased fitness (heterosis) or be costly by causing a loss of local adaptation or exposing genetic incompatibility between populations (outbreeding depression). Here, we addressed how inbreeding within demes and outbreeding between distant populations impact fitness over two generations in this re-emerging public health pest. We compared fitness traits of families that were inbred (mimicking reproduction following a founder event) or outbred (mimicking reproduction following a gene flow event). We found that outbreeding led to increased starvation resistance compared to inbred families, but this benefit was lost after two generations of outbreeding. No other fitness benefits of outbreeding were observed in either generation, including no differences in fecundity between the two treatments. Resilience to inbreeding is likely to result from the history of small founder events in the bed bug. Outbreeding benefits may only be detectable under stress and when heterozygosity is maximized without disruption of coadaptation. We discuss the consequences of these results both in terms of inbreeding and outbreeding in populations with genetic and spatial structuring, as well as for the recent resurgence of bed bug populations. PMID:25691967

  15. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius

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    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A.; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R.; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C.; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T.; Hastie, Alex R.; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J.; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N.; Kolokotronis, Sergios Orestis; Siddall, Mark E.; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb

  16. Host-Seeking Behavior in the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

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    Vernard R. Lewis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The reemergence of the bed bug, Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, has recently spawned a frenzy of public, media, and academic attention. In response to the growing rate of infestation, considerable work has been focused on identifying the various host cues utilized by the bed bug in search of a meal. Most of these behavioral studies examine movement within a confined environment, such as a Petri dish. This has prevented a more complete understanding of the insect’s host-seeking process. This work describes a novel method for studying host-seeking behavior, using various movement parameters, in a time-lapse photography system. With the use of human breath as an attractant, we qualitatively and quantitatively assessed how bed bugs navigate their environment between its harborage and the host. Levels of behavioral activity varied dramatically between bed bugs in the presence and absence of host odor. Bed bugs demonstrated not simply activation, but attraction to the chemical components of breath. Localized, stop-start host-seeking behavior or alternating periods of movement and pause were observed among bed bugs placed in the environment void of human breath, while those exposed to human breath demonstrated long range, stop-start host-seeking behavior. A more comprehensive understanding of bed bug host-seeking can lead to the development of traps and monitors that account for unique subtleties in their behavior. The time-lapse photography system uses a large, artificial environment and could also be employed to study other aspects of the insect’s behavioral patterns.

  17. Genome assembly and geospatial phylogenomics of the bed bug Cimex lectularius.

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    Rosenfeld, Jeffrey A; Reeves, Darryl; Brugler, Mercer R; Narechania, Apurva; Simon, Sabrina; Durrett, Russell; Foox, Jonathan; Shianna, Kevin; Schatz, Michael C; Gandara, Jorge; Afshinnekoo, Ebrahim; Lam, Ernest T; Hastie, Alex R; Chan, Saki; Cao, Han; Saghbini, Michael; Kentsis, Alex; Planet, Paul J; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Tessler, Michael; Baker, Richard; DeSalle, Rob; Sorkin, Louis N; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Siddall, Mark E; Amato, George; Mason, Christopher E

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) has been a persistent pest of humans for thousands of years, yet the genetic basis of the bed bug's basic biology and adaptation to dense human environments is largely unknown. Here we report the assembly, annotation and phylogenetic mapping of the 697.9-Mb Cimex lectularius genome, with an N50 of 971 kb, using both long and short read technologies. A RNA-seq time course across all five developmental stages and male and female adults generated 36,985 coding and noncoding gene models. The most pronounced change in gene expression during the life cycle occurs after feeding on human blood and included genes from the Wolbachia endosymbiont, which shows a simultaneous and coordinated host/commensal response to haematophagous activity. These data provide a rich genetic resource for mapping activity and density of C. lectularius across human hosts and cities, which can help track, manage and control bed bug infestations. PMID:26836631

  18. Bed bugs are back and also arriving is the southernmost record of Cimex lectularius (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) in South America.

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    Faúndez, Eduardo I; Carvajal, Máriom A

    2014-09-01

    The arrival and establishment of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L., 1755 in Magallanes Region (Chile) is reported. The present record is the southernmost for this species in America. The circumstances that provided for the species reaching this southern locality are discussed. PMID:25276939

  19. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius collected from several localities in France

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    Akhoundi Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp, and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40% and 61 out of 166 adults (37% were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius.

  20. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) collected from several localities in France.

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    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Cannet, Arnaud; Loubatier, Céline; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40%) and 61 out of 166 adults (37%) were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius. PMID:27492563

  1. Antennal olfactory sensilla responses to insect chemical repellents in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Liu, Feng; Haynes, Kenneth F; Appel, Arthur G; Liu, Nannan

    2014-06-01

    Populations of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera; Cimicidae), a temporary ectoparasite on both humans and animals, have surged in many developed countries. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, C. lectularius relies on its olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment, including both attractants and repellents. To elucidate the olfactory responses of the common bed bug to commonly used insect chemical repellents, particularly haematophagous repellents, we investigated the neuronal responses of individual olfactory sensilla in C. lectularius' antennae to 52 insect chemical repellents, both synthetic and botanic. Different types of sensilla displayed highly distinctive response profiles. While C sensilla did not respond to any of the insect chemical repellents, Dγ sensilla proved to be the most sensitive in response to terpene-derived insect chemical repellents. Different chemical repellents elicited neuronal responses with differing temporal characteristics, and the responses of the olfactory sensilla to the insect chemical repellents were dose-dependent, with an olfactory response to the terpene-derived chemical repellent, but not to the non-terpene-derived chemical repellents. Overall, this study furnishes a comprehensive map of the olfactory response of bed bugs to commonly used insect chemical repellents, providing useful information for those developing new agents (attractants or repellents) for bed bug control. PMID:24817385

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) reporting in Philadelphia, PA.

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    Mabud, Tarub S; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Katelyn H; Edinger, Jason; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive telephone log of pest infestation reports to assess the spatial and temporal trends in Cimex lectularius L. (bed bug) reporting throughout Philadelphia, PA. Citywide spatial analyses of reports from September 2011 to June 2012 revealed several statistically significant bed bug hotspots. However, these were small and diffuse. Temporal analyses of reports from December 2008 to May 2011 detected prominent seasonality in bed bug reporting, peaking in August and reaching a nadir in February each year. Controlling for seasonal cycling, the number of bed bug reports in Philadelphia increased steadily at a rate of approximately 4.5% per month (or 69.45% per year) from December 2008 to May 2011. While it may be difficult to spatially target citywide bed bug control measures because of the insects' widespread migration, interventions informed by seasonal trends may enhance efforts to curb the recent increases in urban bed bug populations. PMID:24605452

  3. Juvenile hormone regulation of female reproduction in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius

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    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    To begin studies on reproduction in common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, we identified three genes coding for vitellogenin (Vg, a protein required for the reproductive success of insects) and studied their hormonal regulation. RNA interference studied showed that expression of Vg3 gene in the adult females is a prerequisite for successful completion of embryogenesis in the eggs laid by them. Juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, Methoprene-tolerant (Met), steroid receptor coactivator (SRC) and GATAa but not ecdysone receptor (EcR) or its partner, ultraspiracle (USP) are required for expression of Vg genes. Feeding and mating working through Vg, Met, SRC, EcR, and GATAa regulate oocyte development. Knockdown of the expression of Met, SRC, EcR, USP, BR-C (Broad-Complex), TOR (target of rapamycin), and GATAa in female adults resulted in a reduction in the number eggs laid by them. Interestingly, Kruppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1) knockdown in the adult females did not reduce their fecundity but affected the development of embryos in the eggs laid by females injected with Kr-h1 double-stranded RNA. These data suggest that JH functioning through Met and SRC regulate both vitellogenesis and oogenesis in C. lectularius. However, JH does not work through Kr-h1 but may work through transcription factors not yet identified. PMID:27762340

  4. Reproduction barrier between two lineages of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) (Heteroptera: Cimicidae).

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    Wawrocka, Kamila; Balvín, Ondřej; Bartonička, Tomáš

    2015-08-01

    Populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, have increased in recent years spreading into numerous urban areas across the Western world and making them an increasingly important pest of the twenty-first century. Research into hybridization within and between different lineages of bed bugs can help us to understand processes of micro- and macro-evolution in these ectoparasites and may inform the control of this pest species. Hybridization experiments between two host lineages of bed bug (C. lectularius) from Central Europe (Czech Republic), those associated with humans and those with bats, were conducted under laboratory conditions. Number of eggs and early instars were compared between crosses of mixed host lineages (interspecific mating) with pairs from the same host lineage, those from the same locality and same lineage from different localities (intraspecific mating). While crosses within host lineages resulted in egg production and later instars, crosses between different host lineages were unsuccessful, although of the mated females possessed sperm in their mesospermaleges and/or seminal conceptacles. These crosses did not even result in egg production. Moreover, in the mixed lineage crosses, mortality rates in adults were higher (51 and 50% higher in bat and human lineage, respectively) than in those animals from the same lineage. Survival of adults was in pairs from the same locality slightly higher than in pairs from different localities and differed statistically. These results support the existence of post-mating barriers and show reproductive isolation between two lineages of C. lectularius. Bat and human host adaptations can promote evolving of such barriers and can be product of alloxenic speciation. PMID:25952703

  5. Host association drives genetic divergence in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Booth, Warren; Balvín, Ondřej; Vargo, Edward L; Vilímová, Jitka; Schal, Coby

    2015-03-01

    Genetic differentiation may exist among sympatric populations of a species due to long-term associations with alternative hosts (i.e. host-associated differentiation). While host-associated differentiation has been documented in several phytophagus insects, there are far fewer cases known in animal parasites. The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, a wingless insect, represents a potential model organism for elucidating the processes involved in host-associated differentiation in animal parasites with relatively limited mobility. In conjunction with the expansion of modern humans from Africa into Eurasia, it has been speculated that bed bugs extended their host range from bats to humans in their shared cave domiciles throughout Eurasia. C. lectularius that associate with humans have a cosmopolitan distribution, whereas those associated with bats occur across Europe, often in human-built structures. We assessed genetic structure and gene flow within and among populations collected in association with each host using mtDNA, microsatellite loci and knock-down resistance gene variants. Both nuclear and mitochondrial data support a lack of significant contemporary gene flow between host-specific populations. Within locations human-associated bed bug populations exhibit limited genetic diversity and elevated levels of inbreeding, likely due to human-mediated movement, infrequent additional introduction events per infestation, and pest control. In contrast, populations within bat roosts exhibit higher genetic diversity and lower levels of relatedness, suggesting populations are stable with temporal fluctuations due to host dispersal and bug mortality. In concert with previously published evidence of morphological and behavioural differentiation, the genetic data presented here suggest C. lectularius is currently undergoing lineage divergence through host association. PMID:25611460

  6. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

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    Immo A Hansen

    Full Text Available Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and odorant receptors (ORs associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco. Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers.

  7. The odorant receptor co-receptor from the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Immo A; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Drake, Lisa L; Price, David P; Blakely, Brittny N; Hammond, John I; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Monroy, Erika Y; Maio, William A; Romero, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. has re-emerged as a serious and growing problem in many parts of the world. Presence of resistant bed bugs and the difficulty to eliminate them has renewed interest in alternative control tactics. Similar to other haematophagous arthropods, bed bugs rely on their olfactory system to detect semiochemicals in the environment. Previous studies have morphologically characterized olfactory organs of bed bugs' antenna and have physiologically evaluated the responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) to host-derived chemicals. To date, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and odorant receptors (ORs) associated with these olfaction processes have not been studied in bed bugs. Chemoreception in insects requires formation of heteromeric complexes of ORs and a universal OR coreceptor (Orco). Orco is the constant chain of every odorant receptor in insects and is critical for insect olfaction but does not directly bind to odorants. Orco agonists and antagonists have been suggested as high-value targets for the development of novel insect repellents. In this study, we have performed RNAseq of bed bug sensory organs and identified several odorant receptors as well as Orco. We characterized Orco expression and investigated the effect of chemicals targeting Orco on bed bug behavior and reproduction. We have identified partial cDNAs of six C. lectularius OBPs and 16 ORs. Full length bed bug Orco was cloned and sequenced. Orco is widely expressed in different parts of the bed bug including OR neurons and spermatozoa. Treatment of bed bugs with the agonist VUAA1 changed bed bug pheromone-induced aggregation behavior and inactivated spermatozoa. We have described and characterized for the first time OBPs, ORs and Orco in bed bugs. Given the importance of these molecules in chemoreception of this insect they are interesting targets for the development of novel insect behavior modifiers. PMID:25411789

  8. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    Full Text Available The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall and color (brown vs. black of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages.

  9. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs’ interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  10. Evaluation of Blood Regimen on the Survival of Cimex lectularius L. Using Life Table Parameters

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    Edwin G. Rajotte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of bed bug development under varying conditions can lead to more sophisticated management techniques. Development rate, age and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain (HS and field strain (ECL-05 of bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera reared on two blood regimens: human or rabbit blood. Harlan and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on human blood had a life expectancy of 207 and 208 days respectively from the egg stage. Egg to adult development of HS bed bugs reared on human blood (~35 days was significantly longer than that of the ECL-05 strain (~33 days in the third, fourth, and fifth instars. The HS and ECL-05 bed bugs reared on rabbit blood had a life expectancy of 149 and 174 days respectively. Egg to adult development time of HS on rabbit blood (~52 days was significantly longer than ECL-05 (~37 days in every instar, and HS total life span was significantly shorter compared to ECL-05. Developmental differences based on strain and blood regimen suggest rabbit blood is an inferior blood source for colony maintenance, and strain has variable effects on bed bug development. Findings suggest that blood regimen should strongly be considered in bed bug colony maintenance.

  11. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Changlu Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin, Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin, Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin, and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin. The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran, Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264, Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid, and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr. Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h. Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure.

  12. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

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    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats.

  13. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Resting Preferences

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    Benjamin A. Hottel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin. The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient.

  14. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Brittany E. Campbell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin. The lethal concentration (LC50 for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.

  15. Chemically Mediated Arrestment of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, by Volatiles Associated with Exuviae of Conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Dong-Hwan; Park, Hoeun; Vo, Claudia; Knyshov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Extracts of the exuviae (cast skins) of nymphal bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) were analyzed for volatile compounds that might contribute to arrestment of adult bed bugs. Four volatile aldehydes, (E)-2-hexenal, 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal were consistently detected in the headspace of freshly shed exuviae regardless of the developmental stages from which the exuviae were obtained. Quantification of the aldehydes in the solvent extracts of homogenized fresh, 45- or 99-d aged 5th instar exuviae indicated that the aldehydes are present in the exuviae and dissipate over time, through evaporation or degradation. Microscopic observation of the fifth instar exuviae indicated that the dorsal abdominal glands on the exuviae maintained their pocket-like structures with gland reservoirs, within which the aldehydes might be retained. Two-choice olfactometer studies with the volatiles from exuviae or a synthetic blend mimicking the volatiles indicated that adult bed bugs tend to settle close to sources of the aldehydes. Our results imply that the presence and accumulation of bed bug exuviae and the aldehydes volatilizing from the exuviae might mediate bed bugs' interaction with their microhabitats. PMID:27434044

  16. Efficacy of Selected Insecticide Sprays and Aerosols against the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Zha, Chen; Cooper, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the residual efficacy of four liquid sprays and four ready-to-use aerosols that are commonly used in the U.S. against a field-collected bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., strain with moderate resistance level to pyrethroids. The four liquid sprays were: Tandem (0.1% thiamethoxam, 0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin), Temprid SC (0.05% imidacloprid, 0.025% cyfluthrin), Transport GHP (0.05% acetamiprid, 0.06% bifenthrin), and Demand CS (0.03% lambda-cyhalothrin). The four aerosols were: Alpine (0.5% dinotefuran), Bedlam (0.4% sumithrin, 1.6% MGK 264), Bedlam Plus (0.4% sumithrin, 1% MGK 264, 0.05% imidacloprid), and Phantom (0.5% chlorfenapyr). Bed bugs were confined for 4 h to treated substrates (aged 24 h). Four substrates were tested: fabric, unpainted wood, painted wood, and vinyl. Bedlam, Demand CS, and Temprid SC resulted in ≤70% mortality on all tested substrates. Among the other five products, substrate type significantly affected their residual efficacy, except for Transport GHP, which caused ≥89.7% mortality regardless of the substrate. The effect of exposure time (5 min, 4 h, and 24 h) on the efficacy of Transport GHP and Phantom aerosol also was evaluated. A 4 h continuous exposure to Phantom aerosol or Transport GHP residue caused similar mortality to 24 h exposure and higher mortality than 5 min exposure. PMID:26840334

  17. The Influence of Roughness and Pyrethroid Formulations on Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Resting Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, Benjamin A; Pereira, Roberto M; Koehler, Philip G

    2015-01-01

    Two-choice tests were conducted to examine the effect of surface roughness on the resting preference of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., on copper, basswood, and acrylic materials. The influence of pyrethroid formulation applications on resting preferences was also evaluated. Bed bugs were given the choice of resting between two sanded halves of each material tested. One half was sanded with a P60 grit sandpaper and the other with a less rough P600 grit sandpaper. A significantly higher proportion of bed bugs chose to rest on the rougher P60 grit sanded half of all materials tested. Pyrethroid applications were made to either the P60 grit half or both halves of acrylic arenas and resting preferences were again assessed. Behavioral responses of bed bugs to pyrethroid formulation applications varied depending on the bed bug strain used and the formulation applied. Bed bugs would still rest on the P60 grit half when Suspend SC formulation (0.06% deltamethrin) was applied; however, an avoidance response was observed from a bed bug strain susceptible to D-Force aerosol formulations (0.06% deltamethrin). The avoidance behavior is likely attributed to one, more than one, or even an interaction of multiple spray constituents and not the active ingredient. PMID:26463196

  18. Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brittany E; Miller, Dini M

    2015-01-01

    Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development. PMID:26463070

  19. Role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The role of olfactory cues such as carbon dioxide, pheromones, and kairomones in bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. behavior has been demonstrated. However, the role of vision and mechanoreception in bed bug behavior is poorly understood. We investigated bed bug vision by determining their responses to different colors, vertical objects, and their ability to detect colors and vertical objects under low and complete dark conditions. Results show black and red paper harborages are preferred compared to yellow, green, blue, and white harborages. A bed bug trapping device with a black or red exterior surface was significantly more attractive to bed bugs than that with a white exterior surface. Bed bugs exhibited strong orientation behavior toward vertical objects. The height (15 vs. 30 cm tall) and color (brown vs. black) of the vertical object had no significant effect on orientation behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs could differentiate color and detect vertical objects at very low background light conditions, but not in complete darkness. Bed bug preference to different substrate textures (mechanoreception) was also explored. Bed bugs preferred dyed tape compared to painted tape, textured painted plastic, and felt. These results revealed that substrate color, presence of vertical objects, and substrate texture affect host-seeking and harborage-searching behavior of bed bugs. Bed bugs may use a combination of vision, mechanoreception, and chemoreception to locate hosts and seek harborages. PMID:25748041

  20. Toxicity and potential utility of ivermectin and moxidectin as xenointoxicants against the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheele, Johnathan M; Ridge, Gale E

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. throughout western industrialized nations has been facilitated in part by the insect becoming pesticide-resistant. Novel control strategies, including xenointoxication, should be considered to combat C. lectularius. Ivermectin, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for several human parasites, and the antiparasitic drug moxidectin, currently being explored in human clinical trials, were evaluated for efficacy against C. lectularius. Results showed that C. lectularius fed on ivermectin or moxidectin blood concentrations of >25 ng/mL and had significantly higher mortality (50-100 %) than controls (0-6 %) by day 13. Bed bugs that survived a blood meal containing >2.5 ng/mL of ivermectin suffered long-term sequelae including reduced fecundity, feeding difficulty, and incomplete ecdysis. Some insects that survived a blood meal containing ≤75 ng/mL moxidectin were able to feed and reproduce. PMID:27090120

  1. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  2. Human-facilitated metapopulation dynamics in an emerging pest species, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Toby; Duvaux, Ludovic; Horsburgh, Gavin; Reinhardt, Klaus; Butlin, Roger K

    2014-03-01

    The number and demographic history of colonists can have dramatic consequences for the way in which genetic diversity is distributed and maintained in a metapopulation. The bed bug (Cimex lectularius) is a re-emerging pest species whose close association with humans has led to frequent local extinction and colonization, that is, to metapopulation dynamics. Pest control limits the lifespan of subpopulations, causing frequent local extinctions, and human-facilitated dispersal allows the colonization of empty patches. Founder events often result in drastic reductions in diversity and an increased influence of genetic drift. Coupled with restricted migration, this can lead to rapid population differentiation. We therefore predicted strong population structuring. Here, using 21 newly characterized microsatellite markers and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), we investigate simplified versions of two classical models of metapopulation dynamics, in a coalescent framework, to estimate the number and genetic composition of founders in the common bed bug. We found very limited diversity within infestations but high degrees of structuring across the city of London, with extreme levels of genetic differentiation between infestations (FST  = 0.59). ABC results suggest a common origin of all founders of a given subpopulation and that the numbers of colonists were low, implying that even a single mated female is enough to found a new infestation successfully. These patterns of colonization are close to the predictions of the propagule pool model, where all founders originate from the same parental infestation. These results show that aspects of metapopulation dynamics can be captured in simple models and provide insights that are valuable for the future targeted control of bed bug infestations. PMID:24446663

  3. Nymphs of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius produce anti-aphrodisiac defence against conspecific males

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    Harraca Vincent

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wounding by traumatic insemination and the lack of a long distance attraction pheromone set the scene for unusual sexual signalling systems. Male bed bugs (Cimex lectularius mount any large, newly fed individual in an attempt to mate. Last instar nymphs overlap in size with mature females, which make them a potential target for interested males. However, nymphs lack the female's specific mating adaptations and may be severely injured by the abdominal wounding. We, therefore, hypothesized that nymphs emit chemical deterrents that act as an honest status signal, which prevents nymph sexual harassment and indirectly reduces energy costs for males. Results Behavioural mating assays showed that males mount nymphs significantly shorter time compared to females, although initial mounting preference was the same. In support of our hypothesis, nymphs experienced the same percentage of mating with sperm transfer as females if they were unable to emit (E-2-hexenal, (E-2-octenal 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal, from their dorsal abdominal glands. We report that the aldehydes and 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal are detected by olfactory receptor neurons housed in smooth and grooved peg sensilla, respectively, on the adult antennae, at biologically relevant concentrations. Behavioural experiments showed that application of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal or the two aldehydes at a nymph-emitted ratio, to a male/female pair during mounting initiation, decreased mating frequency to a rate comparable to that of a male/nymph pair. Conclusions By combining behavioural and sensory studies, we show that the nymph-specific alarm pheromone plays an important role in intra-specific communication in the common bed bug. Alarm pheromones are commonly looked upon as a system in predator/prey communication, but here we show that alarm pheromones may be used as multipurpose signals such as decreasing the risk of nymphal mating by males. See commentary: http

  4. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Zachary C. DeVries

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a “per-bug” basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 − 0.692 ng·bug−1] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 − 0.724 ng·bug−1] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 − 0.386 ng·bug−1]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 − 0.176 ng·mg−1], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 − 0.134 ng·mg−1], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019–0.102 ng·mg−1]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs.

  5. Effects of starvation and molting on the metabolic rate of the bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is a common hematophagous pest in the urban environment and is capable of surviving extended periods of starvation. However, the relationship between starvation and metabolism in bed bugs is not well understood. To better understand this relationship, we measured the metabolism of all life stages for >900 h after feeding (starvation) using closed-system respirometry. Measurements were made around molting for the immature life stages, which occurs only after a blood meal. In addition, both mated and unmated adults were measured. Starvation and molting had significant effects on the metabolism of the bed bug. Mass-specific metabolic rate (V(O2); mL g(-1) h(-1)) declined in a curvilinear fashion with the period of starvation for adults and with the postmolting period for immature bed bugs (used to standardize all immature life stages). A standard curve was developed to depict the generalized pattern of metabolic decline observed in all life stages that molted. Individual metabolic comparisons among life stages that molted revealed some differences in metabolic rate between unmated males and females. In addition, the mass scaling coefficient was found to decline with starvation time (postmolting time) for all life stages that molted. In most life stages, the ratio of V(CO2) to V(O2) (respiratory exchange ratio) declined over time, indicating a change in metabolic substrate with starvation. Finally, daily percent loss in body mass declined in a pattern similar to that of V(O2). The observed patterns in metabolic decline are evaluated in relation to the life history of bed bugs. In addition, the evolutionary development of these patterns is discussed. The metabolic pattern after feeding was also found to share several similarities with that of other ectothermic species. PMID:25590593

  6. Effects of Starvation on Deltamethrin Tolerance in Bed Bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Reid, William R; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., are a major pest in the urban environment. Their presence often results in physical, psychological, and financial distress of homeowners and apartment dwellers. Although many insecticide bioassays have been performed on this pest, little attention has been paid to bed bug feeding status, which is closely linked to metabolism, molting, and mass. Therefore, we evaluated the toxicity of topically applied deltamethrin on insecticide susceptible adult male bed bugs fed 2 d, 9 d, and 21 d prior to testing. When toxicity was evaluated on a "per-bug" basis, there was no difference between 2 d [LD50 = 0.498 (0.316 - 0.692) ng·bug(-1)] and 9 d [LD50 = 0.572 (0.436 - 0.724) ng·bug(-1)] starved bugs, while 21 d starved bugs had a significantly lower LD50 [0.221 (0.075 - 0.386) ng·bug(-1)]. When toxicity was evaluated in terms of body mass, 9 d starved bugs had the highest LD50 values [0.138 (0.102 - 0.176) ng·mg(-1)], followed by 2 d starved bugs [0.095 (0.060 - 0.134) ng·mg(-1)], and then 21 d starved bugs [0.058 (0.019-0.102) ng·mg(-)¹]; the LD50 values of 2 d and 9 d starved bugs were significantly different from 21 d starved bugs. These results indicate that feeding status plays an important role in the toxicity of deltamethrin. In addition, the lack of differences between 2 d and 9 d starved bugs indicate that the blood meal itself has little impact on tolerance, but rather it is some physiological change following feeding that confers increased tolerance to bed bugs. PMID:26463068

  7. Biochemical and toxicological properties of two acetylcholinesterases from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chae Eun; Kim, Young Ho; Kwon, Deok Ho; Seong, Keon Mook; Choi, Jae Young; Je, Yeon Ho; Lee, Si Hyeock

    2014-03-01

    We examined the molecular and enzymatic properties of two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; ClAChE1 and ClAChE2) from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining and Western blotting revealed that ClAChE1 is the main catalytic enzyme and is abundantly expressed in various tissues. Both ClAChEs existed in dimeric form connected by a disulfide bridge and were attached to the membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. To determine their kinetic and inhibitory properties, both ClAChE1 and ClAChE2 were in vitro expressed in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. ClAChE1 showed higher catalytic efficiency toward acetylcholine, supporting the hypothesis that ClAChE1 plays a major role in postsynaptic transmission. An inhibition assay revealed that ClAChE1 is generally more sensitive to organophosphates and carbamates examined although ClAChE2 was >4000-fold more sensitive to malaoxon than ClAChE1. The relatively higher correlation between the in vitro ClAChE1 inhibition and the in vivo toxicity suggested that ClAChE1 is the more relevant toxicological target for organophosphates and carbamates. Although the physiological function of ClAChE2 remains to be elucidated, ClAChE2 also appears to have neuronal functions, as judged by its tissue distribution and molecular and kinetic properties. Our findings help expand our knowledge on insect AChEs and their toxicological properties. PMID:24759047

  8. Cuticle Thickening in a Pyrethroid-Resistant Strain of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, David G; Latham, Sharissa L; Webb, Cameron E; Doggett, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Thickening of the integument as a mechanism of resistance to insecticides is a well recognised phenomenon in the insect world and, in recent times, has been found in insects exhibiting pyrethroid-resistance. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., is widespread and has been frequently inferred as a reason for the pest's resurgence. Overexpression of cuticle depositing proteins has been demonstrated in pyrethroid-resistant bed bugs although, to date, no morphological analysis of the cuticle has been undertaken in order to confirm a phenotypic link. This paper describes examination of the cuticle thickness of a highly pyrethroid-resistant field strain collected in Sydney, Australia, in response to time-to-knockdown upon forced exposure to a pyrethroid insecticide. Mean cuticle thickness was positively correlated to time-to-knockdown, with significant differences observed between bugs knocked-down at 2 hours, 4 hours, and those still unaffected at 24 hours. Further analysis also demonstrated that the 24 hours survivors possessed a statistically significantly thicker cuticle when compared to a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of C. lectularius. This study demonstrates that cuticle thickening is present within a pyrethroid-resistant strain of C. lectularius and that, even within a stable resistant strain, cuticle thickness will vary according to time-to-knockdown upon exposure to an insecticide. This response should thus be considered in future studies on the cuticle of insecticide-resistant bed bugs and, potentially, other insects. PMID:27073871

  9. Interactions among Carbon Dioxide, Heat, and Chemical Lures in Attracting the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae

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    Narinderpal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Commercial bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. monitors incorporating carbon dioxide (CO2, heat, and chemical lures are being used for detecting bed bugs; however, there are few reported studies on the effectiveness of chemical lures in bed bug monitors and the interactions among chemical lure, CO2, and heat. We screened 12 chemicals for their attraction to bed bugs and evaluated interactions among chemical lures, CO2, and heat. The chemical lure mixture consisting of nonanal, 1-octen-3-ol, spearmint oil, and coriander Egyptian oil was found to be most attractive to bed bugs and significantly increased the trap catches in laboratory bioassays. Adding this chemical lure mixture when CO2 was present increased the trap catches compared with traps baited with CO2 alone, whereas adding heat did not significantly increase trap catches when CO2 was present. Results suggest a combination of chemical lure and CO2 is essential for designing effective bed bug monitors.

  10. RNA interference of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase results in reduced insecticide resistance in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

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    Fang Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR plays a central role in cytochrome P450 action. The genes coding for P450s are not yet fully identified in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Hence, we decided to clone cDNA and knockdown the expression of the gene coding for CPR which is suggested to be required for the function of all P450s to determine whether or not P450s are involved in resistance of bed bugs to insecticides. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The full length Cimex lectularius CPR (ClCPR cDNA was isolated from a deltamethrin resistant bed bug population (CIN-1 using a combined PCR strategy. Bioinformatics and in silico modeling were employed to identify three conserved binding domains (FMN, FAD, NADP, a FAD binding motif, and the catalytic residues. The critical amino acids involved in FMN, FAD, NADP binding and their putative functions were also analyzed. No signal peptide but a membrane anchor domain with 21 amino acids which facilitates the localization of ClCPR on the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in ClCPR protein. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ClCPR is closer to the CPR from the body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis than to the CPRs from the other insect species studied. The ClCPR gene was ubiquitously expressed in all tissues tested but showed an increase in expression as immature stages develop into adults. We exploited the traumatic insemination mechanism of bed bugs to inject dsRNA and successfully knockdown the expression of the gene coding for ClCPR. Suppression of the ClCPR expression increased susceptibility to deltamethrin in resistant populations but not in the susceptible population of bed bugs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that P450-mediated metabolic detoxification may serve as one of the resistance mechanisms in bed bugs.

  11. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius) Infestations in Apartment Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F.) are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid). After 12 weeks, the three treatments-EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents' self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance. PMID:26462944

  12. Efficacy of an Essential Oil-Based Pesticide for Controlling Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius Infestations in Apartment Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. are among the most difficult urban pests to manage. Many essential oil-based bed bug control products that are considered reduced risk to mammals compared to synthetic insect neurotoxins have become commercially available, but their effectiveness as a stand-alone control method is unknown. This study assessed the field efficacy of an essential oil-based bed bug control product (EcoRaider; a.i. 1% geraniol + 1% cedar oil + 2% sodium lauryl sulfate compared to a pyrethroid and neonicotinoid mixture spray (0.075% Temprid SC; a.i. beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid. After 12 weeks, the three treatments—EcoRaider, Temprid SC, and EcoRaider + Temprid SC caused 92.5 ± 2.7, 92.9 ± 3.0, and 91.7% ± 2.7% bed bug count reduction, respectively. No significant differences existed in the bed bug reduction among the treatments. Bed bugs were eliminated from only 22% of the treated apartments. Among those still with bed bugs, 76% of the residents did not know bed bugs were present. We documented the residents’ self-control practices and discussed the potential of using essential oil-based insecticides in bed bug management programs to minimize the health risks to building occupants and pets and to slow down the development of insecticide resistance.

  13. Horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L.; hemiptera: cimicidae.

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    Yasmin Akhtar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Horizontal transfer of insecticide occurs when insects contact or ingest an insecticide, return to an aggregation or a nest, and transfer the insecticide to other conspecific insects through contact. This phenomenon has been reported in a number of insects including social insects, however it has not been reported in bed bugs. Since horizontal transfer can facilitate the spread of insecticide into hard to reach spaces, it could contribute greatly to the management of these public health pests. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: To demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in C. lectularius, an exposed (donor bed bug, following a 10-minute acquisition period, was placed with unexposed (recipient bed bugs. Mortality data clearly demonstrates that diatomaceous earth (DE 51 was actively transferred from a single exposed bug to unexposed bugs in a concentration dependent manner. LC50 values varied from 24.4 mg at 48 h to 5.1 mg at 216 h when a single exposed bed bug was placed with 5 unexposed bed bugs. LT50 values also exhibited a concentration response. LT50 values varied from 1.8 days to 8.4 days when a 'donor' bug exposed to 20 and 5 mg of dust respectively was placed with 5 'recipient' bugs. Dust was also actively transferred from adult bed bugs to the nymphs. In addition we observed horizontal transfer of botanical insecticides including neem, ryania, and rotenone to varying degrees. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data clearly demonstrate horizontal transfer of diatomaceous earth and botanical insecticides in the common bed bug, C. lectularius. Use of a fluorescent dust provided visual confirmation that contaminated bed bugs transfer dust to untreated bed bugs in harborage. This result is important because bedbugs live in hard-to-reach places and interaction between conspecifics can be exploited for delivery and dissemination of management products directed at this public health pest.

  14. Stress Tolerance of Bed Bugs: A Review of Factors That Cause Trauma to Cimex lectularius and C. Hemipterus

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    Joshua B. Benoit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent emergence of bed bugs (Cimex spp. has prompted a significant expansion of research devoted to this pest. The ability to survive and recover from stress has significant implications on the distribution and survival of insects, and bed bugs are no exception. Research on bed bug stress tolerance has shown considerable progress and necessitates a review on this topic. Bed bugs have an extraordinary ability to resist dehydration between bloodmeals, and this represents a critical factor allowing their prolonged survival when no host is available. High relative humidities are detrimental to bed bugs, leading to reduced survival in comparison to those held at lower relative humidities. Continual exposure of bed bugs, eggs and mobile stages, to temperatures below freezing and short term exposure (=1 h to temperatures below −16 to −18 °C results in mortality. The upper thermal limit for short term exposure of eggs, nymphs and adults is between 40–45 °C for the common (Cimex lectularius and tropical (C. hemipterus bed bugs. Long-term exposure to temperatures above 35 °C results in significant reduction in survival of mobile bed bugs. Eggs for C. lectularius and C. hemipterus are no longer viable when held below 10 °C or above 37 °C throughout embryogenesis. Blood feeding, although necessary for survival and reproduction, is discussed as a stress due to thermal and osmotic fluctuations that result from ingesting a warm bloodmeal from a vertebrate host. Cold, heat, water stress and blood feeding prompted the expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps. Pesticide application is a common human-induced stress for urban pests, and recent studies have documented pesticide resistance in many bed bug populations. High levels of traumatic insemination (mating of bed bugs has been linked to reduced survival and fecundity along with possibly exposing individuals to microbial infections after cuticular penetration by the paramere (=male reproductive organ

  15. Susceptibility of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to pyrethroid insecticides and to insecticidal dusts with or without pyrethroid insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Cowles, Richard S

    2012-10-01

    Relative increases of bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations are probably due in large measure to their resistance to pyrethroids, which have been used extensively against urban pests. A Connecticut population of bed bugs was assessed for sensitivity to pyrethroids and exposed to commonly-used commercial insecticides applied to various substrates on which the residues were allowed to age for 0-24 wk. Type I and type II pyrethroids differed in toxicity when applied at a high dosage (1 microg) per bed bug. Some type II pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cis-cypermethrin, and deltamethrin) caused > 80% mortality, whereas exposure to type I pyrethroids caused 0.95) an exponential rise to a maximum model from which the survival half-life (S1/2) was calculated directly. Tempo Dust (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) killed bed bugs relatively quickly, as did Syloid 244 (Grace Davison, Columbia, MD) and Drione (Bayer Environmental Science, Montvale, NJ) on hardboard and mattress fabric substrates (S1/2 Insecticide Control solutions, Pasadena, TX) and D-Force HPX Aerosol 0.06% (Waterbury Companies, Waterbury, CT), displayed reduced residual toxicity as they aged; the mortality was < 50% on some substrates after 4 d. Desiccant dusts, with their physical mode of action and long residual activity, appear to be superior to sprayable pyrethroid products for killing bed bugs.

  16. Bed bug cytogenetics: karyotype, sex chromosome system, FISH mapping of 18S rDNA, and male meiosis in Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera: Cimicidae

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    Snejana Grozeva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Bugs (Insecta: Heteroptera are frequently used as examples of unusual cytogenetic characters, and the family Cimicidae is one of most interest in this respect. We have performed a cytogenetic study of the common bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 using both classical (Schiff-Giemsa and AgNO3-staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques (base-specific DAPI/CMA3 fluorochromes and FISH with an 18S rDNA probe. Males originated from a wild population of C. lectularius were found to have 2n = 26 + X1X2Y, holokinetic chromosomes, 18S rRNA genes located on the X1 and Y chromosomes; achiasmate male meiosis of a collochore type; MI and MII plates nonradial and radial respectively.

  17. Extensive fragmentation of the X chromosome in the bed bug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: a survey across Europe

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    David Sadílek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the number of chromosomes was revealed in 61 samples of Cimex lectularius Linnaeus, 1758 from the Czech Republic and other European countries, hosted on Myotis Kaup, 1829 (4 and Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (57. The karyotype of all the specimens of C. lectularius analysed contained 26 autosomes and a varying number of the sex chromosomes. The number of sex chromosomes showed extensive variation, and up to 20 fragments were recorded. Altogether, 12 distinct karyotypes were distinguished. The male karyotypes consisted of 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 42 and 47 chromosomes. The females usually exhibited the number of chromosomes which was complementary to the number established in the males from the same sample. However, 11 polymorphic samples were revealed in which the karyotypes of females and males were not complementary each other. The complement with 2n = 26+X1X2Y was found in 44% of the specimens and 57,4% samples of bed bugs studied. The karyotypes with higher chromosome numbers as well as individuals with chromosomal mosaics were usually found within the samples exhibiting particularly extensive variation between individuals, and such complements were not found within samples contaning a few or single specimen. The occurrence of chromosomal mosaics with the karyotype constitution varying between cells of single individual was observed in five specimens (4.3% from five samples. We assume that polymorphism caused by fragmentation of the X chromosome may result in meiotic problems and non-disjunction can produce unbalanced gametes and result in lowered fitness of individuals carrying higher numbers of the X chromosome fragments. This effect should be apparently enhanced with the increasing number of the fragments and this may be the reason for the observed distribution pattern of individual karyotypes in the studied samples and the rarity of individuals with extremely high chromosome numbers. The assumed lowering of the

  18. A Survey of Bedbug (Cimex lectularius Infestation in Some Homes and Hostels in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

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    Onah Isegbe Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Survey of bed bug infestation in some homes and hostels, in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria, was conducted from January to April, 2011. Bed frames, bunks, mattresses, pillows, chairs, and clothes were inspected. A total of 2,642 bed bugs were collected. 73.3% were from hostels while 26.7% were from homes. There was a significant difference between in the number of homes infested and those not infested (χ2=61.44, df=4, P<0.05. Nymphs were the most populated, with 292 (41.4%, followed by males 223 (31.6%, and females 190 (27.0%. There was no significant difference in the number of infested hostels and those not infested (χ2=0.8, df=4, P<0.05. The nymphs being the most populated with 901 (64.1%, followed by males 538 (36.1%, and then females 496 (35.3%. The greater number of infestation recorded in the hostels was as a result of poor hygiene, lack of adequate knowledge of the best control practices and the high population density. In homes, lack of the awareness of the resurgence of the emerging pest and lack of proper health education is responsible for the high infestation. Proactive approach should be taken towards public health education against bed bug infestation. Government and NGOs should take critical steps in preventing spread and stigma.

  19. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. within and between Apartments.

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    Richard Cooper

    Full Text Available Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar, adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings.

  20. Mark-Release-Recapture Reveals Extensive Movement of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) within and between Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2015-01-01

    Understanding movement and dispersal of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) under field conditions is important in the control of infestations and for managing the spread of bed bugs to new locations. We investigated bed bug movement within and between apartments using mark-release-recapture (m-r-r) technique combined with apartment-wide monitoring using pitfall-style interceptors. Bed bugs were collected, marked, and released in six apartments. The distribution of marked and unmarked bed bugs in these apartments and their 24 neighboring units were monitored over 32 days. Extensive movement of marked bed bugs within and between apartments occurred regardless of the number of bed bugs released or presence/absence of a host. Comparison of marked and unmarked bed bug distributions confirms that the extensive bed bug activity observed was not an artifact of the m-r-r technique used. Marked bed bugs were recovered in apartments neighboring five of six m-r-r apartments. Their dispersal rates at 14 or 15 d were 0.0-5.0%. The estimated number of bed bugs per apartment in the six m-r-r apartments was 2,433-14,291 at 4-7 d after release. Longevity of bed bugs in the absence of a host was recorded in a vacant apartment. Marked large nymphs (3rd- 5th instar), adult females, and adult males continued to be recovered up to 57, 113, and 134 d after host absence, respectively. Among the naturally existing unmarked bed bugs, unfed small nymphs (1st- 2nd instar) were recovered up to 134 d; large nymphs and adults were still found at 155 d when the study ended. Our findings provide important insight into the behavioral ecology of bed bugs in infested apartments and have significant implications in regards to eradication programs and managing the spread of bed bugs within multi-occupancy dwellings. PMID:26352145

  1. Induction of skin papillomas in the rabbit, Oryctologus cuniculus, by bites of a blood-sucking insect, Cimex lectularius, irradiated by gamma rays

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    el-Mofty, M.M.; Sakr, S.A.; Younis, M.W. (Alexandria Univ. (Egypt))

    1989-11-01

    Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, irradiated with gamma rays were allowed to suck blood from shaved areas of the skin of rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, 2 times/week for 5 months and then once weekly for another 5 months. This significantly induced the formation of skin papillomas and sweat gland hyperplasia in five out of nine experimental animals. It is speculated that the saliva of the irradiated bugs was activated by gamma rays and was responsible for the induction of skin papillomas. Because bed bugs play a significant role in the transmission of virus, it is also speculated that there is a virus in the saliva of bugs; this virus may be activated by gamma radiation and causes the development of papillomas in the skin.

  2. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  3. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

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    Jourdain Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs. These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  4. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  5. A 454 survey reveals the community composition and core microbiome of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius across an Urban Landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Meriweather

    Full Text Available Elucidating the spatial dynamic and core constituents of the microbial communities found in association with arthropod hosts is of crucial importance for insects that may vector human or agricultural pathogens. The hematophagous Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae, known as the human bed bug, has made a recent resurgence in North America, as well as worldwide, potentially owing to increased travel, climate change and resistance to insecticides. A comprehensive survey of the bed bug microbiome has not been performed to date, nor has an assessment of the spatial dynamics of its microbiome. Here we present a survey of internal and external bed bug microbial communities by amplifying the V4-V6 hypervariable region of the 16S rDNA gene region followed by 454 Titanium sequencing using 31 individuals from eight distinct collection locations obtained from residences in Cincinnati, OH. Across all samples, 97% of the microbial community is made up of two dominant OTUs, previously identified as the α-proteobacterium Wolbachia and an unnamed γ-proteobacterium from the Enterobacteriaceae. Microbial communities varied among host locations for measures of community diversity and exhibited structure according to collection location. This broad survey represents the most in-depth assessment, to date, of the microbes that associate with bed bugs.

  6. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L. in Lower-Income Housing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W Raab

    Full Text Available Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a 16/21 (73% infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr, from valine to leucine (V419L and leucine to isoleucine (L925I that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40% bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925, and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  7. New Introductions, Spread of Existing Matrilines, and High Rates of Pyrethroid Resistance Result in Chronic Infestations of Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) in Lower-Income Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Ronald W; Moore, Julia E; Vargo, Edward L; Rose, Lucy; Raab, Julie; Culbreth, Madeline; Burzumato, Gracie; Koyee, Aurvan; McCarthy, Brittany; Raffaele, Jennifer; Schal, Coby; Vaidyanathan, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Infestations of the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) have increased substantially in the United States in the past 10-15 years. The housing authority in Harrisonburg, Virginia, conducts heat-treatments after bed bugs are detected in a lower-income housing complex, by treating each infested unit at 60°C for 4-6 hours. However, a high frequency of recurrent infestations called into question the efficacy of this strategy. Genetic analysis using Bayesian clustering of polymorphic microsatellite loci from 123 bed bugs collected from 23 units from May 2012 to April 2013 in one building indicated that (a) 16/21 (73%) infestations were genetically similar, suggesting ineffective heat-treatments or reintroductions from within the building or from a common external source, followed by local spread of existing populations; and (b) up to 5 of the infestations represented new genotypes, indicating that 5 new populations were introduced into this building in one year, assuming they were not missed in earlier screens. There was little to no gene flow among the 8 genetic clusters identified in the building. Bed bugs in the U.S. often possess one or both point mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, termed knockdown resistance (kdr), from valine to leucine (V419L) and leucine to isoleucine (L925I) that confer target-site resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. We found that 48/121 (40%) bed bugs were homozygous for both kdr mutations (L419/I925), and a further 59% possessed at least one of the kdr mutations. We conclude that ineffective heat treatments, new introductions, reintroductions and local spread, and an exceptionally high frequency of pyrethroid resistance are responsible for chronic infestations in lower-income housing. Because heat treatments fail to protect from reintroductions, and pesticide use has not decreased the frequency of infestations, preventing new introductions and early detection are the most effective strategies to avoid bed bug

  8. Synthèse bibliographique sur le comportement de recherche de l'hôte chez la punaise de lit (Cimex lectularius et applications dans le cadre de la lutte intégrée

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legrand, P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Host-seeking behavior in the bed bug (Cimex lectularius and applications in integrated pest management. A review. Description of the subject. This study analyzes host-seeking behavior in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, paying particular attention to human stimuli involved in this orientation process. The potential applications in integrated pest management are discussed. Literature. The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous that has been associated with humans for millennia. When searching for food, this insect relies for orientation on signals produced by its hosts. Carbon dioxide emitted by human respiration is more attractive to bugs than body heat. The response of bed bugs to other volatile organic compounds released by the human body has been tested, but their perception and behavioral impact are not always studied together, and some discrepancies occasionally appear. Conclusions. Currently, carbon dioxide is the most efficient lure for bed bugs, although real human bait is more attractive. Some home-made traps baited with dry ice are more efficient than other traps using complicated chemical blends. Dry ice seems to be more efficient as a lure than complex chemical blends, and it can be used in simple traps. Our knowledge of host-seeking behavior in bed bugs is still partial and new questions are constantly arising. Further efforts in the study of the chemical ecology of this process are needed in order to improve the management of this pest. The control of bed bugs in European countries appears to be a major challenge for the years to come.

  9. Heating Luggage Sends Bedbugs Packing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to control bedbugs, the EPA says. SOURCE: Pest Management Science , news release, Aug. 1, 2016 HealthDay Copyright (c) 2016 HealthDay . All rights reserved. News stories are provided by HealthDay and do not reflect the views of MedlinePlus, the National Library of Medicine, the ...

  10. Bedbugs in Schools? Halting a Possible Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldorf, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Bedbugs are a growing problem in schools today. Bedbugs are often confused with other insects, and their signs are hard to recognize. School officials should work with an experienced pest control company to confirm whether the insects are bed bugs and, if they are not, to identify them so they can be treated effectively. Education and vigilance…

  11. Alarm pheromones and chemical communication in nymphs of the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera: Cimicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Christoph Liedtke

    Full Text Available The recent resurge of bed bug infestations (Cimex spp.; Cimicidae and their resistance to commonly used pesticides calls for alternative methods of control. Pheromones play an important role in environmentally sustainable methods for the management of many pest insects and may therefore be applicable for the control of bed bugs. The tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, is a temporary ectoparasite on humans and causes severe discomfort. Compared to the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, little is known about the chemical signalling and pheromone-based behaviour of the tropical species. Here, we show that the antennal morphology and volatile emission of C. hemipterus closely resembles those of C. lectularius and we test their behavioural responses to conspecific odour emissions. Two major volatiles are emitted by male, female and nymph C. hemipterus under stress, (E-2-hexenal and (E-2-octenal. Notably, nymph emissions show contrasting ratios of these compounds to adults and are further characterized by the addition of 4-oxo-(E-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E-2-octenal. The discovery of this nymph pheromone in C. hemipterus is potentially the cause of a repellent effect observed in the bio-tests, where nymph odours induce a significantly stronger repellent reaction in conspecifics than adult odours. Our results suggest that pheromone-based pest control methods developed for C. lectularius could be applicable to C. hemipterus, with the unique nymph blend showing promising practical properties.

  12. Cuticular hydrocarbons from the bed bug Cimex lectularius L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentane extracts of male and female bed bugs were analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in an effort to identify cuticular hydrocarbons. Seventeen hydrocarbons accounting for nearly 99% of the compounds eluting in the cuticular hydrocarbon region were identified. The sample contained ...

  13. Insecticide susceptibility of cimex hemipterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Perti

    1964-10-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the bed bug, cimex hemiptelus fabricius, to certain synthetic contact insecticides, viz., DDT, lindane dieldrin, diazinon and malathion was investigated. The fifth nymphal stage of the insect was found to be more tolerant to insecticides than other nymphal instars or the adult bed bug.

  14. Host Searching and Aggregation Activity of Recently Fed and Unfed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D. Reis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groups of starved, virgin adult male or female bed bugs were stimulated to search for a host by the presence of a heated artificial feeder. Some of the bed bug groups were allowed to obtain a blood meal and some were not. After the removal of the feeder, bed bugs were observed throughout the scotophase to record their searching and aggregation behavior. Groups of male and female bed bugs that were unable to obtain a blood meal continued to search in the arena for the majority of the scotophase. Bed bugs that were able to obtain a blood meal returned to their shelter to aggregate 30 min after feeding. Overall, the proportion of bed bugs aggregating in shelters during the scotophase was significantly greater for those that had fed successfully than those that had not. However, all bed bugs, regardless of feeding status, began to return to shelters to aggregate 2 h prior to the photophase.

  15. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Goddard

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed. As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22% of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4% unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p < 0.0038, and indicates that unfed bed bugs did not move as far as recently fed ones. A mathematical diffusion model was used to quantify bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm2/s to 0.416 cm2/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse.

  16. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

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    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  17. Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L. Population Composition as Determined by Baited Traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Schaafsma

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two established field populations of bed bugs were sampled using host-mimicking traps baited with a combination of CO2, heat and a synthetic kairomone. The proportion of first instar nymphs (between 52% and 78% of all captured insects was significantly higher than reported in previous studies, which had employed different sampling methods. The proportion of adults was correspondingly much lower than previously reported, between 5% and 7% of total capture. As many as 120 bed bugs were captured in a single trap in one night; the variation in catches between sampling locations within the same room and between days at the same location indicates that multiple nights of trapping may be required to obtain an accurate representation of population structure.

  18. Diffusion Rates and Dispersal Patterns of Unfed versus Recently Fed Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, Jerome; Caprio, Michael; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Bed bug problems have been increasing since the 1980s, and accordingly, there have been intensive efforts to better understand their biology and behavior for control purposes. Understanding bed bug diffusion rates and dispersal patterns from one site to another (or lack thereof) is a key component in prevention and control campaigns. This study analyzed diffusion rates and dispersal patterns in a population of bed bugs, recently fed and unfed, in both one-dimensional and two-dimensional settings. When placed in the middle of a 71 cm × 2.7 cm artificial lane, approximately half of the bugs regardless of feeding status stayed at or near the release point during the 10 min observation periods, while about a fourth of them walked to the end of the lane. When placed in the middle of an arena measuring 51 cm × 76 cm and allowed to walk in any direction, approximately one-fourth of bed bugs, fed or unfed, still remained near their release point (no significant difference between fed or unfed). As for long-distance dispersal, 11/50 (22%) of recently fed bed bugs moved as far as possible in the arena during the 10 min replications, while only 2/50 (4%) unfed bed bugs moved to the maximum distance. This difference was significantly different (p bed bug movements and an estimated diffusion rate range of 0.00006 cm²/s to 0.416 cm²/s was determined, which is almost no movement to a predicted root mean squared distance of approximately 19 cm per 10 min. The results of this study suggest that bed bugs, upon initial introduction into a new area, would have a difficult time traversing long distances when left alone to randomly disperse. PMID:26466900

  19. Population Growth Potential of the Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius L.: A Life Table Analysis

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    Dini M. Miller

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental life tables were constructed and analyzed for three strains of the common bed bug: a pyrethroid-susceptible laboratory strain (HS, a highly resistant field strain (RR, and a field strain with a declining level of resistance (KR. Egg to adult survival in the RR strain was 94% compared with 79% and 69% in the HS and KR strains, respectively. The RR strain also developed significantly faster from egg to adult (~35 days than the other two strains (~40 days. Analysis of a survivorship and fecundity life table for the RR strain produced the following results. The average life expectancy for a newly laid egg was ~143 days, and that of a newly molted adult was ~127 days. Females produced an average of 0.64 daughter eggs/day with the highest weekly production during the fifth week of adult life. Analysis of daily reproductive parity showed that females produced 1–3 and 4–6 eggs on 79 and 21% of the days, respectively, when egg laying occurred. The net reproductive rate (R0 of the RR strain was ~35, which represents a 35-fold increase in the population per generation (~92 days. The intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0.054 indicating that the population multiplies 1.1 times/female/day (λ and doubles in size every 13 days. The stable age distribution (cx was dominated by nymphs (54%, followed by eggs (34% and adults (12%. Reproductive values (vx for the strain increased from egg to the adult stage.

  20. Morphological and Physiological Characteristics that Contribute to Insecticide Resistance in Bed Bug (Cimex lectularius L.) Eggs.

    OpenAIRE

    Delong, Brittany E

    2014-01-01

    Although bed bug eggs are a difficult life stage to control with our currently labeled insecticides, few studies have examined how bed bug egg morphology and physiology is potentially related to pesticide resistance in bed bug eggs. Bed bug egg morphological features were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the chorion and respiration structures were identified. Scanning electron microscopy photographs and bed bug egg measurements indicated there were no morphological differ...

  1. Vision in the common bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): eye morphology and spectral sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behavior to improve management. While few studies have inves...

  2. Engineering Multi-scale Electrospun Structure for Integration into Architected 3-D Nanofibers for Cimex Annihilation: Fabrication and Mechanism Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shan; Zhang, Linxi; Liu, Ying; Rafailovich, Miriam; Garcia Center for Polymers at Engineered Interfaces Team

    In this study, engineered electrospun scaffolds with fibers oriented with designed curvature in three dimensions (3D) including the looped structure were developed based on the principle of electrostatic repulsion. Here we illustrate that 3D electrospun recycled polystyrene fibers could closely mimic the unique architectures of multi-direction and multi-layer nano-spiderweb. In contrast to virgin PS, the recycled PS (Dart Styrofoam) are known to contain zinc stearate which acts as a surfactant resulting in higher electrical charge and larger fiber curvature, hence, lower modulus. The surfactant, which is known to decrease the surface tension, may have also been effective at decreasing the confinement of the PS, where chain stretching was shown to occur, in response to the high surface tension at the air interface. Three dimensional flexible architecture with complex structures are shown to be necessary in order to block the motion of Cimex lectularius. Here we show how an engineered electrospun network of surfactant modified polymer fibers with calculated dimensions can be used to immobilize the insects. The mechanical response of the fibers has to be specifically tailored so that it is elastically deformed, without fracturing or flowing. Carefully controlling and tailoring the electrospinning parameters we can now utilize architected 3D nanofiber to create an environmental-friendly Cimex immobilization device which can lead to annihilation solution for all the other harmful insects.

  3. Competence of Cimex lectularius Bed Bugs for the Transmission of Bartonella quintana, the Agent of Trench Fever.

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    Hamza Leulmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella quintana, the etiologic agent of trench fever and other human diseases, is transmitted by the feces of body lice. Recently, this bacterium has been detected in other arthropod families such as bed bugs, which begs the question of their involvement in B. quintana transmission. Although several infectious pathogens have been reported and are suggested to be transmitted by bed bugs, the evidence regarding their competence as vectors is unclear.Bed bugs at the adult and instar developmental stages were fed three successive human blood meals inoculated with B. quintana bacterium from day one (D1 to D5; subsequently they were fed with pathogen-free human blood until the end of the experiment. Bed bugs and feces were collected in time series, to evaluate their capacities to acquire, multiply and expel viable B. quintana using molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and cultures assays. B. quintana was detected molecularly in 100% of randomly selected experimentally infected bed bug specimens (D3. The monitoring of B. quintana in bed bug feces showed that the bacterium was detectable starting on the 3rd day post-infection (pi and persisted until day 18±1 pi. Although immunohistochemistry assays localized the bacteria to the gastrointestinal bed bug gut, the detection of B. quintana in the first and second instar larva stages suggested a vertical non-transovarial transmission of the bacterium.The present work demonstrated for the first time that bed bugs can acquire, maintain for more than 2 weeks and release viable B. quintana organisms following a stercorarial shedding. We also observed the vertical transmission of the bacterium to their progeny. Although the biological role of bed bugs in the transmission of B. quintana under natural conditions has yet to be confirmed, the present work highlights the need to reconsider monitoring of these arthropods for the transmission of human pathogens.

  4. Reproductive Potential of Field-collected Populations of Cimex lectularius L. and the Cost of Traumatic Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle C. Brewster

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Egg production was compared among three field-collected bed bug strains over the course of 13 feeding/oviposition cycles, each of which lasted ~10 days. No significant differences were found among bed bug strains in the mean number of eggs/female/day (~1.0 egg. However, significant differences were found among strains in their patterns of egg production throughout the study period. Specifically, differences were observed in the timing of peak egg production and the rapidity of egg production decline among the three strains. Egg production was also quantified for female bed bugs that were subjected to single or multiple traumatic insemination events over a period of six feeding/oviposition cycles. Significant differences were found in egg production between females exposed to single and multiple inseminations. Females mated only once produced 83.8 ± 4.5 (mean ± SE eggs over six feeding cycles. Females exposed to multiple inseminations produced 61.0 ± 3.1 eggs, indicating that multiple traumatic inseminations may reduce female fecundity by as much as 27%. This study is the first to suggest that, in a new infestation (first ~6 weeks, a solitary, singly-mated female with access to regular blood meals is capable of producing greater numbers of offspring than the same female in the presence of a male.

  5. A door-to-door survey of bed bug (Cimex lectularius) infestations in row homes in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yage; Tracy, Dylan M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a door-to-door survey in a residential census tract of Philadelphia to estimate the prevalence and spatial patterns of recent bed bug infestations. We interviewed 596 residents, of whom 66 (11.1%) reported recent bed bug infestations. We confirmed current infestations in a subset of 15 (68.2%) of 22 inspected households. Most residents reported that their infestation began within the past year (2012-2013). We found no correlation between property value and infestation status. Spatial analyses showed significant clustering of bed bug infestations only at fine scales, suggesting limited active dispersal of the insects. Residents used a large variety of treatment methods to eliminate bed bugs, but only 48.1% reported success. Our results provide a prevalence estimate of recent bed bug infestations and highlight the importance of passive rather than active dispersal of bed bugs even among dense urban row homes. PMID:24799372

  6. Estimating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius: Comparing thermolimit respirometry with traditional visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, Zachary C; Kells, Stephen A; Appel, Arthur G

    2016-07-01

    Evaluating the critical thermal maximum (CTmax) in insects has provided a number of challenges. Visual observations of endpoints (onset of spasms, loss of righting response, etc.) can be difficult to measure consistently, especially with smaller insects. To resolve this problem, Lighton and Turner (2004) developed a new technique: thermolimit respirometry (TLR). TLR combines real time measurements of both metabolism (V·CO2) and activity to provide two independent, objective measures of CTmax. However, several questions still remain regarding the precision of TLR and how accurate it is in relation to traditional methods. Therefore, we evaluated CTmax of bed bugs using both traditional (visual) methods and TLR at three important metabolic periods following feeding (1d, 9d, and 21d). Both methods provided similar estimates of CTmax, although traditional methods produced consistently lower values (0.7-1°C lower than TLR). Despite similar levels of precision, TLR provided a more complete profile of thermal tolerance, describing changes in metabolism and activity leading up to the CTmax, not available through traditional methods. In addition, feeding status had a significant effect on bed bug CTmax, with bed bugs starved 9d (45.19[±0.20]°C) having the greatest thermal tolerance, followed by bed bugs starved 1d (44.64[±0.28]°C), and finally bed bugs starved 21d (44.12[±0.28]°C). Accuracy of traditional visual methods in relation to TLR is highly dependent on the selected endpoint; however, when performed correctly, both methods provide precise, accurate, and reliable estimations of CTmax. PMID:26970580

  7. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Kamimura

    Full Text Available During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females. This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus.

  8. Duplicated female receptacle organs for traumatic insemination in the tropical bed bug Cimex hemipterus: adaptive variation or malformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Yoshitaka; Mitsumoto, Hiroyuki; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2014-01-01

    During mating, male bed bugs (Cimicidae) pierce the female abdomen to inject sperm using their needle-like genitalia. Females evolved specialized paragenital organs (the spermalege and associated structures) to receive traumatically injected ejaculates. In Leptocimex duplicatus, the spermalege is duplicated, but the evolutionary significance of this is unclear. In Cimex hemipterus and C. lectularius, in which females normally develop a single spermalege on the right side of the abdomen, similar duplication sometimes occurs. Using these aberrant morphs (D-females) of C. hemipterus, we tested the hypothesis that both of the duplicated spermaleges are functionally competent. Scars on female abdominal exoskeletons indicated frequent misdirected piercing by male genitalia. However, the piercing sites showed a highly biased distribution towards the right side of the female body. A mating experiment showed that when the normal insemination site (the right-side spermalege) was artificially covered, females remained unfertilized. This was true even when females also had a spermalege on the left side (D-females). This result was attributed to handedness in male mating behavior. Irrespective of the observed disuse of the left-side spermalege by males for insemination, histological examination failed to detect any differences between the right-side and left-side spermaleges. Moreover, an artificial insemination experiment confirmed that spermatozoa injected into the left-side spermalege show apparently normal migration behavior to the female reproductive organs, indicating an evolutionary potential for functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges. We discuss possible mechanisms for the evolutionary maintenance of D-females and propose a plausible route to the functionally-competent duplicated spermaleges observed in L. duplicatus. PMID:24586643

  9. Bedbugs: what nurses need to know from treating lesions to treating the home, management of an infestation is multifaceted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Emily R; Murray, Billie S

    2014-04-01

    I t could happen to anyone. A family is vacationing, and after checking into a hotel the kids and their mother go to bed. A short while later, the husband approaches the bed where his wife is sleeping; he notices something moving on the white sheet near her head. It's an insect. He catches it, places it on a tissue, and logs onto his computer to try to identify it. Soon he realizes it's a bedbug, wakes his wife and children, and calls the front desk. The hotel's pest manager comes up and confirms it: there's a bedbug infestation in the room, and the hotel moves the family to another part of the building. PMID:24685755

  10. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam, Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid, and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid. No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8–10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray.

  11. Field Study of the Comparative Efficacy of Three Pyrethroid/Neonicotinoid Mixture Products for the Control of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal; Cooper, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Three insecticide mixtures that contain two classes of insecticides (pyrethroid and neonicotinoid) were recently developed to control bed bugs. We evaluated three integrated bed bug management strategies in apartments, each using the same non-chemical control methods and one of the three insecticide mixture products: Tandem (lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam), Temprid SC (beta-cyfluthrin + imidacloprid), and Transport Mikron (bifenthrin + acetamiprid). No insecticides were applied in the Control apartments. In all apartments, we installed vinyl mattress encasements (if not already present) and applied steam to beds and other infested upholstered furniture. Insecticide sprays were applied in the three treatments. Each treatment and the Control included 8-10 occupied apartments. Re-treatment was conducted during biweekly inspections if necessary. After eight weeks, the mean (± SEM) bed bug count reduction in the Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron, and Control was 89 ± 9, 87 ± 6, 98 ± 1, and 23 ± 54%, respectively. Only Tandem and Transport Mikron treatments resulted in significantly higher population reduction than the Control at eight weeks. There were no significant differences in mean percent reduction among the three treatments (Tandem, Temprid SC, Transport Mikron) at eight weeks. Tandem spray caused significantly faster bed bug reduction than Temprid SC spray and Transport Mikron spray. PMID:26463075

  12. Krüppel homolog 1 and E93 mediate Juvenile hormone regulation of metamorphosis in the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujar, Hemant; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug is an obligate hematophagous parasite of humans. We studied the regulation of molting and metamorphosis in bed bugs with a goal to identify key players involved. qRT-PCR studies on the expression of genes known to be involved in molting and metamorphosis showed high levels of Krüppel homolog 1 [Kr-h1, a transcription factor that plays key roles in juvenile hormone (JH) action] mRNA in the penultimate nymphal stage (N4). However, low levels of Kr-h1 mRNA were detected in the fifth and last nymphal stage (N5). Knockdown of Kr-h1 in N4 resulted in a precocious development of adult structures. Kr-h1 maintains the immature stage by suppressing E93 (early ecdysone response gene) in N4. E93 expression increases during the N5 in the absence of Kr-h1 and promotes the development of adult structures. Knockdown of E93 in N5 results in the formation of supernumerary nymphs. The role of JH in the suppression of adult structures through interaction with Kr-h1 and E93 was also studied by the topical application of JH analog, methoprene, to N5. Methoprene induced Kr-h1 and suppressed E93 and induced formation of the supernumerary nymph. These data show interactions between Kr-h1, E93 and JH in the regulation of metamorphosis in the bed bugs. PMID:27185064

  13. Evolución de la Gestión del Conocimiento en el Grupo Empresarial CIMEX (Evolution of Knowledge Management in CIMEX Corporation)

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Simón Cuevas; Maité Torres Sánchez; Lucina García Hernández; Raudel Ravelo Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Spanish abstract. En la actualidad los sistemas para la toma de decisiones son necesarios en la conducción de cualquier organización. El Grupo Empresarial CIMEX, una de las empresas comercializadoras cubanas, tiene una amplia experiencia en el desarrollo de soluciones computacionales que en el transcurso de los años han evolucionado dando respuesta a los requerimientos informacionales de los analistas y directivos. Diferentes áreas de negocio –comercial, económica y recursos humanos– se han m...

  14. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton0355 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton0355 acyl- synthetase long- isoform b Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 19...GGAAGGTGCATTGGGAGCAATAAAAGCGATCGCATTTGTCTGTGATATCATCACTTATCCAGTGTACCTTATTCTACAACGGCCATGGG fb18010 1 acyl-CoA synthetase [Gl

  15. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton0763 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton0763 aldo-keto reductase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 591 CACCGGGTAGG...GTGAATAAAGGCTTAGTTAGGTCAATCGGACTATCCAATTTCAACAAAAGACAGATCGAAGATGTTT fs09012 1 aldo-keto reductase [Gl

  16. Bedbugs and Bug Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I help my teen age son cope with acne 6 comment(s) View top rated View top commented | View forums Recent Blog Posts Get your fats right for psoriasis 6/22/16 Sprinkling seeds on your breakfast,... 10 Simple Diet Swaps to Improve Your P... 5/27/16 ...

  17. Cimidíase (dermatose por percevejo: uma causa de prurigo a ser lembrada Bedbugs (Heteroptera, Cimicidae: an etiology of pruritus to be remembered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Ricardo Criado

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos uma doente de 19 anos que nos procurou com quadro de intenso prurido há 2 semanas e demonstrando lesões eritêmato-pápulo-urticadas mais intensamente distribuídas nos membros superiores e inferiores. A anamnese detalhada excluiu causas internas e medicamentos como uma possível causa do prurigo. Após orientações quanto a dedetização do domicílio a doente retornou no consultório após 3 semanas sem lesões cutâneas e trazendo em um pote de vidro vários percevejos coletados após a dedetização.This report describes a 19-year old female patient, who sought medical attention for severe itching of two weeks' duration. Erythematous papules and wheals were found, principally on her upper and lower limbs. Careful anamnesis excluded other etiologies of the pruritus, including those related to internal diseases and medication. Following counseling regarding the need to contract a domestic pest control company, the patient returned to the clinic three weeks later with no skin lesions and bearing a glass jar containing several bedbugs collected following pest control treatment.

  18. Evolución de la Gestión del Conocimiento en el Grupo Empresarial CIMEX (Evolution of Knowledge Management in CIMEX Corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Simón Cuevas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spanish abstract. En la actualidad los sistemas para la toma de decisiones son necesarios en la conducción de cualquier organización. El Grupo Empresarial CIMEX, una de las empresas comercializadoras cubanas, tiene una amplia experiencia en el desarrollo de soluciones computacionales que en el transcurso de los años han evolucionado dando respuesta a los requerimientos informacionales de los analistas y directivos. Diferentes áreas de negocio –comercial, económica y recursos humanos– se han manejado históricamente mediante aplicaciones independientes, dificultándose la conciliación entre los resultados particulares y el análisis integral de la información. En el presente trabajo se reseña los hitos principales de la progresión de la gestión del conocimiento en la Corporación desde una perspectiva computacional y se expone la solución actual basada en la extensión y el enriquecimiento del almacén de datos existente. Las funcionalidades analíticas incorporadas se han implementado sobre el modelo tabular, ofrecido por Microsoft SQ Server, que se sustenta en las tecnologías de almacenamiento columnar y las bases de datos en memoria. Además, se brinda la versión propia para controlar el desempeño empresarial sustentado en el análisis de los principales indicadores claves de éxito, lo que posibilita la creación de cuadros de mando ajustados a cada una de las empresas con vista a la proyección, ejecución y control de sus planes tácticos y estratégicos. Finalmente se presenta una primera aproximación del proceso de minería de datos para la predicción de indicadores gerenciales. Abstract: Nowadays, decision support systems are essential in the management of any organization. CIMEX Corporation, one of the Cuban trading enterprises, has a wide experience in the development of computer solutions that over the years has evolved in response to experts and managers informational requirements. Different business areas

  19. Os Cimicídeos e sua importância em Saúde Pública (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae The Cimicidae and their importance in Public Health (Hemiptera-Heteroptera; Cimicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se atualização de conhecimentos sobre insetos da família Cimicidae, ou percevejos, de interesse em saúde pública. Após fornecer elementos de morfologia, externa e interna, dedica-se atenção à biologia e ecologia desses insetos, em especial modo, focalizando o relacionamento com o homem e seu ambiente. As espécies Cimex lectularius e C. hemipterus são tratadas em particular, com revisão dos dados disponíveis sobre o possível papel vetor desses percevejos na transmissão de agentes infecciosos. São apresentados dados sobre a classificação e distribuição geográfica. Fornecem-se dados sobre meios de controle. Inclui chaves para identificação de formas adultas e imaturas, além de vestígios que possam servir de indícios para as atividades de vigilância epidemiológica.A review of the Cimicidae of importance in public health is presented. After a general morphological study, special attention is given to knowledge of the biology and ecology of bed-bugs, mainly as regards their relation to the human environment and the possibility of their role in disease transmission. The species Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus are given particular attention and data on their relevance to questions of public health are revised. Taxonomy, biosystematic and geographical distribution are presented, the epidemiologically important groups listed and control measures discussed. The paper ends with identification keys for both adult and immature stages as well as for arthropod indoor fecal traces.

  20. ClEST cluster :Cl_contig0243 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_contig0243 barrier-to-autointegration factor Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 428 ...TAATAAATACAGTATGATGTGCG fb29038 fs25084 mb23031 3 barrier to autointegration factor [Rhodnius prolixus] AEL79235 5.9E-56 GO:0003677 ...

  1. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton0416 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton0416 ornithine aminotransferase Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 438 TATC...CAGTTTGCCGAGTATATCACCCGTTATTT fb20049 1 PREDICTED: probable ornithine aminotransferase-like [Glycine max] XP_003531161 4.30167E-26 GO:0008483 ...

  2. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton2093 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton2093 selenoprotein t Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 435 GAGAAGGAGATTCCG...GAGACGGGAAGAATA mb12059 1 selenoprotein T [Glossina morsitans morsitans] ADD19835 7.29481E-59 GO:0045454 GO:0008430 GO:0005575 ...

  3. ClEST cluster :Cl_contig0231 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_contig0231 bcl2 adenovirus e1b 19 kda protein-interacting Cimex lectularius nucl...AGCCGTCCGGACCAATTTCCACCAAAGGATTGGAAACTGAGGCATCCGGCTCGGAAAACTCTCTCAATACGCACGAC fs06082 fw15056 mb10031 3 BCL2/adenovirus

  4. Population dynamics of Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839 (Mollusca: Basommatophora: Planorbidae in Barigüi Park, Curitiba City, State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Luciane Fischer

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The ecology of the freshwater snail Drepanotrema cimex (Moricand, 1839, an intermediate host of trematode larvae, is little known in Brazil. We analyzed the population dynamics of D. cimex in Barigüi Park, Curitiba, Brazil. Collections for the survey were realized at three sites that were at different distances from the Barigüi River and had distinct water plant species. In total, 278 snails were collected, and the highest sampling rate was where Paspalum sp. and Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Griseb. occurred. A higher occurrence of D. cimex in the autumn suggested that the adult stage culminates in this season, resulting from the previous rainy period that seems to support the reproduction of snails in the summer. However, the water temperature had no correlation with the total quantity of snails. The mean shell diameter did not show any correlation either with the water temperature or with the seasons. We recorded intraspecific variations in the color of the shells among the collections from the different sites.

  5. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus(Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul; Hafiz; Ab; Majid; Zulaikha; Zahran; Abd; Hafis; Abd; Rahim; Nor; Azliza; Ismail; Wardah; Abdul; Rahman; Kartiekasari; Syahidda; Mohammad; Zubairi; Hamady; Dieng; Tomomitsu; Satho

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus.Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from i eld-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCRbased genotyping test.Results: There were noticeable dif erences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/i nely roughened, respectively. These morphological specii cities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences.Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural i eld developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  6. Morphological and molecular characterization of fungus isolated from tropical bed bugs in Northern Peninsular Malaysia, Cimex hemipterus (Hemiptera:Cimicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Hafiz Ab Majid; Zulaikha Zahran; Abd Hafis Abd Rahim; Nor Azliza Ismail; Wardah Abdul Rahman; Hamady Dieng; Tomomitsu Satho

    2015-01-01

    To investigate some morphological and molecular characteristics of fungal parasites isolated from wild tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus. Methods: A series of culture methods were used to obtain fungal isolates from field-collected bed bugs. Characteristics of the isolates such as colony appearance, mycelial texture and pigmentation were studied to explore their morphology. Isolates were also subjected to a PCR-based genotyping test. Results: There were noticeable differences in morphological characteristics among the four isolates. Conidial areas of one isolate were dark green, whereas those of the remaining colonies were olive-green, black or dark brown. Conidia of the dark green isolate were globose, while those of olive-green, black and dark brown isolates were globose to subglobose, globose to spherical and globose to subglobose/finely roughened, respectively. These morphological specificities and the molecular analyses showed that the fungal internal transcribed spacer ribosomal region and β-tubulin gene sequences of the isolates shared clade with Trichoderma and Aspergillus sequences. Conclusions: Overall, the new discovery of common pathogens in agricultural field developed in live bed bugs storage tank may initiate the use of biological agents in later years.

  7. Traveler's encounter with nymphs in a hotel bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandlund, Johanna; Banaei, Niaz

    2014-01-01

    This case illustrates skin lesions in a traveler staying in a hotel bed infested with tics. Although infestation of hotels with bedbugs belonging to the Cimex genus is a growing problem worldwide, tick infestation has never been reported before. PMID:26839772

  8. DESARROLLO Y PERSPECTIVAS DE LA GESTIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN CUBA. EL EJEMPLO DE LA CORPORACIÓN CIMEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M García Rodríguez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    A nivel internacional las transformaciones de las concepciones gerenciales empresariales han provocado un debate muy intenso y de gran amplitud, no solamente en los marcos de la academia, sino también en la propia vida empresarial. Sin embargo, durante muchos años en nuestro país ese debate no estuvo presente. En el artículo se aborda la gestación en el mundo y en Cuba de una nueva empresa denominada Emergente, consecuencia del entorno de los negocios, caracterizados fundamentalmente por la globalización e internacionalización del mercado. Se explica y es de mucha actualidad, la evolución de las normativas cubanas para fortalecer el sistema hasta las de más reciente emisión, es decir, el Decreto Ley 252 del 7 de agosto del 2007 "Sobre la continuidad y el fortalecimiento del sistema de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial Cubano", emitido por el Consejo de Estado de la República de Cuba; y el Decreto 281 "Reglamento para la implantación y consolidación del Sistema de Dirección y Gestión Empresarial Estatal", emitido por el Comité Ejecutivo del Consejo de Ministros el pasado 16 de agosto del 2007.  El artículo aborda también la evolución de la empresa cubana hasta nuestros días y su desenvolvimiento en el marco de estas normativas del Perfeccionamiento Empresarial, divulgándose regulaciones de mucha importancia que aparecen en esta documentación orientadora. Se analiza finalmente cuál es la situación de este proceso de perfeccionamiento en el Grupo Empresarial CIMEX S.A., explicándose la perspectiva para los próximos años. Finalmente el artículo concluye desarrollando importantes reflexiones sobre el lugar y el papel del Sistema de Perfeccionamiento Empresarial para el impulso de la recuperación económica de nuestro país.

  9. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton1538 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton1538 dead (asp-glu-ala-asp) box polypeptide 5 Cimex lectularius nuclear...fw14079 1 similar to DEAD/H (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp/His) box polypeptide 5 (RNA helicase 68kDa) [Xenopus laevis] NP_001079703 6.59566E-23 ...

  10. Inhibition of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae in vitro by the bed bug defensive secretions (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The two major aldehydes (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal emitted as defensive secretions by bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), inhibit the in vitro growth of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sokorin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae). These chemicals inhibit fungal growth by direct con...

  11. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug, (hemiptra: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control and their painful bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has a strong need for materials and methods ...

  12. 4-Oxo-Aldehydes from the dorsal abdominal glands of the bed bug (hemiptera: cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analyses of the dorsal abdominal glands of fourth- and fifth-instar nymphs of the bed bud Cimex lectularius L. indicated the predominant constituents were (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal with lesser amounts of 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal and 4-oxo-(E)-2-octenal. The latter two compounds have not previously...

  13. Bed bugs evolved unique adaptive strategy to resist pyrethroid insecticides

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Zhu; Hemant Gujar; Jennifer R. Gordon; Haynes, Kenneth F; Michael F. Potter; Palli, Subba R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic and post-genomic technologies have facilitated a genome-wide analysis of the insecticide resistance-associated genes in insects. Through bed bug, Cimex lectularius transcriptome analysis, we identified 14 molecular markers associated with pyrethroid resistance. Our studies revealed that most of the resistance-associated genes functioning in diverse mechanisms are expressed in the epidermal layer of the integument, which could prevent or slow down the toxin from reac...

  14. Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer’s disease results in iron deficiency anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Sabou, Marcela; Gallo Imperiale, Delphine; Andrès, Emmanuel; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Foeglé, Jacinthe; Lavigne, Thierry; Kaltenbach, Georges; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this ...

  15. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Adelman, Zach N.; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C.; Szuter, Elise M.; Hagan, Richard W.; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M.; Nelson, David R.; Rosendale, Andrew J.; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M.; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R.; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M.; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J. Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D.; Scharf, Michael E.; Peterson, Brittany F.; Raje, Kapil R.; Hottel, Benjamin A.; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Murali, Shwetha C.; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L.; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C.; Muzny, Donna M.; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A.; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M.; Vargo, Edward L.; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T.; Anderson, Michelle A. E.; Jones, Jeffery W.; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D.; Attardo, Geoffrey M.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Zdobnov, Evgeny M.; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Werren, John H.; Palli, Subba R.; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host–symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human–bed bug and symbiont–bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  16. Metabolic Resistance in Bed Bugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omprakash Mittapalli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding insects have evolved resistance to various insecticides (organochlorines, pyrethroids, carbamates, etc. through gene mutations and increased metabolism. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous ectoparasites that are poised to become one of the major pests in households throughout the United States. Currently, C. lectularius has attained a high global impact status due to its sudden and rampant resurgence. Resistance to pesticides is one factor implicated in this phenomenon. Although much emphasis has been placed on target sensitivity, little to no knowledge is available on the role of key metabolic players (e.g., cytochrome P450s and glutathione S-transferases towards pesticide resistance in C. lectularius. In this review, we discuss different modes of resistance (target sensitivity, penetration resistance, behavioral resistance, and metabolic resistance with more emphasis on metabolic resistance.

  17. Unique features of a global human ectoparasite identified through sequencing of the bed bug genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B; Adelman, Zach N; Reinhardt, Klaus; Dolan, Amanda; Poelchau, Monica; Jennings, Emily C; Szuter, Elise M; Hagan, Richard W; Gujar, Hemant; Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Zhu, Fang; Mohan, M; Nelson, David R; Rosendale, Andrew J; Derst, Christian; Resnik, Valentina; Wernig, Sebastian; Menegazzi, Pamela; Wegener, Christian; Peschel, Nicolai; Hendershot, Jacob M; Blenau, Wolfgang; Predel, Reinhard; Johnston, Paul R; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Waterhouse, Robert M; Nauen, Ralf; Schorn, Corinna; Ott, Mark-Christoph; Maiwald, Frank; Johnston, J Spencer; Gondhalekar, Ameya D; Scharf, Michael E; Peterson, Brittany F; Raje, Kapil R; Hottel, Benjamin A; Armisén, David; Crumière, Antonin Jean Johan; Refki, Peter Nagui; Santos, Maria Emilia; Sghaier, Essia; Viala, Sèverine; Khila, Abderrahman; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Childers, Christopher; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lin, Han; Hughes, Daniel S T; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Murali, Shwetha C; Qu, Jiaxin; Dugan, Shannon; Lee, Sandra L; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Han, Yi; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Worley, Kim C; Muzny, Donna M; Wheeler, David; Panfilio, Kristen A; Vargas Jentzsch, Iris M; Vargo, Edward L; Booth, Warren; Friedrich, Markus; Weirauch, Matthew T; Anderson, Michelle A E; Jones, Jeffery W; Mittapalli, Omprakash; Zhao, Chaoyang; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Evans, Jay D; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Robertson, Hugh M; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Gibbs, Richard A; Werren, John H; Palli, Subba R; Schal, Coby; Richards, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius, has re-established itself as a ubiquitous human ectoparasite throughout much of the world during the past two decades. This global resurgence is likely linked to increased international travel and commerce in addition to widespread insecticide resistance. Analyses of the C. lectularius sequenced genome (650 Mb) and 14,220 predicted protein-coding genes provide a comprehensive representation of genes that are linked to traumatic insemination, a reduced chemosensory repertoire of genes related to obligate hematophagy, host-symbiont interactions, and several mechanisms of insecticide resistance. In addition, we document the presence of multiple putative lateral gene transfer events. Genome sequencing and annotation establish a solid foundation for future research on mechanisms of insecticide resistance, human-bed bug and symbiont-bed bug associations, and unique features of bed bug biology that contribute to the unprecedented success of C. lectularius as a human ectoparasite. PMID:26836814

  18. Bed bugs reproductive life cycle in the clothes of a patient suffering from Alzheimer's disease results in iron deficiency anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabou, Marcela; Imperiale, Delphine Gallo; Andrès, Emmanuel; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Foeglé, Jacinthe; Lavigne, Thierry; Kaltenbach, Georges; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of an 82-year-old patient, hospitalized for malaise. Her clothes were infested by numerous insects and the entomological analysis identified them as being Cimex lectularius (bed bugs). The history of the patient highlighted severe cognitive impairment. The biological assessment initially showed a profound microcytic, aregenerative, iron deficiency anemia. A vitamin B12 deficiency due to pernicious anemia (positive intrinsic factor antibodies) was also highlighted, but this was not enough to explain the anemia without macrocytosis. Laboratory tests, endoscopy and a CT scan eliminated a tumor etiology responsible for occult bleeding. The patient had a mild itchy rash which was linked to the massive colonization by the bed bugs. The C. lectularius bite is most often considered benign because it is not a vector of infectious agents. Far from trivial, a massive human colonization by bed bugs may cause such a hematic depletion that severe microcytic anemia may result. PMID:23673315

  19. Bed Bugs: The Australian Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Russell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Australia has experienced a sudden and unexpected resurgence in bed bug infestations from both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus F. A survey in 2006 revealed that infestations had increased across the nation by an average of 4,500% since the start of the decade. In response, a multi-disciplinary approach to combat the rise of this public health pest was implemented and involved the coordinated efforts of several organizations. The key components of the strategy included the introduction of a pest management standard ‘A Code of Practice for the Control of Bed Bug Infestations in Australia’ that defines and promotes ‘best practice’ in bed bug eradication, the development of a policy and procedural guide for accommodation providers, education of stakeholders in best management practices, and research. These strategies continue to evolve with developments that lead to improvements in ‘best practice’ while bed bugs remain problematic in Australia.

  20. Encounters with fierce dogs and itchy bedbugs: why my first field work failed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svanberg, Ingvar

    2014-01-01

    This essay, which is the fifth in the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Personal Experiences in Ethnobiology", is a personal reminiscence by the researcher on his first field experience in Turkey in the late 1970s, which was a failure from an ethnobiological point of view but a success for a social scientist pursuing Turkic studies. The author later returned to ethnobiology during subsequent fieldwork on the Faroes. PMID:24885471

  1. RNA-Seq and molecular docking reveal multi-level pesticide resistance in the bed bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamidala Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius are hematophagous nocturnal parasites of humans that have attained high impact status due to their worldwide resurgence. The sudden and rampant resurgence of C. lectularius has been attributed to numerous factors including frequent international travel, narrower pest management practices, and insecticide resistance. Results We performed a next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq experiment to find differentially expressed genes between pesticide-resistant (PR and pesticide-susceptible (PS strains of C. lectularius. A reference transcriptome database of 51,492 expressed sequence tags (ESTs was created by combining the databases derived from de novo assembled mRNA-Seq tags (30,404 ESTs and our previous 454 pyrosequenced database (21,088 ESTs. The two-way GLMseq analysis revealed ~15,000 highly significant differentially expressed ESTs between the PR and PS strains. Among the top 5,000 differentially expressed ESTs, 109 putative defense genes (cuticular proteins, cytochrome P450s, antioxidant genes, ABC transporters, glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and acetyl cholinesterase involved in penetration resistance and metabolic resistance were identified. Tissue and development-specific expression of P450 CYP3 clan members showed high mRNA levels in the cuticle, Malpighian tubules, and midgut; and in early instar nymphs, respectively. Lastly, molecular modeling and docking of a candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP397A1V2 revealed the flexibility of the deduced protein to metabolize a broad range of insecticide substrates including DDT, deltamethrin, permethrin, and imidacloprid. Conclusions We developed significant molecular resources for C. lectularius putatively involved in metabolic resistance as well as those participating in other modes of insecticide resistance. RNA-Seq profiles of PR strains combined with tissue-specific profiles and molecular docking revealed multi-level insecticide

  2. Group living accelerates bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna L; Santangelo, Richard G; Vargo, Edward L; Schal, Coby

    2014-01-01

    For many insect species, group living provides physiological and behavioral benefits, including faster development. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) live in aggregations composed of eggs, nymphs, and adults of various ages. Our aim was to determine whether bed bug nymphs reared in groups develop faster than solitary nymphs. We reared first instars either in isolation or in groups from hatching to adult emergence and recorded their development time. In addition, we investigated the effects of group housing on same-age nymphs versus nymphs reared with adults. Nymphal development was 2.2 d faster in grouped nymphs than in solitary-housed nymphs, representing 7.3% faster overall development. However, this grouping effect did not appear to be influenced by group composition. Thus, similar to other gregarious insect species, nymph development in bed bugs is faster in aggregations than in isolation. PMID:24605482

  3. Seasons, Searches, and Intentions: What The Internet Can Tell Us About The Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentana-Lledo, Daniel; Barbu, Corentin M; Ngo, Michelle N; Wu, Yage; Sethuraman, Karthik; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-01-01

    The common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) is once again prevalent in the United States. We investigated temporal patterns in Google search queries for bed bugs and co-occurring terms, and conducted in-person surveys to explore the intentions behind searches that included those terms. Searches for "bed bugs" rose steadily through 2011 and then plateaued, suggesting that the epidemic has reached an equilibrium in the United States. However, queries including terms that survey respondents associated strongly with having bed bugs (e.g., "exterminator," "remedies") continued to climb, while terms more closely associated with informational searches (e.g., "hotels," "about") fell. Respondents' rankings of terms and nonseasonal trends in Google search volume as assessed by a cosinor model were significantly correlated (Kendall's Tau-b P = 0.015). We find no evidence from Google Trends that the bed bug epidemic in the United States has reached equilibrium. PMID:26474879

  4. Bed bugs and possible transmission of human pathogens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Olivia; Ho, Derek; Glick, Sharon; Jagdeo, Jared

    2016-10-01

    The global population of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius and Cimex hemipterus, family Cimicidae) has undergone a significant resurgence since the late 1990s. This is likely due to an increase in global travel, trade, and the number of insecticide-resistant bed bugs. The global bed bug population is estimated to be increasing by 100-500 % annually. The worldwide spread of bed bugs is concerning, because they are a significant socioeconomic burden and a major concern to public health. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, bed bugs are "a pest of significant health importance." Additionally, 68 % of U.S. pest professionals reported that bed bugs are the most challenging pest to treat. Upwards of 45 disease pathogens have been reported in bed bugs. Recent studies report that bed bugs may be competent vectors for pathogens, such as Bartonella quintana and Trypanosoma cruzi. However, public health reports have thus far failed to produce evidence that major infectious disease outbreaks have been associated with bed bugs. Since many disease pathogens have previously been reported in bed bugs and the worldwide bed bug population is now drastically increasing, it stands to reason to wonder if bed bugs might transmit human pathogens. This review includes a literature search on recently published clinical and laboratory studies (1990-2016) investigating bed bugs as potential vectors of infectious disease, and reports the significant findings and limitations of the reviewed studies. To date, no published study has demonstrated a causal relationship between bed bugs and infectious disease transmission in humans. Also, we present and propose to expand on previous hypotheses as to why bed bugs do not transmit human pathogens. Bed bugs may contain "neutralizing factors" that attenuate pathogen virulence and, thereby, decrease the ability of bed bugs to transmit infectious disease. PMID:27295087

  5. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum nucleoside diphosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failer, Bernd U; Braun, Norbert; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2002-10-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase (EC ) related to two secreted ATP- and ADP-hydrolyzing apyrases of the bloodsucking insects, Cimex lectularius and Phlebotomus papatasi. The rat brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1209 bp encoding a protein of 403 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 45.7 kDa. The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with varying preponderance. The immunohistochemical analysis of the Myc-His-tagged enzyme expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed its association with the endoplasmic reticulum and also with pre-Golgi intermediates. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase is a membrane protein with its catalytic site facing the organelle lumen. It hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates in the order UDP >GDP = IDP >CDP but not ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolyzed to a minor extent, and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca(2+), insensitive to Mg(2+), and had a K(m) for UDP of 216 microm. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase may support glycosylation reactions related to quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12167635

  6. Insect-specific irreversible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase in pests including the bed bug, the eastern yellowjacket, German and American cockroaches, and the confused flour beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsinelli, Gregory A; Singh, Sanjay K; Mishra, Rajesh K; Suranyi, Robert; Ragsdale, David W; Pang, Yuan-Ping; Brimijoin, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    Insecticides directed against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) are facing increased resistance among target species as well as increasing concerns for human toxicity. The result has been a resurgence of disease vectors, insects destructive to agriculture, and residential pests. We previously reported a free cysteine (Cys) residue at the entrance to the AChE active site in some insects but not higher vertebrates. We also reported Cys-targeting methanethiosulfonate molecules (AMTSn), which, under conditions that spared human AChE, caused total irreversible inhibition of aphid AChE, 95% inhibition of AChE from the malaria vector mosquito (Anopheles gambia), and >80% inhibition of activity from the yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti) and northern house mosquito (Culex pipiens). We now find the same compounds inhibit AChE from cockroaches (Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana), the flour beetle (Tribolium confusum), the multi-colored Asian ladybird beetle (Harmonia axyridis), the bed bug (Cimex lectularius), and a wasp (Vespula maculifrons), with IC(50) values of approximately 1-11muM. Our results support further study of Cys-targeting inhibitors as conceptually novel insecticides that may be free of resistance in a range of insect pests and disease vectors and, compared with current compounds, should demonstrate much lower toxicity to mammals, birds, and fish. PMID:20109441

  7. THE INVAZIVE ENTOMOFAUNA OF THE HEMIMETABOLA GROUP FOR REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asea M. Timuş

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Moldova is investigated invasive entomofauna with the economic and ecological impact. Until now settled 118 species of the Hemimetabola group, belonging of 2 subclasses, 2 superorder and 7 orders. These 118 species were corellation with the database of Fauna Europaea and recorded are 24 species (20.3%, but for 94 (79.6% mentioned with the "absent" and "no data". In the meantime there were recorded 12 other species: Blatta orientalis, Cimex lectularius, Lepisma saccharina, Periplaneta americana, Trialeurodes vaporariorum – 1983, Blattella germanica – 2003, Leptoglossus occidentalis – 2010, Tachycines asynamorus, Dociostaurus tartarus – 2011, Scaphoideus titanus, Perillus bioculatus – 2013, Nezara viridula – 2014. According periods penetration it was found that 1 species have entered the XVII century, 1 in the XVIII, 14 in the XIX, 73 in the XX and 25 in the XXI. The registration invasive insects in countries of interest is in: Bulgaria – 48 species; Poland – 40; Romania – 25; other countries –5.

  8. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment.

  9. Larvicidal, insecticidal, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and anti-oxidant activities of Diospyros kaki (L.) reported from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Mohammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad Mukarram; Khan, Imran; Sheema; Sadiq, Abdul; Khan, Shahzeb; Shah, Syed Muhammad Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Diospyros kaki is cultivated in different agro-ecological zones of Pakistan, especially in Malakand division. The current study was designed to investigate the hide potential of the vulnerable species of the plant. Aqueous extracts of Diospyros kaki leaves were screened for larvicidal, insecticidal cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The extract exhibited moderate to outstanding larvicidal activity (100 to 28%) at 100, 80, 70, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% concentrations respectively after 24 hours, showing 42% LC₅₀. Permitrin displayed 100% lethality at 0.3%. The extract demonstrated outstanding cytotoxic action against brain shrimps nauplii (Artemia salina), showing 10 ppm LC50 which is closed to the LC50 (9.8μg/ml) of standard drug Etoposide. Similarly profound insecticidal potential (100%) was recorded after 15 min against Cimex lectularius. In DPPH scavenging activity the extract demonstrated moderate 30.22%, while Quercetin, Gallic acid and Acetic acid showed 98, 96 and 97% activity respectively at 100 ppm. Thus on the basis of our finding it could be concluded that the decoction of the leaves of D. kaki is a good natural alternative for the control of insects and neoplasia. PMID:26142513

  10. Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard™ Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Harrison

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ActiveGuard™ Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs (Cimex lectularius. The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF BAT ECTOPARASITE LEPTOCIMEX INORDINATUS FROM BAT-DWELLING CAVE, KANCHANABURI PROVINCE, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiwat, Rutcharin; Sungvornyothin, Sungsit; Samung, Yudthana; Payakkapol, Anon; Apiwathnasorn, Chamnarn

    2016-01-01

    Bat bugs are blood-feeding insects of bats or warm blooded animals and humans. Since 2011, Leptocimex spp (Heteroptera: Cimicidae) has been reported in Thailand. However, microscopic examination of Leptocimex spp is complicated, especially when the entire body of the specimen is not available. To confirm the phenotypic identification of L. inordinatus from a limestone bat cave in Thailand, partial fragments of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene and 16S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA were PCR amplified and sequenced, which revealed 97% sequence identity with Cimicidae family members, being most similar to Cacodminae gen. sp. and C. vicinus, both bat bugs. Phylogenetic tree construction showed that L. inordinatus has a separate genetic lineage from that of with human bed bugs (Cimex hemipterus or C. lectularius), swallow bugs and other tick species. The presence of L. inordinatus in a bat-dwelling cave frequented by humans presents a potential public health problem requiring attention in particular regarding the possibility of zoonotic transmission of pathogens. PMID:27086421

  12. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  13. Effectiveness of a Sugar-Yeast Monitor and a Chemical Lure for Detecting Bed Bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2015-06-01

    Effective bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) monitors have been actively sought in the past few years to help detect bed bugs and measure the effectiveness of treatments. Most of the available active monitors are either expensive or ineffective. We designed a simple and affordable active bed bug monitor that uses sugar-yeast fermentation and an experimental chemical lure to detect bed bugs. The sugar-yeast mixture released carbon dioxide at a similar rate (average 405.1 ml/min) as dry ice (average 397.0 ml/min) during the first 8 h after activation. In naturally infested apartments, the sugar-yeast monitor containing an experimental chemical lure (nonanal, L-lactic acid, 1-octen-3-ol, and spearmint oil) was equally effective as the dry ice monitor containing the same lure in trapping bed bugs. Placing one sugar-yeast monitor per apartment for 1-d was equally effective as 11-d placement of 6-18 Climbup insect interceptors (a commonly used bed bug monitor) under furniture legs for trapping bed bugs. When carbon dioxide was present, pair-wise comparisons showed the experimental lure increased trap catch by 7.2 times. This sugar-yeast monitor with a chemical lure is an affordable and effective tool for monitoring bed bugs. This monitor is especially useful for monitoring bed bugs where a human host is not present. PMID:26470258

  14. Potential of Essential Oil-Based Pesticides and Detergents for Bed Bug Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2014-12-01

    The bed bug, (Cimex lectularius L.), is a difficult pest to control. Prevalence of insecticide resistance among bed bug populations and concerns over human-insecticide exposure has stimulated the development of alternative bed bug control materials. Many essential oil-based pesticides and detergent insecticides targeting bed bugs have been developed in recent years. We evaluated the efficacy of nine essential oil-based products and two detergents using direct spray and residual contact bioassays in the laboratory. Two conventional insecticides, Temprid SC (imidacloprid and β-cyfluthrin) and Demand CS (λ-cyhalothrin), were used for comparison. Among the 11 nonsynthetic insecticides tested, only EcoRaider (1% geraniol, 1% cedar extract, and 2% sodium lauryl sulfate) and Bed Bug Patrol (0.003% clove oil, 1% peppermint oil, and 1.3% sodium lauryl sulfate) caused >90% mortality of nymphs in direct spray and forced exposure residual assays. However, the efficacy of EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol was significantly lower than that of Temprid SC and Demand CS in choice exposure residual bioassay. Direct spray of EcoRaider caused 87% egg mortality, whereas the other nonsynthetic insecticides had little effect on bed bug eggs. EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol did not exhibit detectable repellency against bed bugs in the presence of a carbon dioxide source. These findings suggest that EcoRaider and Bed Bug Patrol are potentially useful pesticides for controlling bed bug infestations, but further testing in naturally infested environments is needed. PMID:26470082

  15. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. PMID:26494709

  16. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  17. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug comes with a cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Jennifer R; Potter, Michael F; Haynes, Kenneth F

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to new environmental stress is often associated with an alteration of one or more life history parameters. Insecticide resistant populations of insects often have reduced fitness relative to susceptible populations in insecticide free environments. Our previous work showed that three populations of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., evolved significantly increased levels of resistance to one product containing both β-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid insecticides with only one generation of selection, which gave us an opportunity to explore potential tradeoffs between life history parameters and resistance using susceptible and resistant strains of the same populations. Life history tables were compiled by collecting weekly data on mortality and fecundity of bugs from each strain and treatment throughout their lives. Selection led to a male-biased sex ratio, shortened oviposition period, and decreased life-time reproductive rate. Generation time was shortened by selection, a change that represents a benefit rather than a cost. Using these life history characteristics we calculated that there would be a 90% return to pre-selection levels of susceptibility within 2- 6.5 generations depending on strain. The significant fitness costs associated with resistance suggest that insecticide rotation or utilization of non-insecticidal control tactics could be part of an effective resistance management strategy. PMID:26039510

  18. [The worldwide expansion of bed bugs also constitutes a problem in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, C; Vander Pan, A

    2014-05-01

    Worldwide, reports of the spread of the bed bugs Cimex lectularius and C. hemipterus (in Australia) are increasing. Irrespective of hygiene conditions, the insects can be especially found in hotels and hostels as well as in other holiday accommodation, health facilities, transport and in the secondhand trade. From these localities the insects spread to private households. A bed bug infestation may well have health consequences and constitutes a heavy burden for those affected. The global spread of bed bugs appears to be multifactorially conditioned and the causes are controversially discussed. The spread could be explained, among other things, by the increase in international travel and trade in used goods. The limited availability of insecticides with long-term effects and the development of resistance to available agents could play a crucial role. In the absence of official data it is impossible to quantify the extent of the spread in Germany but pest controllers and public authorities report increasing numbers of cases and problems in control. As in other countries the latter appear to be caused among other things by the development of drug resistance (particularly pyrethroids). Against this background, prevention and thus the education of the public on the habits and dissemination routes of these insects remain crucial in order to counteract the spread of bed bugs. PMID:24781909

  19. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  20. DESARROLLO Y PERSPECTIVAS DE LA GESTIÓN EMPRESARIAL EN CUBA. EL EJEMPLO DE LA CORPORACIÓN CIMEX

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M García Rodríguez; José A. Macías Mesa; Jesús Ramos Díaz

    2008-01-01

    A nivel internacional las transformaciones de las concepciones gerenciales empresariales han provocado un debate muy intenso y de gran amplitud, no solamente en los marcos de la academia, sino también en la propia vida empresarial. Sin embargo, durante muchos años en nuestro país ese debate no estuvo presente. En el artículo se aborda la gestación en el mundo y en Cuba de una nueva e...

  1. Sexual dimorphism of bed bug (Cimex lectularis) attraction and aggregation responses to cuticular extracts from nymph exuviae

    Science.gov (United States)

    A large variety of releaser pheromones are used by insects to attract or disperse conspecifics, while group cohesion is often influenced by primer pheromones that induce behavioral or physiological changes. Differentiating the roles of such pheromones in insect taxa displaying intermediate levels of...

  2. Bed Bug Infestations and Control Practices in China: Implications for Fighting the Global Bed Bug Resurgence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The bed bug resurgence in North America, Europe, and Australia has elicited interest in investigating the causes of the widespread and increasing infestations and in developing more effective control strategies. In order to extend global perspectives on bed bug management, we reviewed bed bug literature in China by searching five Chinese language electronic databases. We also conducted telephone interviews of 68 pest control firms in two cities during March 2011. In addition, we conducted telephone interviews to 68 pest control companies within two cities in March 2011. Two species of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F. are known to occur in China. These were common urban pests before the early1980s. Nationwide “Four-Pest Elimination” campaigns (bed bugs being one of the targeted pests were implemented in China from 1960 to the early 1980s. These campaigns succeeded in the elimination of bed bug infestations in most communities. Commonly used bed bug control methods included applications of hot water, sealing of bed bug harborages, physical removal, and applications of residual insecticides (mainly organophosphate sprays or dusts. Although international and domestic travel has increased rapidly in China over the past decade (2000–2010, there have only been sporadic new infestations reported in recent years. During 1999–2009, all documented bed bug infestations were found in group living facilities (military dormitories, worker dormitories, and prisons, hotels, or trains. One city (Shenzhen city near Hong Kong experienced significantly higher number of bed bug infestations. This city is characterized by a high concentration of migratory factory workers. Current bed bug control practices include educating residents, washing, reducing clutter, putting items under the hot sun in summer, and applying insecticides (pyrethroids or organophosphates. There have not been any studies or reports on bed bug insecticide

  3. Survey of Bartonella spp. in U.S. bed bugs detects Burkholderia multivorans but not Bartonella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna L Saenz

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L. have resurged in the United States and globally. Bed bugs are hematophagous ectoparasites of humans and other animals, including domestic pets, chickens, and bats, and their blood feeding habits contribute to their potential as disease vectors. Several species of Bartonella are re-emergent bacterial pathogens that also affect humans, domestic pets, bats and a number of other wildlife species. Because reports of both bed bugs and Bartonella have been increasing in the U.S., and because their host ranges can overlap, we investigated whether the resurgences of these medically important pathogens and their potential vector might be linked, by screening for Bartonella spp. in bed bugs collected from geographic areas where these pathogens are prevalent and from bed bugs that have been in culture in the laboratory for several years. We screened a total of 331 bed bugs: 316 bed bugs from 36 unique collections in 29 geographic locations in 13 states, 10 bed bugs from two colonies maintained in the laboratory for 3 yr, and 5 bed bugs from a colony that has been in culture since before the recent resurgence of bed bugs. Bartonella spp. DNA was screened using a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region. Bartonella DNA was not amplified from any bed bug, but five bed bugs from four different apartments of an elderly housing building in North Carolina contained DNA sequences that corresponded to Burkholderia multivorans, an important pathogen in nosocomial infections that was not previously linked to an arthropod vector.

  4. Effectiveness of a Reduced-Risk Insecticide Based Bed Bug Management Program in Low-Income Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinderpal Singh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are becoming increasingly common in low-income communities. Once they are introduced, elimination is very difficult. As part of the efforts to develop effective and safe bed bug management programs, we conducted a laboratory study evaluating the efficacy of a reduced-risk insecticide—Alpine aerosol (0.5% dinotefuran. We then conducted a field evaluation of a reduced-risk insecticide based integrated pest management (IPM program in low-income family apartments with young children. In laboratory evaluations, direct spray and 5 min exposure to dry Alpine aerosol residue caused 100.0 ± 0.0 and 91.7 ± 8.3% mortality to bed bug nymphs, respectively. Direct Alpine aerosol spray killed 91.3 ± 4.3% of the eggs. The IPM program included education, steam, bagging infested linens, placing intercepting devices under furniture legs and corners of rooms, applying Alpine aerosol and Alpine dust (0.25% dinotefuran, 95% diatomaceous earth dust, and regularly scheduled monitoring and re-treatment. Nine apartments ranging from 1–1,428 (median: 29 bed bugs based on visual inspection and Climbup interceptor counts were included. Over a 6-month period, an average 172 g insecticide (Alpine aerosol + Alpine dust was used in each apartment, a 96% reduction in pesticide usage compared to chemical only treatment reported in a similar environment. The IPM program resulted in an average of 96.8 ± 2.2% reduction in the number of bed bugs. However, elimination of bed bugs was only achieved in three lightly infested apartments (<30 bed bugs at the beginning. Elimination success was closely correlated with the level of bed bug populations.

  5. Comparison of Three Bed Bug Management Strategies in a Low-Income Apartment Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changlu Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Bed bug (Cimex lectularius L. infestations are currently controlled by a variety of non-chemical and chemical methods. There have been few studies on the comparative effectiveness of these control techniques. We evaluated three bed bug management strategies in an apartment building: (1 non-chemical methods only (n = 9; (2 insecticides only (n = 6; and (3 integrated pest management including both non-chemical methods and insecticides (n = 9. The apartments were one-bedroom units occupied by seniors or people with disabilities. Bed bug numbers in each apartment were determined by visual inspection and/or installing intercepting devices under bed and sofa legs. The median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and integrated pest management (IPM treatment were: 4 (1, 57, 19 (1, 250, and 14 (1, 219, respectively prior to the treatments. The apartments were retreated if found necessary during biweekly to monthly inspections. After 10 weeks, bed bugs were found to be eliminated from 67, 33, and 44% of the apartments in the three treatment groups, respectively. The final (after 10 weeks median (min, max bed bug counts in the non-chemical methods only, insecticides only, and IPM treatment were: 0 (0, 134, 11.5 (0, 58, and 1 (0, 38, respectively. There were no significant differences in the speed of bed bug count reduction or the final bed bug counts. Lack of resident cooperation partially contributed to the failure in eliminating bed bugs from some of the apartments. Results of this study suggest that non-chemical methods can effectively eliminate bed bugs in lightly infested apartments.

  6. Genetic Variability and Geographic Diversity of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Populations from the Midwest Using Microsatellite Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Ralph B; Lalithambika, Sreedevi; Kamble, Shripat T

    2015-07-01

    With the recent global resurgence of the bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.), there is a need to better understand its biology, ecology, and ability to establish populations. Bed bugs are domestic pests that feed mainly on mammalian blood. Although bed bugs have not been implicated as vectors of pathogens, their biting activity inflicts severe insomnia and allergic reactions. Moreover, they have recently developed resistance to various insecticides, which requires further molecular research to determine genetic variation and appropriate interventions. Population dynamics, including genetic differentiation and genetic distance of 10 populations from the Midwest were analyzed in this study. The bed bug samples collected by pest control companies were genotyped using eight species-specific microsatellite markers. Results showed all eight markers were polymorphic, with 8-16 alleles per locus, suggesting high genetic diversity. The FST values were >0.25, signifying pronounced genetic differentiation. The G-test results also indicated high genetic differentiation among populations. The frequency of the most common allele across all eight loci was 0.42. The coefficient of relatedness between each of the populations was >0.5, indicative of sibling or parent-offspring relationships, while the FIS and its confidence interval values were statistically insignificant within the populations tested. The populations departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, possibly because of high heterozygosity. The genetic distance analysis using a neighbor-joining tree showed that the populations from Kansas City, MO, were genetically separate from most of those from Nebraska, indicating a geographic pattern of genetic structure. Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of using microsatellite markers to study bed bugs population structure, thereby improving our understanding of bed bug population dynamics in the Midwest. Overall, this study showed a high genetic diversity and identified several

  7. Effects of Various Interventions, Including Mass Trapping with Passive Pitfall Traps, on Low-Level Bed Bug Populations in Apartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various interventions on low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations in occupied apartments. The first experiment was conducted in occupied apartments under three intervention conditions: never treated (Group I), recently treated with no further treatment (Group II), and recently treated with continued treatment (Group III). Each apartment was monitored with pitfall-style traps (interceptors) installed at beds and upholstered furniture (sleeping and resting areas) along with ∼18 additional interceptors throughout the apartment. The traps were inspected every 2 wk. After 22 wk, bed bugs had been eliminated (zero trap catch for eight consecutive weeks and none detected in visual inspections) in 96, 87, and 100% of the apartments in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The second experiment investigated the impact of interceptors as a control measure in apartments with low-level infestations. In the treatment group, interceptors were continuously installed at and away from sleeping and resting areas and were inspected every 2 wk for 16 wk. In the control group, interceptors were placed in a similar fashion as the treatment group but were only placed during 6–8 and 14–16 wk to obtain bed bug counts. Bed bug counts were significantly lower at 8 wk in the treatment group than in the control group. At 16 wk, bed bugs were eliminated in 50% of the apartments in the treatment group. The implications of our results in the development of bed bug management strategies and monitoring protocols are discussed. PMID:26637535

  8. Sublethal Effects of ActiveGuard Exposure on Feeding Behavior and Fecundity of the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan C; Bryant, Joshua L; Sivakoff, Frances S

    2015-05-01

    Sublethal exposure to pesticides can alter insect behavior with potential for population-level consequences. We investigated sublethal effects of ActiveGuard, a permethrin-impregnated fabric, on feeding behavior and fecundity of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) from five populations that ranged from susceptible to highly pyrethroid resistant. After exposure to ActiveGuard fabric or untreated fabric for 1 or 10 min, adult virgin female bed bugs were individually observed when offered a blood meal to determine feeding attempts and weight gain. Because bed bug feeding behavior is tightly coupled with its fecundity, all females were then mated, and the number of eggs laid and egg hatch rate were used as fecundity measures. We observed that pyrethroid-resistant and -susceptible bugs were not significantly different for all feeding and fecundity parameters. Bed bugs exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly less likely to attempt to feed or successfully feed, and their average blood meal size was significantly smaller compared with individuals in all other groups. Independent of whether or not feeding occurred, females exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min were significantly more likely to lay no eggs. Only a single female exposed to ActiveGuard for 10 min laid any eggs. Among the other fabric treatment-exposure time groups, there were no observable differences in egg numbers or hatch rates. Brief exposure of 10 min to ActiveGuard fabric appeared to decrease feeding and fecundity of pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs, suggesting the potentially important role of sublethal exposure for the control of this ectoparasitic insect. PMID:26334815

  9. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  10. 热力技术杀灭旅客列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵的研究%Studies on thermal technology to kill bedbugs and their eggs inside the sleeping berth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚剑雄; 朱建晖; 范洪亮; 姚文勇; 何杰能; 黄彦春

    2014-01-01

    目的 研究密闭热力仓杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵的过程与效果.方法 现场试验.结果 设置热力仓65℃,升温4h,热力作用列车卧铺深部,达到致死水平(>50℃)可达3h,并100%杀灭列车卧铺中的臭虫及虫卵.结论 热力技术杀灭列车卧铺臭虫及虫卵安全、高效、操作简单,是列车臭虫防治工作中的极佳选择,值得推广应用.

  11. 残杀威和倍硫磷防治列车臭虫的效果观察%The effect of propoxur and fenthion applied in passenger trains for bedbug control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建晖; 戚剑雄; 范洪亮; 姚文勇; 何杰能

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察双周期性使用残杀威、倍硫磷杀灭旅客列车臭虫的远期效果.方法 现场试验.结果 单周期性化学技术杀灭旅客列车臭虫平均杀灭率达92.2%,与杀灭前相比差异有显著性(P<0.05);双周期性施药杀灭率达100%,并保持无复发,无投诉达4个月.结论 双周期性使用化学技术方法,在处理大批量(>4辆)列车臭虫侵害工作中,能满足规范用药和作业程序的要求,且远期效果良好.

  12. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  13. Top Ten Bed Bug Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have bed bugs, not fleas, ticks or other insects. You can compare your insect to the pictures on our Identifying bed bugs ... bedbugs Bed Bugs Home Learn about Bed Bugs — Characteristics of Bed Bugs — Finding Bed Bugs Protecting Your ...

  14. Applicator Training Manual for: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health-Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian M.; Scheibner, R. A.

    This manual gives descriptions and diagrams for identification of the following types of pests: four species of cockroach; ants; bees and wasps; parasitic pests of man such as bedbugs, fleas, and ticks; occasional invaders such as flies and millipedes; silverfish and firebrats; beetles; termites; moths; fungi; and vertebrates including rodents,…

  15. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  16. Studies of Resurgent Bed Bugs: Population Genetic Structure, Impact of Aggregation on Development and Molecular Screening for Bartonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, Virna Lisa

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius L.) has created an unprecedented demand for research on its biology. The main objectives of this dissertation research were to investigate several aspects of bed bug biology: infestation and dispersal dynamics at a large and small geographical scale using molecular markers, to determine the impact of aggregation on bed bug development and to screen bed bug populations for a re-emergent pathogen. First, we studied the infestation and dispersal dynamics of bed bugs at large geographical scale (e.g., across cities, states). Although bed bug infestations are on the rise, there is a poor understanding of their dispersal patterns and sources of infestation. We conducted a genetic study of 21 bed bug infestations from the eastern United States. We genotyped samples comprised of 8 - 10 individuals per infestation at nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. Despite high genetic diversity across all infestations, with 5 -- 17 alleles per locus (mean = 10.3), we found low genetic diversity (1 -- 4 alleles per locus) within all but one of the infestations. These results suggest that nearly all the studied infestations were started by a small propagule possibly consisting of a singly mated female and/or her progeny. All infestations were strongly genetically differentiated from each other (mean pairwise FST between populations = 0.68) and we did not find strong evidence of a geographic pattern of structuring. The high level of genetic diversity across infestations from the eastern United States together with the lack of geographically organized structure is consistent with multiple introductions into the United States from foreign sources. This work is described in Chapter 2 and was published in the Journal of Medical Entomology in 2012. Second, we investigated dispersal and infestation dynamics of bed bugs at a fine geographical scale within three multistory apartment buildings: one from Raleigh, NC and two from Jersey City, NJ

  17. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  18. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil *

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these inse...

  19. Susceptibility of Bed Bugs to Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Damodar

    1964-04-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of a normal laboratory strain of the bed bug, cimex hemipterus fabricius to certain synthetic insecticides, viz. dieldrin, diazinon and malathion was investigated in relation to DDT and lindance. The data were subjected to probit analysis. It was found that diazinon was the most effective insecticide, as residual films on filter papers, and was followed by malathion, lindane and DDT/dieldrin. It was also found that c. hemipterus was fairly susceptible to all the insecticides investigated.

  20. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  1. Bed bug outbreak in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, T; Kumar, A; Saili, A

    2015-10-01

    There has been a worldwide increase in bed bug infestations over the last 10-15 years. A major stigma is placed upon the institutions found to be infested. We report our experience with an outbreak of the tropical bed bug, Cimex hemipterus, in a neonatal unit. The outbreak not only affected the admitted newborns and mothers by causing a wide variety of rashes and inducing sleeplessness, but also impinged upon the health professionals and their families by producing similar symptomology. It is important for healthcare providers to be aware of, and for each healthcare facility to have, bed bug prevention and control policies. PMID:25591490

  2. Bed bug dermatitis, description of two cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes Filho, Fred; Quaresma, Maria Victória; Avelleira, João Carlos Regazzi; Azulay, David Rubem; Azulay-Abulafia, Luna; Bastos, Amanda Queiroz; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte

    2015-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects which due to their morphological and biological characteristics are able to easily adapt themselves to human households. The authors describe two cases of dermatitis caused by bed bug bites in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Patients presented linear lesions in the usual "breakfast, lunch and dinner" arrangement, suggesting this diagnosis. A visit to their dwellings showed infestation of insects identified as Cimex hemipterus. The knowledge of these insects by the dermatological community will contribute to an accurate diagnosis as well as subsidize the dissemination of information aiming for prevention. PMID:25830996

  3. Levantamento malacológico da Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, (Minas Gerais, Brasil Malacological survey at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco (Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Elias da Silva

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Em estudo malacológico realizado na Bacia Hidrográfica do Lago Soledade, Ouro Branco, MG, no período de setembro de 1986 a março de 1991, foram coletados 46.579 moluscos, representados por 07 espécies de 05 famílias. Foram coletados 39.176 exemplares de Biomphalaria tenagophila, 1.296 de B. glabrata, sete exemplares de Drepanotrema cimex, 2.527 de Physa sp, 417 de Lymnaea sp, 92 de Pomacea haustrum e, a partir de março/1990, 3.064 exemplares de Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae = Thiaridae. Dos moluscos que apresentaram positividade para diversas larvas de trematódeos, quatro exemplares de B. tenagophila estavam positivos para S. mansoni.A malacological survey was carried out at the Soledade Lake, in Ouro Branco, State of Minas Gerais, for the period 1986-1991. A total amount of 46,579 mollusks was collected, and among them seven species corresponding to five families could be found, as follows: 39,176 specimens of Biomphalaria tenagophila; 1,296 B. glabrata; 7 Drepanotrema cimex; 2,527 Physa sp; 417 Lymnaea sp; 92 Pomacea hastrum, and 3,064 specimens of Melanoides tuberculata (Melanniidae=Thiaridae were collected from March/1990 onwards. Four specimens of B. tenagophila were found to be positive for Schistosoma mansoni.

  4. [Parasitology and entomology in the 29th century in Latin American narrative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenone, H

    2000-01-01

    In the present review of twelve pieces produced by distinguished 20th century Latin American writers--Jorge Luis Borges from Argentina, Jorge Amado and João Ubaldo Ribeiro from Brazil, José Donoso from Chile, Gabriel García Márquez from Colombia, Alejo Carpentier from Cuba, Miguel Angel Asturias from Guatemala, Octavio Paz from Mexico, Mario Vargas Llosa from Perú, Horacio Quiroga and Mario Benedetti from Uruguay and Arturo Uslar-Pietri from Venezuela--paragraphs or parts of paragraphs in which parasitological or entomological situations of the most varied hues are referred to or described, have been extracted in a selective form. Sometimes in these descriptions appear, local or regional expressions, without ignoring colorful folklore representations. For a easier interpretation these or part of these paragraph sentences have been arranged by thematic similarities. In a varied and kaleidoscopic vision, it will be possible to find protozoiasis (malaria, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, amebiasis), helminthiases (ascariasis, hydatidosis, trichinosis, schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, onchocerciasis), parasitoses produced by arthropods (pediculosis, scabies, tungiasis, myiasis), passing progressively to hemaphagous arthropods (mosquitoes, gnats, horse flies, bedbugs, ticks), venomous arthropods (Latrodectus spiders, scorpions, wasps, bees), mechanical vectors (flies and cockroaches), culminating with a conjunction of bucolic arthropods (butterflies, crickets, grasshoppers cicadas, ants, centipedes, beetles, glow worms, dragonflies).

  5. Propoxur: a novel mechanism for insecticidal action and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, Peter; Somanathan, Ratnasamy

    2012-01-01

    Propoxur is a carbamate insecticide that has recently attracted considerable attention as a possible treatment option for addressing the bedbug epidemic. The generally accepted mechanism of toxicity for propoxur involves the inhibition of ChE, as is the case for many agents in the category. Considerable research supports the concept that most physiologically active substances induce their effects through multi-faceted action. In this review, we provide evidence that ET--ROS--OS participate mechanistically in both the action and in human toxicity of pesticides, including propoxur. Propoxur is a catechol derivative that contains carbamate and isopropyl groups on the oxygens in its moiety. Metabolic studies with propoxur reveal hydrolysis of the carbamate and dealkylation of the isopropyl group to yield the parent catechol. In addition, nuclear hydroxylation produces a hydroquinone derivative. Both the catechol and this hydroquinone derivative are potentially able to undergo redox cycling with the corresponding quinone to produce ROS. It is primarily for these reasons that we believe propoxur may be similar to other classes of physiologically active compounds in producing effects through ET-ROS-OS. Generally, reactive ROS are generated by metabolic processes that yield ET entities, and this occurs with propoxur as well. Although ROS are commonly associated with toxicity, there is little recognition in the literature that they can also play a role in therapeutic action.

  6. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE STRUCTURE, DYNAMICS AND ECOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF COLLECTED SPECIES OF INVERTEBRATES IN PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the observations made in a plum fruit growing plantation in the years 2013 and 2014, belonging Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi within USAMV, Iasi County, at the Stanley variety. The material gathering it was made using soil traps type Barber, from May until August, at intervals between 10 and 20 days. The collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 30.05, 15.06, 28.06, 12.07, 26.07, 10.08 and 24.08. In total 2013 were collected 151 species belonging to 19 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Heteroptera species (bedbugs with 28 species, Dermestes laniarius L. with 27 species, Coccinella septempunctata L. with 27 species, Polydrosus sericeus Schall. with 15 species and Harpalus calceatus Duft. with 11 species. The collection of biological material in 2014 was made on the following dates: 19.05, 10.06, 29.06, 16.07, 06.08. In total in 2014 it was collected 402 species belonging to 29 species (taxa. The species (taxa with the largest number of species collected were Pseudophonus rufipes De Geer with 86 species, Harpalus distinguendus Duft. 68 species, Pseudephonus griseus Payk. 38 species, Orthoptera (locusts species with 33 species and Hymenoptera (ants species with 20 species.

  7. OBSERVATIONS REGARDING EXISTING INVERTEBRATES FROM PLUM ORCHARDS

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    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The observations were made during the two years, 2013 and 2014 in a plantation belonging plum fruit growing from Teaching Station Vasile Adamachi of USAMV Iasi, Iasi County Rivers Early variety.Collecting the material was done with traps type Barber from May until August at intervals between 10 and 20 days. Collection of 2013 was made on the following dates: 20.05, 30.05, 15.06, 5.07, 25.07, 10.08 and 23.08.In total 2013 were collected 265 samples belonging to 22 species (taxa. Species (taxa with the largest number of samples collected were Dermestes laniarius L. 42 samples Heteroptera. (bedbugs with 38 samples, and Polydrosus sericeus Schall. 26 samples. In 2014 collection of the biological material was made on the following dates: 07.05, 21.05, 19.06, 08.07, 27.07, 15.08, 04.09. In total in 2014 were collected 744 samples belonging to 41 species (taxa with the highest number of samples were colected: Hymenoptera (bees with 92 saples, Orthoptera (locusts with 87 samples, Lepidoptera (larvae with 37samplres, and Homoptera (cycads with 31samples.

  8. Título: Complejo Bellamar. Análisis conceptual y propuesta de integración

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    Miguel Ángel Fariñas González

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La siguiente propuesta estudia de manera integral la creación de un centro polifuncional en las parcelas aledañas al Servicentro Bellamar, el cual está ubicado en el Reparto Playa de la Ciudad de Matanzas. Ésta incluye también, el inmueble existente que da servicio de combustible, tienda y cafetería, así como el nuevo diseño de las calles que seccionan el área y la revalorización de su expresión arquitectónica. Para lograr una nueva imagen donde se toman en cuenta los factores de tipo histórico, culturales y comerciales son analizadas las potencialidades que ofrece el lugar, las necesidades de la ciudad y las expectativas de la Corporación Cimex, inversionista principal.

  9. Biomphalaria glabrata no Estado do Piauí Biomphalaria glabrata in the State of Piaui

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1984-09-01

    Full Text Available É registrado o primeiro encontro do molusco planorbideo Biomphalaria glabrata, hospedeiro intermediário do Schistosoma mansoni, no Estado do Piauí, coletado em vários criadouros na cidade de Parnaíba. O exame de 694 exemplares revelou a presença de formas evolutivas de algumas espécies de trematodeos, mas não de Schistosomatidea. Nenhum caso autoctone de xistosomose foi até agora identificado na população humana da cidade. A presença da B. glabrata em Parnaíba amplia em 20 km para leste a área de sua distribuição na Região Litoral Norte da Grande Região Nordeste do Brasil onde era conhecida até em Avaioses no extremo leste da parte maranhense da referida Região. Outros moluscos também coletados nos mesmos criadouros foram Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum. D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae e Ampullarriidae.The occurrence of Biomphalaria glabrata is recorded for the first time in the state of Piauí, where it was collected from several breeding places in the city of Parnaíba. Examination of 694 specimens showed that a part of them were infected with trematodes other than Schistosomatidae. So far no autochthonous cases of schistosomiasis have been identified in the city. The presence of B. glabrata in Parnaíba extends by 20 Km eastward its range on the Northern Coastal region of the Great Northeastern region of Brazil, where it had been found as far as Araioses, on the eastern extreme of the state of Maranhão. Other snail species collected from the same breeding places were Biomphalaria straminea, Drepanotrema lucidum, D. cimex, D. depressissimum, Physidae and Ampullariidae.

  10. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales, a pantropical insecticide-producing endophyte.

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    Gerald F Bills

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nodulisporic acids (NAs are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. METHODS AND RESULTS: Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a

  11. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

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    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  12. Parasitic zoonoses in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, I L

    2005-03-01

    Relatively few species of zoonotic parasites have been recorded in humans in Papua New Guinea. A greater number of potentially zoonotic species, mostly nematodes, occur in animals but are yet to be reported from humans. Protozoa is the best represented group of those infecting man, with Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanesis, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., Entamoeba polecki, Balantidium coli and, possibly, Blastocystis hominis. The only zoonotic helminths infecting humans include the trematode Paragonimus westermani, the cestodes Hymenolepis nana, H. diminuta and the sparganum larva of Spirometra erinacea, and the nematodes Trichinella papuae and Angiostrongylus cantonensis and, possibly, Ascaris suum. Other groups represented are Acanthocephala (Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus)), insects (Chrysomya bezziana, Cimex sp., Ctenocephalides spp.), and mites (Leptotrombidium spp. and, possibly Sarcoptes scabiei, and Demodex sp.). One leech (Phytobdella lineata) may also be considered as being zoonotic. The paucity of zoonotic parasite species can be attributed to long historical isolation of the island of New Guinea and its people, and the absence until recent times of large placental mammals other than pig and dog. Some zoonotic helminths have entered the country with recent importation of domestic animals, in spite of quarantine regulations, and a few more (two cestodes, one nematode and one tick) are poised to enter from neighbouring countries, given the opportunity. Improvement in water supplies, human hygiene and sanitation would reduce the prevalence of many of these parasites, and thorough cooking of meat would lessen the risk of infection by some others. PMID:15831107

  13. Lack of association between ectoparasite intensities and rabies virus neutralizing antibody seroprevalence in wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), Fort Collins, Colorado

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    Pearce, R.D.; O'Shea, T.J.; Shankar, V.; Rupprecht, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, bat ectoparasites have been demonstrated to harbor pathogens of potential importance to humans. We evaluated antirabies antibody seroprevalence and the presence of ectoparasites in big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) sampled in 2002 and 2003 in Colorado to investigate if an association existed between ectoparasite intensity and exposure to rabies virus (RV). We used logistic regression and Akaike's Information Criteria adjusted for sample size (AICc) in a post-hoc analysis to investigate the relative importance of three ectoparasite species, as well as bat colony size, year sampled, age class, colony size, and year interaction on the presence of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in serum of wild E. fuscus. We obtained serum samples and ectoparasite counts from big brown bats simultaneously in 2002 and 2003. Although the presence of ectoparasites (Steatonyssus occidentalis and Spinturnix bakeri) were important in elucidating VNA seroprevalence, their intensities were higher in seronegative bats than in seropositive bats, and the presence of a third ectoparasite (Cimex pilosellus) was inconsequential. Colony size and year sampled were the most important variables in these AICc models. These findings suggest that these ectoparasites do not enhance exposure of big brown bats to RV. ?? 2007 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  14. kin reaction to bed bugs bite reflecting erythema multiforme. Case report

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    Michał Andres

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bed bugs (Cimex spp. are wingless, hematophagous arthropods causing bites, which generates wide range of skin reaction and may be misdiagnosed with more serious disease as dermatitis herpetiformis, bullous pemphigoid or erythema multiforme. Differential diagnosis could be a challenge especially in western countries where bed bugs were forgotten since the Second World War. There are only a few reports of serious anaphylaxis after bed bugs exposition and the evidences about the role of bed bugs as vectors to some infectious diseases are not conclusive, but bites could be a source of physical ailments and psychological distress. We present a case of 24 year old female patient who had been bitten by bed bugs and primarily diagnosed with erythema multiforme. After releasing from hospitalization because of successful treatment patient developed another eruption of skin lesions, this time more characteristic to bed bugs bites during one day. The new diagnosis of bed bugs bites was confirmed with proving the presence of these arthropods in her rented apartment.

  15. Ectoparasite associations of bats from central Pennsylvania.

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    Dick, Carl W; Gannon, Michael R; Little, Wendy E; Patrick, Michael J

    2003-11-01

    Between April and October 1997, 689 bats representing seven species were captured at Pennsylvania's Canoe Creek State Park. Each bat was sampled for ectoparasitic arthropods, and four species were collected from 13.2% of the host individuals. Ectoparasites include the bat flea Myodopsylla insignis (Rothschild), the wing mite Spinturnix americanus (Banks), the bed bug Cimex adjunctus Barber, and the soft tick Ornithodoros kelleyi Cooley & Kohls. Prevalence, relative density, and mean intensity were calculated for ectoparasites of Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte), which harbored all four ectoparasite species and was the most commonly captured host. Patterns of ectoparasite associations were examined with respect to host sex and habitat (roost characteristics). Female M. lucifugus hosted higher densities of ectoparasites than did males. Moreover, relative densities of ectoparasites from M. lucifugus were dependent on the proximate roost; hosts captured near Bat Church were more heavily parasitized than those captured near Hartman Mine. Two other bat species were infested with at least one ectoparasite, but sample sizes were too small to analyze statistically. These bat species included Myotis septentrionalis (Trouessart), harboring M. insignis, S. americanus, and O. kelleyi, and Eptesicus fuscus (Beauvois), which harbored M. insignis and O. kelleyi. PMID:14765658

  16. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively. PMID:26336282

  17. Surveillance study of vector species on board passenger ships, Risk factors related to infestations

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    Hatzoglou Chrissi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Passenger ships provide conditions suitable for the survival and growth of pest populations. Arthropods and rodents can gain access directly from the ships' open spaces, can be carried in shiploads, or can be found on humans or animals as ectoparasites. Vectors on board ships may contaminate stored foods, transmit illness on board, or, introduce diseases in new areas. Pest species, ship areas facilitating infestations, and different risk factors related to infestations were identified in 21 ferries. Methods 486 traps for insects and rodents were placed in 21 ferries. Archives of Public Health Authorities were reviewed to identify complaints regarding the presence of pest species on board ferries from 1994 to 2004. A detail questionnaire was used to collect data on ship characteristics and pest control practices. Results Eighteen ferries were infested with flies (85.7%, 11 with cockroaches (52.3%, three with bedbugs, and one with fleas. Other species had been found on board were ants, spiders, butterflies, beetles, and a lizard. A total of 431 Blattella germanica species were captured in 28 (9.96% traps, and 84.2% of them were nymphs. One ship was highly infested. Cockroach infestation was negatively associated with ferries in which Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system was applied to ensure food safety on board (Relative Risk, RR = 0.23, p = 0.03, and positively associated with ferries in which cockroaches were observed by crew (RR = 4.09, p = 0.007, no cockroach monitoring log was kept (RR = 5.00, p = 0.02, and pesticide sprays for domestic use were applied by crew (RR = 4.00, p = 0.05. Cockroach infested ships had higher age (p = 0.03. Neither rats nor mice were found on any ship, but three ferries had been infested with a rodent in the past. Conclusion Integrated pest control programs should include continuing monitoring for a variety of pest species in different ship locations; pest control measures should be more

  18. Investigation and analysis on vector infestation status of 10 five-star hotels in Huangpu district before the CICA-Summit in Shanghai%上海市中心城区亚信峰会前期五星级宾馆病媒侵害状况调查及问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高强; 曹晖; 丁志伟; 徐康; 梁必匀; 冷培恩

    2015-01-01

    cockroach control failure rate was 40.00% and 50.00%, respectively, the positive rate also decreased significantly after the first round feedback (1.87%vs. 0.74%,χ2=3.942, P=0.047). The positive mosquito breeding sites was found in individual underground garage wells. No obvious fly and bedbug infestations were found in the two rounds of survey. Conclusion Five⁃star hotels vector infestation were found mainly in the kitchen, food storage and processing rooms, laundry rooms and other non⁃public areas, mice and cockroaches were the predominant vector for infestation, which may be attributed to the hotels’ complex environment and management deficiencies. Appropriate pest proof measures, specific supervision, modifications and improvement in the star hotel standards were advisable.

  19. Guías para la localización de metales preciosos en ofiolitas colombianas. Informe de avance proyecto Cyted XIII.1. Ofiolitas: características mineralógicas y petrográficas del yacimiento de...

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    Franklin Ortiz B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En desarrollo de un programa iberoamericano de investigación aprobado por el CYTED, red Metales Preciosos, cuyo objetivo es establecer “guías de exploración que permitan localizar depósitos de Metales Preciosos, MP, (Au, Ag, Platinoides en Ofiolitas ” y en el cual participa el CIMEX y el ICNE, se ha acumulado información geológica, bibliográfica, de campo y laboratorio, que permite mostrar la importancia metalogénica que para Colombia tienen estos complejos de rocas máficas y ultramáficas. Algunos resultados preliminares muestran que la sola existencia de Metales Preciosos (MP en algunas áreas del país, en unidades litológicas de las secuencias ofiolíticas tanto de su ambiente primario como secundario, justifica el que las entidades involucradas en la industria minera colombiana den una mirada hacia este ambiente geológico. Ejemplos de yacimientos en explotación, de ambiente primario y secundario, donde el oro y la plata son elementos de interés económico son el yacimiento de la mina El Roble (Sulfuros masivos y el de Cerro Matoso (Lateritas y por lo cual, especialmente del segundo, donde aún no se ha definido su posibilidad, se indican algunas particularidades y características geológicas que pueden servir de guías de exploración para estimar su verdadero potencial minero y para la eventual búsqueda en otras áreas del territorio donde se tengan cuerpos similares. De la explotación minera que por más de 14 años se ha realizado en el yacimiento de níquel de Cerro Matoso, se tiene hoy acumulado una abundante información acerca de las características geológicas y mineralógicas del yacimiento. A pesar de ello, aún se desconocen aspectos relevantes acerca de su origen y el potencial en otros elementos de interés económico. En este trabajo se hace una síntesis sobre los diversos materiales constitutivos de la mineralización, su distribución, características petrográficas, mineralógicas y su composición qu

  20. ENFOQUE ESTRATÉGICO PARA LA INTEGRACIÓN DEL SISTEMA DE DIRECCIÓN EN UNA EMPRESA DE SERVICIOS INGENIEROS

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    Yasier Zaldívar Llanes

    2010-11-01

    ="false" Priority="21" SemiHidden="false" UnhideWhenUsed="false" QFormat="true" Name="Intense Emphasis" />

    Este artículo resume  la investigación realizada en el diseño del enfoque estratégico  para la integración del sistema de dirección de la empresa “Inversiones CIMEX S.A”, y se exponen los resultados obtenidos en su implementación durante dos años de trabajo.

     

    This article sums up the research